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1

Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

2011-01-01

2

Ethnicity and Aging: A Bibliography. Checklists in the Humanities and Education: Series Number Eight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature on ethnicity and aging is listed in this bibliography, which is intended to assist researchers, teachers, and policymakers. The bibliography is divided into seven categories: (1) multiethnic and general studies; (2) Black Americans; (3) Hispanic Americans; (4) Native Americans; (5) Asian and Pacific Americans; (6) European origin ethnic

Murguia, Edward, Comp.; And Others

3

Early childhood education and care use: differences by race\\/ethnicity and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes factors that predict the use of early childhood education and care among Latino families, as compared to non-Latino black and non-Latino white families in the United States in two age groups (0–2 and 3–5 years old). Using National Household Education Survey data, this study presents a framework and examines the association of numerous child and family characteristics

Joy Pastan Greenberg; Jessica M. Kahn

2012-01-01

4

Race, Ethnicity and Public Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue contains papers on race and ethnicity in public education: "Introduction" (Philip Hart); "Toward Democratic Education: The Importance of Culturally Responsive Leadership in 21st Century Schools" (Donna M. Davis); "Improving the Selection Process for Identifying Gifted Ethnic Minority Children" (John Dillard and Nettye R. Brazil);…

Hart, Philip S., Ed.

2002-01-01

5

Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.  

PubMed

Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health. PMID:23095066

Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

2012-01-01

6

Education and physical activity mediate the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in late middle-aged adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status, particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the

Meredith C. Masel; Mukaila Raji; M. Kristen Peek

2010-01-01

7

Ethnicity, Education, and Blood Pressure in Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15- 74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational

Pedro Ordunez; Jose Luis Bernal Munoz; Alfredo Espinosa-Brito; Luis Carlos Silva; Richard S. Cooper

2005-01-01

8

Graduate Education and Ethnic Minorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern with the prevalent under-representation of ethnic minority groups in Western graduate schools, and with the growing demand of minority students for more relevance in the college curricula, prompted a cooperative WAGS-WICHE (Western Association of Graduate Schools-Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education) effort in the general…

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

9

Education, Gender, and Ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Education has been found to be significantly related to performance on the majority of neuropsychological tests that have\\u000a been assessed for this effect. Stanton et al (1984) reported a significant effect on the TMT and the Logical Memory (LM) and VR subtests of the WMS. Shichita et al. (1986) found a significant effect for education on BVRT performance.

Robert M. Anderson

10

Is Child Like Parent? Educational Attainment and Ethnic Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speed at which immigrants assimilate is the subject of debate. Human capital formation plays a major role in this discussion. This paper compares the educational attainment of second generation immigrants to those of natives in the same age cohort. Evidence using a large German data set suggests ethnicity does matter: the size of the ethnic network has a positive

Ira N. Gang; Klaus F. Zimmermann

1996-01-01

11

Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Educations in Ethnic Violence", Matthew Lange explores the effects education has on ethnic violence. Lange contradicts the widely-held belief that education promotes peace and tolerance. Rather, Lange finds that education commonly contributes to aggression, especially in environments with ethnic divisions, limited resources, and ineffective…

Lange, Matthew

2011-01-01

12

Ethnic Inequalities and Educational Attainment in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors examine educational stratification in Taiwan against the background of an ethnically based political economy. They investigate how educational attainment is related to ethnicity and other background factors, such as parental class and education, and if these relationships changed over time as Taiwan became a more…

Jao, Jui-Chang; McKeever, Matthew

2006-01-01

13

Ethnicity, Forms of Capital, and Educational Achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bourdieu's cultural capital thesis is an attempt to explain how social class influences the transmission of educational inequality. In this article, the question of the extent to which various forms of capital also apply to ethnic minorities stands central. On the basis of Dutch and American research findings, a model is formulated and empirically tested with the aid of data from the Dutch Primary Education cohort study. Students from four ethnic groups are included: Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan. The main variables are language and math test scores, socio-economic milieu, and a number of capital indicators, including financial resources, linguistic resources, parental reading behavior, and educational resources within the family. The results show no mediating effect of resources within the various ethnic groups. The findings also suggest that in research and practice it is relevant to not treat ethnic groups as one homogenous group, but to differentiate between the various groups.

Driessen, Geert W. J. M.

2001-11-01

14

Education, Ethnicity, and Political Socialization in Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the correlation between educational policies and political conditions as an indicator of socialization in the nation and state building process in Pakistan. Because of the discrepancies between official statements and the level of ethnic conflict, this study seeks to analyze the standard national social studies curriculum for…

Kazi, Aftab A.

1986-01-01

15

Capitals, ethnic identity and educational qualifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural capital analysis, or class analysis more generally, exacerbates rather than resolves the anomaly of why non-white ethnic minorities in Britain are over-represented in higher education. Some of these groups have a disproportionate lower, socio-economic profile and yet at least some of these groups are more likely to pursue and achieve entry into higher education than whites, especially, their white

Tariq Modood

2004-01-01

16

Age and ethnic variations in sebaceous lipids  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to compare lipid components of sebum from persons from three ethnic backgrounds—Caucasian, African American and Northern Asian. Men and women with no acne in two age groups (18?25 y and 35?45 y) were recruited. Skin surface hydration (SkiCon 200EX and NovaMeter), barrier function (Delfin VapoMeter), high-resolution clinical imaging, self-assessments and two pairs of sebutapes on the forehead that extracted the lipids on the surface of their skin were used. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in skin hydration between African Americans and Caucasians in both age groups were noted, with the order from highest to lowest absolute values: African American > Northern Asian > Caucasian. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements demonstrated that African Americans and Caucasians were significantly different (p < 0.05), with the trend being the inverse of the hydration trend—Caucasian > Northern Asian > African American, which would indicate better barrier function for African Americans with a lower TEWL. African American women had more total lipid production than Northern Asian or Caucasian women. When analyzing the three lipid classes (free fatty acids, triglycerides and wax esters), the trend became significant (p < 0.05) in the wax ester fraction when directly comparing African Americans with Caucasians. Additionally, six lipids were identified in the wax ester fractions that were significantly different in quantity (p < 0.05) between African Americans and Caucasians. These results identified significant differences in sebaceous lipid profiles across ethnic groups and determined that the differences correlated with skin barrier function.

Pappas, Apostolos; Fantasia, Jared; Chen, Theresa

2013-01-01

17

Education and Ethnic Prejudice in Europe: Explanations for Cross-National Variances in the Educational Effect on Ethnic Prejudice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied cross-national variances in the effect of education on ethnic prejudice using data from11 European countries with a total sample of 11,904 adults. Findings show that a country's democratic tradition and degree of religious heterogeneity are important for the strength of an educational effect on ethnic prejudice, while ethnic composition…

Hello, Evelyn; Scheepers, Peer; Gijsberts, Merove

2002-01-01

18

Racial/Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Nursing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an overview of activities to increase racial/ethnic and gender diversity in nursing and nursing education. Data are from a survey on gender diversity completed by 193 nursing education administrators in the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and the District of Columbia and a survey about the racial/ethnic

Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

19

Ethnic Group Schooling and the Massachusetts Transitional Bilingual Education Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethnic schools (supplementary schools conducted on Saturday and weekday afternoons and religion-affiliated day schools) in the Boston area were surveyed in order to determine the effect of the Massachusetts Transitional Bilingual Education Act (TBEA) on ethnic schooling and the possibilities of ethnic school involvement with TBEA. The schools…

Chin, Big-Qu; Duda, Halyna

20

Education and ethnic prejudice in Europe : explanations for cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education is often found to be a strong determinant of ethnic pre judice. However, there is preliminary evidence that this educational effect varies across countries. Moreover, there are also theoretical arguments to expect cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic pre judice. From both a cultural and structural perspective, we set out to explain these cross-national variances in the

Evelyn Hello; Peer Scheepers; Mérove Gijsberts

2002-01-01

21

Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background.A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8 years. One parent completed a questionnaire to measure their own and their child’s fruit consumption, parenting style, education level and ethnicity. In mediation

Gerda Rodenburg; Anke Oenema; Stef P. J. Kremers; Dike van de Mheen

22

The Limits of Social Class in Explaining Ethnic Gaps in Educational Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports an analysis of the educational attainment and progress between age 11 and age 14 of over 14,500 students from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. The mean attainment gap in national tests at age 14 between White British and several ethnic minority groups was large, more than three times…

Strand, Steve

2011-01-01

23

Occurrence and Co-Occurrence of Types of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use by Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Education Among Adults in the United States: The 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background There are widespread assumptions that a large proportion of American adults use a variety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. The goal of this study is to explore the clustering or linkages among CAM categories in the general population. Linkset analysis and data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to address two specific aims. First, the dominant linkages of CAM categories used by the same individual were delineated, and population estimates were generated of the percentage of American adults using different linksets of CAM categories. Second, it was determined whether dominant linkages of CAM modalities differ by age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Methods Linkset analysis, a method of estimating co-occurrence beyond chance, was used on data from the 2002 NHIS (N?=?29,862) to identify possible sets of CAM use. Results Most adults use CAM therapies from a single category. Approximately 20% of adults combined two CAM categories, with the combination of mind–body therapies and biologically based therapies estimated to be most common. Only 5% of adults use therapies representing three or more CAM categories. Combining therapies across multiple CAM categories was more common among those 46–64, women, whites, and those with a college education. Conclusions The results of this study allow researchers to refine descriptions of CAM use in the adult population. Most adults do not use a wide assortment of CAM; most use therapies within a single CAM category. Sets of CAM use were found to differ by age, gender, ethnicity, and education in ways consistent with previous research.

Aickin, Mikel; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

24

Citizenship, Education, and Identity: A Comparative Study of Ethnic Chinese in Korea and Ethnic Koreans in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The crux of this study lies in the consideration of the manner in which rights to citizenship are granted or denied, and in which the ensuing educational policy toward an ethnic minority influences identity formation. In this article the author first introduces a brief background of the two ethnic groups, ethnic Chinese in Korea and ethnic Koreans…

Choi, Sheena

2004-01-01

25

The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood.  

PubMed

Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twemty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood, were employed to predict the children's L2 vocabulary trajectories. The results of growth analyses revealed that maternal education was the only variable predicting children's vocabulary growth during the elementary years. However, teacher-led talk, peer talk, and neighborhood predicted children's L2 vocabulary skills at age five, and these differences were maintained up to age ten. This study underscores the importance of both preschool talk exposure (teacher-led talk and peer talk) and demographic factors on L2 learners' vocabulary development. PMID:23442820

Rydland, Veslemøy; Grøver, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

2014-03-01

26

Wideband acoustic immittance normative data: ethnicity, gender, aging, and instrumentation.  

PubMed

This article describes the effect of ethnicity, gender, aging, and instrumentation on wideband acoustic immittance (WAI). This is an important topic to investigate as the goal of any audiological test is optimize the test's sensitivity and specificity. One way to improve the test's sensitivity and specificity is to reduce the variability of the normative data. The impact of the aforementioned demographic characteristics on WAI norms has been reviewed, and where applicable its potential impact on clinical outcome has been discussed. Overall, differences observed between Caucasian and Chinese ethnic groups in adults population may warrant the use of ethnicity-specific norms especially for detection of otosclerosis; however, these differences in the school-aged children are not large enough to warrant the use of ethnicity-specific norms. It is important to explore whether the observed differences between Caucasian and Chinese ethnic groups is due to body-size indices and whether these differences can be replicated in other East Asian ethnic groups that share similar body-size indices. The differences observed between school-aged children and adults could also potentially impact clinical decision analysis. Therefore, use of age-specific norm is recommended. The differences in WAI between different systems are not clinically significant, and the use of instrument-specific norms does not result in improved test performance at least for the detection of otosclerosis. However, measuring WAI at ambient pressure (static) or at pressure corresponding to the peak (dynamic mode) could potentially impact the normative data and may prove to be clinically useful in cases of negative and positive middle ear pressure. PMID:23900176

Shahnaz, Navid; Feeney, M Patrick; Schairer, Kim S

2013-07-01

27

Unproven Links: Can Poverty Explain Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high degree of overlap of race and poverty in our society has led to the presumption in both research and practice that ethnic disproportionality in special education is in large measure an artifact of the effects of poverty. This article explores relationships among race, poverty, and special education identification to arrive at a more…

Skiba, Russell J.; Poloni-Staudinger, Lori; Simmons, Ada B.; Feggins-Azziz, L. Renae; Choong-Geun, Chung

2005-01-01

28

Perceived Barriers to Education and Career: Ethnic and Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocational researchers interested in the career development of women and people of color have noted the potentially strong influence of perceived barriers in the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In this study, ethnic and gender differences in perceived educational and career barriers were investigated in a sample of 1139 Mexican-American and Euro-American high school juniors and seniors.

Ellen Hawley McWhirter

1997-01-01

29

Differential Item Functioning of Pathological Gambling Criteria: An Examination of Gender, Race\\/Ethnicity, and Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria\\u000a based on gender, race\\/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic\\u000a Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital

Paul SaccoLuis; Luis R. Torres; Renee M. Cunningham-Williams; Carol Woods; G. Jay Unick

2011-01-01

30

Ethnicity and age disparities in Ewing sarcoma outcome.  

PubMed

This institutional retrospective review studied Ewing sarcomas from 1987-2011. Among 135 patients, 127 (19 Hispanic and 108 white/non-Hispanic) were analyzed (excluding small sample sized groups) finding 15% Hispanic, 85% non-Hispanic, 27% <18 years, 21% >40 years and 1-272 months follow-up (median 41). Age was significantly associated with overall survival (OS) (p = 0.01), whereby <18 years had a higher probability of 5-year survival (OS 61%) than >40 years (OS 37.6%). Ethnicity was marginally statistically significant (OS, p = 0.065); whereby median survival was clinically significant (white non-Hispanic 63 months and Hispanic 23 months). Hispanic ethnicity and older age are independent poor prognostic factors. PMID:23043418

Koohbanani, Bianca; Han, Gang; Reed, Damon; Zhao, Qing; Yi, Ding; Henderson-Jackson, Evita; Bui, Marilyn M

2013-07-01

31

Ethnicity, Race, and Nationality in Education: A Global Perspective. The Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 12 papers originally presented at the 14th Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education in 1999. The symposium explored contemporary issues of ethnic, cultural, and national identities and their influence on the social construction of identity. Papers include: (1) "Reconceptualizing Ethnicity and Educational Achievement"…

Shimahara, N. Ken, Ed.; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra, Ed.

32

Ethnic Group, Sex and Economic Disadvantage: associations with pupils’ educational progress from Baseline to the end of Key Stage 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very few studies have explored the associations between ethnic group, sex, economic disadvantage and school attended on pupils’ progress during their earliest years at school (age 4?7). The present study reports an analysis of the educational progress made by over 5000 pupils between Baseline assessment at age 4 and national end of Key Stage 1 (KS1) tests at age 7.

Steve Strand

1999-01-01

33

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups. NCES 2010-015  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups" examines the educational progress and challenges of students in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that over time, the numbers of students of each race/ethnicity who have completed high school and continued their education in college have increased. Despite these…

Aud, Susan; Fox, Mary Ann; KewalRamani, Angelina

2010-01-01

34

Race-Ethnicity, Education, and Employment after Spinal Cord Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…

Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David

2010-01-01

35

Ethnic Studies, Citizenship Education, and the Public Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1990s, ethnic studies and other components of multicultural education have been criticized by neo-conservative and assimilationist scholars who maintain that school diversity initiatives weaken national identity and fail to help students attain the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function effectively in the national mainstream…

Banks, James A.

2012-01-01

36

Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?  

PubMed Central

Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a) review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b) review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed.

2010-01-01

37

Ethnic Group, Sex and Economic Disadvantage: Associations with Pupils' Educational Progress from Baseline to the End of Key Stage 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the educational progress made by students between Baseline assessment at age 4 and national end of Key Stage 1 tests at age 7. Focuses on the effects background factors have on students' progress, the interactions between ethnic group, sex, and economic disadvantage on progress, and evidence of school effectiveness. Discusses the…

Strand, Steve

1999-01-01

38

Ethnicity, educational level and attitudes contribute to parental intentions about genetic testing for child obesity.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to assess parental beliefs and intentions about genetic testing for their children in a multi-ethnic population with the aim of acquiring information to guide interventions for obesity prevention and management. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in parents of native Dutch children and children from a large minority population (Turks) selected from Youth Health Care registries. The age range of the children was 5-11 years. Parents with lower levels of education and parents of non-native children were more convinced that overweight has a genetic cause and their intentions to test the genetic predisposition of their child to overweight were firmer. A firmer intention to test the child was associated with the parents' perceptions of their child's susceptibility to being overweight, a positive attitude towards genetic testing, and anticipated regret at not having the child tested while at risk for overweight. Interaction effects were found in ethnic and socio-economic groups. Ethnicity and educational level play a role in parental beliefs about child overweight and genetic testing. Education programmes about obesity risk, genetic testing and the importance of behaviour change should be tailored to the cultural and behavioural factors relevant to ethnic and socio-economic target groups. PMID:23389423

Kocken, Paul L; Theunissen, Meinou H C; Schönbeck, Yvonne; Henneman, Lidewij; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Detmar, Symone B

2013-04-01

39

Population biology of human aging: ethnic and climatic variation of bone age scores.  

PubMed

Hand radiograms for osseographic assessment of bone-aging status were taken from more than 7500 individuals living in 32 different geographic localities and belonging to 20 ethnic groups. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate possible associations between bone-aging parameters and number of climatic factors. To determine whether population differences in bone-aging estimates were related to linguistic, ethnic, or genetic differences among the samples, we performed a matrix correspondence analysis. Euclidean distance matrices for parameters TM (average age at entering visual stage of bone aging) and B (the rate of bone aging per year) were tested against design matrices specifying linguistic or ethnic affiliation of the tested populations, yet no significant correlations were detected in this set of analyses. The matrix of joint genetic distances based on 10 genetic systems showed significant correlation (r = 0.48, p = 0.013) with the matrix of B differences. This suggests some genetic control in the rate of bone aging. TM and age-adjusted bone-aging scores (Z) yielded no evidence of correlation with genetic differences among the studied populations. Multiple regression analysis, however, uncovered that 37.5% of TM variation and 48% of Z variation could be explained by climate factors and their interactions. PMID:8838918

Livshits, G; Vainder, M; Pavlovsky, O; Kobyliansky, E

1996-04-01

40

Race, Ethnicity and Education under New Labour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long-standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of 'failing' schools exacerbated school segregation…

Tomlinson, Sally

2005-01-01

41

Education, Ethnicity, Genetics and Intelligence. Jensenism: Another Excuse for Failure to Educate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the IRCD Bulletin is devoted to commentaries on an article by Arthur R. Jensen on the nature-nurture controversy in a recent number of "Harvard Educational Review." Contents of the Bulletin are comprised of the following: "Education, Ethnicity, Genetics and Intelligence; Jensenism: Another Excuse for Failure to Educate" (Edmund W.…

Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.

1969-01-01

42

Ethnicity and Ethnically "Mixed" Identity in Belize: A Study of Primary School-Age Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nationalism, as taught in Belize schools, is panethnic and multiethnic, but because the increasingly widespread practice of ethnic mixing is not acknowledged, there is a discrepancy between what is taught and the daily life of students. Research results from 161 elementary school children show that the ethnic self-identification of children is…

Haug, Sarah Woodbury

1998-01-01

43

Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…

Gibson, Sandy

2011-01-01

44

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities. NCES 2007-039  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" examines the educational progress and challenges that racial and ethnic minorities face in the United States. This report shows that over time larger numbers of minorities have completed high school and continued their education in college. Despite these gains, progress has…

KewalRamani, Angelina; Gilbertson, Lauren; Fox, Mary Ann; Provasnik, Stephen

2007-01-01

45

The Ongoing Pursuit of Educational Equity in Japan: The Accreditation of Ethnic High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2003, the Japanese Ministry of Education accredited the high school diplomas of most "ethnic high schools," which are schools by and for specific ethnic minority populations, such as Korean, Brazilian, or Chinese students in Japan. Prior to this policy, diplomas from most ethnic high schools were not recognized by the Japanese government as…

Tokunaga, Tomoko; Douthirt-Cohen, Beth

2012-01-01

46

The Ongoing Pursuit of Educational Equity in Japan: The Accreditation of Ethnic High Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003, the Japanese Ministry of Education accredited the high school diplomas of most “ethnic high schools,” which are schools by and for specific ethnic minority populations, such as Korean, Brazilian, or Chinese students in Japan. Prior to this policy, diplomas from most ethnic high schools were not recognized by the Japanese government as valid, and if graduates wanted to

Tomoko Tokunaga; Beth Douthirt-Cohen

2012-01-01

47

Age as a Factor in Ethnic Accent Identification in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to answer two research questions. First, can listeners distinguish the ethnicity of the speakers on the basis of voice quality alone? Second, do demographic differences among the listeners affect discriminability? A simple but carefully designed and controlled ethnic identification test was carried out on 325 Singaporean…

Tan, Ying Ying

2012-01-01

48

Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.  

PubMed

The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25045950

Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

2014-07-01

49

Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

1981-01-01

50

Ethnic differences in influences on quality of life at older ages: a quantitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets out to examine ethnic differences in the key influences on quality of life for older people in the context of the increasing health and wealth of British older people generally and the ageing of the post-1945 migrants. It is based on secondary multivariate analysis of the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities of England and Wales. Respondents

MADHAVI BAJEKAL; DAVID BLANE; INI GREWAL; SAFFRON KARLSEN; JAMES NAZROO

2004-01-01

51

The Tibetans - School for Survival or Submission. An Investigation of Ethnicity and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book investigates if there is a link between Tibetan ethnicity and education and, if so, how it functions. Research focused on the questions "Do the educational achievements of Tibetans in Tibet, India, and Switzerland differ and how can possible differences be attributed to their position as an ethnic group in these countries?" Interviews…

Goldstein-Kyaga, Katrin

52

Education, Ethnic Identity, and Acculturation as Predictors of Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity of 150 Latino adolescents enrolled in either a bilingual or traditional education program. Bilingual education programs were established to ensure that academic failure was not the product of limited English proficiency. Grade point average (GPA), acculturation, and ethnic

Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

2009-01-01

53

Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.  

PubMed

This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted. PMID:24722777

Shin, Jung-Hye

2014-06-01

54

Truncal fat in relation to total body fat: influences of age, sex, ethnicity and fatness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate the influence of age, sex, ethnicity and total fatness on central obesity in four ethnic populations.Design:Cross-sectional analysis of study subjects enrolled from 1993 to 2005.Subjects:A multi-ethnic (Caucasian (CA), African-American (AA), Hispanic-American (HA) and Asian (As)) convenience sample of 604 men and 1192 women (aged 18–96 years, body mass index 15.93–45.80 kg\\/m2).Measurements:Total body fat (TBF) and truncal fat were

C-H Wu; S Heshka; J Wang; R N Pierson; S B Heymsfield; B Laferrère; Z Wang; J B Albu; X Pi-Sunyer; D Gallagher

2007-01-01

55

English Education and Aging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

Gillis, Candida

1983-01-01

56

Overweight, Ethnicity, and the Prevalence of Hypertension in School-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To describe the current prev- alence of pediatric hypertension and the relationships between gender, ethnicity, overweight, and blood pres- sure. Methods. School-based screening was performed in 5102 children (13.5 1.7 years) from May through No- vember 2002. Age, gender, ethnicity, weight, and height were ascertained, and body mass index (BMI) was calcu- lated as weight (kg)\\/height (m2). Overweight was

Jonathan M. Sorof; Dejian Lai; Jennifer Turner; Tim Poffenbarger; Ronald J. Portman

2010-01-01

57

Influence of BMI on blood pressure varies by ethnicity in school-aged children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between elevated BMI\\/obesity and blood pressure in children is well established, however the extent to which ethnicity modifies this association is less certain and has never been investigated in all major U.S. ethnic groups within the same study. We performed hypertension and obesity screening in 4,330 school children (age 13.2 ± 1.5 yrs) from 4\\/02–11\\/02 in Houston-area schools.

Jonathan M. Sorof; Jennifer Turner; Tim Poffenbarger; Ronald J. Portman

2003-01-01

58

Managing Legitimacy in the Educational Quasi-Market: A Study of Ethnically Diverse, Inclusive Schools in Flanders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we examine how ethnically diverse, inclusive schools manage their legitimacy in an educational quasi-market. These schools are often threatened with a loss of legitimacy as ethnic majority parents perceive an ethnically diverse student population and radical pedagogical practices as signs of lower quality education. However,…

Mampaey, Jelle; Zanoni, Patrizia

2014-01-01

59

Education and obesity at age 40 among American adults  

PubMed Central

Although many have studied the association between educational attainment and obesity, studies to date have not fully examined prior common causes and possible interactions by race/ethnicity or gender. It is also not clear if the relationship between actual educational attainment and obesity is independent of the role of aspired educational attainment or expected educational attainment. The authors use generalized linear log link models to examine the association between educational attainment at age 25 and obesity (BMI?30) at age 40 in the USA’s National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, adjusting for demographics, confounders, and mediators. Race/ethnicity but not gender interacted with educational attainment. In a complete case analysis, after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, among whites only, college graduates were less likely than high school graduates to be obese (RR= 0.69, 95%CI: 0.57, 0.83). The risk ratio remained similar in two sensitivity analyses when the authors adjusted for educational aspirations and educational expectations and analyzed a multiply imputed dataset to address missingness. This more nuanced understanding of the role of education after controlling for a thorough set of confounders and mediators helps advance the study of social determinants of health and risk factors for obesity.

Cohen, Alison K.; Rehkopf, David H.; Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara

2012-01-01

60

Education and obesity at age 40 among American adults.  

PubMed

Although many have studied the association between educational attainment and obesity, studies to date have not fully examined prior common causes and possible interactions by race/ethnicity or gender. It is also not clear if the relationship between actual educational attainment and obesity is independent of the role of aspired educational attainment or expected educational attainment. The authors use generalized linear log link models to examine the association between educational attainment at age 25 and obesity (BMI?30) at age 40 in the USA's National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, adjusting for demographics, confounders, and mediators. Race/ethnicity but not gender interacted with educational attainment. In a complete case analysis, after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, among whites only, college graduates were less likely than high school graduates to be obese (RR = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.57, 0.83). The risk ratio remained similar in two sensitivity analyses when the authors adjusted for educational aspirations and educational expectations and analyzed a multiply imputed dataset to address missingness. This more nuanced understanding of the role of education after controlling for a thorough set of confounders and mediators helps advance the study of social determinants of health and risk factors for obesity. PMID:23246398

Cohen, Alison K; Rehkopf, David H; Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara

2013-02-01

61

Variations in responses to a symptom check-list by age, sex, income, residence and ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two rural, two outer- and two innercity population samples totaling 875 subjects were surveyed with the Langner symptom check-list and the results analysed by sex, age, income, residence and ethnicity. Women's scores exceeded those of men in all samples, but more so in the rural than in the urban groups. Age did not correlate with score in any sample and

F. Engelsmann; H. B. M. Murphy; R. Prince; M. Leduc; H. Demers

1972-01-01

62

Ongoing Issues of Racial and Ethnic Stigma in Education 50 Years after Brown v. Board  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Brown v. Board of Education" was focused on eliminating racial stigma and creating greater racial equity in education. Unfortunately, racial and ethnic stigma is still a powerful force in educational institutions of all kind. In this manuscript, I review the ways that stigma impedes academic performance, shapes the classroom climate and…

Zirkel, Sabrina

2005-01-01

63

Affirmative Action and the University: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Higher Education Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the impact of affirmative action on higher education hiring practices. Using data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics, the book summarizes, tracks, and evaluates changes in the gender and ethnic makeup of academic and nonacademic…

Rai, Kul B.; Critzer, John W.

64

The World in Our Neighbourhood: Black and Ethnic Minority Communities and Development Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a review of development education and the black and ethnic minority communities in Great Britain. The development education movement in the United Kingdom has been based on producing resources, training, and support to the deliverers of education, whether teachers, youth workers, or community organizers. A feature of the movement…

Ohri, Ashok

65

Lifelong education in the age of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on information technology, lifelong education, and the application of information technology in lifelong education. The text addresses adaptation of teachers to information society, adaptation of education, including primary and secondary education, higher education, and adult education, to information age; describes application of information technology in education; examines instructional strategies in education, such as, instructional computer games online

Xuhua Jiao; Lidong Miao

2010-01-01

66

The Condition of Education 2009: Indicator 7--Racial/Ethnic Enrollment in Public Schools. NCES 2009-081  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Condition of Education" is a congressionally mandated report that provides an annual portrait of education in the United States. This document includes information from "The Condition of Education 2009" about public school racial/ethnic enrollment. The shifting racial and ethnic distribution of public school students enrolled in kindergarten…

Planty, Michael; Hussar, William; Snyder, Thomas; Kena, Grace; KewalRamani, Angelina; Kemp, Jana; Bianco, Kevin; Dinkes, Rachel

2009-01-01

67

The Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents as Related to Parent Education Level and Race\\/Ethnicity in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores associations between scores on the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA), parent education level, and race\\/ethnicity in a normative sample of 450 children. Small but significant associations were found between parent education level and the RSCA Sense of Relatedness Scale score. Race\\/ethnicity did not contribute unique variance when parent education level was controlled.

Sandra Prince-Embury

2009-01-01

68

Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a) review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research,

Anna Woodall; Craig Morgan; Claire Sloan; Louise Howard

2010-01-01

69

Forensic age estimation in living subjects: the ethnic factor in wisdom tooth mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiological assessment of the mineralization stage of third molars is a major criterion for age estimation of living people involved in criminal proceedings. To date insufficient knowledge has been obtained about how the ethnic origin can influence tooth mineralization. A comparative study of wisdom tooth mineralization was carried out on three population samples: one German, one Japanese and one South

Andreas Olze; Andreas Schmeling; Mari Taniguchi; Hitoshi Maeda; Piet van Niekerk; Klaus-Dieter Wernecke; Gunther Geserick

2004-01-01

70

Online Learning across Ethnicity and Age: A Study on Learning Interaction Participation, Perception, and Learning Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed-method study examined whether online learning interaction participation, perception, and learning satisfaction would be consistent across varied age and ethnicity groups. Data were collected from students enrolled in 28 online courses via content analysis with online interaction transcripts, structural equation modeling with the…

Ke, Fengfeng; Kwak, Dean

2013-01-01

71

Children's Attitudes toward Singing and Song Recordings Related to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines students' attitudes toward singing and choir participation related to gender, age, and ethnic background. It also looks at attitudes toward recordings from basal music series that are designed to provide an appropriate model and to encourage singing. Participants (N = 249) were third to fifth graders enrolled in two public…

Siebenaler, Dennis

2008-01-01

72

Sexual orientation disparities in adolescent cigarette smoking: intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n?=?64?397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay-lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians-gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians-gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

Corliss, Heather L; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A; Newcomb, Michael E; Buchting, Francisco O; Matthews, Alicia K

2014-06-01

73

Test Anxiety and Study Behavior of Community College Students in Relation to Ethnicity, Gender, and Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted on community college students in order to determine the correlational values among the variables of test anxiety and study behavior, and the student characteristics of age, gender, and ethnicity. Students enrolled in introductory psychology and English classes at American River College and Sacramento City College in…

Rasor, Lori T.; Rasor, Richard A.

74

Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

2012-01-01

75

Does Self-Esteem Affect Educational Aspirations? The Case of the Ethnic Enclave.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although self-esteem is generally not related to educational aspirations, the relationship is important among students in segregated communities. Here ethnic homogeneity makes adolescents rely heavily on their self-image for the formation of educational plans. This case study of Oriental Jews in Israel is applicable to minority communities in the…

Yogev, Abraham; Ilan, Yochi

1987-01-01

76

Strategic Plan To Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education. Annual Report 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creation of a Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education was among the original statutory mandates assigned to the Board of Governors of Higher Education by its 1982 enabling legislation. The purpose of the plan is to "ensure that students, faculty, administrators and staff at each public…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2004

2004-01-01

77

Education in the Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is moving into the digital age. Pedagogies have changed to engage the latest digital technologies. The methods of distribution are now a blend between face-to-face and some other combination of virtual interfaces. The content is moving from traditional text-based learning to text-plus-multimedia. The community is now involved in the…

Thierstein, Joel

2009-01-01

78

Ethnic Nationalities, Education, and Problems of National Integration in Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes the standard Pakistan social studies curriculum to investigate (1) the extent to which it represents ethnic nationalities of Pakistan, and (2) the extent to which it demonstrates its contribution to the process of national cohesion and integration. The findings presented are based on a content analysis (both trend and variable)…

Kazi, Aftab A.

