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Sample records for age education ethnicity

  1. Education and Physical Activity Mediate the Relationship between Ethnicity and Cognitive Function in Late Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masel, Meredith C.; Raji, Mukaila; Peek, M. Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status (SES), particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the mediating characteristics of education or physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in younger aged groups. Most research conducted focuses only on older adults during a time when degeneration of brain tissue may complicate the exploration of the relationships among ethnicity and cognitive function. The current research will expand existing knowledge about education, physical activity, and cognitive function in minority groups. Design The study presents data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults (n=9,204, mean age +-sd=55.8+-3.1). Regression and mediation testing determined the mediating effects of education and physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function. Results Significant association between white ethnicity and higher scores on cognitive tests was evident as early as late middle age. The magnitude of the association significantly diminished on adjusting for education and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential mediating role of education and physical activity on the ethnic differences in cognitive tests in late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults. Our findings suggest a need for studies to understand if adult education and culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions in middle age influence ethnic disparities in prevalence of cognitive impairment in old age. PMID:20401816

  2. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  3. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  4. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  5. Ethnicity and Aging: A Bibliography. Checklists in the Humanities and Education: Series Number Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murguia, Edward, Comp.; And Others

    Literature on ethnicity and aging is listed in this bibliography, which is intended to assist researchers, teachers, and policymakers. The bibliography is divided into seven categories: (1) multiethnic and general studies; (2) Black Americans; (3) Hispanic Americans; (4) Native Americans; (5) Asian and Pacific Americans; (6) European origin ethnic

  6. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  7. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  8. Skin cancer risk perceptions: A comparison across ethnicity, age, education, gender, and income

    PubMed Central

    Buster, Kesha J.; You, Zhiying; Fouad, Mona; Elmets, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of non-cutaneous and cutaneous malignancies support the hypothesis that poor risk-perception status contributes to health disparity. Objective We evaluated skin cancer risk perceptions across race and other demographic markers using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) and compared them to discover differences in perception that may contribute to the disparities in skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. Methods Respondents with no prior history of skin cancer were randomly selected to answer questions assessing perceived risk and knowledge of preventive strategies of skin cancer. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations between perceptions of skin cancer and demographic variables including self-described race, age, sex, education, income, and health insurance status. Results Blacks, the elderly, and people with less education perceived themselves as at lower risk of developing skin cancer. They, along with Hispanics, were also more likely to believe that one cannot lower their skin cancer risk and that there are so many different recommendations on how to prevent skin cancer that it makes it difficult to know which ones to follow. Lower education also correlated with greater reluctance to have a skin exam. Limitations HINTS is a cross-sectional instrument, thus it only provides a snapshot of skin cancer perceptions. Conclusion Uncertainty and altered perceptions are more common in the skin cancer risk perceptions of ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those with less education. These are the same groups that are subject to disparities in skin cancer outcomes. Educational programs directed at these demographic groups may help to reduce the skin cancer-related health disparities. PMID:21875760

  9. Ethnicity and Aging: A Bibliography. Checklists in the Humanities and Education: Series Number Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murguia, Edward, Comp.; And Others

    Literature on ethnicity and aging is listed in this bibliography, which is intended to assist researchers, teachers, and policymakers. The bibliography is divided into seven categories: (1) multiethnic and general studies; (2) Black Americans; (3) Hispanic Americans; (4) Native Americans; (5) Asian and Pacific Americans; (6) European origin ethnic…

  10. Ethnicity: A Continuum on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraborty, Sujata; Ghosh, Bhola Nath

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop a clearer understanding of the role of education in the formation of ethnicity. The basic meaning of the term "ethnicity" is that it gives a distinct identity to a community and distinguishes one community or an individual from another. It has been found that ethnic consciousness or ethnic identity has been in increase…

  11. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    de Castro Maymone, Mayra Buainain; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  12. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  13. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  14. Multicultural Education: Beyond Ethnic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.; Plata, Maximo

    1988-01-01

    The development of multicultural education to its current role of promoting ethnic pluralism as a social value is described. The article surveys the variety and scope of definitions of multicultural education. The role of ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, and gender in shaping a child are discussed. (JL)

  15. Race, Ethnicity and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Philip S., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This theme issue contains papers on race and ethnicity in public education: "Introduction" (Philip Hart); "Toward Democratic Education: The Importance of Culturally Responsive Leadership in 21st Century Schools" (Donna M. Davis); "Improving the Selection Process for Identifying Gifted Ethnic Minority Children" (John Dillard and Nettye R. Brazil);…

  16. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  17. Ethnic Inequalities in Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwy, Alwiya; Schech, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses Kenya's survey data to explore ethnic inequalities in education in Kenya. It focuses on some ethnic groups that may have resources and opportunities as a result of their geographical location and ethnic proximity to the ruling elite. The factors examined to explain potential educational inequalities among ethnic groups include the…

  18. The Education of Ethnic Groups in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravetz, Nathan

    Education of ethnic groups in Israel is explored in light of the rapidly growing population and the desire of members of all ethnic groups for upward economic and social mobility. Major ethnic groups include Moslems, Christians, Druze, and various religious and non-religious groups of Jews including Ashkenazim, Sephardim, and Kibbutznik. Ethnic

  19. Bold Choices: How Ethnic Inequalities in Educational Attainment Are Suppressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine ethnic inequalities in educational attainment in England and Wales. I focus on the two main educational transitions in England and Wales: the transition at age 16, from compulsory to post-compulsory education, and the transition at age 18, from school to university. I take into account the distinction made by Boudon (1974)…

  20. Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In "Educations in Ethnic Violence", Matthew Lange explores the effects education has on ethnic violence. Lange contradicts the widely-held belief that education promotes peace and tolerance. Rather, Lange finds that education commonly contributes to aggression, especially in environments with ethnic divisions, limited resources, and ineffective…

  1. Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In "Educations in Ethnic Violence", Matthew Lange explores the effects education has on ethnic violence. Lange contradicts the widely-held belief that education promotes peace and tolerance. Rather, Lange finds that education commonly contributes to aggression, especially in environments with ethnic divisions, limited resources, and ineffective…

  2. Ethnic Inequalities and Educational Attainment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jao, Jui-Chang; McKeever, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine educational stratification in Taiwan against the background of an ethnically based political economy. They investigate how educational attainment is related to ethnicity and other background factors, such as parental class and education, and if these relationships changed over time as Taiwan became a more…

  3. Ethnic Stereotypes, Prejudicial Attitudes, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines the assumption often made in the sociology literature that stereotypy and prejudice are equivalent phenomena through study of the variation of both dimensions of ethnic attitudes by education. (Editor)

  4. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  5. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  6. Ethnicity, Forms of Capital, and Educational Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessen, Geert W. J. M.

    2001-11-01

    Bourdieu's cultural capital thesis is an attempt to explain how social class influences the transmission of educational inequality. In this article, the question of the extent to which various forms of capital also apply to ethnic minorities stands central. On the basis of Dutch and American research findings, a model is formulated and empirically tested with the aid of data from the Dutch Primary Education cohort study. Students from four ethnic groups are included: Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan. The main variables are language and math test scores, socio-economic milieu, and a number of capital indicators, including financial resources, linguistic resources, parental reading behavior, and educational resources within the family. The results show no mediating effect of resources within the various ethnic groups. The findings also suggest that in research and practice it is relevant to not treat ethnic groups as one homogenous group, but to differentiate between the various groups.

  7. Educational Encouragement, Parenting Styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Current study examines the predictors of academic achievement: role of parenting styles, educational encouragement, gender and ethnicity among special education students. Participants of this study consisted 200 special education students (N = 105 boys and N = 95 girls) age varies 14 to 19 years from one school located at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.…

  8. Social Class, Ethnicity and Educational Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Ian; Demie, Feyisa

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of census data and 884 students' records in Inner London revealed that, regardless of ethnicity, students from more-advantaged social backgrounds performed better. Census measures strongly related to school performance were social class, educational qualifications, unemployment, and index of social deprivation. Census data appear useful…

  9. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants. PMID:21323155

  10. Financial Education in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry; Scott, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. Design/methodology/approach: A postal survey was used to investigate the financial needs of owner/managers in 64 ethnic minority SMEs and a control sample of 23 non-ethnic SMEs.…

  11. Financial Education in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry; Scott, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. Design/methodology/approach: A postal survey was used to investigate the financial needs of owner/managers in 64 ethnic minority SMEs and a control sample of 23 non-ethnic SMEs.…

  12. Do Mothers' Educational Expectations Differ by Race and Ethnicity, or Socioeconomic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael; Clancy, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Research has linked parents' educational expectations to children's educational attainment, but findings are inconsistent regarding differences in educational expectations by race and ethnicity. In addition, existing studies have focused on school-age children and their parents. In this study, we use a state representative sample to examine…

  13. Do Mothers' Educational Expectations Differ by Race and Ethnicity, or Socioeconomic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael; Clancy, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Research has linked parents' educational expectations to children's educational attainment, but findings are inconsistent regarding differences in educational expectations by race and ethnicity. In addition, existing studies have focused on school-age children and their parents. In this study, we use a state representative sample to examine…

  14. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9–18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group. PMID:26220757

  15. The Limits of Social Class in Explaining Ethnic Gaps in Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of the educational attainment and progress between age 11 and age 14 of over 14,500 students from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. The mean attainment gap in national tests at age 14 between White British and several ethnic minority groups was large, more than three times…

  16. Children's Ocular Components and Age, Gender, and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Twelker, J. Daniel; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Messer, Dawn H.; Bhakta, Rita; Jones, Lisa A.; Mutti, Donald O.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Zadnik, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This cross-sectional report includes ocular component data as a function of age, gender, and ethnicity from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Methods The ocular components of 4881 school-aged children were examined using cycloplegic autorefraction (refractive error), keratometry (corneal curvature), ultrasonography (axial dimensions), and videophakometry (lens curvature). Results The average age (± SD) was 8.8 ± 2.3 years, and 2458 were girls (50.4%). Sixteen percent were African American, 14.8% were Asian, 22.9% were Hispanic, 11.6% were Native American, and 34.9% were White. More myopic/less hyperopic refractive error was associated with greater age, especially in Asians, less in Whites and African Americans. Corneal power varied slightly with age, with girls showing a greater mean corneal power. Native-American children had greater corneal toricity with a markedly flatter horizontal corneal power. Anterior chambers were deeper with age, and boys had deeper anterior chambers. Native-American children had the shallowest anterior chambers and Whites the deepest. Girls had higher Gullstrand and calculated lens powers than boys. Boys had longer vitreous chambers and axial lengths, and both were deeper with age. Native Americans had the longest vitreous chambers and Whites the shortest. Conclusions Most ocular components showed little clinically meaningful variation by ethnicity. The shallower anterior chambers and deeper vitreous chambers of Native-American children appeared to be offset by flatter corneas. The relatively deeper anterior chamber and shallower vitreous chambers of White children appeared to be offset by steeper corneas. Asian children had more myopic spherical equivalent refractive errors, but for a given refractive error the ocular parameters of Asian children were moderate in value compared to those of other ethnic groups. Asian children may develop longer, myopic eyes more often than other ethnic groups, but the eyes of Asian emmetropes do not appear to be innately longer. PMID:19650241

  17. Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.

    This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…

  18. Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.

    This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…

  19. The New Workforce: Age and Ethnic Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Judi L.; Holden, Richard

    As the United States population ages, employers face the possibility of a sustained retirement of the baby boom generation and a loss of their most experienced and knowledgeable employees. The public sector appears to be even more vulnerable, with an older-than-average workforce as well as a more traditional retirement system that encourages early…

  20. Ethnicity, Class and Multicultural Education. Sociology of the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    This monograph examines the nature of ethnicity as a general feature of human society, as it functions in Australia, and how it is used in the development of policy on multicultural education in Australia. Three influential accounts of ethnicity are examined, and it is argued that, although different, the theories share common problematics and…

  1. Appreciation of Ethnic Pluralism in Education for Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolm, Richard; And Others

    This collection of essays was prepared to promote an appreciation of ethnic pluralism as part of the curriculum for professional social work. It is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I reviews the past and present status of the sociocultural factors in American social work and social work education, presents a theoretical framework of ethnicity,…

  2. In Short Supply: Ethnic Minority Doctorates in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    There is a shortage of ethnic minority doctorate degree holders; and in graduate physical education departments, ethnic minority professors are extremely rare. The article examines trends in enrollment and degree attainment, factors affecting enrollment and persistence, and strategies (recruitment, admissions, financial aid, academic support,…

  3. Ethnicity and Education in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. L.

    The population of the Republic of the Philippines is largely composed of common racial stock except for a small minority of ethnic Chinese. Ethnic differences are largely on the basis of language and religion. Over 90 percent of the people are Christians, mostly Roman Catholics, approximately 5 percent are Muslims, and the remainder adhere to the…

  4. Ethnicity, Gender, Social Class and Achievement Gaps at Age 16: Intersectionality and "Getting It" for the White Working Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender. However, little research has sought to compare the relative size of these gaps or to explore interactions between these factors. This paper analyses the educational achievement at age 11, 14…

  5. Education, Horizontal Inequalities and Ethnic Relations in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukiwo, Ukoha

    2007-01-01

    The article focuses on the role of higher education in generating or mitigating inequality among ethno-regional groups and its impact on ethnic relations with evidence from Nigeria. It shows that access to education in Nigeria has been politicised. This is because of the perceived role of education in engendering political and socio-economic…

  6. Education of Ethnic Minority Children: An Issue in Australian Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Lois

    1985-01-01

    Examines the issues and controversies related to immigration in Australia, the acceptance of the "multicultural Australia" concept, and the educational system's structure. Argues that while there has been a manifest transition from migrant to multicultural education, forces favoring the status quo have created a latent, de facto ethnic education

  7. Education, Horizontal Inequalities and Ethnic Relations in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukiwo, Ukoha

    2007-01-01

    The article focuses on the role of higher education in generating or mitigating inequality among ethno-regional groups and its impact on ethnic relations with evidence from Nigeria. It shows that access to education in Nigeria has been politicised. This is because of the perceived role of education in engendering political and socio-economic…

  8. Vocational Education for China's Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the current status and problems of vocational education for China's ethnic minorities. It concludes that these problems have both universal areas in common with China's overall education situation and individual characteristics; they also have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities. The universal areas include the…

  9. Toward an Ethnic Studies Critique for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Jennifer Y.; Harrison, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to humanize students of color in teacher education research, this study shifts away from the question, "How can we add students of color?" and instead asks, "How might teacher education programs be transformed to make space for students of color?" To begin, we articulate an ethnic studies critique for teacher…

  10. Vocational Education for China's Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the current status and problems of vocational education for China's ethnic minorities. It concludes that these problems have both universal areas in common with China's overall education situation and individual characteristics; they also have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities. The universal areas include the…

  11. Troubling Identities: Teacher Education Students' Constructions of Class and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Andrea C.; Santoro, Ninetta

    2006-01-01

    Working with diverse student populations productively depends on teachers and teacher educators recognizing and valuing difference. Too often, in teacher education programs, when markers of identity such as gender, ethnicity, "race", or social class are examined, the focus is on developing student teachers' understandings of how these discourses…

  12. Ethnic Diversity, National Unity and Multicultural Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review ethnic diversity, national unity and multicultural education in China with graduate students in a multicultural education course and pose some questions for discussion. China is a rapidly developing multiethnic country facing several challenges, including pollution, growing income inequality and low political…

  13. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  14. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  15. Health Education and Sensitivity to Cultural, Religious, and Ethnic Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Nicholas; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This article examines conflicts occurring between health education with various students' cultural, religious, and ethnic backgrounds through the example of the religous teachings of Judaism. Suggestions for health educators are offered to prevent instruction from leading to conflict between home and school values. (Author/CB)

  16. Education, Ethnicity, and Political Socialization: The Case of Pakistan. Studies in Education & Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazi, Aftab A.

    This study examines the relationship between the educational system, the ethnic communities, and political instability in Pakistan. The major assumption of this study is that, with socioeconomic and political inequities aside, the educational policies alone lack the representation of indigeneous ethnic values in the national educational system,…

  17. Visually Translating Educational Materials for Ethnic Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Carole B.

    Growing populations of older adults, ethnic minorities, and the low-literate create unique concerns for the design of visual information. Those for whom text presents a barrier will respond most to legibility, use of familiar formats and symbols, and simplification. Guidelines for those processes are needed, and this paper, in particular,…

  18. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a) review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b) review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed. PMID:21126334

  19. Gender, age, and ethnicity in immigration for an Australian nation.

    PubMed

    Fincher, R

    1997-02-01

    An analysis of Australian immigration policy since the Second World War is presented. The emphasis is on the gender and age of preferred immigrants, rather than on their race or place of birth. "The author proposes that selection of immigrant settlers in Australia since World War 2 has been gendered as well as racialised, often combining particular sexisms with particular racisms and specifying the ways that ethnicity and gender should coexist in immigrants of different age groups. She notes implications for immigrants once in Australia (especially women) of the category under which they have entered the country. And she suggests that a new phase relating immigration to redefinition of the Australian nation, in which the temporary migration of skilled workers is preferred to their permanent migration, may be beginning; a phase whose modes of regulation and outcomes are as distinctively gendered as were those of their predecessors." PMID:12292251

  20. The role of ethnicity and education in energy efficient technology adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledesma-Rodriguez, Raisa

    The Energy Star program is a voluntary labeling scheme used to promote the purchase of energy efficient products. In this paper, I studied U.S. consumer choices to purchase Energy Star refrigerators. I predicted that different levels of education, Hispanic ethnicity, and the interaction between education and Hispanic ethnicity would have significant effects on energy efficient technology purchases. To research this relationship, I conducted a probit regression model controlling for income, age and regional energy efficiency awareness. Post estimation for hypothetical households showed that Hispanic ethnicity predicted a lower propensity for Energy Star refrigerator purchase for consumers that had replaced their refrigerator in the last 5 years and had completed some schooling up to the high school level. These results have implications for the design and implementation of U.S. energy efficiency labeling programs.

  1. [Ethnic characteristics of age-related changes in electrogenesis of the brain in aging].

    PubMed

    Kusnezowa, S M; Janowitsch, L A

    1993-01-01

    Clinico-electrophysiological examinations of the indigenous population of Azerbaijan and of Russians who had moved to the indicated region over 150 years before made it possible do define the ethnic traits of the ageing of the central nervous system. Overall 495 persons were examined. In Russians, the age-associated alterations in brain bioelectrical activity were found to set in 15 to 25 years earlier than in Azerbaijanians. PMID:8337914

  2. Ethnicity, Race, and Nationality in Education: A Global Perspective. The Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimahara, N. Ken, Ed.; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra, Ed.

    This volume contains 12 papers originally presented at the 14th Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education in 1999. The symposium explored contemporary issues of ethnic, cultural, and national identities and their influence on the social construction of identity. Papers include: (1) "Reconceptualizing Ethnicity and Educational Achievement"…

  3. Aging and Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzarre, Terry L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…

  4. Race-Ethnicity, Education, and Employment after Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…

  5. The REACH Center and Multicultural (Multi-ethnic) Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Rohn

    This paper is a summary of an awareness session on the nationally validated programs of the Respecting Ethnic and Cultural Heritage (REACH) Center for Global and Multicultural Education. The REACH curricula are designed to be infused into the K-12 programs of U.S. schools. The learner outcomes of the curricula are positive self concepts,…

  6. Race-Ethnicity, Education, and Employment after Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…

  7. Education and Training Needs of the Ethnic Entrepreneur in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavan, Meena

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 209 ethnic entrepreneurs in Australia that found that entrepreneurship education makes a significant difference in business performance by giving them effective planning and strategizing skills. Participants expressed a need for further training in specific business issues. (Contains 64 references.) (JOW)

  8. Ethnic Studies, Citizenship Education, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1990s, ethnic studies and other components of multicultural education have been criticized by neo-conservative and assimilationist scholars who maintain that school diversity initiatives weaken national identity and fail to help students attain the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function effectively in the national mainstream…

  9. Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups. NCES 2010-015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan; Fox, Mary Ann; KewalRamani, Angelina

    2010-01-01

    "Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups" examines the educational progress and challenges of students in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that over time, the numbers of students of each race/ethnicity who have completed high school and continued their education in college have increased. Despite these…

  10. Nuclear Age Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…

  11. Ethnicity, education, and the non-proportional hazard of first marriage in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gore, DeAnna L; Carlson, Elwood

    2010-07-01

    This study uses the 1998 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey to estimate non-proportional piecewise-constant hazards for first marriage among women in Turkey by education and ethnicity, with controls for region of residence and rural-urban migration. At low education levels Kurdish speakers married earlier than women who spoke Turkish or other languages, but at high education levels Kurdish women delayed marriage more than other women. This reversal across education groups furnishes a new illustration of the minority-group-status hypothesis specifically focused on marriage as the first step in the family formation process. The ethnic contrast concerned only marriage timing in Turkey, not proportions ever marrying. Eventual marriage remained nearly universal for all groups of women. This means that an assumption of proportional duration hazards (widespread in contemporary research) across the whole range of marriage-forming ages should be replaced by models with non-proportional duration hazards. PMID:20383804

  12. Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…

  13. Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…

  14. The Melting of the Ethnics: Education of the Immigrants, 1880-1914. Perspectives in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krug, Mark

    This book, one in a five-volume series dealing with perspectives in American education, discusses the education of ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of the series is to create a better understanding of the education process and the relation of education to human welfare. Chapter one discusses multicultural education, examining the…

  15. Development of Ethnic Education and Educational Equality in China: A Statistical Analysis Based on the Two Recent Population Censuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Baicai; Qi, Jinyu

    2007-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the statistics of the two population censuses conducted in 1990 and 2000 showed that with the development of ethnic education, average years of school attainment have been increased for all ethnic nationalities, and education has been more equalized within different ethnic nationalities. However, educational inequality…

  16. Age as a Factor in Ethnic Accent Identification in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ying Ying

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to answer two research questions. First, can listeners distinguish the ethnicity of the speakers on the basis of voice quality alone? Second, do demographic differences among the listeners affect discriminability? A simple but carefully designed and controlled ethnic identification test was carried out on 325 Singaporean…

  17. Age as a Factor in Ethnic Accent Identification in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ying Ying

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to answer two research questions. First, can listeners distinguish the ethnicity of the speakers on the basis of voice quality alone? Second, do demographic differences among the listeners affect discriminability? A simple but carefully designed and controlled ethnic identification test was carried out on 325 Singaporean…

  18. Formulation of the age-education index: measuring age and education effects in neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S E; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-03-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830 English-speaking ethnic Chinese. Neuropsychological measures such as Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, Token Motor Task, Semantic Fluency, Symbol Coding, Tower of London, Judgment of Line Orientation, and Matrix Reasoning of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were administered. Education was measured by total years of education and adjusted years of education, as well as ratios of both measures with age. Age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance. Adjusted years of education was associated with fluency and higher cognitive processes, while the ratio between adjusted years of education and age was associated with tasks implicating working memory. Changes in education modalities implicated tasks requiring language abilities. Education and age represent key neurodevelopmental milestones. In light of our findings, special consideration should to be given when neuropsychological assessments are carried out in cross-cultural contexts and in societies where educational systems and pedagogy tend to be complex. PMID:23148648

  19. Ethnicity, educational level and attitudes contribute to parental intentions about genetic testing for child obesity.

