Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840
Yousefi, Mitra; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei; Ewart, Susan; Arshad, Hasan; Holloway, John W
To determine whether DNA methylation (DNA-M) of the leptin receptor genotype (LEPR/LEPROT) links gestational smoking and leptin serum levels and BMI later in life, we focused on female offspring, 18 years of age, from the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (IOWBC). Leptin binds to the leptin receptor encoded by the LEPR/LEPROT genotype. Using general linear models, we tested a two-stage model. First, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) acting as methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTLs) depending on gestational smoking were related to differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites. In stage 2, we tested whether the selected CpG sites, in interaction with other SNPs (modifiable genetic variants, modGV), are associated with serum leptin and BMI (stage 2). Children from the IOWBC were followed from birth to age 18. Information on gestational smoking was gathered upon delivery. SNPs tagging LEPR and LEPROT genes were genotyped. Data on LEPR/LEPROT DNA-M and leptin were obtained from blood samples drawn at age 18; to determine BMI, height and weight were ascertained. Blood samples were provided by 238 girls. Of the 21 CpG sites, interactions between gestational smoking and SNPs were detected for 16 CpGs. Methylation of seven of the 16 CpGs were, in interaction with modGVs, associated with leptin levels at age 18 years. Two CpGs survived a multiple testing penalty and were also associated with BMI. This two-stage model may explain why maternal smoking has a long-term effect on leptin levels and BMI in girls at age 18 years. PMID:23875062
Buchberg, Meredith K; Gritz, Ellen R; Kypriotakis, George; Arduino, Roberto C; Vidrine, Damon J
The prevalence of cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is approximately 40%, significantly higher than that of the general population. Identifying predictors of successful smoking cessation for PLWHA is necessary to alleviate the morbidity and mortality associated with smoking in this population. Weight gain has been associated with smoking relapse in the general population, but has not been studied among PLWHA. Data from 474 PLWHA enrolled in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial were analyzed to examine the effect of BMI change, from baseline to 3-month follow-up, on smoking outcomes using multiple logistic regression. The odds of 7-day smoking abstinence at 3-month follow-up were 4.22 (95% CI = 1.65, 10.82) times higher for participants classified as BMI decrease and 4.22 (95% CI = 1.62, 11.01) times higher for participants classified as BMI increase as compared to participants with a minimal increase or decrease in BMI. In this sample, both weight gain and loss following smoking cessation were significantly associated with abstinence at 3-month follow-up among HIV-infected smokers. Further research and a better understanding of predictors of abstinence will encourage more tailored interventions, with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26666313
Gale, L.; Naqvi, H.; Russ, L.
Background: Recent research evidence from the general population has shown that tobacco smoking and raised body mass index (BMI) are associated with worse asthma outcomes. There are indications that asthma morbidity and mortality may be higher among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) than the general population, but the reason for this is…
Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi
In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage. PMID:21483178
Breitling, Lutz P.; Arndt, Volker; Drath, Christoph; Brenner, Hermann
Background A detrimental interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption with respect serum γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) has recently been described. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present work aimed to provide further insights by examining similar interactions pertaining to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT), routine liver markers less prone to enzyme induction. Methodology/Principal Findings The present cross-sectional analysis was based on records from routine occupational health examinations of 15,281 male employees predominantly of the construction industry, conducted from 1986 to 1992 in Southern Germany. Associations of smoking intensity with log-transformed activities of γ-GT, AST, and ALT were examined in regression models adjusted for potential confounders and including an interaction of smoking with alcohol consumption or body mass index (BMI). Statistically significant interactions of smoking were observed with both alcohol consumption (AST and ALT, each with P<0.0001) and BMI (AST only, P<0.0001). The interactions all were in the same directions as for γ-GT, i.e. synergistic with alcohol and opposite with BMI. Conclusion The patterns of interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption or BMI with respect to AST and ALT resembled those observed for γ-GT. This renders enzyme induction a less probable mechanism for these associations, whereas it might implicate exacerbated hepatocellular vulnerability and injury. PMID:22132177
Tobacco smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. It has been suggested that there is an approximately linear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and clinical outcome such as lung cancer mortality. It has also been proposed that there is a greater increase in mortality at high doses when the dose is represented by the duration of the smoking habit rather than the number of cigarettes. The multistep carcinogenesis theory indicates that a greater increase in mortality rate at high doses is possible, as is the case between aging and cancer, even though each dose-response relationship between a carcinogenic factor and a carcinogenic step forward is linear. The high incidence of lung cancer after long-term smoking and the decreased relative risk after smoking cessation suggests a similarity between the effects of smoking and aging. Prediction of lung cancer risk in former smokers by simple integration of smoking effects with aging demonstrated a good correlation with that estimated from the relative risk of the period of smoking cessation. In contrast to the smoking period, there appears to be a linear relationship between smoking strength and cancer risk. This might arise if the dose-response relationship between smoking strength and each carcinogenic step is less than linear, or the effects become saturated with a large dose of daily smoking. Such a dose-response relationship could lead to relatively large clinical effects, such as cardiovascular mortality, by low-dose tobacco smoke exposure, e.g., second-hand smoking. Consideration of the dose-response of each effect is important to evaluate the risk arising from each carcinogenic factor. PMID:27350823
Purpose: To evaluate pediatric nutrition and physical activity interventions a reliable and feasible way of tracking change in body status is needed. Historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used in adults. BMI percentiles or Z scores, which are theoretically age and gender adjusted, have been...
A BMI of 30 kg/m2 is used to define obesity of men and women of all ages. Using variable samples, investigators have shown that age and gender account for percent fat (%Fat) variance independent of BMI. This age and gender bias can be traced to the inability of BMI to distinguish between the body's ...
Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard
Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children's BMI or risk of overweight. PMID:22548089
Background Many previous studies did not sufficiently control for several confounding factors that may affect the association between smoking and depression, such as socioeconomic status. We investigated the association between depression and smoking status, smoking exposure, duration of smoking cessation, and age of starting smoking while controlling for socioeconomic factors. Methods This study was based on a community health survey performed in Jeollanam-do, South Korea, between September and November 2009. In total, 20,084 subjects (9,118 males and 10,966 females) were included in the analysis. Information on smoking characteristics, such as smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and age of starting smoking, was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Depression was defined using the Korean CES-D score. Results The odds ratios (ORs) of depression were 1.35 (0.92–1.98) for former smokers and 1.77 (1.27–2.48) for current-smokers among males, and 2.67 (1.38–5.16) for former smokers and 3.72 (2.11–6.54) for current-smokers among females, after adjusting for other confounding factors. Compared to light smoking, heavy smoking was significantly associated with depression in males [OR = 3.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.42–11.14], but not in females (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.73–2.09). No significant associations between depression and age of starting smoking and duration of smoking cessation were observed among former smokers. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that smoking is strongly associated with depression, particularly among females. These findings suggest that depression prevention may need to be combined with smoking prevention and that different strategies may be needed for males and females. PMID:22938088
Kang, Huili; Chen, Yu-Ming; Han, Guiyuan; Huang, Hua; Chen, Wei-Qing; Wang, Xidan; Zhu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, Su-Mei
This study aimed to elucidate the associations of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with proximal femur strength in Chinese postmenopausal women, which may improve the prediction of hip fracture risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1322 Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from communities. DXA images were used to generate bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric parameters, including cross-sectional area (CSA), outer diameter (OD), cortical thickness (CT), section modulus (SM), buckling ratio (BR) at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanter (IT), and femoral shaft (FS). Relationships of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with bone phenotypes were analyzed with the adjustment of height, age at menarche, total daily physical activity, education, smoking status, calcium tablet intake, etc. Age was associated with lower BMD, CSA, CT, SM, and higher BR (p < 0.05), which indicated a weaker bone strength at the proximal femur. BMI and years of menstruation had the positive relationships with proximal femur strength (p < 0.05). Further analyses showed that the ranges of absolute value of change slope per year, per BMI or per year of menstruation were 0.14%–1.34%, 0.20%–2.70%, and 0.16%–0.98%, respectively. These results supported that bone strength deteriorated with aging and enhanced with higher BMI and longer time of years of menstruation in Chinese postmenopausal women. PMID:26805871
Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Jianliang; Lv, Xianhui; Tao, Jianguo; Wang, Rong; Miao, Dengshun
To determine whether transplanted amniotic membrane mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) ameliorated the premature senescent phenotype of Bmi-1-deficient mice, postnatal 2-day-old Bmi-1−/− mice were injected intraperitoneally with the second-passage AMSCs from amniotic membranes of β-galactosidase (β-gal) transgenic mice or wild-type (WT) mice labeled with DiI. Three reinjections were given, once every seven days. Phenotypes of 5-week-old β-gal+ AMSC-transplanted or 6-week-old DiI+ AMSC-transplanted Bmi-1−/− mice were compared with vehicle-transplanted Bmi-1−/− and WT mice. Vehicle-transplanted Bmi-1−/− mice displayed growth retardation and premature aging with decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis; a decreased ratio and dysmaturity of lymphocytic series; premature osteoporosis with reduced osteogenesis and increased adipogenesis; redox imbalance and DNA damage in multiple organs. Transplanted AMSCs carried Bmi-1 migrated into multiple organs, proliferated and differentiated into multiple tissue cells, promoted growth and delayed senescence in Bmi-1−/− transplant recipients. The dysmaturity of lymphocytic series were ameliorated, premature osteoporosis were rescued by promoting osteogenesis and inhibiting adipogenesis, the oxidative stress and DNA damage in multiple organs were inhibited by the AMSC transplantation in Bmi-1−/− mice. These findings indicate that AMSC transplantation ameliorated the premature senescent phenotype of Bmi-1-deficient mice and could be a novel therapy to delay aging and prevent aging-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:26370922
Caleyachetty, Amrit; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqui; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D; Wills, Andrew K
This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (four categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant-feeding practices, socio-economic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis that accounted for potential confounders demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breastfeeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breastfeeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) [adjusted β = -0.12 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.19 to -0.05 per category change in breastfeeding duration, P = 0.001], and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.53-5.56, P < 0.001). In our sample, findings suggest that longer breastfeeding duration and later introduction of solids has a small reduction on later high BMI risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population level. PMID:21978208
Weinkam, J J; Sterling, T D
The Average Age of Starting to Smoke (AASS) has been reported to decline for younger birth cohorts. That apparent decline has been used to support a conclusion of an increase in smoking among younger individuals. However, in some cases the apparent decline is an artifact of the method of computation which arises when the quantity being averaged is related to a quantity used to classify subjects for comparison. In one other case, a second type of error arises because the distribution of smoking initiation with age changed in such a way that the proportion of individuals taking up smoking at older ages declined more rapidly than the proportion starting at younger ages. In fact, comparison of the 1970 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to the 1979/80 NHIS shows a uniform decrease in starting to smoke among teens and preteens. Examples are discussed which show that estimates of possible disease related factors actually experienced by a cohort are possible only if other suitable data are available for comparable representative sections of the population at different time periods and for different ages. PMID:2303843
... 159148.html Most Americans Support Rise in Legal Smoking Age Survey finds wide support in all regions ... survey finds most Americans support pushing the legal smoking age even higher. Across all regions of the ...
Kac, Gilberto; Schlüssel, Michael M.; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Velásquez-Melendez, Gustavo; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura
We examined the association between Household Food Insecurity (HFI), weight for height z-score (WHZ) and Body Mass Index for age z-score (BMI-Z) in a representative sample of children 0–60 months of age (n = 3,433) in five Brazilian geographical regions. Data were derived from the 2006–07 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. HFI was measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Associations were estimated using multiple linear regression models (ß coefficients and 95% CI) taking into account the complex sampling design. Interaction terms between HFI and geographical region and HFI and child sex and child age were assessed. The weighted prevalence of any level of HFI was 48.6%. Severe food insecurity was more prevalent among children from the North region (16.8%), born from mothers with <4 years of schooling (15.9%) and those from families with ≥3 children (18.8%). The interaction between HFI and geographical region was non-significant for BMI-Z (P = 0.119) and WHZ (P = 0.198). Unadjusted results indicated that HFI was negatively associated with BMI-Z (moderate to severe HFI: ß = −0.19, 95% CI: −0.35 - −0.03, P = 0.047), and WHZ (moderate to severe HFI: ß = −0.26, 95% CI: −0.42 - −0.09, P = 0.009). Estimates lost significance after adjustments for key confounders such as mothers' skin color, mothers' years of schooling, place of household, household income quartiles, mothers' smoking habit, mothers' marital status, number of children 0–60 months in the household, and birth order. HFI is unrelated to weight outcomes among Brazilian children 0–60 months. PMID:23029220
Hong, Se Ra; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Na Ri; Chung, Hwan Wook
This study was performed to investigate the association between hair mineral levels and nutrient intakes, age, and BMI in female adults who visited a woman's clinic located in Seoul. Dietary intakes were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and mineral levels were measured in collected hairs, and the relationship between these was examined. The average daily nutrient intakes of subjects were compared to those of the KDRIs, and the energy intake status was fair. The average intake of calcium in women of 50 years and over was 91.35% of KDRIs and the potassium intake was greatly below the recommended levels in all age groups. In the average hair mineral contents in subjects, calcium and copper exceeded far more than the reference range while selenium was very low with 85.19% of subjects being lower than the reference value. In addition, the concentrations of sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese in the hair were below the reference ranges in over 15% of subjects. The concentrations of sodium, chromium, sulfur, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with age, but the hair zinc level showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with age. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chromium, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with BMI. Some mineral levels in subjects of this study showed significant correlations with nutrient intakes, but it seems that the hair mineral content is not directly influenced by each mineral intake. As described above, some hair mineral levels in female adults deviated from the normal range, and it is considered that nutritional intervention to control the imbalance of mineral nutrition is required. Also, as some correlations were shown between hair mineral levels and age, BMI, and nutrient intakes, the possibility of utilizing hair mineral analysis for specific purposes in the future is suggested. PMID:20090887
Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli
Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p < 0.001) and the agreement was weaker (κ = 0.76). The abdominal obesity prevalence estimates were significant different according to the two systems both in boys and girls, although the agreement reached to 0.88, which represented an
Velilla, Sara; García-Medina, José Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo; Pons-Vázquez, Sheila; Pinazo-Durán, M. Dolores; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arévalo, J. Fernando; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health. PMID:24368940
Yang, Shu-Chu; Lin, Shu-Jung; Tsai, Chia-Yen
Purposive sampling was used to recruit 1,200 preschoolers between the ages of three and seven from 12 preschools throughout Taiwan in order to examine locomotor skills, object control skills, and fundamental motor skills with respect to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Fundamental motor skills were measured using the TGMD-2. Only age had a significant influence on locomotor skills, object control skills, and fundamental motor skills; sex had a small influence on object control skills, and BMI had a very limited influence on all three categories. The difference from previous studies related to BMI may be due to the different items included in the various tests, the number of trials conducted, and ways in which BMI was categorized. PMID:26682607
Connell, Lauren E.; Francis, Lori A.
Objective This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderated the effects of delay of gratification on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed on 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) was created from measures of mothers’ sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4 to 15 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4 to 15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting x delay group. Conclusions Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles. PMID:23977874
Faeghi, F; Abdkarimi, M H; Asghari JafarAbadi, M
Objective: The aim of this study is to use diffusion-weighted MRI to assess the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in head, body and tail sections of the pancreas in healthy subjects and the relationships between these values and age, gender and body mass index (BMI) of these cases. Methods: This study was conducted on 82 participants who were referred to the Tabesh Medical Imaging Center, Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran, during 2013. Echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging of the pancreas was carried out with b-values of 50, 400 and 800 s mm−2, and ADC values were assessed for the head, body and tail sections of the pancreas. Results: The ADC values for the head, body and tail sections of the pancreas in female participants were significantly greater than those in male subjects (p < 0.05). ADC values for these parts among subjects with different BMI differed significantly (p < 0.05). Regarding age, there were no statistically meaningful differences among the ADC values for the three parts (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Gender and BMI effect the ADC values of the three sections of the pancreas. Thus, knowledge of the basic values based on gender and BMI can improve diagnostics. Having looked at age factor, it seems that the ADC values were not significantly different. Advances in knowledge: According to the results pancreatic ADC values appear to be influenced by gender and BMI but not by age. PMID:25471056
Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P; Burema, J; Hautvast, J G; Huygen, F J
Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during the period 1967-83. Responses were received from 455 men (182 overweight) and 790 women (386 overweight), ages 26-66 years. Response rate (71 per cent) and age distribution (mean age 48) were similar in overweight and non-overweight groups of both sexes. BMI was correlated with the total number of complaints in women (r = 0.15) but not in men (r = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis revealed, however, that age was an effect modifier in this relation, there being a negative association between BMI and subjective health in younger men and a positive association in older men, whereas in women the association between BMI and subjective health was much more pronounced at younger ages than at older ages. In addition, current smoking habits and social class (in men and women) and reported slimming behavior (in women) had an independent relation to the total number of health complaints. BMI was also related to specific complaints and groups of complaints, particularly in women. PMID:3777287
This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breast-feeding and later introduction of solid feeding was associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breast-feeding (6 categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (4 categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant feeding practices, socioeconomic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis which accounted for potential confounders, demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breast-feeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breast-feeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) (adjusted β= −0.12 SD 95% CI: −0.19 to −0.05 per category change in breast-feeding duration, p=0.001) and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95 % CI: 2.53 to 5.56, p<0.001). In our sample, findings suggest that longer breast-feeding duration and later introduction of solids has a small reduction on later high BMI risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population-level. PMID:21978208
Youssef, R M; Abou-Khatwa, S A; Fouad, H M
A cross-sectional survey on tobacco use in the city of Alexandria, Egypt, used an interview questionnaire based on World Health Organization guidelines. The study in 2000 included 2120 participants aged 15 to 86 years. More than a quarter (27.2%) were current smokers (25.5% daily smokers and 1.7% occasional smokers) and 3.5% were ex-smokers. Current smokers spent 23.1% of their family income on tobacco. The prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among men (48.5%) than women (1.5%) and the mean age of initiation of smoking was lower among men (18.1 years) than women (22.6 years). The high prevalence of tobacco use among men is of concern, so too is the likelihood that tobacco use will increase among women. Further research is needed into factors that prevent people from starting smoking and assist them stopping smoking. PMID:15603046
Carter, Patrick M.; Flannagan, Carol A.C.; Reed, Matthew P.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.
Background The effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and gender on motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are not well understood and current prevention efforts do not effectively address variability in occupant characteristics. Objectives 1) Characterize the effects of age, BMI and gender on serious-to-fatal MVC injury 2) Identify the crash modes and body regions where the effects of occupant characteristics onthe numbers of occupants with injuryis largest, and thereby aid in prioritizing the need forhuman surrogates that the represent different types of occupant characteristics and adaptive restraint systems that consider these characteristics. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the effects of occupant characteristics (age, BMI, gender), vehicle and crash characteristics on serious-to-fatal injuries (AIS 3+) by body region and crash mode using the 2000-2010 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS) dataset. Logistic regression models were applied to weighted crash data to estimate the change in the number of annual injured occupants with AIS 3+ injury that would occur if occupant characteristics were limited to their 5th percentiles (age ≤ 17 years old, BMI ≤ 19 kg/m2) or male gender. Results Limiting age was associated with a decrease inthe total number of occupants with head [8,396, 95% CI 6,871-9,070] and thorax injuries [17,961, 95% CI 15,960 – 18,859] across all crash modes, decreased occupants with spine [3,843, 95% CI 3,065 – 4,242] and upper extremity [3,578, 95% CI 1,402 – 4,439] injuries in frontal and rollover crashes and decreased abdominal [1,368, 95% CI 1,062 – 1,417] and lower extremity [4,584, 95% CI 4,012 – 4,995] injuries in frontal impacts. The age effect was modulated by gender with older females morelikely to have thorax and upper extremity injuries than older males. Limiting BMI was associated with 2,069 [95% CI 1,107 – 2,775] fewer thorax injuries in nearside crashes, and 5,304 [95% CI 4,279 – 5
Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; McAughey, J.
Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.
Herbison, Carly E; Henley, David; Marsh, Julie; Atkinson, Helen; Newnham, John P; Matthews, Stephen G; Lye, Stephen J; Pennell, Craig E
Dysregulation of the biological stress response system has been implicated in the development of psychological, metabolic, and cardiovascular disease. Whilst changes in stress response are often quantified as an increase or decrease in cortisol levels, three different patterns of stress response have been reported in the literature for the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) (reactive-responders (RR), anticipatory-responders (AR) and non-responders (NR)). However, these have never been systematically analyzed in a large population-based cohort. The aims of this study were to examine factors that contribute to TSST variation (gender, oral contraceptive use, menstrual cycle phase, smoking, and BMI) using traditional methods and novel analyses of stress response patterns. We analyzed the acute stress response of 798, 18-year-old participants from a community-based cohort using the TSST. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone, plasma cortisol, and salivary cortisol levels were quantified. RR, AR, and NR patterns comprised 56.6%, 26.2%, and 17.2% of the cohort, respectively. Smokers were more likely to be NR than (RR or AR; adjusted, p < 0.05). Overweight and obese subjects were less likely to be NR than the other patterns (adjusted, p < 0.05). Males were more likely to be RR than NR (adjusted, p = 0.05). In addition, we present a novel AUC measure (AUCR), for use when the TSST baseline concentration is higher than later time points. These results show that in a young adult cohort, stress-response patterns, in addition to other parameters vary with gender, smoking, and BMI. The distribution of these patterns has the potential to vary with adult health and disease and may represent a biomarker for future investigation. PMID:26809721
Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene
Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0-9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week(-1) (IQR 15-35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as "working" occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03-3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as "managerial or professional." Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29-4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. PMID:25761662
Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene
Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0–9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week−1 (IQR 15–35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as “working” occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03–3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as “managerial or professional.” Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29–4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. What’s new? Does cancer diagnosis lead individuals to consider making healthy lifestyle changes? These authors studied men diagnosed with prostate
Su, Pu; Hong, Liu; Sun, Hang; Zhao, Yi Fan; Li, Liang
Objective: To study the role of age plays in the relationship between smoking status and obesity in both Chinese men and women. Methods: From Chinese Physical and Psychological Database, participants were divided into non-smokers, current smokers, and former smokers. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fat percentage, fat mass, and fat free mass were measured. The mean, standard deviation and frequency of these indicators were calculated for each age bracket. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc test analyses were used to detect the difference among these three groups. Results: In men, from 19 to 24 years old, BMI, WC and fat free mass of current smokers were higher than that of non-smokers (P<0.01). However, fat mass and fat percentage of current smokers were lower than that of non-smokers but higher than that of former smokers (P<0.01). From 25 to 34 years old, BMI and fat mass of former smokers were higher than non-smokers and current smokers (P<0.01). In addition, WC and fat free mass of non-smokers were lower than that of current smokers and former smokers (P<0.01). From 45 to older, BMI, WC, fat mass, fat free mass and fat percentage of former smokers were higher than that of current smokers (P<0.01). From 55 to older, BMI, WC, fat mass, fat free mass and fat percentage of current smokers were lower than that of non-smokers (P<0.01). In women, smoking status might not be significantly related to obesity (P>0.05). Conclusion: For young men, smoking might have an effect on increasing fat free mass, BMI and WC, and decreasing fat mass and fat percentage. For middle and older men, smoking might have an effect on decreasing fat free mass, fat mass, BMI, WC, and fat percentage. Obesity risk should be paid more attention in smoking cessation programs for those former smokers. PMID:26770514
Willeford, Kevin T; Rapp, Jerry
A small percentage of the population associates smoking with ocular disease. Most optometrists do not stress the importance of smoking cessation to their patients, and the centrality of smoking regarding the risk for ocular disease is not emphasized in optometric education. Age-related macular degeneration has strong epidemiological associations with smoking, and so serves as an appropriate model for the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the eye. This article aims to provide basic scientific information to optometrists and optometry students so that they can better understand the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and provide education and support to their patients wishing to stop smoking. PMID:23034338
Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.
In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…
Rukh, G; Ahmad, S; Ericson, U; Hindy, G; Stocks, T; Renström, F; Almgren, P; Nilsson, P M; Melander, O; Franks, P W; Orho-Melander, M
Background/Objective: Genome-wide-association studies have identified numerous body mass index (BMI)-associated variants, but it is unclear how these relate to weight gain in adults at different ages. Methods: We examined the association of a genetic risk score (GRS), consisting of 31 BMI-associated variants, with an annual weight change (AWC) and a substantial weight gain (SWG) of 10% by comparing self-reported weight at 20 years (y) with baseline weight (mean: 58 y; s.d.: 8 y) in 21407 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), and comparing baseline weight to weight at follow-up (mean: 73 y; s.d.: 6 y) among 2673 participants. Association between GRS and AWG and SWG was replicated in 4327 GLACIER (Gene x Lifestyle interactions And Complex traits Involved in Elevated disease Risk) participants (mean: 45 y; s.d.: 7 y) with 10 y follow-up. Cohort-specific results were pooled by fixed-effect meta-analyses. Results: In MDCS, the GRS was associated with increased AWC (β: 0.003; s.e: 0.01; P: 7 × 10−8) and increased odds for SWG (odds ratio (OR) 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.02); P: 0.013) per risk-allele from age 20y, but unexpectedly with decreased AWC (β: −0.006; s.e: 0.002; P: 0.009) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.98); P: 0.001) between baseline and follow-up. Effect estimates from age 20 y to baseline differed significantly from those from baseline to follow-up (P: 0.0002 for AWC and P: 0.0001 for SWG). Similar to MDCS, the GRS was associated with decreased odds for SWG OR 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.00); P: 0.029) from baseline to follow-up in GLACIER. In meta-analyses (n=7000), the GRS was associated with decreased AWC (β: −0.005; s.e.m. 0.002; P: 0.002) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.99); P: 0.001) per risk-allele. Conclusions: Our results provide convincing evidence for a paradoxical inversed relationship between a high number of BMI-associated risk-alleles and less
Lu, Lu; Xu, Hui; Luo, Fei; Liu, Xinlu; Lu, Xiaolin; Yang, Qianlei; Xue, Junchao; Chen, Chao; Shi, Le; Liu, Qizhan
Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for the development of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to lung cancer are largely unknown. A long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA), CCAT1, regarded as cancer-associated, has been investigated extensively. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) induced by cigarette smoke remain unclear. In the present investigation, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) caused an altered cell cycle and increased CCAT1 levels and decreased miR-218 levels in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Depletion of CCAT1 attenuated the CSE-induced decreases of miR-218 levels, suggesting that miR-218 is negatively regulated by CCAT1 in HBE cells exposed to CSE. The CSE-induced increases of BMI1 levels and blocked by CCAT1 siRNA were attenuated by an miR-218 inhibitor. Moreover, in CSE-transformed HBE cells, the CSE-induced cell cycle changes and elevated neoplastic capacity were reversed by CCAT1 siRNA or BMI1 siRNA. This epigenetic silencing of miR-218 by CCAT1 induces an altered cell cycle transition through BMI1 and provides a new mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. PMID:27212446
Luquette, A. J.; And Others
The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of a cigarette smoking environment on children of elementary school age. Physical effects were looked for, as were differences between children from smoking homes and non-smoking homes, and male subjects and female subjects. A total of 103 children were divided into two groups, Group…
Dolan, Eimear; Crabtree, Nicola; McGoldrick, Adrian; Ashley, David T; McCaffrey, Noel; Warrington, Giles D
The aim of this study was to compare bone mass between two groups of jockeys (flat: n = 14; national hunt: n = 16); boxers (n = 14) and age, gender and BMI matched controls (n = 14). All subjects underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning for assessment of bone mass, with measurements made of the total body, vertebra L2-4 and femoral neck. Body composition and the relative contribution of fat and lean mass were extrapolated from the results. Data were analysed in accordance with differences in body composition, in particular, height, lean mass, fat mass and age. Both jockey groups were shown to display lower bone mass than either the boxers or control group at a number of sites including total body bone mineral density (BMD) (1.019 ± 0.06 and 1.17 ± 1.05 vs. 1.26 ± 0.01 and 1.26 ± 0.06 g cm(-2) for flat, national hunt, boxer and control, respectively), total body bone mineral content (BMC) less head, L2-4 BMD and femoral neck BMD and BMC (p < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed that lean mass and height were the primary predictors of total body BMC, although additional group-specific influences were present which reduced bone mass in the flat jockey group and enhanced it in the boxers (R (2) = 0.814). Reduced bone mass in jockeys may be a consequence of reduced energy availability in response to chronic weight restriction and could have particular implications for these athletes in light of the high risk nature of the sport. In contrast, the high intensity, high impact training associated with boxing may have conveyed an osteogenic stimulus on these athletes. PMID:21773703
Klein, R; Klein, B E; Moss, S E
To date, a number of reports have been published on the relation of cigarette smoking to age-related maculopathy, an important cause of blindness in the United States. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking and the incidence of age-related maculopathy. In this report, the authors examine this association in persons aged 43-86 years (n = 3,583) at baseline who were participants in the baseline examination and 5-year follow-up of the Beaver Dam Eye Study, Beaver Dam, Wisconsin (1988-1990 and 1993-1995). Exposure data on cigarette smoking were obtained from questions about present and past smoking, duration of smoking, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Age-related maculopathy status was determined by grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System. After controlling for age, sex, vitamin supplement use, and beer consumption, men who smoked greater amounts of cigarettes were more likely to develop early age-related maculopathy (odds ratio (OR) per 10 pack-years smoked = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.13, p = 0.06) than men who had smoked less. This association was not observed in women. Men (OR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.09-9.45) and women (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.04-4.66) who were current smokers at the time of the baseline examination had significantly higher odds of developing large drusen (> or = 250 microns in diameter) after 5 years than those who had never smoked or who quit before the baseline study. Current or past history of cigarette smoking was not related to the incidence of retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation. The authors conclude that smoking appears to be related to the incidence of some lesions associated with early age-related maculopathy. PMID:9456998
... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...