1988-01-01

79

Education for Peace: Protest Strategies of Ethnic Resistance Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While studying the consequences of violent and non-violent protests, the current literature is mostly mute on the question of why some ethnic collectivities prefer violent political action over non-violence. This question is especially interesting as recent empirical studies reveal functional effectiveness of non-violent tactics vis-a-vis violent…

Shaykhutdinov, Renat

2011-01-01

80

The Importance of Ethnic Cultural Competency in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of cultural competency in physical education is unmistakable. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) has identified elements of cultural competency within both the National Standards for Physical Education and the National Standards and Guidelines for Physical Education Teacher Education. Although there…

Hansen, Ken

2014-01-01

81

The Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents as Related to Parent Education Level and Race/Ethnicity in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores associations between scores on the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA), parent education level, and race/ethnicity in a normative sample of 450 children. Small but significant associations were found between parent education level and the RSCA Sense of Relatedness Scale score. Race/ethnicity did not contribute…

Prince-Embury, Sandra

2009-01-01

82

Ethnic and Gender Trends for Cardiovascular Risk Behaviors in Anglo and Mexican American Children, Ages Four to Seven.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender and ethnic trends in Mexican American and Anglo preschoolers at home and school using physical, physiological, dietary, activity, and socioenvironmental assessments. Height and total skinfolds showed significant ethnic differences, confirming that preschool represents an age of rapid habit and behavior development…

Nader, Philip R.; And Others

1995-01-01

83

Effects of ethnicity on skeletal maturation: consequences for forensic age estimations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An X-ray of the hand is an important method in forensic science for estimation of the age of juvenile suspects with uncertain\\u000a date of birth. Relevant X-ray standards for evaluation of skeletal maturity are available for white US Americans as well as\\u000a for North and Central Europeans. The applicability of these standards to members of ethnic groups different from the

A. Schmeling; W. Reisinger; D. Loreck; K. Vendura; W. Markus; G. Geserick

2000-01-01

84

Efficacy of a Gender and Ethnic Equity in Science Education Curriculum for Preservice Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details of the Gender and Ethnic Equity in Science Education (GEESE) program that gives preservice science teachers the opportunity to use clinical observations and reflection as vehicles for discovering the disparate school experiences of the diverse students in their science classrooms. Contains 71 references. (DDR)

Bullock, Linda D.

1997-01-01

85

Ethnic Environment during Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and…

Bygren, Magnus; Szulkin, Ryszard

2010-01-01

86

Our University: Ethnicity, Higher Education and the Quest for State Legitimacy in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In East Africa, no other country has witnessed as great a surge in university institutions as Kenya. The intent of this paper is to explore the persistence of the ethnic configurations in the surge of higher education in Kenya, within the context of the country's history. Outlining the major flashpoints in the country's history will be…

Munene, Ishmael I.

2012-01-01

87

Ethnic, Women's, and African American Studies Majors in U.S. Institutions of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American Studies, Ethnic Studies, and Women's Studies programs in higher education have received wide support from faculty members and students, yet few programs offer a major or have tenure-line faculty positions. Our analysis used sociological theories to generate testable implications about the chances that an institution will offer…

Olzak, Susan; Kangas, Nicole

2008-01-01

88

Preferences towards Sex Education and Information from an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…

Coleman, L.; Testa, A.

2007-01-01

89

Promoting Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Faculty: What Higher Education Unions Can Do  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By any measure, the representation of racially and ethnically underrepresented groups in the ranks of college and university faculty is disproportionately low compared with the general population or with the demographics of the undergraduate and graduate student populations, who are the training pool for higher education. In 2005-2006,…

American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2010

2010-01-01

90

Education, Ethnic Homogenization and Cultural Hybridization (Brussels, Belgium, and Cape Town, South Africa).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eight chapters of this theme issue examine the ways in which autochthonous communities regard the supply side of education. The supply side is segregational in nature, and immigrants themselves move toward ethnic homogenization. The focus is on urban minorities in Brussels (Belgium). Compares the situation in Cape Town (South Africa). (SLD)

Leman, Johan, Ed.

1999-01-01

91

Exploring the Educational Benefits of Attending an Ethnically Diverse Magnet High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to gather teacher and student perceptions of the educational benefits that emerge from providing diverse learning environments for students attending an inter-district magnet school. Research Questions were (1) In what ways do teachers and students report that the magnet school offers an ethnically diverse learning…

Carey, Jill

2010-01-01

92

Preferential Policies and Ethnic Differences in Post-Secondary Education in Peninsular Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we use the second wave of the Malaysian family life survey conducted in 1988-1989 to examine the effects of the national economic policy (NEP) instituted by the Malaysian government in 1971 to promote educational opportunities of hitherto disadvantaged ethnic Malays. The analysis focuses on the probability of entering post-secondary…

Agadjanian, Victor; Peng Liew, Hui

2005-01-01

93

School-based HIV/AIDS education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviors and better grades with gender and race/ethnicity differences.  

PubMed

Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum. PMID:24399260

Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H

2014-04-01

94

Gender by ethnic equity issues as they pertain to success in science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science is traditionally a white-male dominated field. This trend has foundations in beliefs and practices accepted before the Enlightenment period. Sixteenth and seventeenth century writers further promoted perceptions that women lacked intellectual capacity to indulge in science. A similar viewpoint was applied to non-white ethnic groups during the 19th and 20th centuries. Questions over Eurocentric and androcentric aspects of science were first raised publicly in 1869, yet significant change in the proportions of women and minorities in science-related fields remains disproportionately low. Public awareness of this situation extends to education where students demonstrate beliefs that opportunities in science are primarily for white males. This commonly shared belief typically produces negative effects on success rates in science education for females and minorities. The purpose of this study was to determine if gender-by-ethnic factors are culturally specific. Do members of one gender/ethnic subgroup experience deterrents to success in science education not common in other ethnic groups? Contrariwise, are negative factors shared across ethnic groups? An effort is made to identify potential gender/ethnic-related barriers that serve to reduce success rates and potentially generate negative attitudes for students about science. A 74-item Likert scale was developed to reveal students' perceptions of issues relative to science education. This instrument was administered to 30 female and 30 male high school students in each of four ethnic groups (African American, Mexican American, American Indian, and Euro American) from public or tribal schools in a large southwestern (United States) urban community. Randomly selected participants from each subgroup were then interviewed to expound upon relevant issues. A reoccurring pattern of reduced interest and experiences in science activities was noted among male American Indians. These participants most often differed with one or more of the other gender/ethnic subgroups in expectations and opportunities for academic success. Most students anticipated support from parents and educators if they were to choose a science related career; however, few expected like consideration from peers. Historical and current issues of cultural relevance are considered as potential sources for outcome patterns noted from the study. Possible areas for future studies are offered.

Snyder, Jan David

95

"Just Open Your Eyes a Bit More": The Methodological Challenges of Researching Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we discuss some of the challenges of centralising "race" and ethnicity in Physical Education (PE) research, through reflecting on the design and implementation of a study exploring Black and minority ethnic students' experiences of their teacher education. Our aim in the paper is to contribute to ongoing theoretical and…

Flintoff, Anne; Webb, Louisa

2012-01-01

96

Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

97

Educating Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam: Policies and Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher education programs in Vietnam, like their counterparts in most multicultural societies, struggle to address the issues of access, equity, and excellence. The nation's minority groups, about 13 percent of the population, traditionally have not gained admission to educational opportunities on a par with members of the majority group,…

Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie

2007-01-01

98

Ethnic Inequality in Choice-Driven Education Systems: A Longitudinal Study of Performance and Choice in England and Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors ask whether choice-driven education systems, with comprehensive schools and mass education at the secondary and tertiary level, represented in this article by England and Sweden, provide educational opportunities for ethnic minorities. In studying educational attainment, the authors make a theoretical distinction between mechanisms…

Jackson, Michelle; Jonsson, Jan O.; Rudolphi, Frida

2012-01-01

99

Illegitimate Participation? A Group of Young Minority Ethnic Children's Experiences of Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north-west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried…

Barron, Ian

2009-01-01

100

Illegitimate participation? A group of young minority ethnic children’s experiences of early childhood education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north?west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried out

Ian Barron

2009-01-01

101

Physical model reproduction from ct scans classified according to gender, ethnicity, and age - biomed 2009.  

PubMed

Eye trauma is an increasing problem, especially in the military, due to blunt force trauma. One way to mitigate eye injury is to wear protective eye equipment. An essential part of creating protective eye equipment is prototype testing in controlled eye trauma simulations. In addition, the protective equipment must fit properly and thus incorporate variance, specifically among gender, ethnicity, and age. It is beneficial to create standard orbits classified according to the aforementioned categories of gender, ethnicity, and age. Using head CT scans from grossly normal subjects, segmentation of the ocular orbit was performed. This segmented mask was then imported into a three dimensional printing software. Orbits from different sizes, ages, genders, and races were created and printed using a ZCorp printer. A mold negative was then created from the 3D printed orbits using InstaMold. After the mold was cured and removed from the printed orbit, reproductions of the eye orbit were created from this negative. These methods will be used in the future to make molds for many different ages, genders, and races in order to create accurate models of the eye orbit. These can then be used to develop impact tests by incorporating eye samples into these sockets of uniform shape. These methods for creating surrogate eye sockets will reduce the need for cadaver eye sockets and will increase the number of tests that can be performed. By creating accurate models, more accurate representations of eye trauma and its prevention can be investigated. PMID:19369791

Taylor, Lindsey A; Danelson, Kerry A; Gayzik, F Scott; Loftis, Kathryn L; Stitzel, Joel D

2009-01-01

102

Development of Ethnic Researchers and the Education of White Researchers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most debilitating factor that minority researchers must overcome in order to become active participants in the educational research community is the negative attitude of White researchers toward their minority colleagues. (Author/GC)

Valverde, Leonard A.

1980-01-01

103

Exploring the Relationship Between Race\\/Ethnicity, Age of First School-Based Services Utilization, and Age of First Specialty Mental Health Care for At-Risk Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated race\\/ethnic variations in age of entry into school-based services and specialty mental health outpatient services among 1552 high-risk youths served in a publicly funded system of care. Non-Hispanic White youths were more likely to receive school-based services as compared to ethnic minority groups, and to begin use at an earlier age. In addition, the earlier a child

Patricia A. Wood; May Yeh; David Pan; Katina M. Lambros; Kristen M. McCabe; Richard L. Hough

2005-01-01

104

Avoidance ratings and fears of Chinese adults by age, ethnic group, sex, and residency.  

PubMed

Few studies among the Chinese population concerning avoidance out of fear have been reported. Existing studies are limited to school and collegiate samples while overlooking ethnic minorities, of which China has more than 50. In this study, a general population sample in China indicated the level at which they would avoid certain situations. The data were analyzed relative to age, ethnicity, sex, and the amount of time living in urban or rural areas. Three samples (urban Han, n=144; rural Han, n=144; Urban Hui, n=72) were selected using stratified quota sampling. Respondents identified that they avoided social situations the most and agoraphobic situations the least. Overall, women expressed significantly greater fear. This sex difference was less marked in the urban sample where the Chinese tradition of male dominance has been diluted due to urbanization and modernization. There were few age-related differences, although some fears among the elderly were explained by age-related vulnerabilities and folklore. The Hui minority group had significantly lower overall scores than the Han group; this was attributed to the role of their Islamic beliefs. PMID:18982933

Davey, Gareth

2008-08-01

105

Age-dependent changes in eumelanin composition in hairs of various ethnic origins.  

PubMed

Hair pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes of humans. From a chemical point of view, however, data remain scarce regarding human hair pigmentation characteristics. To determine melanin content and composition in human eumelanic hair from individuals of different ethnic origins and at different ages, we collected hair from 56 subjects with eumelanic hair from each group of African-American, East Asian, and Caucasian origin. The 56 subjects consist of 14, seven each of males and females, each from four age classes of younger than 11, between 12 and 19, between 20 and 45, and older than 46. We analysed hair colour scale, total melanin value, and contents of pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA). We measured age-dependent increases in the relative quantity of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs in the three ethnic groups. Regarding melanin composition, we observed an increase in the PDCA/PTCA ratio with age in African-American and Caucasian hairs until approaching the quite constant level of the ratio in East Asian hairs in the elderly individuals. Our results evidence differences in the content and composition of eumelanin in human hair among African-American, Caucasian and East Asian individuals. Furthermore, we show evidence of age-dependent changes in the quantity and quality of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs. In particular, the age-dependent modification of the PDCA/PTCA ratio, a marker for 5,6-dihydroxyindole units in eumelanin, suggests a chronological evolution of hair follicle melanocyte phenotype (e.g. decrease in dopachrome tautomerase expression). PMID:22017184

Commo, S; Wakamatsu, K; Lozano, I; Panhard, S; Loussouarn, G; Bernard, B A; Ito, S

2012-02-01

106

Ethnicity, Communal Relations, and Education in Sri Lanka (Ceylon).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author provides a brief cultural history of Sri Lanka (Ceylon), giving particular attention to the relations between the Sinhalese majority and the Tamil minority and the effects that differing religions, languages, cultures, and educational opportunities have had on that relationship. (IRT)

Sharma, C. L.

107

Short Sleep Duration across Income, Education and Race/Ethnic Groups: Population Prevalence and Growing Disparities over 34 Years of Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Purpose Little is known about population determinants of short sleep duration. The authors examined associations between short sleep duration and income, education and race/ethnicity, and assessed changes over time in relative disparities. Methods Questionnaire data from the Alameda County Health and Ways of Living Study (ACS) was obtained at five time-points (1965, 1974, 1983, 1994, and 1999) for short sleep duration (<7 hours sleep per night). Household income, education level and race/ethnicity were assessed at baseline (n=6928). Odds ratios were computed to examine short sleep duration across income, education and race/ethnicity, adjusting for age, sex and time-varying covariates, and to assess changes over time. Results Prevalence of short sleep at baseline was 15.2%.The (age-adjusted) odds of short sleep was increased for the lowest household income quintile (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.94), those with less than high school education (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.75), and among African Americans (odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68, 2.30). Relative disparities increased over time for African Americans and Hispanics compared to whites. Conclusions Socioeconomic position is a robust determinant of short sleep duration, even after adjusting for health-related characteristics linked to short sleep duration.

Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Kaplan, George A.; Roberts, Robert E.

2007-01-01

108

Ethnic Minority Pupils in Swedish Schools: Some Trends in Over-Representation of Minority Pupils in Special Educational Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The way categories, labels, and taxonomies are used depends upon national ideologies and nationally specific conceptions of citizenship and normality. Ethnicity, differences, disability and deviance are social constructions. Underachievement or overachievement in social (cognitive) performance or overrepresentation in special educational

Berhanu, Girma

2008-01-01

109

Prevalence Differences of Psychiatric Disorders among Youth after Nine Months or more of Incarceration by Race\\/Ethnicity and Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite high rates of psychiatric morbidity among young offenders, few studies look closely at prevalence rates in terms of race\\/ethnicity or developmental stage. Seven hundred and ninety (790) incarcerated young people with a mean age of 18±1.2 years were examined. The racial\\/ethnic distribution was White (17%), African American (28%), Hispanic (47%) and Other (8%). White males had greater than average

Marie V. Soller; DrMedUniv Hans Steiner

2010-01-01

110

Prevalence Differences of Psychiatric Disorders among Youth after Nine Months or more of Incarceration by Race\\/Ethnicity and Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Despite high rates of psychiatric morbidity among young offenders, few studies look closely at prevalence rates in terms of race\\/ethnicity or developmental stage. Seven hundred and ninety (790) incarcerated young people with a mean age of 18±1.2 years were examined. The racial\\/ethnic distribution was White (17%), African American (28%), Hispanic (47%) and Other (8%). White males had greater than average

Niranjan S. Karnik; Marie V. Soller; Allison Redlich; Melissa A. Silverman; Helena C. Kraemer; Rudy Haapanen; Hans Steiner

2010-01-01

111

Parental Aspirations for Their Children’s Educational Attainment: Relations to Ethnicity, Parental Education, Children’s Academic Performance, and Parental Perceptions of School Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined parental aspirations for their children’s educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American,\\u000a Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children’s academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality\\u000a and climate of their children’s school with a sample of 13,577 middle and high school parents. All parents had relatively\\u000a high educational aspirations for their children, and within each ethnic

Christopher Spera; Kathryn R. Wentzel; Holly C. Matto

2009-01-01

112

Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices.  

PubMed

Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N; Moss, Cynthia

2014-04-01

113

Trends in Enrollment in Higher Education, by Racial/Ethnic Category: Fall 1982 through Fall 1992. E.D. Tabs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents findings from two national enrollment surveys on 10 year trends in higher education enrollment by racial/ethnic category in 17 tables. The surveys used are the Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) and the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). The data presented are for about 3,600…

Schmitt, Carl M.

114

The Hidden Costs of Ethnic Conflict: Decomposing Trends in Educational Outcomes of Young Kosovars. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of ethnic segmentation in education on educational outcomes. Between 1991 and the late 1990s, the Albanian Kosovar population received education services in an informal system parallel to the official one. Using the 2000 Kosovo Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) data, this paper exploits cohort differences in…

Alva, Soumya; Murrugarra, Edmundo; Paci, Pierella

115

Ethnic Differences in Cardiometabolic Risk Profile at Age 5-6 Years: The ABCD Study  

PubMed Central

Background To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Method Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample) fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5–6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n?=?2,008; blood n?=?1,300), African descent (n?=?199; blood n?=?105), Turkish (n?=?108; blood n?=?57) and Moroccan (n?=?194; blood n?=?94). Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP), fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. Results After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (?2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09–3.36) and HDL levels (?:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03–0.16) compared to Dutch children (reference group). Turkish children showed higher SBP (?:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25–3.54), DBP (?:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11–4.13), glucose (?:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00–0.25) and triglyceride levels (?:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02–0.25). Higher BMI values were found in all non–Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53–1.03 kg/m2) and higher WC in Turkish (?:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99–2.38) and Moroccan (?:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11–2.19) children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. Conclusion Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC.

de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

2012-01-01

116

American Education: Implications from the Information Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the needs of future educational systems in an age of information. Characteristics of such systems are described and analyzed. An information age educational system would stress the big picture, be experimental, emphasize skills and tools of thought and action and extend throughout life. It would have alternative delivery…

Gardner, William E.

117

THIRD AGE EDUCATION: QUESTIONS THAT NEED ASKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many respects the third age is newly discovered territory, and it is therefore instructive to ask whether our understanding of the problems posed for education in the later years can in any way be aided by current developments in thinking about education in the Third World. In this paper the author, who brings to educational gerontology the experience of

David Radcliffe

1982-01-01

118

Prescribing in general practice for people with coronary heart disease; equity by age, sex, ethnic group and deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Differences in drug prescribing for coronary heart disease have previously been identified by age, sex and ethnic group. Set in the UK, our study utilises routinely collected data from 98 general practices serving a socially diverse population in inner East London, to examine differences in prescribing rates among patients aged 35 years and over with coronary heart disease.Design. 10,933

Rohini Mathur; Ellena Badrick; Kambiz Boomla; Stephen Bremner; Sally Hull; John Robson

2011-01-01

119

Annual Cancer Death Rates, U.S., 1995-1999 (by Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity)  

Cancer.gov

Table 6. Average annual cancer death rates * by age, sex, and race/ethnicity † , United States ‡ , 1995-1999. Male Female White Black AI/AN API Hispanic White Black AI/AN API Hispanic Rate Rate Rate Rate Rate Rate Rate Rate Rate Rate All sites All ages

120

Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989-2005  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education.

EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.

2012-01-01

121

Dynamics of Acculturation, Enculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Influence of Psychocultural Constructs on Conscientiousness and Expectations of Higher Education among Latinos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influence of psychocultural variables (e.g., acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity) and personality characteristics in relation to educational expectations among 345 Latino middle school students in the U.S. Results from a path model indicate that 24.4% of the variance of educational expectations was accounted…

Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.; Davis, Matthew J.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Vaquero, Juana; Thompson, Keisha V.; Saldivar, Isaac M.

2012-01-01

122

Enhancing Ethnic Diversity at a Big Ten University Through Project TEAM: A Case Study in Teacher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project Transformative Educational Achievement Model (TEAM) is an instructional initiative designed to increase the number of students from underrepresented minorities at Indiana University who enter a teacher education program (P–12), complete their baccalaureate degree, and obtain teaching licensure in Indiana. A conceptual framework based on theories of campus climate and integrated pluralism, ethnic identity development, and teaching for social justice

Christine I. Bennett

2002-01-01

123

Students Call for Nuclear Age Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators and students, discussing the future of nuclear age education at a symposium, generally agreed that knowledge and values are separated in society. Sources of information and of the proceedings are listed along with the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development's (ASCD) resolution on nuclear freeze. (MLF)

Rose, Fred

1983-01-01

124

Development of Ethnic, Racial, and National Prejudice in Childhood and Adolescence: A Multinational Meta-Analysis of Age Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…

Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

2011-01-01

125

One-year rates of public shelter utilization by race\\/ethnicity, age, sex and poverty status for New York City (1990 and 1995) and Philadelphia (1995)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study calculates public homeless shelter utilization rates by sex, race\\/ethnicity and age status for New York City (1990 and 1995) and Philadelphia (fiscal year 1995) to determine the relative risk for shelter use among different demographic groups in these cities. The resulting shelter utilization rates reveal large disparities among age groups and across racial\\/ethnic groups, as well as showing

Dennis Culhane; Stephen Metraux

1999-01-01

126

How Useful Is Body Mass Index for Comparison of Body Fatness across Age, Sex, and Ethnic Groups?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis that body mass index (BMI) is representative of body fatness independent of age, sex, and ethnicity. Between 1986 and 1992, the authors studied a total of 202 black and 504 white men and women who resided in or near New York City, were ages 20-94 years, and had BMIs of 18-35 kg\\/m2. Total body fat,

Dympna Gallagher; Marjolein Visser; Dennis Sepulveda; Richard N. Pierson; Tamara Harris; Steven B. Heymsfield

1996-01-01

127

Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity  

SciTech Connect

The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2010-07-15

128

Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity.  

PubMed

The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. PMID:20400068

Mijal, Renée S; Holzman, Claudia B

2010-07-01

129

Science education in a secular age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.

Long, David E.

2013-03-01

130

Underrepresentation by Race-Ethnicity across Stages of U.S. Science and Engineering Education  

PubMed Central

Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives are underrepresented in science and engineering fields. A comparison of race–ethnic differences at key transition points was undertaken to better inform education policy. National data on high school graduation, college enrollment, choice of major, college graduation, graduate school enrollment, and doctoral degrees were used to quantify the degree of underrepresentation at each level of education and the rate of transition to the next stage. Disparities are found at every level, and their impact is cumulative. For the most part, differences in graduation rates, rather than differential matriculation rates, make the largest contribution to the underrepresentation. The size, scope, and persistence of the disparities suggest that small-scale, narrowly targeted remediation will be insufficient.

Garrison, Howard

2013-01-01

131

Faculty Racial/Ethnic Diversity in the Oregon State System of Higher Education. A Report Prepared for the Oregon State Board of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data on the racial and ethnic diversity of faculty in the Oregon State System of Higher Education (OSSHE) as of October 1996. Comparative data for U.S. institutions in general are for 1992 and are from the National Center for Education Statistics. Highlights include: (1) African Americans make up 0.9 percent of OSSHE faculty…

Oregon State System of Higher Education, Portland. Office of Institutional Research.

132

Parental Aspirations for Their Children's Educational Attainment: Relations to Ethnicity, Parental Education, Children's Academic Performance, and Parental Perceptions of School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined parental aspirations for their children's educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children's academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality and climate of their children's school with a sample of 13,577 middle and high school parents. All…

Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Matto, Holly C.

2009-01-01

133

Gender, ethnic, age, and relationship differences in non-traditional college student alcohol consumption: a tri-ethnic study.  

PubMed

Group differences in four aspects of alcohol consumption behaviors were examined in non-traditional college students (N = 1092; 828 women and 264 men) attending a large, non-residential, urban university. Findings demonstrated several differences between traditional and non-traditional students' drinking behaviors. Specifically, non-traditional students are more likely to abstain; Caucasians are more apt to drink in isolation and experience negative social consequences of drinking; Hispanic and African American women control their alcohol consumption better; and African American men are more likely to experience antisocial consequences due to drinking. These findings have implications for education and prevention efforts targeting non-traditional college students. PMID:22381121

Babb, Stephanie; Stewart, Cynthia; Bachman, Christine

2012-01-01

134

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Hypertension Risk: New Diagnoses After Age 50  

PubMed Central

Objectives This research examines the differences in estimated risk of developing hypertension in whites, blacks, and Mexican-Americans age 50 and over for a period of 11 years. Design, Setting, and Participants Data came from 9,259 respondents who reported being hypertension-free at the baseline in the Health and Retirement Study with up to five time intervals (1998-2006). Discrete-time survival models were used to analyze ethnic variations in the probability of developing hypertension. Main Outcome Measure Estimated odds of developing hypertension. Results The risk of newly diagnosed hypertension increased between 1995 and 2006 for HRS participants over age 50 years. After adjusting for demographic and health status, the probability of incident hypertension among black Americans was 0.10 during the period of 1995/96-1998, which increased steadily to 0.17 in 2004-2006, and cumulative incidence over the 11-year period at 51%. In contrast, among white Americans the risk was 0.07 during 1995/96-1998 and 0.13 in 2004-2006, with cumulative incidence at 43%. For Mexican-Americans, the probability also increased from 0.08 during 1995/96-1998 to 0.14 during 2004-2006, and cumulative incidence at 42%. Conclusions Relative to white and Mexican-Americans, black Americans had an elevated risk of incident hypertension throughout the 11-year period of observation. These variations persisted even when differences in health behaviors, socioeconomic status, demographic, and time-varying health characteristics are accounted for.

Quinones, Ana R.; Liang, Jersey; Ye, Wen

2014-01-01

135

Dropout and Downward Mobility in the Educational Career: An Event-History Analysis of Ethnic Schooling Differences in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many aspects of educational careers have been examined in the literature on ethnic minorities, such as truancy, turnover and grades, downward mobility has rarely been studied. Using data on more than 10,000 students who entered secondary school in The Netherlands in 1989, we develop an event-history model for secondary school careers and we…

Kalmijn, Matthijs; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

2003-01-01

136

Who's in STEM? An Exploration of Race, Ethnicity, and Citizenship Reporting in a Federal Education Dataset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the United States becomes more racially and ethnically diverse and draws more students from across the globe, more representative data are needed to understand at-risk and underrepresented populations in higher education, particularly in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. The authors argue that the current…

Byrd, W. Carson; Dika, Sandra L.; Ramlal, Letticia T.

2013-01-01

137

A Community Needs Assessment for Post-Secondary Education on the Multi-Ethnic Island of Lana'i.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To gather information for Maui Community College's (MCC's), on the Multi-Ethnic Island of Lana'i. fall 1992 of students and residents of the island of Lana'i to assess community interests and educational needs. Responses were received from 232 Lana'i residents, of whom 49% were current or former students, 31% were male, and 84% were employed.…

Pezzoli, J. A.; McOmber, Phyllis

138

Relationship of Alcohol Use to Delinquency and Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents: Gender, Age, and Racial\\/Ethnic Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol use has been linked to other substance use and delinquency in adolescents. However, few studies have examined variations in these relationships in representative subsamples of gender, age and racial\\/ethnic groups. Respondents in this study were 19,321 New York State 7–12th grade students. After controlling for significant sociodemographic factors in a regression analysis, all of the alcohol measures remained strong

Grace M. Barnes; John W. Welte; Joseph H. Hoffman

2002-01-01

139

Higher Education and an Aging Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seven papers in this report were prepared as part of a project intended to open a dialogue between leaders of higher education and aging communities, and were originally developed as background material for an invitational meeting between these groups. The first three papers deal with broad issues in which both communities share an interest.…

Gerontological Society of America.

140

Gender, ethnicity, culture and social class influences on childhood obesity among Australian schoolchildren: implications for treatment, prevention and community education.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to explore the associations between obesity, weight perceptions and gender, ethnicity, culture and social class in a large national study of Australian school children. Primary and high schools (N = 47) were recruited from every state and territory of Australia and included 7889 children from government, private and Catholic schools (82% response rate) in August-November, 2006. The socioeconomic status (SES) of schools was based on a government survey of total family income. A questionnaire completed by students, measured demographic details of gender, age, weight perceptions and ethnic/cultural background. Height and weight were measured by trained research assistants. Outcome measures included body mass index (BMI), prevalence of obesity, overweight, weight perceptions. Prevalence of obesity was 6.4% of males and 5.6% of females in primary school students (P = 0.34). More high school males were obese than females (7.7% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.001). Obesity was more prevalent among students from Pacific Islander backgrounds. Adolescents who were most likely to be obese were boys and girls of low SES or Pacific Islander or Middle Eastern/Arabic background. The least likely to be obese were Anglo/Caucasian or Asian students and in particular, the girls. Obese female adolescents from Aboriginal, Middle Eastern/Arabic and Pacific Islander backgrounds were less likely than their Caucasian or Asian peers to perceive themselves as 'too fat'.Those working in clinical, community or educational settings with young people and in particular, obese young people, should be aware that obesity is likely to be more prevalent, more culturally acceptable and perhaps more desirable among children and teens from low SES communities and/or Middle Eastern and Pacific Islander backgrounds. Health and social work professionals should be careful not to exaggerate the risks of overweight or obesity or inadvertently create weight concerns among young people. The different body image perceptions identified in this study should be taken into account when planning clinical, community or preventive initiatives among children or adolescents from varying ethnic groups. PMID:18328051

O'Dea, Jennifer A

2008-05-01

141

The role of age, ethnicity and environmental factors in modulating malaria risk in Rajasthali, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is endemic in the Rajasthali region of the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh and the Rajasthali region is the most endemic area of Bangladesh. Quantifying the role of environmental and socio-economic factors in the local spatial patterns of malaria endemicity can contribute to successful malaria control and elimination. This study aimed to investigate the role of environmental factors on malaria risk in Rajasthali and to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Method A total of 4,200 (78.9%; N = 5,322) households were targeted in Rajasthali in July, 2009, and 1,400 individuals were screened using a rapid diagnostic test (Falci-vax). These data were linked to environmental and socio-economic data in a geographical information system. To describe the association between environmental factors and malaria risk, a generalized linear mixed model approach was utilized. The study investigated the role of environmental factors on malaria risk by calculating their population-attributable fractions (PAF), and used residual semivariograms to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Results Overall malaria prevalence was 11.7%. Out of 5,322 households, 44.12% households were living in areas with malaria prevalence of ? 10%. The results from statistical analysis showed that age, ethnicity, proximity to forest, household density, and elevation were significantly and positively correlated with the malaria risk and PAF estimation. The highest PAF of malaria prevalence was 47.7% for third tertile (n = 467) of forest cover, 17.6% for second tertile (n = 467) of forest cover and 19.9% for household density >1,000. Conclusion Targeting of malaria health interventions at small spatial scales in Bangladesh should consider the social and socio-economic risk factors identified as well as alternative methods for improving equity of access to interventions across whole communities.

2011-01-01

142

Ethnicity, Education, and Fertility Transition in Kinshasa, Congo. Working Paper 2-97-1. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substantial ethnic differences in fertility were documented in the Congo in the mid-1950s. These differences, apparent as well among women residing in Kinshasa, the capital, were linked to variations across ethnic groups in the incidence of venereal diseases and sterility. By the mid-1970s ethnic differences in fertility had diminished but were…

Shapiro, David; Tambashe, B. Oleko

143

Enhance Ideological Political Education Work for Ethnic Minority Students and Build up Harmonious Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To accelerate the development of the ethnic minority regions and cultivate ethnic minority talent, the state has successively implemented policies of setting up the Tibet Class and the Xinjiang Class in institutions of higher learning in China's interior regions ("neidi"), enabling some of the finest young students among the ethnic minorities to…

Liu, Yi

2010-01-01

144

Singapore Education Sector Analysis: Improvement and Challenges in Academic Performance of Four Ethnic Groups in Singapore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singapore is a multi-ethnic nation-state with the following ethnic groups: Chinese (76.8%), Malay (13.9%), Indian (7.9%), and Others (1.4%) such as Eurasians, Europeans, Arabs, Jews, and Japanese. A bilingual policy, which takes English as a lingua franca and Mandarin, Malay, and Tamil as mother tongue for each ethnic group, reflects this…

Yamashita, Mika

145

Age and Racial\\/Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Reported Symptoms in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Persons on Antiretroviral Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have evaluated age and racial\\/ethnic differences in the prevalence of symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of gastrointestinal, metabolic, general malaise, neurologic, or other self-reported symptoms by age and race\\/ethnicity among 1574 HIV-infected women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study and 955 HIV-infected men who

Michael J. Silverberg; Lisa P. Jacobson; Audrey L. French; Mallory D. Witt; Stephen J. Gange

2009-01-01

146

Crossing boundaries: nativity, ethnicity, and mate selection.  