    PubMed

    Kocken, Paul L; Theunissen, Meinou H C; Schönbeck, Yvonne; Henneman, Lidewij; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Detmar, Symone B

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess parental beliefs and intentions about genetic testing for their children in a multi-ethnic population with the aim of acquiring information to guide interventions for obesity prevention and management. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in parents of native Dutch children and children from a large minority population (Turks) selected from Youth Health Care registries. The age range of the children was 5-11 years. Parents with lower levels of education and parents of non-native children were more convinced that overweight has a genetic cause and their intentions to test the genetic predisposition of their child to overweight were firmer. A firmer intention to test the child was associated with the parents' perceptions of their child's susceptibility to being overweight, a positive attitude towards genetic testing, and anticipated regret at not having the child tested while at risk for overweight. Interaction effects were found in ethnic and socio-economic groups. Ethnicity and educational level play a role in parental beliefs about child overweight and genetic testing. Education programmes about obesity risk, genetic testing and the importance of behaviour change should be tailored to the cultural and behavioural factors relevant to ethnic and socio-economic target groups. PMID:23389423

  20. Ethnicity, Identity and Educational Achievement in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Crespo, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Identity is central for research on education since, under certain conditions, it may influence school choice, career preferences and classroom behaviour. Identity also determines disposition toward schooling because it may have the capacity to shape and modify the values, beliefs and characteristics that distinguish one person from another, by…

  1. Race, Ethnicity and Education under New Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2005-01-01

    From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long-standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of 'failing' schools exacerbated school segregation…

  2. Education, Ethnicity, Genetics and Intelligence. Jensenism: Another Excuse for Failure to Educate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.

    1969-01-01

    This issue of the IRCD Bulletin is devoted to commentaries on an article by Arthur R. Jensen on the nature-nurture controversy in a recent number of "Harvard Educational Review." Contents of the Bulletin are comprised of the following: "Education, Ethnicity, Genetics and Intelligence; Jensenism: Another Excuse for Failure to Educate" (Edmund W.…

  3. Education, ethnicity, and subjective life quality of recently discharged inpatients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jonathan D

    2007-07-01

    To inform psychiatric practice and research that enhances subjective quality of life (SQL) in diverse persons with schizophrenia, this study explored whether SQL differs in blacks and whites with varying educational attainment. Participants were interviewed upon discharge from 4 New York City psychiatric hospitals and after 3 months in community care (N = 264, mean age of 37 years, 61% male, 56% black). Linear regression equations predicted white and black SQL from educational attainment and control variables (ethnicity, age, functioning level, symptom severity). Educational accomplishment predicted lower SQL (F = 3.53, df = 4,227, p < 0.01), especially among whites (F = 5.87, df = 4,92, p < 0.001). However, the association was statistically insignificant in blacks who had SQL peaks and valleys with more years of school. Findings suggest that psychiatric care and research should account for educational and cultural variation in assessing and promoting SQL. PMID:17632245

  4. Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted. PMID:24722777

  5. Ethnic, gender, and age preferences among deaf and hearing preschool peers.

    PubMed

    Lederberg, A R; Chapin, S L; Rosenblatt, V; Vandell, D L

    1986-04-01

    The present study concerns ethnic, age, and gender playmate preferences of deaf and hearing preschoolers who were observed during outdoor free play at their respective schools over a 7-month period. Hispanic, black, and white children were included. It was hypothesized that peer preferences would be less apparent among deaf children than among hearing children if these preferences were based on (a) language differences between ethnic groups (e.g., Spanish-English differences), age groups (e.g., verbal fluency differences), or gender groups; or (b) cultural values communicated by speech. Both deaf and hearing children preferred to play with children of the same ethnicity, gender, and age as themselves. In addition, play among children of the same ethnicity, gender, and age was qualitatively different from play among children of different ethnicity, gender, and age. The only effect of deafness was to decrease the amount of gender segregation that occurred. The results suggest that the development of ethnic, gender, and age playmate preferences is not dependent on intergroup language differences or spoken cultural messages. Several nonlinguistic factors that might contribute to early peer preferences are discussed. PMID:3956318

  6. The Ongoing Pursuit of Educational Equity in Japan: The Accreditation of Ethnic High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokunaga, Tomoko; Douthirt-Cohen, Beth

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the Japanese Ministry of Education accredited the high school diplomas of most "ethnic high schools," which are schools by and for specific ethnic minority populations, such as Korean, Brazilian, or Chinese students in Japan. Prior to this policy, diplomas from most ethnic high schools were not recognized by the Japanese government as…

  7. Ethnic Segregation in Malaysia's Education System: Enrolment Choices, Preferential Policies and Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Santhiram R.; Sua, Tan Yao

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic segregation has become an emerging feature in Malaysia's education system even though the institutional role of education should have been a unifying force for the country's multi-ethnic society. The underlying problem is that, at all levels of education provision in Malaysia, alternative streams are allowed to coexist alongside mainstream…

  8. Aging Education: A National Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…

  9. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education and income fully explained ethnic inequalities in experience of dental caries between Whites and African descents, and largely explained inequalities between Whites and Mixed Race. PMID:26694321

  10. Weight Status and Sexual Orientation: Differences by Age and Within Racial and Ethnic Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Deputy, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined differences in weight at age 18 years and at current age and weight change by sexual orientation within different racial/ethnic populations, stratifying by gender. Methods. We used 2001–2007 data from the California Health Interview Survey, resulting in an unweighted sample of 120?274 individuals aged 18 to 74 years. Using regression models, we examined overweight status and change in weight by sexual orientation, stratifying by race/ethnicity and gender. Results. Compared with heterosexual women of the same race/ethnicity, White and African American lesbians and bisexuals had increased likelihood of being overweight at age 18 years and maintaining overweight status during adulthood. Sexual minority status was unrelated to weight among Latinas and inconsistently linked to weight among Asian women compared with heterosexual women of the same race/ethnicity. Sexual minority status was protective against unhealthy weight among White, African American, Asian, and Latino men compared with heterosexual counterparts of the same race/ethnicity. This protective effect was seen after age 18 years except among African American bisexual men. Conclusions. Our findings indicate a need for age- and culture-sensitive interventions that reduce weight or prevent weight gain in sexual minority women and men. PMID:24228650

  11. Understanding how race/ethnicity and gender define age-trajectories of disability: an intersectionality approach.

    PubMed

    Warner, David F; Brown, Tyson H

    2011-04-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated wide disparities in health among racial/ethnic groups and by gender, yet few have examined how race/ethnicity and gender intersect or combine to affect the health of older adults. The tendency of prior research to treat race/ethnicity and gender separately has potentially obscured important differences in how health is produced and maintained, undermining efforts to eliminate health disparities. The current study extends previous research by taking an intersectionality approach (Mullings & Schulz, 2006), grounded in life course theory, conceptualizing and modeling trajectories of functional limitations as dynamic life course processes that are jointly and simultaneously defined by race/ethnicity and gender. Data from the nationally representative 1994-2006 US Health and Retirement Study and growth curve models are utilized to examine racial/ethnic/gender differences in intra-individual change in functional limitations among White, Black and Mexican American Men and Women, and the extent to which differences in life course capital account for group disparities in initial health status and rates of change with age. Results support an intersectionality approach, with all demographic groups exhibiting worse functional limitation trajectories than White Men. Whereas White Men had the lowest disability levels at baseline, White Women and racial/ethnic minority Men had intermediate disability levels and Black and Hispanic Women had the highest disability levels. These health disparities remained stable with age-except among Black Women who experience a trajectory of accelerated disablement. Dissimilar early life social origins, adult socioeconomic status, marital status, and health behaviors explain the racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among Men but only partially explain the disparities among Women. Net of controls for life course capital, Women of all racial/ethnic groups have higher levels of functional limitations relative to White Men and Men of the same race/ethnicity. Findings highlight the utility of an intersectionality approach to understanding health disparities. PMID:21470737

  12. It takes two: the role of partner ethnicity and age characteristics on condom negotiations of heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Amy G; Barnhart, James E

    2006-02-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women across four California universities indicated significant effects of partner ethnicity and age on condom negotiation strategies. Asian women with non-Asian partners were more likely to use nonverbal-direct strategies than those with Asian partners. Asian women with older partners were less likely to use verbal strategies (verbal-direct, verbal-indirect) than those with same-age partners. This study suggests that Asian women's safer sex communication varies by partner characteristics. Obtaining information such as partner ethnicity and age can help health educators provide more culturally appropriate sexual communication skills to clients. PMID:16539577

  13. Race/ethnic disparities in reproductive age: An examination of ovarian reserve estimates across four race/ethnic groups of healthy, regularly-cycling women

    PubMed Central

    Bleil, Maria E.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Adler, Nancy E.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rosen, Mitchell P.; Cedars, Marcelle I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether reproductive age, indexed by a validated marker of ovarian reserve (antimĂĽllerian hormone [AMH]), varies between women of different race/ethnic backgrounds. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based sample. Patients Multi-ethnic sample of 947 (277 white, 237 African-American, 220 Latina, and 213 Chinese) healthy and regularly-cycling pre-menopausal women, ages 25-45. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures(s) AMH level. Results A multivariate model was fit examining race/ethnicity, covariates, non-linear terms for age (age2, age3) and BMI (BMI2, BMI3), and 2-way interactions between race/ethnicity and each other predictor variable in relation to AMH. Following backward elimination, significant effects included race/ethnicity (F=8.45), age (F=349.94), race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction (F=4.67), age2 (F=31.61), and BMI (F=10.69). Inspection of the significant race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction showed AMH levels were consistently lower in the Latina vs. white women across all ages, whereas AMH levels were lower in the African-American and Chinese women vs. white women at younger and middle ages, respectively, and AMH levels were higher in the African-American vs. Latina and Chinese women at older ages. Conclusions Although results must be considered preliminary, findings are two-fold, suggesting 1) African-American women may have lower AMH levels at younger ages but experience less of a reduction in AMH with advancing age; and 2) Latina and Chinese women, compared to white women, may have lower AMH levels, marking a lower ovarian reserve and possible increased risk for earlier menopause. PMID:24182412

  14. Education, Ethnic Identity, and Acculturation as Predictors of Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity of 150 Latino adolescents enrolled in either a bilingual or traditional education program. Bilingual education programs were established to ensure that academic failure was not the product of limited English proficiency. Grade point average (GPA), acculturation, and ethnic

  15. The Development of the Sentiment for Ethnic Studies in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouchett, Lawrence P.

    The roots of the current movement for ethnic studies in American education can be traced to the early colonial period of American history. The Dutch appear to be the earliest settlers with an interest in ethnic studies. The efforts to resist the dominant English culture began in New York in about 1660. Education became one of the ways non-English…

  16. Education of Minority Ethnic Groups in Scotland: A Review of Research. SCRE Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powney, Janet; McPake, Joanna; Hall, Stuart; Lyall, Lindsay

    This review examines research done and information made available regarding the education of minority ethnic groups in Scotland. Compilers of the review used and commented on available statistical information and Scottish studies relevant to minority ethnic groups and their education at all levels. The intent of the review was to determine whether…

  17. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  18. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  19. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  20. Feasibility of Utilizing Ethnic Beauty Salons for Cervical Cancer Screening Education.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio; Lee, Eunice

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using ethnic beauty salons to reach out to Vietnamese and Korean American women for cervical cancer screening education. Participants (N = 62) were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two feasibility questionnaires were separately administered to cosmetologists and their customers. Findings support the view that ethnic beauty salons can be used as a gateway to reach out to these populations, and cosmetologists have the potential to operate as community lay health workers to deliver cervical cancer screening education aimed at reducing disparities in cervical cancer and screening to their ethnic customers. PMID:24698810

  1. Playing the "Race" Card? Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible…

  2. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  3. Invasive Breast Cancer Incidence Trends by Detailed Race/Ethnicity and Age

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Juanjuan; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Deapen, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence may contain important evidence for understanding and control of the disease. Monitoring the incidence trends of breast cancer by race/ethnicity allows identification of high risk groups and development of targeted prevention programs. Using population-based cancer registry data from the Los Angeles Cancer Surveillance Program, we examined the invasive female breast cancer incidence trends among the diverse racial/ethnic populations in Los Angeles County, California, from 1972 to 2007. Age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) and age-specific incidence rates (ASIR) were calculated and examined respectively for non-Hispanic (NH) white, black, Hispanic, Chinese, Filipina, Japanese, and Korean women by calendar year and time period. Rising trends of AAIR were found in all racial/ethnic groups during the 1980s and 1990s. The breast cancer risk increased more substantially in Japanese and Filipinas than in Chinese and Koreans. During 2000–2007, the trends of AAIR declined significantly among NH white women and slightly in blacks, remained unchanged for Hispanics, and continued to rise significantly among all Asian subgroups. The patterns of ASIR by race/ethnicity changed dramatically over time. By 2000–2007, younger Hispanic women had the lowest breast cancer risk, replacing the Chinese and Koreans who formerly had the lowest risk. Rapidly increasing breast cancer incidence trends among Asian-Americans underline the importance of behavioral and lifestyle changes as a result of acculturation on the development of the disease. The unique trends of breast cancer incidence by race/ethnicity suggest the need for targeted breast cancer control programs for different racial/ethnic populations. PMID:21351091

  4. Invasive breast cancer incidence trends by detailed race/ethnicity and age.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Juanjuan; Wu, Anna H; Pike, Malcolm C; Deapen, Dennis

    2012-01-15

    Racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence may contain important evidence for understanding and control of the disease. Monitoring the incidence trends of breast cancer by race/ethnicity allows identification of high risk groups and development of targeted prevention programs. Using population-based cancer registry data from the Los Angeles Cancer Surveillance Program, we examined the invasive female breast cancer incidence trends among the diverse racial/ethnic populations in Los Angeles County, California, from 1972 to 2007. Age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIRs) and age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) were calculated and examined respectively for non-Hispanic (NH) white, black, Hispanic, Chinese, Filipina, Japanese and Korean women by calendar year and time period. Rising trends of AAIRs were found in all racial/ethnic groups during the 1980s and 1990s. The breast cancer risk increased more substantially in Japanese and Filipinas than in Chinese and Koreans. During 2000-2007, the trends of AAIRs declined significantly among NH white women and slightly in blacks, remained unchanged for Hispanics and continued to rise significantly among all Asian subgroups. The patterns of ASIRs by race/ethnicity changed dramatically over time. By 2000-2007, younger Hispanic women had the lowest breast cancer risk, replacing the Chinese and Koreans who formerly had the lowest risk. Rapidly increasing breast cancer incidence trends among Asian-Americans underline the importance of behavioral and lifestyle changes as a result of acculturation on the development of the disease. The unique trends of breast cancer incidence by race/ethnicity suggest the need for targeted breast cancer control programs for different racial/ethnic populations. PMID:21351091

  5. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  6. Cultural Orientation in Asian American Adolescents: Variation by Age and Ethnic Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…

  7. Success and Persistence of Developmental Mathematics Students Based on Age and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, James D.

    2012-01-01

    This ex post facto study examined the fall-to-fall persistence and academic success of students in a medium-sized Virginia community college. The variables of age and ethnicity in combination with whether a student's first mathematics course was developmental were used to examine the effects of each. It was found that neither the interaction of…

  8. Education of Ethnic Minority Children in Denmark: Monocultural Hegemony and Counter Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has…

  9. Ethnocentrism and Ethnic-Based Peer Preferences in Higher Education Institutions: Challenges and Implications for Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admasu Gebru, Demewoz

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…

  10. The New Paradigm of Ethnic Minority Educational Research: Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Dong-ge; Huang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research and quantitative research have their own advantages, so mixed use both to improve scientific research. Too many Chinese Ethnic Minority Educational Research in qualitative research, and few use quantitative research, leading the results with many subjective factors. The reason is that selecting ethnic minority educational…

  11. Ethnicity and Education in China and Vietnam: Discursive Formations of Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJaeghere, Joan; Wu, Xinyi; Vu, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to understand how ethnicity is discursively framed in national policies in China and Vietnam and argues that policy discourses affect how the "problem" of ethnicity and educational inequalities is framed and how these inequalities can be addressed. The analysis shows how both Marxist and market-economy governing…

  12. The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Succession in Ethnic Minority Family Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed G.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Matlay, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly competitive UK economy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a complex conceptual model of ethnic minority graduates' economic activities and outlines the possible…

  13. Ethnocentrism and Ethnic-Based Peer Preferences in Higher Education Institutions: Challenges and Implications for Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admasu Gebru, Demewoz

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…

  14. Investigation on the Development of Preschool Education Informationization of Ethnic Region in Gansu, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the informationization situation of preschool education taking Linxia City in Gansu province. The analysis was conducted by the mean of questionnaire survey and individual interview which was collected in July 2013 in seven ethnic counties in Hui autonomous prefecture of Linxia. As a typical ethnic region, Linxia can…

  15. Interactional Issues in the Teaching of "Race" and Ethnicity in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Susie

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on research into the teaching of "race" and ethnicity in higher education, including interviews with lecturers and students of specialist sociology of "race" options. It focuses particularly on interactional issues: the conversations conducted about "race" and ethnicity within seminar rooms were often conflictual and emotional in…

  16. The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Succession in Ethnic Minority Family Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed G.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Matlay, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly competitive UK economy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a complex conceptual model of ethnic minority graduates' economic activities and outlines the possible…

  17. Ethnicity, Education and Empowerment: Identity Construction among Minority Students in Southwestern China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, MaryJo Benton

    1998-01-01

    Eight percent of the population of the People's Republic of China is comprised of ethnic minority people, people with cultures (particularly languages and religions) that are distinct from the majority (or Han) Chinese. Ethnic students in China and elsewhere face considerable obstacles to getting a good education. A tiny percentage of Chinese…

  18. Obstacles to Addressing Race and Ethnicity in the Mathematics Education Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Amy Noelle; Schmeichel, Mardi

    2012-01-01

    This Research Commentary builds on a 2-stage literature review to argue that there are 4 obstacles to making a sociopolitical turn in mathematics education that would allow researchers to talk about race and ethnicity in ways that take both identity and power seriously: (a) the marginalization of discussions of race and ethnicity; (b) the…

  19. Vocational Education and Training in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to investigate the provision of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses (SEMBs) operating in the West Midlands region of the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative approach is employed, involving in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 66 owner/managers of small ethnic minority…

  20. Managing Legitimacy in the Educational Quasi-Market: A Study of Ethnically Diverse, Inclusive Schools in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mampaey, Jelle; Zanoni, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how ethnically diverse, inclusive schools manage their legitimacy in an educational quasi-market. These schools are often threatened with a loss of legitimacy as ethnic majority parents perceive an ethnically diverse student population and radical pedagogical practices as signs of lower quality education. However,…

  1. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

  2. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

  3. Ethnic differences in breast cancer in Hawai'i: age, stage, hormone receptor status, and survival.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kathryn L; Fong, Megan; Gotay, Carolyn C; Chong, Clayton D K

    2004-09-01

    Previous examinations of breast cancer and survival in Hawai'i's 5 major ethnic groups have found that Native Hawaiian women have the highest breast cancer mortality rates. Although ethnic disparities in survival are reduced when age and stage at diagnosis are controlled for statistically, prior studies could not explain ethnic variation in survival among women who were diagnosed at the same stage. We examined variations in breast tumor characteristics for a multiethnic sample of 4,583 women diagnosed in 1990-1997 by stage and age group and extended previous multivariate analyses by adding a new prognostic variable: estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of age, stage, and hormone status on 5-year survival. With a few exceptions, greater proportions of Native Hawaiian women were diagnosed both in later stages of disease and at earlier ages compared to women of other ethnicities, and smaller proportions of Native Hawaiians survived 5 years post diagnosis in each stage and age group. Surprisingly, greater proportions of Native Hawaiian women in all age groups had ER/PR positive tumors, which is a prognostic indicator for better, not worse, survival. Native Hawaiian women had an increased risk of death and Japanese women had an increased chance of survival after controlling for age, stage, and ER/PR status. Future studies should examine other reasons for better survival of Japanese women and worse survival of Native Hawaiian women, including socioeconomic status, access to health insurance, adequacy of recommended screening frequency, co-morbid conditions, treatment appropriateness and compliance, and genetic markers of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:16281692

  4. Impact of Age, Race and Ethnicity on Dialysis Patient Survival and Kidney Transplantation Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Connie M.; Lertdumrongluk, Paungpaga; Streja, Elani; Park, Jongha; Moradi, Hamid; Lau, Wei Ling; Norris, Keith C.; Nissenson, Allen R.; Amin, Alpesh N.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies show that African-American and Hispanic dialysis patients have lower mortality risk than whites. Recent age-stratified analyses suggest this survival advantage may be limited to younger age groups, but did not concurrently compare Hispanic, African-American, and white patients, nor account for differences in nutritional and inflammatory status as potential confounders. Minorities experience inequities in kidney transplantation access, but it is unknown whether these racial/ethnic disparities differ across age groups. Methods The associations between race/ethnicity with all-cause mortality and kidney transplantation were separately examined among 130,909 adult dialysis patients from a large national dialysis organization (entry period 2001-2006, follow-up through 2009) within 7 age categories using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for case-mix and malnutrition and inflammatory surrogates. Results African-Americans had similar mortality vs. whites in younger age groups (18-40 years), but decreased mortality in older age groups (>40 years). In contrast, Hispanics had lower mortality vs. whites across all ages. In sensitivity analyses using competing risk regression to account for differential kidney transplantation rates across racial/ethnic groups, the African-American survival advantage was limited to >60 year old age categories. African-Americans and Hispanics were less likely to undergo kidney transplantation from all donor types vs. whites across all ages, and these disparities were even more pronounced for living donor kidney transplantations (LDKT). Conclusions Hispanic dialysis patients have greater survival vs. whites across all ages; in African-Americans, this survival advantage is limited to patients >40 years old. Minorities are less likely to undergo kidney transplantation, particularly LDKT, across all ages. PMID:24556752

  5. Education for an Aging Planet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…

  6. Education for an Aging Planet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…

  7. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  8. An Educational Response to Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Rosemary

    1978-01-01

    The emphasis of this article is on aging and the needs of the elderly as a basis for developing educational content in the curriculum. It includes a description of a theoretical framework developed by Abraham Maslow for a holistic approach to needs of the aged. (Editor/RK)

  9. A Preliminary Discussion on Several Forms of Alternate Location Schooling in Ethnic Minority Education and the Problems Therein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ba, Zhanlong

    2010-01-01

    "Alternate location schooling" ("yidi banxue"), a special measure adopted in China to advance ethnic minority education and especially basic education, adheres to the principle of providing focused educational support in Tibet and Xinjiang and giving consideration to education in ethnic minority regions nationwide. Since the founding of the…

  10. Ongoing Issues of Racial and Ethnic Stigma in Education 50 Years after Brown v. Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Sabrina

    2005-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" was focused on eliminating racial stigma and creating greater racial equity in education. Unfortunately, racial and ethnic stigma is still a powerful force in educational institutions of all kind. In this manuscript, I review the ways that stigma impedes academic performance, shapes the classroom climate and…

  11. Affirmative Action and the University: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Higher Education Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Kul B.; Critzer, John W.