Aging of smoke in dense smoke plumes is known to alter its size distribution and scavenging characteristics. In this paper, I review data pertaining to these processes and compare them to model simulations of the coagulation of smoke. Model simulations of the degree of smoke coagulation in the first few days after a nuclear war are summarized. The predicted size of smoke particles after several days of coagulation is found to be larger than that of any data pertaining to the absorption properties of smoke. Thus, it is suggested that more relevant data on the absorption properties of smoke is needed. I also review aging experiments pertaining to the number of cloud condensation nuclei in a smoke sample. I show that the fraction of smoke particles which act as CCN after aging depends on the number of particles initially present in the aging chamber. Smoke from an acetylene flame can quickly coagulate to sizes wherein nearly all of the particles act as CCN. On the other hand, only 10% of the smoke particles from an outdoor fire of gasoline and diesel fuel became CCN after 30 hours of aging. The development of CCN concentrations in this experiment may have been quenched by low initial concentrations in the aging chamber. Both experiments are consistent with particles as small as 0.08 micron in radius (and perhaps even smaller) acting as CCN. Model simulations of the coagulation of smoke particles above a large, intense fire show that coagulation would allow approximately 50% of the particles to become larger than 0.08 micron before the plume reaches cloud base. Furthermore, aging over several days time would transform nearly all the particles into the scavengable size range.
Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Tanaka, Taichiro; Kohama, Moriyasu; Yamagata, Zentaro
Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age. Methods Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okinawa, Japan who underwent medical check-ups at age 3 months. Variables assessed were maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age, gestational age, parity, birth year, and complications during pregnancy. Stratified analyses were performed using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 92641 participants provided complete information on all variables. Over the 7 years studied, the proportion of mothers smoking during pregnancy decreased from 10.6% to 5.0%, while the prevalence of low birthweight did not change remarkably (around 10%). Maternal smoking was significantly associated with low birthweight in all age groups. The strength of the association increased with maternal age, both in crude and adjusted models. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies conducted in Western countries, this study demonstrates that maternal age has a modifying effect on the association between maternal smoking and birthweight. This finding suggests that specific education and health care programs for older smoking mothers are important to improve their foetal growth. PMID:26795494
Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne
Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors. PMID:26098974
Dubois, Lise; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Girard, Manon; Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola; Pérusse, Daniel; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel; Rasmussen, Finn; Wright, Margaret J.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Martin, Nicholas G.
Objective To examine the genetic and environmental influences on variances in weight, height, and BMI, from birth through 19 years of age, in boys and girls from three continents. Design and Settings Cross-sectional twin study. Data obtained from a total of 23 twin birth-cohorts from four countries: Canada, Sweden, Denmark, and Australia. Participants were Monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) (same- and opposite-sex) twin pairs with data available for both height and weight at a given age, from birth through 19 years of age. Approximately 24,036 children were included in the analyses. Results Heritability for body weight, height, and BMI was low at birth (between 6.4 and 8.7% for boys, and between 4.8 and 7.9% for girls) but increased over time, accounting for close to half or more of the variance in body weight and BMI after 5 months of age in both sexes. Common environmental influences on all body measures were high at birth (between 74.1–85.9% in all measures for boys, and between 74.2 and 87.3% in all measures for girls) and markedly reduced over time. For body height, the effect of the common environment remained significant for a longer period during early childhood (up through 12 years of age). Sex-limitation of genetic and shared environmental effects was observed. Conclusion Genetics appear to play an increasingly important role in explaining the variation in weight, height, and BMI from early childhood to late adolescence, particularly in boys. Common environmental factors exert their strongest and most independent influence specifically in pre-adolescent years and more significantly in girls. These findings emphasize the need to target family and social environmental interventions in early childhood years, especially for females. As gene-environment correlation and interaction is likely, it is also necessary to identify the genetic variants that may predispose individuals to obesity. PMID:22347368
OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among Korean men in their thirties is substantially high (approximately 50%). An in-depth analysis of smoking trends among young adults in their twenties is necessary to devise antismoking policies for the next 10 years. This study aimed to identify the contributions of age, period, and birth cohort effects on smoking prevalence in young adults. METHODS: Subjects comprised 181,136 adults (83,947 men: 46.3%; 97,189 women: 53.7%) aged 19 to 30 years from the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey. Smoking prevalence adjusted with reference to the 2008 population was applied to the age-period-cohort (APC) model to identify the independent effects of each factor. RESULTS: For men, smoking prevalence rapidly escalated among subjects aged 19 to 22 years and slowed down among those aged 23 to 30 years, declined during 2008 to 2010 but stabilized during 2011 to 2013, and declined in birth cohorts prior to 1988 but stabilized in subjects born after 1988. However, in APC models, smoking prevalence increased with age in the 1988 to 1991 birth cohort. In this birth cohort, smoking prevalence at age 19 to 20 years was approximately 24% but increased to 40% when the subjects turned 23 to 24 years. For women, smoking prevalence was too low to generate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past six years and in recent birth cohorts, smoking prevalence in adults aged 19 to 30 years has declined and is stable. Smoking prevalence should be more closely followed as it remains susceptible to an increase depending on antismoking policies or social conditions. PMID:27197740
Mogus, Mate; Fric, Vlasta Orsić; Atalić, Bruno
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the age, the body mass index (BMI), and the years of training on the average muscle power in male and female rowers. The analysis of the testing results of the members of the Rowing club Iktus from Osijek in Croatia was performed. Results were obtained during the regular yearly testing on the rowing ergometer for the rowing season of 2009. Members of the Rowing club Iktus were divided into two subgroups according to their sex. The obtained results were analysed in accordance with the age, the BMI, and the years of training independently for the each of the two subgroups. The results have showed that the average muscle power is independent of all the three parameters in the male rowers, while it is dependent on the age and the years of training in the female rowers. It seems that the BMI does not play any role at all in the average muscle power. As a conclusion, it could be stated that while one can suggest to female rowers to improve their performance with prolonged training, there is a need for a further research in order to formulate a suitable advice for male rowers. PMID:26987157
Background The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic status (SES) tends to change over time and across populations. In this study, we examined, separately in men and women, whether the association between BMI and SES changed over successive birth cohorts in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region). Methods We used data from all participants in three surveys conducted in 1989, 1994 and 2004 in independent random samples of the population aged 25-64 years in the Seychelles (N = 3'403). We used linear regression to model mean BMI according to age, cohort, SES and smoking status, allowing for a quadratic term for age to account for a curvilinear relation between BMI and age and interactions between SES and age and between SES and cohorts to test whether the relation between SES and BMI changed across subsequent cohorts. All analyses were performed separately in men and women. Results BMI increased with age in all birth cohorts. BMI was lower in men of low SES than high SES but was higher in women of low SES than high SES. In all SES categories, BMI increased over successive cohorts (1.24 kg/m2 in men and 1.51 kg/m2 for a 10-year increase in birth cohorts, p < 0.001). The difference in BMI between men or women of high vs. low SES did not change significantly across successive cohorts (the interaction between SES and year of birth of cohort was statistically not significant). Smoking was associated with lower BMI in men and women (respectively -1.55 kg/m2 and 2.46 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Conclusions Although large differences exist between men and women, social patterning of BMI did not change significantly over successive cohorts in this population of a middle-income country in the African region. PMID:22152035
Hittner, James B; Johnson, Cassandra; Tripicchio, Gina; Faith, Myles S
Infant temperament and parental feeding practices may be risk factors for childhood obesity, however most studies have relied upon parent-report assessments. We tested whether infant emotional distress and maternal restrictive feeding at 12-months of age, assessed observationally at a home feeding interaction, predicted child BMI through age 6years. We conducted a prospective observational study of 86 children (34 girls and 52 boys, from 55 adoptive and 31 non-adoptive families) enrolled in the Colorado Adoption Project. Mother-infant feeding interactions were video-recorded during a home snack or meal at year 1, and child anthropometrics (length or height, and weight) were assessed at years 1 through 6. The main outcome measures were child weight-for-length at year 1 and body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) at years 2-6. Results of generalized linear models indicated that greater infant emotional distress at 12-months predicted greater increases in child weight status through age 6years, B=0.62 and odds ratio (OR)=1.87. In separate analyses, restrictive feeding interacted with child sex in predicting weight status trajectories (p=.012). Male infants whose mothers displayed any compared to no restriction at year 1 showed a downward BMI trajectory from 2 to 6years; for female infants, exposure to any compared to no restriction prompts predicted increasing BMI from 4 to 6years. In sum, early obesity prevention strategies should pay greater attention to infant temperament, especially distress and negative affect, and how parents respond to such cues. Additionally, 'responsive feeding' strategies that provide an alternative to restriction warrant greater research during infancy. PMID:26872074
Huong, Le Thi; Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Ngoc; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh
The aim of this paper is to report the rate of current and ever cigarette smoking and explore correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam. This analysis was derived from GYTS survey, which comprised of 3,430 adolescents aged 13-15, conducted in 2014 in 13 cities and provinces of Viet Nam. We calculated the weighted rates of current and ever cigarette smoking and reported patterns of smoking behavior. We also performed logistic regression to explore correlates of current cigarette smoking behavior. The weighted rate of ever cigarette smoking was 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.5 %-10.5%), in which the weighted rate among males (15.4%; 95% CI: 13.6%-17.0%) was higher than that among females (4.2%; 95% CI: 3.3%-5.1%). The weighted rate of current cigarette smoking was relatively low at 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%- 3.0%) with higher weighted rate among males (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%-5.9%) compared to the corresponding figure among females (0.2%; 95% CI: 0.0 %-0.5%). Current cigarette smoking was significantly higher among males than females, in students aged 15 versus 13 years old, and in students who had several or all close friends smoking and students with daily observation of smoking at school. For greater smoking reduction outcomes, we recommend that tobacco interventions for adolescents should consider targeting more male students at older ages, establish stricter adherence to school-based banning of cigarette smoking, engage both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents and empower adolescents to resist peer smoking influence as well as changing their norms or beliefs towards smoking benefits. PMID:27087178
... Issue Past Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of ... healthy aging, it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based ...
... doctor will determine BMI at routine checkups and plot this measurement on a chart against those of ... what is normal changes with age, doctors must plot children's BMI measurements on standard growth charts rather ...
Ulbrich, Erika J.; Fischer, Michael A.; Manoliu, Andrei; Marcon, Magda; Luechinger, Roger; Nanz, Daniel; Reiner, Caecilia S.
Objectives To establish age- and sex-dependent values of magnetic resonance (MR) liver fat-signal fraction (FSF) in healthy volunteers with normal body-mass index (BMI). Methods 2-point mDIXON sequences (repetition time/echo time, 4.2msec/1.2msec, 3.1msec) at 3.0 Tesla MR were acquired in 80 healthy volunteers with normal BMI (18.2 to 25.7 kg/m2) between 20 and 62 years (10 men/10 women per decade). FSF was measured in 5 liver segments (segment II, III, VI, VII, VIII) based on mean signal intensities in regions of interest placed on mDIXON-based water and fat images. Multivariate general linear models were used to test for significant differences between BMI-corrected FSF among age subgroups. Pearson and Spearman correlations between FSF and several body measures were calculated. Results Mean FSF (%) ± standard deviations significantly differed between women (3.91 ± 1.10) and men (4.69 ± 1.38) and varied with age for women/men (p-value: 0.002/0.027): 3.05 ± 0.49/3.74 ± 0.60 (age group 20–29), 3.75 ± 0.66/4.99 ± 1.30 (30–39), 4.76 ± 1.16/5.25 ± 1.97 (40–49) and 4.09 ± 1.26/4.79 ± 0.93 (50–62). FSF differences among age subgroups were significant for women only (p = 0.003). Conclusions MR-based liver fat content is higher in men and peaks in the fifth decade for both genders. PMID:26554709
... harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other ... you quit, the greater the benefit. NIH: National Cancer Institute
Dejin-Karlsson, E; Hanson, B S; Ostergren, P O; Sjöberg, N O; Marsal, K
OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that women who deliver small-for-gestational-age infants are more often exposed to passive smoking at home or at work. METHODS: Among a 1-year cohort of nulliparous women in the city of Malmö, Sweden 872 (87.7%) women completed a questionnaire during their first prenatal visit. The study was carried out among women whose pregnancies resulted in a singleton live birth (n = 826), 6.7% of infants were classified as small for their gestational age. RESULTS: Passive smoking in early pregnancy was shown to double a woman's risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age infant, independent of potential confounding factors such as age, height, weight, nationality, educational level, and the mother's own active smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7). A stratified analysis indicated interactional effects of maternal smoking and passive smoking on relative small-for-gestational-age risk. CONCLUSIONS: Based on an attributable risk estimate, a considerable reduction in the incidence of small-for-gestational-age births could be reached if pregnant women were not exposed to passive smoking. PMID:9772856
Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Lawson, Christina C.
Objectives. We characterized workplace secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking women of reproductive age as a proxy for workplace secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy. Methods. We included nonsmoking women aged 18 to 44 years employed during the past 12 months who participated in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. We estimated the prevalence of workplace secondhand smoke exposure and its associations with sociodemographic and workplace characteristics. Results. Nine percent of women reported workplace secondhand smoke exposure. Prevalence decreased with increasing age, education, and earnings. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with chemical exposure (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 4.7); being threatened, bullied, or harassed (POR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.1, 5.1); vapors, gas, dust, or fume exposure (POR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.3, 4.4); and worrying about unemployment (POR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.2), among other things. Conclusions. Comprehensive smoke-free laws covering all workers could eliminate inequities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure, including during pregnancy. PMID:25905837
Elkhader, Bahaaedin A.; Abdulla, Alsafi A.; Ali Omer, Mohammed A.
Summary To find an association between smoking and the development of myocardial infarction in male patients above forty years of age presenting at the echocardiology department of Sudan heart center Khartoum. A prospective cohort study was carried out at the echocardiography department of Sudan Heart Center in Khartoum-Sudan between July 2012 and June 2014. The study population comprised a total of 168 adult male patients who underwent cardiac ultrasound scanning. Out of a total of 144 cases, 65% (94) of patients were smokers, 74% of the 94 cases smoked for more than 10 years, and 26% of the 94 cases smoked for less than 10 years. With this study it was concluded that smoking is a risk factor for the development of myocardial infarction. This study showed that patients with myocardial infarction are more likely to have a past history of smoking. PMID:27081418
Falgreen Eriksen, Hanne-Lise; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina Røndrup; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ) associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding. PMID:23316364
Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.
Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218
Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki
The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow
Gooding, Holly C; Walls, Courtney E; Richmond, Tracy K
Food insecurity has been associated with weight status in children and adults although results have been mixed. We aimed to identify whether food insecurity was associated with BMI in young adults and whether this association differed by gender and was modified by food stamp use and the presence of children in the home. Cross-sectional data from Wave 4 (2007–2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association between food insecurity and BMI in gender stratified models of young adult women (n=7116) and men (n=6604) controlling for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, the presence of children in the home, and food stamp use in young adulthood and/or adolescence. Food insecurity was more common in young adult women (14%) than young adult men (9%). After controlling for a variety of individual variables, food insecure women had a BMI that was on average 0.9kg/m2 units higher than women who were food secure. This difference in BMI persisted after controlling for recent or past food stamp use and was not different among women with or without children in the household. No relationship was found between food insecurity and BMI in young adult men. Providers should inquire about food insecurity, especially when treating obesity, and policy initiatives should address the role of access to healthy food in those facing food insecurity. PMID:21779092
Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Pullmann, Helle; Allik, Jüri
To examine the combined effect of birth weight, mothers' education and prenatal smoking on psychometrically measured intelligence at school age 1,822 children born in 1992-1999 and attending the first six grades from 45 schools representing all of the fifteen Estonian counties with information on birth weight, gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, parity and smoking in pregnancy, and intelligence tests were studied. The scores of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were related to the birth weight: in the normal range of birth weight (>or=2500 g) every 500 g increase in birth weight was accompanied by around 0.7-point increase in IQ scores. A strong association between birth weight and IQ remained even if gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, place of residence, parity and smoking during pregnancy have been taken into account. Maternal prenatal smoking was accompanied by a 3.3-point deficit in children's intellectual abilities. Marriage and mother's education had an independent positive correlation with offspring intelligence. We concluded that the statistical effect of birth weight, maternal education and smoking in pregnancy on offspring's IQ scores was remarkable and remained even if other factors have been taken into account. PMID:20634008
Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.
This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…
Frolkis, Alexandra D; de Bruyn, Jennifer; Jette, Nathalie; Lowerison, Mark; Engbers, Jordan; Ghali, William; Lewis, James D; Vallerand, Isabelle; Patten, Scott; Eksteen, Bertus; Barnabe, Cheryl; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Wiebe, Samuel; Kaplan, Gilaad G
Objectives: We assessed the association of smoking at diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on the need for an intestinal resection. Methods: The Health Improvement Network was used to identify an inception cohort of Crohn's disease (n=1519) and ulcerative colitis (n=3600) patients from 1999–2009. Poisson regression explored temporal trends for the proportion of newly diagnosed IBD patients who never smoked before their diagnosis and the risk of surgery within 3 years of diagnosis. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association between smoking and surgery, and effect modification was explored for age at diagnosis. Results: The rate of never smokers increased by 3% per year for newly diagnosed Crohn's disease patients (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.05), but not for ulcerative colitis. The rate of surgery decreased among Crohn's disease patients aged 17–40 years (IRR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93–0.98), but not for ulcerative colitis. Smoking at diagnosis increased the risk of surgery for Crohn's disease patients diagnosed after the age of 40 (hazard ratio (HR) 2.99; 95% CI: 1.52–5.92), but not for those diagnosed before age 40. Ulcerative colitis patients diagnosed between the ages of 17 and 40 years and who quit smoking before their diagnosis were more likely to undergo a colectomy (ex-smoker vs. never smoker: HR 1.66; 95% CI: 1.04–2.66). The age-specific findings were consistent across sensitivity analyses for Crohn's disease, but not ulcerative colitis. Conclusions: In this study, the association of smoking and surgical resection was dependent on the age at diagnosis of IBD. PMID:27101004
Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Gangnon, Ronald; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Klein, Ronald
Objective To examine the association of current cigarette smoking and pack-years smoked to the incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to examine the interactions of current smoking and pack-years smoked with Complement Factor H (CFH, rs1061170) and Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 (ARMS2, rs10490924) genotype. Design A longitudinal population-based study of AMD in a representative American community. Examinations were performed every 5 years over a 20-year period. Participants 4439 participants in the population-based Beaver Dam Eye Study. Methods AMD status was determined from grading retinal photographs. Multi-state models were used to model the relationship of current smoking and pack-years smoked and interactions with CFH and ARMS2 to the incidence and progression of AMD over the entire age range. Main Outcome Measures Incidence and progression of AMD over a 20-year period and interactions between current smoking and pack-years smoked with CFH and ARMS2 genotype. Results The incidence of early AMD over the 20-year period was 24.4% and the incidence of late AMD was 4.5%. Current smoking was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from minimal to moderate early AMD. A greater number of pack-years smoked was associated with an increased risk of transitioning from no AMD to minimal early AMD and from severe early AMD to late AMD. Current smoking and a greater number of pack-years smoked were associated with an increased risk of death. There were no statistically significant multiplicative interactions between current smoking or pack-years smoked and CFH or ARMS2 genotype. Conclusions Current smoking and a greater number of pack-years smoked increase the risk of the progression of AMD. This has important health care implications because smoking is a modifiable behavior. PMID:24953792
Amirabadi, Bahareh; Nikbakht, Mohammad; Nokani, Mostafa; Alibeygi, Neda; Safari, Hadi
Background: According to drug gateway theory, smoking cigarettes, especially, low onset age of smoking, is one of the risk factors for future use. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare nicotine and opiate addicts to identify the differences in personality traits and onset age of smoking in the two groups that cause some individuals to appeal to other substances after starting to use cigarettes. Patients and Methods: Two groups of opiate and nicotine addicts were randomly selected. Revised version of the Cloninger temperament inventory questionnaire, the Fagrastrom nicotine dependence and the Maudsley addiction profile were used. ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for data analysis. Results: Opiate addicts had higher scores in novelty seeking dimension and lower scores in cooperativeness compared to nicotine addicts. The onset age of smoking cigarette in opiate addicts was lower than nicotine addicts. Conclusions: Low onset age of smoking cigarettes, high novelty seeking and low cooperativeness in opiate dependents are among the important personality traits in future use of drugs that can predict the subsequent onset of using opiate drugs. PMID:26870712
La Merrill, M A; Cirillo, P M; Krigbaum, N Y; Cohn, B A
Growing evidence indicates that parental smoking is associated with risk of offspring obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify whether parental tobacco smoking during gestation was associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. This is a prospective study of 44- to 54-year-old daughters (n = 1801) born in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort between 1959 and 1967. Their mothers resided near Oakland California, were members of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and reported parental tobacco smoking during an early pregnancy interview. Daughters reported physician diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and provided blood samples for hemoglobin A1C measurement. Prenatal maternal smoking had a stronger association with daughters' diabetes mellitus risk than prenatal paternal smoking, and the former persisted after adjustment for parental race, diabetes and employment (aRR = 2.4 [95% confidence intervals 1.4-4.1] P < 0.01 and aRR = 1.7 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-3.0] P = 0.05, respectively). Estimates of the effect of parental smoking were unchanged when further adjusted by daughters' birth weight or current body mass index (BMI). Maternal smoking was also significantly associated with self-reported type 2 diabetes diagnosis (2.3 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-5.0] P < 0.05). Having parents who smoked during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus among adult daughters, independent of known risk factors, providing further evidence that prenatal environmental chemical exposures independent of birth weight and current BMI may contribute to adult diabetes mellitus. While other studies seek to confirm our results, caution toward tobacco smoking by or proximal to pregnant women is warranted in diabetes mellitus prevention efforts. PMID:25665487
Kilburn, K.H.; Lilis, R.; Anderson, H.A.; Miller, A.; Warshaw, R.H.
The study of 3,472 chest x-rays from four populations with different levels of exposure to asbestos and with different cigarette smoking histories shows that smoking in the general population does not produce pulmonary fibrosis recognizable on chest radiography. In the general population of Michigan, the prevalence of a radiographic pattern of fibrosis was 0.5 percent in men and 0.0 percent in women. In a Long Beach, California census tract population, the prevalences were 3.7 percent for men and 0.6 percent for women. Similarly, cigarette smoking does not enhance fibrosis when the exposure to asbestos has been as light as that in households of shipyard workers. Asbestosis was recognized in 6.6 percent of 137 shipyard workers' wives who have never smoked and 7.6 percent of 132 who had ever smoked. Cigarette smoking and asbestos appear to be synergistic in those occupationally exposed to asbestos (as insulators), since 7.2 percent of 97 nonsmokers and 20.5 percent of 316 ever-smokers showed fibrosis. This apparent synergy was also found in shipyard workers up to age 70 with 31 percent of nonsmokers and 43.3 percent of ever-smokers having fibrosis. There were increases of approximately 10 percent in the prevalence of fibrosis in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers for each decade after age 40.
Thompson, Azure B.; Tebes, Jacob K.; McKee, Sherry A.
Background It is generally accepted that smoking starts in adolescence and earlier initiation is associated with more negative health outcomes. Some research suggests that women initiate smoking at later ages and have more negative health outcomes than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in age of initiation and its association with health. Methods The sample included men (n=8,506) and women (n=8,479) with a history of smoking from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol Related Conditions. Logistic regression was used to examine gender differences in the effect of late smoking initiation on physical and mental health status after adjusting for covariates. Results At mostly all ages after 16, women exceeded men in rates of smoking initiation (59.8% vs. 50.3%, p<.001). Among late initiators (≥16), women were more likely than men to have hypertension (OR:1.24,CI:1.09-1.41), heart disease (OR:1.20,CI:1.00-1.45), major depressive disorder (OR:2.54,CI:2.22-2.92) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.34,CI:1.84-2.99). Among early initiators (<16), women were more likely than men to have major depressive disorder (OR:2.42,CI:2.11-2.77) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.01,CI:1.59-2.54) but there were no gender differences in the likelihood of having hypertension (OR:1.04,CI:0.89-1.22) and heart disease (OR:1.11,CI:0.90-1.36). Conclusions In late adolescence and adulthood, women exceed men in smoking initiation. Late initiation was associated with more significant physical health risks for women than men. Our findings raise questions about generally accepted notions on the age at which smoking initiation occurs and its association with health.