PubMed

The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration has often focused on panethnic differences, and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican-, Mexican-, Chinese-, and Filipino-origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a lesser extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups. PMID:22350840

Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E; Batson, Christie D

2012-05-01

147

Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989-2005.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals' life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

Everett, Bethany G; Rogers, Richard G; Hummer, Robert A; Krueger, Patrick M

2011-01-01

148

Is access to specialist assessment of chest pain equitable by age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status? An enhanced ecological analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether access to rapid access chest pain clinics of people with recent onset symptoms is equitable by age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and gender, according to need. Design Retrospective cohort study with ecological analysis. Setting Patients referred from primary care to five rapid access chest pain clinics in secondary care, across England. Participants Of 8647 patients aged ?35?years referred to chest pain clinics with new-onset stable chest pain but no known cardiac history, 7570 with documented census ward codes, age, gender and ethnicity comprised the study group. Patients excluded were those with missing date of birth, gender or ethnicity (n=782) and those with missing census ward codes (n=295). Outcome measures Effects of age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status on clinic attendance were calculated as attendance rate ratios, with number of attendances as the outcome and resident population-years as the exposure in each stratum, using Poisson regression. Attendance rate ratios were then compared with coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality ratios to determine whether attendance was equitable according to need. Results Adjusted attendance rate ratios for patients aged >65?years were similar to younger patients (1.1, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.16), despite population CHD mortality rate ratios nearly 15 times higher in the older age group. Women had lower attendance rate ratios (0.81, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.84) and also lower population CHD mortality rate ratios compared with men. South Asians had higher attendance rates (1.67, 95% CI 1.57 to 1.77) compared with whites and had a higher standardised CHD mortality ratio of 1.46 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.51). Although univariable analysis showed that the most deprived patients (quintile 5) had an attendance rate twice that of less deprived quintiles, the adjusted analysis showed their attendance to be 13% lower (0.87, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.94) despite a higher population CHD mortality rate. Conclusion There is evidence of underutilisation of chest pain clinics by older people and those from lower socioeconomic status. More robust and patient focused administrative pathways need to be developed to detect inequity, correction of which has the potential to substantially reduce coronary mortality.

Sekhri, Neha; Hemingway, Harry; Walsh, Niamh; Eldridge, Sandra; Junghans, Cornelia; Feder, Gene

2012-01-01

149

Age and ethnic differences in volumetric breast density in new zealand women: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Breast cancer incidence differs by ethnicity in New Zealand (NZ) with M?ori (the indigenous people) women having the highest rates followed by Pakeha (people primarily of British/European descent), Pacific and Asian women, who experience the lowest rates. The reasons for these differences are unclear. Breast density, an important risk factor for breast cancer, has not previously been studied here. We used an automated system, Volpara™, to measure breast density volume from the medio-lateral oblique view of digital mammograms, by age (?50 years and >50 years) and ethnicity (Pakeha/M?ori/Pacific/Asian) using routine data from the national screening programme: age; x-ray system and mammography details for 3,091 Pakeha, 716 M?ori, 170 Pacific and 662 Asian (total n?=?4,239) women. Linear regression of the natural logarithm of absolute and percent density values was used, back-transformed and expressed as the ratio of the geometric means. Covariates were age, x-ray system and, for absolute density, the natural log of the volume of non-dense tissue (a proxy for body mass index). Median age for Pakeha women was 55 years; M?ori 53 years; and Pacific and Asian women, 52 years. Compared to Pakeha women (reference), M?ori had higher absolute volumetric density (1.09; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.03-1.15) which remained following adjustment (1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.12) and was stronger for older compared to younger M?ori women. Asian women had the greatest risk of high percentage breast density (1.35; 95% CI 1.27-1.43) while Pacific women in both the ?50 and >50 year age groups (0.78; 95% CI 0.66-0.92 and 0.81; 95% CI 0.71-0.93 respectively) had the lowest percentage breast density compared to Pakeha. As well as expected age differences, we found differential patterns of breast density by ethnicity consistent with ethnic differences seen in breast cancer risk. Breast density may be a contributing factor to NZ's well-known, but poorly explained, inequalities in breast cancer incidence. PMID:23936166

Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; McKenzie, Fiona; Highnam, Ralph; Cave, Andrew; Walker, Jenny; Jeffreys, Mona

2013-01-01

150

Child sexual abuse education with ethnically diverse families: A preliminary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effectiveness of a parent–child psychoeducational program, Kids Learning About Safety (KLAS), aimed at educating families about general safety and personal safety related to childhood sexual abuse. Following assessment of both parents and children (ages 3 to 5years and primarily Hispanic), families participated in 16 sessions of simultaneous psychoeducational groups. Children were taught general safety and body

Maureen C. Kenny

2010-01-01

151

Fat in android, trunk, and peripheral regions varies by ethnicity and race in college aged women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether quantity of fat is different across the central (i.e., android, trunk) and peripheral (i.e., arm, leg, and gynoid) regions among young African-American (AA), Asian (AS), Hispanic (HI), and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. A cohort of 1,161 women (18-30 years) from university physical activity classes were assessed for body composition via dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The mean total body fat percent (TBF%, x = 31.0 ± 7.36%, range = 11.4-54.4%) indicates sufficient variability for the aims. A linear mixed model (LMM) revealed an ethnicity by region fat% interaction (P < 0.0001). Differences existed between ethnicities for each region fat% (all P's < 0.0001) except between HI and AA for the arm region (P = 0.0086) and between AS and NHW for all peripheral regions (P > 0.05). AAs had the highest fat% and HI had the second highest fat% for each region. AS had the third highest fat% for the trunk and android regions. For each ethnicity, the gynoid region had the greatest fat%, followed by the android region, whereas the arm region had the lowest fat%. Future research needs to determine if ethnic differences in central body fat in young women are associated with health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. PMID:21996659

Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Stanforth, Philip R; Bartholomew, John B

2012-03-01

152

Generic Tobacco Use among Four Ethnic Groups in a School Age Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…

De Moor, Carl; And Others

1989-01-01

153

Sharing stories: complex intervention for diabetes education in minority ethnic groups who do not speak English  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop and refine a complex intervention for diabetes support and education in minority ethnic groups, delivered through bilingual health advocates. Design Action research framework—a variety of methods used in an emergent and developmental manner, in partnership with clinicians, managers, and service users, drawing especially but not exclusively on narrative methods. Setting Deprived inner London district. Interventions Development and evaluation of three components of the complex intervention: a group based learning set for bilingual health advocates, in which stories about clients with diabetes formed the basis for action learning; advocate led support and education groups for people with diabetes, which used personal stories as the raw material for learning and action; organisational support to help to develop these new models and embed them within existing services. Results Both advocate groups and user groups were popular and well evaluated. Through storytelling, advocates identified and met their own educational needs in relation to diabetes and the unmet needs of service users. In the advocate led user groups, story fragments were exchanged in a seemingly chaotic way that the research team initially found difficult to facilitate or follow. Stories were not so much told as enacted and were often centred on discussion of “what to do.” Whereas some organisations welcomed, successfully implemented, and sustained the advocate led groups, others failed to do so. A key component of the complex intervention was organisational support. Conclusions An action research approach allowed engagement with an underserved group of health service staff and with hard to reach service users. The study produced subjective benefits to these groups locally as well as a worked-up complex intervention that will now be formally tested in a randomised controlled trial.

Greenhalgh, Trisha; Collard, Anna; Begum, Noorjahan

2005-01-01

154

Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

2012-01-01

155

Endometrial thickness, Caucasian ethnicity, and age predict clinical pregnancy following fresh blastocyst embryo transfer: a retrospective cohort  

PubMed Central

Background In-vitro fertilization (IVF) with blastocyst as opposed to cleavage stage embryos has been advocated to improve success rates. Limited information exists on which to predict which patients undergoing blastocyst embryo transfer (BET) will achieve pregnancy. This study's objective was to evaluate the predictive value of patient and cycle characteristics for clinical pregnancy following fresh BET. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study from 2003–2007 at an academic assisted reproductive program. 114 women with infertility underwent fresh IVF with embryo transfer. We studied patients undergoing transfer of embryos at the blastocyst stage of development. Our main outcome of interest was clinical pregnancy. Clinical pregnancy and its associations with patient characteristics (age, body mass index, FSH, ethnicity) and cycle parameters (thickness of endometrial stripe, number eggs, available cleaving embryos, number blastocysts available, transferred, and cryopreserved, and embryo quality) were examined using Student's T test and Mann-Whitney-U tests as appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to determine independent predictors of CP following BET. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses were used to determine the optimal thickness of endometrial stripe for predicting clinical pregnancy. Results Patients achieving clinical pregnancy demonstrated a thicker endometrial stripe and were younger preceding embryo transfer. On multivariable logistic regression analyses, Caucasian ethnicity (OR 2.641, 95% CI 1.054–6.617), thickness of endometrial stripe, (OR 1.185, 95% CI 1.006–1.396) and age (OR 0.879, 95% CI 0.789–0.980) predicted clinical pregnancy. By receiver operating characteristic analysis, endometrial stripe ? 9.4 mm demonstrated a sensitivity of 83% for predicting clinical pregnancy following BET. Conclusion In a cohort of patients undergoing fresh BET, thicker endometrial stripe, Caucasian ethnicity, and younger age are positive predictors of clinical pregnancy after fresh BET. These findings may be useful in clinical management of infertile patients undergoing fresh BET cycles.

Traub, Michael L; Van Arsdale, Anne; Pal, Lubna; Jindal, Sangita; Santoro, Nanette

2009-01-01

156

Examining the gender, ethnicity, and age dimensions of the healthy immigrant effect: Factors in the development of equitable health policy  

PubMed Central

This study expands on previous research on the healthy immigrant effect (HIE) in Canada by considering the effects of both immigrant and visible minority status on self-rated health for males and females in mid-(45-64) and later life (65+). The findings reveal a strong HIE among new immigrant middle-aged men, particularly non-Whites. For older men of color the reality is strikingly different: they are disadvantaged in health compared to their Canadian-born counterparts, even when a number of demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors are controlled. Health outcomes for immigrant women are in contrast to that of immigrant men. Among middle-aged women, immigrants, regardless of their ethnicity or number of years since immigration, are much more likely to report poor health compared to the Canadian-born. And, for older women, recent non-white immigrants are more likely to report better health compared to Canadian-born women, although this finding is explained by differences in demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors. Overall, the findings demonstrate the importance of considering the intersections of age, gender, and ethnicity for policymakers in assessing the health of immigrants.

2012-01-01

157

Ethnic differences in adolescent smoking prevalence in California: are multi-ethnic youth at higher risk?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Although ethnic differences in adolescent smoking have been well documented, smoking among multi-ethnic adolescents has received little research attention. This study examined smoking prevalence and tobacco related psychosocial risk factors among multi-ethnic adolescents in California, as compared with white, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic adolescents.?DESIGN—This study used a cross sectional design. Data were obtained from the independent evaluation of the California Tobacco Control, Prevention, and Education Program.?SETTING—Students completed a paper-and-pencil survey in their classrooms.?SUBJECTS—Data were collected from a stratified random sample of 5072 eighth grade students (age 13-14 years) in California during the 1996-97 school year. The data were weighted by school enrollment in analyses to make the estimates representative of the population of California students attending public schools.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Outcome variables included self reported smoking prevalence, susceptibility to smoking, access to tobacco, and related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours. Ethnicity was assessed with a self reported, "check all that apply" question.?RESULTS—Results indicated that multi-ethnic adolescents were at higher risk than single-ethnic adolescents on several variables, including 30 day cigarette smoking prevalence, lifetime smokeless tobacco use, buying cigarettes, receiving cigarette offers, and expected friends' reaction if the respondent smoked. For several other variables (lifetime cigarette smoking prevalence, susceptibility to smoking, and number of friends who smoked), Hispanic adolescents were at higher risk than all other ethnic groups including multi-ethnic adolescents. Although susceptibility to smoking was highest among Hispanics, multi-ethnic adolescents scored significantly higher on susceptibility than the three other single-ethnic groups.?CONCLUSIONS—Multi-ethnic adolescents may be at increased risk for smoking and may have easier access to cigarettes. Culturally targeted smoking prevention interventions for adolescents should address the unique social challenges faced by multi-ethnic adolescents that may increase their risk for smoking.???Keywords: multi-ethnic adolescents; risk for smoking

Unger, J.; Palmer, P.; Dent, C.; Rohrbach, L. A.; Johnson, C

2000-01-01

158

Education biographies from the science pipeline: An analysis of Latino/a student perspectives on ethnic and gender identity in higher education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is a qualitative narrative analysis on the importance and relevance of the ethnic and gender identities of 17 Latino/a (Hispanic) college students in the biological sciences. This research study asks the question of how one's higher education experience within the science pipeline shapes an individual's direction of study, attitudes toward science, and cultural/ethnic and gender identity development. By understanding the ideologies of these students, we are able to better comprehend the world-makings that these students bring with them to the learning process in the sciences. Informed by life history narrative analysis, this study examines Latino/as and their persisting involvement within the science pipeline in higher education and is based on qualitative observations and interviews of student perspectives on the importance of the college science experience on their ethnic identity and gender identity. The findings in this study show the multiple interrelationships from both Latino male and Latina female narratives, separate and intersecting, to reveal the complexities of the Latino/a group experience in college science. By understanding from a student perspective how the science pipeline affects one's cultural, ethnic, or gender identity, we can create a thought-provoking discussion on why and how underrepresented student populations persist in the science pipeline in higher education. The conditions created in the science pipeline and how they affect Latino/a undergraduate pathways may further be used to understand and improve the quality of the undergraduate learning experience.

Lujan, Vanessa Beth

159

Racial/ethnic disparities in fatal unintentional drowning among persons aged ? 29 years - United States, 1999-2010.  

PubMed

In the United States, almost 4,000 persons die from drowning each year. Drowning is responsible for more deaths among children aged 1-4 years than any other cause except congenital anomalies. For persons aged ?29 years, drowning is one of the top three causes of unintentional injury death (2). Previous research has identified racial/ethnic disparities in drowning rates. To describe these differences by age of decedent and drowning setting, CDC analyzed 12 years of combined mortality data from 1999-2010 for those aged ?29 years. Among non-Hispanics, the overall drowning rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) was twice the rate for whites, and the rate for blacks was 1.4 times the rate for whites. Disparities were greatest in swimming pools, with swimming pool drowning rates among blacks aged 5-19 years 5.5 times higher than those among whites in the same age group. This disparity was greatest at ages 11-12 years; at these ages, blacks drown in swimming pools at 10 times the rate of whites. Drowning prevention strategies include using barriers (e.g., fencing) and life jackets, actively supervising or lifeguarding, teaching basic swimming skills and performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The practicality and effectiveness of these strategies varies by setting; however, basic swimming skills can be beneficial across all settings. PMID:24827409

Gilchrist, Julie; Parker, Erin M

2014-05-16

160

Blood Relatives: Language, Immigration, and Education of Ethnic Returnees in Germany and Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000 "Nikkeijin," or people of Japanese…

Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.

2007-01-01

161

Preschool Children's Classification Skills and a Multicultural Education Intervention To Promote Acceptance of Ethnic Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the impact of an 8-week intervention program designed to reduce racial/ethnic stereotyping among preschoolers varying in classification skill. Found that children in the experimental group had increased in classification skills at posttest and were less likely to sort photo cards by race/ethnicity and more likely to sort them by gender…

Bernstein, Jeffrey; Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Werner- Wilson, Ronald Jay; Vosburg, Jill

2000-01-01

162

Roots of the Future: An Education Pack for Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Britain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pack challenges ignorance about racial diversity in England by encouraging activities that shed light on the recent past and the society in which young people in Britain live. The exercises in this book invite young people to explore ethnic and cultural diversity in Britain. They are designed to show that ethnic diversity is good and…

White, Peter

163

Recruiting Science Teachers from Ethnic Minority Groups: selection for initial teacher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a shortage of suitably qualified science teachers in secondary schools in England and Wales. There is also evidence of a shortage of science teachers from ethnic minorities. Although the number of applicants from ethnic minorities to teaching is increasing it appears from analysis of recruitment data that they are less likely to be accepted for training than other

Marilyn Leask; Sheila Turner; Tony Turner

1996-01-01

164

Linkage disequilibrium pattern and age-at-diagnosis are critical for replicating genetic associations across ethnic groups in leprosy.  

PubMed

One of the persistent challenges of genetic association studies is the replication of genetic marker-disease associations across ethnic groups. Here, we conducted high-density association mapping of PARK2/PACRG SNPs with leprosy and identified 69 SNPs significantly associated with leprosy in 198 single-case Vietnamese leprosy families. A total of 56 associated SNPs localized to the overlapping promoter regions of PARK2/PACRG. For this region, multivariate analysis identified four SNPs belonging to two major SNP bins (rs1333955, rs7744433) and two single SNP bins (rs2023004, rs6936895) that capture the combined statistical evidence (P = 1.1 × 10(-5)) for association among Vietnamese patients. Next, we enrolled a case-control sample of 364 leprosy cases and 370 controls from Northern India. We genotyped all subjects for 149 SNPs that capture >80 % of the genetic variation in the Vietnamese sample and found 24 SNPs significantly associated with leprosy. Multivariate analysis identified three SNPs (rs1333955, rs9356058 and rs2023004) that capture the association with leprosy (P < 10(-8)). Hence, two SNPs (rs1333955 and rs2023004) were replicated by multivariate analysis between both ethnic groups. Marked differences in the linkage disequilibrium pattern explained some of the differences in univariate analysis between the two ethnic groups. In addition, the strength of association for two promoter region SNP bins was significantly stronger among young leprosy patients in the Vietnamese sample. The same trend was observed in the Indian sample, but due to the higher age-at-diagnosis of the patients the age effect was less pronounced. PMID:23052943

Alter, Andrea; Fava, Vinicius Medeiros; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Singh, Meenakshi; Orlova, Marianna; Van Thuc, Nguyen; Katoch, Kiran; Thai, Vu Hong; Ba, Nguyen Ngoc; Abel, Laurent; Mehra, Narinder; Alcaïs, Alexandre; Schurr, Erwin

2013-01-01

165

The relation of age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors to self-esteem among students in nonmainstream schools.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two nonmainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a modified version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and the National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Grunbaum et al., 1999), respectively. Results indicated that nonmainstream students with high self-esteem were more likely to engage in their first sexual experience and to begin marijuana use later in life. African American students reported having their first sexual experience at an older age, but having more sexual partners than did Latino students. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:15673223

Connor, Jennifer M; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

2004-01-01

166

VARIATIONS IN MANIFEST ANXIETY DUE TO SEX, AGE, AND EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GREEK FORM OF THE TAYLOR MA SCALE WAS GIVEN TO A SAMPLE OF 400 ATHENIAN ADULTS REPRESENTATIVE OF THE LARGER POPULATION WITH RESPECT TO SEX, AGE, EDUCATION, AND INCOME. SEX, AGE, AND EDUCATION WERE FURTHER ANALYZED USING A 2 * 3 * 4 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE DESIGN. SEX AND EDUCATION WERE SOURCES OF VARIATION. THERE WAS NO INTERACTION BETWEEN

VASSO VASSILIOU; JAMES G. GEORGAS; GEORGE VASSILIOU

1967-01-01

167

Ethnic Minorities and Achievements: The Black Hole in Science Ranks. Part 2: Post-16 Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the overrepresentation of ethnic minority postsecondary students into the arts and humanities instead of science and technical coursework and its impact on employability. The factors that impact this trend are highlighted. (GR)

Rasekoala, Elizabeth

1997-01-01

168

Racial/Ethnic differences in the educational expectations of adolescents: does pursuing higher education mean something different to latino students compared to white and black students?  

PubMed

There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents' academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49 % Latino, 23 % White, 22 % Black, and 6 % other; 51 % female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in 5 years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844

Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y; Milan, Stephanie

2013-09-01

169

An Ethnic Studies Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography of ethnic studies materials is intended to be used in conjunction with a teacher education program. The collection of selected materials is designed to help elementary, secondary, and college teachers gain a greater understanding of the ethnic experience in the United States. Some of the items may also be used with…

Travalini, Paul, Comp.; Stavros, Gwen

170

Ethnic Studies in Pennsylvania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide information to educators and curriculum developers on strengths, weaknesses, and needs of ethnic studies programs in Pennsylvania, the report offers an overview of the nature and extent of ethnic studies programs operated by Pennsylvania's postsecondary institutions, public school systems, and nonpublic schools. Information is based on…

Washburn, David E.

171

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Education-Occupation Mismatch Status Among Immigrants in South Africa and the United States  

PubMed Central

In this study, a comparative–international approach is used to examine race–ethnic disparities in education–occupation mismatch status among immigrants. Using data from the USA and South Africa, this study finds that immigrants are most likely to be undereducated, or have less schooling for their jobs, when their racial characteristics are similar to those of the local racial majority. Black immigrants in South Africa and White immigrants in the USA are the most likely to be undereducated. Having racial characteristics similar to those of the local racial majority is associated with a lower likelihood of overeducation among immigrants.

2014-01-01

172

Pensacola Junior College Educational Support Development Plan for the Aging and Aged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report recommends three general categories of involvement in the development of educational programs for the aging and aged at Pensacola Junior College (Florida). (1) Pre-retirement Education: courses should include the psychology of aging, family structures, estate planning, federal laws that affect the elderly, employment opportunities, and…

Tamburello, G. B.

173

"...But that's Just the Stereotype": Gender and Ethnicity in Transition to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role of gender and ethnicity in young minority ethnic British citizens' transition to adulthood. As part of a larger study using a mixed methods approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young men and women aged 14-24 at different stages of education, employment and non-employment. By employing Bourdieu's…

Basit, Tehmina N.

2012-01-01

174

Age-Related Left Ventricular Remodeling and Associated Risk for Cardiovascular Outcomes: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Age-related alterations of left ventricular (LV) structure and function that may predispose to cardiovascular events are not well understood. Methods and Results We used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine age-related differences in LV structure and function in 5004 participants without overt cardiovascular disease when enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; 1099 participants received additional strain analyses by MRI tagging. We also assessed the relation of age-associated remodeling with cardiovascular outcomes using Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. Although LV mass decreased with age (?0.3 g per year), the mass-to-volume ratio markedly increased (+5 mg/mL per year, p<0.0001), driven by a substantial reduction in end-diastolic volume (?0.8 mL per year, p<0.0001). Age was also associated with a significant fall in stroke volume (?0.4 mL per year, p<0.0001) along with strain patterns reflecting systolic (p<0.0001) as well as diastolic (p<0.01) myocardial dysfunction – despite a modestly enhanced ejection fraction (+0.1% per year, p<0.0001). Increased mass-to-volume ratio conferred a significant risk for total cardiovascular events; this trend was strongest among younger (<65 years, HR 3.69 [CI 1.34–10.10]) versus older (?65 years, HR 1.68 [CI 0.77–3.68]) individuals with the highest compared to lowest mass-to-volume ratio quintile (Pinteraction=0.013). Conclusion Age is associated with a phenotype of LV remodeling marked by increased mass-to-volume ratio and accompanied by systolic, as well as diastolic, myocardial dysfunction that is not reflected by preserved ejection fraction. This pattern of ventricular remodeling confers significant cardiovascular risk, particularly when present earlier in life.

Cheng, Susan; Fernandes, Veronica R. S.; Bluemke, David A.; McClelland, Robyn L.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Lima, Joao A.C.

2009-01-01

175

Nutritional status of school children aged 6–10 years in United Arab Emirates: Comparison with children from different ethnic origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field survey was conducted to study the nutritional status of UAE children in selected Emirates in United Arab Emirates (UAE) as compared to others of different ethnic groups and from different countries. Anthropometric data (weight and height) were collected on 1447 children aged 6–10 years from the UAE National population and from Egyptian, Jordanian, Sudanese, and Omani children living

Nahla Baba; Khuzama Shaar; Dima Faour; Abdul Rahman Musaiger; Nada Adra

1997-01-01

176

The Impact of Developmental Mathematics Courses and Age, Gender, and Race and Ethnicity on Persistence and Academic Performance in Virginia Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study examined the 2006 cohort of First-Time-in-College students from all 23 community colleges in Virginia. The goal was to examine fall-to-fall persistence and success in the first college-level mathematics course. Predictor variables used were developmental status, age, gender, and race and ethnicity of the student. Interaction…

Wolfle, James D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

2014-01-01

177

Outcasts of Echo Park, Heroes of Brentwood: Quinceañera, Keeping Up with the Steins and Coming of Age in Ethnic L.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge of maintaining a national identity as a subculture in America is most evident in connection with special occasions, like transition rites. Coming of age is such an event. The continuity and transformation of the subculture is at stake. In American cities, as exemplified by Los Angeles, the ethnic neighborhood becomes a New Old Country. Those who welcome change

Bernard Beck

2007-01-01

178

The burden of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in the coronary care unit by age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status—PREDICT CVD9  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To investigate the burden of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in patients admitted to coronary care by age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Design and setting Cross-sectional study of patients presenting to the Middlemore Hospital Coronary Care Unit with an acute CVD event from July 2004 to June 2006. Methods CVD risk factor data was electronically collected using Acute

Andrew J Kerr; Andrew McLachlan; Sue Furness; Joanna Broad; Tania Riddell; Rod Jackson; Susan Wells

179

Paternal Age and Risk of Autism in an Ethnically Diverse, Non-Industrialized Setting: Aruba  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine paternal age in relation to risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in a setting other than the industrialized west. Design A case-control study of Aruban-born children (1990–2003). Cases (N?=?95) were identified at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic, the only such clinic in Aruba; gender and age matched controls (N?=?347) were gathered from public health records. Parental age was defined categorically (?29, 30–39, 40–49, ?50y). The analysis was made, using conditional logistic regression. Results Advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk of ASDs in offspring. In comparison to the youngest paternal age group (?29y), risk of autism increased 2.18 times for children born from fathers in their thirties, 2.71 times for fathers in their forties, and 3.22 thereafter. Conclusion This study, part of the first epidemiologic study of autism in the Caribbean, contributes additional evidence, from a distinctive sociocultural setting, of the risk of ASD associated with increased paternal age.

van Balkom, Ingrid D. C.; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Vuijk, Pieter Jelle; Hubert, Jan; Susser, Ezra; Hoek, Hans W.

2012-01-01

180

Black, White, Green, Red. The Politics of Education in Ethnic America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The upheaval in large city school systems during the late 1960s and early 1970s is examined in this book. Most of the specific examples are drawn from school districts in New York City, such as Ocean Hill-Brownsville and Canarsie. The problems of growing demands for community control, ethnic and racial conflicts, and school decentralization are…

Bresnick, David; And Others

181

Using Intercollegiate Response Groups To Help Teacher Education Students Bridge Differences of Race, Class, Ethnicity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide preservice teachers with opportunities for contact with people from racially and ethnically different backgrounds, one university initiated intercollegiate reader response groups using the WebCT format, which allowed students to converse with one another over distances, both within and across universities. Students from separate…

Singer, Judith; Smith, Sally

182

"That Box Doesn't Belong to You": Racial Ethos and Community-Based Ethnic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By expanding Bourdieusian concepts of class ethos and "habitus" in the field of racial analysis, the article closely examines the shaping of a racial/ethnic ethos among a particular group of Chinese Americans. The findings suggest that the community ethos is affected both by a self-consciousness about the positioning of Chinese Americans in the…

Du, Liang

2011-01-01

183

Promoting Ethnic Tolerance and Patriotism: The Role of Education System Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on political socialization has overlooked the influence of system characteristics of schooling on civic values and youth political identities. This article addresses that gap by investigating the degree to which system differentiation relates to the values of ethnic tolerance and patriotism. We distinguish between pedagogical…

Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mons, Nathalie

2011-01-01

184

"It's Different Lives": A Guatemalan American Adolescent's Construction of Ethnic and Gender Identities across Educational Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from a multiyear ethnography and a longitudinal case study, this article examines how one Guatemalan American teenager negotiates the multiple socializations to ethnic and gender identities in her home, her Pentecostal church, and her high school. She must face processes of Americanization and Mexicanization. Americanization's thrust is to…

Ek, Lucila D.

2009-01-01

185

Imagined Identity of Ethnic Koreans and Its Implication for Bilingual Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imagined identity is the way of positioning individuals or being positioned by others in an imagined world, where individuals' cultural identifications interplay with cultural and language practices. This lays the basis for the current research on the construction of imagined memberships by two young ethnic Korean students in China. An analysis of…

Gao, Fang

2012-01-01

186

Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…

Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.

2009-01-01

187

Nursing Education and the Nuclear Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature of nursing education and baccalaureate nursing education programs were surveyed to investigate the degree to which nurses' professional responsibility for preventing nuclear war is being addressed. It was found that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest within nursing education about nuclear…

McKay, Susan

1989-01-01

188

Third Age Education: Questions that Need Asking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asks whether our understanding of problems posed for education in the later years can be aided by current developments in educational thought in the Third World. Suggests ways in which education in the later years can be given the recognition it deserves. (Author/JAC)

Radcliffe, David

1982-01-01

189

Inflammation, Complement Factor H, and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the relationship of systemic inflammatory disease, complement factor H (CFH) Y402H (1277T?C) genotype status and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) prevalence in a multiethnic population of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants We included 5887 persons aged 45 to 84 years with gradable AMD. Methods Digital fundus photographs were used to measure AMD. Two years earlier, biomarkers of inflammation were measured and history of inflammatory disease and use of antiinflammatory agents obtained. Main Outcome Measure Prevalence of AMD. Results While controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and study site, there were no associations between systemic inflammatory factors and AMD severity. Higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation [SD] increase in natural log [ln] units, 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33–4.13) and interleukin-6 (OR per SD in ln, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.21–3.49) were associated with geographic atrophy but not other AMD end points. History of periodontal disease (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.14–2.47) was related to increased retinal pigment. A history of arthritis was associated with soft distinct drusen (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06–1.46). A history of oral steroid use was related to large drusen (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.14–3.97) and soft distinct drusen (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00–3.10) and history of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor use were associated with large drusen (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10–2.04), soft indistinct drusen (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.09–3.10), and large drusen area (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.02–2.71). Whites, blacks, and Hispanics with CFH Y402H CC variant genotype had the highest frequency of early AMD compared with those with wild TT genotype. The frequency of CFH did explain some of the difference in AMD prevalence between Chinese and Hispanics compared with whites, but did not explain the difference in prevalence between whites and blacks. Conclusions This study confirmed associations of the Y402H CFH gene variant with AMD in nonwhite populations, but neither explained the lack of association between inflammatory factors and AMD in the cohort nor the basis for the observed differences in AMD prevalence across ethnic groups.

Klein, Ronald; Knudtson, Michael D.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Liu, Kiang; Cheng, Ching Y.; Burke, Gregory L.; Saad, Mohammed F.; Jacobs, David R.; Sharrett, A. Richey

2010-01-01

190

Aging and Family among Japanese Americans: The Role of Ethnic Tradition in the Adjustment to Old Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second generation Japanese Americans have largely attained middle-class status. This social ascendancy and simultaneous assimilation have not jeopardized relationships with aged parents. The continuity in filial practice between rural Japanese and contemporary American societies attenuates many of the strains in the family interaction. (Author)

Osako, Masako M.