    This book examines the impact of affirmative action on higher education hiring practices. Using data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics, the book summarizes, tracks, and evaluates changes in the gender and ethnic makeup of academic and nonacademic…

  12. Ethnic and Racial Difference in Higher Education Access: Effects of Family and School Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Sun Ah

    2010-01-01

    Despite many years and multiple plans by educational policy makers and government to achieve educational equity, there is still a wide disparity in college enrollment rates across racial/ethnic groups. The present study was designed to examine this problem by focusing on the educational resources that might contribute to the persisting enrollment…

  13. Consolidation of Science Education in Ethnically Divided Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šorgo, Andrej; Živkovic, Mate

    2015-01-01

    Because of war and civil war on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, education in ethnically divided country has become fragmented. Because of postwar divisions thirteen different ministries of education or similar bodies are responsible for education, resulting in inefficiency and low quality. To overcome differences, a committee of experts…

  14. Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education" is the summary of a workshop held in September 2013 to take a fresh look at the impediments to greater diversification in engineering education. The workshop brought together educators in engineering from two- and four-year colleges and staff members from the three…

  15. The World in Our Neighbourhood: Black and Ethnic Minority Communities and Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohri, Ashok

    This report is a review of development education and the black and ethnic minority communities in Great Britain. The development education movement in the United Kingdom has been based on producing resources, training, and support to the deliverers of education, whether teachers, youth workers, or community organizers. A feature of the movement…

  16. Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education" is the summary of a workshop held in September 2013 to take a fresh look at the impediments to greater diversification in engineering education. The workshop brought together educators in engineering from two- and four-year colleges and staff members from the three…

  17. Ethnic and religious identity and some age characteristics of alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Akabaliev, V; Dimitrov, I

    1996-01-01

    The sample of the study comprises 618 subjects (316 Christian-Bulgarians and 302 Muslim-Turks), selected by means of randomized cluster design, and stratified by gender, age and place of residence (town vs village). The study used a standardized questionnaire specifically developed for it. The study findings suggest that the first contact with alcohol and beginning of its regular use occur at a younger age in Bulgarians than they do in Turks. A definite trend has been found toward earlier first contact and beginning of regular use of alcohol in both ethnic groups, but it is more clearly defined in Turks. As a whole Turkish ethnic identity and identification with Muslim religious values and belief restrict the Turks in their contact with alcohol and are still significant factors in restraining alcohol use in their community. PMID:9145583

  18. Ethnic and Gender Trends for Cardiovascular Risk Behaviors in Anglo and Mexican American Children, Ages Four to Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, Philip R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined gender and ethnic trends in Mexican American and Anglo preschoolers at home and school using physical, physiological, dietary, activity, and socioenvironmental assessments. Height and total skinfolds showed significant ethnic differences, confirming that preschool represents an age of rapid habit and behavior development…

  19. Cultural Development in Ethnic Groups: Anthropological Explorations in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varese, Stefano

    1985-01-01

    Described is a program in which ethnic groups in Oaxaca, Mexico, are being taught to have a sense of security and confidence in their own systems of thought and knowledge and their way of looking at the world. (RM)

  20. Ethnic Education Should Undertake the Major Historic Task of Ethnic Unity and the Possibility of and Explorations into the Localization of Diversified Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minhui, Qian

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that the choice of cultures by ethnic education was determined by a given form of elitist ideology and a power agency. After the conversion of China's society from a planned economy to a market economy, this elitist ideology and power agency has become diversified and includes the elitist ideology of statism. Empowerment has…

  1. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L.; Fiese, Barbara H.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n=30) with a preschool-age child were videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: `Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), `Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and `Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in `action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. PMID:24183134

  2. Glaucomatous blindness in the Negev: a descriptive study of age, sex, and ethnic patterns.

    PubMed Central

    David, R; Dan, Y; Stone, D H

    1983-01-01

    Two sources of data (a blind register and the records of a glaucoma clinic) were used to study the age, sex, and ethnic characteristics of sufferers of glaucomatous blindness in the Negev region of Israel. Glaucoma was found to be the cause of blindness relatively infrequently (10% of eyes) among the registered blind population. The rate of blindness from glaucoma in the population was 0.38/1000. Glaucomatous blindness affected more males than females and more individuals of Eastern and Western origin. A steep gradient of increasing number of blind with advancing age was found in both sexes and both ethnic groups, but the gradient was steeper in males and females of Eastern origin. These findings are consistent with the pattern expected of a developing country and represent the first descriptive profile of the pattern of personal characteristics of sufferers from glaucomatous blindness in this region. The ethnic pattern resembles what is known about the natural history of glaucoma in pigmented and nonpigmented races. PMID:6871145

  3. Adolescent Self-Esteem: Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race/ethnic/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter race/ethnic differences in extreme response style, reduced but did not eliminate the subgroup differences. Age differences in self-esteem are modest, with 12th graders reporting the highest scores. The findings are highly consistent across 18 annual surveys from 1991 through 2008, and self-esteem scores show little overall change during that period. PMID:22279425

  4. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  5. Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierstein, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Education is moving into the digital age. Pedagogies have changed to engage the latest digital technologies. The methods of distribution are now a blend between face-to-face and some other combination of virtual interfaces. The content is moving from traditional text-based learning to text-plus-multimedia. The community is now involved in the…

  6. Bilingual Education in the Ethnically Mixed Areas along the Slovene-Italian Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cok, Lucija; Pertot, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on education language policy in Slovene Istria and of Slovenia in Italy. On both sides of the Slovene-Italian border there is an ethnically mixed population of Italians and Slovenes, an Italian minority in Slovenia, and a Slovene minority in Italy. On both sides of the border apparently similar systems of bilingual education have…

  7. Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2011. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino,…

  8. Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2010. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education". The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…

  9. Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2009. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education". The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…

  10. Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2008. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino,…

  11. Ethnic Relations and Bilingual Education: Accounting for Contradictory Data. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Christina Bratt

    This paper examines the contradictory data of research studies on bilingual education from the viewpoint that such data will make sense only if we consider bilingual education as the result of societal factors rather than as the cause of certain behaviors in children. Schermerhorn's theoretical framework for research on ethnic relations (with the…

  12. Education for Peace: Protest Strategies of Ethnic Resistance Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaykhutdinov, Renat

    2011-01-01

    While studying the consequences of violent and non-violent protests, the current literature is mostly mute on the question of why some ethnic collectivities prefer violent political action over non-violence. This question is especially interesting as recent empirical studies reveal functional effectiveness of non-violent tactics vis-a-vis violent…

  13. Higher Education Access and Equality among Ethnic Minorities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    Market reform, financial decentralization, and economic globalization in recent years have greatly accentuated China's social and regional inequalities. These inequalities stem from many factors, including the rise of an urban middle class, a change in the status of women, a resurgence of ethnic identities, an increase in rural-to-urban migration,…

  14. Degradation: A Case Study Calling for Ethnic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciampa, Bartholomew J.

    Many credible sources refer to the various immigrant groups in a derogatory manner. Negative citations can be categorized in numerous ways. They might arise as a result of the geographic origin of the ethnic group; attraction to a particular occupation class; peculiarity of custom; religious or political affiliation; rate of delinquency, crime, or…

  15. The Education of Ethnic Subgroups in Contemporary Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludanyi, Andrew

    Hungarian state policy affecting ethnic minorities (Slovaks, Germans, Croatians, Rumanians, Serbians, and other groups) has been greatly influenced by political and social developments in the country. The pluralist perspective that Hungary has maintained throughout most of its history dates back to King Istvan I's 11th century admonition that…

  16. Higher Education Access and Equality among Ethnic Minorities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    Market reform, financial decentralization, and economic globalization in recent years have greatly accentuated China's social and regional inequalities. These inequalities stem from many factors, including the rise of an urban middle class, a change in the status of women, a resurgence of ethnic identities, an increase in rural-to-urban migration,…

  17. A Differential Item Functional Analysis by Age of Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination in a Multi-racial/ethnic Sample of Adults.

    PubMed

    Owens, Sherry; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether individual items on the nine item William's Perceived Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) functioned differently by age (<45 vs ≥ 45) within five racial groups in the United States: Asians (n=2,017); Hispanics (n=2,688); Black Caribbeans (n=1,377); African Americans (n=3,434); and Whites (n=854). We used data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Lives and the 2001-2003 National Latino and Asian Studies. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models (MIMIC) were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the EDS by age within each racial/ethnic group. Overall, Asian and Hispanic respondents reported less discrimination than Whites; on the other hand, African Americans and Black Caribbeans reported more discrimination than Whites. Regardless of race/ethnicity, the younger respondents (aged <45 years) reported less discrimination than the older respondents (aged ≥ 45 years). In terms of age by race/ethnicity, the results were mixed for 19 out of 45 tests of DIF (40%). No differences in item function were observed among Black Caribbeans. "Being called names or insulted" and others acting as "if they are afraid" of the respondents were the only two items that did not exhibit differential item functioning by age across all racial/ethnic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that the EDS scale should be used with caution in multi-age multi-racial/ethnic samples. PMID:26673317

  18. Gender, race, ethnicity, and science education in the middle grades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catsambis, Sophia

    This article examines gender differences in science achievements and attitudes during the middle grade, when our nation's scientific pipeline begins to emerge. It uses data from a large, nationally representative sample of eighth-grade students (NELS-88). The findings show that in these grades female students do not lag behind their male classmates in science achievements tests, grades, and course enrollments. Actually, some female students have higher probabilities of enrolling in high-ability classes than males. However, female students have less positive attitudes toward science, participate in fewer relevant extracurricular activities, and aspire less often to science careers than males. Students' science attitudes and career interests vary according to students' gender as well as their racial or ethnic background. These findings emphasize the need to further examine the interrelationships between gender and race or ethnicity in our efforts to understand the processes leading to women's limited participation in science-related careers.Received: 2 August 1993; Revised: 8 August 1994;

  19. The Importance of Ethnic Cultural Competency in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cultural competency in physical education is unmistakable. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) has identified elements of cultural competency within both the National Standards for Physical Education and the National Standards and Guidelines for Physical Education Teacher Education. Although there…

  20. Education for Sustainable Development in Ethnic Autonomous Areas of China: A Comparison of Two Curriculum Initiatives and Their Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Yishin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the educational implications of two curriculum initiatives in China that have produced curricular materials promoting education for sustainable development (ESD) in minority-populated ethnic autonomous areas in China. The two curriculum projects present distinctive discourses, conceptions, models, frameworks and scopes of ESD…

  1. Social or Ethnic Determinants of Educational Opportunities? Results from the Evaluation of the Education Priority Policy Programme in The Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert W. J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The relative importance of social background and ethnic origin in explaining differences in position of immigrants and native Dutch students in the educational system in the Netherlands is studied using data from a study of 19,524 first-year secondary students evaluating the national educational priority policy program and its classification of…

  2. Education for Sustainable Development in Ethnic Autonomous Areas of China: A Comparison of Two Curriculum Initiatives and Their Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Yishin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the educational implications of two curriculum initiatives in China that have produced curricular materials promoting education for sustainable development (ESD) in minority-populated ethnic autonomous areas in China. The two curriculum projects present distinctive discourses, conceptions, models, frameworks and scopes of ESD…

  3. Age-dependent changes in eumelanin composition in hairs of various ethnic origins.

    PubMed

    Commo, S; Wakamatsu, K; Lozano, I; Panhard, S; Loussouarn, G; Bernard, B A; Ito, S

    2012-02-01

    Hair pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes of humans. From a chemical point of view, however, data remain scarce regarding human hair pigmentation characteristics. To determine melanin content and composition in human eumelanic hair from individuals of different ethnic origins and at different ages, we collected hair from 56 subjects with eumelanic hair from each group of African-American, East Asian, and Caucasian origin. The 56 subjects consist of 14, seven each of males and females, each from four age classes of younger than 11, between 12 and 19, between 20 and 45, and older than 46. We analysed hair colour scale, total melanin value, and contents of pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA). We measured age-dependent increases in the relative quantity of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs in the three ethnic groups. Regarding melanin composition, we observed an increase in the PDCA/PTCA ratio with age in African-American and Caucasian hairs until approaching the quite constant level of the ratio in East Asian hairs in the elderly individuals. Our results evidence differences in the content and composition of eumelanin in human hair among African-American, Caucasian and East Asian individuals. Furthermore, we show evidence of age-dependent changes in the quantity and quality of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs. In particular, the age-dependent modification of the PDCA/PTCA ratio, a marker for 5,6-dihydroxyindole units in eumelanin, suggests a chronological evolution of hair follicle melanocyte phenotype (e.g. decrease in dopachrome tautomerase expression). PMID:22017184

  4. Interaction Effects of Gender, SES, and Race-Ethnicity on Postsecondary Educational Choices of U.S. Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusty, Jerry; Ng, Kok-mun; Plata, Maximino

    2000-01-01

    Presents data from the National Education Longitudinal Study on participants who attended postsecondary institution within two years of high school and had chosen a field of study. Educational choices had a three-way Gender x SES x Race-Ethnicity interaction. Race-ethnicity effects were strongest for men at lower SES levels and weakest for women…

  5. Racial/Ethnic Socialization and Parental Involvement in Education as Predictors of Cognitive Ability and Achievement in African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A. T.; Johnson, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of…

  6. The Impact of a National-Goal-Driven Higher Education Policy on an Ethnic Minority Serving Institution in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothey, Rebecca A.; Hu, Diya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Project 985 at Minzu University of China, an ethnic minority serving university in China. As a university established specifically for the education of ethnic minorities, the paper examines in what ways the implementation of a policy uniformly mandated to serve national higher education goals by China's…

  7. The Impact of a National-Goal-Driven Higher Education Policy on an Ethnic Minority Serving Institution in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothey, Rebecca A.; Hu, Diya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Project 985 at Minzu University of China, an ethnic minority serving university in China. As a university established specifically for the education of ethnic minorities, the paper examines in what ways the implementation of a policy uniformly mandated to serve national higher education goals by China's…

  8. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  9. Variations in GP–patient communication by ethnicity, age, and gender: evidence from a national primary care patient survey

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Jenni; Lloyd, Cathy; Campbell, John; Roland, Martin; Abel, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background Doctor–patient communication is a key driver of overall satisfaction with primary care. Patients from minority ethnic backgrounds consistently report more negative experiences of doctor–patient communication. However, it is currently unknown whether these ethnic differences are concentrated in one gender or in particular age groups. Aim To determine how reported GP–patient communication varies between patients from different ethnic groups, stratified by age and gender. Design and setting Analysis of data from the English GP Patient Survey from 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, including 1 599 801 responders. Method A composite score was created for doctor–patient communication from five survey items concerned with interpersonal aspects of care. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to estimate age- and gender-specific differences between white British patients and patients of the same age and gender from each other ethnic group. Results There was strong evidence (P<0.001 for age by gender by ethnicity three-way interaction term) that the effect of ethnicity on reported GP–patient communication varied by both age and gender. The difference in scores between white British and other responders on doctor–patient communication items was largest for older, female Pakistani and Bangladeshi responders, and for younger responders who described their ethnicity as ‘Any other white’. Conclusion The identification of groups with particularly marked differences in experience of GP–patient communication — older, female, Asian patients and younger ‘Any other white’ patients — underlines the need for a renewed focus on quality of care for these groups. PMID:26541182

  10. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices.

    PubMed

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-04-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  11. Swimming Pool Drownings Among US Residents Aged 5–24 Years: Understanding Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Saluja, Gitanjali; Brenner, Ruth A.; Trumble, Ann C.; Smith, Gordon S.; Schroeder, Tom; Cox, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Objective. We examined circumstances surrounding swimming pool drownings among US residents aged 5 to 24 years to understand why Black males and other racial/ethnic groups have high drowning rates. Methods. We obtained data about drowning deaths in the United States (1995–1998) from death certificates, medical examiner reports, and newspaper clippings collected by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Results. During the study period, 678 US residents aged 5 to 24 years drowned in pools. Seventy-five percent were male, 47% were Black, 33% were White, and 12% were Hispanic. Drowning rates were highest among Black males, and this increased risk persisted after we controlled for income. The majority of Black victims (51%) drowned in public pools, the majority of White victims (55%) drowned in residential pools, and the majority of Hispanic victims (35%) drowned in neighborhood pools (e.g., an apartment complex pool). Foreign-born males also had an increased risk for drowning compared with American-born males. Conclusions. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce the incidence of swimming pool drownings across racial/ethnic groups, particularly adult supervision at public pools. PMID:16507730

  12. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N.; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  13. Ethnic Differences in the Dynamics of Depressive Symptoms in Middle Aged and Older Americans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao; Liang, Jersey; Bennett, Joan M.; Quińones, Ana R.; Ye, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study examined differences in the trajectory of depressive symptoms between Hispanic, black, and white Americans in middle and old age. Methods Data came from a national sample of Americans with up to 6 repeated assessments spanning 11 years. Hierarchical linear models with time-varying covariates were used. Results Hispanics started with the worst depressive symptomatology, followed by black Americans, while white Americans had the fewest symptoms. These differences, however, diminished over time. More importantly, net of socioeconomic and health differentials, the depressive symptoms trajectory did not differ between blacks and whites; while Hispanics still started with worse symptoms and had a greater rate of reduction in symptomatology compared to whites. Discussion Significant ethnic differences exist in both the intercept and rate of change in depressive symptoms in middle aged and older Americans. These variations are substantially confounded by socioeconomic and health differentials. PMID:20495153

  14. Ethnic Differences in Cardiometabolic Risk Profile at Age 5–6 Years: The ABCD Study

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Method Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample) fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5–6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n = 2,008; blood n = 1,300), African descent (n = 199; blood n = 105), Turkish (n = 108; blood n = 57) and Moroccan (n = 194; blood n = 94). Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP), fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. Results After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (β2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09–3.36) and HDL levels (β:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03–0.16) compared to Dutch children (reference group). Turkish children showed higher SBP (β:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25–3.54), DBP (β:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11–4.13), glucose (β:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00–0.25) and triglyceride levels (β:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02–0.25). Higher BMI values were found in all non–Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53–1.03 kg/m2) and higher WC in Turkish (β:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99–2.38) and Moroccan (β:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11–2.19) children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. Conclusion Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC. PMID:22916294

  15. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  16. Education in Old Age: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various educational and…

  17. Special Issue: Racial and Ethnic Minority Students' Success in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Palmer, Robert T.; Davis, Ryan J.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph provides educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners with an overview of existing knowledge regarding factors that influence success among racial and ethnic minority students in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) circuit. To accomplish this task, the authors reviewed more than four hundred…

  18. Preferential Policies and Ethnic Differences in Post-Secondary Education in Peninsular Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agadjanian, Victor; Peng Liew, Hui

    2005-01-01

    In this study we use the second wave of the Malaysian family life survey conducted in 1988-1989 to examine the effects of the national economic policy (NEP) instituted by the Malaysian government in 1971 to promote educational opportunities of hitherto disadvantaged ethnic Malays. The analysis focuses on the probability of entering post-secondary…

  19. The Benefits of Higher Education: Sex, Racial/Ethnic, and Socioeconomic Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes data from the NELS:92/00 to explore sex, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic group differences in the benefits that high school graduates realize from college. Sex differences in higher education benefits may be a source of observed differences between women and men in college enrollment and degree attainment rates. The findings…

  20. Crossing Ethnic Barriers in the Southwest: Women's Agricultural Extension Education, 1914-1940. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Joan M.