Ferris, Jennifer S; Flom, Julie D; Tehranifar, Parisa; Mayne, Susan T; Terry, Mary Beth
Previous studies have reported mixed results regarding the association between age at menarche and environmental tobacco smoke exposure, both prenatally and during early childhood; however, few studies have had data available during both time periods. The present study examined whether exposure to prenatal tobacco smoke (PTS) via maternal smoking during pregnancy or childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was associated with age at menarche in a multi-ethnic birth cohort. With the uniquely available prospectively collected data on body size and growth at birth and in early life, we further examined whether the association between PTS and ETS exposure and age at menarche was mediated by these variables. From 2001 to 2006, we recruited 262 women born between 1959 and 1963 who were enrolled previously in a New York City site of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Mothers who smoked during pregnancy vs. those who did not were more likely to be White, younger, have more education and have lower birthweight babies. Daughters with heavy PTS exposure (≥ 20 cigarettes per day) had a later age at menarche (>12 years vs. ≤ 12 years), odds ratio (OR) =2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9, 5.0] compared with daughters with no PTS. Daughters exposed to only childhood ETS had a later age at menarche, OR=2.1 [95% CI 1.0, 4.3], and those exposed to PTS and ETS combined had a statistically significant later age at menarche, OR=2.2 [95% CI 1.1, 4.6] compared with daughters with no PTS and no ETS. These results did not change after further adjustment for birthweight and postnatal growth suggesting that exposure to PTS and ETS is associated with later age at menarche even after considering possible relationships with growth. PMID:20955229
Breathing secondhand smoke (SHS) causes heart disease and lung cancer in adults and increased risks for sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle-ear disease, worsened asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth in children. No risk-free level of exposure to SHS exists. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), initiated in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Canadian Public Health Association, and CDC includes questions related to tobacco use, including exposure to SHS. This report examines data collected from 137 jurisdictions (i.e., countries and territories) during 2000-2007, presents estimates of exposure to SHS at home and in places other than the home among students aged 13-15 years who had never smoked, and examines the association between exposure to SHS and susceptibility to initiating smoking. GYTS data indicated that nearly half of never smokers were exposed to SHS at home (46.8%), and a similar percentage were exposed in places other than the home (47.8%). Never smokers exposed to SHS at home were 1.4-2.1 times more likely to be susceptible to initiating smoking than those not exposed. Students exposed to SHS in places other than the home were 1.3-1.8 times more likely to be susceptible to initiating smoking than those not exposed. As part of their comprehensive tobacco-control programs, countries should take measures to create smoke-free environments in all indoor public places and workplaces. PMID:17522587
Rönn, Tina; Volkov, Petr; Gillberg, Linn; Kokosar, Milana; Perfilyev, Alexander; Jacobsen, Anna Louisa; Jørgensen, Sine W; Brøns, Charlotte; Jansson, Per-Anders; Eriksson, Karl-Fredrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Groop, Leif; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Vaag, Allan; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte
Increased age, BMI and HbA1c levels are risk factors for several non-communicable diseases. However, the impact of these factors on the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue remains unknown. We analyzed the DNA methylation of ∼480 000 sites in human adipose tissue from 96 males and 94 females and related methylation to age, BMI and HbA1c. We also compared epigenetic signatures in adipose tissue and blood. Age was significantly associated with both altered DNA methylation and expression of 1050 genes (e.g. FHL2, NOX4 and PLG). Interestingly, many reported epigenetic biomarkers of aging in blood, including ELOVL2, FHL2, KLF14 and GLRA1, also showed significant correlations between adipose tissue DNA methylation and age in our study. The most significant association between age and adipose tissue DNA methylation was found upstream of ELOVL2. We identified 2825 genes (e.g. FTO, ITIH5, CCL18, MTCH2, IRS1 and SPP1) where both DNA methylation and expression correlated with BMI. Methylation at previously reported HIF3A sites correlated significantly with BMI in females only. HbA1c (range 28-46 mmol/mol) correlated significantly with the methylation of 711 sites, annotated to, for example, RAB37, TICAM1 and HLA-DPB1. Pathway analyses demonstrated that methylation levels associated with age and BMI are overrepresented among genes involved in cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our results highlight the impact of age, BMI and HbA1c on epigenetic variation of candidate genes for obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer in human adipose tissue. Importantly, we demonstrate that epigenetic biomarkers in blood can mirror age-related epigenetic signatures in target tissues for metabolic diseases such as adipose tissue. PMID:25861810
Kviz, F J; Clark, M A; Prohaska, T R; Slezak, J A; Crittenden, K S; Freels, S; Campbell, R T
Attitudes and self-reported practices for smoking cessation counseling among 145 providers at a health maintenance organization were compared among two provider groups, physicians/nurse practitioners and registered/licensed practical nurses, and across three patient age groups, < 50, 50-64, and > or = 65. Smoking cessation attitudes did not differ by provider type but they did differ by patient age, especially among the registered/licensed practical nurses, whose attitudes were least favorable for the oldest smokers (> or = 65). While smoking cessation practices did not differ by patient age, they did differ by provider type. Self-reported performance of the 4 As of smoking cessation practice (Ask, Advise, Assist, Arrange) was more frequent among the physicians/nurse practitioners than among the registered/licensed practical nurses. However, among both groups, asking and advising practices were reported more often than were assisting and arranging. In all cases, different attitudes were correlated with different practice behaviors for the two provider groups. Also, there were more significant correlations between age-specific attitudes and practices among the registered/licensed practical nurses than among the physicians/nurse practitioners. This was true especially regarding the oldest patients. The findings suggest a need for provider education, especially among registered/licensed practical nurses, about the benefits of smoking cessation for patients of all ages and the potential effectiveness of provider-based intervention strategies that are targeted toward specific age groups. The findings also suggest that assisting and arranging practices in particular need improvement among all types of providers. PMID:7597023
Jeffery, R W; Boles, S M; Strycker, L A; Glasgow, R E
Smoking cessation rates, progression in stage of change for smoking cessation, and serious quit attempts were examined over 2 years in a cohort of 242 men and women smokers (mean age 39.7 years, mean body mass index [BMI] 26.3) as a function of expressing concern about gaining weight because of quitting smoking. Participants were employees of 25 companies who were in a worksite health promotion program aimed at reducing risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Multivariate odds ratios (controlled for age, education, job class, sex, and BMI) for quitting smoking, attempting to quit smoking, and progressing in stage of change for smoking cessation as a function of weight concern were not significant. Interactions between sex and weight concern, and BMI and weight concern were also not significant. These findings, in a working, predominantly blue-collar population, and those of other studies, suggest that concern about gaining weight is, at best, a weak predictor of change in smoking behavior among most smokers. PMID:9302546
Biro, Frank M; Huang, Bin; Morrison, John A; Horn, Paul S; Daniels, Steven R
Purpose This study examined longitudinal changes in waist-to-height ratio and components of BMI among black and white females. Methods Girls were recruited at age 9 through the NHLBI Growth and Health Study (NGHS), and followed annually over ten years. Girls were grouped into low (<20th %tile), middle, and high (>80th %tile) BMI on the basis of race-specific BMI percentile rankings at age 9, and low, middle, and high waist-to-height ratio, on the basis of waist-to-height ratio at age 11. BMI was partitioned into fat mass and fat-free mass index (FMI and FFMI). Results Girls accrued fat mass at a greater rate than fat-free mass, and the ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass increased from ages 9 through 18. There was a significant increase in this ratio after age at peak height velocity. Participants with elevated BMI and waist-to-height ratios at age 18 tended to have been elevated at ages 9 and 11, respectively. There were strong correlations between BMI at age 9 with several outcomes at age 18: BMI (0.76) and FMI (0.72), weaker but significant with FFMI (0.37), and ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass (0.53). Additionally, there was significant tracking of elevated BMI from ages 9 through 18. Conclusions In girls, higher BMI levels during childhood lead to greater waist-to-height ratios and greater than expected changes in BMI at age 18, with disproportionate increases in fat mass. These changes are especially evident in blacks and after the pubertal growth spurt. PMID:20159501
Remer, Lorraine A.; Bruintjes, Roelof; Holben, Brent N.; Christopher, Sundar
We take advantage of the May 1998 biomass burning event in Southern Mexico to test the global applicability of a smoke aerosol size model developed from data observed in South America. The Mexican event is an unique opportunity to observe well-aged, residual smoke. Observations of smoke aerosol size distribution made from vertical profiles of airborne in situ measurements show an inverse relationship between concentration and particle size that suggests the aging process continues more than a week after the smoke is separated from its fire sources. The ground-based radiometer retrievals show that the column-averaged, aged, Mexican smoke particles are larger (diameter = 0.28 - 0.33 micrometers) than the mean smoke particles in South America (diameter = 0.22 - 0.30 micrometers). However, the difference (delta - 0.06 micrometer) translates into differences in backscattering coefficient of only 4-7% and an increase of direct radiative forcing of only 10%.
Schick, Suzaynn F; van den Vossenberg, Glenn; Luo, Andy; Whitlatch, Aaron; Jacob, Peyton; Balmes, John; Shusterman, Dennis
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of short exposures to experimentally aged cigarette smoke on the nose and upper airways. This crossover study compared the effects of 30-min exposures to (1) experimentally aged cigarette smoke at 1 mg/m³ particulate matter (PM)/14 ppm carbon monoxide (CO) and (2) conditioned filtered air on urinary metabolites of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Subjective nasal symptoms were assessed by questionnaire, objective nasal congestion was assessed by anterior rhinomanometry and nasal nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were determined. Experimentally aged cigarette smoke is a validated model for secondhand smoke (SHS). Twenty-six healthy nonsmokers (10 normal, 7 atopic/nonrhinitic, 7 atopic rhinitic, 2 nonatopic/rhinitic) were studied. A 30-min exposure to SHS increased nasal resistance in healthy nonsmokers. The rise in nasal resistance was most pronounced in rhinitic subjects. Significant increases were not noted when atopic subjects were considered independent of rhinitis status. Secondhand smoke exposure also elevated subjective nasal symptoms and urinary concentrations of metabolites of nicotine (cotinine and trans-3´-hydroxycotinine) and tobacco-specific nitrosamines [(4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL)] in all subgroups of subjects. Exposure-related, subjective nasal symptoms were significantly higher in rhinitic than in normal subjects. Significant changes in nasal NO concentrations were not detected. Data indicate a 30-min exposure to secondhand smoke at 1 mg/m³ PM increases subjective upper respiratory symptoms, increases urinary cotinine and NNAL, and produces objective nasal airflow obstruction in human subjects. PMID:23859154
Turiano, Nicholas A.; Hill, Patrick L.; Roberts, Brent W.; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K.
This study examined the relationship between conscientiousness and mortality over 18 years and whether smoking behavior mediated this relationship. We utilized data from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study on 1349 men who completed the Goldberg (1992) adjectival markers of the Big Five. Over the 18-year follow-up, 547 (41%) participants died. Through proportional hazards modeling in a structural equation modeling framework, we found that higher levels of conscientiousness significantly predicted longer life, and that this effect was mediated by current smoking status at baseline. Methodologically, we also demonstrate the effectiveness of using a structural equation modeling framework to evaluate mediation when using a censored outcome such as mortality. PMID:23504043
Iwaoka, Masahiko; Tsuji, Takeshi
Objective We evaluated the short-term effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline on the lung function. Methods In this study, 81 subjects received 12 weeks of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. No changes were made to any previously prescribed medications. A physical examination, blood sampling, and spirometry were performed at the first and last visit. Spirometric lung ages were calculated by a formula based on height and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The success group comprised 62 subjects who attained 4-week continuous abstinence confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide testing; whereas the failure group comprised 19 subjects who did not attain this result. However, the number of cigarettes consumed per day was reduced in all subjects of the failure group. Results The spirometric lung ages significantly improved over the 12-week period in the success group (69.8±24.7 vs. 66.9±24.1, p<0.01); however, spirometric lung ages significantly deteriorated in the failure group (70.5±25.5 vs. 73.7±26.9, p<0.01). The effect sizes (Cohen's d) of spirometric lung age in the success and failure groups were 0.37 and 0.81, respectively. The post-hoc statistical power of the spirometric lung age in the success and failure groups was 0.83 and 0.91, respectively. According to a multiple regression analysis, success in smoking cessation exhibited an independent association with the difference in spirometric lung age between the last visit and baseline (p<0.01). Conclusion These findings suggest that successful smoking cessation therapy with varenicline improves the spirometric lung age in the short term. PMID:27580538
Ford, Dara W; Hartman, Terryl J; Still, Christopher; Wood, Craig; Mitchell, Diane; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Bailey, Regan; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Coffman, Donna L; Jensen, Gordon L
Objective To assess the association of diet-related practices and BMI with diet quality in rural adults aged ≥74 years. Design Cross-sectional. Dietary quality was assessed by the twenty-five-item Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Diet-related practices were self-reported. Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyse associations of DST scores with BMI and diet-related practices after controlling for gender, age, education, smoking and self- v. proxy reporting. Setting Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) in Pennsylvania, USA. Subjects A total of 4009 (1722 males, 2287 females; mean age 81·5 years) participants aged ≥74 years. Results Individuals with BMI < 18·5 kg/m2 had a significantly lower DST score (mean 55·8, 95 % CI 52·9, 58·7) than those individuals with BMI = 18·5–24·9 kg/m2 (mean 60·7, 95 % CI 60·1, 61·5; P = 0.001). Older adults with higher, more favourable DST scores were significantly more likely to be food sufficient, report eating breakfast, have no chewing difficulties and report no decline in intake in the previous 6 months. Conclusions The DST may identify potential targets for improving diet quality in older adults including promotion of healthy BMI, breakfast consumption, improving dentition and identifying strategies to decrease concern about food sufficiency. PMID:23816283
Aliramaji, Arsalan; Kaseean, Aliakbar; Yousefnia Pasha, Yousef Reza; Shafi, Hamid; Kamali, Sekineh; Safari, Mohsen; Moudi, Emaduddin
Background: Recognition of the predisposing factors of bladder cancer is very important and provides possible prevention measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the types, distribution of bladder tumors and their relationship with opium consumption and smoking in patients who referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol, Iran. Methods: In this case-control study, all patients diagnosed with bladder cancer who underwent surgery during 2001-2012 were enrolled. The subjects of the control group were selected among the patients who underwent ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) for gallstone and had no tumors and genitourinary problems. Data regarding demographic, pathology reports and tumor type, smoking status, history of opium consumption and its duration were collected. Patients and controls were compared using t-test and chi-square test. SPSS software Version 20 was used for analysis. Results: In this study, 175 patients with an average age of 63.30±15.29 years and 175 age- matched controls were studied. A significant association was observed between smoking and opium consumption with bladder cancer (P=0.001 for both). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that opium consumption and smoking are associated with bladder cancer PMID:26221505
Tuovinen, Eeva-Liisa; Saarni, Suoma E; Männistö, Satu; Borodulin, Katja; Patja, Kristiina; Kinnunen, Taru H; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo
Several studies have reported direct associations of smoking with body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity. However, the interplay between them is poorly understood. Our first aim was to investigate the interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC). Our second aim was to examine how the association of smoking status with WC varies among normal and overweight/obese men and women. We examined 5833 participants from the National FINRISK 2007 Study. The interactions between smoking and BMI on WC were analyzed. Participants were categorized into eight groups according to BMI (normal weight vs. overweight/obese) and smoking status (never smoker, ex-smoker, occasional/light/moderate daily smoker, heavy daily smoker). The associations between each BMI/smoking status -group and WC were analyzed by multiple regressions, the normal-weight never smokers as the reference group. The smoking status by BMI-interaction on WC was significant for women, but not for men. Among the overweight/obese women, ex-smokers (β = 2.73; 1.99, 3.46) and heavy daily smokers (β = 4.90; 3.35, 6.44) had the highest estimates for WC when adjusted for age, BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity. In comparison to never smoking overweight/obese women, the β-coefficients of ex-smokers and heavy daily smokers were significantly higher. Among men and normal weight women the β -coefficients did not significantly differ by smoking status. An interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity was observed in women: overweight/obese heavy daily smokers were particularly vulnerable for abdominal obesity. This risk group should be targeted for cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:27486563
Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…
Sahasrabuddhe, Anagh A.
BMI1 oncogene is a catalytic member of epigenetic repressor polycomb group proteins. It plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression pattern and consequently several cellular processes during development, including cell cycle progression, senescence, aging, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and importantly self-renewal of adult stem cells of several lineages. Preponderance of evidences indicates that deregulated expression of PcG protein BMI1 is associated with several human malignancies, cancer stem cell maintenance, and propagation. Importantly, overexpression of BMI1 correlates with therapy failure in cancer patients and tumor relapse. This review discusses the diverse mode of BMI1 regulation at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels as well as at various critical signaling pathways regulated by BMI1 activity. Furthermore, this review highlights the role of BMI1 as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several subtypes of hematologic malignancies and the importance to target this biomarker for therapeutic applications. PMID:27168727
Nagai, K; Betsuyaku, T; Kondo, T; Nasuhara, Y; Nishimura, M
Background Epithelial lining fluid plays a critical role in protecting the lung from oxidative stress, in which the oxidised status may change by ageing, smoking history, and pulmonary emphysema. Methods Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on 109 young and older subjects with various smoking histories. The protein carbonyls, total and oxidised glutathione were examined in BAL fluid. Results By Western blot analysis, the major carbonylated protein in the BAL fluid was sized at 68 kDa, corresponding to albumin. The amount of carbonylated albumin per mg total albumin in BAL fluid was four times higher in older current smokers and three times higher in older former smokers than in age matched non‐smokers (p<0.0001, p = 0.0003, respectively), but not in young smokers. Total glutathione in BAL fluid was significantly increased both in young (p = 0.006) and older current smokers (p = 0.0003) compared with age matched non‐smokers. In contrast, the ratio of oxidised to total glutathione was significantly raised (72%) only in older current smokers compared with the other groups. There was no significant difference in these parameters between older smokers with and without mild emphysema. Conclusions Oxidised glutathione associated with excessive protein carbonylation accumulates in the lung of older smokers with long term smoking histories even in the absence of lung diseases, but they are not significantly enhanced in smokers with mild emphysema. PMID:16537669
Rachiotis, George; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S.; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11–17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5% were exposed to ETS outside of the home. Gender, age group, parental and close friends smoking status were significant determinants of adolescent’s exposure to ETS. The results of the study could be valuable for the implementation of public health initiatives in Greece aiming to reduce the burden of adolescent’s exposure to passive smoking. PMID:20195445
Rachiotis, George; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
The aim of the study is to investigate the determinants of exposure to ETS among Greek adolescents aged 11-17 years old. The GYTS questionnaire was completed by 5,179 adolescents. About 3 in 4 responders (76.8%) were exposed to ETS at home, and 38.5% were exposed to ETS outside of the home. Gender, age group, parental and close friends smoking status were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to ETS. The results of the study could be valuable for the implementation of public health initiatives in Greece aiming to reduce the burden of adolescent's exposure to passive smoking. PMID:20195445
Curry, J; Karnaoukhova, L; Guenette, G C; Glickman, B W
Examination of the literature for hprt mutant frequencies from peripheral T cells yielded data from 1194 human subjects. Relationships between mutant frequency, age, sex, and smoking were examined, and the kinetics were described. Mutant frequency increases rapidly with age until about age 15. Afterward, the rate of increase falls such that after age 53, the hprt mutant frequency is largely stabilized. Sex had no effect on mutant frequency. Cigarette smoking increased mean mutant frequency compared to nonsmokers, but did not alter age vs. mutant frequency relationships. An hprt in vivo mutant database containing 795 human hprt mutants from 342 individuals was prepared. No difference in mutational spectra was observed comparing smokers to nonsmokers, confirming previous reports. Sex affected the frequency of deletions (>1 bp) that are recovered more than twice as frequently in females (P = 0. 008) compared to males. There is no indication of a significant shift in mutational spectra with age for individuals older than 19 yr, with the exception of A:T --> C:G transversions. These events are recovered more frequently in older individuals. PMID:10388825
Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Clark, Simon J.; Bishop, Paul N.; Day, Anthony J.
Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation. PMID:26794210
Hong, Rathavuth; Betancourt, Jose A; Ruiz-Beltran, Martin
Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p < 0.01). Severely undernourished children were at higher risk of anemia independent of passive smoking and other risk factors (OR= 5.29, p < 0.05). Children age 24–35 months, children born to mothers age 35–49, and children lived in households with a hygienic toilet facility were less likely to suffer from anemia. Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children. PMID:17425780
van den Borst, Bram; Koster, Annemarie; Yu, Binbing; Gosker, Harry R.; Meibohm, Bernd; Bauer, Douglas C.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Liu, Yongmei; Newman, Anne B.; Harris, Tamara B.; Schols, Annemie M.W.J.
Background and aims Cross-sectional studies suggest that Obstructive Lung Disease (OLD) and smoking affect lean mass and mobility. We aimed to investigate whether OLD and smoking accelerate aging-related decline in lean mass and physical functioning. Methods 260 persons with OLD (FEV1 63±18 %predicted), 157 smoking controls (FEV1 95±16 %predicted), 866 formerly smoking controls (FEV1 100±16 %predicted) and 891 never-smoking controls (FEV1 104±17 %predicted) participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (ABC) Study were studied. At baseline, the mean age was 74±3 y and participants reported no functional limitations. Baseline and seven-year longitudinal data were investigated of body composition (by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle strength (by hand and leg dynamometry) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Results Compared to never-smoking controls, OLD persons and smoking controls had a significantly lower weight, fat mass, lean mass and bone mineral content (BMC) at baseline (p<0.05). While the loss of weight, fat mass, lean mass and strength was comparable between OLD persons and never-smoking controls, the SPPB declined 0.12 points/yr faster in OLD men (p=0.01) and BMC 4 g/yr faster in OLD women (p=0.02). In smoking controls, only lean mass declined 0.1 kg/yr faster in women (p=0.03) and BMC 8 g/yr faster in men (p=0.02) compared to never-smoking controls. Conclusions Initially well-functioning older adults with mild-to-moderate OLD and smokers without OLD have a comparable compromised baseline profile of body composition and physical functioning, while seven-year longitudinal trajectories are to a large extent comparable to those observed in never-smokers without OLD. This suggests a common insult earlier in life related to smoking. 3 PMID:21724748
Petrick, Lauren M.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Dubowski, Yael; Gundel, Lara A.; Destaillats, Hugo
Exposure to tobacco pollutants that linger indoors after smoking has taken place ( thirdhand smoke, THS) can occur over extended periods and is modulated by chemical processes involving atmospheric reactive species. This study investigates the role of ozone and indoor surfaces in chemical transformations of tobacco smoke residues. Gas and particle constituents of secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as sorbed SHS on chamber internal walls and model materials (cotton, paper, and gypsum wallboard) were characterized during aging. After smoldering 10 cigarettes in a 24-m 3 room size chamber, gas-phase nicotine was rapidly removed by sorption to chamber surfaces, and subsequently re-emitted during ventilation with clean air to a level of ˜10% that during the smoking phase. During chamber ventilation in the presence of ozone (180 ppb), ozone decayed at a rate of 5.6 h -1 and coincided with a factor of 5 less nicotine sorbed to wallboard. In the presence of ozone, no gas phase nicotine was detected as a result of re-emission, and higher concentrations of nicotine oxidation products were observed than when ventilation was performed with ozone-free air. Analysis of the model surfaces showed that heterogeneous nicotine-ozone reaction was faster on paper than cotton, and both were faster than on wallboard. However, wallboard played a dominant role in ozone-initiated reaction in the chamber due to its large total geometric surface area and sink potential compared to the other substrates. This study is the first to show in a room-sized environmental chamber that the heterogeneous ozone chemistry of sorbed nicotine generates THS constituents of concern, as observed previously in bench-top studies. In addition to the main oxidation products (cotinine, myosmine and N-methyl formamide), nicotine-1-oxide was detected for the first time.
Carles, Sophie; Charles, Marie-Aline; Forhan, Anne; Slama, Rémy; Heude, Barbara; Botton, Jérémie
Background Accurately characterizing children’s body mass index (BMI) trajectories and studying their determinants is a statistical challenge. There is a need to identify early public health measures for obesity prevention. We describe a method that allows studies of the determinants of height, weight and BMI growth up to five years of age. We illustrated this method using maternal smoking during pregnancy as one of the early-life factors that is potentially involved in prenatal programming of obesity. Methods Individual height and weight trajectories were fitted using the Jenss-Bayley model on 28,381 and 30,515 measurements, respectively, from 1,666 children to deduce BMI trajectories. We assessed global associations between smoking and growth trajectories and cross-sectional associations at specific ages. Results Children exposed in late pregnancy had a 0.24 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 0.07, 0.41) higher BMI at 5 years of age compared with non-exposed children. Although the BMIs of children exposed during late pregnancy became significantly higher compared with those of non-exposed children from 2 years onwards, the trajectories began to diverge during the first weeks of life. Conclusion Our method is relevant for studies on the relationships between individual-level exposures and the dynamics and shapes of BMI growth during childhood, including key features such as instantaneous growth velocities and the age or BMI value at the BMI infancy peak that benefit from the monotonic pattern of height and weight growth. PMID:27327164
Stuart, B; Panico, L
Background and Objectives: By age 5, 20% of British children are classed as overweight or obese, suggesting that early childhood is crucial for lifelong body mass index (BMI) trajectories. In this paper, we identify latent trajectories of early-childhood BMI from ages 3 to 11 years. Given the current context of growing socio-economic inequalities in childhood and adult overweight and obesity, we examine the socio-economic characteristics and mechanisms during pregnancy and infancy which underscore these trajectories. Subject and Methods: We use a nationally representative, prospective cohort study of 9699 children born in 2000–2002, living in the United Kingdom shortly after birth, with complete information on height and weight (measured by an interviewer) at ages 3, 5, 7 and 11. Trajectories of BMI are calculated using latent growth mixture models. Multinomial models characterize these trajectories by their socio-economic profiles and mechanisms during pregnancy and infancy. Results: Four trajectories were identified: two separate trajectories where BMI remains within a normal range (85% of the sample), an overweight trajectory (14.4%), and an obese trajectory (3.1%). No ‘declining BMI' or late-onset groups were found. The obese group is already distinct from the other trajectories by age 3. The overweight group diverges from the normal groups around age 5. Strong socio-economic inequalities emerged; for the obese group, part of this disadvantage is mediated through early mechanisms such as pregnancy smoke and not initiating breastfeeding. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for the idea that childhood BMI trajectories develop early, especially for children who will follow an obese trajectory. Strong socio-economic patterns in these trajectories suggest that the observed trend in growing inequalities may be rooted in early life. Mediating mechanisms for the obese appear to be in the pregnancy and infant period, further research should explore
Luo, Xiao; Wang, Yupeng; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cai, Fuwen; Xie, Biao; Qu, Siyang; Liu, Meina
Background: It is unclear whether the relationship between cigarette smoking and atopy is mediated by body fat mass, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI). We assessed the mediating role of BMI on the relationship between smoking and atopy in Chinese adults. Methods: A hospital-based case-control study of 786 atopic cases and 2771 controls was conducted in adults aged 18 years or older from March 2010 to September 2014 in Harbin, China. Mediation models were used to estimate the indirect effects of smoking on atopic sensitization through BMI. Results: Compared to non-smokers, light smokers and moderate smokers had a lower risk of inhalant allergen sensitization. The indirect effect of smoking and sensitization to aeroallergens were only observed in light smokers (point estimate, −0.026; 95% CI, −0.062 to −0.004). The mediating roles of BMI on the relationships between smoking and other types of allergic sensitization were not statistically significant. Conclusion: BMI appeared to partially mediate the effect of light smoking on sensitization to aeroallergens. However, considering the other harmful health effects of cigarette smoking, the effective method to lower the incidence of atopy would be to decrease body fat mass by physical exercise and employing other more healthy ways of living rather than smoking. PMID:25807148
Berry, TR; Spence, JC; Blanchard, C; Cutumisu, N; Edwards, J; Nykiforuk, C
Objective To undertake a 6-year longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the built environment (perceived and objectively measured) and change in body mass index (BMI). Specifically, this research examined whether change in BMI was predicted by objectively measured neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived neighborhood characteristics (for example, crime, traffic and interesting things to look at) in addition to other factors such as age, gender, education, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoking. Design Longitudinal study Subjects 500 adults who provided complete data in 2002 and 2008 and who did not move over the course of the study (47.8% female; age in 2002: 18–90 years). Measurements Telephone surveys in 2002 and 2008 measuring perceptions of their neighborhood environment and demographic factors. Objective measures of neighborhood characteristics were calculated using census data and geographical information systems in 2006. Results Age, neighborhood SES and perceived traffic were significantly related to increased BMI over the 6 years. Younger participants and those in lower SES neighborhoods were more likely to have increased BMI. Agreement with the statement that traffic made it difficult to walk also predicted increased BMI. Conclusion This study adds to the literature to show that BMI increased in low SES neighborhoods. Although more research is needed to fully understand how neighborhood SES contributes to obesity, it is without question that individuals in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods face more barriers to health than their wealthier counterparts. This study also calls into question the relationship between walkability and changes in BMI and emphasizes the necessity of longitudinal data rather than relying on cross-sectional research. PMID:20157324
... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs About Adult BMI Language: ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...