1979-01-01

191

Trajectories of Externalizing Behavior from Age 2 to Age 9: Relations with Gender, Temperament, Ethnicity, Parenting, and Rater  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trajectories of children's externalizing behavior were examined using multilevel growth curve modeling of data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. According to ratings by both mothers and caregivers/teachers when children were 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 years old, externalizing behavior declined with age. However, mothers rated…

Miner, Jennifer L.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

2008-01-01

192

Can the relationship between ethnicity and obesity-related behaviours among school-aged children be explained by deprivation? A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives It is unclear whether cultural differences or material disadvantage explain the ethnic patterning of obesogenic behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine ethnicity as a predictor of obesity-related behaviours among children in England, and to assess whether the effects of ethnicity could be explained by deprivation. Setting Five primary care trusts in England, 2010–2011. Participants Parents of white, black and South Asian children aged 4–5 and 10–11?years participating in the National Child Measurement Programme (n=2773). Primary outcome measures Parent-reported measures of child behaviour: low level of physical activity, excessive screen time, unhealthy dietary behaviours and obesogenic lifestyle (combination of all three obesity-related behaviours). Associations between these behaviours and ethnicity were assessed using logistic regression analyses. Results South Asian ethnic groups made up 22% of the sample, black ethnic groups made up 8%. Compared with white children, higher proportions of Asian and black children were overweight or obese (21–27% vs16% of white children), lived in the most deprived areas (24–47% vs 14%) and reported obesity-related behaviours (38% with obesogenic lifestyle vs 16%). After adjusting for deprivation and other sociodemographic characteristics, black and Asian children were three times more likely to have an obesogenic lifestyle than white children (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.2 for Asian children; OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.7 to 4.3 for black children). Conclusions Children from Asian and black ethnic groups are more likely to have obesogenic lifestyles than their white peers. These differences are not explained by deprivation. Culturally specific lifestyle interventions may be required to reduce obesity-related health inequalities.

Falconer, Catherine L; Park, Min Hae; Croker, Helen; Kessel, Anthony S; Saxena, Sonia; Viner, Russell M; Kinra, Sanjay

2014-01-01

193

Genetic Demographic Description of the Ust-Aldan Rural Population of Sakha Republic (Yakutia): Ethnic, Sex, and Age Compositions, Vital Statistics, and Surname Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the sex, age, and ethnic compositions; reproductive parameters; intensity of natural selection (Crow's indices); and surname diversity of three rural populations (the Byadi, Dyupsya, and Cheriktey villages) of the Ust-Aldan ulus (district) of Sakha Republic (Yakutia) has been analyzed. The rural Yakut population of the Ust-Aldan ulus is demographically young (the mean age 25–31 years) and characterized by

A. N. Kucher; N. R. Maksimova; A. N. Nogovitsina; A. L. Sukhomyasova

2004-01-01

194

Racial discrimination and psychological distress: The impact of ethnic identity and age among immigrant and United States–born Asian adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to

Tiffany Yip; Gilbert C. Gee; David T. Takeuchi

2008-01-01

195

Intake of Lutein and Zeaxanthin Differ with Age, Sex, and Ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye, where they may protect against development of age-related macular degeneration. Accurate assessment of their intakes is important in the understanding of their individual roles in eye health. Current dietary databases lack the appropriate information to ascertain valid dietary intakes of these individual nutrients. The

Elizabeth J. Johnson; Janice E. Maras; Helen M. Rasmussen; Katherine L. Tucker

2010-01-01

196

Race-ethnic, family income, and education differentials in nutritional and lipid biomarkers in US children and adolescents: NHANES 2003-20061234  

PubMed Central

Background: Children from ethnic minority and low-income families in the United States have higher rates of poor health and higher mortality rates. Diet, an acknowledged correlate of health, may mediate the known race-ethnic and socioeconomic differentials in the health of US children. Objective: The objective was to examine the independent association of race-ethnicity, family income, and education with nutritional and lipid biomarkers in US children. Design: We used data from the NHANES 2003–2006 to examine serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12; serum concentrations of folate, carotenoids, and lipids; and dietary intakes of corresponding nutrients for 2–19-y-old children (n = ?2700–7500). Multiple covariate–adjusted regression methods were used to examine the independent and joint associations of race-ethnicity, family income, and education with biomarker status. Results: Non-Hispanic blacks had lower mean serum concentrations of vitamins A, B-6, and E and ?-carotene than did non-Hispanic whites. Both non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans had higher mean serum vitamin C, ?-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin but lower folate and vitamin D concentrations compared with non-Hispanic whites. In comparison with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to have low serum HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides. Family income and education predicted few biomarker or dietary outcomes, and the observed associations were weak. Moreover, modification of race-ethnic differentials by income or education (or vice versa) was noted for very few biomarkers. Conclusion: Race-ethnicity, but not family income or education, was a strong independent predictor of serum nutrient concentrations and dietary micronutrient intakes in US children and adolescents.

Graubard, Barry I

2012-01-01

197

Differences in beliefs and home environments regarding energy balance behaviors according to parental education and ethnicity among schoolchildren in Europe: the ENERGY cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background To explore differences in personal and home environmental factors that are regarded as determinants of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) according to parental education and ethnic background among 10–12 year old schoolchildren across Europe. Methods A school-based survey among 10–12 year olds was conducted in eight countries across Europe. A range of personal and home environment variables relevant for soft drink consumption, daily breakfast, sport participation and TV time was assessed by means of child report. Personal factors included attitude, health beliefs, and preference/liking. Home environment factors included parental subjective norm, modeling, support, practices and home availability. Children were classified based on parental education (i.e., low vs. high) and ethnic background (i.e., native vs. non-native). Data from 6018 children originating from 83 schools were included in the analyses. Results Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that the majority of the factors tested –and especially home environment variables- were more favorable among children from higher educated parents and from native ethnicity. None of the personal and home environment factors was found to be more favorable among children from lower educated parents or non-native ethnicity. Conclusions The present study indicates that schoolchildren from lower educated and non-native parents across Europe have EBRB-related beliefs and are exposed to home environments that are less favorable for engagement in healthy EBRBs.

2014-01-01

198

The relationship of preference for educational structure to age and years of education among practising nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in adult and lifelong education has included an expanding interest in the characteristics of adult learners, including an exploration of their preference for independence in the teaching\\/learning situation. Limited research, however, has focused upon this facet of adult education. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of age and years of education to preference for educational

Jan M. Russell; Steven R. Krantz

1994-01-01

199

Influence of Body Weight, Ethnicity, Oral Contraceptives, and Pregnancy on the Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Women of Childbearing Age  

PubMed Central

Women of childbearing age commonly receive azithromycin for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including during pregnancy. This study determined azithromycin pharmacokinetics in pregnant and nonpregnant women and identified covariates contributing to pharmacokinetic variability. Plasma samples were collected by using a sparse-sampling strategy from pregnant women at a gestational age of 12 to 40 weeks and from nonpregnant women of childbearing age receiving oral azithromycin for the treatment of an infection. Pharmacokinetic data from extensive sampling conducted on 12 healthy women were also included. Plasma samples were assayed for azithromycin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The population analysis included 53 pregnant and 25 nonpregnant women. A three-compartment model with first-order absorption and a lag time provided the best fit of the data. Lean body weight, pregnancy, ethnicity, and the coadministration of oral contraceptives were covariates identified as significantly influencing the oral clearance of azithromycin and, except for oral contraceptive use, intercompartmental clearance between the central and second peripheral compartments. No other covariate relationships were identified. Compared to nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives, a 21% to 42% higher dose-adjusted azithromycin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) occurred in non-African American women who were pregnant or receiving oral contraceptives. Conversely, azithromycin AUCs were similar between pregnant African American women and nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives. Although higher levels of maternal and fetal azithromycin exposure suggest that lower doses be administered to non-African American women during pregnancy, the consideration of azithromycin pharmacodynamics during pregnancy should guide any dose adjustments.

Habibi, Mitra; Kilpatrick, Sarah J.; Tuomala, Ruth E.; Shier, Janice M.; Wollett, Lori; Fischer, Patricia A.; Khorana, Kinnari S.; Rodvold, Keith A.

2012-01-01

200

Ethnic ancestry and increased paternal age are risk factors for breast cancer before the age of 40 years.  

PubMed

To study the risk factors associated with breast cancer in women younger than 40 years, a cohort study (The Jerusalem Perinatal Study) of 42 822 female offspring born in hospitals in West Jerusalem during 1964-1976 was carried out. Hazard ratios of potential parental and perinatal risk factors for early breast cancer were measured. The overall incidence of breast cancer was 5.2/100 000 person-years. The highest incidence was found among Jewish women of West Asian ancestry (8.6/100 000 person-years), specifically those whose maternal grandfathers were born in Iraq, Iran or Afghanistan (9.5/100 000 person-years). Using Cox models we found independent risk factors for early breast cancer to be paternal age (relative risk/year=1.06, 95% confidence interval=1.02-1.10, P=0.005), and ancestry from Iraq/Iran/Afghanistan (relative risk=3.1, 95% confidence interval=1.50-6.52, P=0.002). The study confirms a previously observed effect of advanced paternal age on the occurrence of early breast cancer and identifies a novel population group at increased risk for the disease. The excess risk of early breast cancer associated with ancestry from Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan suggests involvement of genetic determinants, environmental exposures and/or lifestyle factors and mandates further investigation. PMID:18090128

Weiss-Salz, Inbal; Harlap, Susan; Friedlander, Yehiel; Kaduri, Luna; Levy-Lahad, Efrat; Yanetz, Rivka; Deutsch, Lisa; Hochner, Hagit; Paltiel, Ora

2007-12-01

201

Prevalence of HLA-B27 in the New Zealand population: effect of age and ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Introduction HLA-B27 genotyping is commonly used to support a diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A recent study has suggested that HLA-B27 may adversely affect longevity. The objectives of this study were to determine, for the first time, the prevalence of HLA-B27 in the New Zealand population, and to test whether HLA-B27 prevalence declines with age. Methods 117 Caucasian controls, 111 New Zealand M?ori controls, and 176 AS patients were directly genotyped for HLA-B27 using PCR-SSP. These participants and a further 1103 Caucasian controls were genotyped for the HLA-B27 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4349859 and rs116488202. All AS patients testing positive for HLA-B27 of New Zealand M?ori ancestry underwent high resolution typing to determine sub-allele status. Results HLA-B27 prevalence was 9.2% in New Zealand Caucasian controls and 6.5% in M?ori controls. No decline in HLA-B27 prevalence with age was detected in Caucasian controls (p?=?0.92). Concordance between HLA-B27 and SNP genotypes was 98.7-99.3% in Caucasians and 76.9-86% in M?ori. Of the 14 AS patients of M?ori ancestry, 1 was negative for HLA-B27, 10 were positive for HLAB*2705, and 3 positive for HLAB*2704. All cases of genotype discordance were explained by the presence of HLAB*2704. Conclusions HLA-B27 prevalence in New Zealand Caucasians is consistent with that of Northern European populations and did not decline with increasing age. In M?ori with AS who were HLA-B27 positive, 76.9% were positive for HLA-B*2705, suggesting that genetic susceptibility to AS in M?ori is primarily due to admixture with Caucasians.

2013-01-01

202

Early Childhood Education in a Technological Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This keynote address discusses far-reaching effects of technology on the education of young children. The speech contains a brief description of the course technological advancements have taken, the way technology has been integrated into daily life, and prevalent education-related uses of the Internet. New technologies are important for early…

Rothenberg, Dianne

203

Moral Education in an Age of Globalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.

Noddings, Nel

2010-01-01

204

Marketing education in the postmodern age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that Australian public education is taking up a series of market identities and raises a number of selected matters that caused us concern as we both surveyed the field and the available critical literature and considered the social justice issues which are raised by markets in education. These matters are, first, the inadequacy of current conceptual, frameworks

Jane Kenway; Chris Bigum; Lindsay Fitzclarence

1993-01-01

205

Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

Torbert, Brison

206

International Perspectives on Education and Aging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses education for older people in France, the United Kingdom, Canada, Argentina, Israel and Norway. Issues include the effects of social and technological change on educational programs and the need for continued personal development. Also discusses the value of life histories as culture bearers. (JAC)

Radcliffe, David, Ed.

1984-01-01

207

Axone, an ethnic probiotic containing food, reduces age of sexual maturity and increases poultry production.  

PubMed

Axone (Akhuni) is a homemade synbiotic (Nagamese fermented soybean product) served as side dish in North Eastern India. In this study, effects of Axone feeding on growth, weight gain, sexual maturity and egg production on Vanaraja birds (a strain of poultry bird developed at PDP Hyderabad for villages and backyard poultry) were evaluated. Axone incorporation in commercial poultry feed at the rate of 5 % (W/W) significantly improved growth rate (weight gain) both in male (p 0.001) and female (p 0.05) chicks, reduced age by 13 days at first egg laying (p 0.01), increased egg production (p ? 0.001) and improved egg weight (p ? 0.01). Microbiological analysis of Axone sample revealed that the major bacteria in Axone samples were Bacillus coagulans, well known for their probiotic value. PMID:24801640

Singh, Bhoj Raj; Singh, R K

2014-06-01

208

Native Mascots and Ethnic Fraud in Higher Education: Using Tribal Critical Race Theory and the Interest Convergence Principle as an Analytic Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines one university's policies regarding Native mascots and ethnic fraud through a Tribal Critical Race Theory analytic lens. Using the principle of interest convergence, we argue that institutions of higher education allow and even work actively towards a particular form or level of diversity, but they do not extend it far…

Castagno, Angelina E.; Lee, Stacey J.

2007-01-01

209

Native Mascots and Ethnic Fraud in Higher Education: Using Tribal Critical Race Theory and the Interest Convergence Principle as an Analytic Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines one university's policies regarding Native mascots and ethnic fraud through a Tribal Critical Race Theory analytic lens. Using the principle of interest convergence, we argue that institutions of higher education allow and even work actively towards a particular form or level of diversity, but they do not extend it far enough. Once racial remedies no longer hold

Angelina E. Castagno; Stacey J. Lee

2007-01-01

210

Cultural, Ethnic Differences and Educational Achievement of African Heritage Students: Towards Employing a Culturally Sensitive Curriculum in K-12 Classrooms: A Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a long time, researchers have reported on the low academic performances of Black Americans in comparison to other minorities and non-minorities. During this time, there have been debates over the causes of the differences in education achievement between the various sub groups (i.e. ethnic subgroups) of students studied. The purpose of this…

Pinder, Patrice Juliet

2008-01-01

211

An Analysis of the Impact of Parent Education Level and Family Income on the Academic Achievement of Students of Hispanic and White Ethnicities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the socioeconomic factors of parent education level and family income on the academic achievement of students of Hispanic and white ethnicities. Scaled scores from the 2009 administration of the California Standards Tests in English language arts and mathematics and matched demographic…

Siegel, Scott M.

2011-01-01

212

Inner City Education: A Review of Ethnic Studies in the Sixties. NCRIEEO Tipsheet, Number 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "elitist" tradition of American education was found out in the 1960's. Not until a social force quite alien to the profession took hold and a revolution was declared, was the system of education called to task. In education, the response generated a spate of books that examined the many inequities, recommending remedies. Some of these studies…

Halliburton, Warren J.

213

The Effects of Demographic Variables, Ethnic Prejudice, and Attitudes toward Immigration on Opposition to Bilingual Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of data from the 1994 General Social Survey found that about two-thirds of respondents supported bilingual education. Opposition to bilingual education was greater among older, male, White, and college-educated respondents and among those having certain attitudes toward Latinos, immigration, and assimilationist ideology. Possible reasons…

Houvouras, Shannon Krista

2001-01-01

214

Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow recommendations. PMID:24513174

Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

2014-05-28

215

Is Cognitive Aging Predicted by Educational Level?  

PubMed Central

A higher educational level has consistently been associated with a lower incidence of dementia. However, in the current issue of the Journal, Glymour et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175(8):750–759.) present findings that are in agreement with other research in showing a lack of association between educational level and cognitive decline in the elderly. These findings are not inconsistent with the hope, yet unproven, that persons might reduce their risk of dementia by engaging in cognitively stimulating activities.

Sharrett, A. Richey

2012-01-01

216

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Diagnoses Among Persons Aged 50 Years and Older in 37 US States, 2005-2008  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined racial/ethnic disparities in HIV diagnosis rates for persons aged 50 years and older. Methods. We analyzed surveillance data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regarding HIV diagnoses during 2005 through 2008 in 37 states. Average annual rates of diagnoses were calculated for persons aged 50 years and older and compared with rates for persons aged 13 to 49 years. Results. The average annual rate of diagnosis (per 100?000 persons) for older persons was 9.8. Rates among older Blacks (49.2) and Hispanics/Latinos (19.5) were 12.6 and 5.0 times, respectively, the rate among older Whites (3.9); rates among younger Blacks (102.5) and Hispanics/Latinos (39.0) were 7.7 and 2.9 times, respectively, the rate among younger Whites (13.3). Older persons were more likely than younger persons to receive a late HIV diagnosis (prevalence ratio?=?1.5, P?ethnic disparities in HIV diagnosis rates are greater among persons aged 50 years and older than among younger persons. The greater HIV diagnosis rates in Blacks and later diagnosis among older persons of all races/ethnicities indicate a need to increase their awareness of risk factors for HIV infection.

Prejean, Joseph; Chen, Mi; Hall, H. Irene

2012-01-01

217

Efé cacy of an intensive home-based educational intervention programme for 4- to 6-year-old ethnic minority children in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of an intensive home-based educational intervention programme for 4- to 6-year-old children at risk of educational failure. The programme, Opstap Opnieuw (''Step-up Anew''), was developed in the Netherlands as an alternative to the well-known HIPPY-programme, of which a Dutch version was carried out in the early 1990s for ethnic minority groups, without apparent success. Building

Cathy van Tuijl; Paul P. M. Leseman

2001-01-01

218

Highlighting Specific Patient Education Needs in an Aging Cardiac Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how, by using a paper-and-pencil, multiple-risk-factor assessment instrument referred to as the Heart Health Assessment Questionnaire, the specific educational needs of an aging veteran population were more clearly identified. Findings are discussed in relation to the pivotal role of the health education professional for…

King, Abby C.; And Others

1986-01-01

219

The Age and Qualifications of Special Education Staff in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the results of a survey distributed in April 2007 to government special education schools and settings throughout Australia. The survey collected information about the age and special education qualifications of teaching staff. It followed a similar survey that was distributed in May 2006 to Victorian special schools that…

Thomas, Tony

2009-01-01

220

Coronary calcium predicts events better with absolute calcium scores than age-gender-race percentiles - The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)  

PubMed Central

Background The presence and extent of coronary artery calcium (CAC) correlates with the overall magnitude of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and with the development of subsequent coronary events. In this study we aim to establish whether age-gender specific percentiles of CAC predict cardiovascular outcomes better than the actual (absolute) CAC score. Methods MESA is a prospective cohort study of asymptomatic 6814 participants, followed for coronary heart disease (CHD) events including myocardial infarction, angina, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or CHD death. Time to incident CHD was modeled using Cox regression, and we compared models using percentiles based on age, gender and/or race/ethnicity to categories commonly used(0, 1-100, 101-400, 400+ Agatston units). Results There were 163(2.4%) incident CHD events (median follow-up 3.75 years). Expressing CAC in terms of age and gender specific percentiles had significantly lower area under the ROC curve(AUC) than using absolute scores (women: AUC 0.73 versus 0.76,p=0.044; men: AUC 0.73 versus 0.77,p<0.001). Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) indicated better model fit using the overall score. Both methods robustly predicted events(>90th percentile associated with a hazard ratio(HR) of 16.4(95% c.i. 9.30,28.9), and score >400 associated with HR of 20.6(95% c.i. 11.8, 36.0). Within groups based on age/gender/race/ethnicity specific percentiles there remains a clear trend of increasing risk across levels of the absolute CAC groups. In contrast, once absolute CAC category is fixed, there is no increasing trend across levels of age/gender/race/ethnicity specific categories. Patients with low absolute scores are low risk, regardless of age-gender-ethnicity percentile rank. Persons with an absolute CAC score of >400 are high risk, regardless of percentile rank. Conclusion Using absolute CAC in standard groups performed better than age-gender-ethnicity percentiles in terms of model fit and discrimination. We recommend using cut-points based on the absolute CAC amount and the common CAC cutpoints of 100 and 400 appear to perform well.

Budoff, Matthew J; Nasir, Khurram; McClelland, Robyn L.; Detrano, Robert; Wong, Nathan; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Kondos, George; Kronmal, Richard A.

2009-01-01

221

Nursing education and the nuclear age  

SciTech Connect

As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.

McKay, S.

1989-05-01

222

Relation of Demographic and Lifestyle Factors to Symptoms in a Multi Racial\\/Ethnic Population of Women 40-55 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community-based survey was conducted during 1995-1997 of factors related to menopausal and other symptoms in a multi-racial\\/ethnic sample of 16,065 women aged 40-55 years. Each of seven sites comprising the Study of Women's Health across the Nation (SWAN) surveyed one of four minority populations and a Caucasian population. The largest adjusted prevalence odds ratios for all symptoms, particularly hot

Ellen B. Gold; Barbara Sternfeld; Jennifer L. Kelsey; Charlotte Brown; Charles Mouton; Nancy Reame; Loran Salamone; Rebecca Stellato

223

Drama Education in the Age of AIDS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article arose out of my involvement in an undergraduate drama module at the School of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, where I made use of workshop theatre methodologies to explore how second-year drama students construct knowledge and develop sociocultural understandings of critical issues in society. The workshop theatre project…

Singh, Lorraine

2012-01-01

224

Sex, Education, Age, and Cautiousness: Implications for Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cross-sectional study of educated men and women showed that cautiousness, as measured by perceived problem-solving ability, does not increase with age. Sex differences were nonsignificant. The results are discussed in terms of R. Schultz and J. Heckhausen's Life Span Model of Successful Aging. (Contains 28 references and 1 table.) (Author)

Wright, Bonnie McLean; Carscaddon, David Mitchell; Lambert, Steven Dennis

2000-01-01

225

Beliefs about Aging: Implications for Future Educational Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The specific aim of this research study was to gain knowledge regarding beliefs about aging, in order to develop future, priority, educational, and aging-related opportunities in Kansas. The study included six focus groups with a self-selected sample of Kansans born during the years 1946-1964 (N = 39). The main themes that surfaced included the…

Sellers, Debra M.; Bolender, Benjamin C.; Crocker, Andrew B.

2010-01-01

226

Clickers in Teacher Education: Student Perceptions by Age and Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the perceptions of classroom response systems, or "clickers," by teacher-candidates of diverse ages and both genders. Participants (n = 63) included 53 females and 10 males aged 21 to 57 who attended small-enrollment reading methods courses in a special education licensure program. Responses to a 32-item survey suggested…

Cheesman, Elaine A.; Winograd, Gaynelle R.; Wehrman, Joseph D.

2010-01-01

227

Hoosiers, Hicks, and Hayseeds: The Controversial Place of Marginalized Ethnic Whites in Multicultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor white children, often with roots in Appalachia, can present puzzling and intractable challenges for the multicultural educator. These students are not considered in multicultural textbooks, yet they face language and dialect issues, low educational attainment, under-representation in curriculum, and negative cultural stereotypes. This article…

Heilman, Elizabeth

2004-01-01

228

What Poverty Does to Girls' Education: The Intersection of Class, Gender, and Ethnicity in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay examines poverty in Latin America and its effect on education. It focuses on sexual bias and emphasizes that poverty is inherent in the social and economic structure of the region. The text examines how states in Latin America view the role of education, and it describes the growing chasm between the poor and the gentrified in various…

Stromquist, Nelly P.

229

Migration and Ethnic Group Disproportionality in Special Education: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues of educational equity and opportunity cannot be understood without regard to special education, as a key response to disabilities, disadvantages, and difficulties. Likewise, globalization cannot be understood without regard to cross-border migration and minority group status in society. Illuminating the nexus of these, research into…

Gabel, Susan L.; Curcic, Svjetlana; Powell, Justin J. W.; Khader, Khaled; Albee, Lynn

2009-01-01

230

Dreams Deferred? The Relationship between Early and Later Postsecondary Educational Aspirations among Racial/Ethnic Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 to test a conceptual model that integrates aspects of sociological and econometric frameworks into a traditional status attainment model for educational aspirations. Using descriptive and logistic analyses, this study advanced understanding of the patterns and stability of…

Cooper, Michelle Asha

2009-01-01

231

Education Supports Racial and Ethnic Equality in STEM. ESA Issue Brief #05-11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) workers are essential to American innovation and competitiveness in an increasingly dynamic and global marketplace. In this report, the authors examine demographic disparities in STEM education and find that educational attainment may affect equality of opportunity in these critical, high-quality…

Beede, David; Julian, Tiffany; Khan, Beethika; Lehrman, Rebecca; McKittrick, George; Langdon, David; Doms, Mark

2011-01-01

232

Ethnic Disparities in Special Education Labeling among Children with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined disparities in special education labeling among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by merging calendar year 2002 special education records and Medicaid mental health claims for 4,852 children who had been diagnosed with ADHD in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Thirty-eight percent were receiving…

Mandell, David S.; Davis, Jasmine K.; Bevans, Katherine; Guevara, James P.

2008-01-01

233

The Office of Naval Research support underrepresented ethnic groups mentoring model redirecting science education: An  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the debate about education in general and science education in particular for every student continues world wide and in the United States of America, the debate points to an underrepresentation of and underachievement by African-Americans (Ferguson, 1981). Given the intent of access to scientific knowledge for every student, the value of scientific knowledge in our society and the fact

Elizabeth Garner-Williams

1998-01-01

234

Students' Perception of the "Others" in Ethnic Separated School Systems: Implications for Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes qualitative data obtained from focus groups with students learning in schools with a majority and minority language of instruction from Estonia, Latvia, Romania, and Slovakia. The focus groups were developed within the framework of the project "Divided Education, Divided Citizens?" conducted by the Network of Education Policy…

Nedelcu, Anca; Iucu, Romita; Ciolan, Lucian

2011-01-01

235

Access to Education in Peninsular Malaysia: Ethnicity, Social Class, and Gender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a comprehensive examination of the development of postindependent Malaysia's education policies. Compulsory education combined with sustained economic growth has produced a literate and upwardly mobile Malay population. Preferential policies for the Malays, however, have resulted in increased stratification and inequality among the…

Pong, Suet-ling

1995-01-01

236

Racial and Ethnic Identity and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines racial and ethnic identity and stresses the importance of examining these concepts from multidimensional perspectives. Discusses models of racial and ethnic identity and explains how educators can create positive multicultural learning communities. (SK)

Chavez, Alicia Fedelina; Guido-DiBrito, Florence

1999-01-01

237

Gender and Ethnic Effects in Describing Toddler Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on gender as a stimulus variable, this study explored whether performer and respondent's gender and ethnicity would affect the labeling of toddler behavior. In addition, such demographic variables as age, education level, and contact with children were investigated. From a subject pool of 928, a total of 528 subjects were drawn, equally…

Rave, Elizabeth J.; Hannah, Gregory L.

238

From Ethnic Segregation to Bilingual Education: What Can Bilingual Education Do for the Future of the Israeli Society?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2006, a group of experts in language education from Europe, Canada and Israel gathered to discuss and reflect in a conference entitled: "Into the Future--Towards Bilingual Education in Israel." The conference, held at the University of Haifa, was initiated and organized by the Jewish-Arab Center and sponsored by the Zeit Stiftung from…

Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura; Zelniker, Tamar; Azaiza, Faisal

2008-01-01

239

Adult Education in Multi-Ethnic Europe: A Handbook for Organisational Change. International Perspectives in Adult Education, No. 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a handbook to assist European adult educators in teaching in a multicultural society, presenting models of intercultural practice for organizational and staff development in youth and adult education. Section 1 explains the document's purpose and use, discusses the objectives and major activities of the Learning to Live in a Multi-Cultural…

Dadzie, Stella, Comp.

240

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities: Chapter 6--Postsecondary Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter focuses on indicators of postsecondary participation, looking at the characteristics of students who enroll in postsecondary education, students who receive financial aid, and students who receive different levels of postsecondary degrees. Between 1976 and 2004, minority enrollments increased as a percentage of undergraduate…

KewalRamani, Angelina; Gilbertson, Lauren; Fox, Mary Ann

2007-01-01

241

Education and Racial-Ethnic Differences in Types of Exercise in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epidemiological research typically focuses on the intensity, frequency, or duration of physical activity, without consideration of the socially meaningful dimensions of exercise. The authors use data from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey (N = 17,455) and information on participation in 15 exercise behaviors to examine educational

Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Krueger, Patrick M.

2011-01-01

242

Participation in Breast Cancer Genetic Counseling: The Influence of Educational Level, Ethnic Background, and Risk Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic counseling has been suggested as a means of providing information and support to women with a family history of breast cancer. Yet women who undergo cancer genetic counseling in the United States generally consist of only a subset of those at risk, namely well-educated, upper-middle class, European American and Jewish women. We report outcomes from a study that provided

Julie Culver; Wylie Burke; Yutaka Yasui; Sharon Durfy

2001-01-01

243

Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language of…

Ewing, E. Thomas

2006-01-01

244

The prevalence of spirituality, optimism, depression, and fatalism in a bi-ethnic stroke population.  

PubMed

To provide insight into the reduced post-stroke all-cause mortality among Mexican Americans, we explored ethnic differences in the pre-stroke prevalence of (1) spirituality, (2) optimism, (3) depression, and (4) fatalism in a Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke population. The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project is a population-based stroke surveillance study in Nueces County, Texas. Seven hundred ten stroke patients were queried. For fatalism, optimism, and depression scales, unadjusted ethnic comparisons were made using linear regression models. Regression models were also used to explore how age and gender modify the ethnic associations after adjustment for education. For the categorical spirituality variables, ethnic comparisons were made using Fisher's exact tests. Mexican Americans reported significantly more spirituality than non-Hispanic whites. Among women, age modified the ethnic associations with pre-stroke depression and fatalism but not optimism. Mexican American women had more optimism than non-Hispanic white women. With age, Mexican American women had less depression and fatalism, while non-Hispanic white women had more fatalism and similar depression. Among men, after adjustment for education and age, there was no ethnic association with fatalism, depression, and optimism. Spirituality requires further study as a potential mediator of increased survival following stroke among Mexican Americans. Among women, evaluation of the role of optimism, depression, and fatalism as they relate to ethnic differences in post-stroke mortality should be explored. PMID:21184281

Skolarus, Lesli E; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Smith, Melinda A; Garcia, Nelda M; Risser, Jan M H; Morgenstern, Lewis B

2012-12-01

245

Learning Reconsidered: Education in the Digital Age. Communications, Convergence and the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes thoughts of seven educators on the place of digital communication in journalism and mass communication education. Discusses communication scholars and the professional field's readiness for the digital age. Notes educators' attitudes towards technology and technology's applications in education. (PM)

Dennis, Everette E.; Meyer, Philip; Sundar, S. Shyam; Pryor, Larry; Rogers, Everett M.; Chen, Helen L.; Pavlik, John

2003-01-01

246

Adolescents’ Educational Outcomes: Racial and Ethnic Variations in Peer Network Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents’\\u000a academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement\\u000a and attainment. Results reveal that, in addition to those factors typically associated with academic outcomes

Franklin Goza; Igor Ryabov

2009-01-01

247

Preferences in North Carolina Higher Education: Racial and Ethnic Preferences in Undergraduate Admissions at Six North Carolina Public Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which racial and ethnic preferences were used in the admissions policies of six North Carolina public universities ranging from the most to the least selective. Data were collected on applicants, admittees, rejectees, and enrollees regarding racial or ethnic group, SAT scores, and high school grade point averages.…

Lerner, Robert; Nagai, Althea K.

248

Gender Differences in Educational Achievement to Age 25  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in educational achievement were examined in a cohort of 1265 individuals studied from birth to age 25. There was a small but pervasive tendency for females to score better than males on standardised tests and to achieve more school and post-school qualifications. The differences could not be explained by differences in cognitive…

Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

2008-01-01

249

Media Arts: Arts Education for a Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: New technologies have been largely absent in arts education curriculum even though they offer opportunities to address arts integration, equity, and the technological prerequisites of an increasingly digital age. This paper draws upon the emerging professional field of "media arts" and the ways in which youth use new…

Peppler, Kylie A.

2010-01-01

250

Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

Textor, Martin R.

1986-01-01

251

Age and educational track influence adolescent discounting of delayed rewards  

PubMed Central

This study examined age-related changes in a specific aspect of adolescent decision-making, namely the preference for future versus immediate outcomes. A sample of 622 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 years completed a temporal discounting task. Participants were asked to choose between a delayed reward of €50 or an immediate reward of lower value. The delay interval was varied in three blocks (1 week, 1 month, 6 months). Results showed that preferences for large delayed rewards over smaller immediate rewards increased with age: late adolescents made more long-term decisions than early adolescents. This change was related to educational track. In the lower educational track, an age-related decrease in discounting was found for all three delay intervals. In the higher educational track this decrease only occurred for the 6 month delay interval. However, across all delay intervals enrolment in a higher level educational track was associated with an increased preference for long-term rewards. These results suggest that late adolescents are less susceptible than early adolescents to the competing presence of an immediate reward when making long-term decisions, a skill which becomes increasingly important as they transition into adulthood.