    From its inception in 1914 until 1940, the New Mexico Agricultural Extension Service was quite successful in delivering educational programs to non-English speaking, Hispanic women in Santa Fe County and almost totally unsuccessful in Dona Ana County. Criteria for success were involvement of ethnic women in the program, ability to adapt national…

  1. Access to Higher Education of 25 Ethnic Minorities in Yunnan Province, South Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2010-01-01

    The level of development of higher education (HE) is an important indicator to measure the development of the social economy and the civilization of a region or country. In this article, we compare the distribution of the freshmen of ethnic minorities (EMs) with the distribution of EMs over the population, based on a sample of 1 464 freshmen from…

  2. Evidence of Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education in an English Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve; Lindsay, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    Differences in the proportions of students identified as having special educational needs (SENs) across ethnic groups have historically been of concern in the United Kingdom and the United States. However, the absence of student-level data has hindered investigation of the reasons for such disproportionality. The authors present an analysis of the…

  3. Gender Differences in Educational Achievement within Racial and Ethnic Groups. ERIC Digest Number 164.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY.

    Educational Testing Service (ETS) research highlights more similarities than variations in gender differences among student racial/groups, though variations exist in how the differences are manifested. This digest presents highlights from Richard Coley's findings in "Differences in the Gender Gap: Comparisons across Racial/Ethnic Groups in…

  4. Exploring the Educational Benefits of Attending an Ethnically Diverse Magnet High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather teacher and student perceptions of the educational benefits that emerge from providing diverse learning environments for students attending an inter-district magnet school. Research Questions were (1) In what ways do teachers and students report that the magnet school offers an ethnically diverse learning…

  5. Our University: Ethnicity, Higher Education and the Quest for State Legitimacy in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munene, Ishmael I.

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, no other country has witnessed as great a surge in university institutions as Kenya. The intent of this paper is to explore the persistence of the ethnic configurations in the surge of higher education in Kenya, within the context of the country's history. Outlining the major flashpoints in the country's history will be…

  6. Preferences towards Sex Education and Information from an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, L.; Testa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…

  7. Leaving Home State for College: Differences by Race/Ethnicity and Parental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Sunny X.

    2015-01-01

    Using the College Board SAT registration and questionnaire data of 2010 high school graduating seniors, we found clear patterns by race/ethnicity and parental education on two outcomes: out-of-state score-sending and out-of-state college attendance. White students had the highest rates and Hispanic students had the lowest rates, and there was a…

  8. A Comparison of Students' Choices of 9th Grade Physical Education Activities by Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant M.; Cleven, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine physical education activity preferences of 9th grade students in a southern California school district and to compare preferences by ethnicity. Results indicated that basketball, football, bowling, softball/baseball, swimming, and volleyball were the most preferred activities. These preferences may be…

  9. A Comparison of Students' Choices of 9th Grade Physical Education Activities by Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant M.; Cleven, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine physical education activity preferences of 9th grade students in a southern California school district and to compare preferences by ethnicity. Results indicated that basketball, football, bowling, softball/baseball, swimming, and volleyball were the most preferred activities. These preferences may be…

  10. Exploring the Educational Benefits of Attending an Ethnically Diverse Magnet High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather teacher and student perceptions of the educational benefits that emerge from providing diverse learning environments for students attending an inter-district magnet school. Research Questions were (1) In what ways do teachers and students report that the magnet school offers an ethnically diverse learning…

  11. Ethnic Environment during Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygren, Magnus; Szulkin, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and…

  12. Crossing Ethnic Barriers in the Southwest: Women's Agricultural Extension Education, 1914-1940. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Joan M.

    From its inception in 1914 until 1940, the New Mexico Agricultural Extension Service was quite successful in delivering educational programs to non-English speaking, Hispanic women in Santa Fe County and almost totally unsuccessful in Dona Ana County. Criteria for success were involvement of ethnic women in the program, ability to adapt national…

  13. Our University: Ethnicity, Higher Education and the Quest for State Legitimacy in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munene, Ishmael I.

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, no other country has witnessed as great a surge in university institutions as Kenya. The intent of this paper is to explore the persistence of the ethnic configurations in the surge of higher education in Kenya, within the context of the country's history. Outlining the major flashpoints in the country's history will be…

  14. Background Information on the Ethnic Chinese Refugees. General Information Series #22. Indochinese Refugee Education Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Resource Center, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide background information on the ethnic Chinese refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos that will be of interest and use to educators working with these refugees. The guide consists of four sections: (1) a brief history of the Chinese communities in Southeast Asia; (2) a more detailed discussion of the…

  15. Language and Ethnicity: Multiple Literacies in Context, Language Education in Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmberger, Janet L.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the research literature available in the United States on the evolution of language policy and planning issues involved in bilingual education programs in Mayan communities in Guatemala. I begin with general comments regarding language policy and planning for bilingual programs for ethnic groups within the borders of…

  16. Gender by ethnic equity issues as they pertain to success in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Jan David

    Science is traditionally a white-male dominated field. This trend has foundations in beliefs and practices accepted before the Enlightenment period. Sixteenth and seventeenth century writers further promoted perceptions that women lacked intellectual capacity to indulge in science. A similar viewpoint was applied to non-white ethnic groups during the 19th and 20th centuries. Questions over Eurocentric and androcentric aspects of science were first raised publicly in 1869, yet significant change in the proportions of women and minorities in science-related fields remains disproportionately low. Public awareness of this situation extends to education where students demonstrate beliefs that opportunities in science are primarily for white males. This commonly shared belief typically produces negative effects on success rates in science education for females and minorities. The purpose of this study was to determine if gender-by-ethnic factors are culturally specific. Do members of one gender/ethnic subgroup experience deterrents to success in science education not common in other ethnic groups? Contrariwise, are negative factors shared across ethnic groups? An effort is made to identify potential gender/ethnic-related barriers that serve to reduce success rates and potentially generate negative attitudes for students about science. A 74-item Likert scale was developed to reveal students' perceptions of issues relative to science education. This instrument was administered to 30 female and 30 male high school students in each of four ethnic groups (African American, Mexican American, American Indian, and Euro American) from public or tribal schools in a large southwestern (United States) urban community. Randomly selected participants from each subgroup were then interviewed to expound upon relevant issues. A reoccurring pattern of reduced interest and experiences in science activities was noted among male American Indians. These participants most often differed with one or more of the other gender/ethnic subgroups in expectations and opportunities for academic success. Most students anticipated support from parents and educators if they were to choose a science related career; however, few expected like consideration from peers. Historical and current issues of cultural relevance are considered as potential sources for outcome patterns noted from the study. Possible areas for future studies are offered.

  17. School-based HIV/AIDS education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviors and better grades with gender and race/ethnicity differences.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-04-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum. PMID:24399260

  18. Adolescents’ Educational Outcomes: Racial and Ethnic Variations in Peer Network Importance

    PubMed Central

    Ryabov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents’ academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results reveal that, in addition to those factors typically associated with academic outcomes (e.g., school composition), two individual-level peer network measures, SES and heterogeneity, had significant effects. Although educational attainment was generally worse in low SES schools, for all ethnic groups higher attainment was associated with attending schools with higher concentrations of minority students. At the individual level, however, membership in integrated peer networks was negatively related to high school graduation for Asians, Latinos, and non-Hispanic whites, and to GPA for Asians and Latinos, as only African-American achievement increased in more racially/ethnically heterogeneous peer networks. Our results suggest that co-ethnic and co-racial peer friendship networks should not be viewed as obstacles to the educational accomplishments of today’s youth. In fact, in many cases the opposite was true, as results generally support the ethnic social capital hypothesis while providing little corroboration for oppositional culture theory. Results also suggest that co-racial and co-ethnic ties may mediate the negative effects of school choice, or more specifically of between-school socioeconomic segregation. Consequently, we conclude that school policies aimed at socioeconomic desegregation are likely to beneficially affect the academic outcomes of all race/ethnic groups. PMID:19669905

  19. Differential association of socioeconomic status in ethnic and age defined suicides

    PubMed Central

    Heninger, Michael; Hanzlick, Randy; Garlow, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide rates vary among racial- and age-defined groups, yet little is known about how suicide risk factors differentially impact individual groups. This study assessed differential associations of socioeconomic status among age- and race-defined groups of suicide victims. A database containing demographic information on declared suicides in Fulton County, GA from 01/01/1988 through 12/31/2003 was combined with annual per capita income by zip code in Atlanta, GA. Analyses were performed to evaluate differential associations of socioeconomic status among age- and race-defined groups of suicide victims. Compared to the respective ethnic populations of Fulton County, white suicide victims lived in areas with lower per capita income ($51,232 v. $35,893); African American suicide victims did not ($17,384 v. $18,179). Elderly suicide victims (?65 years) were more likely to live in the lowest per capita income areas compared to other age groups (OR 1.80, 95% C.I. 1.14, 2.84). Cox proportional hazards models showed increasing income increased the instantaneous risk of suicide among adolescents (HR 2.76; 95% C.I. 2.15, 3.53), particularly African American adolescents (HR 4.22; 95% C.I. 2.19, 8.11), and decreased risk among the elderly (HR 0.58; 95% C.I. 0.50, 0.68). Socioeconomic status has differential associations among age- and race-defined groups of suicide victims. PMID:19395050

  20. Older and Wiser. A Study of Educational Provision for Black and Ethnic Minority Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadzie, Stella

    This publication is the outcome of the Older and Wiser Project that assessed projects' work with elderly black clients. The first part defines who the black elderly are and provides an overview of the black elderly in Britain using data from the 1991 Census. A chart breaks down ethnic minority groups by age. Population pyramids that provide an…

  1. Differential HIV risk for racial/ethnic minority trans*female youth and socio-economic disparities in housing, residential stability and education

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Erin C.; Chen, Yea-Hung; Arayasirikul, Sean; Fisher, Marla; Pomart, W. Andres; Le, Victory; Raymond, H. Fisher; McFarland, Willi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction One of the biggest threats to the health of trans*females is HIV, particularly for those who are part of racial/minority groups. Yet health disparities for racial/ethnic minority trans*female youth remain understudied. Methods We examined baseline data from 282 trans*female youth ages 16–24 years old in the San Francisco Bay Area. We conducted Chi-squared tests for distributional differences between racial/ethnic minority and white participants in socio-demographic factors, HIV-related risk behaviors and syndemic factors. Results A total of 4.8% of trans*female youth were HIV positive. Racial/ethnic minority and white trans*female youth differed significantly in their gender identities and sexual orientations. Racial/minority youth also had significantly lower educational attainment, were less likely to live with their parents of origin as a child, and were significantly more likely to engage in recent condomless anal intercourse compared to whites. Conclusions Important disparities in HIV-related sexual risk behavior, education, and residential stability exist between racial/ethnic minority and white trans*female youth. Efforts to assess the impact of multiple minority stress for racial/minority trans*female youth are imminently needed. Additionally, macro-level disparities must be addressed in prevention efforts for trans*female youth, especially for those from racial/ethnic minority groups, in order to prevent incident cases of HIV and reduce disparities. PMID:25905826

  2. Ethnic identity: similarities and differences in white groups based on cultural practices.

    PubMed

    Koutrelakos, James

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined variability in ethnic identity among the ethnic groups that comprise the White racial category. Based on participants' ethnic self-labels, high school and college students (n = 495) were assigned to one of six groups: Armenian, Greek, Jewish, European, Mixed White ancestry ("Irish and Italian"), and Pan-ethnic ("White"). Individuals who identified with Specific White groups (Armenian, Greek, Jewish) had higher ethnic identity scores than individuals who identified with Nonspecific White groups (European, Mixed, Pan-ethnic). Specific White groups also had more heritage education, ethnic language competency, and religious participation than Nonspecific White groups. Regression analyses indicated that ethnic language competency and religious participation positively predicted ethnic identity for both Specific and Nonspecific White groups, controlling for age, sex, and generation. For the Specific White group, heritage education interacted with ethnic language to increase ethnic identity for students with low (but not medium or high) competency. PMID:24245070

  3. Educating Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam: Policies and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    Teacher education programs in Vietnam, like their counterparts in most multicultural societies, struggle to address the issues of access, equity, and excellence. The nation's minority groups, about 13 percent of the population, traditionally have not gained admission to educational opportunities on a par with members of the majority group,…

  4. "Just Open Your Eyes a Bit More": The Methodological Challenges of Researching Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne; Webb, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss some of the challenges of centralising "race" and ethnicity in Physical Education (PE) research, through reflecting on the design and implementation of a study exploring Black and minority ethnic students' experiences of their teacher education. Our aim in the paper is to contribute to ongoing theoretical and…

  5. Associations of Candidate Genes to Age-related Macular Degeneration Among Racial/Ethnic Groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Li, Xiaohui; Kuo, Jane Z.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Wong, Tien Y.; Taylor, Kent D.; Rotter, Jerome I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe the relationships of selected candidate genes to the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a cohort of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Setting Multicenter study. Study Population 2456 persons aged 45–84 years with genotype information and fundus photographs. Procedures Twelve of 2862 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 11 of 233 candidate genes for cardiovascular disease were selected for analysis based on screening with marginal unadjusted P value <0.001 within 1 or more racial/ethnic groups. Logistic regression models tested for association in case-control samples. Main Outcome Measure Prevalence of early AMD. Results Early AMD was present in 4.0% of the cohort and varied from 2.4% in blacks to 6.0% in whites. The odds ratio increased from 2.3 for one to 10.0 for four risk alleles in a joint effect analysis of Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 rs10490924 and Complement Factor H Y402H (P for trend=4.2×10?7). Frequencies of each SNP varied among the racial/ethnic groups. Adjusting for age and other factors, few statistically significant associations of the 12 SNPs with AMD were consistent across all groups. In a multivariate model, most candidate genes did not attenuate the comparatively higher odds of AMD in whites. The higher frequency of risk alleles for several SNPs in Chinese Americans may partially explain their AMD frequency approaching that of whites. Conclusions The relationships of 11 candidate genes to early AMD varied among 4 racial/ethnic groups, and partially explained the observed variations in early AMD prevalence among them. PMID:23938121

  6. Gender and ethnic differences in urinary stress hormones: the population-based Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study.

    PubMed

    Masi, Christopher M; Rickett, Edith M; Hawkley, Louise C; Cacioppo, John T

    2004-09-01

    Gender and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease and mortality have spurred interest in the epidemiology of stress hormone production. Greater disease burden among men and blacks raises the possibility of gender and ethnic differences in stress hormone production. The purpose of this study was to determine whether urinary stress hormones were higher among men and blacks in a population-based sample. Urinary hormone analysis permits a time-integrated assessment of the stress response system. However, differences in collection and standardization strategies have led to inconsistent findings. Subjects were an ethnically diverse population-based sample of 229 men and women aged 50-67 yr who provided an overnight urine specimen. Urine concentration was standardized using a traditional creatinine-based approach as well as a new method that accounts for muscle mass. With the use of creatinine standardization, no gender or ethnic differences were noted in epinephrine or cortisol production. Norepinephrine levels were higher among women compared with men (P = 0.001), however. After accounting for muscle mass, we found that both epinephrine (P = 0.018) and norepinephrine (P = 0.033) levels were higher among men compared with women. No significant differences in cortisol production were found by gender or ethnicity. The consistency of these results with previous studies of 24-h urine samples suggests muscle mass should be accounted for when comparing overnight urinary hormone values across gender and ethnicity. PMID:15145921

  7. The Impossibility of Minority Ethnic Educational "Success"? An Examination of the Discourses of Teachers and Pupils in British Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that in Britain dominant educational discourses of "the ideal pupil" exclude minority ethnic pupils and prevent them from inhabiting a position of authentic "success". It suggests that "the successful pupil" is a desired yet refused subject position for many minority ethnic young people--even for those who are (to some extent)…

  8. A Question of Reflexivity in a Qualitative Study of South Asians in Education: Power, Knowledge and Shared Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbas, Tahir

    2006-01-01

    In a qualitative study of South Asians in education, methodological issues pertaining to the social interactions between the same-ethnicity researcher and researched are analysed and interpreted. Based on in-depth interviews with 89 South Asian school pupils and 25 South Asian parents, it was found that political ideology and shared ethnicity were…

  9. Differences in the Gender Gap: Comparisons across Racial/Ethnic Groups in Education and Work. Policy Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Richard J.

    This report considers the interaction of gender and racial/ethnic differences by addressing the issue of whether gender differences vary within racial/ethnic groups. The data encompass the education and work pipeline from elementary school, through high school, college, and graduate school, and into the workforce. Data come from a variety of…

  10. The Culture Care Meaning of Comfort for Ethnically Diverse Pre-Licensure Baccalaureate Nursing Students in the Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, Lynne K.

    2010-01-01

    The nursing profession is calling for enhanced diversity within the ranks of registered nurses to meet the health care needs of an increasingly diverse society. Nursing education is faced with the challenge of retaining ethnically diverse nursing students. Students who are ethnically diverse face unique challenges in addition to the universal…

  11. Prevalence differences of psychiatric disorders among youth after nine months or more of incarceration by race/ethnicity and age.

    PubMed

    Karnik, Niranjan S; Soller, Marie V; Redlich, Allison; Silverman, Melissa A; Kraemer, Helena C; Haapanen, Rudy; Steiner, Hans

    2010-02-01

    Despite high rates of psychiatric morbidity among young offenders, few studies look closely at prevalence rates in terms of race/ethnicity or developmental stage. Seven hundred and ninety (790) incarcerated young people with a mean age of 18+/-1.2 years were examined. The racial/ethnic distribution was White (17%), African American (28%), Hispanic (47%) and Other (8%). White males had greater than average levels of psychosis; African American males showed lower than average alcohol dependence rates but higher levels of marijuana dependence. White females were more likely than Hispanic and African American females to have attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and substance and stimulant dependence. Race/ethnicity and age differences can be useful when creating culturally-informed and developmentally appropriate interventions for incarcerated young people. PMID:20173266

  12. Ethnic Inequality in Choice-Driven Education Systems: A Longitudinal Study of Performance and Choice in England and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michelle; Jonsson, Jan O.; Rudolphi, Frida

    2012-01-01

    The authors ask whether choice-driven education systems, with comprehensive schools and mass education at the secondary and tertiary level, represented in this article by England and Sweden, provide educational opportunities for ethnic minorities. In studying educational attainment, the authors make a theoretical distinction between mechanisms…

  13. History of 19th Century Women's Education: A Plea for Inclusion of Class, Race, and Ethnicity. Working Paper No. 114.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenzel, Barbara M.

    In this overview of precedents set in the informal and formal education of women of the 19th century, a revisionist approach to the history of education is outlined. Such an approach focuses not only on the elite women's struggles for education, but also on the education of women of color, different classes, and various ethnic backgrounds. Popular…

  14. Incidence, and Gender, Age and Ethnic Distribution of Sarcomas in the Republic of Suriname from 1980 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Mans, DRA; Lall, AE Budhu; Macnack, VL; van Tholl, JA; Zandveld, EB; Vrede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We report on the incidence and the gender, age and ethnic distribution of sarcomas diagnosed between 1980 and 2008 in the multi-ethnic Republic of Suriname. Methods: Total and average yearly number of cases, crude rates, as well as relevant population data were derived from the records of the Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory and the General Bureau of Statistics, respectively, and stratified according to gender, age groups 0–19, 20–49 and 50+ years, and the largest ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese and Maroons). Results: Between 1980 and 2008, 258 sarcomas were diagnosed in Suriname, ie at a frequency of nine per year and an annual rate of two per 100 000. Overall, there was 0.9 male per female, two to four cases per year in each age group, and one to three patients in each ethnic group. Soft-tissue sarcomas comprised approximately 80% of overall cases, with a male/female ratio that was approximately 0.5; almost 90% of patients were older than 20 years; more than one-third was Creole. Leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma were most frequently encountered (90 cases), particularly above 20 years of age, while leiomyosarcomas seemed, additionally, more common in women and Creoles or Maroons. The most numerous bone tumours were primitive neuroectodermal tumour/Ewing tumour and osteosarcoma (37 cases). They were more common in males, the youngest age group, and Hindustanis and Creoles. Conclusions: The incidence of sarcomas in Suriname, and their gender, age and ethnic distribution in general, seemed comparable with international data. The main exception might be leiomyosarcoma which might have a predilection for Afro-Surinamese. PMID:25303244

  15. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  16. Development of Ethnic, Racial, and National Prejudice in Childhood and Adolescence: A Multinational Meta-Analysis of Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…

  17. Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

  18. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  19. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

  20. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  1. Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

  2. Short Sleep Duration across Income, Education and Race/Ethnic Groups: Population Prevalence and Growing Disparities over 34 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Kaplan, George A.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about population determinants of short sleep duration. The authors examined associations between short sleep duration and income, education and race/ethnicity, and assessed changes over time in relative disparities. Methods Questionnaire data from the Alameda County Health and Ways of Living Study (ACS) was obtained at five time-points (1965, 1974, 1983, 1994, and 1999) for short sleep duration (<7 hours sleep per night). Household income, education level and race/ethnicity were assessed at baseline (n=6928). Odds ratios were computed to examine short sleep duration across income, education and race/ethnicity, adjusting for age, sex and time-varying covariates, and to assess changes over time. Results Prevalence of short sleep at baseline was 15.2%.The (age-adjusted) odds of short sleep was increased for the lowest household income quintile (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.94), those with less than high school education (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.75), and among African Americans (odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68, 2.30). Relative disparities increased over time for African Americans and Hispanics compared to whites. Conclusions Socioeconomic position is a robust determinant of short sleep duration, even after adjusting for health-related characteristics linked to short sleep duration. PMID:17855122

  3. Interrogating Orthodox Voices: Gender, Ethnicity and Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2003-01-01

    Research in educational leadership and management, while comprehensive in its scope and direction, has considerable imbalances that have contributed to what Blackmore (1999) has termed the monoculture of the powerful. The focus on the apparent intractability of leadership as a male domain and ways in which women have negotiated the gendered nature…

  4. Ethnic Minority Pupils in Swedish Schools: Some Trends in Over-Representation of Minority Pupils in Special Educational Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berhanu, Girma

    2008-01-01

    The way categories, labels, and taxonomies are used depends upon national ideologies and nationally specific conceptions of citizenship and normality. Ethnicity, differences, disability and deviance are social constructions. Underachievement or overachievement in social (cognitive) performance or overrepresentation in special educational

  5. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  6. Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

    Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain this differences. Therefore we propose that older Fars and Turkmen people may have elevated requirement for antioxidants. Supplementation with vitamin or dietary free radical scavengers such as vitamin E and C or foodstuff containing these such as tomatoes, oranges and similars have a potential role in boosting antioxidant related defenses and may be important for older people of two ethnic groups.