Daseking, M.; Petermann, F.; Tischler, T.; Waldmann, H.-C.
Introduction: Maternal nicotine use during pregnancy has a negative impact on the child. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between smoking during pregnancy and psychological deficits. This study looks at deficits in executive functioning in preschool-aged children. Methods: The executive functioning of preschool children was assessed by asking parents to complete the parental form of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P, German version). The results for preschool children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy (n = 71) were compared with those of a control group. In a subsample, parental assessments of children of smokers (n = 42) and non-smokers (n = 27) were complemented by the teacher form of the BRIEF-P (German version), which allowed inter-rater agreement (parents vs. preschool teachers) to be assessed. Results: An increased incidence of executive function deficits was noted in the children of smokers, based on parental assessment. Clinically relevant deficits were particularly evident with regard to inhibition, with inhibitory deficits in children of smokers found to be almost four times higher than in the control group (p = 0.006). Inhibitory deficits were reported both by parents and by preschool teachers. Discussion: The increased percentage of executive function deficits described here, particularly the increased inhibitory deficits, confirms the current state of research on smoking during pregnancy. Poor inhibition or impulse control is a key symptom of ADHD. PMID:25684788
Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Can-Lan; Lee, Hin-Peng; Yu, Mimi C
Although studies in Western populations have shown that smokers have decreased dietary intakes of antioxidants and other health-related nutrients, this has not been established in oriental populations. This study aimed to identify differences in dietary and lifestyle characteristics between current, former, and never-smokers among middle-aged and older Chinese in Singapore. The subjects, 45-74 y old, were participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort that enrolled 63,257 (27,959 men and 35,298 women) Chinese in Singapore between 1993 and 1998. Data on current dietary habits (using a validated, semiquantitative FFQ) and other lifestyle factors were collected through face-to-face interviews. Mean daily intakes of various nutrients were estimated using a food composition table that was specifically developed for this population. The current smoking rates were 36% in men and 6% in women; an additional 22% of men and 3% of women were former smokers. In both sexes, current smokers were less educated, had lower BMI, led a more sedentary lifestyle, and drank more alcohol and coffee than those who never smoked. Current smokers had dose-dependent decreases in the intakes of a wide range of antioxidants, vitamins, fiber, and calcium, but increases in the intakes of cholesterol and nitrosamines compared with people who never smoked. Former smokers had dietary intakes that either were similar to never-smokers or intermediate between current and never-smokers. Our results are consistent with findings among Western populations, and suggest that the unhealthy diet and lifestyle in smokers occur across diverse cultures. PMID:16177215
Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J
The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans. PMID:25929677
El Safoury, Omar Soliman; Ezzat, Marwa; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud F; Shoukry, Nadia; Badawy, Ehssan
Background: Skin tags (STs) are small, pedunculated skin-colored or brown papules that occur around any site where skin folds occur. The literature is short of comprehensive and controlled clinical studies aimed to evaluate the atherogenic risk factors in patients with STs. Aim of Work: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of age, STs, metabolic syndrome (METs), body mass index (BMI), and smoking on homocysteine (Hcy), endothelin-1 (ET-1), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and on cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: This study included 30 cardiac patients with STs, 30 non-cardiac patients with STs, and 30 healthy controls with neither heart disease nor STs. History of smoking, measurement of height, weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, STs number, color, acanthosis nigricans, estimation of serum level of fasting glucose, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, high-dense lipoproteins (HDL), Hcy, ET-1, Hs-CRP, and the presence of the METs were elicited in the three groups. Results: Regarding the Hcy, ET-1, and Hs-CRP, the cardiac-STs group showed the highest levels and the control group showed the least (P < 0.001). The percents of patients with METs were 56.7% in the cardiac-STs, 40% in the non-cardiac-STs, and 0% in the control group (P < 0.001). Mean BMI exceeded the limit of obesity in the cardiac-STs group (30.9 ± 3.9) and the non-cardiac-STs group (32.6 ± 6) and was normal in the control group (24.7 ± 2.8). Hyperpigmented STs were present in 66.7% of the cardiac-STs group. Multivariate regression analysis for the independent effectors on Hcy level were the presence of STs (P < 0.001), METs (P = 0.001), and BMI (P = 0.024). Regarding ET-1, the effectors were the presence of STs and METs (P = 0.032). For Hs-CRP, effectors were the presence of STs (P < 0.001) and smoking (P = 0.040). Multivariate logistic regression of the predictors of cardiac disease showed that the independent predictors of the occurrence of
Objectives To determine the associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as assessed by the health and activity limitation index (HALex) in older adults. Design Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze associations between Di...
Wang, Li Hui; Chen, Ying Chang; Ka Chung, Angela; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Tam, Chick F.
The objective was to determine if the WHO global BMI (kg/m[squared]) cutoffs for determining overweight and obesity in the general populations are appropriate for Asian populations and to consider whether population-specific cutoffs would be warranted. A nonrandomized biased sampling of 227 Asian Americans were composed of 149 college students,…
Maccani, Jennifer ZJ; Koestler, Devin C; Houseman, Eugene Andrés; Marsit, Carmen J; Kelsey, Karl T
Aims The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis states that later-life disease may be influenced by the quality of the in utero environment. Environmental toxicants can have detrimental effects on fetal development, potentially through effects on placental development and function. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, preterm birth and other complications, and exposure to cigarette smoke in utero has been linked to gross pathologic and molecular changes to the placenta, including differential DNA methylation in placental tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy, methylation changes in the placenta and gestational age. Materials & methods We used Illumina®’s (CA, USA) Human Methylation27 BeadChip technology platform to investigate the methylation status of 21,551 autosomal, non-SNP-associated CpG loci in DNA extracted from 206 human placentas and examined loci whose variation in methylation was associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results We found that methylation patterns of a number of loci within the RUNX3 gene were significantly associated with smoking during pregnancy, and one of these loci was associated with decreased gestational age (p = 0.04). Conclusion Our findings, demonstrating maternal smoking-induced changes in DNA methylation at specific loci, suggest a mechanism by which in utero tobacco smoke exposure could exert its detrimental effects upon the health of the fetus. PMID:24283877
Col, Nananda F.; Fortin, Jennifer M.; Weber, Griffin; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Bowman, Stacie A.; Kim, Jung A.; Lyons, Jennifer L.; Dibble, Emily
Smoking among college students is on the rise, particularly among women and minorities. This paper explores smoking among college women, reviews different types of smoking cessation interventions, and describes a newly developed interactive Web site that combines tailored smoking cessation information with other health information in an attempt to…
Carter, Philippa J; Williams, Sheila M
Objectives To determine whether reduced sleep is associated with differences in body composition and the risk of becoming overweight in young children. Design Longitudinal study with repeated annual measurements. Setting Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants 244 children recruited from a birth cohort and followed from age 3 to 7. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (kg), and fat free mass (kg) measured with bioelectrical impedance; dual energy x ray absorptiometry; physical activity and sleep duration measured with accelerometry; dietary intake (fruit and vegetables, non-core foods), television viewing, and family factors (maternal BMI and education, birth weight, smoking during pregnancy) measured with questionnaire. Results After adjustment for multiple confounders, each additional hour of sleep at ages 3-5 was associated with a reduction in BMI of 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.96) and a reduced risk of being overweight (BMI ≥85th centile) of 0.39 (0.24 to 0.63) at age 7. Further adjustment for BMI at age 3 strengthened these relations. These differences in BMI were explained by differences in fat mass index (−0.43, −0.82 to −0.03) more than by differences in fat free mass index (−0.21, −0.41 to −0.00). Conclusions Young children who do not get enough sleep are at increased risk of becoming overweight, even after adjustment for initial weight status and multiple confounding factors. This weight gain is a result of increased fat deposition in both sexes rather than additional accumulation of fat free mass. PMID:21622518
Wier, Larry T.; Suminski, Richard R.; Poston, Walker S.; Randles, Anthony M.; Arenare, Brian; Jackson, Andrew S.
VO2max is associated with many factors, including age, gender, physical activity, and body composition. It is popularly believed that habitual smoking lowers aerobic fitness. PURPOSE: to determine the effect of habitual smoking on VO2max after controlling for age, gender, activity and BMI. METHODS: 2374 men and 375 women employed at the NASA/Johnson Space Center were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER>=1.1), activity by the 11 point (0-10) NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS), BMI and smoking pack-yrs (packs day*y of smoking). Age was recorded in years and gender was coded as M=1, W=0. Pack.y was made a categorical variable consisting of four levels as follows: Never Smoked (0), Light (1-10), Regular (11-20), Heavy (>20). Group differences were verified by ANOVA. A General Linear Models (GLM) was used to develop two models to examine the relationship of smoking behavior on VO2max. GLM #1(without smoking) determined the combined effects of age, gender, PASS and BMI on VO2max. GLM #2 (with smoking) determined the added effects of smoking (pack.y groupings) on VO2max after controlling for age, gender, PASS and BMI. Constant errors (CE) were calculated to compare the accuracy of the two models for estimating the VO2max of the smoking subgroups. RESULTS: ANOVA affirmed the mean VO2max of each pack.y grouping decreased significantly (p<0.01) as the level of smoking exposure increased. GLM #1 showed that age, gender, PASS and BMI were independently related with VO2max (R2 = 0.642, SEE = 4.90, p<0.001). The added pack.y variables in GLM #2 were statistically significant (R2 change = 0.7%, p<0.01). Post hoc analysis showed that compared to Never Smoked, the effects on VO2max from Light and Regular smoking habits were -0.83 and -0.85 ml.kg- 1.min-1 respectively (p<0.05). The effect of Heavy smoking on VO2max was -2.56 ml.kg- 1.min-1 (p<0.001). The CE s of each smoking group in GLM #2 was smaller than the CE s of the smoking group counterparts in GLM #1
Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi
BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327
Northstone, Kate; Golding, Jean; Davey Smith, George; Miller, Laura L; Pembrey, Marcus
Despite interest in the idea that transgenerational effects of adverse exposures might contribute to population health trends, there are few human data. This non-genetic inheritance is all the more remarkable when transmission is down the male-line as reported in a historical Swedish study, where the paternal grandfather's food supply in mid childhood was associated with the mortality rate in his grandsons. Using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children's questionnaire data on smoking and smoking onset from 9886 fathers, we examined the growth of their children from 7-17 years. Adjusting for potential confounders, we assessed associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, total fat mass and lean mass with the age at which the father had started smoking regularly. Of 5376 fathers who reported having ever smoked, 166 reported regular smoking <11 years of age. Before adjustment, those offspring whose fathers started smoking <11 years had the highest mean BMIs at each age tested. The adjusted mean differences in BMI, waist circumference and total fat mass in those sons whose fathers started smoking <11 years, compared with all other sons, increased with age, being significantly greater from 13 years onwards. There were no significant BMI associations in daughters, but they showed a reduction in total lean mass. Our results highlight the importance of the developmental timing of the paternal exposure as well as gender differences in offspring outcomes. Smoking by boys in mid childhood may contribute to obesity in adolescent boys of the next generation. PMID:24690679
Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.
Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground-based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near northern temperate and boreal forests for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types and plume age. Smallest fine mode median radius (Rfv) are attributed to plumes from cropland and/or natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grassland (0.157 μm) fires. North American evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller Rfv (0.164 μm) than plumes from Eurasian mixed forests (0.193 μm) and plumes attributed to the land cover types with sparse tree cover - open shrubland (0.185 μm) and woody savannas (0.184 μm). The differences in size distributions are related to inferred variability in plume concentrations between the land cover types. Significant differences are observed between day and night emissions, with daytime emissions showing larger particle sizes. Smoke is predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0
Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Nusselder, Wilma Johanna; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick; Van Oyen, Herman
Introduction Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. Methods Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ≥2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. Results An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ≥2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. Conclusions Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This
Tucker, J.D.; Moore, D.H. II
Fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes (``chromosome painting``) is a reliable and efficient method for detecting structural chromosome aberrations. Painting is now being used to quantify chromosome damage in many human populations. In one such study we evaluated 91 unexposed people ranging in age from birth (cord bloods) to 79. We established a baseline frequency of stable aberrations that showed a highly significant curvi-linear increase with age (p < 0.00001) that accounted for 70% of the variance between donors. The magnitude of this effect illustrates the importance of understanding the cytogenetic changes that occur with age, which is particularly important for quantifying the effects of prior adverse environmental, occupational, or accidental exposure. In this paper we use the data obtained in our previous study to characterize the distribution of stable aberrations by age and pack-years of cigarette smoking. We also provide estimates of the number of cell equivalents that need to be scored to detect a given increase in aberrations above the background level surveyed in this population.
Buist, A S; Ghezzo, H; Anthonisen, N R; Cherniack, R M; Ducic, S; Macklem, P T; Manfreda, J; Martin, R R; McCarthy, D; Ross, B B
This report describes a collaborative study conducted in Montreal, Canada, Portland, Ore., and Winnipeg, Canada, to establish the relationship between the single-breath N2 test and age, sex, and smoking and to determine the prevalence of functional abnormalities in these populations. In nonsmokers, age-related regressions for closing volume, closing capacity, and the slope of phase III obtained from the single-breath N2 test, plus the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to the forced vital capacity had very similar slopes, suggesting that differences in geographic location, climate, air pollution, and occupation had no effect on lung function detectable by these tests. Among the 6 city/six groups there was no systematic difference in the prevalence of functional abnormalities between the cities, but closing capacity expressed as a percentage of total lung capacity was abnormal most often in men and the slope of the alveolar plateau was abnormal most often in women. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms within different smoking categories was similar in the 3 cities. Although the number of cigarettes smoked had a significant effect on every test except the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity in men, the effect of age was considerably greater than the effect of smoking, and the dose-response relationship was weak. We conclude that additional factors may interact with smoking to place a smoker at risk of developing chronic airflow limitation. PMID:475152
Kwon, Jeoung A; Jeon, Wooman; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Lee, Minjee
Purpose This study was conducted to investigate the effect that detection of chronic disease via health screening programs has on health behaviors, particularly smoking. Materials and Methods We analyzed national health insurance data from 2007 and 2009. Subjects who were 40 years of age in 2007 and eligible for the life cycle-based national health screening program were included. The total study population comprised 153518 individuals who participated in the screening program in 2007 and follow-up screening in 2009. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted by sex, with adjustment for health insurance type, socioeconomic status, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and family history of cardiovascular and/or neurovascular disease. Results Among men with smoking behavior changes, those newly diagnosed with hyperlipidemia were more likely to show a positive health behavior change, such as smoking cessation, and were less likely to have a negative behavior change (e.g., smoking initiation). Additionally, men newly diagnosed with diabetes showed lower rates of negative health behavior changes compared to those without disease. Body mass index (BMI)≥25, compared to BMI<23, showed higher rates of positive health behavior changes and lower rates of negative health behavior changes. Newly diagnosed chronic disease did not influence smoking behavior in women. Conclusion Smoking behavior changes were only detected in men who participated in health screening programs. In particular, those newly diagnosed with hyperlipidemia were more likely to stop smoking and less likely to start smoking. PMID:26069141
Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R.
Background A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010. Methods Data was extracted from a previous longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly people that had been conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In 2005, 16,738 Japanese men aged 50–59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire in each year of the study. We analyzed data for individuals who reported being current smokers at baseline. Cox’s discrete time proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between smoking cessation and socioeconomic factors. Results Of the 6187 employed, male smokers who participated in 2005, 31% subsequently quit smoking during the 5-year follow-up period. Those working in manufacturing, transportation, or security were less likely to have quit smoking than those working in management. Having no marital partner, never having been married, or those experiencing psychological distress were significantly less likely to have quit smoking during this time. Conclusions Although almost one-third of middle-aged, male smokers quit their habit between 2005 and 2010; the uptake of this national strategy appears to have been far from uniform across Japanese society. Socioeconomic factors such as occupation, marital status and psychological distress were negatively correlated with quitting, suggesting that these groups should be more aggressively targeted in further interventions. PMID:27163286
Ghan, S. J.; Chapman, E. G.; Easter, R. C.; Reid, J. S.; Justice, C.
Back trajectories suggest that an elevated absorbing aerosol plume observed over Oklahoma in May 2003 can be traced to intense forest fires in Siberia two weeks earlier. The Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) product is used to estimate smoke emissions from those fires. The Model for Integrated Research on Atmospheric Model Exchanges (MIRAGE) is used to simulate the transport, aging, radiative properties, and removal of the aerosol. The simulated aerosol optical depth is compared with satellite retrievals, and the vertical structure of the plume is compared with in situ measurements. Sensitivity experiments are performed to determine the sensitivity of the simulated plume to uncertainty in the emissions vertical profile, mass flux, size distribution, and composition.
Sigler, E J; Randolph, J C; Calzada, J I; Charles, S
Objective To compare macular choroidal thickness between cigarette smokers, those with a history of smoking, and nonsmokers in patients over 65 years of age with early-atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and normals. Methods Prospective, consecutive, observational case series. Enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography 12-line radial scans were performed and choroidal thickness manually quantified at 84 points in the central 3 mm of the macula. Data of normals, soft drusen alone, and soft drusen with additional features of early AMD were compared. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) model, controlling for age, was constructed to evaluate the effect of smoking history and AMD features on choroidal thickness. Results A history of smoking was significantly associated with a thinner choroid across all patients via logistic regression (P=0.004; O.R.=12.4). Mean macular choroidal thickness was thinner for smokers (148±63 μm) than for nonsmokers (181±65 μm) among all diagnosis categories (P=0.003). Subgroup analysis of patients with AMD features revealed a similar decreased choroidal thickness in smokers (121±41 μm) compared with nonsmokers (146±46 μm, P=0.006). Bivariate analysis revealed an association between increased pack-years of smoking and a thin choroid across all patients (P<0.001) and among patients with features of early AMD (P<0.001). Both the presence of features of macular degeneration (P<0.001) and a history of smoking (P=0.024) were associated with decreased choroidal thickness in a MANOVA model. Conclusion Chronic cigarette smoke exposure may be associated with decreased choroidal thickness. There may be an anatomic sequelae to chronic tobacco smoke exposure that underlies previously reported AMD risk. PMID:24833184
Luquette, A. J.; And Others
Study results indicate that: (1) cigarette smoke allowed to accumulate in a poorly ventilated enclosure significantly increases heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure; (2) the smoking environment's effect upon the children is similar to the cigarette smoke's effect upon the smoker but on a reduced scale; and (3) the male and female…
Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...
Larsson, C; Eriksson, S; Dirksen, H
Lung function was evaluated in a representative population sample of 50-year-0ld men living in one Swedish city. Twenty-four smoking and 15 non-smoking men heterozygous for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency--that is, with the protease-inhibitor (Pi1 phenotype MZ--were carefully matched for weight and smoking habit with Pi M controls. The pulmonary function of non-smoking Pi MZ subjects did not differ from that of non-smoking Pi M controls. In contrast, smoking heterozygotes showed a significant loss of elastic recoil, enlarged residual volumes, and increased closing capacity but no signs of obstructive ventilatory impairment. Most smoking Pi MZ individuals reported mild exertional dyspnoea. PMID:303135
Tajnia, Armin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Råstam, Maria
Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) and body mass index (BMI). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children. Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1) to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high) BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2) to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3) to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12. Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496) were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between extremes in BMI and NDPs. Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high extreme BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high extremes of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high extreme BMI group and double as much in the low extreme BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high extreme BMIs. Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high extreme BMIs than children
Estimates schooling's effect on the odds that men and women smoke for five age cohorts, using 1989 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services data. Schooling reduces the odds that men (ages 25 to 54) and women (ages 25 to 44) smoke. Schooling does not affect whether men (ages 55 to 64) or women (ages 45 to 64) smoke. (MLH)
Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein
This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…
Trasti, N; Vik, T; Jacobsen, G; Bakketeig, L S
We used data from a Scandinavian prospective multicenter study to investigate if smoking in pregnancy may have an adverse effect on the child's mental and motor abilities. Eligible for enrolment were para I and 2 women with a singleton pregnancy, who resided in one of the study areas and could be registered before the 20th gestational week. Women were classified as 'smokers' or 'non-smokers' at study start. At 13 months, 376 children (124 children of smokers) were evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. At this age, children of smokers and non-smokers performed equally well. At 5 years, 369 children (132 children of smokers) were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence Revised (WPPSI-R), and 362 children with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS). Children of smokers had an increased risk of getting a WPPSI-R score below the median value of the population (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3), but the risk was reduced when we adjusted for maternal education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.9-3.7). Children of smokers had an increased risk of getting a test score below the median population value on the subscale 'balance' from PDMS (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.8). Thus, we found that smoking in pregnancy was associated with a small, but demonstrable adverse effect on the child's balance at 5 years, whereas the negative effect on cognitive function did not reach statistical significance, when we adjusted for the mother's level of education. PMID:10390089
Jensen, Annie; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Christensen, Jannie Marie; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Sigsgaard, Torben; Glasius, Marianne; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter
Exposure to particles from combustion of wood is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas there is limited knowledge about systemic effects. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in humans who lived in a reconstructed Viking Age house, with indoor combustion of wood for heating and cooking. The subjects were exposed to high indoor concentrations of PM2.5 (700-3,600 µg/m(3)), CO (10.7-15.3 ppm) and NO2 (140-154 µg/m(3)) during a 1-week stay. Nevertheless, there were unaltered levels of genotoxicity, determined as DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 sensitive sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. There were also unaltered expression levels of OGG1, HMOX1, CCL2, IL8, and TNF levels in leukocytes. In serum, there were unaltered levels of C-reactive protein, IL6, IL8, TNF, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins. The wood smoke exposure was associated with decreased serum levels of sICAM-1, and a tendency to decreased sVCAM-1 levels. There was a minor increase in the levels of circulating monocytes expressing CD31, whereas there were unaltered expression levels of CD11b, CD49d, and CD62L on monocytes after the stay in the house. In conclusion, even a high inhalation exposure to wood smoke was associated with limited systemic effects on markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammation, and monocyte activation. PMID:24889798
Börnhorst, Claudia; Siani, Alfonso; Russo, Paola; Kourides, Yannis; Sion, Isabelle; Molnár, Denés; Moreno, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Howe, Laura; Lissner, Lauren; Mehlig, Kirsten; Regber, Susann; Bammann, Karin; Foraita, Ronja
Background Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences. Methods The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden) participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008) and follow-up examination (2009/2010) supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences. Results Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries) with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG) was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers’ smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found. Conclusion Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed
Nikonovas, Tadas; North, Peter; Doerr, Stefan H.
Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. A new method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences insize distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland/natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. The implications of this work for improved modeling of aerosol radiative effects, which are relevant to both climate modelling and satellite
Nikonovas, T.; North, P. R. J.; Doerr, S. H.
Particulate emissions from wildfires impact human health and have a large but uncertain effect on climate. Modelling schemes depend on information about emission factors, emitted particle microphysical and optical properties and ageing effects, while satellite retrieval algorithms make use of characteristic aerosol models to improve retrieval. Ground based remote sensing provides detailed aerosol characterisation, but does not contain information on source. Here, a method is presented to estimate plume origin land cover type and age for AERONET aerosol observations, employing trajectory modelling using the HYSPLIT model, and satellite active fire and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS and AATSR. It is applied to AERONET stations located in or near Northern temperate and boreal forests, for the period 2002-2013. The results from 629 fire attributions indicate significant differences in size distributions and particle optical properties between different land cover types. Smallest fine mode median radius are attributed to plumes from cropland - natural vegetation mosaic (0.143 μm) and grasslands (0.147 μm) fires. Evergreen needleleaf forest emissions show a significantly smaller fine mode median radius (0.164 μm) than plumes from woody savannas (0.184 μm) and mixed forest (0.193 μm) fires. Smoke plumes are predominantly scattering for all of the classes with median single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA(440)) values close to 0.95 except the cropland emissions which have a SSA(440) value of 0.9. Overall fine mode volume median radius increase rate is 0.0095 μm per day for the first 4 days of ageing and 0.0084 μm per day for seven days of ageing. Changes in size were consistent with a decrease in Angstrom Exponent and increase in Asymmetry parameter. No significant changes in SSA(λ) with ageing were found. These estimates have implications for
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years) in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents. PMID:22016702
Chen, Zuying; Godfrey-Bailey, Linda; Schiff, Isaac; Hauser, Russ
Background To investigate the relationship of human semen parameters with season, age and smoking status. Methods The present study used data from subjects recruited into an ongoing cross-sectional study on the relationship between environmental agents and semen characteristics. Our population consisted of 306 patients who presented to the Vincent Memorial Andrology Laboratory of Massachusetts General Hospital for semen evaluation. Sperm concentration and motility were measured with computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored using Tygerberg Kruger strict criteria. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between semen parameters and season, age and smoking status, adjusting for abstinence interval. Results Sperm concentration in the spring was significantly higher than in winter, fall and summer (p < 0.05). There was suggestive evidence of higher sperm motility and percent of sperm with normal morphology in the spring than in the other seasons. There were no statistically significant relationships between semen parameters and smoking status, though current smokers tended to have lower sperm concentration. We also did not find a statistically significant relationship between age and semen parameters. Conclusions We found seasonal variations in sperm concentration and suggestive evidence of seasonal variation in sperm motility and percent sperm with normal morphology. Although smoking status was not a significant predictor of semen parameters, this may have been due to the small number of current smokers in the study. PMID:15507127
Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia
Between 400,000 and 800,000 infants are born in the United States each year to women who smoked cigarettes during their pregnancy. Whereas the physical health consequences to infants of prenatal exposure to smoking are well established, the early neurobehavioral consequences are less well understood. This study investigated the neurobehavioral…
Ye, Xiaohua; Li, LiXia; Gao, Yanhui; Zhou, Shudong; Yang, Yi; Chen, Sidong
A growing body of evidence indicates a strong association between smoking and depression. However, little is known about the possible effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure on depression. This study aimed to examine the potential dose-response relation between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms among non-smoking middle-aged women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a stratified three-stage sampling method. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale with a cut-off point of 16. Self-reported SHS exposure was defined as non-smokers׳ inhalation of the smoke exhaled from smokers on at least one day a week. The multivariable logistic regression analysis was completed with adjustment for potential confounders. Among 1280 middle-aged women, 19.4% were classified as having depressive symptoms. There was a 104% increased odds of depressive symptoms corresponding to SHS exposure in general (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.48-2.79) using no exposure as reference. There were significant positive relations between SHS exposure in general and depressive symptoms in a dose-response manner. These significant trends were observed consistently whether SHS exposure occurred in homes or workplaces. Our findings suggest that long-term and regular SHS exposure is associated with a significant, dose-dependent increase in risk of depressive symptoms. PMID:26231582
Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M.; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul
We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total), C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73); OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41); and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51), respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD. PMID:25822372
Oken, Emily; Huh, Susanna Y.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gillman, Matthew W.