Lee, Nikki C.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Boschloo, Annemarie; Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

2013-01-01

252

The Second Educational Revolution: Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper drew upon a recent book ("Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology") to summarize a number of prospects and challenges arising from the appropriation of digital technology into learning and educational practice. Tensions between traditional models of schooling and the affordances of digital media were noted, while the promise of…

Collins, A.; Halverson, R.

2010-01-01

253

Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate.

Marteleto, Leticia J.; Dondero, Molly

2013-01-01

254

Characteristics and effectiveness of diabetes self-management educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression  

PubMed Central

Background It is not clear to what extent educational programs aimed at promoting diabetes self-management in ethnic minority groups are effective. The aim of this work was to systematically review the effectiveness of educational programs to promote the self-management of racial/ethnic minority groups with type 2 diabetes, and to identify programs’ characteristics associated with greater success. Methods We undertook a systematic literature review. Specific searches were designed and implemented for Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scirus, Current Contents and nine additional sources (from inception to October 2012). We included experimental and quasi-experimental studies assessing the impact of educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups with type 2 diabetes. We only included interventions conducted in countries members of the OECD. Two reviewers independently screened citations. Structured forms were used to extract information on intervention characteristics, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness. When possible, we conducted random-effects meta-analyses using standardized mean differences to obtain aggregate estimates of effect size with 95% confidence intervals. Two reviewers independently extracted all the information and critically appraised the studies. Results We identified thirty-seven studies reporting on thirty-nine educational programs. Most of them were conducted in the US, with African American or Latino participants. Most programs obtained some benefits over standard care in improving diabetes knowledge, self-management behaviors and clinical outcomes. A meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled trials (3,094 patients) indicated that the programs produced a reduction in glycated hemoglobin of -0.31% (95% CI -0.48% to -0.14%). Diabetes knowledge and self-management measures were too heterogeneous to pool. Meta-regressions showed larger reduction in glycated hemoglobin in individual and face to face delivered interventions, as well as in those involving peer educators, including cognitive reframing techniques, and a lower number of teaching methods. The long-term effects remain unknown and cost-effectiveness was rarely estimated. Conclusions Diabetes self-management educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups can produce a positive effect on diabetes knowledge and on self-management behavior, ultimately improving glycemic control. Future programs should take into account the key characteristics identified in this review.

2014-01-01

255

Ethnic Identity and Self-Esteem: An Exploratory Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined changes with age in ethnic identity and self-esteem. Assessed 18 adolescents from 3 ethnic groups (Asian American, African American, Hispanic) at ages 16 and 19. Found significant change to higher stages of ethnic identity over three-year period. Self-esteem and ethnic identity were significantly related to each other at each time period…

Phinney, Jean S.; Chavira, Victor

1992-01-01

256

Major ethnic group differences in breast cancer screening uptake in Scotland are not extinguished by adjustment for indices of geographical residence, area deprivation, long-term illness and education  

PubMed Central

Background: Breast cancer screening data generally show lower uptake in minority ethnic groups. We investigated whether such variations occur in Scotland. Methods: Using non-disclosive computerised linkage we combined Scottish breast screening and Census 2001 data. Non-attendance at first breast-screening invitation (2002–2008) was compared between 11 ethnic groups using age-adjusted risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), multiplied by 100, using Poisson regression. Results: Compared with the White Scottish (RR=100), non-attendance was similar for Other White British (99.5, 95% CI 96.1–103.2) and Chinese (112.8, 95% CI 96.3–132.2) and higher for Pakistani (181.7, 95% CI 164.9–200.2), African (162.2, 95% CI 130.8–201.1), Other South Asian (151.7, 95% CI 118.9–193.7) and Indian (141.7, 95% CI 121.1–165.7) groups. Adjustment for rural vs urban residence, long-term illness, area deprivation and education, associated with risk of non-attendance, increased the RR for non-attendance except for Pakistani women where it was modestly attenuated (RR=164.9, 149.4–182.1). Conclusion: Our data show important inequality in breast cancer screening uptake, not attenuated by potential confounding factors. Ethnic inequalities in breast screening attendance are of concern especially given evidence that the traditionally lower breast cancer rates in South Asian groups are converging towards the risks in the White UK population. Notwithstanding the forthcoming review of breast cancer screening, these data call for urgent action.

Bansal, N; Bhopal, R S; Steiner, M F C; Brewster, D H

2012-01-01

257

Special Education: Grant Programs Designed to Serve Children Ages 0-5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In fiscal year 2001, the federal government spent about $7 billion on three special education grant programs mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). These grants are Special Education Grants to States (School-age Grants), Speci...

2002-01-01

258

An exploratory examination of the relationships among emotional intelligence, elementary school science teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, race/ethnicity, gender, and age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in Texas public schools are discussed.

Okech, Allan P.

259

Tackling low educational achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines the factors underlying low achievement in British education. It is important to find out why tens of thousands of young people leave school with no or very few qualifications. Low achievement at age 16 is associated with disadvantage and also a variety of outcomes by gender and ethnic group. Existing policies and practices within the educational system

Robert Cassen; Geeta Kingdon

2007-01-01

260

The Latino Education Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latinos now constitute the largest minority group in the United States and the fastest growing segment of its school-age population. Yet they are the least educated of all major ethnic groups. Poverty, lack of access to high-quality preschool, low levels of parental education attainment, and hypersegregated schools all play a crucial role. The…

Gandara, Patricia

2010-01-01

261

Familial aggregation and determinants of post challenge blood glucose in four ethnic populations.  

PubMed

We determine the familial aggregation and determinants of post challenge blood glucose (BG) in four ethnic populations. A national health survey was conducted in Malaysia in 1996. 18,372 subjects aged 30 years or older had post challenge BG measurements and another 846 subjects were pre-diagnosed to have diabetes on drug treatment. We imputed the BG of diagnosed diabetics by randomly selecting a value from the BG distribution of undiagnosed diabetics. Covariates of interest include ethnicity, gender, age, urban-rural residence, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, education, and household income. Ethnic and gender differences in mean BG persisted after adjustment for other covariates. Age and BMI were the only two factors with strong, positive and consistent effects on mean BG in all ethnic-sex groups. Family resemblance for BG as measured by intraclass correlation was small and homogenous across all ethnic groups and did not differ from resemblance in BG between spouses. In conclusion, BMI was the only consistent modifiable predictor of BG in all ethnic-sex groups. Environmental factors are probably more important than genetic factors as determinant of BG in the four ethnic populations studied. PMID:15727382

Lim, T O; Rugayah, B; Maimunah, A H

2004-08-01

262

INTERDISCIPLINARY CONTINUING EDUCATION IN A RURAL AND REMOTE AREA: THE APPROACH OF THE NORTHERN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE FOR AGING AND HEALTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an interdisciplinary continuing education approach for health professionals in a rural remote area implemented by the Northern Educational Centre for Aging and Health (NECAH) at Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. The article discusses issues of rural health care practice and the implications for practitioners’ educational needs. The key components involved in delivering interdisciplinary education and

Mary Lou Kelley; Michael J. MacLean

1997-01-01

263

Ethnic Minority Graduates: Differences by Degrees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; Ethnic Minorities and Higher Education; Graduates' Progress in the Labor Market; Invisible Barriers, Real Discrimination; Graduates and High Education; Graduate Recruitment: Employers' Attitudes; Summary and Conclusions; Bibliograp...

H. Connor I. La Valle N. Tackey S. Perryman

1996-01-01

264

Analysis of Complex Patterns of Human Exposure and Immunity to Schistosomiasis mansoni: The Influence of Age, Sex, Ethnicity and IgE  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous factors may influence Schistosoma infection intensity and prevalence within endemic communities, including exposure-related factors such as local environment and behaviour, and factors relating to susceptibility to infection such as immunology and genetics. While animal studies performed in the laboratory can be tightly controlled, human populations are highly heterogeneous, varying according to demographic characteristics, genetic background and exposure to infection. The heterogeneous nature of human water contact behaviour in particular makes it difficult to distinguish between a lack of cercarial exposure and reduced susceptibility to infection as the cause for low levels of infection in the field. Methods and Principal Findings In this study we investigate risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural Ugandan fishing community receiving treatment as part of a multi-disciplinary longitudinal reinfection study. More specifically, we examine the influence that age, sex and ethnic background have on susceptibility to reinfection after anti-helminth drug treatment, but use individual estimates of cercarial exposure and multivariable methods in an attempt to remove noise created by environmental and behavioural heterogeneities. We then investigate whether schistosome-specific IgE immune responses could account for any remaining variations in susceptibility to reinfection. Our findings suggest that observed ethnic- and sex-related variations in S. mansoni reinfection were due to variations in cercarial exposure, as opposed to biological differences in susceptibility to infection. Age-related differences in reinfection were not explained by exposure, however, and appeared linked to the balance of IgE and IgG4 to the tegumental antigen SmTAL1 (formerly Sm22.6), which itself was significantly related to resistance to reinfection. Conclusions This study highlights the benefit of taking a multidisciplinary approach in complex field settings; it allows the ecology of a population to be understood and thus more robust conclusions to be made.

Pinot de Moira, Angela; Fulford, Anthony J. C.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Ouma, John H.; Booth, Mark; Dunne, David W.

2010-01-01

265

Digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength in subjects of Han ethnicity: impact of sex and age.  

PubMed

The ratio of the length of the second finger to the fourth finger (2D:4D) is considered to be a putative proxy of prenatal exposure to testosterone, and has been increasingly used as a promising tool to evaluate the impact of prenatal androgenization in humans in such traits as physical performance. In this study, for the first time, we present 2D:4D data on adult participants of Han ethnicity. We consider the sexual dimorphism of 2D:4D and handgrip strength, and also report the relationship between 2D:4D and handgrip strength of males and females. The sample consisted of 54 males and 55 females recruited from a remote village in the Qinling Mountains, China. We found sexual dimorphism of both 2D:4D and handgrip strength, i.e., males had lower 2D:4D and right-left 2D:4D than females and greater handgrip strength than females. There was a sex-specific correlation between 2D:4D and handgrip strength, i.e., 2D:4D in the right hand was negatively correlated with handgrip strength in males but not in females. This relationship may be driven by sexual selection operating on fetal programming. PMID:22886721

Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Baoguo; Yu, Keli; Zheng, Lianbin

2012-10-01

266

School Size and the Interpersonal Side of Education: An Examination of Race\\/Ethnicity and Organizational Context-super-  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to extend research on the connection between school size and student outcomes by examining how school size was related to interpersonal processes and whether the interpersonal effects of school size varied by race\\/ethnicity. Copyright (c) 2004 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

Robert Crosnoe; Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson; Glen H. Elder

2004-01-01

267

Gender, ethnicity, culture and social class influences on childhood obesity among Australian schoolchildren: implications for treatment, prevention and community education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to explore the associations between obesity, weight perceptions and gender, ethnicity, culture and social class in a large national study of Australian school children. Primary and high schools (N = 47) were recruited from every state and territory of Australia and included 7889 children from government, private and Catholic schools (82% response rate) in

Jennifer A. O'Dea; Diet MPH PI-ID

2008-01-01

268

Preferences in Minnesota Higher Education: Racial and Ethnic Preferences in Undergraduate Admissions at Four Minnesota Public University Campuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which racial and ethnic preferences are used in the admissions policies of a cross-section of Minnesota's public universities. It submits admissions data supplied by these universities to a rigorous statistical analysis. Findings show that there is substantial evidence that the University of Minnesota at Twin…

Lerner, Robert; Nagai, Althea K.

269

Educational Experiences of Immigrant Students from the Former Soviet Union: A Case Study of an Ethnic School in Toronto  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the academic and psychosocial outcomes of immigrant students from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in an ethnic school in Toronto. Based on interviews with the principal, teachers, students and parents, together with questionnaire responses, the paper describes school programmes and practices that contribute to FSU immigrant…

Asanova, Jazira

2005-01-01

270

Ethnic Hairdressing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practical aspects of ethnic hairdressing for the beginning student in the field of Cosmetology are presented in this manual. Lessons and review questions are provided to give the student a knowledge of the problems encountered in dealing with the many different variations in hair, as well as to serve as a foundation for more complex material.…

Oates, Flora B.

271

Ethnicity and Image: Correlates of Crowd Affiliation among Ethnic Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because ethnicity is a basis for defining peer crowds in ethnically diverse American high schools, some may question whether crowds foster discrimination and stereotyping or affirm minority youths' positive ties to their ethnic background. Through examination of both self- and peer ratings of crowd affiliation among 2,465 high school youth aged

Brown, B. Bradford; Herman, Melissa; Hamm, Jill V.; Heck, Daniel J.

2008-01-01

272

Ethnic Incongruence and the Student-Teacher Relationship: The Perspective of Ethnic Majority Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among 36 ethnic-Dutch school teachers in the Netherlands, the present study examined the role of ethnic incongruence in perceived student-teacher relationship quality. Teachers rated their relationships with 59 Turkish-Dutch, 62 Moroccan-Dutch, and 109 ethnic-Dutch students attending grades 4 through 6 (M[subscript age] = 10.81 years, SD = 1.05).…

Thijs, Jochem; Westhof, Saskia; Koomen, Helma

2012-01-01

273

An Examination of the RCMAS-2 Scores across Gender, Ethnic Background, and Age in a Large Asian School Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and U.S. norms of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Second Edition (RCMAS-2; C. R. Reynolds & B. O. Richmond, 2008a) scores in a Singapore sample of 1,618 school-age children and adolescents. Although there were small statistically…

Ang, Rebecca P.; Lowe, Patricia A.; Yusof, Noradlin

2011-01-01

274

Cognitive Diversity in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults: The Role of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines cognitive diversity through performance of four attentional tasks and a vocabulary measure in relation to age and level of education. Tasks were performed by 168 participants (aged between 45 and 91 years) who were grouped according to age and level of education. Multivariate analyses of variance were applied to Z scores…

Pereiro-Rozas, Arturo X.; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Facal, David; Pérez-Fernández, Aurora

2014-01-01

275

Age at First Marriage in Peninsular Malaysia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the socioeconomic determinants of age at first marriage among married women aged 25 and above in 1974, enumerated in the 1974 World Fertility Survey in Peninsular Malaysia. Education, ethnicity, and premarital work duration appear to have the strongest impact on marriage postponement. (Author)

Lee, Kok-Huat

1982-01-01

276

Effect of age, education, and bilingualism on confrontation naming in older illiterate and low-educated populations.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of age as well as the linked factors of education and bilingualism on confrontation naming in rural Kashmir by creating a culturally appropriate naming test with pictures of 60 objects. We recruited 48 cognitively normal participants whose ages ranged from 18 to 28 and from 60 to 85. Participants in our study were illiterate monolinguals (N = 18) and educated Kashmiri-Urdu bilinguals (N = 30). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that younger adults performed better than older adults (P < 0.01) and the age effect was quadratic (age(2)). It also showed Age X Education and Age X L2 Speaking interactions predicted naming performance. The Age X Education interaction indicated that the advantages of greater education increased with advancing age. Since education is in the second language (L2) in our population, this finding is no doubt linked to the Age X L2 Speaking interaction. This suggests that L2 speaking proficiency contributed more to first language (L1) naming with advancing age. PMID:24825965

Ashaie, Sameer; Obler, Loraine

2014-01-01

277

Effect of Age, Education, and Bilingualism on Confrontation Naming in Older Illiterate and Low-Educated Populations  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of age as well as the linked factors of education and bilingualism on confrontation naming in rural Kashmir by creating a culturally appropriate naming test with pictures of 60 objects. We recruited 48 cognitively normal participants whose ages ranged from 18 to 28 and from 60 to 85. Participants in our study were illiterate monolinguals (N = 18) and educated Kashmiri-Urdu bilinguals (N = 30). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that younger adults performed better than older adults (P < 0.01) and the age effect was quadratic (age2). It also showed Age X Education and Age X L2 Speaking interactions predicted naming performance. The Age X Education interaction indicated that the advantages of greater education increased with advancing age. Since education is in the second language (L2) in our population, this finding is no doubt linked to the Age X L2 Speaking interaction. This suggests that L2 speaking proficiency contributed more to first language (L1) naming with advancing age.

Ashaie, Sameer; Obler, Loraine

2014-01-01

278

Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.  

PubMed

Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal communication for patient satisfaction among American Indians. Results will be of special interest to health researchers, clinicians, and policy makers working in fields related to minority health. PMID:15450700

Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

2004-12-01

279

The Relationship between Principal Ethnicity and Other Chosen Demographics and Student Achievement as Measured by the Texas Education Agency's Accountability Rating System in Predominantly Hispanic Public High Schools in Texas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this study was to examine the relationship between principal ethnicity and other chosen demographics (community type of the school, average years of teacher experience, and percent of students qualifying as economically disadvantaged) and student achievement as measured by the Texas Education Agency's (TEA's) accountability rating…

Tresslar, Christopher Adrian

2010-01-01

280

Disproportionate Representation of Students from Minority Ethnic/Racial Groups in Special Education: A Policy Forum To Develop Action Plans for High Priority Recommendations (Pentagon City, Virginia, August 25-26, 1994). Final Report. Project FORUM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the design, purpose, implementation, and outcomes of a policy forum on disproportionate representation of students from minority ethnic/racial groups in special education. The purpose of this policy forum was to develop an action agenda for implementation of two recommendations assigned a high priority by a group of…

National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Alexandria, VA.

281

The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Elementary and Secondary Education. A Briefing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights Held in Washington, D.C., July 28, 2006. Briefing Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On July 28, 2006, a panel of experts briefed members of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on the putative benefits of racial and ethnic diversity in elementary and secondary education. Four experts presented written statements to the Commissioners that assessed the social science literature on this issue. They also addressed whether or not…

US Commission on Civil Rights, 2006

2006-01-01

282

Are They Thinking What We're Thinking?: College Staff and Student Perceptions of the Impact of Ethnicity and Gender on Completion and Achievement at a College of Further Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was carried out with students and staff from a college of further education in south London. The college has a mix of male and female students from a range of ethnic groups, the largest of which is white British. A study undertaken by the college in 2003 indicated that there may be significant differences in achievement and completion…

May, Steve; Bidgood, Penelope; Saebi, Nasrollah

2006-01-01

283

Replication of genetic loci for ages at menarche and menopause in the multi-ethnic Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Do genetic associations identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) replicate in women of diverse race/ancestry from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study? SUMMARY ANSWER We replicated GWAS reproductive trait single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in our European descent population and found that many SNPs were also associated with AM and ANM in populations of diverse ancestry. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Menarche and menopause mark the reproductive lifespan in women and are important risk factors for chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Both events are believed to be influenced by environmental and genetic factors, and vary in populations differing by genetic ancestry and geography. Most genetic variants associated with these traits have been identified in GWAS of European-descent populations. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A total of 42 251 women of diverse ancestry from PAGE were included in cross-sectional analyses of AM and ANM. MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS SNPs previously associated with ANM (n = 5 SNPs) and AM (n = 3 SNPs) in GWAS were genotyped in American Indians, African Americans, Asians, European Americans, Hispanics and Native Hawaiians. To test SNP associations with ANM or AM, we used linear regression models stratified by race/ethnicity and PAGE sub-study. Results were then combined in race-specific fixed effect meta-analyses for each outcome. For replication and generalization analyses, significance was defined at P < 0.01 for ANM analyses and P < 0.017 for AM analyses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We replicated findings for AM SNPs in the LIN28B locus and an intergenic region on 9q31 in European Americans. The LIN28B SNPs (rs314277 and rs314280) were also significantly associated with AM in Asians, but not in other race/ethnicity groups. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns at this locus varied widely among the ancestral groups. With the exception of an intergenic SNP at 13q34, all ANM SNPs replicated in European Americans. Three were significantly associated with ANM in other race/ethnicity populations: rs2153157 (6p24.2/SYCP2L), rs365132 (5q35/UIMC1) and rs16991615 (20p12.3/MCM8). While rs1172822 (19q13/BRSK1) was not significant in the populations of non-European descent, effect sizes showed similar trends. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Lack of association for the GWAS SNPs in the non-European American groups may be due to differences in locus LD patterns between these groups and the European-descent populations included in the GWAS discovery studies; and in some cases, lower power may also contribute to non-significant findings. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The discovery of genetic variants associated with the reproductive traits provides an important opportunity to elucidate the biological mechanisms involved with normal variation and disorders of menarche and menopause. In this study we replicated most, but not all reported SNPs in European descent populations and examined the epidemiologic architecture of these early reported variants, describing their generalizability and effect size across differing ancestral populations. Such data will be increasingly important for prioritizing GWAS SNPs for follow-up in fine-mapping and resequencing studies, as well as in translational research. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) program is funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), supported by U01HG004803 (CALiCo), U01HG004798 (EAGLE), U01HG004802 (MEC), U01HG004790 (WHI) and U01HG004801 (Coordinating Center), and their respective NHGRI ARRA supplements. The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Carty, C.L.; Spencer, K.L.; Setiawan, V.W.; Fernandez-Rhodes, L.; Malinowski, J.; Buyske, S.; Young, A.; Jorgensen, N.W.; Cheng, I.; Carlson, C.S.; Brown-Gentry, K.; Goodloe, R.; Park, A.; Parikh, N.I.; Henderson, B.; Le Marchand, L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Fornage, M.; Matise, T.C.; Hindorff, L.A.; Arnold, A.M.; Haiman, C.A.; Franceschini, N.; Peters, U.; Crawford, D.C.

2013-01-01

284

Reflections of middle school students by gender and race/ethnicity on obtaining a successful science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixty-five eighth grade students responded to a science beliefs survey during a science-inquiry lab unit in an action research project to assess whether gender has an effect on how the students perceive their science classes. The survey was given to eighth grade students during the first week of school. Student results were categorized by gender and by race/ethnicity. The middle school where the study took place is fairly diverse with 540 total students of which 48% of them are White, 42% are Black, and 10% are Hispanic. Six female science teachers are employed at the middle school, two per grade. The first unit that is taught in science is inquiry skills, the basics of all science such as graphing, laboratory tools, safety, etc. This unit is taught in 6 th, 7th, and 8th grades, as a part of our standards. Inquiry test results for 8th graders are also given in this thesis, and are categorized again by gender and race/ethnicity. The results of the surveys and the assessment show a gap in the way students think about and complete activities in science. It was exciting to see that the female students scored better overall than male students on an inquiry-based summative assessment, while white students overall scored better than Black and Hispanic students. White males tended to rank science as the class they enjoyed the most of all core classes and thought science was easier than all the other data demographics. The conclusion found was stunning, in that the true gap in student's beliefs about science lies within the different races/ethnicities, rather than just gender alone.

Mihalik, Bethany

285

What stresses men? predictors of perceived stress in a population-based multi-ethnic cross sectional cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Perceived stress (PS) is a risk factor for a variety of diseases. However, relatively little is known about age- or ethnicity-specific differences in the effect of potential predictors of PS in men. Methods We used a population-based survey of 6,773 White, 1,681 Black, and 617 Hispanic men in Southeastern Pennsylvania to evaluate the relationship of self-reported PS and financial security, health status, social factors, and health behaviors. Interactions across levels of age and ethnicity were tested using logistic regression models adjusted for overall health status, education, and household poverty. Results High PS decreased significantly with age (p < 0.0001) and varied by ethnicity (p = 0.0001). Exposure to health-related and economic factors were more consistently associated with elevated PS in all ethnicities and ages, while social factors and health behaviors were less strongly or not at all associated with PS in most groups. Significant differences in the relationship of high PS by age and ethnicity were observed among men who are medically uninsured (p = 0.0002), reported missing a meal due to cost (p < 0.0001), or had spent a night in the hospital (p = 0.020). In contrast, not filling a prescription due to cost and diagnosed with a mental health condition were associated with high PS but did not differ by age and ethnicity subgroup. Conclusions These data suggest that some, but not all, factors associated with high PS differ by age and/or ethnicity. Research, clinical, or public health initiatives that involve social stressors should consider differences by age and ethnicity.

2013-01-01

286

Preterm Birth, Age at School Entry and Educational Performance  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate if the lack of gestational age correction may explain some of the school failure seen in ex-preterm infants. Design A cohort study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The primary outcome was a low Key Stage 1 score (KS1) score at age 7 or having special educational needs (SEN). Exposure groups were defined as preterm (<37 weeks gestation, n?=?722) or term (37–42 weeks, n?=?11,268). Conditional regression models were derived, matching preterm to term infants on date of birth (DOB), expected date of delivery (EDD) or expected date of delivery and year of school entry. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing covariate data. Results When matching for DOB, infants born preterm had an increased odds of a low KS1 score (OR 1.73 (1.45–2.06)) and this association persisted after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.57 (1.25–1.97)). The association persisted in the analysis matching for EDD (fully adjusted OR 1.53 (1.21–1.94)) but attenuated substantially after additionally restricting to those infants who entered school at the same time as the control infants (fully adjusted OR 1.25 (0.98–1.60)). A compatible reduction in the population attributable risk fraction was seen from 4.60% to 2.12%, and year of school entry appeared to modify the association between gestational age and the risk of a poor KS1 score (p?=?0.029). Conclusions This study provides evidence that the school year placement and assessment of ex-preterm infants based on their actual birthday (rather than their EDD) may increase their risk of learning difficulties with corresponding school failure.

Odd, David; Evans, David; Emond, Alan

2013-01-01

287

Analysis of How Education, Age, Overseas Assignments, and Mavenism Impact Use of New Media Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous research into new media technology usage has typically been limited to young adults ages 18-24. However this study will include age, education, overseas assignments, presence of mavenism, and information security concerns as variables impacting n...

T. E. Enright

2010-01-01

288

Liberal Education in the Age of the Unthinkable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those who work in all sectors of higher education--from community and liberal arts colleges to undergraduate programs in public and research universities--often assert that a "liberal education" is precisely the kind of undergraduate education that is needed for both living and working in the challenging 21st-century world. "Liberal education" or…

Shinn, Larry D.

2012-01-01

289

Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

2013-01-01

290

Normal left ventricular myocardial thickness for middle aged and older subjects with SSFP cardiac MR: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Increased left ventricular myocardial thickness (LVMT) is a feature of several cardiac diseases. The purpose of this study was to establish standard reference values of normal LVMT with cardiac MR (CMR) and to assess variation with image acquisition plane, demographics and LV function. Methods and Results End-diastolic LVMT was measured on CMR steady-state free precession cine long and short axis images in 300 consecutive participants free of cardiac disease (169 women; 65.6±8.5 years) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort. Mean LVMT on short axis images at the mid-cavity level was 5.3±0.9mm and 6.3±1.1mm for women and men, respectively. The average of the maximum LVMT at the mid-cavity for women/men were 7mm/9mm (long axis) and 7mm/8mm (short axis). Mean LVMT was positively associated with weight (0.02mm/kg, p=0.01) and body-surface-area (1.1mm/m2, p<0.001). No relationship was found between mean LVMT and age or height. Greater mean LVMT was associated with lower LV end-diastolic volume (0.01mm/ml, p<0.01), a lower LV end-systolic volume (?0.01mm/ml, p=0.01) and lower LV stroke volume (?0.01mm/ml, p<0.05). LVMT measured on long axis images at the basal and mid-cavity level were slightly greater (by 6% and 10%, respectively) than measurements obtained on short axis images; apical LVMT values on long axis images were 20% less than those on short axis images. Conclusion Normal values for wall thickness are provided for middle-aged and older subjects. Normal LVMT is lower for women than men. Observed values vary depending on the imaging plane for measurement.

Kawel, Nadine; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Eng, John; Gomes, Antoinette S.; Hundley, W. Gregory; Johnson, Craig; Masri, Sofia C.; Prince, Martin R.; van der Geest, Rob J.; Lima, Joao A. C.; Bluemke, David A.

2012-01-01

291

Immigrant Education: All Younger Generations Enjoy Notable Improvement, But Wide Disparities Among Ethnic Groups Remain. Research Brief. Issue #103  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research brief summarizes a recent report on the educational advances of the second and third generations of California's immigrants, "Educational Progress Across Immigrant Generations in California," by PPIC researchers Deborah Reed, Laura E. Hill, Christopher Jepsen, and Hans P. Johnson, shed new light on California's immigrant population…

Public Policy Institute of California, 2005

2005-01-01

292

Gender and the Education-Employment Paradox in Ethnic and Religious Contexts: The Case of Arab Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is weakly related to employment for some groups of U.S. women. As such, it may be less of a resource for reducing gender inequality than commonly believed. Drawing on ethnographic field notes and in-depth interviews with Arab Americans, we recast the motivations and consequences of female education in terms of cultural schemas and…

Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Oselin, Sharon

2008-01-01

293

Explaining US racial\\/ethnic disparities in health declines and mortality in late middle age: The roles of socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive health disparities continue to exist among racial\\/ethnic minority groups, but the factors related to these disparities have not been fully elucidated. We undertook this prospective cohort study to determine the independent contributions of socioeconomic status (SES), health behaviors, and health insurance in explaining racial\\/ethnic disparities in mortality and health declines. Our study period was 1992–1998, and our study population

Joseph J. Sudano; David W. Baker

2006-01-01

294

Internal and External Ethnic Assessments in Eastern Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey data for majority and minority ethnicities in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Russia illustrate how internal ethnic identification and other social characteristics influence external ethnic classification. Logistic regressions show how interviewers use negative social characteristics (poverty, low education) to classify respondents as Roma…

Ahmed, Patricia; Feliciano, Cynthia; Emigh, Rebecca Jean

2007-01-01

295

The Effects of Age at Home Leaving and Pathways from Home on Educational Attainment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether age at leaving home and the pathway from home have long-term consequences for children's educational attainment. Results, based on a national survey, suggest that parental co-residence, until at least age 21, and a period of premarital residential independence are associated with children's higher educational attainment. (RJM)

White, Lynn; Lacy, Naomi

1997-01-01

296

Learning to Participate: Effect of Child Age and Parental Education on Participation in Pediatric Visits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's participation in health care improves outcomes, yet little is known about factors that affect participation. We examine how child age and parental education affect participation. Visit videotapes were coded to reflect key visit tasks: information giving, information gathering, and relationship building. Multivariable models were used to analyze how participation was associated with child age and parental education. For each

Elizabeth D. Cox; Maureen A. Smith; Roger L. Brown; Mary A. Fitzpatrick

2009-01-01

297

How Special Education Preschool Graduates Finish: Status at 19 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the academic and special education status of 129 graduates of special education preschools at 19 years of age. Participants had been randomly assigned to either direct instruction or mediated learning preschool classrooms. At age 19, their achievement was approximately one standard deviation below average. Consistent with results at earlier follow-up points, program main effects were not significant;

Joseph R. Jenkins; Philip S. Dale; Paulette E. Mills; Kevin N. Cole; Constance Pious; Joan Ronk

2006-01-01

298

Does School Time Matter?--On the Impact of Compulsory Education Age on School Dropout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A straightforward way to prevent students from leaving education without a higher secondary diploma is increasing the compulsory education age. The idea is that, by staying longer in school, more students eventually obtain a higher secondary diploma. This paper examines the impact of a one-year increase in compulsory school-age on dropping out of…

Cabus, Sofie J.; De Witte, Kristof

2011-01-01

299

The Condition of Education 2009: Indicator 1--Enrollment Trends by Age. NCES 2009-081  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Condition of Education" is a congressionally mandated report that provides an annual portrait of education in the United States. This document includes information from "The Condition of Education 2009" for data enrollment trends by age. Changes in enrollment patterns may reflect changes in attendance requirements, the perceived value or cost…

Planty, Michael; Hussar, William; Snyder, Thomas; Kena, Grace; KewalRamani, Angelina; Kemp, Jana; Bianco, Kevin; Dinkes, Rachel

2009-01-01

300

Nutrition Education for Preschool Age Children: A Review of Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Introduction (Overview of Research, Piagetian Theory and Preschool Nutrition Education, Patterns); Review of Studies (Data Sources Searched and Number of Studies, Effectiveness of Nutrition Education Programs for the Preschool Child); Co...

S. S. Swadener

1994-01-01

301

The coming of age for interprofessional education and practice.  