  7. The effect of ethnicity and age on palatal size and shape: a study in a northern Chilean healthy population.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Tartaglia, G M; Carvajal, R; Palomino, H

    2000-01-01

    Race and ethnicity influence the form of the human craniofacial complex in varying ways. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the effects of ethnicity (mestizos, Aymara, non-Aymara), age (adolescents and adults), and sex on the form (size and shape) of the hard palate in normal Native American individuals. From the dental casts of 51 individuals with a complete permanent dentition, the x, y, and z coordinates of several standardized palatal landmarks were obtained with a computerized 3-dimensional digitizer. Palatal landmarks were used to derive a mathematical equation for palatal shape in the frontal and sagittal planes. Palatal width and length, frontal and sagittal heights, sagittal slope, and deviation of the raphe from the midline were also calculated. In the Aymara subjects, there was no effect of sex on palatal size, but there was an effect on palatal shape independent of size, especially with respect to male growth. Indeed, female palates apparently did not change their shape between adolescence and adulthood, while male palates increased their posterior "height." Overall, the 3 ethnic groups appeared to possess similar palatal size, with small significant differences. In the adult individuals, ethnicity did not seem to influence palatal shape. In contrast, adolescent males showed differences: non-Aymara subjects had the "highest" palatal shape, Aymara the "lowest," and mestizos an intermediate position. In conclusion, ethnicity does not seem to be a factor of major variability of human hard palate morphology, at least in the present 3 northern Chilean groups, as already found for dental arch shape. Age probably has a larger effect, particularly in the posterior part of the palate, where the eruption of the second and third molars between adolescence and young adulthood may play a role. A further development of the present investigation may involve larger samples of individuals from different ethnic groups. PMID:11307201

  8. Aging among Jewish Americans: Implications for Understanding Religion, Ethnicity, and Service Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…

  9. Aging among Jewish Americans: Implications for Understanding Religion, Ethnicity, and Service Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…

  10. The Hidden Costs of Ethnic Conflict: Decomposing Trends in Educational Outcomes of Young Kosovars. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alva, Soumya; Murrugarra, Edmundo; Paci, Pierella

    This paper examines the impact of ethnic segmentation in education on educational outcomes. Between 1991 and the late 1990s, the Albanian Kosovar population received education services in an informal system parallel to the official one. Using the 2000 Kosovo Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) data, this paper exploits cohort differences in…

  11. On the Discrepancy of Access to Higher Education in a Province with a Large Ethnic Minority Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yunchuan; Zhang, Jianxin

    2007-01-01

    Based on a survey of students from different social strata, different family backgrounds and different levels of access to higher education in 10 higher education institutions (HEIs) in Yunnan, an ethnic minority (EM) province, this essay tries to find out the discrepancy in the enrollment opportunity of higher education for children from…

  12. American Education: Implications from the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William E.

    This paper considers the needs of future educational systems in an age of information. Characteristics of such systems are described and analyzed. An information age educational system would stress the big picture, be experimental, emphasize skills and tools of thought and action and extend throughout life. It would have alternative delivery…

  13. American Education: Implications from the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William E.

    This paper considers the needs of future educational systems in an age of information. Characteristics of such systems are described and analyzed. An information age educational system would stress the big picture, be experimental, emphasize skills and tools of thought and action and extend throughout life. It would have alternative delivery…

  14. Patterns of tuberculosis in Indian and Pakistani/Bangladeshi patients: effects of age, date of first entry and ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Ormerod, L P; Nunn, A J; Byfield, S P; Darbyshire, J H

    1991-07-01

    The pattern of tuberculosis in Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi patients in Blackburn (1978-1987) was compared with that for England and Wales (MRC Survey), with particular reference to the proportion with parenchymal lung disease, by a generalized linear model allowing for age, ethnic group and time since first entry. In Blackburn, the proportion with lung disease was higher in Pakistani/Bangladeshi (46%) compared with 28% in Indians, although in both groups this increased with age. In the MRC Survey, the proportions with lung disease were similar (Pakistani/Bangladeshi 36.5%, Indians 34%) but there was an increase in lung disease with age and year since first entry in the Indian ethnic group only. The reasons for the differences, and their implications are discussed. PMID:1947363

  15. Educational Equity Issues in an Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayers, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    Equity in access to educational resources faces new challenges in the age of technology, with great disparity in access to educational technology. The article proposes an alternative direction for equity of access to global learning networks as a catalyst for genuine educational reform that upholds civil rights law. (Author/SM)

  16. Dark Age Education: Our Latest Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Joel

    1981-01-01

    Relates the history of ideas to the history of education during the middle ages. Topics discussed include cultural life, economic factors, the political economy of medieval education, and the difficulty of writing about educational trends during a time for which there are few authoritative sources. (DB)

  17. Ethnic elders.

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, S.

    1996-01-01

    The numbers of elderly people from ethnic groups within Britain is rising rapidly as postwar immigrants age. Ethnic elders face problems owing to age-associated increased risks of common chronic diseases, racial discrimination, and poor access to many health services and social services. This disadvantage will be alleviated through increased understanding of health beliefs held by ethnic elders and ensuring better access to services through mechanisms such as employment of more staff from ethnic minority groups in senior positions, better training of staff, and more appropriate and sensitive environments. The myths that family care is sufficient, that no use of services implies no need, and that assimilation into the majority population will occur must be discounted. Images p610-a Fig 1 PMID:8806256

  18. Educational Outcomes and Functioning of Bi-Ethnic Dutch Children in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karssen, Merlijn; van der Veen, Ineke; Volman, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changing demographics in societies through international migration have led to an increasing number of bi-ethnic individuals. The focus of this study is on bi-ethnic students with one parent with an ethnic majority background and one parent with an ethnic minority background. Most studies worldwide have grouped these bi-ethnic students…

  19. Shared Agency with Parents for Educational Goals: Ethnic Differences and Implications for College Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng

    2009-01-01

    This study proposed and confirmed three ways in which college students can perceive shared agency and two ways in which they can perceive non-shared agency with parents when pursuing educational goals in college. Differences and similarities were examined among participants from four ethnic backgrounds (N = 515; 67% female): East Asian American, Southeast Asian American, Filipino/Pacific Islander American, and European American. Results indicated that Asian American youth reported higher levels of non-shared agency with parents (i.e., parental directing and noninvolvement), lower levels of shared agency (i.e., parental accommodation, support, or collaboration), and poorer college adjustment compared to European Americans. However, ethnic similarities were found whereby perceived shared agency in education with parents was associated with college adjustment. Multiple mediation analyses also indicated that our model of shared and non-shared agency with parents explained differences in college adjustment between Asian and European Americans, though more strongly for comparisons between European and East Asian Americans. Our results suggest that parents continue to be important in the education of older youth but that continued directing of youth’s education in college can be maladaptive. PMID:19997969

  20. Developing nutrition education resources for a multi-ethnic population in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Eyles, Helen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Wharemate, Laurie; Funaki-Tahifote, Mafi; Lanumata, Tolotea; Rodgers, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    In New Zealand, the burden of nutrition-related disease is greatest among vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, including Maori and Pacific peoples. However, little research is currently available on effective ways to improve nutrition in these communities. This paper describes the development of six paper-based nutrition education resources for multi-ethnic participants in a large supermarket intervention trial. Six focus groups involving 15 Maori, 13 Pacific and 16 non-Maori, non-Pacific participants were held. A general inductive approach was applied to identify common themes around participants' understanding and thoughts on relevance and usefulness of the draft resources. Feedback from focus groups was used to modify resources accordingly. Five themes emerged across all focus groups and guided modification of the resources: (i) perceived higher cost of healthy food, (ii) difficulty in changing food-purchasing habits, (iii) lack of knowledge, understanding and information about healthy food, (iv) desire for personally relevant information that uses ethnically appropriate language and (v) other barriers to healthy eating, including limited availability of healthy food. Many issues affect the likelihood of purchase and consumption of healthy food. These issues should be taken into account when developing nutritional materials for New Zealanders and possibly other multi-ethnic populations worldwide. PMID:18974069

  1. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  2. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995–2010: a multiple cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40 113 children aged 11–18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. Conclusions A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. PMID:26911588

  3. Ethnicity, Gender, and the Education of Cambodian American Students in an Urban High School

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kimmie; Kao, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role of gender and ethnicity in the education of Cambodian American high school students. Using a qualitative approach, we interviewed ninth-grade Cambodian American students (n=10), teachers (n=4), and administrators (n=2) at a Southern California high school. The data revealed that Cambodian students were often mistaken for other Asian groups and due to stereotypes, expected to excel academically. Fearing that they would disappoint their teachers or be ridiculed by other students, they often remained silent about their academic struggles. Traditional values regarding gender and familial expectations also played prominent roles for both Cambodian boys and girls and their academic progress. PMID:25485315

  4. Ethnicity and Comparative Youth Disaffection in Multicultural Contexts: Some Multiracial Experiences of Education in Thanet and Lille.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    Explored youth disaffection, focusing on K-12 schools in England and France. Data from student interviews, staff interviews, and classroom observations indicated that educational inclusion in the two countries was not meeting the educational needs of disaffected youth. Within the disaffected cohort, those from ethnic minorities were doubly…

  5. The Masters of Survival Send Their Children to School: Bilingual Education in the Ethnic Schools of Miami.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ofelia; Otheguy, Ricardo

    1985-01-01

    Reports on the success of Dade County's (Florida) transitional bilingual education program in the public schools and the private ethnic schools run by Cuban educators for the purpose of developing literacy skills in Spanish and English among Hispanic students. This success has resulted in the greater economic power of the Spanish-speaking…

  6. Dynamics of Acculturation, Enculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Influence of Psychocultural Constructs on Conscientiousness and Expectations of Higher Education among Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.; Davis, Matthew J.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Vaquero, Juana; Thompson, Keisha V.; Saldivar, Isaac M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of psychocultural variables (e.g., acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity) and personality characteristics in relation to educational expectations among 345 Latino middle school students in the U.S. Results from a path model indicate that 24.4% of the variance of educational expectations was accounted…

  7. Dynamics of Acculturation, Enculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Influence of Psychocultural Constructs on Conscientiousness and Expectations of Higher Education among Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.; Davis, Matthew J.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Vaquero, Juana; Thompson, Keisha V.; Saldivar, Isaac M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of psychocultural variables (e.g., acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity) and personality characteristics in relation to educational expectations among 345 Latino middle school students in the U.S. Results from a path model indicate that 24.4% of the variance of educational expectations was accounted…

  8. Age patterns of racial/ethnic/nativity differences in disability and physical functioning in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Jennifer; Hummer, Robert; Elo, Irma; Mehta, Neil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rapid population aging and increasing racial/ethnic and immigrant/native diversity make a broad documentation of U.S. health patterns during both mid- and late life particularly important. OBJECTIVE We aim to better understand age- and gender-specific racial/ethnic and nativity differences in physical functioning and disability among adults aged 50 and above. METHODS We aggregate 14 years of data from the National Health Interview Survey and calculate age- and gender-specific proportions of physical functioning and two types of disability for each population subgroup. RESULTS Middle-aged foreign-born individuals in nearly every subgroup exhibit lower proportions of functional limitations and disability than U.S.-born whites. This pattern of immigrant advantage is generally reversed in later life. Moreover, most U.S.-born minority groups have significantly higher levels of functional limitations and disability than U.S.-born whites in both mid- and late life. CONCLUSIONS Higher levels of functional limitations and disability among U.S.-born minority groups and immigrant populations in older adulthood pose serious challenges for health providers and policymakers in a rapidly diversifying and aging population. PMID:26893587

  9. Increased risk for colorectal cancer under age 50 in racial and ethnic minorities living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Rubayat; Schmaltz, Chester; Jackson, Christian S; Simoes, Eduardo J; Jackson-Thompson, Jeannette; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer death in USA. We analyzed CRC disparities in African Americans, Hispanics, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Current guidelines recommend screening for CRC beginning at age 50. Using SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database 1973-2009 and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) 1995-2009 dataset, we performed frequency and rate analysis on colorectal cancer demographics and incidence based on race/ethnicity. We also used the SEER database to analyze stage, grade, and survival based on race/ethnicity. Utilizing SEER database, the median age of CRC diagnosis is significantly less in Hispanics (66 years), Asians/Pacific Islanders (68 years), American Indians/Alaska Natives (64 years), and African Americans (64 years) compared to non-Hispanic whites (72 years). Twelve percent of Asians/Pacific Islanders, 15.4% Hispanics, 16.5% American Indians/Alaska Natives, and 11.9% African Americans with CRC are diagnosed at age <50 years compared to only 6.7% in non-Hispanic Whites (P < 0.0001). Minority groups have more advanced stages at diagnosis compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Trend analysis showed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC diagnosed under the age of 50 years have significantly increased in all racial and ethnic groups but are stable in African Americans. These results were confirmed through analysis of NAACCR 1995-2009 dataset covering nearly the entire USA. A significantly higher proportion of minority groups in USA with CRC are diagnosed before age 50 compared to non-Hispanic Whites, documenting that these minority groups are at higher risk for early CRC. Further studies are needed to identify the causes and risk factors responsible for young onset CRC among minority groups and to develop intervention strategies including earlier CRC screening, among others. PMID:26471963

  10. The Vulnerability of Older Middle Age and Elderly Adults in a Multi-Ethnic, Low Income Area: Contributions of Age, Ethnicity, and Health Insurance

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Kara Odom; Steers, Neil; Liang, Li-Jung; Morales, Leo S.; Forge, Nell; Jones, Loretta; Brown, Arleen F.

    2010-01-01

    This community partnered study was developed and fielded in partnerships with key community stakeholders, describes age and race-related variation in delays in care and preventive service utilization among middle-aged and older adults living in South Los Angeles. The survey sample included adults ages 50 years and older who self-identified as African-American or Latino and lived in zip-codes of South Los Angeles (N=708). Dependent variables were self-reported delays in care and use of preventive services. Insured participants ages 50–64 years were more likely to report any delay in care (adjusted predicted percent (APP) 18%, 95% CI 14, 23) and problems getting needed medical care (APP 15%, 95% CI 12, 20) than those ages 65 years or older. Uninsured participants ages 50–64 years reported even greater delays in care (APP 45%, 95% CI 33, 56) and problems getting needed medical (APP 33%,95% CI 22, 45) and specialty care (APP 26%, 95% CI 16, 39) than those age 65 and over. Compared to older participants, those age 50–64 years were generally less likely to receive preventive services, including influenza or pneumococcal vaccines and colonoscopy, but women were more likely to receive mammograms. Persons ages 50–64 years had more problems obtaining recommended preventive care and faced more delays in care than persons age 65 years and older, particularly if uninsured. Providing insurance coverage for this group may improve access to preventive care and promote wellness. PMID:21143445

  11. Students Call for Nuclear Age Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Educators and students, discussing the future of nuclear age education at a symposium, generally agreed that knowledge and values are separated in society. Sources of information and of the proceedings are listed along with the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development's (ASCD) resolution on nuclear freeze. (MLF)

  12. Planning for Diversity: Education in Multi-Ethnic and Multicultural Societies. International Institute for Educational Planning Policy Forum (17th, Paris, France, June 19-20, 2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernes, Gudmund

    2004-01-01

    In June 2003, the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) organized its annual Policy Forum to discuss the impact of increasingly multi-ethnic and multicultural societies on education in general and the implications for educational planning in particular. The proceedings of this Policy Forum are presented in this volume. Part I,…

  13. Futurism, Aging, and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdman, Geral Dene M.

    1979-01-01

    This study of futurism is important to gerontology in order to bridge the gap between theory, policy statement, and actual practice in the field of aging. There is a need to prepare competent individuals for direct service, and to provide increased exposure to gerontology throughout the curriculum. (Author/LPG)

  14. Science education in a secular age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David E.

    2013-03-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.

  15. Researching Race/Ethnicity and Educational Inequality in the Netherlands: A Critical Review of the Research Literature between 1980 and 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Peter A. J.; Clycq, Noel; Timmerman, Christianne; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and critically analyzes how educational sociologists in the Netherlands have studied the relationship between race/ethnicity and educational inequality between 1980 and 2008. Five major research traditions are identified: (1) political arithmetic; (2) racism and ethnic discrimination; (3) school characteristics; (4) school…

  16. Researching Race/Ethnicity and Educational Inequality in the Netherlands: A Critical Review of the Research Literature between 1980 and 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Peter A. J.; Clycq, Noel; Timmerman, Christianne; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and critically analyzes how educational sociologists in the Netherlands have studied the relationship between race/ethnicity and educational inequality between 1980 and 2008. Five major research traditions are identified: (1) political arithmetic; (2) racism and ethnic discrimination; (3) school characteristics; (4) school…

  17. Benefit/risk for adjuvant breast cancer therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor use by age, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Chlebowski, R T; Haque, R; Hedlin, H; Col, N; Paskett, E; Manson, J E; Kubo, J T; Johnson, K C; Wactawski-Wende, J; Pan, K; Anderson, G

    2015-12-01

    In early adjuvant breast cancer trial reports, aromatase inhibitors more effectively reduced breast recurrence with lower risk of thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer than tamoxifen, while aromatase inhibitors had higher fracture and cardiovascular disease risk. We used data from updated patient-level meta-analyses of adjuvant trials in analyses to summarize the benefits and risks of these agents in various clinical circumstances. Baseline incidence rates for health outcomes by age and race/ethnicity, absent aromatase inhibitor, or tamoxifen use were estimated from the Women's Health Initiative. Aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen effects on distant recurrence were obtained from a meta-analysis of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) and Breast International Group (Big-1-98) clinical trials. Impact on other health outcomes were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials comparing aromatase inhibitor to tamoxifen use and from placebo-controlled chemoprevention trials. All health outcomes were given equal weight when modeling net benefit/risk for aromatase inhibitor compared to tamoxifen use by breast cancer recurrence risk, age (decade), race/ethnicity, hysterectomy (yes/no), and by prior myocardial infarction. Over a 10-year period, the benefit/risk index was more favorable for aromatase inhibitor than for tamoxifen as adjuvant breast cancer therapy in almost all circumstances regardless of patient age, race/ethnicity, breast cancer recurrence risk, or presence or absence of a uterus. Only in older women with prior myocardial infarction and low recurrence risk was an advantage for tamoxifen seen. Using a benefit/risk index for endocrine adjuvant breast cancer therapy in postmenopausal women, benefit was higher for aromatase inhibitor use in almost all circumstances. PMID:26602222

  18. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE. PMID:26080417

  19. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Mitchell S

    2015-07-28

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE. PMID:26080417

  20. Acculturation or development? Autonomy expectations among ethnic German immigrant adolescents and their native German age-mates.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared immigrant and native adolescents' expectations concerning the timing of conventional socially acceptable and oppositional less socially acceptable forms of autonomy. Based on normative development and a collectivist background among immigrants, both developmental and acculturative change was expected. The sample consisted of 523 ethnic German immigrants from the former Soviet Union and 475 native German adolescents, both groups divided into an early (age 12.5years) and a late (age 16years) adolescent group. Results revealed more developmental than acculturative change, as immigrants and natives mostly showed a similar rate of change in autonomy expectations. Acculturative change was found only for oppositional autonomy among late adolescent immigrants, whose later expectations approached those of their native age-mates over time. PMID:22966928

  1. Crossing boundaries: nativity, ethnicity, and mate selection.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E; Batson, Christie D

    2012-05-01

    The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration has often focused on panethnic differences, and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican-, Mexican-, Chinese-, and Filipino-origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a lesser extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups. PMID:22350840

  2. Racial/ethnic disparities in fatal unintentional drowning among persons aged ≤ 29 years - United States, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Julie; Parker, Erin M

    2014-05-16

    In the United States, almost 4,000 persons die from drowning each year. Drowning is responsible for more deaths among children aged 1-4 years than any other cause except congenital anomalies. For persons aged ≤29 years, drowning is one of the top three causes of unintentional injury death (2). Previous research has identified racial/ethnic disparities in drowning rates. To describe these differences by age of decedent and drowning setting, CDC analyzed 12 years of combined mortality data from 1999-2010 for those aged ≤29 years. Among non-Hispanics, the overall drowning rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) was twice the rate for whites, and the rate for blacks was 1.4 times the rate for whites. Disparities were greatest in swimming pools, with swimming pool drowning rates among blacks aged 5-19 years 5.5 times higher than those among whites in the same age group. This disparity was greatest at ages 11-12 years; at these ages, blacks drown in swimming pools at 10 times the rate of whites. Drowning prevention strategies include using barriers (e.g., fencing) and life jackets, actively supervising or lifeguarding, teaching basic swimming skills and performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The practicality and effectiveness of these strategies varies by setting; however, basic swimming skills can be beneficial across all settings. PMID:24827409

  3. Risk of developing multimorbidity across all ages in an historical cohort study: differences by sex and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    St Sauver, Jennifer L; Boyd, Cynthia M; Grossardt, Brandon R; Bobo, William V; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Roger, Véronique L; Ebbert, Jon O; Therneau, Terry M; Yawn, Barbara P; Rocca, Walter A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence of de novo multimorbidity across all ages in a geographically defined population with an emphasis on sex and ethnic differences. Design Historical cohort study. Setting All persons residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA on 1 January 2000 who had granted permission for their records to be used for research (n=123?716). Participants We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records-linkage system to identify all of the county residents. We identified and removed from the cohort all persons who had developed multimorbidity before 1 January 2000 (baseline date), and we followed the cohort over 14?years (1 January 2000 through 31 December 2013). Main outcome measures Incident multimorbidity was defined as the development of the second of 2 conditions (dyads) from among the 20 chronic conditions selected by the US Department of Health and Human Services. We also studied the incidence of the third of 3 conditions (triads) from among the 20 chronic conditions. Results The incidence of multimorbidity increased steeply with older age; however, the number of people with incident multimorbidity was substantially greater in people younger than 65?years compared to people age 65?years or older (28?378 vs 6214). The overall risk was similar in men and women; however, the combinations of conditions (dyads and triads) differed extensively by age and by sex. Compared to Whites, the incidence of multimorbidity was higher in Blacks and lower in Asians. Conclusions The risk of developing de novo multimorbidity increases steeply with older age, varies by ethnicity and is similar in men and women overall. However, as expected, the combinations of conditions vary extensively by age and sex. These data represent an important first step toward identifying the causes and the consequences of multimorbidity. PMID:25649210

  4. Perceived Causes of Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education: Consideration of Factors for the Purpose of Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Anita Moore

    2010-01-01

    The issue of ethnic disproportionality in special education has been a focus of much research. The purpose of the present study is to add to the current dialogue regarding the perceived causes of the disproportionate numbers of African-American students in both the mild to moderate intellectual disability and behavioral/emotional disability…

  5. Reasons for Withdrawal from Higher Vocational Education. A Comparison of Ethnic Minority and Majority Non-Completers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Severiens, Sabine E.; Born, Marise Ph.