Objective To examine the extent to which maternal prenatal smoking is associated with adiposity, central adiposity, and blood pressure in 3-year-old children. Research Methods and Procedures We studied 746 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study, and categorized mothers as never, early pregnancy, or former smokers. Main outcome measures were overweight (BMI for age and sex > 85th percentile), BMI z-score, sum of subscapular (SS) and triceps (TR) skinfolds, SS:TR skinfold ratio, and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Results One hundred sixty-one (22%) mothers quit smoking before pregnancy, 71 (10%) smoked in early pregnancy, and 514 (69%) never smoked. At age 3 years, 204 (27%) children were overweight. On multivariable analysis, compared with children of never smokers, children of early pregnancy smokers had an elevated risk for overweight [odds ratio (OR), 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2, 3.9] and higher BMI z-score (0.30 units; 95% CI, 0.05, 0.55), SS + TR (2.0 mm; 95% CI, 0.9, 3.0), and SBP (2.4 mm Hg; 95% CI, −0.1, 4.9). Children of former smokers were not more overweight (BMI z-score, 0.02 units; 95% CI, −0.15, 0.19) but had higher SBP (1.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, −0.1, 3.2). We saw no relationship of smoking with central adiposity (SS:TR). Discussion Former and early pregnancy smokers had children with somewhat higher SBP, but only early pregnancy smokers had children who were more overweight. Mechanisms linking smoking with child adiposity and blood pressure may differ. A long-term impact of maternal smoking on offspring cardiovascular risk provides further reason to reduce smoking in women. PMID:16339135
Flegr, Jaroslav; Geryk, Jan; Volný, Jindra; Klose, Jiří; Černochová, Dana
Background Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH3 or CO2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E), radicalism (Q1), self-sentiment integration (Q3), and ergic tension (Q4), and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD) was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year) was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in future studies. PMID
Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo
The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21–1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations. PMID:26907314
Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo
The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13-18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32) more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001). Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations. PMID:26907314
Brunner, Christiane; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika
The impact of fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), body mass index (BMI), body mass and body height on calcaneal bone characteristics as measured with quantitative ultrasound (QUS) was investigated in 137 women and 85 men aged 62-92 years, considering age, smoking, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and physical activity level (PAL). In regression analyses using various models, in women, age was a negative predictor of speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and stiffness index (SI) and smoking was a negative predictor of SOS; positive predictors of SOS, BUA, and SI were BMI, body mass and FFM. In men, smoking was a negative predictor and BMI, body mass and FFM were positive predictors of BUA and SI. In both sexes, PAL, body height, WHR and FM had no effect on QUS parameters. The influence of BMI on calcaneal bone characteristics in elderly people depends on FFM rather than on FM. PMID:22036641
Telch, M J; Miller, L M; Killen, J D; Cooke, S; Maccoby, N
This study tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoking adoption among adolescents could be suppressed by providing school-based videotape instruction for resisting social influences to smoke. The utilization of same-age peer leaders was also varied to test whether their participation in the classroom would enhance program effects. Seventh grade students (N = 540) from one junior high school in Southern California were randomly assigned by classrooms (N = 15) to: (a) videotape instruction, (b) videotape instruction plus peer leader involvement, or (c) survey-only. Seventh grade students (N = 234) in a second junior high school served as a measurement-only control. Assessments were conducted at the beginning and end of the academic year. Results revealed a marked suppression in the onset of both experimental and regular smoking among those students exposed to the pressure resistance training with peer leader involvement. Pressure resistance training without peer leader involvement produced a more variable and less powerful effect on students' smoking behavior. Data collected on students' use of alcohol and marijuana revealed a generalized suppression effect, albeit weaker than for tobacco, among those students exposed to the social resistance training with peer leader involvement. Results provide further encouraging support for the use of peer-led pressure resistance training in preventing adolescent drug use. PMID:2316409
Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Littlecott, Hannah J; Ahmed, Nilufar; Lewis, Sophia; Sulley, Gillian; Jones, Elen; Holliday, Jo
Objective Small increases in smoking restrictions in cars and homes were reported after legislation prohibiting smoking in public places. Few studies examine whether these changes continued in the longer term. This study examines changes in restrictions on smoking in cars and homes, and child exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in these locations, since 2008 postlegislation surveys in Wales. Setting State-maintained primary schools in Wales (n=75). Participants Children aged 10–11 years (year 6) completed CHETS (CHild exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke) Wales surveys in 2007 (n=1612) and 2008 (n=1605). A replication survey (CHETS Wales 2) was conducted in 2014, including 1601 children. Primary outcome variable Children's reports of whether smoking was allowed in their car or home and exposure to SHS in a car or home the previous day. Results The percentage of children who reported that smoking was allowed in their family vehicle fell from 18% to 9% in 2014 (OR=0.42; 95% CI 0.33 to 0.54). The percentage living in homes where smoking was allowed decreased from 37% to 26% (OR=0.30; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.43). Among children with a parent who smoked, one in five and one in two continued to report that smoking was allowed in their car and home. The percentage reporting SHS exposure in a car (OR=0.52; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) or home (OR=0.44; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.53) the previous day also fell. Children from poorer families remained less likely to report smoking restrictions. Conclusions Smoking in cars and homes has continued to decline. Substantial numbers of children continue to report that smoking is allowed in cars and homes, particularly children from poorer families. A growing number of countries have legislated, or plan to legislate, banning smoking in cars carrying children. Attention is needed to the impact of legislation on child health and health inequalities, and reducing smoking in homes. PMID:25636793
Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul
Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians' views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek-Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the "norm" by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants' social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers' family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking-both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006
Acid-base balance may influence skeletal health in humans. Animal and plant-based foods provide acid and alkaline precursors respectively, which contribute to net acid-base balance. Algorithms for estimating NEAP from dietary protein and potassium levels have been published, but it is unknown if age...
Peplonska, Beata; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech
Background Mounting epidemiological evidence suggests that night shift work may contribute to the etiology of increased body weight. The present study aimed to examine association between rotating night shift work and body mass index (BMI), and abdominal adiposity respectively among nurses and midwives. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 724 female nurses and midwives, aged 40-60 years (354 rotating night shift and 370 daytime workers) in Łódź, Poland, between 2008 and 2011. Information about occupational history and potential confounders was collected during personal interviews. Anthropometric measurements of body weight, height, waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumference were made, and body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. GLM regression models and multinomial logit regression models were fitted to explore the association between night shift work and anthropometric parameters, with adjustment for age, body silhouette at age 20, current smoking status, packyears, marital status, and menopausal hormone therapy use. Results Cumulative night shift work showed significant associations with BMI, WC, HC and WHtR, with BMI increasing by 0.477 kg/m2 per 1000 night duties and by 0.432 kg/m2 per 10000 night shift hours, WC increasing respectively by 1.089 cm and 0.99 cm, and HC by 0.72 cm and WHtR by 0.007 cm for both metrics. Both current and cumulative night work was associated with obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2), with OR=3.9 (95%CI:1.5-9.9), in women reporting eight or more night shifts per month. Conclusion The results of the study support the previously reported relations between night shift work and development of obesity. PMID:26196859
Shen, Ernest; Gilliland, Frank D.; Jerrett, Michael; Wolch, Jennifer; Chang, Chih-Chieh; Lurmann, Frederick; Berhane, Kiros
Background: Childhood body mass index (BMI) and obesity prevalence have been associated with exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), maternal smoking during pregnancy, and vehicular air pollution. There has been little previous study of joint BMI effects of air pollution and tobacco smoke exposure. Methods: Information on exposure to SHS and maternal smoking during pregnancy was collected on 3,318 participants at enrollment into the Southern California Children’s Health Study. At study entry at average age of 10 years, residential near-roadway pollution exposure (NRP) was estimated based on a line source dispersion model accounting for traffic volume, proximity, and meteorology. Lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke was assessed by parent questionnaire. Associations with subsequent BMI growth trajectory based on annual measurements and attained BMI at 18 years of age were assessed using a multilevel modeling strategy. Results: Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with estimated BMI growth over 8-year follow-up (0.72 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.14, 1.31) and attained BMI (1.14 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.62). SHS exposure before enrollment was positively associated with BMI growth (0.81 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.36, 1.27) and attained BMI (1.23 kg/m2 higher; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.61). Growth and attained BMI increased with more smokers in the home. Compared with children without a history of SHS and NRP below the median, attained BMI was 0.80 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 0.27, 1.32) with exposure to high NRP without SHS; 0.85 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 0.43, 1.28) with low NRP and a history of SHS; and 2.15 kg/m2 higher (95% CI: 1.52, 2.77) with high NRP and a history of SHS (interaction p-value 0.007). These results suggest a synergistic effect. Conclusions: Our findings strengthen emerging evidence that exposure to tobacco smoke and NRP contribute to development of childhood obesity and suggest that combined exposures may have synergistic effects. Citation: McConnell R, Shen E
Fantin, Romain; Delpierre, Cyrille; Dimeglio, Chloé; Lamy, Sebastien; Barboza Solís, Cristina; Charles, Marie-Aline; Kelly-Irving, Michelle
This study has two objectives. First, to analyse the respective roles of parental BMI and the wider environment on children's BMI across childhood, using a counterfactual analysis. Second, to determine if the correlations between parents and offspring BMI are partly environmental. We used data on 4437 girls and 4337 boys born in 2000-2001 in the UK and included in the Millennium Cohort Study. Children's BMI was measured at ages 3years, 5years, 7years, and 11years. We described the environment using social class and behaviours within the family. At the age of 3, there was no link between the environment and children's BMI. In contrast, there was a clear link between the environment and BMI slopes between 3 and 11years of age. At the age of 11, we calculated that if all children had the most favourable environment, mean BMI would be reduced by 0.91kg/m(2) (95% CI: 0.57-1.26) for boys and by 1.65kg/m(2) (95% CI: 1.28-2.02) for girls. Associations between parents' and offspring BMI remained unchanged after adjustment for environmental variables. Conversely, the link between the environment and children's BMI is partly reduced after adjustment for parental BMI. This confirms that parental BMI is partly a broad proxy of the environment. We highlighted that if every child's environment was at its most favourable, the mean BMI would be significantly reduced. Thus, the recent rise is likely to be reversible. PMID:27240452
Vedøy, Tord F
This study examined if temporal variations in daily cigarette smoking and never smoking among groups with different levels of education fit the pattern proposed by the theory of diffusion of innovations (TDI), while taking into account the separate effects of age, period and birth cohort (APC). Aggregated data from nationally representative interview surveys from Norway from 1976 to 2010 was used to calculate probabilities of smoking using an APC approach in which the period variable was normalized to pick up short term cyclical effects. Results showed that educational differences in smoking over time were more strongly determined by birth cohort membership than variations in smoking behavior across the life course. The probability of daily smoking decreased faster across cohorts among higher compared to lower educated. In contrast, the change in probability of never having smoked across cohorts was similar in the two education groups, but stronger among men compared to women. Moreover, educational differences in both daily and never smoking increased among early cohorts and leveled off among late cohorts. The results emphasizes the importance of birth cohort for social change and are consistent with TDI, which posits that smoking behavior diffuse through the social structure over time. PMID:25131273
Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul
Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians’ views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek–Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥ 50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the “norm” by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants’ social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers’ family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking—both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006
Must, A; Barish, EE; Bandini, LG
Considerable interest and resources are currently being directed to primary and secondary prevention of childhood obesity among school-aged children. Intervention studies in this age group have yielded mixed results, begging the question as to whether the correct targets for intervention have been identified. To evaluate the evidence base, we reviewed prospective observational studies published in English between 1990–2007 that reported weight or fatness changes in relation to diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption emerged as the most consistent dietary factor in association with subsequent increases in weight status or fatness. Other foods and eating patterns showed less consistent associations and when associations were present, magnitudes were generally small. This may reflect the known limitations of standard dietary methodology to assess meal patterns and dietary intake. Findings for physical activity showed more consistent inverse associations with fatness outcomes than for weight status, and as was found for dietary factors, magnitudes of association were modest. Sedentary behavior effects on weight status differ by gender in many studies, with many, but not all, showing greater positive associations among girls. The lack of consistency observed in the studies of sedentary behaviors may reflect the range of variable definitions, measurement challenges, and the changing nature of electronic media. The intrinsic interplay among eating patterns, activity and sedentary behavior adds further complexity to the interpretation of the results of these studies. More sophisticated approaches to the analysis of these complex data in future studies may maximize what is learned. Although the classic obesity risk factors seem to play a role in the development of excess weight and fatness, some more recently identified potential factors, such as sleep, warrant further investigation in prospective studies before they are ready
Vidal, Adriana C; Murtha, Amy P; Murphy, Susan K; Fortner, Kimberly; Overcash, Francine; Henry, Nikki; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Forman, Michele R; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Jirtle, Randy; Hoyo, Cathrine
At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation) were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile), those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile) were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient = 230, se = 58.0, P = 0.0001), after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2); the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.0004). Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity. PMID:23861689
McElroy, J A; Shafer, M M; Trentham-Dietz, A; Hampton, J M; Newcomb, P A
Cadmium is a toxic, bioaccumulated heavy metal with a half-life of one to four decades in humans (CDC, 2005). Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. In our population-based study, a risk-factor interview was conducted as part of a breast cancer study for 251 randomly selected women living in Wisconsin (USA), aged 20-69 yr, and spot-urine specimens were also obtained. Urine collection kits were carefully designed to minimize trace element contamination during specimen collection and handling in each participant's home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and creatinine levels and specific gravity were also determined. Statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status (never, former, and current respectively) were observed. A difference in mean cadmium levels for nonsmokers who reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure during childhood or the recent past (approximately 2 yr prior to the interview) for exposure at home, at work, or in social settings compared to those who reported no exposure was not found. PMID:17885936
Yousefi, Mitra; Karmaus, Wilfried; Mudd, Lanay M; Landgraf, Jeffrey R; Mikucki, Dorota; Haan, Pamela S; Zhang, Jessica; Osuch, Janet R
This study investigates associations between gene expressions of aromatase (CYP19), 17α hydroxylase (CYP17), and estrogen receptors α and β and anthropometric measurements in offspring of the Michigan fish eater cohort. Leg and trunk length, height, weight, and BMI and gene expression in peripheral blood cells were measured in offspring of the Michigan fish eater cohort. The parental generation was followed between 1973 and 1991, and maternal age, height, and weight data were collected. Female offspring were contacted in 2001/2002 and followed up in 2006/2007; offspring information included age, education, reproductive history, smoking, and exercise. Gene expression was standardized against 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (18SrRNA) and RNA polymerase II (RNA PolII) expressions. Mixed models assessed the statistical effect of gene expression on anthropometric outcomes, accounting for multiple offspring from one mother. Anthropometric measurements and gene expression were measured in 139 female offspring. The two length and the height measurements were correlated, as were BMI and weight. CYP19 expression was correlated with the other gene expressions and both estrogen receptor expressions were associated. For every 1 unit of ΔC(t) (18SrRNA - CYP19) or ΔC(t) (RNA PolII - CYP19), BMI was increased by 0.9 (P = 0.03) and 0.87 kg/m(2) (P = 0.04), respectively, and weight by 2.35 kg (P = 0.03) and 2.1 kg (P = 0.03), respectively. For every 1 unit of ΔC(t) (18SrRNA - CYP17), leg length was increased by 0.84 cm (P = 0.04). The results suggest that CYP17 gene expression may influence growth during childhood and adolescence while CYP19 may be associated with the concurrent measures of weight and BMI. PMID:20539301
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Babizhayev, Mark A; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Moskvina, Svetlana N; Yegorov, Yegor E
Globally, tobacco use is associated with 5 million deaths per annum and is regarded as one of the leading causes of premature death. Major chronic disorders associated with smoking include cardiovascular diseases, several types of cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (lung problems). Cigarette smoking (CS) generates a cumulative oxidative stress, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Mainstream and side stream gas-phase smoke each have about the same concentration of reactive free radical species, about 1 × 10(16) radicals per cigarette (or 5 × 10(14) per puff). This effect is critical in understanding the biologic effects of smoke. Several lines of evidence suggest that cigarette smoke constituents can directly activate vascular reactive oxygen species production. In this work we present multiple evidence that CS provide the important risk factors in many age-related diseases, and is associated with increased cumulative and systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. The cited processes are marked by increased white blood cell (leucocytes, WBCs) turnover. The data suggest an alteration of the circulating WBCs by CS, resulting in increased adherence to endothelial cells. Telomeres are complex DNA-protein structures located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length shortens with biologic age in all replicating somatic cells. It has been shown that tobacco smoking enhances telomere shortening in circulating human WBCs. Telomere attrition (expressed in WBCs) can serve as a biomarker of the cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation induced by smoking and, consequently, show the pace of biologic aging. We originally propose that patented specific oral formulations of nonhydrolized carnosine and carcinine provide a powerful tool for targeted therapeutic inhibition of cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation and protection of telomere attrition associated with smoking. The longitudinal studies of the clinical
Dharmage, Shyamali C; Perret, Jennifer L; Burgess, John A; Lodge, Caroline J; Johns, David P; Thomas, Paul S; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C
Background and objective Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB) in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age. Methods The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583). Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729), from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389) underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate relevant associations. Results The prevalence of CB in middle age was 6.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5, 6.8). Current asthma and/or wheezy breathing in middle age was independently associated with adult CB (odds ratio [OR]: 6.2 [95% CI: 4.6, 8.4]), and this estimate was significantly higher than for current smokers of at least 20 pack-years (OR: 3.0 [95% CI: 2.1, 4.3]). Current asthma and smoking in middle age were similarly associated with obstructive CB, in contrast to the association between allergy and nonobstructive CB. Childhood predictors included allergic history (OR: 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.7]), current asthma (OR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.3, 2.7]), “episodic” childhood asthma (OR: 2.3 [95% CI: 1.4, 3.9]), and parental bronchitis symptoms (OR: 2.5 [95% CI: 1.6, 4.1]). Conclusion The strong independent association between current asthma and CB in middle age suggests that this condition may be even more influential than personal smoking in a general population. The independent associations of childhood allergy and asthma, though not
Breitling, Lutz P.; Arndt, Volker; Drath, Christoph; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Brenner, Hermann
Background Smoking has recently been suggested to synergistically interact with alcohol intake as a determinant of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), an emergent powerful predictor of disease and mortality. This study investigated whether this also applies to higher smoking and alcohol exposure ranges and to body mass index (BMI), which likewise is strongly associated with γ-GT. Methodology/Principal Findings Analyses were based on occupational health examinations of more than 15,000 German male workers aged 16–64 years, predominantly from the construction industry. Sociodemographics and other health-related information were collected during the exam. Joint associations of smoking and alcohol consumption or BMI with elevated or log-transformed γ-GT were examined by tabulation and multiple adjusted regression models. Cigarette smoking exerted no effect on γ-GT in teetotalers, but there was a statistically significant effect of smoking among participants with higher alcohol consumption intensity, odds of elevated γ-GT being increased by 24% and 27% per additional 10 cigarettes smoked per day in subjects drinking 61–90 and >90 gram alcohol per day, respectively (P for interaction = 0.039). The interaction was opposite for BMI, where no association was seen in obese subjects, whereas odds of elevated γ-GT were increased by 24% per 10 cigarettes below 25 kg/m2 (P for interaction = 0.040). This novel interaction was replicable in an independent cohort. Conclusion The evidence for opposite interactions of smoking with alcohol and BMI as determinants of serum γ-GT suggests that different physiological pathways are responsible for the associations between these factors. PMID:20927196
... BMI), a measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to both adult men and women. ... calculate your BMI just by entering your current height and weight. Visit www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/bmicalc.htm to ...
Chaichalotornkul, Sirintip; Nararatwanchai, Thamthiwat; Narkpinit, Somphong; Dararat, Pornpen; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Tancharoen, Salunya
Secondhand cigarette smoke exposure (SSE) has been linked to carcinogenic, oxidative, and inflammatory reactions. Herein, we investigated whether premature skin aging could be induced by SSE in a rat model, and assessed the cytoplasmic translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and collagen loss in skin tissues. Animals were divided into two groups: SSE and controls. Whole body SSE was carried out for 12 weeks. Dorsal skin tissue specimens were harvested for HMGB1 and Mallory's azan staining. Correlations between serum HMGB1 and collagen levels were determined. Rat skin exposed to secondhand smoke lost collagen bundles in the papillary dermis and collagen decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with control rats. In epidermal keratinocytes, cytoplasmic HMGB1 staining was more diffuse and there were more HMGB1-positive cells after four weeks in SSE compared to control rats. A negative correlation between HMGB1 serum and collagen levels (r=-0.631, p=0.28) was also observed. Therefore, cytoplasmic HMGB1 expression in skin tissues might be associated with skin collagen loss upon the initiation of SSE. Additionally, long-term SSE might affect the appearance of the skin, or could accelerate the skin aging process. PMID:25446104
BMI (kg/m2) does not provide information about body fat percentile.Adolescents with BMI <85th percentile for age are considered lean and at low risk for metabolic complications. Adolescent girls with low BMI can have high body fat percentile. We hypothesized that these girls are already insulin resi...
Fu, Frank H.; And Others
This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)
Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina
Background Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet, prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Methods Participants were 271 children (mean age = 11.3 years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child’s classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. Results After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. Interpretation This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. PMID:23916943
Science News, 1978
Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)
Freeman, Ellen W.; Sammel, Mary D.; Queen, Kaila; Lin, Hui; Rebbeck, Timothy R.
Background: Although smoking has a known association with hot flashes, the factors distinguishing smokers at greatest risk for menopausal symptoms have not been well delineated. Recent evidence supports a relationship between menopausal symptoms and variants in several genes encoding enzymes that metabolize substrates such as sex steriods, xenobiotics, and catechols. It is currently not known whether the impact of smoking on hot flashes is modified by the presence of such variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between smoking and hot flash occurrence as a function of genetic variation in sex steroid-metabolizing enzymes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of data from the Penn Ovarian Aging study, an ongoing population-based cohort of late reproductive-aged women, was performed. Smoking behavior was characterized. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in five genes were investigated: COMT Val158Met (rs4680), CYP1A2*1F (rs762551), CYP1B1*4 (Asn452Ser, rs1800440), CYP1B1*3 (Leu432Val, rs1056836), and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574). Results: Compared with nonsmokers, European-American COMT Val158Met double-variant carriers who smoked had increased odds of hot flashes [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–28.78)]; European-American COMT Val158Met double-variant carriers who smoked heavily had more frequent moderate or severe hot flashes than nonsmokers (AOR 13.7, 95% CI 1.2–154.9). European-American CYP 1B1*3 double-variant carriers who smoked described more frequent moderate or severe hot flashes than nonsmoking (AOR 20.6, 95% CI 1.64–257.93) and never-smoking (AOR 20.59, 95% CI 1.39–304.68) carriers, respectively. African-American single-variant CYP 1A2 carriers who smoked were more likely to report hot flashes than the nonsmoking carriers (AOR 6.16, 95% CI 1.11–33.91). Conclusion: This is the first report demonstrating the effects of smoking within the strata of gene variants involved in sex
Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner
Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, p<0.001). The crude relationship between movie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098
Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Sichieri, Rosely
OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384
Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sichieri, Rosely
OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384
Ebert-McNeill, Andrea; Clark, Sara P; Miller, James J; Birdsall, Paige; Chandar, Manisha; Wu, Lucia; Cerny, Elizabeth A; Hall, Patricia H; Johnson, Maribeth H; Isales, Carlos; Chutkan, Norman; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H
Mean blood cadmium (B-Cd) concentrations are two- to threefold higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. The basis for this phenomenon is not well understood. We conducted a detailed, multifaceted study of cadmium exposure in smokers. Groups were older smokers (62±4 years, n = 25, 20% male) and nonsmokers (62±3 years, n = 16, 31% male). Each subject's cigarettes were machine smoked, generating individually paired measures of inhaled cadmium (I-Cd) versus B-Cd; I-Cd and B-Cd were each evaluated three times, at monthly intervals. Urine cadmium (U-Cd) was analyzed for comparison. In four smokers, a duplicate-diet study was conducted, along with a kinetic study of plasma cadmium versus B-Cd. Female smokers had a mean B-Cd of 1.21ng Cd/ml, with a nearly 10-fold range (0.29-2.74ng Cd/ml); nonsmokers had a lower mean B-Cd, 0.35ng Cd/ml (p < 0.05), and narrower range (0.20-0.61ng Cd/ml). Means and ranges for males were similar. Estimates of cadmium amounts inhaled daily for our subjects smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day were far less than the 15 µg Cd reported to be ingested daily via diet. This I-Cd amount was too low to alone explain the 3.5-fold elevation of B-Cd in our smokers, even assuming greater cadmium absorption via lungs than gastrointestinal tract; cadmium accumulated in smokers' lungs may provide the added cadmium. Finally, B-Cd appeared to be linearly related to I-Cd values in 75% of smokers, whereas 25% had far higher B-Cd, implying a possible heterogeneity among smokers regarding circulating cadmium concentrations and potentially cadmium toxicity. PMID:22831969
Evidence suggests that individuals who initiate smoking at younger ages are at increased risk for future tobacco dependence and continued use as well as for numerous smoking-attributable health problems. Identifying individual, household, and to a far lesser extent, contextual factors that predict early cigarette use has garnered considerable attention over the last several decades. However, the majority of scholarship in this area has been cross-sectional or conducted over relatively short windows of observation. Few studies have investigated the effects of more prolonged exposure to smoking-related risk factors, particularly neighborhood characteristics, from childhood through early adulthood. Using the 1970-2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics merged with census data on respondents' neighborhoods, this study estimates a series of race-specific discrete-time marginal structural logit models for the risk of smoking initiation as a function of neighborhood poverty, as well as individual and household characteristics, from ages four through 25. Neighborhood selection bias is addressed using inverse-probability-of-treatment weights. Results indicate that more prolonged exposure to high (>20%) as opposed to low (<10%) poverty neighborhoods is associated with an increased risk of smoking onset by age 25, although consistent with prior literature, this effect is only evident among white and not nonwhite youth and young adults. PMID:26685707
Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.
Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128
Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Joad, Jesse P.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Bonham, Ann C.
Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk for asthma, bronchiolitis and SIDS. The role for changes in the developing CNS contributing to these problems has not been fully explored. We used rhesus macaques to test the hypothesis that SHS exposure during development triggers neuroplastic changes in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), where lung sensory information related to changes in airway and lung function is first integrated. Pregnant monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA) or SHS for 6 h/day, 5 days/week starting at 50-day gestational age. Mother/infant pairs continued the exposures postnatally to age 3 or 13 months, which may be equivalent to approximately 1 or 4 years of human age, respectively. Whole-cell recordings were made of second-order NTS neurons in transverse brainstem slices. To target the consequences of SHS exposure based on neuronal subgroups, we classified NTS neurons into two phenotypes, rapid-onset spiking (RS) and delayed-onset spiking (DS), and then evaluated intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities in FA-exposed animals. RS neurons showed greater cell excitability especially at age of 3 months while DS neurons received greater amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Developmental neuroplasticity such as increases in intrinsic and synaptic excitabilities were detected especially in DS neurons. In 3 month olds, SHS exposure effects were limited to excitatory changes in RS neurons, specifically increases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and increased spiking responses accompanied by shortened action potential width. By 13 months, the continued SHS exposure inhibited DS neuronal activity; decreases in evoked EPSC amplitudes and blunted spiking responses accompanied by prolonged action potential width. The influence of SHS exposure on age-related and phenotype specific changes may be associated with age-specific respiratory problems, for which SHS exposure can increase the risk, such as SIDS
Rosenberger, Patricia H.; Ning, Yuming; Brandt, Cynthia; Allore, Heather; Haskell, Sally
Objective The study sought to determine BMI trajectories in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans over 6 years and to examine sociodemographic factors associated with BMI trajectory membership. Methods Our study sample included 16,656 veterans post-deployment and entering the Veteran Healthcare Administration (VHA) healthcare system. We used national VHA administrative sociodemo-graphic data, tracked veteran BMI for 6 years, and used trajectory modeling to identify BMI trajectories and sociodemographic characteristics associated with trajectory membership. Results Five trajectory groups determined in the full sample were primarily differentiated by their post-deployment initial BMI: “healthy” (14.1%), “overweight” (36.3%), “borderline obese” (27.9%), “obese” (15.7%), and “severely obese” (6.0). Being female, younger, and white were associated with lower initial BMI trajectory group membership (p’s<.05). Greater observed BMI increase was associated with higher initial BMI across groups (0.6, 0.8, 1.5, 1.9, 2.7). Gender specific trajectory models found that male Veterans with higher education and white female Veterans were associated with the lowest initial BMI group (p’s<.05). Conclusions Higher post-deployment BMI was associated with greater BMI gain over time for both male and female veterans. Older age is associated with higher BMI regardless of gender. Education level and racial status are differentially related to BMI trajectory by gender. PMID:21771610
Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka
The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II. PMID:26057102
Yang, Shanshan; He, Yao; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyan; Wu, Lei; Zeng, Jing; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Bin; Li, Xiaoying
This study sought to structure a genetic score for smoking behaviour in a Chinese population. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were evaluated in a community-representative sample (N = 3,553) of Beijing, China. The candidate SNPs were tested in four genetic models (dominance model, recessive model, heterogeneous codominant model and additive model), and 7 SNPs were selected to structure a genetic score. A total of 3,553 participants (1,477 males and 2,076 females) completed the survey. Using the unweighted score, we found that participants with a high genetic score had a 34% higher risk of trying smoking and a 43% higher risk of SI at ≤18 years of age after adjusting for age, gender, education, occupation, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and sports activity time. The unweighted genetic scores were chosen to best extrapolate and understand these results. Importantly, genetic score was significantly associated with smoking behaviour (smoking status and SI at ≤18 years of age). These results have the potential to guide relevant health education for individuals with high genetic scores and promote the process of smoking control to improve the health of the population. PMID:26948517
Morin, Nathalie M.; Dye, Bruce A.; Hooper, Tomoko I.
OBJECTIVE: Investigation into the relationship between lifestyle factors (particularly cigarette smoking) and perceived oral health has been limited. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), 1988-1994, were used to explore this relationship in a large sample of U.S. adults. METHODS: This study used data on 13,357 dentate participants in NHANES III aged 20-79 years. In NHANES III, information on perceived dental health, sociodemographic attributes, smoking status, frequency of dental visits, dental insurance, and general health perception were collected during a home interview, and oral health status was assessed at a mobile examination center. RESULTS: Overall, 34.4% of individuals in the study sample reported having an unfavorable perception of their dental health by qualifying it as "fair" or "poor." Furthermore, 46.6% of smokers had an unfavorable dental health perception, compared to 28.3% of non-smokers. An interaction between smoking and race/ethnicity was found in logistic regression modeling. Stratified results show that cigarette smoking was not a significant predictor for an unfavorable dental health perception among individuals who self-identified as Mexican American, but smoking was a significant predictor for an unfavorable dental health perception among those who identified as non-Hispanic black or non-Hispanic white. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe the effects of smoking on dental health perception while controlling for examined oral health status. Because perceived dental health is a potential indicator for dental care utilization, a better knowledge of the factors that influence dental health perception is not only important for dental services planning, but also for understanding oral health-related quality of life issues. Additionally, given that smoking may negatively affect dental health perception, these findings have potential implications for smoking cessation activities conducted by
Gutzwiller, F; Bucher, H
Stop-smoking counselling is a challenging task in primary health care, its efficacy being often underestimated by the physician. Health care physicians are not very inclined to advise their smoking patients to stop smoking and give specific counselling. This is in contradiction with the expectations of more than two thirds of the smoking patients, who expect their physicians to help them. The present article discusses the therapeutical methods for stop-smoking counselling in primary health care. In particular, the article illustrates the importance for this support (including the possibilities for nicotin substitution in the weaning stage). PMID:7839325
Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.
The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…
Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li
Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604
Mai, Xiaodan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen M.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Chen, Chaoru; Tezal, Mine; Genco, Robert J.
Background Smoking is associated with tooth loss. However, smoking's relationship to the specific reason for tooth loss in postmenopausal women is unknown. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,106) who joined a Women's Health Initiative ancillary study (The Buffalo OsteoPerio Study) underwent oral examinations for assessment of the number of missing teeth, as well as the self-reported reasons for tooth loss. The authors obtained information about smoking status via a self-administered questionnaire. The authors calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs) by means of logistic regression to assess smoking's association with overall tooth loss, as well as with tooth loss due to periodontal disease (PD) and with tooth loss due to caries. Results After adjusting for age, education, income, body mass index (BMI), history of diabetes diagnosis, calcium supplement use and dental visit frequency, the authors found that heavy smokers (≥ 26 pack-years) were significantly more likely to report having experienced tooth loss compared with never smokers (OR = 1.82; 95 percent CI, 1.10-3.00). Smoking status, packs smoked per day, years of smoking, pack-years and years since quitting smoking were significantly associated with tooth loss due to PD. For pack-years, the association for heavy smokers compared with that for never smokers was OR = 6.83 (95 percent CI, 3.40-13.72). The study results showed no significant associations between smoking and tooth loss due to caries. Conclusions and Practical Implications Smoking may be a major factor in tooth loss due to PD. However, smoking appears to be a less important factor in tooth loss due to caries. Further study is needed to explore the etiologies by which smoking is associated with different types of tooth loss. Dentists should counsel their patients about the impact of smoking on oral health, including the risk of tooth loss due to PD. PMID:23449901
Cubison, M. J.; Ortega, A. M.; Hayes, P. L.; Farmer, D. K.; Day, D.; Lechner, M. J.; Brune, W. H.; Apel, E.; Diskin, G. S.; Fisher, J. A.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Hecobian, A.; Knapp, D. J.; Mikoviny, T.; Riemer, D.; Sachse, G. W.; Sessions, W.; Weber, R. J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Jimenez, J. L.
Biomass burning (BB) is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA). This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60, the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a marker to study the rate of oxidation and fate of the BB POA. A background level of f60~0.3% ± 0.06% for SOA-dominated ambient OA is shown to be an appropriate background level for this tracer. Using also f44 as a tracer for SOA and aged POA and a surrogate of organic O:C, a novel graphical method is presented to characterise the aging of BB plumes. Similar trends of decreasing f60 and increasing f44 with aging are observed in most field and lab studies. At least some very aged BB plumes retain a clear f60 signature. A statistically significant difference in f60 between highly-oxygenated OA of BB and non-BB origin is observed using this tracer, consistent with a substantial contribution of BBOA to the springtime Arctic aerosol burden in 2008. Secondly, a summary is presented of results on the net enhancement of OA with aging of BB plumes, which shows large variability. The estimates of net OA gain range from ΔOA/ΔCO(mass) = -0.01 to ~0.05, with a mean ΔOA/POA ~19%. With these ratios and global inventories of BB CO and POA a global net OA source due to aging of BB plumes of ~8 ± 7 Tg OA yr-1 is estimated, of the order of 5 % of recent total OA source estimates. Further field data following BB plume advection should be a focus of future research in order to better constrain this potentially important contribution to the OA burden.
Cubison, M. J.; Ortega, A. M.; Hayes, P. L.; Farmer, D. K.; Day, D.; Lechner, M. J.; Brune, W. H.; Apel, E.; Diskin, G. S.; Fisher, J. A.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Hecobian, A.; Knapp, D. J.; Mikoviny, T.; Riemer, D.; Sachse, G. W.; Sessions, W.; Weber, R. J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Jimenez, J. L.
Biomass burning (BB) is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA). This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60, the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a marker to study the rate of oxidation and fate of the BB POA. A background level of f60~0.3% ±0.06% for SOA-dominated ambient OA is shown to be an appropriate background level for this tracer. Using also f44 as a tracer for SOA and aged POA, a novel graphical method is presented to characterise the aging of BB plumes. Similar trends of decreasing f60 and increasing f44 with aging are observed in most field and lab studies. At least some very aged BB plumes retain a clear f60 signature. A statistically significant difference in f60 between highly-oxygenated OA of BB and non-BB origin is observed using this tracer, consistent with a substantial contribution of BBOA to the springtime Arctic aerosol burden in 2008. Secondly, a summary is presented of results on the net enhancement of OA with aging of BB plumes, which shows large variability. The estimates of net OA gain range from ΔOA/ΔCO(mass) =-0.01 to ~0.07, with a mean ΔOA/POA ~25%. With these ratios and global inventories of BB CO and POA a global net OA source due to aging of BB plumes of ~9 Tg OA yr-1 is estimated, of the order of 5% of recent total OA source estimates. Further field data following BB plume advection should be a focus of future research in order to better constrain this potentially important contribution to the OA burden.
Protano, Carmela; Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Canepari, Silvia; Vitali, Matteo
The aims of the present study was to investigate the role of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure in domestic environment, the smoking policies adopted at home on urinary excretion of 23 trace elements present in tobacco and/or tobacco smoke (Li, Be, B, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Tl, Pb, Bi, U) among a sample of healthy Italian school-aged children. The levels of monitored trace elements in urine samples from 110 children (5-11years) living in a rural area and recruited in a cross-sectional study were measured via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while information regarding demographic characteristics and ETS exposure of the participants were obtained from questionnaires. Univariate elaborations evidenced that Co and Mn levels increased in children exposed to ETS in domestic environment, but multiple linear regression analyses revealed the independent effect of the habit of cohabitant(s) smoker(s) of smoking at home when children is present on urinary concentrations of Li, Ti, V, Co, Ga and Sr. Besides, we found significant gender- and age-dependency of some monitored elements: females presented higher Cu and Pb levels, but lower Rb levels respect to males, while age displayed a significant negative independent effect on the Cr, Co, Rb, and Sn concentrations, but positive on Ga levels. Finally, u-creatinine was a significant predictor for almost all the analytes, but not for Mn, Cd, Sb, Ga. PMID:27016686
Bhattacharyya, Sayantan; Mandal, Syamsundar; Banerjee, Samir; Mandal, Gautam Kumar; Bhowmick, Anup Kumar; Murmu, Nabendu
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream elements are overexpressed in most cases of the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This study investigated the expression pattern of key proteins linked to the EGFR pathway in laryngeal carcinoma patients with a history of cannabis smoking. We selected 83 male glottic cancer patients, aged between 45 to 75 years with three distinct populations-nonsmoker, cigarette smoker, and cannabis smoker. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for EGFR, protein kinase B (PKB or Akt), nuclear factor kappa B p50 (NF-КB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) followed by boolean scoring for statistical analysis. Experimental data showed upregulation of the selected EGFR cascade in tumor cells, stromal expression of EGFR, and nuclear localization of COX-2 in metaplastic gland cells of laryngeal cancer tissue sample. Statistical analyses indicated that overexpression of the EGFR cascade is significantly correlated to cannabis smoking. Cannabis smokers had higher expression (p < 0.01) of these onco-proteins with respect to both nonsmokers as well as cigarette smokers. Risk factor analysis showed high risk of these proteins expression in age <60 years (odds ratio (OR) > 1.5) as the lower age group had relatively higher number of cannabis smokers. This study provides evidence for a direct association between cannabis smoking and increased risk of laryngeal cancer. Higher expression of the EGFR cascade in cannabis smokers revealed that cannabis smoking may be a major cause for the early onset of aggressive laryngeal cancer. PMID:25736926
Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar
The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. PMID:23479305
Zeng, Jing; Yang, Shanshan; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyan; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Bin; He, Yao
Objectives To estimate the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of passive smoking in China and a series of subgroup, trend and sensitivity analyses were conducted in this study. Data source The systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 46 studies with 381 580 non-smokers, estimated the prevalence and distribution of passive smoking in China. All studies were published between 1997 and 2015. Results The pooled prevalence of passive smoking was 48.7% (95% CI 44.8% to 52.5%) and was relatively stable from 1995 to 2013. The prevalence in the subgroups of gender, area, age and time varied from 35.1% (95% CI 31.8% to 38.3%) in the elderly (≥60 years) to 48.6% (95% CI 42.9% to 54.2%) in urban areas. The prevalence was lower in the elderly (≥60 years) than in those between 15 and 59 years of age (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.81). The difference between females and males in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (OR: 1.27, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.74 and OR: 1.14, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.58, respectively). In addition, a significantly increasing trend was found among males from 2002 to 2010. Heterogeneity was high in all pooled estimates (I2>98%, p<0.001). Conclusions The high and stable prevalence of passive smoking in China is raising increasing national concern regarding specific research and tobacco control programmes. Attention should be focused on young, middle-aged and male non-smokers regardless of region. PMID:27059465
Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Bray, George A.; Greenway, Frank L.; Johnson, William D.; Newton, Robert L.; Ravussin, Eric; Ryan, Donna H.; Bouchard, Claude
BMI and waist circumference (WC) are used to identify individuals with elevated obesity-related health risks. The current thresholds were derived largely in populations of European origin. This study determined optimal BMI and WC thresholds for the identification of cardiometabolic risk among white and African-American (AA) adults. The sample included 2,096 white women, 1,789 AA women, 1,948 white men, and 643 AA men aged 18–64 years. Elevated cardiometabolic risk was defined as ≥2 risk factors (blood pressure ≥130/85 mm Hg; glucose ≥100 mg/dl; triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl; high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol <40 mg/dl (men) or <50 mg/dl (women)). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify optimal BMI and WC thresholds in each sex-by-ethnicity group. The optimal BMI thresholds were 30 kg/m2 in white women, 32.9 kg/m2 in AA women, 29.1 kg/m2 white men, and 30.4 kg/ m2 in AA men, whereas optimal WC thresholds were 91.9 cm in white women, 96.8 cm in AA women, 99.4 in white men, and 99.1 cm in AA men. The sensitivities at the optimal thresholds ranged from 63.5 to 68.5% for BMI and 68.4 to 71.0% for WC and the specificities ranged from 64.2 to 68.8% for BMI and from 68.5 to 71.0% for WC, respectively. In general, the optimal BMI and WC thresholds approximated currently used thresholds in men and in white women. There are no apparent ethnic differences in men; however, in AA women the optimal BMI and WC values are ~3 kg/m2 and 5 cm higher than in white women. PMID:21212770
Trigg, C J; Bennett, J B; Tooley, M; Sibbald, B; D'Souza, M F; Davies, R J
The prevalence and associations of bronchial hyperresponsiveness were investigated in a general practice population. The sample was obtained by using every 12th patient on the practice age-sex register, replacing non-responders with corresponding age and sex matched individuals from up to two further 1 in 12 samples. The response rate was 43%; 366 patients were studied. Doubling concentrations of methacholine were given to a maximum of 32 mg/ml or until a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) occurred (provocation concentration, PC20FEV1). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was defined arbitrarily as a PC20FEV1 of 2 mg/ml or less (or 11 mumol cumulative dose, PD20FEV1). The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was 23%. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was not associated with age but was more prevalent in women than men (31%:13%). It was also more common in those who had ever wheezed (39%) and in those who had had an attack of rhinitis in the preceding month (45%, p less than 0.1), in atopic individuals (30%), and in smokers (32%), but it was not associated with cough or dyspnoea. There was a positive correlation between PC20FEV1 and resting FEV1 (r = 0.288) and a negative correlation between PC20FEV1 and mean daily peak flow variability (r = -0.356). Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis showed significant independent effects on PC20FEV1 for mean daily peak flow variability, gender, number of positive skin test responses, resting FEV1, and mean histamine skin weal area, but no relation with smoking or mean allergen weal area. The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was much higher than the prevalence of diagnosed asthma in the practice in 1984 (4.9%). Analysis of case notes of 169 individuals showed that those with bronchial hyperresponsiveness had not attended the practice more frequently for respiratory complaints during the previous five years. Images PMID:2256016
In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.
Background Serum selenium level (s-Se) has been associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) risk. We investigated the relation between s-Se, smoking and non-screening detected PrCa and explored if polymorphisms in two DNA repair genes: OGG1 and MnSOD, influenced any effect of s-Se. Methods ULSAM, a population based Swedish male cohort (n = 2322) investigated at age 50 for s-Se and s-Se influencing factors: serum cholesterol, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and smoking habits. At age 71 a subcohort, (n = 1005) was genotyped for OGG1 and MnSOD polymorphisms. Results In a 34-year-follow-up, national registries identified 208 PrCa cases further confirmed in medical records. Participants with s-Se in the upper tertile had a non-significantly lower risk of PrCa. Smokers with s-Se in the two lower tertiles (≤80 μg/L) experienced a higher cumulative incidence of PrCa than smokers in the high selenium tertile (Hazard Ratio 2.39; 95% CI: 1.09-5.25). A high tertile selenium level in combination with non-wt rs125701 of the OGG1 gene in combination with smoking status or rs4880 related variation of MnSOD gene appeared to protect from PrCa. Conclusions S-Se levels and smoking habits influence long-term risk of PrCa. Smoking as a risk factor for PrCa in men with low s-Se is relevant to explore further. Exploratory analyses of variations in OGG1 and MnSOD genes indicate that hypotheses about patterns of exposure to selenium and smoking combined with data on genetic variation in genes involved in DNA repair can be valuable to pursue. PMID:21982398
Introduction Cigarette smoking may exacerbate and cause psoriasis. Moreover, smokers are more likely to develop insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). Aim To assess the prevalence of MS and its components in patients with psoriasis, who smoke, compared with the general Polish population of smokers. Material and methods We studied 29 patients with psoriasis (female = 9, male = 20), smokers, aged 30 to 49 years. Metabolic syndrome and its components were assessed using the IDF definition and compared to the results obtained in a representative sample of adult Poles in the NATPOL 2011 study in the same age group, including smokers. Results The results have shown that patients with psoriasis are more likely to be smokers (p < 0.0034) and the frequency of smoking in men is approximately 25% higher than in males of the control group (p < 0.0017). The prevalence of MS in patients with psoriasis who smoke was 27.58% and in the control group 25.2% (p > 0.05). Mean body mass index was 26.07 kg/m2 in psoriasis patients and 25.59 kg/m2 in the control group (p > 0.05), and abdominal obesity was 88.82 cm and 90.02 cm (p > 0.05), respectively. There were no differences in hypertension (34.48% vs. 31.6%, p < 0.05) and mean HOMA-IR (1.80 vs. 1.77, p > 0.05). In lipid parameters, the differences were observed only in women with psoriasis – higher levels of HDL, triglycerides and ApoB/ApoA1 index compared with addicted women in the control group. Conclusions Men with psoriasis are more often addicted to smoking. Women with psoriasis who smoke have often disturbances of the lipid profile. PMID:26759540
After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001. PMID:20687040
Current cut points for overweight were derived statistically from BMI distribution. The study aimed at determining age-, gender-, and ethnic-specific BMI cut points based on excess body fat in US children and adolescents aged 8-17 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examinat...
Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Afek, Arnon; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Ayalon, Nir; Gordon, Barak; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Shamis, Ari; Vinker, Shlomo; Rudich, Assaf
BACKGROUND The association of body-mass index (BMI) from adolescence to adulthood with obesity-related diseases in young adults has not been completely delineated. METHODS We conducted a prospective study in which we followed 37,674 apparently healthy young men for incident angiography-proven coronary heart disease and diabetes through the Staff Periodic Examination Center of the Israeli Army Medical Corps. The height and weight of participants were measured at regular intervals, with the first measurements taken when they were 17 years of age. RESULTS During approximately 650,000 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up, 17.4 years), we documented 1173 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and 327 of coronary heart disease. In multivariate models adjusted for age, family history, blood pressure, lifestyle factors, and biomarkers in blood, elevated adolescent BMI (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters; mean range for the first through last deciles, 17.3 to 27.6) was a significant predictor of both diabetes (hazard ratio for the highest vs. the lowest decile, 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 3.58) and angiography-proven coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.77 to 10.62). Further adjustment for BMI at adulthood completely ablated the association of adolescent BMI with diabetes (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.37) but not the association with coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 6.85; 95% CI, 3.30 to 14.21). After adjustment of the BMI values as continuous variables in multivariate models, only elevated BMI in adulthood was significantly associated with diabetes (β = 1.115, P = 0.003; P = 0.89 for interaction). In contrast, elevated BMI in both adolescence (β = 1.355, P = 0.004) and adulthood (β = 1.207, P = 0.03) were independently associated with angiography-proven coronary heart disease (P = 0.048 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS An elevated BMI in adolescence — one that is well within the range
Sumit, Ahmed Faisal; Das, Anindya; Sharmin, Zinat; Ahsan, Nazmul; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi; Akhand, Anwarul Azim
Lifestyle including smoking, noise exposure with MP3 player and drinking alcohol are considered as risk factors for affecting hearing synergistically. However, little is known about the association of cigarette smoking with hearing impairment among subjects who carry a lifestyle without using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. We showed here the influence of smoking on hearing among Bangladeshi subjects who maintain a lifestyle devoid of using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. A total of 184 subjects (smokers: 90; non-smokers: 94) were included considering their duration and frequency of smoking for conducting this study. The mean hearing thresholds of non-smoker subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 5.63 ± 2.10, 8.56±5.75, 21.06 ± 11.06, 40.79 ± 20.36 decibel (dB), respectively and that of the smokers were 7 ± 3.8, 13.27 ± 8.4, 30.66 ± 12.50 and 56.88 ± 21.58 dB, respectively. The hearing thresholds of the smokers at 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the non-smokers, while no significant differences were observed at 1 kHz frequency. We also observed no significant difference in auditory thresholds among smoker subgroups based on smoking frequency. In contrast, subjects smoked for longer duration (>5 years) showed higher level of auditory threshold (62.16 ± 19.87 dB) at 12 kHz frequency compared with that (41.52 ± 19.21 dB) of the subjects smoked for 1-5 years and the difference in auditory thresholds was statistically significant (p<0.0002). In this study, the Brinkman Index (BI) of smokers was from 6 to 440 and the adjusted odds ratio showed a positive correlation between hearing loss and smoking when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). In addition, age, but not BMI, also played positive role on hearing impairment at all frequencies. Thus, these findings suggested that cigarette smoking affects hearing level at all the frequencies tested but most significantly at extra higher frequencies. PMID
Ahn, SangNam; Mzayek, Fawaz; Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Asfar, Taghrid; Fouad, Fouad; Maziak, Wasim
Introduction: Cigarette smoking has well known effects on body weight, with current smokers weighing less than never-smokers, and cessation producing weight gain. Use of waterpipe (or “hookah”) is increasing in many parts of the world but its effects on body weight are not known. Methods: We compared body mass index (BMI) among 2,536 adults (age ≥18 years old), who were never, former, current nondaily, or current daily waterpipe smokers, drawn from 2 representative, population-based household surveys of adults in Aleppo, Syria. Results: Overall, 84.1% (n = 2,134) never-smoked waterpipe, 4.6% (n = 116) were former smokers, 9.9% (n = 251) were current nondaily smokers, and 1.4% (n = 35) were current daily smokers. Mean BMI of the sample was 30.2kg/m2 (SD = 6.3). Adjusted for cigarette smoking, number of chronic diseases, age, gender, income, and marital status, daily waterpipe users were 2.26 BMI units greater than never-smokers (beta = 2.26, 95% CI = 0.79–3.72), and had nearly threefold odds of being obese (odds ratio = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.06–7.76). Nondaily and former waterpipe users were similar to never-smokers in terms of BMI and obesity risk. Conclusion: Results indicate that daily waterpipe users, compared to never-users, have higher BMI, translating into 6 extra kilograms of weight on average, and are 3 times as likely to be obese. PMID:25096252
OBJECTIVES: The association between smoking and obesity is a significant public health concern. Both are preventable risk factors of cardiovascular disease and a range of other conditions. However, despite numerous previous studies, no consensus has emerged regarding the effect of smoking on obesity. We therefore carried out a novel study evaluating the relationship between smoking and obesity. METHODS: A total of 5,254 subjects aged 19 years or older drawn from the 2010-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this cross-sectional study. Smoking was examined both in terms of smoking status and the quantity of cigarettes smoked by current smokers. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and obesity. Overall obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2, and central obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for males and ≥85 cm for females. We adjusted for the possible confounding effects of age, sex, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and the presence of hypertension or diabetes. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference in central obesity according to smoking status was identified. Current smokers were more likely to be centrally obese than never-smokers (adjusted odds ratio,1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.67). However, no significant association was found between smoking and obesity defined by BMI. Moreover, among current smokers, no statistically significant association was found between the daily amount of smoking and obesity or central obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was positively associated with central obesity. Current smokers should be acquainted that they may be more prone to central obesity. PMID:27221478
Som, Suparna; Ulijaszek, Stanley; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Susmita; Bharati, Premananda
It is well known that height and weight are interrelated, and that both are related to socioeconomic variables. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of socioeconomic variables on the heights and weights of different groups of people, formed according to different levels of heights and weights, and to see whether there are sex differences in the variations in heights and weights. Data for adults aged 15-49 years were taken from the India National Family Health Survey-3 and descriptive studies and multiple linear regression analyses carried out. A clear positive association was found for height and BMI with economic level (except for overweight females in the case of BMI). In the case of BMI, it is age that seems to be the most influential factor. Surprisingly, the observed changes in height and BMI are not as expected for short and tall or underweight and overweight people; these sometimes behave in the opposite directions to that of normal height and weight people. The basic assumption of multivariate normality is not valid due to changing relations at different height and BMI levels. PMID:23534499
Jain, Ram B
Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2005-2012 were used to study the trends and variability in the levels of urinary thiocyanate (u-SCN), perchlorate (u-P8), and nitrate (u-NO3) by gender, race/ethnicity, active smoking, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home for those aged 12-19 and ≥20years old. For those aged ≥20years, adjusted levels of u-SCN, u-P8, and u-NO3 (i) were lower for males than females (p<0.01), and (ii) were higher for non-Hispanic white (NHW) than non-Hispanic black (NHB) (p<0.01). Also, for those aged ≥20years NHB had higher adjusted levels than Mexican American (MA) for u-SCN (p<0.01) but NHB had lower adjusted levels than MA for u-P8 (p<0.01) and u-NO3 (p<0.01). For those aged 12-19years, adjusted levels of u-SCN, u-P8, and u-NO3 did not vary by gender (p>0.05), and adjusted levels of u-P8 and u-NO3 for NHB were lower than for NHW (p<0.01) as well as higher for NHB than MA for u-SCN (p<0.01) and lower for NHB than MA (p<0.01) for u-P8 and u-NO3. Among those aged ≥20years, active smoking was associated with higher adjusted levels of u-SCN (p<0.01) in a dose-response manner and active smoking was associated with lower adjusted levels of u-P8 (p<0.01) in a dose-response manner. Exposure to ETS was associated with higher adjusted levels of u-SCN (p=0.02) and lower adjusted levels of u-P8 (p<0.01) among ≥20years old. Adjusted levels of u-P8 decreased over 2005-2012 among both 12-19 (p<0.01) and ≥20years old (p=0.04). There was borderline increase in the adjusted levels of u-NO3 for those aged ≥20years (p=0.05) over 2005-2012. PMID:26994809
Akagi, S. K.; Craven, J. S.; Taylor, J. W.; McMeeking, G. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Alvarado, M. J.; Seinfeld, J.; Coe, H.; Urbanski, S. P.