PubMed

Interprofessional education for collaborative practice is an important innovation globally and in US health professions education. The recent spotlight on interprofessional education in the United States was launched by a series of reports in the US Institute of Medicine's Quality Chasm series. They raised concerns over medical errors and health care quality as significant sources of morbidity and mortality in the United States and proposed health professions' education for patient-centered, team-based care as one means to address these concerns. Starting in 2007, binational, biennial conferences on interprofessional education have been held to synergize interprofessional education developments in the United States and Canada. In 2011, Collaborating Across Borders III, in Tucson, Arizona, drew 750 participants from 11 countries. The conference focused on interprofessional competency frameworks; strategies for preparing students for interprofessional practice; tailoring of learning environments for interprofessional education; and developing policy, infrastructure, culture, and faculty leadership for interprofessional education. PMID:23415053

Schmitt, Madeline H; Gilbert, John H V; Brandt, Barbara F; Weinstein, Ronald S

2013-04-01

302

Future Shock: Education in the Information Age. Presidential Address.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predictions about the future of education are made against a backdrop of the history of the university and the historical effects of technology on higher education and education in general. The role of the university professor will shift from content area expert to that of instructional developer, instructional troubleshooter, and instructional…

Hecht, Jeffrey B.

2001-01-01

303

Moving Education and Its Administration into the Microelectronic Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is in transition between the ascendent microelectronic and descendent industrial revolutions, with purposes ambiguously linked to both. These purposes must be clarified before educational leaders can establish priorities for adapting education to the needs of a society transformed by microelectronic technology. Accordingly, the features…

Culbertson, Jack A.

304

Overview and Evaluation of Project LEM. Innovative Education in Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project LEM (Learning Experience Module), funded under Title III, Elementary Secondary Education Act, incorporates concepts of an open elementary educational plan, featuring: multi-age, multi-ethnic groupings, individually prescribed instructions, a "core" curriculum, differentiated staffing, and maximum space utilization. These educational

Hackensack Public Schools, NJ.

305

Favorite Foods of Older Adults Living in the Black Belt Region of the United States: Influences of Ethnicity, Gender, and Education  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine food preferences of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the Southeastern United States and the extent to which food preferences vary according to ethnicity, gender, and educational level. 270 older adults who were receiving home health services were interviewed in their home and were queried regarding their favorite foods. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Chi-square analysis or one-way analyses of variance was used, where appropriate, in bivariate analyses, and logistic regression models were used in multivariate analyses. A total of 1,857 favorite foods were reported (mean per person = 6.88). The top ten favorite foods reported included: 1) chicken (of any kind), 2) collard greens, 3) cornbread, 4) green or string beans, 5) fish (fried catfish is implied), 6) turnip greens, 7) potatoes, 8) apples, 9) tomatoes, fried chicken, and eggs tied, and 10) steak and ice cream tied. African Americans and those with lower levels of education were more likely to report traditional Southern foods among their favorite foods and had a more limited repertoire of favorite foods. Findings have implications for understanding health disparities that may be associated with diet and development of culturally-appropriate nutrition interventions.

Yang, Yongbin; Buys, David R.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Gower, Barbara A.; Locher, Julie L.

2012-01-01

306

Testosterone metabolic clearance and production rates determined by stable isotope dilution/tandem mass spectrometry in normal men: influence of ethnicity and age.  

PubMed

The metabolic clearance rate (MCRT) and production rate (PRT) of testosterone (T) were measured using constant infusion of trideuterated (d3) T and quantitating serum d3T by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Serum unlabeled T (d0T) was measured by LC-MS-MS, and serum total T (d3T + d0T) was measured by RIA. Mean MCRR (measured by LC-MS-MS) in young white men (1272 +/- 168 liters/d) was not significantly different from young Asian men (1070 +/- 166 liters/d). Mean PRT was also not significantly different between the two ethnic groups (whites, 9.11 +/- 1.11 mg/d; Asians, 7.22 +/- 1.15 mg/d; P = 0.19 using d0T data). Both the mean MCRR (812 +/- 64 liters/d; P < 0.01) and the PRT (3.88 +/- 0.27 mg/d; P < 0.001) were significantly lower in middle-aged white men when compared with their younger counterparts. The mean MCRR and PRR calculated using serum total T or d0T data showed a diurnal variation, with levels at midday significantly higher than those measured in the evening in the young (MCRT, P < 0.01; PRT, P < 0.001) and to a lesser extent in the older men (MCRT, P < 0.05; PRT, P < 0.05 using total T and P < 0.001 using d0T data). We conclude that using LC-MS-MS to detect d3T in serum after constant infusion of stable isotope-labeled T allows the measurements of MCRT and PRT, which can be used to study androgen metabolism repeatedly after physiological or pharmacological interventions. PMID:15181080

Wang, Christina; Catlin, Don H; Starcevic, Borislav; Leung, Andrew; DiStefano, Emma; Lucas, Geraldine; Hull, Laura; Swerdloff, Ronald S

2004-06-01

307

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Quit Ratios in Lifetime Smokers Aged 25-44  

PubMed Central

We examined racial/ethnic variations in the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and quit ratios among Caucasian, African American, Asian, and Latino lifetime smokers aged 25-44. We conducted cross-sectional analyses using data from individuals (N=27,031) screened for enrollment in the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Nicotine Dependence (COGEND). Participants were randomly sampled from three Midwestern metropolitan areas using HMO membership lists in Detroit, MI and Minneapolis, MN, and a driver’s license registry in St. Louis, MO from March, 2003 through August, 2005. A telephone survey collected information on smoking history, previous quit attempts, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among lifetime smokers (n=9216), univariate analysis indicated that African Americans (22%) and Latinos (22%) were significantly less likely to report having ever used NRT for smoking cessation than Caucasians (31%). Asians (22%) also reported lower rates of using NRT than Caucasians, but this difference was marginally significant (p=.06). These disparities persisted in multivariate analysis for African Americans (adjusted OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.63, 0.91, p<0.01) but not for Latinos (adjusted OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.54, 1.06, p=0.11) or Asians (adjusted OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.60, 1.60, p=0.95). As measured by the quit ratio, African Americans (35%) were less likely to have quit smoking than Caucasians (52%). This disparity persisted in multivariate logistic regression (adjusted OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.56, 0.78, p<0.001). Asian and Latino smokers were as likely as Caucasians to report smoking cessation. Future prospective studies are needed to assess whether lower utilization of cessation treatments such as NRT contribute to the observed disparity in quit ratios for African Americans.

Fu, Steven S.; Kodl, Molly M.; Joseph, Anne M.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Johnson, Eric O.; Breslau, Naomi; Wu, Baolin; Bierut, Laura

2008-01-01

308

Invatamantul cu Predarea in Limbile Minoritatilor Nationale din Romania. In Anul Scolar 1992/1993 = The Education System in Romania: Tuition in the Languages of Ethnic Minorities. The School Year 1992/1993 = L'enseignement dispense dans les langues des minorites nationales de Roumanie. L'annee scolaire 1992/1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documentation of the Romanian system of language instruction in ethnic minority languages is presented in Romanian, French, and English. It consists of: relevant provisions from the national constitution concerning the rights of ethnic minority members; organization and functioning of the educational system at the elementary, middle, and secondary…

Council for National Minorities, Bucharest (Romania).

309

Race & Ethnicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The English Server at the University of Washington (see the December 12, 1996 Scout Report) consists of reference material, essays, fiction and non-fiction books, and other resources "addressing issues of race and ethnicity in the United States." The Server's selections are discriminating and up-to-date with essays by luminaries in the field such as bell hooks, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Cornel West; autobiographical narratives from Frederick Douglass and W.E.B. DuBois; a useful list of links to high-quality Websites; and famous "quotables" such as Martin Luther King's "I have a Dream" speech and Nelson Mandela's speech upon his release from prison. A keyword search engine is also available.

1990-01-01

310

Factors in Exposure Assessment: Ethnic and Socioeconomic Differences in Fishing and Consumption of Fish Caught along the Savannah River  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Carolina has issued fish consumption advisories for the Savannah River based on mercury and radionuclide levels. We examine differences in fishing rates and fish consumption of 258 people interviewed while fishing along the Savannah River, as a function of age, education, ethnicity, employment history, and income, and test the assumption that the average consumption of fish is less than

Joanna Burger; Warren L. Stephens; C. Shane Boring; Michelle Kuklinski; J. Whitfield Gibbons; Michael Gochfeld

1999-01-01

311

Too Latino and Not Latino Enough: The Role of Ethnicity-Related Stressors on Latino College Students' Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between demographics (generation status, age, gender, education level) and ethnicity-related stressors, namely, perceived discrimination, stereotype confirmation concern, and own-group conformity pressure, and the life satisfaction of 115 Latino college students was examined. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated…

Ojeda, Lizette; Navarro, Rachel L.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Arbona, Consuelo

2012-01-01

312

The education and wages of immigrant children: the impact of age at arrival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign-born children can attend American schools, but various immigration-related factors, such as language, and social acculturation, affect educational attainment. Age at arrival proxies for many of these factors, but the relationship between age at arrival and education is not empirically known for the nation’s immigrant children. Age at arrival also affects the percentage of total schooling attained in the US,

Arturo Gonzalez

2003-01-01

313

Ethnic differences in electrocardiographic intervals and axes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of ethnic differences in electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns is debated. We retrospectively examined the first 1,000 medical files of a multi-ethnic community, where all individuals shared similar living conditions. Only healthy adults (ages 15 to 60 years) were included. All patients had similar socioeconomic, nutritional, environmental, and occupational conditions. Interval and axes measurements were obtained through integrated computerized analysis

Ishak A. Mansi; Ira S. Nash

2001-01-01

314

Individual and Social Influences on Ethnic Identity among Latino Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on prior Latino ethnic identity research, this study had three goals: describe age-related trends in ethnic identity among young adults, examine relations among ethnic identity and individual factors, and explore the impact of family and peer socialization on ethnic identity. The participants (two hundred 19- to 30-year-olds; mean age =…

Ontai-Grzebik, Lenna L.; Raffaelli, Marcela

2004-01-01

315

Race/Ethnicity and Nonadherence to Prescription Medications Among Seniors: Results of a National Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Nonadherence to prescription drugs results in poorer control of chronic health conditions. Because of significant racial/ethnic disparities in the control of many chronic diseases, differences in the rates of and reasons for medication nonadherence should be studied. OBJECTIVES 1) To determine whether rates of and reasons for medication nonadherence vary by race/ethnicity among seniors; and 2) to evaluate whether any association between race/ethnicity and nonadherence is moderated by prescription coverage and income. DESIGN/SETTING Cross-sectional national survey, 2003. PATIENTS Medicare beneficiaries ?65 years of age, who reported their race/ethnicity as white, black, or Hispanic, and who reported taking at least 1 medication (n?=?14,829). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported nonadherence (caused by cost, self-assessed need, or experiences/side effects) during the last 12 months. RESULTS Blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to report cost-related nonadherence (35.1%, 36.5%, and 26.7%, respectively, p?ethnic differences in nonadherence caused by experiences or self-assessed need. In analyses controlling for age, gender, number of chronic conditions and medications, education, and presence and type of prescription drug coverage, blacks (odds ratio [OR] 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–1.78) and Hispanics (1.35; 1.02–1.78) remained more likely to report cost-related nonadherence compared to whites. When income was added to the model, the relationship between cost-related nonadherence and race/ethnicity was no longer statistically significant (p?=?.12). CONCLUSIONS Racial/ethnic disparities in medication nonadherence exist among seniors, and are related to cost concerns, and not to differences in experiences or self-assessed need. Considering the importance of medication adherence in controlling chronic diseases, affordability of prescriptions should be explicitly addressed to reduce racial/ethnic disparities.

Gellad, Walid F.; Safran, Dana Gelb

2007-01-01

316

Nonverbal intelligence of soccer players according to their age, gender and educational level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was to investigate the nonverbal intelligence of soccer players according to their age, gender and educational level. For this purpose, data were collected from 353 soccer players using adapted version of the TONI-2. The soccer players had a mean age of 14.78 years. Collected data was analyzed by ANOVA for age groups, t statistics for comparisons of gender

Erkut Konter; Irfan Yurdabakan

2010-01-01

317

Middle Age: a Review of the Literature and Its Implications for Educational Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the research and theory related to one phase of adulthood—middle age— and suggests implications for educational practice. Contributions to the literature of mid dle age made by Buhler, Erikson, Gould, Jung, Kohlberg, Levinson, Lowenthal, Neugarten, Peck and others are reviewed within the framework of the following questions: 1) when is mid dle age?; 2) what are the

Sharan Merriam

1978-01-01

318

Early Learning Left Out: An Examination of Public Investments in Education and Development by Child Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents the most comprehensive picture, to date, of public investments in the education and development of children by three age groupings--the early learning years (roughly 0-5), the school-aged years (roughly 6-18), and the college-aged years (roughly 19-23). It is based upon detailed analysis of state, federal, and school district…

Bruner, Charles; Elias, Victor; Stein, Debbie; Schaefer, Stephanie

2004-01-01

319

Post-Secondary Education: Entering the Age of the Consumer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional sellers' market in higher education has become a buyers' market, with both the nature of the student body and the services offered being changed. Marketing, as a comprehensive tool for planning and delivery of educational services, offers an integrated method for meeting the disparate demands growing from the shift to a longer…

Lencyk, John A.

320

The Possibility of Public Education in an Instrumentalist Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In our increasingly instrumentalist culture, debates over the privatization of schooling may be beside the point. Whether we hatch some new plan for chartering or funding schools, or retain the traditional model of government-run schools, the ongoing instrumentalization of education threatens the very possibility of public education. Indeed, in…

Higgins, Chris

2011-01-01

321

Overflowing Every Idea of Age, Very Young Children as Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I explore if and how very young children can be the educators of their early childhood educators. I describe and discuss a story constructed from a fieldwork done in one early childhood setting in Norway. The story is read with Levinas and his concepts Said and Saying. Further I discuss if and how this might be understood as…

Johannesen, Nina

2013-01-01

322

Age of Indicators: Changes in the Finnish Education Policy Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality assurance and evaluation (QAE) have become a vital part of education governance, both globally and nationally. This article is an attempt to represent and analyse first, how the idea of education indicators has arrived, has been accepted and has been modified in Finland. Secondly, it describes what are the aims given and actions taken in…

Kauko, Jaakko; Varjo, Janne

2008-01-01

323

Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

Banks, James A.

2008-01-01

324

EXTRA-PARENTAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PARTICIPATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN, CHITWAN, NEPAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the impact of household education on educational enrollment can influence future programs in formal as well as nonformal agricultural education. This paper reports the impact of household education on primary school enrollment in Nepal. Extra- parental education in the household is expected to be associated with higher over all school enrollments of children in the households. The study utilized

Purandhar Dhital; Joan S. Thomson; Constance A. Flanagan

325

34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged...ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES...712 Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities...

2010-07-01

326

34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged...ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES...712 Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities...

2009-07-01

327

U.S. Educational Achievement on International Assessments: The Role of Race and Ethnicity. RTI Research Report Series. Occasional Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The debate about the performance of US students on international assessments of educational achievement routinely fails to account for one consistently stark result: US achievement is bifurcated between a group of high-performing Asian and white students and an exceptionally low-performing group of black and Hispanic students. By summarizing…

Dalton, Ben

2011-01-01

328

The Role of Education in Preventing Ethnic Conflicts: The Case of Roma in the Czech Republic. GSFI Occasional Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses conflicts between Romani minority people and the dominant majority in the Czech Republic, suggesting solutions based on improvements in teacher education. Chapter 1 outlines the situation of the Romani minority in the Czech Republic, highlighting the main factors that influence the negative relationship between the two groups.…

Laubeova, Laura

329

Intergroup Attitudes among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: A Causal Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used two path models to examine the influence of ethnic identity and intergroup contact on adolescents' attitudes toward other ethnic groups: (1) ethnic identity increases with age and predicts positive in-group attitudes which contribute to positive out-group attitudes; and (2) diversity outside school leads to more out-group interaction in…

Phinney, Jean S.; Ferguson, Debra L.; Tate, Jerry D.

1997-01-01

330

Parental Influences on Ethnic Identity Formation in Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of the relationship between parents' ethnic attitudes and socialization practices and the ethnic identity of their American-born children, 60 adolescents, aged 16 to 18 years, from 1 of 3 ethnic groups (Asian American, Black, and Hispanic) and one parent for each adolescent, were surveyed. The research was conducted to provide…

Phinney, Jean S.; Nakayama, Stephanie

331

Ethnicity in a Changing America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age, location, and fertility, which are functions of historical and cultural processes, are seen to have major impact on the income, unemployment rates, and IQs of many American ethnic groups. However, if government policy and attitudes of discrimination could be changed, these groups could improve their socioeconomic status. (Author/AV)

Sowell, Thomas

1978-01-01

332

Children's cross-ethnic relationships in elementary schools: concurrent and prospective associations between ethnic segregation and social status.  

PubMed

This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children (n = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike. Social status measures were same- and cross-ethnicity peer nominations of acceptance, rejection, and cool. Among African Americans, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (European American) acceptance and same-ethnicity rejection, and increases in same-ethnicity acceptance and perceived coolness. For European American children, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (African American) acceptance and increases in cross-ethnicity rejection. Results indicate that segregation induces asymmetric changes in social status for African American and European American children. PMID:23170933

Wilson, Travis M; Rodkin, Philip C

2013-01-01

333

Ethnic-Based Nuptial Regimes and Marriage Behaviour  

PubMed Central

What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socioeconomic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question in the context of Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence—as articulated by local ethnic-based laws and customs known as ‘adat’—influence actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviours, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that ethnic-based nuptial regimes can be critical and persistent determinants of marriage behaviours even as societies rapidly develop.

Buttenheim, Alison M.; Nobles, Jenna

2009-01-01

334

The Condition of Education 2009: Indicator 8--Language Minority School-Age Children. NCES 2009-081  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Condition of Education" is a congressionally mandated report that provides an annual portrait of education in the United States. This document includes information from "The Condition of Education 2009" about language minority school-age children. Between 1979 and 2007, the number of school-age children (children ages 5-17) who spoke a…

Planty, Michael; Hussar, William; Snyder, Thomas; Kena, Grace; KewalRamani, Angelina; Kemp, Jana; Bianco, Kevin; Dinkes, Rachel

2009-01-01

335

Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike.…

Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

2013-01-01

336

Temporal summation of pain as a prospective predictor of clinical pain severity in adults aged 45 years and above with knee osteoarthritis: ethnic differences  

PubMed Central

Objective Enhanced pain facilitation is reportedly an important contributor to the clinical pain experiences of individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Ethnic differences in the prevalence and severity of knee OA in addition to associated pain are also well documented. Temporal summation (TS) of pain is a widely applicable quantitative sensory testing method that invokes neural mechanisms related to pain facilitatory processes. This study tested whether TS of pain, an index of pain facilitation, differentially predicts the clinical pain experiences of African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites with symptomatic knee OA. Methods A total of 225 study participants underwent assessment of TS of mechanical and heat pain stimuli applied to their most symptomatic knee and their ipsilateral hand (mechanical) or forearm (heat). Using telephone-based surveys, participants subsequently reported their average and worst clinical pain severity across four consecutive weeks following assessment of TS. Results In predicting future clinical pain, ethnicity interacted with TS of mechanical pain (but not heat pain), such that TS of mechanical pain at the knee significantly predicted greater clinical ratings of average (b = .02, p = .016) and worst (b = .02, p = .044) clinical pain for non-Hispanic Whites but not African Americans (p’s > .30). Conclusions These results reveal the importance of considering ethnicity when examining pain facilitation and the clinical pain of individuals with symptomatic knee OA. The results of this study are discussed in terms of ethnic differences in the predictors of clinical pain experiences among African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites with knee OA.

Goodin, Burel R.; Bulls, Hailey W.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Schmidt, Jessica; King, Christopher D.; Glover, Toni L.; Sotolongo, Adriana; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Staud, Roland; Fessler, Barri J.; Redden, David T.; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B.

2014-01-01

337

College-Educated Women’s Personality Development in Adulthood: Perceptions and Age Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adulthood encompasses a large time span and includes a series of psychosocial challenges (E. H. Erikson, 1950). Five aspects of personality (identity certainty, confident power, concern with aging, generativity, and personal distress) were assessed in a cross-sectional study of college-educated women who at the time of data collection were young adults (age: M = 26 years), middle-aged adults (age: M

Alyssa N. Zucker; Joan M. Ostrove; Abigail J. Stewart

2002-01-01

338

Individual differences in preferences for matched-ethnic mentors among high-achieving ethnically diverse adolescents in STEM.  

PubMed

This short-term longitudinal study examined (a) adolescents' contact with mentors who share their background in relation to the importance they place on having such mentors, and (b) the associations of these perceptions with self-efficacy, identity, and commitment to a science career. Participants were 265 ethnically diverse adolescents (M age = 15.82) attending a 4-week science education program. Cluster analyses indicated that at Time 1, underrepresented ethnic minorities were more often in the cluster defined by feelings of importance of having a matched-background mentor but not having much contact. Perceptions of contact increased over time for these students and were associated with increased feelings of identity as a science student. The results suggest the need for attending to individual differences in students' preferences for matched-background mentors. PMID:22506789

Syed, Moin; Goza, Barbara K; Chemers, Martin M; Zurbriggen, Eileen L

2012-01-01

339

Experiences in the Bilingual Education of a Child of Pre-School Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on experiences in the bilingual education, psychologically and pedagogically planned, of a child who died of brain cancer at age 5. Conclusions are drawn regarding order and method of language learning. (CHK)

Zierer, Ernesto

1977-01-01

340

First and Second Symposia on Education, Training, and Aging. Report on the Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two regional symposia were held to provide trainers and others involved in continuing education for the elderly an opportunity to become better acquainted with developments in gerontology. One keynote speaker described the needs and attitudes of the ages ...

M. L. Hunter

1975-01-01

341

Education inequality in mortality: The age and gender specific mediating effects of cigarette smoking*  

PubMed Central

A debate within the mortality literature centers around the impact of health behaviors on the prospects of disadvantaged groups. Meanwhile, a growing body of work illustrates the social processes that shape changes in smoking levels by socioeconomic status (SES), especially educational attainment. These literatures are merged by examining the mediating effects of cigarette smoking on education gaps in U.S. adult mortality by age and gender. Findings reveal that cigarette smoking is an important mediator of the education-mortality gap for all males and for younger females. In particular, education-mortality gaps for young men narrow considerably when cigarette smoking is accounted for, while older women experienced no reduction in the education-mortality gap with controls for smoking. These results are consistent with diffusion arguments that describe SES differences in smoking adoption by age and gender and provide strong evidence that smoking is an important differentiator of mortality risks by education.

Denney, Justin T.; Rogers, Richard G.; Hummer, Robert A.; Pampel, Fred C.

2010-01-01

342

A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

Perez, Shireese Redmond

2011-01-01

343

Support for Comprehensive Sexuality Education: Perspectives from Parents of School-Age Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Controversy about school-based sexuality education in public schools has continued over the past decade, despite mounting evidence that comprehensive sexuality education effectively promotes sexual health and that parents support these programs in public schools. The present study replicates and expands upon previous findings regarding public views on school-based sexuality education. Methods: One thousand six hundred five parents of school-age

Marla E. Eisenberg; Debra H. Bernat; Linda H. Bearinger; Michael D. Resnick

2007-01-01

344

Effective Game Based Citizenship Education in the Age of New Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational systems worldwide are being challenged to respond effectively to the digital revolution and its implications for learning in the 21st century. In the present new media age, educational reforms are desperately needed to support more open and flexible structures of on-demand learning that equip students with competencies required in a…

Chee, Yam San; Mehrotra, Swati; Liu, Qiang

2013-01-01

345

Education and Older Adults at the University of the Third Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a critical analysis of older adult education in Malta. In educational gerontology, a critical perspective demands the exposure of how relations of power and inequality, in their myriad forms, combinations, and complexities, are manifest in late-life learning initiatives. Fieldwork conducted at the University of the Third Age

Formosa, Marvin

2012-01-01

346

The Influence of Education and Age on Neurocognitive Test Performance in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research involves an examination of the relationship between education and age on a wide array of neuropsychological test measures among patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of education as an attenuating factor to neurocognitive decline in dementia. Although numerous…

DenBesten, Nicholas P.

2009-01-01

347

Meeting the Educational Needs of an Aging Population: The Australian Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews data on the rapid growth of the older population in Australia. Describes the aims and content of gerontological education, highlighting the importance of destroying myths. Describes the educational opportunities available for older people, exploring the University of the Third Age model. (DMM)

Minichiello, Victor

1992-01-01

348

The Employment and Postsecondary Educational Status of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A limited amount of information is available about the employment and postsecondary educational status of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Reports on the employment and postsecondary education tend to focus on overall results and usually do not provide detailed analyses by disability groups. In this article, the author presents the…

McDonnall, Michele Capella

2010-01-01

349

Parental Migration and Child Education: Evidence from Variation in Child Age During Parental Absence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of the causal eect of parental migration on child education is com- plicated by the likelihood that factors in‡uencing parental migration also aect child educational attainment. This paper exploits variation in siblings'ages at the time of parental migration to get around this endogeneity problem, arguing that parental migration after a child is 20 should have no direct eect on

Francisca Antmany

350

Envisaging New Educational Provision: Innovative Organisation in the Age of New Modernism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the "age of austerity", educational institutions in many countries are under pressure from a variety of sources to work more closely, reduce costs and raise educational performance. There are a number of possible outcomes that follow on from developing closer institutional ties: sharing of professional expertise through best practice networks,…

Stoten, David William

2011-01-01

351

Innovations in Student-Centered Interdisciplinary Teaching for General Education in Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) General Education "Clusters" are innovations in student-centered undergraduate education focused on complex phenomena that require an interdisciplinary perspective. UCLA gerontology and geriatric faculty recognized the opportunity to introduce freshmen to the field of aging through this new…

Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Effros, Rita

2008-01-01

352

Socioeconomic Factors and Leukocyte Telomere Length In A Multi-Ethnic Sample: Findings From The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)  

PubMed Central

Previous findings have linked lower socioeconomic status (SES) with elevated morbidity and mortality. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which also has been associated with age-related disease morbidity and mortality, is a marker of aging at the cellular level, making it a valuable early biomarker of risk and an indicator of biological age. It is hypothesized that SES will be associated with LTL, indicating that SES influences disease risk by accelerating biological aging. In the present sample we test for associations of childhood SES and adult SES (i.e. education, income, home ownership) with LTL, and examine whether these associations vary by racial/ethnic group. Analyses on 963 subjects (18.7% White, 53% Hispanics, and 28.5% African American) from the Stress ancillary study of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis revealed a significant difference in LTL between home owners and renters in Hispanic and White participants (p < .05), but not amongst African Americans (p = .98). There were no linear associations of adult education or family income with LTL, however, there was an inverse association between father’s education and LTL (p = .03). These findings suggest that for Whites and Hispanics renting vs. owning a home is associated with an older biological age; however we did not replicate previous findings linking education with LTL.

Carroll, Judith E.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Adler, Nancy E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

2012-01-01

353

Images of Aging in Selected Religious Education Curriculum Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Images of aging that appear in popular child/teen curricular materials used in church-related contexts were examined to determine how older adults are portrayed in words and pictures in these materials and what images of aging emerge. Materials from the following sources, randomly selected from those that had been checked out of the Ecumenical…

Cram, Ronald H.

354

Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity  

PubMed Central

This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age 14) attending 4 high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard for adolescents who were highly identified with their ethnic group and who attended predominantly White or ethnically heterogeneous schools. In addition, using time lag analyses, contact with same-ethnic others yesterday was positively related to ethnic private regard today, but ethnic private regard yesterday was unrelated to contact with same-ethnic others today, suggesting that adolescents' identity is responsive to their environments. The implications of these findings for the development of ethnic identity are discussed.

Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara E.; Shelton, J. Nicole

2013-01-01

355

Racial/ethnic differences in responses to the everyday discrimination scale: a differential item functioning analysis.  

PubMed

The authors examined the impact of race/ethnicity on responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale, one of the most widely used discrimination scales in epidemiologic and public health research. Participants were 3,295 middle-aged US women (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese) from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) baseline examination (1996-1997). Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the Everyday Discrimination Scale by race/ethnicity. After adjustment for age, education, and language of interview, meaningful DIF was observed for 3 (out of 10) items: "receiving poorer service in restaurants or stores," "being treated as if you are dishonest," and "being treated with less courtesy than other people" (all P's < 0.001). Consequently, the "profile" of everyday discrimination differed slightly for women of different racial/ethnic groups, with certain "public" experiences appearing to have more salience for African-American and Chinese women and "dishonesty" having more salience for racial/ethnic minority women overall. "Courtesy" appeared to have more salience for Hispanic women only in comparison with African-American women. Findings suggest that the Everyday Discrimination Scale could potentially be used across racial/ethnic groups as originally intended. However, researchers should use caution with items that demonstrated DIF. PMID:22306556

Lewis, Tené T; Yang, Frances M; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Fitchett, George

2012-03-01

356

[Ethnicity and the 'TJZ' decision].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess differences in oral health and dental behaviour in a cohort of five-year-old children born in 1982 and a cohort of eleven-year-old children born in 1976, in different ethnic and socio-economic groups, in the period from 1987 to 1990. To this end a secondary analysis was performed on data collected in a study monitoring the oral health of sick fund insured youths in The Netherlands. Large differences in dental health and dental health behaviour were found between ethnic and socio-economic strata. Thus, in the 1982 cohort, the caries prevalence and incidence were highest in the stratum of children of Turkish or Moroccan mothers with a low or unknown education. In the 1976 cohort, the caries prevalence and incidence were highest in children of Dutch parents with a low or unknown education. It is concluded that both stratification variables were caries risk indicators. PMID:11917880

Verrips, G H; Kalsbeek, H; Eijkman, M A

1993-10-01

357

Children's Implicit and Explicit Ethnic Group Attitudes, Ethnic Group Identification, and Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing amount of research explores how children distinguish different aspects of ethnic group attitudes. However, little work has focused on how these aspects tie in with other social and psychological processes. In the present study, 112 black and white children aged 5-, 7- and 9-years completed tests of implicit and explicit ethnic group…

Davis, Stephanie C.; Leman, Patrick J.; Barrett, Martyn

2007-01-01

358

Bullying and Victimization among Adolescents: The Role of Ethnicity and Ethnic Composition of School Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the relationships between ethnicity, peer-reported bullying and victimization, and whether these relationships were moderated by the ethnic composition of the school classes. Participants were 2386 adolescents (mean age: 13 years and 10 months; 51.9% boys) from 117 school classes in the Netherlands. Multilevel analyses…

Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Overbeek, Geertjan

2010-01-01

359

Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught.  

PubMed

Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health. PMID:22763460

Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng

2013-04-01

360

Day School Israel Education in the Age of Birthright  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are North American Jewish day schools doing when they engage in Israel education, what shapes their practices, and to what ends? In this article, we report on a multi-method study inspired by these questions. Our account is organized around an analytical model that helps distinguish between what we call the vehicles, intensifiers, and…

Pomson, Alex; Deitcher, Howard

2010-01-01

361

Assessment, Technology and Democratic Education in the Age of Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contends that powerful techniques to manipulate data, enabled by technological and economic developments, can be easily co-opted to serve the restrictive frameworks of hyper-controlling, managerial accountability that characterise current cultures of summative assessment in education. In response to these challenges, research is…

Perrotta, Carlo

2013-01-01

362

Multicultural Education and Progressive Pedagogy in the Online Information Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internet's interactive nature and relatively wide use are resulting in new opportunities for educators to find support, dialogue, development, and even mentoring whether or not it is readily available in one's school. Discussion forums are becoming communities of support in themselves, sometimes facilitating relationship building among…

Gorski, Paul C.

2004-01-01

363

Political Education: National Policy Comes of Age. The Updated Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Political insider Christopher Cross has updated his critically acclaimed book to reflect recent education policy developments, including the impact of the Obama administration and "Race to the Top" as well as the controversy over NCLB's reauthorization. Featuring a new introduction and the addition of postscripts for key chapters, this important…

Cross, Christopher T.

2010-01-01

364

DESIGN EDUCATION IN THE AGE OF MEDIA CONVERGENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of digital media has enabled the convergence of different technologies and forms of communication into a single distribution network, while also leading to the diversification of media forms. These convergent and divergent phenomena have affected the way in which products and services are created and delivered. This paper explores the implications of new communication technologies on design education,

Joyce S R YEE

365

PR Theory And Education In The Age Of Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

PR as a field of study has made great strides in the past three decades. In terms of education offerings, programs in PR have multiplied both in the United States, the country where the field traces its academic origins and its major developments, and in the rest of the world. Institutionally speaking, PR academic programs are housed either in Departments\\/Schools

Prodromos Yannas

366

Medication Compliance and the Aged: An Educational Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses physiological changes and multiple prescription regimens, which, coupled with an increased incidence of chronic disease, increase the likelihood of adverse drug reactions in the elderly. Outlines some of the research related to noncompliance of prescription medication and identifies some educational interventions guidelines for health…

Skolnick, Bruce D.; And Others

1984-01-01

367

User Education in the Online Age. IATUL Proceedings, Vol. 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers presented at an August 1982 international seminar on online user education include "The Impact of New Technology on Libraries and Their Users," Brian C. Vickery (United Kingdom); "The Role of NORDINFO in Promoting Online Activity: NORDINFO-Origins and Control," Theodora Oker-Blom (Finland); "Librarians and the New Technology: The Process of…

Fjallbrant, Nancy, Ed.