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored possible differences in reasons for withdrawing from higher vocational education between ethnic minority and majority non-completers in the Netherlands. Tinto's model on the departure process was used as a theoretical framework. A total of 1017 non-completers filled in a questionnaire regarding their reasons for…

  6. Motivation, Ethnic Identity, and Post-Secondary Education Language Choices of Graduates of Intensive French Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Erin; Noels, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the motivation for learning French, the ethnic identities, and the decision to pursue post-secondary education in French of anglophone graduates of intensive French language programs in high school. Sixty-two graduates of either French immersion, Advanced Placement French, or the International Baccalaureate French program…

  7. Who's in STEM? An Exploration of Race, Ethnicity, and Citizenship Reporting in a Federal Education Dataset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, W. Carson; Dika, Sandra L.; Ramlal, Letticia T.

    2013-01-01

    As the United States becomes more racially and ethnically diverse and draws more students from across the globe, more representative data are needed to understand at-risk and underrepresented populations in higher education, particularly in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. The authors argue that the current…

  8. The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

  9. Who's in STEM? An Exploration of Race, Ethnicity, and Citizenship Reporting in a Federal Education Dataset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, W. Carson; Dika, Sandra L.; Ramlal, Letticia T.

    2013-01-01

    As the United States becomes more racially and ethnically diverse and draws more students from across the globe, more representative data are needed to understand at-risk and underrepresented populations in higher education, particularly in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. The authors argue that the current…

  10. A Community Needs Assessment for Post-Secondary Education on the Multi-Ethnic Island of Lana'i.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, J. A.; McOmber, Phyllis

    To gather information for Maui Community College's (MCC's), on the Multi-Ethnic Island of Lana'i. fall 1992 of students and residents of the island of Lana'i to assess community interests and educational needs. Responses were received from 232 Lana'i residents, of whom 49% were current or former students, 31% were male, and 84% were employed.…

  11. The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

  12. Citizenship Education and Human Rights in Sites of Ethnic Conflict: Toward Critical Pedagogies of Compassion and Shared Fate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    The present essay discusses the value of citizenship as shared fate in sites of ethnic conflict and analyzes its implications for citizenship education in light of three issues: first, the requirements of affective relationality in the notion of citizenship-as-shared fate; second, the tensions between the values of human rights and shared fate in…

  13. Social Class, Ethnicity and Access to Higher Education in the Four Countries of the UK: 1996-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croxford, Linda; Raffe, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares access to full-time undergraduate higher education (HE) by members of less advantaged social classes and ethnic minorities across the four "home countries" of the UK. It uses data on applicants to HE in selected years from 1996 to 2010. In all home countries students from intermediate and working-class backgrounds…

  14. Motivation, Ethnic Identity, and Post-Secondary Education Language Choices of Graduates of Intensive French Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Erin; Noels, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the motivation for learning French, the ethnic identities, and the decision to pursue post-secondary education in French of anglophone graduates of intensive French language programs in high school. Sixty-two graduates of either French immersion, Advanced Placement French, or the International Baccalaureate French program…

  15. Parental Etiological Explanations and Disproportionate Racial/Ethnic Representation in Special Education Services for Youths with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, May; Forness, Steven R.; Ho, Judy; McCabe, Kristen

    2004-01-01

    Although there has been long concern about underidentification or misidentification of children with emotional or behavioral disorders in special education, recent attention has also been focused on disproportionate racial and ethnic representation of children in the school category of emotional disturbance (ED). There is evidence that African…

  16. Citizenship Education and Human Rights in Sites of Ethnic Conflict: Toward Critical Pedagogies of Compassion and Shared Fate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    The present essay discusses the value of citizenship as shared fate in sites of ethnic conflict and analyzes its implications for citizenship education in light of three issues: first, the requirements of affective relationality in the notion of citizenship-as-shared fate; second, the tensions between the values of human rights and shared fate in…

  17. New Technologies, New Differences. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Pupils' Use of ICT in Primary and Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volman, Monique; van Eck, Edith; Heemskerk, Irma; Kuiper, Els

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the accessibility and attractiveness of different types of ICT applications in education for girls and boys and for pupils from families with an ethnic minority background and from the majority population in the Netherlands. A study was conducted in seven schools (primary and secondary). Data were collected on…

  18. A community cohort study about childhood social and economic circumstances: racial/ethnic differences and associations with educational attainment and health of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Irene H; Gregorich, Steven; Cohen, Alison K; Stewart, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Typical measures of childhood socioeconomic status (SES), such as father's occupation, have limited the ability to elucidate mechanisms by which childhood SES affects adult health. Mechanisms could include schooling experiences or work opportunities. Having previously used qualitative methods for concept development, we developed new retrospective measures of multiple domains of childhood social and economic circumstances in ethnically diverse older adults. We administered the new measures in a large sample and explored their association with adult SES. Design We used a cross-sectional survey design with a community sample. Setting The San Francisco Bay Area in California. Participants 400 community-dwelling adults from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds (Whites, African Americans, Latinos and Asians/Pacific Islanders) aged 55 and older (mean=67 years); 61% were women. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured attitudes towards schooling, extracurricular activities and adult encouragement and discouragement during the childhood/teen years. Bivariate analysis tested racial/ethnic differences on the various measures. Multivariate regression models estimated the extent to which retrospective circumstances were independently associated with adult educational attainment and adult health. Results Most of the childhood circumstances measures differed across racial/ethnic groups. In general, Whites reported more positive circumstances than non-Whites. Family financial circumstances, respondent's perception of schooling as a means to get ahead, high school extracurricular activities, summer travel and summer reading were each statistically significantly associated with adult SES. Family composition, age began work, high school extracurricular activities, attitudes towards schooling and adult discouragement were associated with adult health. PMID:23562813

  19. Knowledge Building: Reinventing Education for the Knowledge Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Donald N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Knowledge Age and how economic factors are causing educators to rethink and reinvent education. Two key factors in education in the Knowledge Age will be education for an economy of innovation, and the increasing virtualization of education. We present knowledge building pedagogy as a model for education in the Knowledge…

  20. What can we learn from the age- and race/ethnicity- specific rates of inflammatory breast carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Siamakpour-Reihani, Sharareh; Akushevich, Igor; Akushevich, Lucy; Spector, Neil; Schildkraut, Joellen

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma (IBC), the most aggressive type of breast tumor with unique clinicopathological presentation, is hypothesized to have distinct etiology with a socioeconomic status (SES) component. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program data for 2004–2007, we compare incidence rates of IBC to non-inflammatory locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) among racial/ethnic groups with different SES. The analysis includes women 20–84 years of age. To examine evidence for the distinct etiology of IBC, we analyzed age-distribution patterns of IBC and non-inflammatory LABC, using a mathematical carcinogenesis model. Based on the Collaborative Staging Extension codes, 2,942 incident IBC cases (codes 71 and 73) and 5,721 non-inflammatory LABC cases (codes 40–62) were identified during the four-year study period. Age-adjusted rates of IBC among non-Hispanic White and Hispanic women were similar (2.5/100,000 in both groups). Similar rates were also found in non-inflammatory LABC in these two groups (4.8/100,000 and 4.2/100,000, respectively). In African-American women, the IBC (3.91/100,000) and non-inflammatory LABC (8.47/100,000) rates were greater compared with other ethnic/racial sub-groups. However, the ratio of rates of IBC/non-inflammatory LABC was similar among all the racial/ethnic groups, suggesting that African-American women are susceptible to aggressive breast tumors in general but not specifically to IBC. The mathematical model successfully predicted the observed age-specific rates of both examined breast tumors and revealed distinct patterns. IBC rates increased until age 65 and then slightly decreased, whereas non-inflammatory LABC rates steadily increased throughout the entire age interval. The number of critical transition carcinogenesis stages (m-stages) predicted by the model were 6.3 and 8.5 for IBC and non-inflammatory LABC, respectively, supporting different etiologies of these breast tumors. PMID:21850396

  1. Enhance Ideological Political Education Work for Ethnic Minority Students and Build up Harmonious Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    To accelerate the development of the ethnic minority regions and cultivate ethnic minority talent, the state has successively implemented policies of setting up the Tibet Class and the Xinjiang Class in institutions of higher learning in China's interior regions ("neidi"), enabling some of the finest young students among the ethnic minorities to…

  2. Enhance Ideological Political Education Work for Ethnic Minority Students and Build up Harmonious Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    To accelerate the development of the ethnic minority regions and cultivate ethnic minority talent, the state has successively implemented policies of setting up the Tibet Class and the Xinjiang Class in institutions of higher learning in China's interior regions ("neidi"), enabling some of the finest young students among the ethnic minorities to…

  3. The Impact of Aging on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Angela

    The percentage of adults aged 65 years or older is expected to increase from 12 percent of the population in 1980 to more than 21 percent by the year 2030. Since many adults stay involved with learning activities well into their 80s and 90s, educational organizations have a great opportunity to supply learning activities to this population. To…

  4. Exploring Alcohol-Use Behaviors Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescents: Intersections With Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Aranda, Frances; Birkett, Michelle; Marshal, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation status differences in alcohol use among youths aged 13 to 18 years or older, and whether differences were moderated by sex, age, or race/ethnicity. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and conducted weighted analyses, adjusting for complex design effects. We operationalized sexual orientation status with items assessing sexual orientation identity, sexual behavior, sexual attraction, or combinations of these. Results. Compared with exclusively heterosexual youths, sexual-minority youths were more likely to report each of the primary study outcomes (i.e., lifetime and past-month alcohol use, past-month heavy episodic drinking, earlier onset of drinking, and more frequent past-month drinking). Alcohol-use disparities were larger and more robust for (1) bisexual youths than lesbian or gay youths, (2) girls than boys, and (3) younger than older youths. Few differences in outcomes were moderated by race/ethnicity. Conclusions. Bisexual youths, sexual-minority girls, and younger sexual-minority youths showed the largest alcohol-use disparities. Research is needed that focuses on identifying explanatory or mediating mechanisms, psychiatric or mental health comorbidities, and long-term consequences of early onset alcohol use, particularly frequent or heavy use, among sexual-minority youths. PMID:24328614

  5. Binge Drinking, Cannabis and Tobacco Use Among Ethnic Norwegian and Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions. PMID:25037580

  6. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Distress: The Impact of Ethnic Identity and Age among Immigrant and United States-Born Asian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to…

  7. Differences among Preferred Methods for Furthering Aging Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods…

  8. Differences among Preferred Methods for Furthering Aging Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods…

  9. Increasing the involvement of national and regional racial and ethnic minority organizations in HIV information and education.

    PubMed Central

    Holman, P B; Jenkins, W C; Gayle, J A; Duncan, C; Lindsey, B K

    1991-01-01

    Responding to the facts that (a) the AIDS epidemic is occurring among black and Hispanic populations disproportionately to their percentage of the U.S. population and (b) effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs are racially, ethnically, and culturally relevant and sensitive, CDC in 1988 initiated a 5-year grant program for HIV prevention efforts by national racial and ethnic minority organizations and regional consortia of racial and ethnic minority organizations. A total of 33 organizations received first-year funds. Of the 32 grants that are ongoing, 15 primarily target blacks, 12 Hispanics, 4 Native Americans and Alaskan Natives, and 1 Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Some grants are for more than one racial or ethnic population. Programs may be categorized as (a) education programs within national non-AIDS organizations and their respective affiliate networks to increase their understanding, support, and community out-reach for HIV prevention; for example, National Urban League, Inc.; (b) programs providing specific HIV prevention expertise and technical assistance to community-based and other organizations; for example, National Minority AIDS Council; (c) HIV prevention programs emphasizing communications and media; for example, Hispanic Designers, Inc; and (d) prevention programs targeted to a specific racial or ethnic group within a geographic area; for example, Midwest Hispanic AIDS Coalition. As a result of these grants, substantial resources are being invested in prevention programs developed by and for racial and ethnic minorities. Other overall benefits include an expanded foundation of organizations to address AIDS and other health problems affecting these populations, strengthened interrelationships among HIV-focused and broader-based minority organizations, and extensive collaboration of private sector organizations with Federal and State public health and education agencies. PMID:1659717

  10. From professional lives to inclusive practice: Science teachers and scientists' views of gender and ethnicity in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Julie A.; Cavazos, Lynnette M.; Helms, Jenifer V.

    2000-08-01

    To provide insight into issues of gender and ethnicity in science education, we examine the views of approximately 60 secondary science teachers and university scientists from three different research projects. In each project, participants and researcher explored the intersection of professional and personal identities; views of the nature of science; beliefs related to students' experiences in science education; and kinds of curricular and instructional strategies used to promote access and equity for all students. Participants' interviews were analyzed qualitatively for patterns across these four dimensions of inclusive science education. Analysis of data revealed a wide range of beliefs and experiences along each dimension. From our findings, we argue for careful examination of the ways identities shape instructors' professional experiences and educational practices; critical, constructive conversations about feminist science studies scholarship between professional developers and science teachers or scientists; and reasoned reflection on how views of students can inform recommendations for inclusive content and instruction. We conclude with the call for increased sophistication in the conceptualization and implementation of solutions to the problem of women and ethnic minorities in science education, for balancing recognition of systematic gender and ethnic bias with sensitivity to instructors and students' diverse interests and experiences.

  11. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y; Zambrana, Ruth E; Doamekpor, Lauren A; Lopez, Lenny

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES "gets under the skin" to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education) associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs) in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years) and post high school (i.e., associates degree) educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ? 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ? 0.001) compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ? 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ? 0.001). These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond examining income as a better predictor in the SES-inflammation pathway. PMID:26703686

  12. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y.; Zambrana, Ruth E.; Doamekpor, Lauren A.; Lopez, Lenny

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES “gets under the skin” to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education) associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs) in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years) and post high school (i.e., associates degree) educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001) compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001). These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond examining income as a better predictor in the SES-inflammation pathway. PMID:26703686

  13. The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities

    PubMed Central

    McManus, IC; Woolf, Katherine; Dacre, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Background UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W) and non-white (NW) students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students. Methods Attainment at GCSE and A level, and selection for medical school in relation to ethnicity, were analysed in two separate databases. The 10th cohort of the Youth Cohort Study provided data on 13,698 students taking GCSEs in 1999 in England and Wales, and their subsequent progression to A level. UCAS provided data for 1,484,650 applicants applying for admission to UK universities and colleges in 2003, 2004 and 2005, of whom 52,557 applied to medical school, and 23,443 were accepted. Results NW students achieve lower grades at GCSE overall, although achievement at the highest grades was similar to that of W students. NW students have higher educational aspirations, being more likely to go on to take A levels, especially in science and particularly chemistry, despite relatively lower achievement at GCSE. As a result, NW students perform less well at A level than W students, and hence NW students applying to university also have lower A-level grades than W students, both generally, and for medical school applicants. NW medical school entrants have lower A level grades than W entrants, with an effect size of about -0.10. Conclusion The effect size for the difference between white and non-white medical school entrants is about B0.10, which would mean that for a typical medical school examination there might be about 5 NW failures for each 4 W failures. However, this effect can only explain a portion of the overall effect size found in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations of about -0.32. PMID:18416818

  14. Ethnicity and Race: Creating Educational Opportunities around the Globe. International Advances in Education: Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elinor L., Ed.; Gibbons, Pamela E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume of Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice takes a resource perspective toward culture, ethnicity, and race. Its purpose is to foster global dialog about race and ethnicity, with an emphasis on sharing strategies and solutions. While one might view problems stemming from racial and ethnic differences as intractable, the book's…

  15. Ethnicity and Race: Creating Educational Opportunities around the Globe. International Advances in Education: Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elinor L., Ed.; Gibbons, Pamela E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume of Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice takes a resource perspective toward culture, ethnicity, and race. Its purpose is to foster global dialog about race and ethnicity, with an emphasis on sharing strategies and solutions. While one might view problems stemming from racial and ethnic differences as intractable, the book's…

  16. The Under-Attainment of Ethnic Minority Students in UK Higher Education: What We Know and What We Don't Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2015-01-01

    In UK higher education, ethnic differences in academic attainment are ubiquitous and have persisted for many years. They are only partly explained by ethnic differences in entry qualifications. They vary from one institution to another and from one subject area to another. This suggests that they result in part from teaching and assessment…

  17. The Under-Attainment of Ethnic Minority Students in UK Higher Education: What We Know and What We Don't Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2015-01-01

    In UK higher education, ethnic differences in academic attainment are ubiquitous and have persisted for many years. They are only partly explained by ethnic differences in entry qualifications. They vary from one institution to another and from one subject area to another. This suggests that they result in part from teaching and assessment…

  18. Education in Multi-Ethnic Societies of Central and Eastern Europe. A Skills Exchange Workshop (Bulgaria, November 7-10, 1997). Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    To address problems in public education for majority and minority ethnic groups in Central and Eastern Europe, Minority Rights Group International and the Inter Ethnic Initiative for Human Rights Foundation organized a skills exchange workshop in Sofia, Bulgaria in November 1997. Representatives from Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovkia…

  19. Education as Anti-Structure: Non-Formal Education in Social and Ethnic Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    The article describes how folk educational programs in the United States and in the Scandinavian countries work toward behavioral and social change efforts. The conditions under which collective change efforts create their own educational programs, the most effective pedagogical processes, and the variables associated with successful attempts to…

  20. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989–2005

    PubMed Central

    EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  1. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989-2005.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bethany G; Rogers, Richard G; Hummer, Robert A; Krueger, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals' life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  2. Overweight at age two years in a multi-ethnic cohort (ABCD study): the role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight/obesity is a major public health problem worldwide which disproportionally affects specific ethnic groups. Little is known about whether such differences already exist at an early age and which factors contribute to these ethnic differences. Therefore, the present study assessed possible ethnic differences in overweight at age 2 years, and the potential explanatory role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors. Methods Data were derived from a multi-ethnic cohort in the Netherlands (the ABCD study). Weight and height data of 3,156 singleton infants at age 2 years were used. Five ethnic populations were distinguished: Dutch native (n = 1,718), African descent (n = 238), Turkish (n = 162), Moroccan (n = 245) and other non-Dutch (n = 793). Overweight status was defined by the International Obesity Task Force guidelines. The explanatory role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors in ethnic disparities in overweight (including obesity) was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to the native Dutch (7.1%), prevalence of overweight was higher in the Turkish (19.8%) and Moroccan (16.7%) group, whereas the prevalence was not increased in the African descent (9.2%) and other non-Dutch (8.8%) group. Although maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index partly explained the ethnic differences, the odds ratio (OR) of being overweight remained higher in the Turkish (OR: 2.66; 95%CI: 1.56-4.53) and Moroccan (OR: 2.11; 95%CI: 1.31-3.38) groups after adjusting for prenatal factors. The remaining differences were largely accounted for by weight gain during the first 6 months of life (postnatal factor). Maternal height, birth weight and gender were independent predictors for overweight at age 2 years, but did not explain the ethnic differences. Conclusion Turkish and Moroccan children in the Netherlands have 2- to 3-fold higher odds for being overweight at age 2 years, which is largely attributed to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during the first 6 months of life. Further study on the underlying factors of this early weight gain is required to tackle ethnic differences in overweight among these children. PMID:21806791

  3. Sharing stories: complex intervention for diabetes education in minority ethnic groups who do not speak English

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Collard, Anna; Begum, Noorjahan

    2005-01-01

    Objective To develop and refine a complex intervention for diabetes support and education in minority ethnic groups, delivered through bilingual health advocates. Design Action research framework—a variety of methods used in an emergent and developmental manner, in partnership with clinicians, managers, and service users, drawing especially but not exclusively on narrative methods. Setting Deprived inner London district. Interventions Development and evaluation of three components of the complex intervention: a group based learning set for bilingual health advocates, in which stories about clients with diabetes formed the basis for action learning; advocate led support and education groups for people with diabetes, which used personal stories as the raw material for learning and action; organisational support to help to develop these new models and embed them within existing services. Results Both advocate groups and user groups were popular and well evaluated. Through storytelling, advocates identified and met their own educational needs in relation to diabetes and the unmet needs of service users. In the advocate led user groups, story fragments were exchanged in a seemingly chaotic way that the research team initially found difficult to facilitate or follow. Stories were not so much told as enacted and were often centred on discussion of “what to do.” Whereas some organisations welcomed, successfully implemented, and sustained the advocate led groups, others failed to do so. A key component of the complex intervention was organisational support. Conclusions An action research approach allowed engagement with an underserved group of health service staff and with hard to reach service users. The study produced subjective benefits to these groups locally as well as a worked-up complex intervention that will now be formally tested in a randomised controlled trial. PMID:15774990