On November 17th 2009 we used a Twin Otter aircraft outfitted with an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR), aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), single particle soot photometer (SP2), nephelometer, Licor CO2 analyzer, and a chemiluminescence ozone instrument to measure the initial emissions from a 100 hectare prescribed fire in chaparral fuels on the central coast of California, U.S.A. We also measured the post emission chemical changes in the isolated downwind plume for a distance corresponding to about 4.5 hours of smoke aging. The light scattering to CO2 ratio increased by a factor of ~2.7 over 4 hours: similar to observations in a biomass burning plume in Mexico where significant secondary formation of organic aerosol (OA) was confirmed by AMS. However, in the California plume, a decrease in OA was observed by AMS along with a concurrent increase in the fraction of thickly coated particles as measured by the SP2. Decreasing OA accompanied by increased scattering/coating may be explained by a combination of coagulation and evaporation processes. The latter may have been promoted in the California plume because it diluted in a “clean,” low relative humidity (11-26%) environment compared to the Mexican plume. AFTIR measured significant changes in gas phase constituents. The molar ratio of O3 to CO increased from approximately zero to 0.102 in 4.5 hours. Large growth factors for organic acids were also observed over the same aging period: acetic acid and formic acid increased by factors of 1.68 and 7.13, respectively. Inorganic species measured by the AMS also increased with plume aging. While the mass ratio of NH4+ to CO2 increased by ~2.3 x 10-4 in about 4 hours, the NH3/CO2 decreased by ~4.1 x 10-4, with ammonium accounting for ~55% of the gaseous ammonia lost (by mass). Conversion of NOx to PAN was observed coincident with formation of particle nitrate. A rapid decay in C2H4 was consistent with an in-plume average OH of ~5.40 x 106 molecules
Papathanasiou, George; Zerva, Efthimia; Zacharis, Ioannis; Papandreou, Maria; Papageorgiou, Effie; Tzima, Christina; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Evangelou, Angelos
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resting blood pressure (BP), smoking, physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in Greek young adults. Materials and Methodology: A standardised questionnaire and the Greek version of IPAQ-short were given to 1500 randomly selected health science students, in order to record smoking behaviour, PA status, BMI and resting BP. All healthy young adults aged 19-30 years old were eligible. The final size of the study cohort was 1249 students (522 men). Results: Males’ BP was 129.2/77.0 mmHg, significantly higher than the females’ values of 119.9/73.4 mmHg. Approximately 17% of the total population were classified as overweight and 3% as obese. In the overall population, smoking prevalence was 35.2%, with 15.3% being heavy smokers (≥21 cigs/d). Smoking prevalence did not differ significantly between sexes. The prevalence of health-enhancing PA (high PAclass) was only 14.0%, while 42.8% of the study population were classified as insufficiently active (low PAclass). Of the three lifestyle risk factors examined, only BMI was significantly and directly associated with systolic and diastolic BP levels. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was significantly higher in men compared to women, and in obese and overweight participants compared to normal-weight subjects. Smoking and categorical PA (PAclass) were not correlated with BP. Continuous vigorous PAscore was significantly and directly associated with systolic BP, but only in males. Conclusion: BMI was significantly and directly associated with resting BP in both sexes. Smoking prevalence and PA status were not associated with BP in this sample of Greek young adults. PMID:25834651
Grucza, Richard A.; Johnson, Eric O.; Krueger, Robert F.; Breslau, Naomi; Saccone, Nancy L.; Chen, Li-Shiun; Derringer, Jaime; Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Micheal; Bierut, Laura J.
Nicotine dependence is moderately heritable, but identified genetic associations explain only modest portions of this heritability. We analyzed 3,369 SNPs from 349 candidate genes, and investigated whether incorporation of SNP-by-environment interaction into association analyses might bolster gene discovery efforts and prediction of nicotine dependence. Specifically, we incorporated the interaction between allele count and age-at-onset of regular smoking (AOS) into association analyses of nicotine dependence. Subjects were from the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence, and included 797 cases ascertained for Fagerström nicotine dependence, and 811 non-nicotine dependent smokers as controls, all of European descent. Compared with main-effect models, SNP x AOS interaction models resulted in higher numbers of nominally significant tests, increased predictive utility at individual SNPs, and higher predictive utility in a multi-locus model. Some SNPs previously documented in main-effect analyses exhibited improved fits in the joint-analysis, including rs16969968 from CHRNA5 and rs2314379 from MAP3K4. CHRNA5 exhibited larger effects in later-onset smokers, in contrast with a previous report that suggested the opposite interaction (Weiss et al, PLOS Genetics, 4: e1000125, 2008). However, a number of SNPs that did not emerge in main-effect analyses were among the strongest findings in the interaction analyses. These include SNPs located in GRIN2B (p=1.5 × 10−5), which encodes a subunit of the NMDA receptor channel, a key molecule in mediating age-dependent synaptic plasticity. Incorporation of logically chosen interaction parameters, such as AOS, into genetic models of substance-use disorders may increase the degree of explained phenotypic variation, and constitutes a promising avenue for gene-discovery. PMID:20624154
Knudsen, J H; Gustafsson, F; Toft, J; Christensen, N J
1. We studied 37 healthy men at rest in the supine. position to examine the effect of ageing, smoking and physical training of beta 2-adrenoceptor function, plasma catecholamines and the proportions of various lymphocyte subsets. 2. In 14 young subjects the proportion of natural killer cells was correlated with cAMP production in lymphocytes and inversely correlated with plasma noradrenaline level. 3. In 16 elderly non-smokers plasma noradrenaline was negatively correlated with the natural killer cell subset CD3-CD16+. Lymphocyte cAMP responses did not differ between young and elderly non-smokers, whereas plasma noradrenaline increased slightly but significantly with age. Physical training did not influence either plasma noradrenaline or adrenaline at rest or cAMP in lymphocytes. 4. In seven elderly long-term smokers cAMP production and the viability of lymphocytes were reduced. Plasma noradrenaline attained its highest values in long-term smokers. 5. It is concluded that cAMP production and plasma noradrenaline are related to lymphocyte subset composition. The greater the proportion of natural killer cells and related subsets, the higher is cAMP production and the lower is plasma noradrenaline. Thus, the inverse correlation between lymphocyte cAMP and plasma noradrenaline is indirect and most likely mediated by variability in lymphocyte subset composition. In elderly subjects, reduced cAMP production was observed in long-term smokers, and this abnormality was probably due to a reduced viability of lymphocytes and especially of natural killer cells. The negative correlation between the proportion of natural killer cells and plasma noradrenaline at rest contracts with a well-known mobilizing effect of adrenaline on natural killer cells. PMID:8942401
Roy, Sani M.; Chesi, Alessandra; Mentch, Frank; Xiao, Rui; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Kelly, Andrea; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F.A.; Zemel, Babette S.
Context: No consensus definition exists for excess adiposity during infancy. After age 2 years, high body mass index (BMI) is related to adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Before age 2 years, the utility of BMI as a metric of excess adiposity is unknown. Objectives: The objective of the study was to characterize infant BMI trajectories in a diverse, longitudinal cohort and investigate the relationship between the infancy BMI trajectory and childhood obesity. Subjects: Healthy, nonpreterm infants (n = 2114) in the Genetic Causes for Complex Pediatric Disorders study (The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) with six or more BMI measurements in the first 13.5 months participated in the study. Design: For each infant, the BMI trajectory was modeled using polynomial regression. Independent effects of clinical factors on magnitude and timing of peak BMI were assessed. The relationship between infancy BMI and early childhood BMI (age 4 y) was examined (n = 1075). Results: The cohort was 53% male and 61% African-American. Peak BMI was 18.6 ± 1.7 kg/m2 and occurred at 8.6 ± 1.4 months. In multivariate analysis, boys had a higher (0.50 kg/m2, P < .001) peak BMI than girls. The peak was higher (0.53 kg/m2, P ≤ .001) and occurred earlier (by 12 d, P < .001) in African-American vs white children. The odds of obesity at age 4 years increased among children with higher (odds ratio 2.02; P < .001) and later (odds ratio 1.26; P = .02) infancy peak BMI. Conclusions: We demonstrate sex- and ancestry-specific differences in infancy BMI and an association of infancy peak BMI with childhood BMI. These findings support the potential utility of infancy BMI to identify children younger than age 2 years with increased risk for later obesity. PMID:25636051
Wang, Wei C; Worsley, Anthony; Cunningham, Everarda G
Background The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between ideological beliefs, perceptions of the importance of health behaviours, health attitudes, food consumption, and Body Mass Index (BMI). A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Methods A survey was conducted among shoppers aged between 40 and 70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested with this empirical data (n = 410) for younger (n = 151) and older (n = 259) age groups using structural equation modelling. Results The findings generally support the study hypotheses. For both groups, egalitarianism had a direct and positive influence on perceptions of the importance of health behaviours. Materialism and masculinity impacted negatively on health attitudes, which positively influenced importance of health behaviours. Perceptions of importance of health behaviours impacted positively on the consumption of healthy foods such as vegetables and fruits, but negatively on consumption of unhealthy foods including sweets and fats. However, BMI was significantly influenced by the consumption of unhealthy foods (e.g., sugar and fats) only for the younger age group. Hence, the associations between beliefs, attitudes, consumption behaviours, and BMI outcomes differed between younger and older age populations. Conclusion Social ideological beliefs appear to influence health attitudes and thereafter, the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods and BMI via different pathways. PMID:18412977
Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D
The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. PMID:25596500
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nomachi, Shinobu; Suganuma, Nobuhiko
This study compared the nutritional status before pregnancy, as well as dietary profiles and biomarkers during first trimester, between never-smokers and antenatal quitters among Japanese women. One hundred fifty pregnant women (79 never-smokers and 71 antenatal quitters) from two obstetrics and gynecology clinics were recruited in Japan. Subjects' prepregnancy nutritional status was indicated by their body mass index (BMI). In the first trimester, their dietary profiles were assessed by the Brief Diet-History Questionnaire (BDHQ) and pregnancy outcomes were screened by biomarker tests. Generalized linear regression was used to examine the differences of energy-adjusted dietary intakes and biomarker results between the two smoking groups, with adjustment of maternal age, BMI, gestation week, and parity. The results showed that antenatal quitters were more likely to have a prepregnancy underweight status than never-smokers. During the first trimester, antenatal quitters had significantly higher intakes of unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants (vegetable lipids and isoflavone), and lower intakes of total cholesterol than never-smokers. Moreover, antenatal quitters had a significantly higher level of serum homocysteine (6.36 nmol/mL vs 4.88 nmol/mL) than never-smokers. In conclusion, antenatal quitters are more likely to have a poor nutritional status before pregnancy than never-smokers. Quitting smoking before pregnancy and having a good nutritional profile during the trimester may not sufficiently reverse the adverse effects of former smoking behaviors on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27028702
Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li
Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women’s reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women’s risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%–46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%–36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of “Widowed” had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of “Cohabitation” had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants’ different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS. PMID:27043604
Erlandsson, Malin C.; Doria Medina, Roberto; Töyrä Silfverswärd, Sofia; Bokarewa, Maria I.
Objectives. Smoking is pathogenic for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) being tightly connected to the genetic and serological risk factors for this disease. This study aims to understand connections between cigarette smoking and serum levels of IGF1 and adipokines in RA. Methods. Serum levels of IGF1 and adipokines leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin were measured in two independent cohorts of RA patients from Gothenburg (n = 350) and Leiden (n = 193). An association of these parameters with smoking was tested in a direct comparison and proved by bivariate correlation analysis. The obtained associations were further tested in multivariate regression models where the confounders (age, gender, disease duration, and BMI) were controlled. Results. The smokers had significantly lower serum levels of IGF1, adiponectin, and leptin compared to never smokers. In regression analysis, smoking and low leptin, but not adiponectin, were associated and predicted low IGF1. Additionally, high disease activity and high BMI increased the probability of low leptin. Conclusions. The study indicates cigarette smoking as an important cause of a relative IGF1 and leptin deficiency in RA patients. This novel association between smoking and hypoleptinemia may be of importance for long-term prognosis of RA and for prediction of comorbidities. PMID:27041823
Erlandsson, Malin C; Doria Medina, Roberto; Töyrä Silfverswärd, Sofia; Bokarewa, Maria I
Objectives. Smoking is pathogenic for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) being tightly connected to the genetic and serological risk factors for this disease. This study aims to understand connections between cigarette smoking and serum levels of IGF1 and adipokines in RA. Methods. Serum levels of IGF1 and adipokines leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin were measured in two independent cohorts of RA patients from Gothenburg (n = 350) and Leiden (n = 193). An association of these parameters with smoking was tested in a direct comparison and proved by bivariate correlation analysis. The obtained associations were further tested in multivariate regression models where the confounders (age, gender, disease duration, and BMI) were controlled. Results. The smokers had significantly lower serum levels of IGF1, adiponectin, and leptin compared to never smokers. In regression analysis, smoking and low leptin, but not adiponectin, were associated and predicted low IGF1. Additionally, high disease activity and high BMI increased the probability of low leptin. Conclusions. The study indicates cigarette smoking as an important cause of a relative IGF1 and leptin deficiency in RA patients. This novel association between smoking and hypoleptinemia may be of importance for long-term prognosis of RA and for prediction of comorbidities. PMID:27041823
Scott, Ian C.; Seegobin, Seth D.; Steer, Sophia; Tan, Rachael; Forabosco, Paola; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Stephen; Morgan, Ann W.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Wordsworth, Paul; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Cope, Andrew P.; Lewis, Cathryn M.
The improved characterisation of risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suggests they could be combined to identify individuals at increased disease risks in whom preventive strategies may be evaluated. We aimed to develop an RA prediction model capable of generating clinically relevant predictive data and to determine if it better predicted younger onset RA (YORA). Our novel modelling approach combined odds ratios for 15 four-digit/10 two-digit HLA-DRB1 alleles, 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ever-smoking status in males to determine risk using computer simulation and confidence interval based risk categorisation. Only males were evaluated in our models incorporating smoking as ever-smoking is a significant risk factor for RA in men but not women. We developed multiple models to evaluate each risk factor's impact on prediction. Each model's ability to discriminate anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA from controls was evaluated in two cohorts: Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC: 1,516 cases; 1,647 controls); UK RA Genetics Group Consortium (UKRAGG: 2,623 cases; 1,500 controls). HLA and smoking provided strongest prediction with good discrimination evidenced by an HLA-smoking model area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.813 in both WTCCC and UKRAGG. SNPs provided minimal prediction (AUC 0.660 WTCCC/0.617 UKRAGG). Whilst high individual risks were identified, with some cases having estimated lifetime risks of 86%, only a minority overall had substantially increased odds for RA. High risks from the HLA model were associated with YORA (P<0.0001); ever-smoking associated with older onset disease. This latter finding suggests smoking's impact on RA risk manifests later in life. Our modelling demonstrates that combining risk factors provides clinically informative RA prediction; additionally HLA and smoking status can be used to predict the risk of younger and older onset RA, respectively. PMID:24068971
Zhang, Mingzhi; An, Qiang; Yeh, Fawn; Zhang, Ying; Howard, Barbara V; Lee, Elisa T; Zhao, Jinying
Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. American Indians have the highest proportion of smoking in the United States. However, few studies have examined the impact of cigarette smoking on disease mortality in this ethnically important but traditionally understudied minority population. Here we estimated the association of cigarette smoking with cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and all-cause mortality in American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study, a large community-based prospective cohort study comprising of 4549 American Indians (aged 45-74 years) followed for about 20 years (1989-2008). Hazard ratio and population attributable risk (PAR) associated with cigarette smoking were estimated by Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for sex, study site, age, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activity, BMI, lipids, renal function, hypertension or diabetes status at baseline, and interaction between current smoker and study site. We found that current smoking was significantly associated with cancer mortality (HR 5.0, [1.9-13.4]) in men, (HR 3.9 [1.6-9.7] in women) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.8, [1.2-2.6] in men, HR 1.6, [1.1-2.4] in women). PAR for cancer and all-cause mortality in men were 41.0 and 18.4 %, respectively, whereas the corresponding numbers in women were 24.9 and 10.9 %, respectively. Current smoking also significantly increases the risk of CVD deaths in women (HR 2.2 [1.1, 4.4]), but not men (HR 1.2 [0.6-2.4]). PAR for CVD mortality in women was 14.9 %. In summary, current smoking significantly increases the risk of CVD (in women), cancer and all-cause mortality in American Indians, independent of known risk factors. Culturally specific smoking cessation programs are urgently needed to reduce smoking-related premature deaths. PMID:25968176
Waldron, I; Lye, D
This study analyzes the relationships of cigarette smoking and smoking histories to marital and parental status. Data from a large, representative sample of U.S. adults in 1985 were analyzed separately for white men, white women, black men, and black women, with controls for age, education, and marital status included in the analyses. Divorced and separated adults were the most likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking; currently married adults and widowed adults were intermediate; and never married adults were the least likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking. (There were some exceptions to these patterns for never married and widowed blacks). The differences in smoking adoption had begun during adolescence, before the usual age of marriage, which suggests that the differences in smoking, adoption were not caused by marriage or divorce. Rather, it appears that personal characteristics or early experiences influenced both the likelihood of smoking adoption and the likelihood of marriage or divorce. Currently married adults were more likely to have quit smoking than never married, divorced and separated, or widowed adults. It may be that the social support provided by marriage increases smoking cessation. In contrast to the strong relationships between marital status and smoking, relationships between parental status and smoking were relatively weak and variable. Among white women, mothers of preschoolers were less likely to be smokers than women without children. The mothers of preschoolers were more likely to have quit smoking, possibly as a result of increased smoking cessation during pregnancy. PMID:2787160
Dolton, Peter; Xiao, Mimi
Based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey longitudinal data from 1989 to 2009 and using BMI z-score as the measure of adiposity, we estimate the intergenerational transmission of BMI in China. The OLS estimates suggest that a one standard deviation increase in father's or mother's BMI is associated with an increase of around 20% in child's Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score. These estimates decrease to around 14% when we control for family fixed effects. We examine the heterogeneity of this BMI intergenerational transmission process across family income, parental occupation and poverty status and also find this intergenerational correlation tends to be higher among children of higher BMI levels, though this tendency becomes weaker as children approach adulthood. PMID:26398848
Hiemstra, Marieke; Otten, Roy; van Schayck, Onno C P; Engels, Rutger C M E
The aim of this study was to test whether maternal smoking-specific communication and parental smoking related to smoking cognitions (i.e. attitude, self-efficacy and social norm) derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour in association with smoking onset during preadolescence. A total of 1478 pairs of mothers and children participated (mean age: 10.11; standard deviation = 0.78). Structural equation models in Mplus were used to examine whether smoking-specific communication influences children's smoking cognitions, which in turn, affect smoking onset. A positive association was found between pro-smoking attitudes and smoking onset. Smoking-specific communication and parental smoking were related to smoking cognitions. Specifically, frequency of communication was negatively associated with pro-smoking attitudes, social norms of mother and best friend. Quality of communication related negatively to pro-smoking attitudes and positively to self-efficacy and norms of friends. Parental smoking was positively associated with pro-smoking attitudes and norms of mother and (best) friends. Additionally, more frequent communication and higher levels of parental smoking were associated with higher smoking onset. In conclusion, smoking-specific communication and parental smoking were associated with smoking cognitions and smoking onset. Already during preadolescence, parents contribute to shaping the smoking cognitions of their children, which may be predictive of smoking later in life. PMID:22519750
Randles, C. A.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Buchard, V.; Govindaraju, R.; Chen, G.; Hair, J. W.; Russell, P. B.; Shinozuka, Y.; Wagner, N.; Lack, D.
The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Earth system model, which includes an online aerosol module, provided chemical and weather forecasts during the SEAC4RS field campaign. For post-mission analysis, we have produced a high resolution (25 km) meteorological and aerosol reanalysis for the entire campaign period. In addition to the full meteorological observing system used for routine NWP, we assimilate 550 nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from MODIS (both Aqua and Terra satellites), ground-based AERONET sun photometers, and the MISR instrument (over bright surfaces only). Daily biomass burning emissions of CO, CO2, SO2, and aerosols are derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. We have also introduced novel smoke "age" tracers, which provide, for a given time, a snapshot histogram of the age of simulated smoke aerosol. Because GEOS-5 assimilates remotely sensed AOD data, it generally reproduces observed (column) AOD compared to, for example, the airborne 4-STAR instrument. Constraining AOD, however, does not imply a good representation of either the vertical profile or the aerosol microphysical properties (e.g., composition, absorption). We do find a reasonable vertical structure for aerosols is attained in the model, provided actual smoke injection heights are not much above the planetary boundary layer, as verified with observations from DIAL/HRSL aboard the DC8. The translation of the simulated aerosol microphysical properties to total column AOD, needed in the aerosol assimilation step, is based on prescribed mass extinction efficiencies that depend on wavelength, composition, and relative humidity. Here we also evaluate the performance of the simulated aerosol speciation by examining in situ retrievals of aerosol absorption/single scattering albedo and scattering growth factor (f(RH)) from the LARGE and AOP suite of instruments. Putting these comparisons in the context of smoke age as diagnosed by the model helps us to
Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Schwartz, Alyse G.; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Dong, Zhong; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn
Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentrations of soluble α-klotho are different between women with microbial invasion of the intra-amniotic cavity (MIAC) and those without MIAC among preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) or preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (pPROM). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to include women in the following groups:1) PTL with MIAC (n=14); 2) PTL without MIAC (n=79); 3) pPROM with MIAC (n=30); and 4) pPROM without MIAC (n=33). MIAC was defined as a positive amniotic fluid culture for microorganisms (aerobic/anaerobic bacteria or genital mycoplasmas). Amniotic fluid samples were obtained within 48 hours from maternal blood collection. Plasma concentration of soluble α-klotho was determined by ELISA. Results 1) The median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble α-klotho was significantly lower in patients with MIAC than in those without MIAC (787.0 vs. 1117.8; p <0.001); 2) Among patients with PTL, those with MIAC had a lower median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble α-klotho than those without MIAC (787.0 vs. 1138.9; p=0.007); 3) Among patients with pPROM, those with MIAC had a lower median plasma concentration (pg/mL) of soluble α-klotho than those without MIAC (766.4 vs. 1001.6; p=0.045); 4) There was no significant difference in the median plasma concentration of soluble α-klotho between PPROM without MIAC and PTL without MIAC (1001.6 pg/mL vs. 1138.9 pg/mL, respectively; p=0.5); 5) After adjustment for potential confounders (maternal age, tobacco use, gestational age at venipuncture), soluble α-klotho remained significantly associated with MIAC (p= 0.02); and 6) Among patients without MIAC, smoking was significantly associated with a lower median plasma concentration soluble α-klotho than in non-smokers (794.2 pg/mL vs. 1382.0 pg/mL, respectively; p<0.001); however, this difference was not observed in patients with MIAC. Conclusions Intra-amniotic infection
D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous
Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of
Pietiläinen, Kirsi; Kantonen, Suvi; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko
Objectives. We studied the association of adolescent smoking with overweight and abdominal obesity in adulthood. Methods. We used the FinnTwin16, a prospective, population-based questionnaire study of 5 consecutive and complete birth cohorts of Finnish twins born between 1975 and 1979 (N = 4296) and studied at four points between the ages of 16 and 27 years to analyze the effect of adolescent smoking on abdominal obesity and overweight in early adulthood. Results. Smoking at least 10 cigarettes daily when aged 16 to 18 years increased the risk of adult abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR]=1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.26). After we adjusted for confounders, the OR was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.11, 1.88), and after further adjustment for current body mass index (BMI), the OR was 1.34 (95% CI = 0.95, 1.88). Adolescent smoking significantly increased the risk of becoming overweight among women even after adjustment for possible confounders, including baseline BMI (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.88). Conclusions. Smoking is a risk factor for abdominal obesity among both genders and for overweight in women. The prevention of smoking during adolescence may play an important role in promoting healthy weight and in decreasing the morbidity related to abdominal obesity. PMID:19059868
Han, T S; Hart, C L; Haig, C; Logue, J; Upton, M N; Watt, G C M; Lean, M E J
Objective Obesity has some genetic basis but requires interaction with environmental factors for phenotypic expression. We examined contributions of gender-specific parental adiposity and smoking to adiposity and related cardiovascular risk in adult offspring. Design Cross-sectional general population survey. Setting Scotland. Participants 1456 of the 1477 first generation families in the Midspan Family Study: 2912 parents (aged 45–64 years surveyed between 1972 and 1976) who had 1025 sons and 1283 daughters, aged 30–59 years surveyed in 1996. Main measures Offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), cardiometabolic risk (lipids, blood pressure and glucose) and cardiovascular disease as outcome measures, and parental BMI and smoking as determinants. All analyses adjusted for age, socioeconomic status and family clustering and offspring birth weight. Results Regression coefficients for BMI associations between father–son (0.30) and mother–daughter (0.33) were greater than father–daughter (0.23) or mother–son (0.22). Regression coefficient for the non-genetic, shared-environment or assortative-mating relationship between BMIs of fathers and mothers was 0.19. Heritability estimates for BMI were greatest among women with mothers who had BMI either <25 or ≥30 kg/m2. Compared with offspring without obese parents, offspring with two obese parents had adjusted OR of 10.25 (95% CI 6.56 to 13.93) for having WC ≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm women, 2.46 (95% CI 1.33 to 4.57) for metabolic syndrome and 3.03 (95% CI 1.55 to 5.91) for angina and/or myocardial infarct (p<0.001). Neither parental adiposity nor smoking history determined adjusted offspring individual cardiometabolic risk factors, diabetes or stroke. Maternal, but not paternal, smoking had significant effects on WC in sons (OR=1.50; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.01) and daughters (OR=1.42; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.84) and metabolic syndrome OR=1.68; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.40) in sons. Conclusions There are
Peters, H.; Gama, A.; Carvalhal, M. I. M.; Nogueira, H. G. M.; Rosado‐Marques, V.; Padez, C.