1982-01-01

368

At Age 100, Chemical Engineering Education Faces Changing World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stresses the need for chemical engineering education to keep abreast of current needs. Explores the need for global economics, marketing strategy, product differentiation, and patent law in the curriculum. Questions the abilities of current chemical engineering graduate students in those areas. (MVL)

Krieger, James

1988-01-01

369

Education in an Age of Social Turbulence (A Roundtable)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest scheduled Sorokin Readings on "Global Social Turbulence and Russia," a topic whose relevance has been confirmed by events of the past 10 years, were held on 6-7 December at Moscow State University. One key factor that keeps such turbulence in check is the education level as a factor of a high standard of living. The array of problems in…

Russian Education and Society, 2012

2012-01-01

370

Family history, Hispanic ethnicity, and prostate cancer risk.  

PubMed

Family history is known to be a prostate cancer (CaP) risk factor for non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) and African Americans, but little data are available on the risk for Hispanics (Hs). This population-based case-control study used mailed surveys to assess the effects of ethnicity and family history of CaP on CaP risk in Hs and NHWs. Cases (N = 351) were those identified by the New Mexico Tumor Registry as having been newly diagnosed with CaP from October 1, 1994 to October 31, 1995. Controls (N = 618) were randomly selected and frequency-matched to cases by ethnicity and 5-year age groups. Multivariate analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression. After controlling for age, education, and income in the models, positive family history increased risk for both Hispanics (H) (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-4.7) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1), suggesting that having a family history of CaP is a risk factor for both ethnic groups. PMID:12785421

Stone, S Noell; Hoffman, Richard M; Tollestrup, Kristine; Stidley, Christine A; Witter, Jason L; Gilliland, Frank D

2003-01-01

371

Conspiracy beliefs about the origin of HIV/AIDS in four racial/ethnic groups.  

PubMed

We examined beliefs about the origin of HIV as a genocidal conspiracy in men and women of four racial/ethnic groups in a street intercept sample in Houston, Texas. Groups sampled were African American, Latino, non-Hispanic white, and Asian. Highest levels of conspiracy theories were found in women, and in African American and Latino populations (over a quarter of African Americans and over a fifth of Latinos) with slightly lower rates in whites (a fifth) and Asians (less than one in ten). Reductions in condom use associated with such beliefs were however only apparent in African American men. Conspiracy beliefs were an independent predictor of reported condom use along with race/ethnicity, gender, education, and age group. Data suggest that genocidal conspiracy beliefs are relatively widespread in several racial/ethnic groups and that an understanding of the sources of these beliefs is important to determine their possible impact on HIV prevention and treatment behaviors. PMID:16540935

Ross, Michael W; Essien, E James; Torres, Isabel

2006-03-01

372

Conspiracy Beliefs about the Origin of HIV/AIDS in Four Racial/Ethnic Groups  

PubMed Central

We examined beliefs about the origin of HIV as a genocidal conspiracy in men and women of four racial/ethnic groups in a street intercept sample in Houston, Texas. Groups sampled were African American, Latino, non-Hispanic white, and Asian. Highest levels of conspiracy theories were found in women, and in African American and Latino populations (over a quarter of African Americans and over a fifth of Latinos) with slightly lower rates in whites (a fifth) and Asians less than one in ten). Reductions in condom use associated with such beliefs were however only apparent in African American men. Conspiracy beliefs were an independent predictor of reported condom use along with race/ethnicity, gender, education, and age group. Data suggest that genocidal conspiracy beliefs are relatively widespread in several racial/ethnic groups and that an understanding of the sources of these beliefs is important to determine their possible impact on HIV prevention and treatment behaviors.

Ross, Michael W.; Essien, E. James; Torres, Isabel

2006-01-01

373

[Chronic disease in ethnic minorities: tools for patient-centred care in diabetes, hypertension and COPD].  

PubMed

In the Netherlands, chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, are more common and have a poorer prognosis in patients of Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan origin. Surinamese develop cardiovascular diseases more often and at an earlier age; it is recommended that their cardiovascular risk profile be checked at an earlier stage. Standard treatment of diabetes mellitus is less effective among ethnic minorities. Patient information that is in line with the educational level and cultural values of the patient leads to better glucose levels. Focus group research among ethnic minorities shows that lifestyle changes which conflict with their own cultural beliefs or lack support in their social environment are often not adopted. Ethnic differences in the efficacy and toxicity of drugs are mainly caused by genetically determined variations in the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes. PMID:23594868

Oosterberg, Eldine H; Devillé, Walter L J M; Brewster, Lizzy M; Agyemang, Charles; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria E T C

2013-01-01

374

Race and Ethnic Inequality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity explores topics of race/ethnicity, gender and income to look at patterns of inequality among education, occupation and earning between different groups. This activity uses four customized data sets; two made from combining census information from 1950-2000 and two from the 2000 Censuss and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Benefo, Kofi

375

Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

Hones, Donald F.

376

A Descriptive Study of Multi-Age Art Education in Florida  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multi-age classrooms feature the purposeful grouping of students from two or more grade levels in order to form communities of learners. During the past 40 years, multi-age education has been examined in literature and research in many different ways and contexts. In the subject area of visual art, however, little literature can be found that…

Broome, Jeffrey L.

2009-01-01

377

Disabled or Young? Relative Age and Special Education Diagnoses in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends recent findings of a relationship between the relative age of students among their peers and their probability of disability classification. Using three nationally representative surveys spanning 1988-2004 and grades K-10, we find that an additional month of relative age decreases the likelihood of receiving special education

Dhuey, Elizabeth; Lipscomb, Stephen

2010-01-01

378

Middle Age: A Review of the Literature and Its Implications for Educational Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the research and theory related to middle age. The literature survey is divided into three parts: (1) When is middle aged?; (2) What are its psychosocial dynamics?; and (3) Is there a mid-life crisis? Suggests implications for educational practice. (Author/CSS)

Merriam, Sharan

1978-01-01

379

Aspects of Media Education: Strategic Imperatives in the Information Age. Media Education Publication 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume examines current trends in media education, modern information and communication technologies (MICT), open and distance learning (ODL), and science and technology education. Papers include: "Towards a Communal Curriculum: Strategic Planning and the Emerging Knowledge of Media Education" (Seppo Tella, Marja Mononen-Aaltonen, & Heikki…

Tella, Seppo, Ed.

380

e-Leadership in Higher Education: The Fifth "Age" of Educational Technology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the relative lack of research into e-leadership in educational technology in education is followed by an outline of selected prior literature in the field. The paper proposes that, as part of a natural evolution of educational technology research, considerably more attention needs to be focused on research and development in…

Jameson, Jill

2013-01-01

381

Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.  

PubMed

This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%). PMID:19749611

Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

2008-03-01

382

Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, ‘to build in’), we propose an active model of education (educare, ‘to bring out’) in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning.

Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

2013-01-01

383

Ethnicity and ocular imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exist ethnic differences in the prevalence of many ocular diseases. The ocular structures affected by these diseases can be imaged with devices that have increased in complexity over recent years. The purpose of this review is to explore what we mean by the term ‘ethnicity’ and what we know of ethnic differences in the structures of the eye that

R R A Bourne; RRA Bourne

2011-01-01

384

America's Enduring Ethnic Press.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of the history of newspapers in the United States have virtually ignored the ethnically oriented, foreign language press. This gap in journalistic investigation should be filled by considering the two conflicting roles which ethnic newspapers fill: assimilation of the ethnic group into the mainstream of American culture and maintenance and…

Marzolf, Marion

385

Factors in exposure assessment: Ethnic and socio-economic differences in fishing and consumption of fish caught along the Savannah River  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Carolina has issued fish consumption advisories for the Savannah River based on mercury and radionuclide levels. The authors examine differences in fishing rates and fish consumption of 258 people interviewed while fishing along the Savannah River, as a function of age, education, ethnicity, employment history, and income, and test the assumption that the average consumption of fish is less

J. Burger; W. L. Stephens; C. S. Boring; M. Kuklinski; J. W. Gibbons; M. Gochfeld

1999-01-01

386

School-Aged Victims of Sexual Abuse: Implications for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year in the United States, thousands of school-aged children become involved in sexual activities arranged by adults for purposes of pleasure and profit. Nationwide, annual profits from the child pornography industry and from female and male child prostitution are in the tens of millions of dollars. Heretofore, the majority of…

Wishon, Phillip M.

387

The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Educational Attainment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of a woman's age at the birth of her first child on the amount of schooling she completes was assessed using two national, longitudinal data sets. National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) analyses are based on annual interviews conducted between 1968...

K. A. Moore L. J. Waite S. B. Caldwell S. L. Hofferth

1978-01-01

388

Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.  

PubMed

The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample. PMID:23305070

Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

2013-01-01

389

Sleep Symptoms, Race/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Position  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Growing evidence indicates sleep is a major public health issue. Race/ethnicity and socioeconomics may contribute to sleep problems. This study assessed whether sleep symptoms were more prevalent among minorities and/or the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Epidemiologic survey. Patients or Participants: 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 4,081). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Sociodemographics included age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and immigration. Socioeconomics included poverty, education, private insurance, and food insecurity. Sleep symptoms assessed were sleep latency > 30 min, difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, early morning awakenings, non-restorative sleep, daytime sleepiness, snorting/gasping, and snoring. Decreased reported problems for most symptoms were found among minorities, immigrants, and lower education levels. In general, in fully adjusted models, long sleep latency was associated with female gender, being black/African American, lower education attainment, no private insurance, and food insecurity. Difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, early morning awakenings, and non-restorative sleep were also associated with female gender and food insecurity. Daytime sleepiness was seen in female and divorced respondents. Snorting/gasping was more prevalent among male, other-Hispanic/Latino, and 9th- to 11th-grade-level respondents. Snoring was prevalent among male, other-Hispanic/Latino, less-educated, and food-insecure respondents. Conclusions: Sleep symptoms were associated with multiple sociodemographic and economic factors, though these relationships differed by predictor and sleep outcome. Also, reports depended on question wording. Citation: Grandner MA; Petrov MER; Rattanaumpawan P; Jackson N; Platt A; Patel NP. Sleep symptoms, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic position. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):897-905.

Grandner, Michael A.; Petrov, Megan E. Ruiter; Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Jackson, Nicholas; Platt, Alec; Patel, Nirav P.

2013-01-01

390

Effect of birth weight, maternal education and prenatal smoking on offspring intelligence at school age.  

PubMed

To examine the combined effect of birth weight, mothers' education and prenatal smoking on psychometrically measured intelligence at school age 1,822 children born in 1992-1999 and attending the first six grades from 45 schools representing all of the fifteen Estonian counties with information on birth weight, gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, parity and smoking in pregnancy, and intelligence tests were studied. The scores of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were related to the birth weight: in the normal range of birth weight (>or=2500 g) every 500 g increase in birth weight was accompanied by around 0.7-point increase in IQ scores. A strong association between birth weight and IQ remained even if gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, place of residence, parity and smoking during pregnancy have been taken into account. Maternal prenatal smoking was accompanied by a 3.3-point deficit in children's intellectual abilities. Marriage and mother's education had an independent positive correlation with offspring intelligence. We concluded that the statistical effect of birth weight, maternal education and smoking in pregnancy on offspring's IQ scores was remarkable and remained even if other factors have been taken into account. PMID:20634008

Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Pullmann, Helle; Allik, Jüri

2010-08-01

391

Enhancing Astronomy Education Through Cross-Age Student Tutoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vast distances, such as those that pervade astronomy, are difficult concepts to grasp. We are all a part of the Earth-Moon system, however most people do not comprehend the sizes and distances involved. In a pilot study, the authors found that an intervention using both discussion and kinesthetic modeling resulted in students of all ages (children up through adults) acquiring a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. We have extended this research and are currently conducting a new study in which undergraduate students serve as "tutors" in a public observatory setting. One of our conjectures is that tutors' mental representations of the Earth-Moon system will be enhanced through their active participation in the cross-age peer tutoring activity. This work is supported in part by grants from the Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching, and Learning (CIRTL), the Vanderbilt University Learning Sciences Institute, and NSF Career grant AST-0349075.

Grundstrom, Erika; Taylor, R. S.

2009-01-01

392

Nutrition Education to Prevent Obesity in School-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 15.3% of children ages 6-11 are obese; an 8% increase since 1980. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys have provided nationally representative data on health statistics since the 1960’s. Comparing these surveys, the growing rates of childhood obesity are undeniable, as are the increasing rates of children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and multiple other conditions associated

Marilyn Susanne Lee

2004-01-01

393

Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

2011-01-01

394

Relations between Preschool Attention Span-Persistence and Age 25 Educational Outcomes  

PubMed Central

This study examined relations between children’s attention span-persistence in preschool and later school achievement and college completion. Children were drawn from the Colorado Adoption Project using adopted and non-adopted children (N = 430). Results of structural equation modeling indicated that children’s age 4 attention span-persistence significantly predicted math and reading achievement at age 21 after controlling for achievement levels at age 7, adopted status, child vocabulary skills, gender, and maternal education level. Relations between attention span-persistence and later achievement were not fully mediated by age 7 achievement levels. Logistic regressions also revealed that age 4 attention span-persistence skills significantly predicted the odds of completing college by age 25. The majority of this relationship was direct and was not significantly mediated by math or reading skills at age 7 or age 21. Specifically, children who were rated one standard deviation higher on attention span-persistence at age 4 had 48.7% greater odds of completing college by age 25. Discussion focuses on the importance of children’s early attention span-persistence for later school achievement and educational attainment.

McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan C.; Piccinin, Andrea; Rhea, Sally Ann; Stallings, Michael C.

2012-01-01

395

Education and Research for the Age of Nanoelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoelectronics has great potential for further, sustainable growth, and this growth is needed worldwide, because new chips provide the technology foundation for all those products and services that shape our lives. However, the concern is justified that this truth is not the perception of the public in the first decades of the new millennium. How can we work towards a broad, sustained commitment to an innovation ecosystem involving education, research, business, and public policy? Reminding ourselves of the 10x programs invoked in Chap. 2 to describe major milestones in advancing microelectronics towards today's nanoelectronics, we notice that all of them demanded requirements-driven, top-down research with ambitious, often disruptive targets for new products or services. Coming closer to the end of the nanometer focus, the new task of global proportion should be a femto-Joule focus on minimum-energy nanoelectronic systems research.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

396

Integrated Geospatial Education and Technology Training for High School Age Youth (HiGETT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landsat series of satellites provides high quality, consistent, 30 m resolution data for studies of landscape-scale change over time at no cost to the user. The availability of the Landsat data archive and the effectiveness and ease of its use to solve practical societal problems, particularly integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS), has been a key factor in a movement to bring remote sensing education to community colleges (as in the "iGETT" program funded by the National Science Foundation, 2007-2011) and now to younger students of high school age. "Integrated Geospatial Education and Technology Training for High School Age Youth (HiGETT)" was a two-day meeting convened April 4-5, 2011 to explore and articulate effective means of reaching teens with geospatial technology education and career awareness. Participants represented industry, government, academia, and informal education organizations such as 4-H and Girl Scouts. This poster will summarize a report on that meeting.

Allen, J. E.

2012-12-01

397

Decomposition of educational differences in life expectancy by age and causes of death among South Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Background Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy by ages and causes allow us to better understand the nature of socioeconomic mortality inequalities and to suggest priority areas for policy and intervention. This study aimed to quantify age- and cause-specific contributions to socioeconomic differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level among South Korean adult men and women. Methods We used National Death Registration records in 2005 (129,940 men and 106,188 women) and national census data in 2005 (15, 215, 523 men and 16,077,137 women aged 25 and over). Educational attainment as the indicator of socioeconomic position was categorized into elementary school graduation or less, middle or high school graduation, and college graduation or higher. Differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level were estimated by age- and cause-specific mortality differences using Arriaga’s decomposition method. Results Differences in life expectancy at age 25 between college or higher education and elementary or less education were 16.23 years in men and 7.69 years in women. Young adult groups aged 35–49 in men and aged 25–39 in women contributed substantially to the differences between college or higher education and elementary or less education in life expectancy. Suicide and liver disease were the most important causes of death contributing to the differences in life expectancy in young adult groups. For older age groups, cerebrovascular disease and lung cancer were important to explain educational differential in life expectancy at 25–29 between college or higher education and middle or higher education. Conclusions The contribution of the causes of death to socioeconomic inequality in life expectancy at age 25 in South Korea varied by age groups and differed by educational comparisons. The age specific contributions for different causes of death to life expectancy inequalities by educational attainment should be taken into account in establishing effective policy strategies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy.

2014-01-01

398

Effects of maternal education, age, and parity on fatal infant accidents.  

PubMed Central

Accidents are a major cause of death among children. Using computerized linked birth and death record information, this study examined the relationship of selected parental factors to the risk of infant accidental death. The analyses suggest that maternal age and education are inversely related to infant accident mortality while mother's parity is directly related. Accident mortality rate differentials by educational level were more evident for certain categories of accidents.

Wicklund, K; Moss, S; Frost, F

1984-01-01

399

Heritability of Word Recognition in Middle-Aged Men Varies as a Function of Parental Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is of lifelong importance, reading ability is studied primarily in children and adolescents. We examined variation in word recognition in 347 middle-aged male twin pairs. Overall heritability (a2) was 0.45, and shared environmental influences (c2) were 0.28. However, parental education moderated heritability such that a2 was 0.21 at the lowest parental education level and 0.69 at the highest

William S. Kremen; Kristen C. Jacobson; Hong Xian; Seth A. Eisen; Brian Waterman; Rosemary Toomey; Michael C. Neale; Ming T. Tsuang; Michael J. Lyons

2005-01-01

400

Enlightenment’s Wake: Religion and Education at the Close of the Modern Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The author uses the political philosopher, John Gray’s book, Enlightenment’s Wake: Politics and Culture at the Close of the\\u000a Modern Age (1995), to mount a critique of modern religious education and its commitment to Enlightenment values and principles.\\u000a He argues that the liberal theological conviction that the different religions are each spiritually valid is constitutive\\u000a of modern British religious education.

L. Philip Barnes

401

Why Learning Not Education?--Analysis of Transnational Education Policies in the Age of Globalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The profound influence of globalization seems helping outshine the concept of "education" with the more flexible notion of "learning" in the education policies of major transnational organizations. With considerable differences in concepts, all of them are promoting "learning", more specifically LLL (lifelong learning) through their policies.…

Mandal, Sayantan

2012-01-01

402

Comparative Education, Border Pedagogy, and Teacher Education in an Age of Internationalisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calls to internationalise higher education have intensified in recent years, particularly as educational services have grown to become a significant export industry within the Australian economy. This measure is indicative, however, of the relatively narrow way in which internationalisation has been constructed, and its political utility in…

Parkes, Robert J.; Griffiths, Tom G.

2009-01-01

403

Cervical cancer screening among ethnically diverse black women: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices.  

PubMed

This is a descriptive study of cervical cancer screening knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices among ethnically diverse black women. We conducted 6 focus groups with Haitian, African, English-speaking Caribbean, and African American women recruited from a federally qualified health center. Overall, there was limited knowledge and confusion across ethnic groups about cervical cancer and its risk factors, the Pap test, and the human papilloma virus (HPV) and its association with cervical cancer. At the same time, there were distinct differences between ethnic groups in knowledge, practices, and cultural beliefs about cervical cancer. African women knew the least among all the groups, while African American participants had the greatest knowledge of HPV. However, their knowledge was still limited. Patient-doctor relationship was the single most important facilitator for cervical cancer screening. Barriers to cervical cancer screening included cost, busy work schedule, fear of the unknown, lack of insurance or being unemployed, and fear of disclosing immigration status. Interventions with ethnically diverse black women would benefit from recognizing cultural barriers and misconceptions that vary by ethnic group. Culturally based strategies suggested by the focus groups include the use of existing social networks, the use of indigenous community-based health workers, and the inclusion of women of all ages in cervical cancer education because of the roles they have in extended families. PMID:22046849

Brown, Diane R; Wilson, Rula M; Boothe, Makini A S; Harris, Caroline E S

2011-08-01

404

The association between educational level and age at the menopause: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To evaluate the association between educational level and age at menopause, and to describe the potential mechanisms involved.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to evaluate this question. Educational level, which is considered one\\u000a of the best socioeconomic indicators, was evaluated in this review as an exposure factor leading menopause to occur at an\\u000a earlier age. The electronic

Felipe Simões Canavez; Guilherme Loureiro Werneck; Raphael Câmara Medeiros Parente; Roger Keller Celeste; Eduardo Faerstein

2011-01-01

405

Long Run Returns to Education: Does Schooling Lead to an Extended Old Age?  

PubMed Central

While there is no doubt that health is strongly correlated with education, whether schooling exerts a causal impact on health is not firmly established. We exploit a Dutch compulsory schooling law to estimate the causal effect of education on mortality. The reform provides a powerful instrument, significantly raising years of schooling, which, in turn, has a significant and robust negative effect on mortality. For men surviving to age 81, an extra year of schooling is estimated to reduce the probability of dying before the age of 89 by almost 3 percentage points relative to a baseline of 50 percent.

van Kippersluis, Hans; O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

2011-01-01

406

Differences in diffusion of FDA antidepressant risk warnings across racial-ethnic groups.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Numerous articles have identified that medical technologies diffuse more rapidly among non-Latino whites compared with other racial-ethnic groups. However, whether health risk warnings also diffuse differentially across racial-ethnic minority groups is uncertain. This study assessed racial-ethnic variation in children's antidepressant use before and after the 2004 black-box warning concerning risks of antidepressants for youths. METHODS Data consisted of responses for white, black, and Latino youths ages five through 17 from the 2002-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=44,422). The dependent variable was any antidepressant use in the prior year. Independent variables were race-ethnicity, year, psychological impairment, income, insurance status, region, and parents' education level. Logistic regression models were used to assess antidepressant use conditional on race-ethnicity, time, interaction between race-ethnicity and time, need, socioeconomic status, and Institute of Medicine-concordant estimates of disparities in predicted antidepressant use before and after the warning. RESULTS The warnings affected antidepressant use differentially for whites, blacks, and Latinos. Usage rates among whites decreased from 3.3 to 2.1 percentage points between prewarning and postwarning, whereas usage rates remained steady among Latinos and increased among blacks. Findings were significant in multiple regression analyses, in which predictions were adjusted for need. CONCLUSIONS The findings indicate that health safety information on antidepressant usage among children diffused faster among whites than nonwhites, suggesting the need to improve infrastructure for delivering important health messages to racial-ethnic minority populations. PMID:23412363

DePetris, Andrea Elizabeth; Cook, Benjamin L

2013-05-01

407

Aging and memory: Corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same

G. Zappalà; G. Measso; F. Cavarzeran; F. Grigoletto; B. Lebowitz; F. Pirozzolo; L. Amaducci; D. Massari; T. Crook

1995-01-01

408

Ethnic Identity in College Students from Four Ethnic Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined ethnic identity search and commitment, importance of ethnicity as identity issue, and relationship of ethnic identity to self-esteem among college students (N=196). Found exploration of ethnic identity issues was higher among minority students, and ethnicity was rated more important to minority students. Self-esteem was related to…

Phinney, Jean S.; Alipuria, Linda Line

1990-01-01

409

Linguistic Skills of Adult Native Speakers, as a Function of Age and Level of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the level of their EP (low versus high), were tested on…

Mulder, Kimberley; Hulstijn, Jan H.

2011-01-01

410

Inequality of child mortality among ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed Central

Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries (Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia) to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health and survival chances, compared to the rest of the national population, as a result of their geographical location. The factors examined to explain potential child survival inequalities among ethnic groups included residence in the largest city, household economic conditions, educational attainment and nutritional status of the mothers, use of modern maternal and child health services including immunization, and patterns of fertility and migration. The results show remarkable consistency. In all 11 countries there were significant differentials between ethnic groups in the odds of dying during infancy or before the age of 5 years. Multivariate analysis shows that ethnic child mortality differences are closely linked with economic inequality in many countries, and perhaps with differential use of child health services in countries of the Sahel region. Strong and consistent results in this study support placing the notion of ethnicity at the forefront of theories and analyses of child mortality in Africa which incorporate social, and not purely epidemiological, considerations. Moreover, the typical advantage of relatively small, clearly defined ethnic groups, as compared to the majority in the national population, according to fundamental indicators of wellbeing--child survival, education, housing, and so forth--suggests that many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, despite their widespread poverty, are as marked by social inequality as are countries in other regions in the world.

Brockerhoff, M.; Hewett, P.

2000-01-01

411

Awareness of schizophrenia and intellectual disability and stigma across ethnic groups in the UK.  

PubMed

Research has examined the public's understanding of mental illness and stigma, but there is scant evidence on intellectual disabilities. This study investigated whether the public from different ethnic groups can recognise symptoms of schizophrenia and intellectual disability depicted in a vignette, and what factors predict recognition and social distance. A survey of lay people of working age was completed in the UK (N=1002). The sample was ethnically mixed, with the largest groups consisting of white UK residents, and people from Asian and black African/Caribbean backgrounds. Regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of recognition and social distance. Across the whole sample, 25.7% recognised schizophrenia and 28.0% intellectual disability. Ethnicity, gender, education and prior contact predicted recognition of both vignettes. Social distance was higher for schizophrenia than intellectual disability, but overall participants were ambivalent to mildly negative about social contact with individuals with either symptomatology. Familiarity was associated with lower social distance for both conditions. Symptom recognition predicted reduced social distance for intellectual disability, but not for schizophrenia. The low levels of awareness of symptoms and high levels of stigma among some ethnic groups indicate a need for targeted public education efforts and further research. PMID:23092619

Scior, Katrina; Potts, Henry W; Furnham, Adrian F

2013-07-30

412

Ethnic Differences in Suicidal Ideation and Attempts  

PubMed Central

Suicide is one of the leading causes of death, and suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. However, little is known about the relationship between ethnicity and suicidal behaviors. The goal of this article is to provide an update on the relationship between ethnicity and suicidal ideation and attempts. We review the rates of suicide ideation/attempts across ethnic groups in the US, and the risk factors associated with suicide attempts in each ethnic group. The results of published studies have been inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that non-Hispanic Whites have significantly higher suicide attempt risk than other ethnic groups, while two studies using national data did not find any significant relationship between race/ethnicity and suicide ideation or attempts. From the epidemiological point of view, these findings underscore the need to conduct large studies in general population samples that include enough individuals from all ethnic groups and that are large enough to detect significant effects among those groups. From the clinical point of view, mental health professionals should focus on factors that have been consistently found to be strongly associated with suicide attempts across different populations, including major depression and other psychiatric disorders, female gender, and young age.

Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A.; Blanco, Carlos

2009-01-01

413

Factors in exposure assessment: ethnic and socioeconomic differences in fishing and consumption of fish caught along the Savannah River.  

PubMed

South Carolina has issued fish consumption advisories for the Savannah River based on mercury and radionuclide levels. We examine differences in fishing rates and fish consumption of 258 people interviewed while fishing along the Savannah River, as a function of age, education, ethnicity, employment history, and income, and test the assumption that the average consumption of fish is less than the recreational value of 19 kg/year assumed by risk assessors. Ethnicity and education contributed significantly to explaining variations in number of fish meals per month, serving size, and total quantity of fish consumed per year. Blacks fished more often, ate more fish meals of slightly larger serving sizes, and consumed more fish per year than did Whites. Although education and income were correlated, education contributed most significantly to behavior; people who did not graduate from high school ate fish more often, ate more fish per year, and ate more whole fish than people who graduated from high school. Computing consumption of fish for each person individually indicates that (1) people who eat fish more often also eat larger portions, (2) a substantial number of people consume more than the amount of fish used to compute risk to recreational fishermen, (3) some people consume more than the subsistence level default assumption (50 kg/year) and (4) Blacks consume more fish per year than Whites, putting them at greater risk from contaminants in fish. Overall, ethnicity, age, and education contributed to variations in fishing behavior and consumption. PMID:10765415

Burger, J; Stephens, W L; Boring, C S; Kuklinski, M; Gibbons, J W; Gochfeld, M

1999-06-01

414

Celebration: A Planning Guide for Ethnic Heritage and Culture Weeks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to help teachers and supervisors in planning activities for observing Ethnic Heritage and Culture Weeks in the New York City Board of Education calendar. The first sections discuss goals and general heritage and culture themes, activities, and materials. The following sections each present suggestions for individual ethnic

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

415

Transforming the Curriculum: Ethnic Studies and Women's Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a collection of 19 essays that discuss curricular change in higher education regarding ethnic and women's studies, and presents the theoretical and practical bases for accomplishing this restyling. The papers and authors are as follows: "The Difficult Dialogue of Curriculum Transformation: Ethnic Studies and Women's Studies"…

Butler, Johnnella E., Ed.; Walter, John C., Ed.

416

National Unity and Ethnic Identity in a Vietnamese University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss the ways in which Vietnam's educational policies for ethnic minorities are enacted in the bachelor of arts (BA) program in ethnic minority cultures (EMC) at the Hanoi University of Culture (HUC). Hanoi University of Culture is one of only two universities in Vietnam that offer this program. Although the BA is…

Tran, Linh T.; Walter, Pierre G.

2010-01-01

417

A Reliability and Validity Study of the Defining Issues Test: The Relationship of Age, Education, Gender and Parental Education with Moral Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study is twofold: First and main aim was to develop a valid and reliable Turkish version of the DIT which is one of the most important instruments in the psychology and education research; second is to explore the relationships between moral development and age, gender, education, and parental education. The study group consists of…

Cesur, Sevim; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

2010-01-01

418

Ethnic Values and Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sociocultural implications of ethnicity are explored in this paper. Three main questions are discussed: (1) What is ethnic?, (2) Who wants to be ethnic?, and (3) Why be ethnic? The author notes that in 1960 the ethnic diversity of the U.S. population was such that some 185 foreign language newspapers, 1,660 radio programs broadcast in the foreign…

Brault, Gerard J.

1972-01-01

419

Pericardial adipose tissue and coronary artery calcification in The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationship of pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) with coronary artery calcification in MESA, a large cohort in which associations by race/ethnicity can be compared. The baseline cohort comprised 6,814 Caucasian (38%), African American (28%), Chinese American (12%) and Hispanic (22%) adults aged 45–84, without known clinical cardiovascular disease. Cardiac CT was used to measure PAT (cm3) and calcification (Agatston score). We examined cross-sectional associations of PAT with the presence (score>0) and severity (continuous score if >0) of calcification using prevalence ratio (PR) (n=6,672) and linear regression (n=3,362), respectively. Main models were adjusted for age, age2, gender, race/ethnicity, field site, smoking, physical activity, alcohol and education. PAT volume (adjusted for age, height, weight and site) was greatest in Chinese males, while Black males had less PAT than all but Black females. PAT was associated with presence [PR per standard deviation (SD): 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.08)] and severity [difference in log Agatston score per SD: 0.15 (0.09, 0.21)] of calcification, but neither association varied by race/ethnicity. Adjustment for generalized adiposity attenuated but did not eliminate the associations. With further adjustment for traditional risk factors and inflammatory markers, only the association with severity remained statistically significant [PR: 1.02 (1.00, 1.04), difference: 0.10 (0.03, 0.17)]. Heterogeneity by sex was observed for presence of calcification (PR in men: 1.04; in women: 1.08; p for interaction<0.0001). Pericardial adipose tissue was associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery calcification in this cohort, but despite differences in PAT volumes and calcification across race/ethnic groups, neither association varied by race/ethnicity.