  4. Enacting Diverse Learning Environments: Improving the Climate for Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, Vol. 26, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Sylvia; Milem, Jeffrey; Clayton-Pedersen, Alma; Allen, Walter

    This document is intended to provide the higher education community with information from recent and classic research studies that can serve as a guide to improving the climate for diversity on campus. The first section of the report examines the literature on campus climate for diversity, the experiences of various racial/ethnic groups, and the…

  5. mtDNA sequence variants in subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer stages in relation to ethnic and age difference

    PubMed Central

    Aikhionbare, Felix O; Mehrabi, Sharifeh; Thompson, Winston; Yao, Xuebiao; Grizzle, William; Partridge, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality among women in the United States. For this disease, differences in age-adjusted incidence and survival rates between African American and Caucasian women are substantial. The objective of this study was to examine mtDNA sequence variants in 118 frozen tissues of three subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (serous, n = 48 endometrioid, n = 47 and mucinous, n = 23) and matched paracancerous normal tissues (n = 18) in relation to racial/ethnic and age differences. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing were used to evaluate two regions of mtDNA spanning 5317 to 7608 and 8282 to 10110 bp and including ND subunits 2, 3, MT-COI, II, and III, ATPase 8, a part of ATPase 6, and tRNA genes in frozen ovarian tissues obtained from the southern regional Cooperative Human Tissue Network (CHTN) and University of Alabama-Birmingham (UAB) Ovarian Spore Center. Thirty-nine mtDNA variants were detected of which 28 were previously unreported. One somatic variant of C9500T was observed. A variant, C7028T in the MT-CO1 gene, had an ascending frequency from borderline (8%) to stages III/IV (75%) among the three ovarian cancer subtypes and stages. It was found in 86% (42/49) of African-American and 43% (37/87) of the Caucasian women. A variant, T8548G in the ATPase 6 gene was detected at a frequency of 72% (18/25) in ovarian serous subtype tissues in stages III/IV. Of the African American patients under age 40, 95% (20/21) harbored the T8548G variant; this was in contrast to only 22% (8/35) of Caucasian patients in same age group. Variants C7256T and G7520A had a frequency of 54% (6/11) in endometrioid stage III; no corresponding variants were observed in mucinous subtype stage III. Furthermore, variants C7256T and G7520A were absent in serous ovarian cancer subtype. Interestingly, the C7520T variant in tRNA gene was present in 74% (36/49) of African American and 26% (23/87) of Caucasian patients. Taken together, our results suggest that, with respect to ethnic and age difference, these mtDNA variants may be involved in epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:18662401

  6. Phenotypic Bias and Ethnic Identity in Filipino Americans*

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Lisa; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Links between phenotypes (skin tone, physical features) and a range of outcomes (income, physical health, psychological distress) were examined. Ethnic identity was examined as a protective moderator of phenotypic bias. Method Data were from a community sample of 2,092 Filipino adults in San Francisco and Honolulu. Results After controlling for age, nativity, marital status, and education, darker skin was associated with lower income and lower physical health for females and males. For females, more ethnic features were associated with lower income. For males, darker skin was related to lower psychological distress. One interaction was found such that females with more ethnic features exhibited lower distress; however, ethnic identity moderated distress levels of those with less ethnic features. Conclusions Phenotypic bias appears prevalent in Filipino Americans though specific effects vary by gender and skin color versus physical features. Discussion centers on the social importance of appearance and potential strengths gained from ethnic identification. PMID:20107617

  7. The Nonlinear Relationship between Education and Mortality: An Examination of Cohort, Race/Ethnic, and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Rehkopf, David H.; Rogers, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers investigating the relationship between education and mortality in industrialized countries have consistently shown that higher levels of education are associated with decreased mortality risk. The shape of the education-mortality relationship and how it varies by demographic group have been examined less frequently. Using the U.S. National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files, which link the 1986 through 2004 NHIS to the National Death Index through 2006, we examine the shape of the education-mortality curve by cohort, race/ethnicity, and gender. Whereas traditional regression models assume a constrained functional form for the dependence of education and mortality, in most cases semiparametric models allow us to more accurately describe how the association varies by cohort, both between and within race/ethnic and gender subpopulations. Notably, we find significant changes over time in both the shape and the magnitude of the education-mortality gradient across cohorts of women and white men, but little change among younger cohorts of black men. Such insights into demographic patterns in education and mortality can ultimately help increase life expectancies. PMID:24288422

  8. Blood Relatives: Language, Immigration, and Education of Ethnic Returnees in Germany and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000 "Nikkeijin," or people of Japanese…

  9. Blood Relatives: Language, Immigration, and Education of Ethnic Returnees in Germany and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000 "Nikkeijin," or people of Japanese…

  10. Roots of the Future: An Education Pack for Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter

    This pack challenges ignorance about racial diversity in England by encouraging activities that shed light on the recent past and the society in which young people in Britain live. The exercises in this book invite young people to explore ethnic and cultural diversity in Britain. They are designed to show that ethnic diversity is good and…

  11. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  12. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  13. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  14. All-age relationship between arm span and height in different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Quanjer, Philip H; Capderou, André; Mazicioglu, Mumtaz M; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Banik, Sudip Datta; Popovic, Stevo; Tayie, Francis A K; Golshan, Mohammad; Ip, Mary S M; Zelter, Marc

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish multiethnic, all-age prediction equations for estimating stature from arm span in males and females. The arm span/height ratio (ASHR) from 13 947 subjects (40.9% females), aged 5-99 years, from nine centres (in China, Europe, Ghana, India and Iran) was used to predict ASHR as a function of age using the lambda, mu and sigma method. Z-scores for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC in 1503 patients were calculated using measured height and height calculated from arm span and age. ASHR varied nonlinearly with age, was higher in males than in females and differed significantly between the nine sites. The data clustered into four groups: Asia, Europe, Ghana and Iran. Average predicted FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC using measured or predicted height did not differ, with standard deviations of 4.6% for FEV1, 5.0% for FVC and 0.3% for FEV1/FVC. The percentages of disparate findings for a low FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC in patients, calculated using measured or predicted height, were 4.2%, 3.2% and 0.4%, respectively; for a restrictive pattern, there were 1.0% disparate findings. Group- and sex-specific equations for estimating height from arm span and age to derive predicted values for spirometry are clinically useful. PMID:25063245

  15. Education biographies from the science pipeline: An analysis of Latino/a student perspectives on ethnic and gender identity in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lujan, Vanessa Beth

    This study is a qualitative narrative analysis on the importance and relevance of the ethnic and gender identities of 17 Latino/a (Hispanic) college students in the biological sciences. This research study asks the question of how one's higher education experience within the science pipeline shapes an individual's direction of study, attitudes toward science, and cultural/ethnic and gender identity development. By understanding the ideologies of these students, we are able to better comprehend the world-makings that these students bring with them to the learning process in the sciences. Informed by life history narrative analysis, this study examines Latino/as and their persisting involvement within the science pipeline in higher education and is based on qualitative observations and interviews of student perspectives on the importance of the college science experience on their ethnic identity and gender identity. The findings in this study show the multiple interrelationships from both Latino male and Latina female narratives, separate and intersecting, to reveal the complexities of the Latino/a group experience in college science. By understanding from a student perspective how the science pipeline affects one's cultural, ethnic, or gender identity, we can create a thought-provoking discussion on why and how underrepresented student populations persist in the science pipeline in higher education. The conditions created in the science pipeline and how they affect Latino/a undergraduate pathways may further be used to understand and improve the quality of the undergraduate learning experience.

  16. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  17. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…

  18. Outcasts of Echo Park, Heroes of Brentwood: "Quinceanera, Keeping Up with the Steins" and Coming of Age in Ethnic L.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of maintaining a national identity as a subculture in America is most evident in connection with special occasions, like transition rites. Coming of age is such an event. The continuity and transformation of the subculture is at stake. In American cities, as exemplified by Los Angeles, the ethnic neighborhood becomes a New Old…

  19. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  20. The Impact of Developmental Mathematics Courses and Age, Gender, and Race and Ethnicity on Persistence and Academic Performance in Virginia Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, James D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined the 2006 cohort of First-Time-in-College students from all 23 community colleges in Virginia. The goal was to examine fall-to-fall persistence and success in the first college-level mathematics course. Predictor variables used were developmental status, age, gender, and race and ethnicity of the student. Interaction…

  1. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  2. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisčle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  3. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…

  4. MULTI-ETHNIC REFERENCE VALUES FOR SPIROMETRY FOR THE 3–95 YEAR AGE RANGE: THE GLOBAL LUNG FUNCTION 2012 EQUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Quanjer, Philip H.; Stanojevic, Sanja; Cole, Tim J.; Baur, Xaver; Hall, Graham L.; Culver, Bruce H.; Enright, Paul L.; Hankinson, John L.; Ip, Mary S.M.; Zheng, Jinping; Stocks, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Objective Derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Material Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5–95 years. Methods Lung function data were collated, and prediction equations derived using the LMS (?, µ, ?) method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. Results After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals from 3–95 years for Caucasians (N=57,395), African Americans (N=3,545), and North (N=4,992) and South East Asians (N=8,255). FEV1 and FVC between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV1/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Conclusion Spirometric prediction equations for the 3–95 age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent, Arab, Polynesian, Latin American countries, and Africa will further improve these equations in the future. PMID:22743675

  5. Effects of ethnicity and child's age on maternal judgements of children's transgressions against persons and property.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R W; Brody, G H; Lane, T S; Parra, E

    1982-06-01

    Mothers (N = 256) of four different cultural groups judged the culpability of children whose actions were described in Piaget-type stories depicting commission of harm under various conditions. Child's age, harm to persons vs material objects, intentions, and amount of harm were systematically varied. All main effects (culture, intent of transgressor, age, and magnitude of harm) were significant, but several effects were qualified interactions. A cognitive social learning explanation is proposed to account for group differences in judgement, with special attention to cultural differences in values attached to harm to persons vs damage to property. PMID:7150430

  6. Predicting resistance to health education messages for cannabis use: the role of rebelliousness, autic mastery, health value and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Boddington, Ellen L; McDermott, Mark R

    2013-02-01

    The prevalent use of cannabis by adolescents and young adults, combined with the common misconception that smoking cannabis is relatively harmless, warrants the exploration of factors influencing resistance to health education messages about cannabis use. This investigation did so within a Reversal Theory framework. One hundred and thirteen undergraduate students responded to an informative leaflet detailing the health effects of smoking cannabis. The most significant independent predictor of message resistance was frequency of cannabis use, followed by proactive rebelliousness, autic mastery, health value and ethnicity. These findings have implications for the development, design and targeting of cannabis health education programmes. PMID:22459759

  7. Young maternal age and low birth weight risk: An exploration of racial/ethnic disparities in the birth outcomes of mothers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jeff A; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2013-12-01

    This study considers how low birth weight (LBW) prevalence varies by race/ethnicity and maternal age and explores mechanisms that explain disparities. Results show that maternal age patterns in LBW risk for African Americans differ from whites and foreign- and U.S.-born Hispanics. Background socioeconomic disadvantage, together with current socioeconomic status and smoking during pregnancy, explain almost all of the LBW disparity between white teenage mothers and their older counterparts. These findings suggest that social disadvantage is a primary driver in unfavorable birth outcomes among white teenage mothers compared to older white mothers. Alternatively, background disadvantage and other social characteristics explain very little of the LBW disparities among African Americans and U.S.- and foreign-born Hispanics. Overall, these results indicate LBW disparities by maternal age are a complex product of socioeconomic disadvantage and current social and behavioral factors, such that LBW risk does not operate uniformly by race/ethnicity or maternal age. PMID:25328275

  8. Young maternal age and low birth weight risk: An exploration of racial/ethnic disparities in the birth outcomes of mothers in the United States1

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Jeff A.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    This study considers how low birth weight (LBW) prevalence varies by race/ethnicity and maternal age and explores mechanisms that explain disparities. Results show that maternal age patterns in LBW risk for African Americans differ from whites and foreign- and U.S.-born Hispanics. Background socioeconomic disadvantage, together with current socioeconomic status and smoking during pregnancy, explain almost all of the LBW disparity between white teenage mothers and their older counterparts. These findings suggest that social disadvantage is a primary driver in unfavorable birth outcomes among white teenage mothers compared to older white mothers. Alternatively, background disadvantage and other social characteristics explain very little of the LBW disparities among African Americans and U.S.- and foreign-born Hispanics. Overall, these results indicate LBW disparities by maternal age are a complex product of socioeconomic disadvantage and current social and behavioral factors, such that LBW risk does not operate uniformly by race/ethnicity or maternal age. PMID:25328275

  9. Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye where they are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Current dietary databases make it difficult to ascertain their individual roles in eye health because their concentrations ...

  10. Can the relationship between ethnicity and obesity-related behaviours among school-aged children be explained by deprivation? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Catherine L; Park, Min Hae; Croker, Helen; Kessel, Anthony S; Saxena, Sonia; Viner, Russell M; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives It is unclear whether cultural differences or material disadvantage explain the ethnic patterning of obesogenic behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine ethnicity as a predictor of obesity-related behaviours among children in England, and to assess whether the effects of ethnicity could be explained by deprivation. Setting Five primary care trusts in England, 2010–2011. Participants Parents of white, black and South Asian children aged 4–5 and 10–11?years participating in the National Child Measurement Programme (n=2773). Primary outcome measures Parent-reported measures of child behaviour: low level of physical activity, excessive screen time, unhealthy dietary behaviours and obesogenic lifestyle (combination of all three obesity-related behaviours). Associations between these behaviours and ethnicity were assessed using logistic regression analyses. Results South Asian ethnic groups made up 22% of the sample, black ethnic groups made up 8%. Compared with white children, higher proportions of Asian and black children were overweight or obese (21–27% vs16% of white children), lived in the most deprived areas (24–47% vs 14%) and reported obesity-related behaviours (38% with obesogenic lifestyle vs 16%). After adjusting for deprivation and other sociodemographic characteristics, black and Asian children were three times more likely to have an obesogenic lifestyle than white children (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.2 for Asian children; OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.7 to 4.3 for black children). Conclusions Children from Asian and black ethnic groups are more likely to have obesogenic lifestyles than their white peers. These differences are not explained by deprivation. Culturally specific lifestyle interventions may be required to reduce obesity-related health inequalities. PMID:24413346

  11. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  12. Ethnic Minorities and Achievements: The Black Hole in Science Ranks. Part 2: Post-16 Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasekoala, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the overrepresentation of ethnic minority postsecondary students into the arts and humanities instead of science and technical coursework and its impact on employability. The factors that impact this trend are highlighted. (GR)

  13. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels. PMID:26896114

  14. Re-Seeing Race in a Post-Obama Age: Asian American Studies, Comparative Ethnic Studies, and Intersectional Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…

  15. Higher Education and Happiness in the Age of Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…

  16. Axone, an ethnic probiotic containing food, reduces age of sexual maturity and increases poultry production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Singh, R K

    2014-06-01

    Axone (Akhuni) is a homemade synbiotic (Nagamese fermented soybean product) served as side dish in North Eastern India. In this study, effects of Axone feeding on growth, weight gain, sexual maturity and egg production on Vanaraja birds (a strain of poultry bird developed at PDP Hyderabad for villages and backyard poultry) were evaluated. Axone incorporation in commercial poultry feed at the rate of 5% (W/W) significantly improved growth rate (weight gain) both in male (p 0.001) and female (p 0.05) chicks, reduced age by 13 days at first egg laying (p 0.01), increased egg production (p ? 0.001) and improved egg weight (p ? 0.01). Microbiological analysis of Axone sample revealed that the major bacteria in Axone samples were Bacillus coagulans, well known for their probiotic value. PMID:24801640

  17. Ethnic differences in the association of SERPING1 with age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lai, Timothy Y. Y.; Ma, Li; Lai, Frank H. P.; Young, Alvin L.; Brelen, Marten E.; Tam, Pancy O. S.; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia

    2015-01-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) are leading causes of irreversible blindness in developed countries. In this study, we investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G, member 1 (SERPING1) gene with neovascular AMD and PCV. Two haplotype-tagging SNPs, rs1005510 and rs11603020, of SERPING1 were genotyped in 708 unrelated Chinese individuals: 200 neovascular AMD, 233 PCV and 275 controls. A meta-analysis was also performed for all reported associations of SERPING1 SNPs with AMD and PCV. None of the tagging SNPs had a significant association with neovascular AMD or PCV (P > 0.05) in our study cohort. The meta-analyses showed that the most-studied SNP rs2511989 was not significantly associated with all forms of AMD, neovascular AMD, or PCV in East Asians (P = 0.98, 0.93 and 0.30, respectively) but was associated with AMD in Caucasians (P = 0.04 for all AMD and 0.004 for neovascular AMD). Therefore, the results of our study and meta-analysis suggest that SERPING1 is not a major genetic component of AMD or PCV in East Asians but is a genetic risk factor for AMD in Caucasians, providing evidence for an ethnic diversity in the genetic etiology of AMD. PMID:25800435

  18. Ectopic Cardiovascular Fat in Middle-Aged Men: Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Overall and Central Adiposity. The ERA-JUMP Study

    PubMed Central

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Shin, Chol; Masaki, Kamal; Miura, Katsuyuki; Budoff, Matthew; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Kadowaki, Sakaya; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; El-Saed, Aiman; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Evans, Rhobert W.; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Willcox, Bradley J.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Sekikawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Higher volumes of ectopic cardiovascular fat (ECF) are associated with greater risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Identifying factors that are associated with ECF volumes may lead to new preventive efforts to reduce risk of CHD. Significant racial/ethnic differences exist for overall and central adiposity measures which are known to be associated with ECF volumes. Whether racial/ethnic differences also exist for ECF volumes and their associations with these adiposity measures remain unclear. Subjects/Methods Body-mass index (BMI), CT-measured ECF volumes (epicardial, pericardial and their summation), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were examined in a community-based sample of 1,199 middle-aged men (24.2% Caucasians, 7.0% African-Americans, 23.6% Japanese-Americans, 22.0% Japanese, 23.2% Koreans). Results Significant racial/ethnic differences existed in ECF volumes and their relationships with BMI and VAT. ECF volumes were highest among Japanese-Americans and lowest among African-Americans. The associations of BMI and VAT with ECF differed by racial/ethnic groups. Compared to Caucasians, for each 1-unit increase in BMI, African-Americans had lower whereas Koreans had higher increases in ECF volumes (P-values<0.05 for both). Meanwhile, compared to Caucasians, for each 1-unit increase in log-transformed-VAT, African-Americans, Japanese-Americans and Japanese had similar increases, whereas Koreans had a lower increase in ECF volumes (P-value<0.05). Conclusions Racial/ethnic groups differed in their propensity to accumulate ECF at increasing level of overall and central adiposity. Future studies should evaluate whether reducing central adiposity or overall-weight will decrease ECF volumes more in certain racial/ethnic groups. Evaluating these questions might help in designing race-specific prevention strategy of CHD risk associated with higher ECF. PMID:25109783

  19. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow recommendations. PMID:24513174

  20. Elementary Science Education in Classrooms and Outdoors: Stakeholder Views, Gender, Ethnicity, and Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.; Thomson, Margareta M.; Tugurian, Linda P.; Stevenson, Kathryn Tate

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a mixed-methods study of 2 schools' elementary science programs including outdoor instruction specific to each school's culture. We explore fifth-grade students in measures of science knowledge, environmental attitudes, and outdoor comfort levels including gender and ethnic differences. We further examine…

  1. Jewish Ethnicity and Educational Opportunities in Israel: Evidence from a Curricular Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feniger, Yariv

    2015-01-01

    Based on a 20% representative sample of all high school students in Israel in the mid-1990s, this study explores a reform implemented in low socio-economic status (SES) state religious high schools. Most of their students were from the disadvantaged Jewish ethnic group in Israel, Mizrachim. Perceived as unable to meet the requirements of academic…

  2. Elementary Science Education in Classrooms and Outdoors: Stakeholder Views, Gender, Ethnicity, and Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.; Thomson, Margareta M.; Tugurian, Linda P.; Stevenson, Kathryn Tate

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a mixed-methods study of 2 schools' elementary science programs including outdoor instruction specific to each school's culture. We explore fifth-grade students in measures of science knowledge, environmental attitudes, and outdoor comfort levels including gender and ethnic differences. We further examine…

  3. The Role of Ethnicity in the Attainment and Experiences of Graduates in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the attainment of White graduates (as measured by the class of honours that they have been awarded) tends to be higher than that of graduates from other ethnic groups. This is apparent, in particular, in graduates who have taken courses by distance learning with the Open University. Analysis of data from Open University graduates over…

  4. Promoting Ethnic Tolerance and Patriotism: The Role of Education System Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mons, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    The literature on political socialization has overlooked the influence of system characteristics of schooling on civic values and youth political identities. This article addresses that gap by investigating the degree to which system differentiation relates to the values of ethnic tolerance and patriotism. We distinguish between pedagogical…

  5. Imagined Identity of Ethnic Koreans and Its Implication for Bilingual Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Imagined identity is the way of positioning individuals or being positioned by others in an imagined world, where individuals' cultural identifications interplay with cultural and language practices. This lays the basis for the current research on the construction of imagined memberships by two young ethnic Korean students in China. An analysis of…

  6. "It's Different Lives": A Guatemalan American Adolescent's Construction of Ethnic and Gender Identities across Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ek, Lucila D.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from a multiyear ethnography and a longitudinal case study, this article examines how one Guatemalan American teenager negotiates the multiple socializations to ethnic and gender identities in her home, her Pentecostal church, and her high school. She must face processes of Americanization and Mexicanization. Americanization's thrust is to…

  7. Using Intercollegiate Response Groups To Help Teacher Education Students Bridge Differences of Race, Class, Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Judith; Smith, Sally

    To provide preservice teachers with opportunities for contact with people from racially and ethnically different backgrounds, one university initiated intercollegiate reader response groups using the WebCT format, which allowed students to converse with one another over distances, both within and across universities. Students from separate…

  8. Health and the Education of Children from Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Building on a conceptual model of the transition to elementary school, this study explored the role of health in the early cognitive achievement of children from various racial/ethnic minority and immigrant families by applying multilevel modeling to data from a nationally representative sample of American kindergarteners. Whites tended to have…

  9. The Politics of Arabic Language Education: Moroccan Immigrant Children's Language Socialization into Ethnic and Religious Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Sanchez, Inmaculada M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the…

  10. "It's Different Lives": A Guatemalan American Adolescent's Construction of Ethnic and Gender Identities across Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ek, Lucila D.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from a multiyear ethnography and a longitudinal case study, this article examines how one Guatemalan American teenager negotiates the multiple socializations to ethnic and gender identities in her home, her Pentecostal church, and her high school. She must face processes of Americanization and Mexicanization. Americanization's thrust is to…

  11. Normal reference ranges for and variability in the levels of blood manganese and selenium by gender, age, and race/ethnicity for general U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B; Choi, Y Sammy

    2015-04-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2011-2012 were used to determine normal reference ranges and percentile distributions for manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) in blood by gender, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status as determined by annual family income, and smoking status. The effect of gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, and smoking status on the levels of Mn and Se was also determined by fitting regression models. Males had lower adjusted levels of Mn and higher adjusted levels of Se than females. Adjusted levels of Mn decreased with increase in age but adjusted levels of Se were lower in adolescents aged 12-19 years than adults aged 20-64 years. Non-Hispanic black (NHB) had the lowest levels of both Mn and Se and non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) had the highest levels of both Mn and Se. Non-Hispanic white (NHW) and NHB had lower levels of Mn than Hispanics (HISP) and NHAS. NHB and HISP had lower levels of Se than NHW and NHAS. Low annual income (<$20,000) was associated with lower levels of Se than high annual income (?$55,000). Smoking negatively affected the adjusted levels of Se among seniors aged ?65 years but this was not observed in other age groups. Mn levels were not affected by smoking. PMID:25596656

  12. Bone mineral accrual across growth in a mixed-ethnic group of children: are Asian children disadvantaged from an early age?