Summary Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity defined by body mass index (BMI). We examined its association with a range of adiposity measures and cardiovascular indicators in children aged 3–10 years. Methods We used data from a cross‐sectional study of schoolchildren across mainland Portuguese districts (2009–2010). We applied quantile regressions to examine maternal smoking associations with adiposity (n = 17 286), blood pressure (BP) and resting pulse rate (RPR) (n ≈ 2500) measures across the age range, adjusting for prenatal and early life factors. Results Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with increases in offspring adiposity levels. The difference in median BMI between children of smokers and non‐smokers was 0.39 kg m−2 (95% confidence interval: 0.25, 0.53) in boys and 0.46 kg m−2 (0.31, 0.62) in girls; 0.55 cm (0.24, 0.87) and 0.82 cm (0.45, 1.19), respectively, in median waist circumference; and 0.94 mm (0.49, 1.40) and 1.47 mm (0.87, 2.07) in median sum of (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac) skin‐folds. The associations appeared to be stronger with increasing age. The differences in the 90th centile tended to be greater than those in median. There was no consistent association of maternal smoking with BP and RPR. Conclusions Children whose mother smoked during pregnancy had higher adiposity levels than children of non‐smokers, across several measures, particularly among older children. Although there was no consistent association with cardiovascular indicators, maternal smoking association with childhood obesity may have implications for cardiovascular risk factors over the life course. PMID:26178147
With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621
Ahmad, Sajjad; Billimek, John
Although many states in the US have raised cigarette excise taxes in recent years, the size of these increases have been fairly modest (resulting in a 15% increase in the per pack purchase price), and their impact on adult smoking prevalence is likely insufficient to meet Healthy People 2010 objectives. This paper presents the results of a 75-year dynamic simulation model comparing the long-term health benefits to society of various levels of tax increase to a viable alternative: limiting youth access to cigarettes by raising the legal purchase age to 21. If youth smoking initiation is delayed as assumed in the model, increasing the smoking age would have a minimal immediate effect on adult smoking prevalence and population health, but would affect a large drop in youth smoking prevalence from 22% to under 9% for the 15-17-year-old age group in 7 years (by 2010)-better than the result of raising taxes to increase the purchase price of cigarettes by 100%. Reducing youth initiation by enforcing a higher smoking age would reduce adult smoking prevalence in the long-term (75 years in the future) to 13.6% (comparable to a 40% tax-induced price increase), and would produce a cumulative gain of 109 million QALYs (comparable to a 20% price increase). If the political climate continues to favor only moderate cigarette excise tax increases, raising the smoking age should be considered to reduce the health burden of smoking on society. The health benefits of large tax increases, however, would be greater and would accrue faster than raising the minimum legal purchase age for cigarettes. PMID:16698112
Lee, Rebecca E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Shostrom, Valerie; Choi, Simon; Mayo, Matthew S.; Okuyemi, Kola; Kaur, Harsohena; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
This study examined sociodemographic, behavioral and psychosocial factors associated with BMI, weight perceptions and trying to lose weight among African-American smokers (N=600, M=44.2 years, 70% female). Sixty-eight percent of the sample were overweight or obese (sample BMI M=28.0, SD=6.7). Three separate, simultaneous multivariable regression models were used to determine which factors were associated with BMI, weight perceptions and trying to lose weight. Poorer health, female gender and high-school education or higher were significantly associated with higher BMIs (p<0.05). Being female (OR=5.8, 95% CI=3.6-9.3) and having a higher BMI (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.5-0.6) was associated with perception of overweight and smoking more cigarettes per day (OR=1.0, 95% CI=1.0-1.1), and perceiving oneself as overweight (OR=14.1, 95% CI=8.2-24.2) was associated with trying to lose weight. Participants somewhat underestimated their BMI in their weight perceptions. Those who perceived themselves as overweight were more likely to be trying to lose weight; therefore, increasing participant awareness of actual BMI status may lead to improved weight-control efforts in African-American smokers. Several expected associations with outcomes were not found, suggesting that BMI and weight constructs are not well-understood in this population. PMID:15719872
Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan
ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813
Saules, Karen K; Levine, Michele D; Marcus, Marsha D; Pomerleau, Cynthia S
We hypothesized that among overweight women smokers, those with Childhood Onset weight problems may be more likely to engage in unhealthy eating and dieting behaviors, including smoking to control weight. Data were collapsed from 89 currently overweight (BMI> or =25) women smokers who were recruited to participate in smoking research projects that focused on weight, body image, and food intake. We compared those who reported first becoming overweight before Junior High School (n=22) with those who recalled first experiencing weight problems during Junior High School or later (n=67). Women with Childhood Onset weight problems reported first trying cigarettes at a significantly younger age than those with Later Onset (13 vs. 15 years of age, respectively), and they reported more nicotine withdrawal symptoms during smoking abstinence, with a significantly greater likelihood of endorsing anger/irritability and trouble concentrating. No group differences were evident for cigarettes per day or other indicators of nicotine dependence (e.g., FTND). Although it is unclear whether having weight problems during childhood contributes directly to smoking initiation, our results provide evidence that Childhood Onset weight problems may serve as a marker for earlier smoking experimentation and may also complicate cessation efforts due to their association with elevated withdrawal symptomatology. Future longitudinal studies with prospective measures of weight, dieting, and smoking initiation may be helpful in establishing causal pathways in different subgroups of smokers. PMID:17606240
Lawrence, Gabriella M.; Shulman, Shani; Hochner, Hagit; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Burger, Ayala; Savitsky, Bella; Granot-Hershkovitz, Einat; Lumley, Thomas; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Hasselson, Stephanie; Enquobahrie, Daniel; Wander, Pandora L.; Manor, Orly; Siscovick, David S.; Friedlander, Yechiel
Introduction Studies demonstrate associations between changes in obesity-related phenotypes and cardiovascular risk. While maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (mppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) may be associated with adult offspring adiposity, no study has examined associations with obesity changes. Objectives We examined associations of mppBMI and GWG with longitudinal change in offspring's BMI (ΔBMI), and assessed whether associations are explained by offspring genetics. Design and Methods We used a birth cohort of 1400 adults, with data at birth, age 17 and 32. After genotyping offspring, we created genetic scores, predictive of exposures and outcome, and fit linear regression models with and without scores to examine the associations of mppBMI and GWG with ΔBMI. Results A one SD change in mppBMI and GWG was associated with a 0.83 and a 0.75 kg/m2 increase in ΔBMI respectively. The association between mppBMI and offspring ΔBMI was slightly attenuated (12%) with the addition of genetic scores. In the GWG model, a significant substantial 28.2% decrease in the coefficient was observed. Conclusions This study points to an association between maternal excess weight in pregnancy and offspring BMI change from adolescence to adulthood. Genetic factors may account, in part, for the GWG/ΔBMI association. These findings broaden observations that maternal obesity-related phenotypes have long-term consequences for offspring health. PMID:24124160
Knight-Agarwal, Catherine R; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom
Objective To assess maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with increasing body mass index (BMI) and interpregnancy BMI changes in an Australian obstetric population. Methods A retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2013 was undertaken. BMI for 14 875 women was categorised as follows: underweight (≤18 kg/m2); normal weight (19–24 kg/m2); overweight (25–29 kg/m2); obese class I (30–34 kg/m2); obese class II (35–39 kg/m2) and obese class III (40+ kg/m2). BMI categories and maternal, neonatal and birthing outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Interpregnancy change in BMI and the risk of adverse outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy were also examined. Results Within this cohort, 751 (5.1%) women were underweight, 7431 (50.0%) had normal BMI, 3748 (25.1%) were overweight, 1598 (10.8%) were obese class I, 737 (5.0%) were obese class II and 592 (4.0%) were obese class III. In bivariate adjusted models, obese women were at an increased risk of caesarean section, gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and neonatal morbidities including macrosomia, large for gestational age (LGA), hypoglycaemia, low 5 min Apgar score and respiratory distress. Multiparous women who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher adjusted OR (AOR) (CI) of the following adverse outcomes in their subsequent pregnancy: low 5-min Apgar score 3.242 (1.557 to 7.118); gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) 3.258 (1.129 to 10.665) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 3.922 (1.243 to 14.760). These women were more likely to give birth vaginally 2.030 (1.417 to 2.913). Conversely, women whose parity changed from 0 to 1 and who experienced an interpregnancy increase of ≥3 BMI units had a higher AOR (CI) of caesarean section in their second pregnancy 1.806 (1.139 to 2.862). Conclusions Women who are overweight or obese have a significantly increased risk of various adverse outcomes. Interpregnancy weight gain, regardless
Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.
Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…
Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée
Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336
Castillo, H; Santos, I S; Matijasevich, A
Background/Objectives: The aims were to investigate the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with breastfeeding (BF) duration and BF pattern at 3 months of age. Subjects/Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 4231 children who were enrolled at birth and were followed-up at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months of age to gather information on maternal and offspring characteristics including BF patterns and BF duration. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was categorized according to the WHO classification and GWG according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to assess whether pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were associated with BF and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration. Predicted probabilities of BF patterns at 3 months were estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Information on BF was available to 4011 infants. The total BF and EBF median durations were 7.0 months and 1.5 months, respectively. There were no differences in duration of any BF or EBF according to pre-pregnancy BMI or GWG categories. There was an increased predicted probability for weaning before the age of 3 months among infants from obese women, compared with those from mothers with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, with margins adjusted predictions of 0.36 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31–0.41) and 0.23 (95% CI 0.21–0.25), respectively. Conclusions: Infants from pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers presented higher probability of early weaning compared with infants from normal-weight mothers. Obese/overweight pregnant women need supplementary guidance about BF benefits to infant health during prenatal and postnatal care. PMID:26813940
Reitzes, Donald C.; DePadilla, Lara; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.
This study applies a symbolic interaction perspective to the investigation of smoking frequency and a person’s desire to quit smoking cigarettes. Data derived from 485 Atlanta area adult smokers provide a diverse, community-based sample of married and single men and women, aged 18 to 70 years old with a range of income, education, and occupational experiences. Multiple regression was used to analyze the data in order to explore the influence of social demographic characteristics, social interaction, subjective assessments of health, self conceptions, and smoker identity on smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Findings include: (1) the relationship with a non-smoker and hiding smoking negatively impacted smoking frequency, while perceiving positive consequences from smoking has a positive effect on smoking frequency; and (2) perceiving positive consequences of smoking was negatively related to the desire to quit smoking, while a negative smoker identity has a positive influence on the desire to quit. Taken as a whole, the symbolic interaction-inspired variables exerted strong and independent effects on both smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Future smoking interventions should focus on meanings and perceived consequences of smoking in general, and on the smoker identity in the development of campaigns to encourage quitting cigarette smoking. PMID:23869112
Sargent, James D; Maruska, Karin; Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner
It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/ thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horrorfilms, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31-0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting. PMID:20301876
Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena
Objectives We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Setting Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants’ homes. Participants We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. Primary and secondary outcome measures We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. Results The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=<0.00). Foremilk insulin correlated with maternal BMI at 3 months postpartum (r=0.22, p=0.04). Breast milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1 week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. Conclusions A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. PMID:27388351
Predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Aboriginal tobacco smokers of reproductive age in regional New South Wales (NSW), Australia: quantitative and qualitative findings of a cross-sectional survey
Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R
Objectives To assess the predictors of intentions to quit smoking in a community sample of Aboriginal smokers of reproductive age, in whom smoking prevalence is slow to decline. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional survey involved 121 Aboriginal smokers, aged 18–45 years from January to May 2014, interviewed at community events on the Mid-North Coast NSW. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected on smoking and quitting attitudes, behaviours and home smoking rules. Perceived efficacy for quitting, and perceived threat from smoking, were uniquely assessed with a validated Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD) Scale. Main outcome measures Logistic regression explored the impact of perceived efficacy, perceived threat and consulting previously with a doctor or health professional (HP) on self-reported intentions to quit smoking, controlling for potential confounders, that is, protection responses and fear control responses, home smoking rules, gender and age. Participants’ comments regarding smoking and quitting were investigated via inductive analysis, with the assistance of Aboriginal researchers. Results Two-thirds of smokers intended to quit within 3 months. Perceived efficacy (OR=4.8; 95% CI 1.78 to 12.93) and consulting previously with a doctor/HP about quitting (OR=3.82; 95% CI 1.43 to 10.2) were significant predictors of intentions to quit. ‘Smoking is not doing harm right now’ was inversely associated with quit intentions (OR=0.25; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.8). Among those who reported making a quit attempt, after consulting with a doctor/HP, 40% (22/60) rated the professional support received as low (0–2/10). Qualitative themes were: the negatives of smoking (ie, disgust, regret, dependence and stigma), health effects and awareness, quitting, denial, ‘smoking helps me cope’ and social aspects of smoking. Conclusions Perceived efficacy and consulting with a doctor/HP about quitting may be important predictors of intentions to quit
Lipkus, Isaac M; Prokhorov, Alexander V
This study examined the effects of providing lung age, as assessed via a lung function test (spirometry), and respiratory symptoms feedback on college smokers' perceived smoking-related risks, worries and desire to quit. We also investigated whether smokers reacted defensively to this feedback. One hundred and twenty-four smokers were randomized to either receive lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback (intervention group) or a brochure containing facts about smoking only (control group). Perceived risks, worries and desire to quit did not differ between groups. In both groups, worries, but not perceived risks, were correlated with a stronger desire to quit. With increasing lung age, smokers rated the feedback as less relevant and reported exerting less effort breathing in and out while undergoing spirometry. The latter two outcomes were associated with less worry. These findings suggest that lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback does not translate readily into appreciable changes in motivation to quit as well as do other often reported mediators of change (e.g., perceived risks and worries). PMID:16824688
... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...
Engs, Ruth C.; Mulhall, Peter F.
Drinking and smoking habits of a group of college students did not change after a 15-week period of exercises. Results indicate a conscious commitment to changing life-styles may be an important factor and should be considered before physical activites are added to drug and alcohol abuse programs. (Author/JAC)
Adams, Sally H.; Irwin, Charles E.; Ozer, Elizabeth
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between BMI status (normal, overweight, and obese) and preventive screening among adolescents at their last checkup. METHODS: We used population-based data from the 2003–2007 California Health Interview Surveys, telephone interviews of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with a checkup in the past 12 months (n = 9220). Respondents were asked whether they received screening for nutrition, physical activity, and emotional distress. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight: (1) normal weight or underweight (<85th percentile); (2) overweight (85th–94th percentile); and (3) obese (>95th percentile). Multivariate logistic regression models tested how screening by topic differed according to BMI status, adjusting for age, gender, income, race/ethnicity, and survey year. RESULTS: Screening percentages in the pooled sample (all 3 years) were higher for obese, but not overweight, adolescents for physical activity (odds ratio: 1.4; P < .01) and nutrition (odds ratio: 1.6; screening did not differ P < .01). Stratified analysis by year revealed higher screening for obese (versus normal-weight) adolescents for nutrition and physical activity in 2003 and for all 3 topics in 2005. However, by 2007, screening did not differ according to BMI status. Overall screening between 2003 and 2007 declined for nutrition (75%–59%; P < .01), physical activity (74%–60%; P < .01), and emotional distress (31%–24%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents receive more preventive screening versus their normal-weight peers. Overweight adolescents do not report more screening, but standards of care dictate increased attention for this group. These results are discouraging amid a rise in pediatric obesity and new guidelines that recommend screening by BMI status. PMID:21768313
Background The polycomb group (PcG) protein BMI1 is an important regulator of development. Additionally, aberrant expression of BMI1 has been linked to cancer stem cell phenotype and oncogenesis. In particular, its overexpression has been found in several human malignancies including breast cancer. Despite its established role in stem cell maintenance, cancer and development, at present not much is known about the functional domains of BMI1 oncoprotein. In the present study, we carried out a deletion analysis of BMI1 to identify its negative regulatory domain. Results We report that deletion of the C-terminal domain of BMI1, which is rich in proline-serine (PS) residues and previously described as PEST-like domain, increased the stability of BMI1, and promoted its pro-oncogenic activities in human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Specifically, overexpression of a PS region deleted mutant of BMI1 increased proliferation of HMECs and promoted an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in the HMECs. Furthermore, when compared to the wild type BMI1, exogenous expression of the mutant BMI1 led to a significant downregulation of p16INK4a and an efficient bypass of cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts. Conclusions In summary, our data suggest that the PS domain of BMI1 is involved in its stability and that it negatively regulates function of BMI1 oncoprotein. Our results also suggest that the PS domain of BMI1 could be targeted for the treatment of proliferative disorders such as cancer and aging. PMID:20569464
Kim, Ah Ram; Olsen, Jayme L.; England, Samantha J.; Huang, Yu-Shan; Fegan, Katherine H.; Delgadillo, Luis F.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Kingsley, Paul D.; Waugh, Richard E.; Palis, James
Summary Red blood cells (RBCs), responsible for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide exchange, are essential for our well-being. Alternative RBC sources are needed to meet the increased demand for RBC transfusions projected to occur as our population ages. We previously have discovered that erythroblasts derived from the early mouse embryo can self-renew extensively ex vivo for many months. To better understand the mechanisms regulating extensive erythroid self-renewal, global gene expression data sets from self-renewing and differentiating erythroblasts were analyzed and revealed the differential expression of Bmi-1. Bmi-1 overexpression conferred extensive self-renewal capacity upon adult bone-marrow-derived self-renewing erythroblasts, which normally have limited proliferative potential. Importantly, Bmi-1 transduction did not interfere with the ability of extensively self-renewing erythroblasts (ESREs) to terminally mature either in vitro or in vivo. Bmi-1-induced ESREs can serve to generate in vitro models of erythroid-intrinsic disorders and ultimately may serve as a source of cultured RBCs for transfusion therapy. PMID:26028528
This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7,299 observations for 2,333 children, aged 5-14, over the 1986-2006 period, from a US representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before-after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop. Despite having a larger sample than the previous studies, the results provide no evidence that, on average, children's BMI and BMI percentile scores (measured with continuous outcomes) are affected before the disruption, after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption, relative to a baseline period a few years before the disruption. However, children experiencing a family disruption do have an increased risk of obesity (having a BMI percentile score of 95 or higher) in the two years leading up to the disruption as well as after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption. PMID:22484366
Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan
This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131
Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Marck, Adrien; Dor, Frédéric; Schipman, Julien; Dorsey, Maya; Haida, Amal; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François
The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI) as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996–2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r = 0.71) and BMI (r = 0.71) in world-class runners and moderately with height (r = 0.39). Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. «Lighter and smaller is better» in endurance events but «heavier and taller is better» for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distance-specific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique. BMI is a relevant indicator, which allows for a clear differentiation of athletes' capacities between each discipline and level of performance in the fields of human possibilities. PMID:24587266
Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi
[Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264
Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar
Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45–75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity. PMID:27136570
Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar
Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45-75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity. PMID:27136570
Uchida, Takahiro; Oda, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Higashi, Keishi; Katsurada, Yuka; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Tamai, Seiichi; Kumagai, Hiroo
A 53-year-old woman with a history of dyslipidemia presented with medium-grade proteinuria and several years of progressive renal dysfunction. Renal biopsy showed diffuse and global Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodule like nodular mesangial sclerosis, but she had no history of diabetes mellitus, no diabetic retinopathy and normal oral glucose tolerance. Congo red staining was negative, and immunofluorescence staining showed no immunoglobulin deposition including kappa or lambda light chains. Electron microscopy showed no electron dense deposits or organized deposits. Thus, we diagnosed idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis (ING). ING is a recently established clinicopathologic disease entity linked to longstanding cigarette smoking and hypertension. Obesity is also listed as a contributing factor. However, none of these factors was documented in this case. This is a valuable case of ING that suggests the existence of as-yet unknown causative factors of ING other than smoking, hypertention or obesity. PMID:26019825
Speirs, Katherine E; Fiese, Barbara H
Objectives The literature exploring the relationship between food insecurity and obesity for preschool-aged children is inconclusive and suffers from inconsistent measurement. This paper explores the relationships between concurrent household and child food insecurity and child overweight as well as differences in these relationships by child gender using a sample of 2-5 year old children. Methods Using measured height and weight and responses to the Household Food Security Survey Module collected from a sample of 438 preschool-aged children (mean age 39 months) and their mothers, logistic regression models were fit to estimate the relationship between household and child food insecurity and child BMI. Separate models were fit for girls and boys. Results Twenty-seven percent of children from food insecure households and 25 % of child food insecure children were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85 %). There were no statistically significant associations between either household or child food insecurity and BMI for the full sample. For girls, but not boys, household food insecurity was associated with BMI z-scores (β = 0.23, p = 0.01). Conclusions Although food insecurity and overweight were not significantly associated, a noteworthy proportion of food insecure children were overweight or obese. Programs for young children should address food insecurity and obesity simultaneously by ensuring that young children have regular access to nutrient-dense foods. PMID:26662281
Alewaeters, K; Clarys, P; Hebbelinck, M; Deriemaeker, P; Clarys, J P
Epidemiological studies on vegetarians indicate that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are associated with certain health benefits, which may lower mortality and morbidity. A healthy lifestyle, such as regular physical activity and avoidance of harmful practices, such as smoking and heavy drinking, could also influence these positive health-related outcomes in vegetarians. This study reports BMI, smoking and drinking habits, engagement in physical activity, medication use and subjective health perception in a vegetarian population (women: n = 206, mean age 37.0 +/- 12.3 years; men: n = 120, mean age 42.3 +/- 15.9 years) as compared with a reference Belgian population (women: n = 4993, mean age 49.8 +/- 18.0 years; men: n = 4666, mean age 48.0 +/- 17.1 years). When considering the vegetarian group as a whole, the vegetarians had a lower mean BMI compared with the reference population (respectively 22.1 +/- 3.1 kg/m2 compared with 24.6 +/- 4.8 kg/m2 for women (p < 0.001) and respectively 22.6 +/- 3.6 kg/m2 compared with 25.7 +/- 4.0 kg/m2 for men (p < 0.001)). Vegetarians smoked less than subjects of the reference group (13.5% compared with 28.5% respectively; p < 0.001). During weekdays the percentage of subjects consuming alcoholic drinks in the two populations was comparable (32.8 in the vegetarian and 35.8 in the reference population; p = 0.159). During the weekend, more subjects of the reference population drank alcohol compared with the vegetarian subjects (70.2% vs. 58.6% respectively; p = 0.026). More vegetarians were involved in intensive physical activity (over 4 h per week) compared with the reference population (36.8% vs. 17.3% respectively; p < 0.001), while fewer vegetarians were involved in moderate physical activity (up to 4 h per week) compared with subjects of the reference group (28.2% and 51.0% respectively; p < 0.001). Percentages of subjects involved in no physical activity were comparable in both groups (vegetarians 34.9 vs. reference
Muckle, Gina; Laflamme, Dominique; Gagnon, Jocelyne; Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.
Background Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a known teratogen often associated with drug use and smoking, is a well-known public health concern. Aim This study provides prevalence data for alcohol, smoking, and illicit drug use before, during, and after pregnancy among Inuit. Factors associated with alcohol use are also identified. Methods 248 Inuit women from Arctic Quebec were interviewed at mid-pregnancy, and at 1 and 11 months postpartum to provide descriptive data on smoking, alcohol, and drug use during pregnancy, and the year before and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic and family characteristics potentially associated with alcohol use were documented. Results 92% of the women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking during pregnancy. Episodes of binging during pregnancy were reported by 62% of the alcohol users, which corresponds to 38% of pregnant women. 36% of the participants reported using marijuana during pregnancy. Alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy were more likely to be reported by women who lived in less crowded houses, had a better knowledge of a second language, drank alcohol more often and in larger amounts prior to pregnancy, and used illicit drugs. Binge drinkers were more likely to be single women and to have had fewer previous pregnancies. Postpartum distress and violence were more likely to be experienced by women who used alcohol during pregnancy. Binge drinking during pregnancy was best predicted by drinking habits before pregnancy, maternal symptoms of depression, the use of illicit drugs during pregnancy and the number of young children living with the mother. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol is a major risk factor to maternal and child health in this population, underscoring the need for culturally relevant and effective prevention programs. PMID:21332531
Yang, Tingzhong; Jiang, Shuhan; Barnett, Ross; Oliffe, John L; Wu, Dan; Yang, Xiaozhao; Yu, Lingwei; Cottrell, Randall R
Efforts toward controlling secondhand smoke in public places have been made throughout China. However, in contrast to the western world, significant challenges remain for effectively implementing smoke-free regulations. This study explores individual and regional factors which influence smoking in smoke-free public places. Participants included 16 866 urban residents, who were identified through multi-stage sampling conducted in 21 Chinese cities. The reported smoking prevalence in smoke-free public places was 41.2%. Of those who smoked in smoke-free public places, 45.9% had been advised to stop smoking. Participants stated that no-smoking warnings/signs with 'please' in the statement had a better likelihood of gaining compliance and preventing smoking in public spaces. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that ethnicity, education, occupation, type of smoking, age of smoking initiation, smoking situation, stress, household smoking restrictions and city population were all associated with smoking in smoke-free public places. Interestingly local smoke-free regulations were not associated with smoking in public places. The findings underscore that efforts to restrict smoking in public places in China should emphasize strong enforcement, while simultaneously raising public awareness of the perils of second hand smoke. PMID:26546594
Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Lundin, Andreas; Melin, Bo; Hemmingsson, Tomas
Background An association between lower IQ of parents, measured early in life, and smoking among their offspring has been reported. The extent to which other background factors account for this association is unknown. Methods Data on IQ, smoking, mental health, social class, parental divorce and social problems in a cohort of men born during 1949–1951 and conscripted for military service in 1969 were linked to smoking data on 682 offspring interviewed in the Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions 1984–2009. Results In an age-adjusted model, a one-step decrease on a stanine scale was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.35) for offspring smoking. Adjusting for father's socioeconomic background and smoking, mental illness and social problems in youth only marginally lowered the OR's. Conclusions Lower IQ among fathers measured at ages 18–20 years was associated with smoking in their offspring. The association was not explained by father's social class in childhood or a higher prevalence of mental illness, social problems or smoking measured among the fathers in their late adolescence. PMID:26515987
Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain
Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885