McClain, JE; Hsu, FC; Brown, ER; Burke, GL; Carr, JJ; Harris, TB; Kritchevsky, SB; Szklo, M; Tracy, RP; Ding, J

2012-01-01

420

Educational "Anticipations" of Traditional Age Community College Students: A Prolegomena to Any Future Accountability Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a five-level variable that highlights the level and the consistency of a student's educational "anticipations," and tests the explanatory power of this approach to the histories of traditional age community college students using the postsecondary transcript files of the NELS:88\\2000 longitudinal study. In logistic models of…

Adelman, Clifford

2005-01-01

421

The Relationship between Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies, Age, and Level of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research investigated the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies by 60 young and 90 adult learners of different levels of education across different fields of study. The intermediate level young participants included junior-high and senior-high school learners between the ages of 14 and 17. The high-intermediate adult…

Khezrlou, Sima

2012-01-01

422

The Exceptional Student of Secondary School Age: A Bibliography for Psychology and Education 1960-1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The bibliography, containing references to literature from English language published periodicals circulated between 1960 and 1970, lists periodical materials pertaining to secondary school-age exceptional students. Works in medicine, sociology, and law are included, although the emphasis is upon education and psychology. The bibliography is…

McMurray, J. G.

423

Roles for Technology in the Information-Age Paradigm of Education: Learning Management Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a detailed description of the powerful and necessary role which technology can play in the information-age paradigm of education described in the four articles comprising this series. This article calls for a learning management system (LMS), a comprehensive and integrated application of technology to the learning process,…

Reigeluth, Charles M.; Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunkyung Lee; Dutta, Pratima; Chen, Zengguan; Powell, Nathan D. P.

2008-01-01

424

Relative Age Effects on Physical Education Attainment and School Sport Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The "Relative Age Effect" (RAE) has consistently been demonstrated to influence attainment in various contexts. In education, RAE appears to provide an advantage to those born during initial months of an academic year, compared with those born in later months. A similar effect has been noted in many sports, with those born shortly…

Cobley, Stephen; Abraham, Colin; Baker, Joseph

2008-01-01

425

Correlation between Age and Education Specific In and Out Migration Rates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although in-migration and out-migration levels of communities or counties are usually positively correlated, little work has been done on the correlation between in-migration and out-migration within population subcategories. Using a special 1980 data source from the U.S. Census Bureau, this paper examines migration patterns in 30 age/education

Voth, Donald E.; Ramey, Kevin

426

Building Knowledge Cultures: Education and Development in the Age of Knowledge Capitalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book develops the notion of "knowledge cultures" as a basis for understanding the possibilities of education and development in the age of knowledge Capitalism. "Knowledge cultures" point to the significance of cultural preconditions in the new production of knowledge and how they are based on shared practices, embodying culturally preferred…

Peters, Michael A.; Besley, A.C.

2006-01-01

427

The effects of age, gender and level of education on moral reasoning among registered nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the effects among age, gender, level of education and moral reasoning using Kohlberg's and Gilligan's theories as conceptual framework. In the past several years, there has been a resurgence of interest in this topic, fueled by the debate on the multi-dimensional elements of moral reasoning.^ Much of the research in the area of moral reasoning has used

Feleta Louise Andrews Wilson

1991-01-01

428

The Game of Late Life: A Novel Education Activity for the Psychology of Ageing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and evaluation of The Game of Late Life--a novel education activity for the psychology of ageing. The game was designed to provide transformational learning where students imagine themselves as older adults and move through late life via a game board, encountering various life events along the way. One of the…

Brinker, Jay K.; Roberts, Pamela; Radnidge, Belinda

2014-01-01

429

Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor’s degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.

Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

2009-01-01

430

Comparative Age Differences of Job Satisfaction on Faculty at Higher Education Level: China and Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose--The study aims to examine the age differences of job satisfaction between Taiwanese and Chinese higher education faculty. Design/methodology/approach--The data on job satisfaction were obtained from 194 Taiwanese faculty and 211 Chinese faculty at college levels in one city. Findings--No statistically significant differences were found…

Tu, Leafy; Plaisent, Michel; Bernard, Prosper; Maguiraga, Lassana

2005-01-01

431

Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

2009-01-01

432

Strategies Underlying Psychometric Test Responses in Young and Middle-aged Adults of Varying Educational Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the strategies leading to test item responses in 60 young (20-25 years) and 60 middle-aged (35-40 years) adults, whose highest level of education had been either secondary, technical or university. Subjects were individually administered a 12 item test similar to Raven's Progressive Matrices, and were…

Macrae, Kristina S.

433

Consumer Education for the Information Age. Practice Application Brief No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now that the Internet has increased the potential for deception and misinformation among larger numbers of people, consumer education has a new role to play in helping people develop the skills needed to deal with the challenges of the Information Age. In the current information environment, consumers need the blend of skills and abilities that…

Kerka, Sandra

434

Racial and ethnic differences in knowledge and willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials in an urban population in the Southeastern US.  

PubMed

Racial/ethnic minorities in the Southeastern USA are disproportionately affected by HIV, and would benefit from a preventive vaccine. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 220 community college students in Atlanta to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in knowledge and willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. Willingness to participate did not differ by race/ethnicity, age, or gender, and was not associated with knowledge. African-Americans and Asians were more likely than Whites to: believe that an HIV vaccine exists, but is being withheld from the public; believe that AIDS was caused by a government conspiracy; feel that having other participants and investigators of their ethnic background in the trial was important. Misconceptions regarding HIV vaccines are common and differ by race/ethnicity. However, willingness to participate was not associated with knowledge or race/ethnicity. Efforts to increase participation should address the ethnic diversity of the trial personnel, and education to eliminate misconceptions about HIV vaccines and trials. PMID:16464270

Priddy, F H; Cheng, A C; Salazar, L F; Frew, P M

2006-02-01

435

Does Gender Matter? an Exploratory Study of Perspectives Across Genders, Age and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the social hierarchy. Analysis indicated that there were differences between male and female views on these dimensions of gender, and that age and educational levels were also influential. While younger respondents from both genders demonstrated flexibility in their definitions of gender and expressed strong support for gender equality, they were noticeably lacking in their knowledge of the historical context of gender relations and did not show the skills required to realise their ideals of gender equality, especially when compared to older respondents of both genders with higher levels of educational attainment.

Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

2009-11-01

436

Gender and Racial/Ethnic Composition of Postsecondary Instructional Faculty and Staff, 1992-98.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The literature examining gender and race/ethnicity issues for faculty in postsecondary education has relied largely on data from two national studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES): the 1988 ...

D. Glover L. J. Zimbler

2002-01-01

437

Enhancement of Cross-Cultural Communication within a Multi-Ethnic Environment: The Educational Function of the U.S. Air Force Office of Social Actions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Air Force attempts to minimize racial and sexual discrimination by incorporating federal laws into its infrastructure and by exercising consistent enforcement of these laws. This leads to a development of cross-cultural communication among various subcultures within a multi-ethnic environment. The Social Actions Office at each Air Force…

Schnell, James A.

438

Racial and Ethnic Diversity among U.S.- Educated Science, Engineering, and Health Doctorate Recipients: Methods of Reporting Diversity. Info Brief, NSF 12-304.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This InfoBrief describes two common methods for tabulating race and ethnicity and uses these methods to present the racial diversity and the Hispanic or Latino origins of the science, engineering, and health (SEH) doctoral population. In this report, the ...

L. M. Milan T. B. Hoffer

2012-01-01

439

Preferences in Maryland Higher Education: Racial and Ethnic Preferences in Undergraduate Admissions at Maryland Four-Year Public Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which racial and ethnic preferences were used in the admissions policies of Maryland's four-year public colleges and universities. Ten institutions provided data on in-state enrollees (race, sex, and SAT scores). Data analysis indicated that white in-state enrollees on average had substantially higher SAT scores…

Lerner, Robert; Nagai, Althea K.

440

Ethnicity as Social Capital: An Examination of First-Generation, Ethnic-Minority Students at a Canadian University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we use interview data collected in a four-year longitudinal study of first-generation university students to answer the question: how might the ethnicity of first-generation students impact their university experiences? After briefly examining previous literature written on the educational achievement levels of ethnic-minority…

Birani, Aisha; Lehmann, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

441

Timing Issues with Early Childhood Education Programs: How Effect Sizes Vary by Starting Age, Program Duration and Persistence of Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to…

Duncan, Greg J.; Leak, James A.; Li, Weilin; Magnuson, Katherine; Schindler, Holly; Yoshikawa, Hiro

2011-01-01

442

Health-related characteristics and preferred methods of receiving health education according to dominant language among Latinos Aged 25 to 64 in a large Northern California health plan  

PubMed Central

Background Latinos are a fast growing segment of the U.S. health care population. Acculturation factors, including English fluency, result in an ethnic group heterogeneous with regard to SES, health practices, and health education needs. This study examined how demographic and health-related characteristics of Spanish-dominant (SD), Bilingual (BIL), and English-dominant (ED) Latino men and women aged 25–64 differed among members of a large Northern California health plan. Methods This observational study was based on data from cohorts of 171 SD (requiring an interpreter), 181 BIL, and 734 ED Latinos aged 25–64 who responded to random sample health plan member surveys conducted 2005–2006. Language groups were compared separately by gender on education, income, behavioral health risks (smoking, obesity, exercise frequency, dietary practices, health beliefs), health status (overall health and emotional health, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heartburn/acid reflux, back pain, depression), computer and Internet access, and health education modality preferences. Results Compared with ED Latinos, higher percentages of the SD and BIL groups had very low educational attainment and low income. While groups were similar in prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol, SD were less likely than ED Latinos to rate overall health and emotional well-being as good, very good, or excellent and more likely to report heartburn and back pain (women only). The groups were similar with regard to smoking and obesity, but among women, SD were more likely to be physically inactive than ED, and BIL were less likely than SD and ED groups to eat <3 servings of fruit/vegetables per day. SD and BIL of both genders were significantly less likely than ED Latinos to believe that health practices had a large impact on health. Compared to ED men and women, SD and BIL Latinos had significantly lower Internet and computer access. As a result, SD Latinos had a greater preference for lower technology health education modalities such as videos and taped phone messages. Conclusion There are important differences among Latinos of different English language proficiency with regard to education, income, health status, health behaviors, IT access, and health education modality preferences that ought to be considered when planning and implementing health programs for this growing segment of the U.S. population.

Gordon, Nancy P; Iribarren, Carlos

2008-01-01

443

The incidence of low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction in relationship to maternal ethnicity and gestational age at birth - A PEARL study analysis from the State of Qatar  

PubMed Central

Objective: To analyze the association between maternal ethnicity and gestational age with the incidence of low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: Prospective, analytic study Methods: The study was conducted between March 14th and April 4th 2011 in Women's Hospital HMC. The data was ascertained from the delivery register of labor ward on daily basis using predesigned, structured questionnaire. Data was stratified according to the maternal ethnicity groups and gestational age at birth (term and preterm). Results: The total deliveries during the study period were 890; 35.5% Qatari (n 316) and 64.5% non-Qatari (n 574). The incidence of LBW was 12.36% (n 110). The difference of LBW incidence between Qatari (13.6% n 43) and non-Qatari (11.67% n 67) groups was non significant (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.82-1.67, p = 0.401). The same was between non-Qatari sub groups (p < 0.05). The incidence of IUGR was 6% (n 54; 49.09% of LBW). The incidence of IUGR between Qatari (5.7% n 18) and non-Qatari (6.27% n 36) groups was significant (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.3-0.6 p>0.05). The incidence of LBW was 7.85% (n 60) in term babies and 39.68% (n 50) in preterm babies. The incidence if IUGR was 3.79% (n 29) in term babies and 19.84% (n 25) in preterm babies. Preterm babies had a five times higher risk of both being LBW (RR 5.05; 95%CI 3.65-6.99; p < 0.001) and IUGR (RR 5.23; 95% CI 3.17-8.62; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of low birth weight is independent of maternal ethnicity in Qatar. However, the incidence of IUGR is significantly higher among the non-Qatari population. The relative risk of being LBW or IUGR is five times higher in preterm babies. Further in depth studies are indicated.

Abdulkader, Zeyad Mohannad; ur Rahman, Sajjad; Nimeri, Nuha

2012-01-01

444

Individual and Social Influences on Ethnic Identity among Latino Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on prior Latino ethnic identity research, this study had three goals: describe age-related trends in ethnic identity among young adults, examine relations among ethnic identity and individual factors, and explore the impact of family and peer socialization on ethnic identity. The participants (two hundred 19- to 30-year-olds; mean age = 22.5) completed self-report surveys sent to Latino undergraduate and

Lenna L. Ontai-Grzebik; Marcela Raffaelli

2004-01-01

445

Student Learning in the Information Age. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses resource-based learning in higher education. One premise of resource-based learning is that as students become able to select their own learning materials from information resources, they become active, independent learners, while professors become learning facilitators in cooperation with librarians and other information…

Breivik, Patricia Senn

446

Geographic and ethnic disparities in osteoporotic fractures.  

PubMed

Osteoporotic fractures are a major worldwide epidemic. Here, we review global variability, ethnic differences and secular changes in osteoporotic fractures. Worldwide, age-standardized incidence rates of hip fracture vary >200-fold in women and >140-fold in men when comparing the country in which incidence rates are the highest with that in which they are the lowest. Median age-standardized rates are highest in North America and Europe, followed by Asia, Middle East, Oceania, Latin America and Africa. Globally, rates of hip fracture are greater in women than in men, with an average ratio of ?2:1. The incidence of radiographic vertebral fractures is much higher than that of hip fractures, whereas the incidence rates of clinical vertebral fractures mirror hip fracture rates in most countries. Methodological challenges of defining and ascertaining vertebral fractures limit the interpretation of these data. Secular declines in hip fracture rates have been reported in populations from North America, Europe and Oceania. These declines are especially notable in women, suggesting that reproductive factors might contribute to this reduction. By contrast, hip fracture rates are increasing in parts of Asia and Latin America. Global indicators of health, education and socioeconomic status are positively correlated with fracture rates suggesting that lifestyles in developed countries might contribute to hip fracture. Improvements in fracture assessment, in particular for nonhip fractures, and identification of factors that contribute to this variability might substantially influence our understanding of osteoporotic fracture aetiology and provide new avenues for prevention. PMID:24751883

Cauley, Jane A; Chalhoub, Didier; Kassem, Ahmed M; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj

2014-06-01

447

Psychosocial factors and distress: a comparison between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic Pakistanis in Oslo, Norway  

PubMed Central

Background In the Norwegian context, higher mental distress has been reported for the non-Western immigrants compared to the ethnic Norwegians and Western immigrants. This high level of distress is often related to different socio-economic conditions in this group. No efforts have been made earlier to observe the impact of changed psychosocial conditions on the state of mental distress of these immigrant communities due to the migration process. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and psychosocial factors among Pakistani immigrants and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, and to investigate to what extent differences in mental health could be explained by psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions. Method Data was collected from questionnaires as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000–2001. 13581 Norwegian born (attendance rate 46%) and 339 ethnic Pakistanis (attendance rate 38%) in the selected age groups participated. A 10-item version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) was used as a measure of psychological distress. Results Pakistanis reported less education and lower employment rate than Norwegians (p < 0.005). The Pakistani immigrants also reported higher distress, mean HSCL score 1.53(1.48–1.59), compared to the ethnic Norwegians, HSCL score 1.30(1.29–1.30). The groups differed significantly (p < 0.005) with respect to social support and feeling of powerlessness, the Pakistanis reporting less support and more powerlessness. The expected difference in mean distress was reduced from 0.23 (0.19–0.29) to 0.07 (0.01–0.12) and 0.12 (0.07–0.18) when adjusted for socioeconomic and social support variables respectively. Adjusting for all these variables simultaneously, the difference in the distress level between the two groups was eliminated Conclusion Poor social support and economic conditions are important mediators of mental health among immigrants. The public health recommendations/interventions should deal with both the economic conditions and social support system of immigrant communities simultaneously.

Syed, Hammad Raza; Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Dalen, Ingvild; Claussen, Bj?rgulf; Hussain, Akthar; Selmer, Randi; Ahlberg, Nora

2006-01-01

448

Integrating an Aging Student Population into Higher Education--Challenges for Evidence-Based Policy in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both demographic developments and the need for highly skilled workers have led to renewed efforts to widen access to higher education in Europe. This means looking beyond the traditional clientele of university education in terms of routes into higher education, age, and centrality of studies. Attracting and catering to this more comprehensive…

Orr, Dominic

2010-01-01

449

Citizenship and Education in Twenty-Eight Countries: Civic Knowledge and Engagement at Age Fourteen. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an Executive Summary for "Citizenship and Education in Twenty-eight Countries: Civic Knowledge and Engagement at Age Fourteen," the first report of the results of the second phase of the Civic Education Study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). The Executive Summary briefly…

Torney-Purta, Judith; Lehmann, Rainer; Oswald, Hans; Schulz, Wolfram

450

Trial of Using Robotic Pet as Human Interface of Multimedia Education System for Pre-school Aged Child in Kindergarten  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic pet was introduced into kindergarten class work for 4-6 aged children in order to investigate the capability of the robotic pet as the human interface of multimedia educational contents using various multimedia digital devices, and find the keys for developing the multimedia education method to enrich early childhood education. The final goal of this study is to help a

Satoshi Yamamoto; Toshiro Tetsui; Mitsuru Naganuma; R. Kimura

2006-01-01

451

Ethnic Community Views of the Austin Independent School District. Policy Research Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined ethnic community perceptions of the Austin Independent School District (AISD). It investigated citizens' assessments of the quality of public education, ethnic tensions in the schools, and the equality of resource distribution among the schools. It also examined variations in perceptions of the AISD by ethnic group. Data…

Schott, Richard L.

452

The Ethnic Mother-Tongue-School in America: Assumptions, Findings, and Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools in the United States that have always conducted classes in an ethnic language were studied in an attempt to correct a long-standing oversight in the development of bilingual education theory. Chapters are devoted to the critical examination of five of the assumptions that have guided ethnic communities in institutionalizing ethnic-language…

Fishman, Joshua A.; Markman, Barbara R.

453

Parents' School Satisfaction: Ethnic Similarities and Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Parent satisfaction with their children's school is an important issue in today's competitive educational environment characterized by school choice and government standards; however, few empirical studies address school satisfaction similarities and differences among parents from different ethnic groups. The purpose of this paper is to…

Friedman, Barry A.; Bobrowski, Paula E.; Geraci, John

2006-01-01

454

Bulgarian Ethnic Heritage Studies Kit: Teacher's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ethnic heritage teaching guide is based on the folk arts of the Bulgarian people. Folk arts are defined as expressions of creative impulses which arise spontaneously within a culture without resort to formal educative processes and which become characteristic of that culture. Folk Arts were selected as a good indicator of Bulgarian culture…

Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA. Tamburitzans Inst. of Folk Arts.

455

Families, Schools, and Aspirations: Ethnic Group Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations between adolescents' perceptions of school environments and their educational and occupational aspirations in different family environments were examined. Results indicated ethnic group differences in the relationship among the variables which suggest that results from investigations of family-school influences on children's school…

Marjoribanks, Kevin

1985-01-01

456

Teaching Ethnicity with Novels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge about the social behavior and backgrounds of American ethnic groups is important for social service personnel, but members of the groups are not always available to teach or interact with students. As a way around this problem, a system has been developed for studying ethnic communities through novels featuring members of the chosen…

Johnson, David M.; Smith, Ruthena

457

Humanism and Ethnicity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Views various ways in which ethnic groups seek to reaffirm their own worth, including minority consciousness, consciousness-raising, particularized cultural values, and comparing one's own cultural group favorably with all other group. Suggests that all peoples should remember that, in addition to having an ethnic background, they all share a more…

Kolenda, Konstantin

1981-01-01

458

Ethnicity and analgesic practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: We previously reported that Hispanic ethnicity was an independent risk factor for inadequate analgesic administration among patients presenting to a single emergency department. We then attempted to generalize these findings to other ethnic groups and EDs. Our current study objective is to determine whether black patients with extremity fractures are less likely to receive ED analgesics than similarly

Knox H. Todd; Christi Deaton; Anne P. D’Adamo; Leon Goe

2000-01-01

459

Objective and perceived ethnic density and health: findings from a United Kingdom general population survey.  

PubMed

Studies indicate an ethnic density effect, whereby an increasing proportion of persons of the same ethnicity as oneself (co-ethnics) in one's area of residence is associated with reduced risk of morbidity among ethnic minorities, though evidence is mixed. Measures of ethnic density are commonly taken from small-area census data using predefined categories of ethnicity. In a United Kingdom study, the authors compared these measures with perceived ethnic density, based on self-reported proportion of co-ethnics in the area. Using 2005 Home Office Citizenship Survey data linked to the 2001 United Kingdom Census, they found moderate-sized correlations between perceived and measured ethnic density which varied across ethnic groups (r = 0.34-0.65). Perceived ethnic density underestimated measured levels for whites and overestimated measured levels for ethnic minorities. Compared with participants in areas where less than half of residents were co-ethnics, those reporting a perceived ethnic density of more than half tended to have less limiting long-term illness (for all ethnic minorities combined, odds ratio = 0.81, 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 1.04) after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic position, ethnicity, area deprivation, and measured ethnic density. After adjustment for perceived ethnic density, there was no evidence of a protective association for measured ethnic density, except for Caribbeans. Perceived ethnic density may reflect individual experiences of frequency and intensity of contact with co-ethnics, which may explain why it was more consistently related to lower morbidity risk. PMID:19608764

Stafford, M; Becares, L; Nazroo, J

2009-08-15

460

Ethnic Choices and the Intergenerational Progress of Mexican Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using microdata from the 1990 U.S. Census, we show that U.S.-born Mexican Americans who marry non-Mexicans are substantially more educated, on average, than are Mexican Americans who marry co-ethnics (whether they be Mexican Americans or Mexican immigrants). The educational selectivity of Mexican-American intermarriage generates corresponding differences in the employment and earnings of Mexican Americans according to the ethnicity of their

Brian Duncan; Stephen J. Trejo

2004-01-01

461

Speaking Ourselves: The Intersections of Women Educators' Personal and Professional Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from interviews conducted with 33 women educators working at varying levels of education and in diverse fields, and who varied in terms of age, ethnicity, race, family structure, geographic location, and sexual orientation. Semi-structured interviews, building on variants of this question, "Does who you are as person…

O'Brien, Leigh M.

2010-01-01

462

The Education of a Leader: Educational Credentials and Other Characteristics of Chief Executive Officers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors identified and described the CEOs of Fortune 500 companies in terms of several education-related and other demographic variables. Specifically, they identified the type and level of degrees earned, including specific majors, and additionally explored several demographic variables, including age, gender and ethnicity. They also…

Martelli, Joseph; Abels, Patricia

2010-01-01

463

Normal standards for QT and QT subintervals derived from a large ethnically diverse population of women aged 50 to 79 years (the Women's Health Initiative [WHI]).  

PubMed

Available normal standards for rate-adjusted QT intervals in women are based on samples that include only whites, and no normal standards are available for QT subintervals. This study derived normal limits from percentile distributions for QT as well as QT and T-wave subintervals in 22,311 participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), including 19,059 white, 1,771 African-American, 819 Hispanic, 82 American Indian, and 580 Asian women. Excluded were women with cardiovascular disease or who were using cardioactive drugs at baseline and cardiovascular morbidity or death during the subsequent mean 6.3-year follow-up. Normal limits for QT adjusted by Bazett's formula were strongly rate dependent, invalidating their use in practical applications. QT adjusted as a linear function of RR (QTrr) or by power functions of RR with exponent 0.5 (QTsqr) or 0.42 (QT0.42) using an appropriate regression function produced rate-invariant upper and lower normal limits for rate-adjusted QT. Adjusted QT is preferable to adjusted JT because the latter requires the incorporation of QRS duration as a covariate with RR. Normal limits were also derived for T-wave subintervals. Normal limits of QTrr in Asian women were 10 ms longer than in other ethnic groups. In conclusion, QT adjusted for rate as a linear function of RR is preferable to JT and other QT subintervals in the evaluation of QT prolongation. The adaptation of considerable revisions of the currently used limits for prolonged QT in women is suggested, with an additional race-specific adjustment in Asian women. Bazett's formula is inappropriate for testing new drugs or other applications. PMID:16490447

Rautaharju, Pentti M; Prineas, Ronald J; Kadish, Alan; Larson, Joseph C; Hsia, Judith; Lund, Bernedine

2006-03-01

464

Can It Really Be This Black and White? An Analysis of the Relative Importance of Ethnic Group and Other Sociodemographic Factors to Patterns of Drug Use and Related Risk among Young Londoners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hundred regular users of illegal drugs, aged 16-20, were recruited by peers in ten further education colleges across inner London. Data collected by self-completion questionnaire are presented on patterns of cigarette, alcohol, cannabis, stimulant and other drug use among White, Black and Asian ethnic groups. Multiple and logistic regression…

McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

2005-01-01

465

Type 2 diabetes management in Hong Kong ethnic minorities: what primary care physicians need to know.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES. To identify the demographics and compare diabetes control in ethnic minority group diabetes patients with Chinese diabetes patients who are managed in primary care settings and to explore strategies to improve their care. DESIGN. Retrospective case series. SETTING. General Outpatient Clinic of a Hong Kong Hospital Authority hospital. PATIENTS. Chinese type 2 diabetes patients and ethnic minority groups who had been regularly followed up with annual assessments carried out between 1 March 2012 to 28 February 2013 were recruited. Their serum levels of fasting glucose, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, haemoglobin A1c levels, lipid profile, blood pressure, and co-morbidities were retrieved from the Clinical Management System. Student's t test and analysis of variance were used to evaluate continuous variables and the Chi squared test for categorical data. All statistical tests were two-sided, and a P value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS. Among 4346 type 2 diabetes patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, 3966 (91.3%) patients were Chinese and 380 (8.7%) were from the ethnic minority groups. Compared with Chinese diabetes patients, the latter were much younger and more obese (both P<0.001). Their glycaemic control was poorer than age- and sex-matched Chinese diabetes patients (P=0.006). Control of systolic blood pressure was similar in the two groups, but the mean diastolic blood pressure was higher in the ethnic minority groups than in the controls (78 ± 11 mm Hg vs 73 ± 11 mm Hg; P<0.001). With regard to lipid control, their total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels were similar, but high-density lipoprotein levels were much lower in the ethnic minority groups than their Chinese counterparts (1.19 ± 0.33 mmol/L vs 1.28 ± 0.36 mmol/L; P=0.001). Among the five major ethnic minority groups with diabetes, Pakistani patients had particularly poor glycaemic control and the Nepalese had the poorest diastolic blood pressure control. CONCLUSIONS. Ethnic minority groups are an integral part of the Hong Kong population. Compared with Chinese diabetes patients, those from the ethnic minorities were much younger and more obese. Deficiencies exist in the comprehensive management of diabetes in these ethnic minorities, particularly with respect to glycaemic control. Culturally tailored health care interventions are therefore warranted to promote patient education and clinical effectiveness and to improve their long-term health status. PMID:24493686

Chen, C Xr; Chan, K H

2014-06-01

466

Racial-Ethnic Identity and Adjustment in Canadian Indigenous Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…

Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

2013-01-01

467

Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…

Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

1999-01-01

468

Body Dissatisfaction and Physical Development among Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the association between body dissatisfaction and adjustment, and the role physical development plays in this association, in an ethnically diverse sample of over 1100 urban, ninth grade boys and girls (M age = 14). More similarities than differences were found across ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Latino,…

Nishina, Adrienne; Ammon, Natalie Y.; Bellmore, Amy D.; Graham, Sandra

2006-01-01

469

Understanding Ethnic DiversityThe Role of Ethnic Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of minority ethnic identity and White identity development are described, along with examples of ways in which the models can be used as heuristics for helping students to think about their own and others' ethnicity. Ethnic or racial identity formation depends on a process of exploration that includes questioning preexisting ethnic attitudes and searching into the past and present

Jean S. Phinney

1996-01-01

470

Intraindividual reaction time variability is malleable: feedback- and education-related reductions in variability with age  

PubMed Central

Intraindividual variability (IIV) in trial-to-trial reaction time (RT) is a robust and stable within-person marker of aging. However, it remains unknown whether IIV can be modulated experimentally. In a sample of healthy younger and older adults, we examined the effects of motivation- and performance-based feedback, age, and education level on IIV in a choice RT task (four blocks over 15 min). We found that IIV was reduced with block-by-block feedback, particularly for highly educated older adults. Notably, the baseline difference in IIV levels between this group and the young adults was reduced by 50% by the final testing block, this advantaged older group had improved such that they were statistically indistinguishable from young adults on two of three preceding testing blocks. Our findings confirmed that response IIV is indeed modifiable, within mere minutes of feedback and testing.

Garrett, Douglas D.; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Craik, Fergus I. M.

2012-01-01

471

Prevalence of dementia in an elderly rural population: effects of age, sex, and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To estimate the prevalence of dementia in an elderly rural population and to determine the effects of age, sex, and education. METHODS--To obtain prevalence estimates of both cognitive impairment and dementia a door to door two phase population survey was carried out in three rural villages in central Italy. Of 1147 inhabitants older than 64, 968 (84.4%) completed the protocol.

M Prencipe; A R Casini; C Ferretti; M T Lattanzio; M Fiorelli; F Culasso

1996-01-01

472

Neuropsychological and educational problems at school age associated with neonatal encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adverse cognitive and educational outcomes are often ascribed to perinatal hypoxia without good evidence.Objective: To investigate neurocognitive and behavioural outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy.Methods: Sixty five children with neonatal encephalopathy, identified using the Trent Neonatal Survey database for 1992–1994, were followed up at the age of 7 years. They were examined at school, with a classmate for those in mainstream

N Marlow; A S Rose; C E Rands; E S Draper

2005-01-01

473

Education-related differences in physical performance after age 60: a cross-sectional study assessing variation by age, gender and occupation  

PubMed Central

Background Having a low level of education has been associated with worse physical performance. However, it is unclear whether this association varies by age, gender or the occupational categories of manual and non-manual work. This study examined whether there are education-related differences across four dimensions of physical performance by age, gender or occupational class and to what extent chronic diseases and lifestyle-related factors may explain such differences. Methods Participants were a random sample of 3212 people, 60 years and older, both living in their own homes and in institutions, from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care, in Kungsholmen, Stockholm. Trained nurses assessed physical performance in grip strength, walking speed, balance and chair stands, and gathered data on education, occupation and lifestyle-related factors, such as physical exercise, body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption. Diagnoses of chronic diseases were made by the examining physician. Results Censored normal regression analyses showed that persons with university education had better grip strength, balance, chair stand time and walking speed than people with elementary school education. The differences in balance and walking speed remained statistically significant (p?age-stratified analyses revealed that the differences were no longer statistically significant in advanced age (80+ years). Gender-stratified analyses revealed that women with university education had significantly better grip strength, balance and walking speed compared to women with elementary school education and men with university education had significantly better chair stands and walking speed compared to men with elementary school education in multivariate adjusted models. Further analyses stratified by gender and occupational class suggested that the education-related difference in grip strength was only evident among female manual workers, while the difference in balance and walking speed was only evident among female and male non-manual workers, respectively. Conclusions Higher education was associated with better lower extremity performance in people aged 60 to 80, but not in advanced age (80+ years). Our results indicate that higher education is associated with better grip strength among female manual workers and with better balance and walking speed among female and male non-manual workers, respectively.

2013-01-01

474

The Improving Educational Profile of Latino Immigrants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tabulated U.S. Census Bureau survey data to track changes in the educational profile of the adult foreign-born population from 1970-2000. The data measured completed education for individuals over the age of 24 years. A comparison of native-born Americans of any race or ethnicity to Hispanic foreign-born adults from 1970-2000 showed a…

Lowell, B. Lindsay; Suro, Roberto

475

Additive Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Body Mass Index among Blacks: Role of Ethnicity and Gender  

PubMed Central

Background: Most studies on mental health associates of obesity have focused on depression and less is known about the role of anxiety in obesity. Objectives: This study compared the additive effects of General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) on Body Mass Index (BMI) across sub-populations of Blacks based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001 - 2003. The participants consisted of 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks. Twelve-month MDD and GAD were determined using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Levels of BMI were categorized based on being equal to or larger than 25, 30, 35, and 40 kg/m2. We fitted linear regression models specific for our groups, which were defined based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Additionally, age, education, marital status, employment, and region were controlled. Results: Among Caribbean Black men and African American women, lifetime GAD, but not MDD, was associated with high BMI. Among Caribbean Black women, lifetime MDD, but not GAD, was associated with high BMI. Conclusions: Intersection of ethnicity and gender may determine how anxiety and depression are associated with BMI among Blacks. Sub-populations of Blacks (e.g. based on ethnicity and gender) may have specific mental health determinants or consequences of obesity. Future research should investigate how and why the additive effects of anxiety and depression on obesity vary across ethnic and gender groups of Blacks.

Assari, Shervin