    PubMed

    Burrows, Melonie; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Mirwald, Robert; Macdonald, Heather; McKay, Heather

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the contribution of ethnicity, physical activity, body composition, and calcium intake to bone accrual across 7 years of growth. We assessed 80 Caucasian and 74 Asian boys and 81 Caucasian and 64 Asian girls at baseline and retained 155 children across all 7 years. Ethnicity, physical activity, and calcium intake were assessed by questionnaire; fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), total proximal femur (PF(TOT)), and femoral neck (FN) were measured using DXA (Hologic QDR 4500). We aligned children on peak height velocity and utilized multilevel modeling to assess bone mineral accrual. Height and lean mass accounted for 51.8% and 44.1% of BMC accrual in children. There was a significant difference in physical activity, calcium intake, and lean mass between Asians and Caucasian boys and girls at baseline and conclusion (p < 0.05). In boys, physical activity and ethnicity significantly predicted BMC accrual at the FN. In girls, Asians had significantly lower PF(TOT) and FN BMC. Calcium was a significant predictor of WB BMC accrual in boys and girls. In conclusion, our findings highlight the importance of accounting for ethnicity in pediatric studies. Physical activity, dietary calcium, and lean mass positively influence bone accrual and are lower in Asian compared to Caucasian children from a very young age. PMID:19308631

  13. Race/Ethnicity, Education, and Treatment Parameters as Moderators and Predictors of Outcome in Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Franko, Debra L.; Thompson, Douglas R.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Roehrig, James P.; Richards, Lauren K.; Bryson, Susan W.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crow, Scott J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Gorin, Amy A.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Masheb, Robin; Mitchell, James E.; Peterson, Carol B.; Safer, Debra L.; Striegel, Ruth H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2014-01-01

    Objective Binge eating disorder (BED) is prevalent among individuals from minority racial/ethnic groups and among individuals with lower levels of education, yet the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for these groups has not been examined in adequately powered analyses. This study investigated the relative variance in treatment retention and post-treatment symptom levels accounted for by demographic, clinical, and treatment variables as moderators and predictors of outcome. Method Data were aggregated from eleven randomized, controlled trials of psychosocial treatments for BED conducted at treatment sites across the United States. Participants were N = 1,073 individuals meeting criteria for BED including n = 946 Caucasian, n = 79 African American, and n = 48 Hispanic/Latino participants. Approximately 86% had some higher education; 85% were female. Multi-level regression analyses examined moderators and predictors of treatment retention, Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) global score, frequency of objective bulimic episodes (OBEs), and OBE remission. Results Moderator analyses of race/ethnicity and education were non-significant. Predictor analyses revealed African Americans were more likely to drop out of treatment than Caucasians, and lower level of education predicted greater post-treatment OBEs. African Americans showed a small but significantly greater reduction in EDE global score relative to Caucasians. Self-help treatment administered in a group showed negative outcomes relative to other treatment types, and longer treatment was associated with better outcome. Conclusions Observed lower treatment retention among African Americans and lesser treatment effects for individuals with lower levels of educational attainment are serious issues requiring attention. Reduced benefit was observed for shorter treatment length and self-help administered in groups. PMID:23647283

  14. Educational Credentialing of an Aging Workforce: Uneasy Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the educational attainment of an aging workforce from the perspective of educational credentialing. The research questions are defined as follows: Why are workers over age 50 attaining university degrees? How do they narratively construct the rational for pursuing well-recognized credentials in midlife? The specific focus…

  15. Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…

  16. Moral Education of Youths in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Leslie N. K; Wang, Fang

    2006-01-01

    In Chinese societies, moral education has always been considered the most essential component of education because the nurturing of moral persons is the prime function of schooling. The implementation of moral education has relied on the inculcation of values that reflect moral ideals. The emergence of the Information Age, with a plethora of…

  17. Race-ethnic, family income, and education differentials in nutritional and lipid biomarkers in US children and adolescents: NHANES 2003–20061234

    PubMed Central

    Graubard, Barry I

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children from ethnic minority and low-income families in the United States have higher rates of poor health and higher mortality rates. Diet, an acknowledged correlate of health, may mediate the known race-ethnic and socioeconomic differentials in the health of US children. Objective: The objective was to examine the independent association of race-ethnicity, family income, and education with nutritional and lipid biomarkers in US children. Design: We used data from the NHANES 2003–2006 to examine serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12; serum concentrations of folate, carotenoids, and lipids; and dietary intakes of corresponding nutrients for 2–19-y-old children (n = ?2700–7500). Multiple covariate–adjusted regression methods were used to examine the independent and joint associations of race-ethnicity, family income, and education with biomarker status. Results: Non-Hispanic blacks had lower mean serum concentrations of vitamins A, B-6, and E and ?-carotene than did non-Hispanic whites. Both non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans had higher mean serum vitamin C, ?-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin but lower folate and vitamin D concentrations compared with non-Hispanic whites. In comparison with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to have low serum HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides. Family income and education predicted few biomarker or dietary outcomes, and the observed associations were weak. Moreover, modification of race-ethnic differentials by income or education (or vice versa) was noted for very few biomarkers. Conclusion: Race-ethnicity, but not family income or education, was a strong independent predictor of serum nutrient concentrations and dietary micronutrient intakes in US children and adolescents. PMID:22836030

  18. Differences in CYP2C9 Genotype and Enzyme Activity Between Swedes and Koreans of Relevance for Personalized Medicine: Role of Ethnicity, Genotype, Smoking, Age, and Sex.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Lundblad, Mia; Ramsjo, Margareta; Kang, Ju-Hee; Roh, Hyung-Keun; Bertilsson, Leif; Eliasson, Erik; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-06-01

    Global personalized medicine demands the characterization of person-to-person and between-population differences in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. CYP2C9 pharmacokinetic pathway is subject to modulation by both genetic and environmental factors. CYP2C9 genotype-based dose recommendations (e.g., for warfarin) is advocated. However, the overall contribution of genotype for variation in enzyme activity may differ between populations. We evaluated the importance of ethnicity, genotype, smoking, body weight, age, and sex for CYP2C9 enzyme activity. CYP2C9 genotype and phenotype was determined in 148 Swedes and 146 Koreans using losartan as a probe. CYP2C9 enzyme activity was assessed using urinary losartan/metabolite E-3174 ratio. The frequency of CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (*2 and *3) was significantly higher in Swedes (10.8% and 12.5%) than in Koreans (0% and 5.8%). In matched genotypes, CYP2C9 enzyme activity was significantly lower in Swedes compared to Koreans (p<0.0001). In a univariate analysis, age, weight, ethnicity, genotype, and smoking were significant predictors of CYP2C9 phenotype. A stepwise multivariate analysis indicated ethnicity, genotype, and smoking remained as significant predictors of CYP2C9 enzyme activity, accounting for 50% of the total variance. In both study populations, CYP2C9 genotype was a significant predictor of CYP2C9 enzyme activity, but its contribution in explaining the total variance was lower in Koreans (26.6%) than Swedes (40%). In conclusion, we report significantly lower CYP2C9 enzyme activity in Swedes compared to Koreans, partly but not exclusively due to CYP2C9 pharmacogenetic variations. Ethnicity and environment factors need to be considered together with genotype for population-specific dose optimization and global personalized medicine. PMID:25977991

  19. Differences in beliefs and home environments regarding energy balance behaviors according to parental education and ethnicity among schoolchildren in Europe: the ENERGY cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To explore differences in personal and home environmental factors that are regarded as determinants of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) according to parental education and ethnic background among 10–12 year old schoolchildren across Europe. Methods A school-based survey among 10–12 year olds was conducted in eight countries across Europe. A range of personal and home environment variables relevant for soft drink consumption, daily breakfast, sport participation and TV time was assessed by means of child report. Personal factors included attitude, health beliefs, and preference/liking. Home environment factors included parental subjective norm, modeling, support, practices and home availability. Children were classified based on parental education (i.e., low vs. high) and ethnic background (i.e., native vs. non-native). Data from 6018 children originating from 83 schools were included in the analyses. Results Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that the majority of the factors tested –and especially home environment variables- were more favorable among children from higher educated parents and from native ethnicity. None of the personal and home environment factors was found to be more favorable among children from lower educated parents or non-native ethnicity. Conclusions The present study indicates that schoolchildren from lower educated and non-native parents across Europe have EBRB-related beliefs and are exposed to home environments that are less favorable for engagement in healthy EBRBs. PMID:24934085

  20. The Role of Ethnicity in the Higher Education Institution Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordaan, Y.; Wiese, M.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the higher education landscape have led to many higher education institutions reassessing their recruitment and marketing strategies. A proper understanding of the relative importance of the choice factors that prospective students consider when selecting a higher education institution will enable higher education administrators and…

  1. The Role of Ethnicity in the Higher Education Institution Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordaan, Y.; Wiese, M.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the higher education landscape have led to many higher education institutions reassessing their recruitment and marketing strategies. A proper understanding of the relative importance of the choice factors that prospective students consider when selecting a higher education institution will enable higher education administrators and…

  2. Age at Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Diagnosis by Race, Ethnicity, and Primary Household Language Among Children with Special Health Care Needs, United States, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Jo, Heejoo; Schieve, Laura A; Rice, Catherine E; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Tian, Lin H; Blumberg, Stephen J; Kogan, Michael D; Boyle, Coleen A

    2015-08-01

    We examined prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age at diagnosis according to child's race/ethnicity and primary household language. From the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, we identified 2729 3-17-year-old US children whose parent reported a current ASD diagnosis. We compared ASD prevalence, mean diagnosis age, and percentage with later diagnoses (≥5 years) across racial/ethnic/primary household language groups: non-Hispanic-white, any language (NHW); non-Hispanic-black, any language (NHB); Hispanic-any-race, English (Hispanic-English); and Hispanic-any-race, other language (Hispanic-Other). We assessed findings by parent-reported ASD severity level and adjusted for family sociodemographics. ASD prevalence estimates were 15.3 (NHW), 10.4 (NHB), 14.1 (Hispanic-English), and 5.2 (Hispanic-Other) per 1000 children. Mean diagnosis age was comparable across racial/ethnic/language groups for 3-4-year-olds. For 5-17-year-olds, diagnosis age varied by race/ethnicity/language and also by ASD severity. In this group, NHW children with mild/moderate ASD had a significantly higher proportion (50.8 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (33.5 %) or Hispanic-Other children (18.0 %). However, NHW children with severe ASD had a comparable or lower (albeit non-significant) proportion (16.4 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (37.8 %), Hispanic-English (30.8 %), and Hispanic-Other children (12.0 %). While NHW children have comparable ASD prevalence and diagnosis age distributions as Hispanic-English children, they have both higher prevalence and proportion of later diagnoses than NHB and Hispanic-Other children. The diagnosis age findings were limited to mild/moderate cases only. Thus, the prevalence disparity might be primarily driven by under-representation (potentially under-identification) of older children with mild/moderate ASD in the two minority groups. PMID:25701197

  3. Maternal education and excessive gestational weight gain in New York city, 1999-2001: the effect of race/ethnicity and neighborhood socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Mary; Borrell, Luisa N; Chambers, Earle C

    2014-01-01

    To examine the association between maternal education and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) and whether this association differs by maternal race/ethnicity and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES). A sample of 56,911 New York City births between 1999 and 2001 was used. Self-reported EGWG was defined as gaining >40 pounds. Maternal education and race/ethnicity were obtained from birth record data. Neighborhood SES was determined from 2000 US Census data. Women with a high school [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.21; 95 % CI 1.10-1.32] and some college (PR = 1.33; 95 % CI 1.21-1.47) education were more likely to gain excessive weight during pregnancy than their counterparts with less than a high school education. Having a college or more education was associated with a decreased EGWG for non-Hispanic white women (PR = 0.81; 95 % CI 0.67-0.96) but an increased EGWG for Hispanic women (PR = 1.25; 95 % CI 1.12-1.44). EGWG increased for women with a college or more education in medium and low SES neighborhoods (1.26; 95 % CI 1.04-1.53 and 1.20; 95 % CI 1.10-1.30, respectively); whereas a college or more education was not significant in the high SES neighborhoods. Our findings suggest that maternal education is associated with EGWG. However, this association depends on race/ethnicity and SES of the neighborhood of residence. PMID:23456346

  4. Moral Education in an Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.

  5. Science Education in a Secular Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education

  6. Experiential Environmental Education for Primary Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heather

    Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.…

  7. Maine Department of Education Regulation 180: Early Intervention and Special Education for Children Age Birth to under Age Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

    This document contains regulations governing the administration of the Childfind system for children age birth to under age 6, the provision of early intervention services to eligible children birth through two with disabilities and their families, and the provision of special education and related services to eligible children age 3 to under 6…

  8. Ethnic Monitoring and Its Uses in Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    Colleges of further education in Great Britain have been involved in three recent initiatives in the implementation of ethnic monitoring: (1) a report on ethnic monitoring in postsecondary education; (2) two management training conferences on the implementation and uses of ethnic monitoring for representatives of further, adult, and higher…

  9. Patterns of Antibacterial Use and Impact of Age, Race-Ethnicity, and Geographic Region on Antibacterial Use in an Outpatient Medicaid Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gahbauer, Alice M.; Gonzales, Marco L.; Guglielmo, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES To describe patterns of outpatient antibacterial use among California Medicaid (Medi-Cal) fee-for-service system beneficiaries, and to investigate the influence of demographic factors—age, race-ethnicity, state county, and population density—on those patterns. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of administrative claims data. DATA SOURCE Medi-Cal fee-for-service system claims database. PATIENTS All outpatient Medi-Cal fee-for-service system beneficiaries enrolled between 2006 and 2011 who had at least one systemic antibacterial claim. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Rates of antibacterial prescribing and the proportion of broad-spectrum antibacterial use were measured over the study period and among age, racial-ethnic and geographic (county) groups. Of the 10,018,066 systemic antibacterial claims selected for analysis, antibacterial prescribing rates decreased from 542 claims/1000 beneficiaries in 2006 to 461 claims/1000 beneficiaries in 2011 (r = –0.971, p = 0.0012; ?-b = –1.00, p = 0.009). Among age groups, children had the highest rate of use (605 claims/1000 beneficiaries, ?2 (2) = 320,000, p < 0.001); among racial-ethnic groups, Alaskan Natives and Native Americans had the highest rate of use (1086/1000 beneficiaries, ?2 (5) = 197,000, p < 0.001). Broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing increased from 28.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.1–28.2%) to 32.7% (95% CI 32.6–32.8%) over the study period. Senior age groups and Caucasians received the highest proportions of broad-spectrum agents (53.4% [95% CI 52.5–54.3%] and 36.6% [95% CI 36.6–36.7%], respectively). Population density was inversely related to both overall antibacterial use (? = –0.432, p = 0.0018) and broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing (? = –0.359, p < 0.001). The rate of prescribing decreased over the study period for all antibacterial classes with the exception of macrolides and sulfonamides. Amoxicillin was the most frequently prescribed agent. CONCLUSION Overall and broad-spectrum antibacterial use in the Medi-Cal fee-for-service program are less than that observed nationally. Significant variations in prescribing exist between age and racial-ethnic groups, and heavily populated areas are associated with both less antibacterial use and less broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing. Studies are needed to determine the reasons for the observed differences in antibacterial use among demographic groups. PMID:24753176

  10. Diverging or Converging Trends: An Investigation of Education Policies Concerning the Incorporation of Ethnic Minority Children in England, France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qureshi, Yasmeen F.; Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses specifically on the incorporation of ethnic minority children within the education systems of England, France and Germany. The trends in policy development after World War II in these countries are examined through the prism of three ideal-typical incorporation strategies--integration, assimilation and separation. This is done…

  11. Race, Rurality and Representation: Black and Minority Ethnic Mothers' Experiences of Their Children's Education in Rural Primary Schools in England, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2014-01-01

    There is little research that has examined the role of mothers in their children's education in the rural space of the school, particularly in relation to the experiences of Black and minority ethnic (BME) families who are newcomers to the rural space. This article attempts to redress the balance and examine how BME mothers are positioned in…

  12. "You've Got to Be Tough and I'm Trying": Black and Minority Ethnic Student Teachers' Experiences of Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Chris; Lall, Rajinder

    2011-01-01

    Whilst Black and minority ethnic (BME) recruitment to initial teacher education (ITE) in the UK is increasing, completion rates are lower than for White students, and this study reports the experiences of BME student teachers on a primary postgraduate programme that had been particularly successful in increasing recruitment of BME students.…

  13. Native Mascots and Ethnic Fraud in Higher Education: Using Tribal Critical Race Theory and the Interest Convergence Principle as an Analytic Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagno, Angelina E.; Lee, Stacey J.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines one university's policies regarding Native mascots and ethnic fraud through a Tribal Critical Race Theory analytic lens. Using the principle of interest convergence, we argue that institutions of higher education allow and even work actively towards a particular form or level of diversity, but they do not extend it far…

  14. Diverging or Converging Trends: An Investigation of Education Policies Concerning the Incorporation of Ethnic Minority Children in England, France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qureshi, Yasmeen F.; Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses specifically on the incorporation of ethnic minority children within the education systems of England, France and Germany. The trends in policy development after World War II in these countries are examined through the prism of three ideal-typical incorporation strategies--integration, assimilation and separation. This is done…

  15. Researching Race/Ethnicity and Educational Inequality in English Secondary Schools: A Critical Review of the Research Literature between 1980 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes and critically analyzes how sociologists in England have studied racial/ethnic inequalities in secondary education between 1980 and 2005. This study is different from earlier literature reviews conducted in this particular area in that it adopts a more systematic approach and includes the most recent studies in this field.…

  16. Ethnic Background and the Transition from Vocational Education to Work: A Multi-Level Analysis of the Differences in Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Idunn

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of ethnic background on employment and earnings among people with a vocational education in Norway. I differentiate between three different groups: majority, first-generation non-Westerners and second-generation non-Westerners. Panel data from several public register databases of the entire population of…

  17. Ethnic Identity and Power: Cultural Contexts of Political Action in School and Society. SUNY Series, Power, Social Identity, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Yali, Ed.; Trueba, Enrique T., Ed.

    The essays in this collection provide insights into the dilemmas faced by immigrants and ethnic minorities and by school personnel and policy makers. The first part of the book consists of comparative studies of ethnic identity, and the second part focuses on some lessons learned from studies of ethnic identification and equity, with implications…

  18. Ethnic Identity and Power: Cultural Contexts of Political Action in School and Society. SUNY Series, Power, Social Identity, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Yali, Ed.; Trueba, Enrique T., Ed.

    The essays in this collection provide insights into the dilemmas faced by immigrants and ethnic minorities and by school personnel and policy makers. The first part of the book consists of comparative studies of ethnic identity, and the second part focuses on some lessons learned from studies of ethnic identification and equity, with implications…

  19. Race, Ethnicity, and Higher Education Policy: The Use of Critical Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teranishi, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Cross-sectional frameworks, or between-group approaches, in quantitative research in higher education have limitations that hinder what we know about the intersection of race and educational opportunities and outcomes. (Contains 5 figures.)

  20. The Individual and Ethnic Identity: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Henry H.; And Others

    This guide to teaching ethnicity from the ethnic individual's point of view is designed to accompany the student sourcebook, The Individual and Ethnic Identity (see SO 013 157). The sourcebook, suitable for secondary and higher education, contains quotations of 51 individuals from varying ethnic backgrounds and varying degrees of ethnicity. It…

  1. Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Indian American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maira, Sunaina

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 7 second-generation Indian American students between 17 and 21 years of age to study their ethnic identity formation. Respondents were college students who came from families that represented the earlier waves of post-1965 Indian immigrants, highly educated middle- and upper-class professionals. The…

  2. Inner City Education: A Review of Ethnic Studies in the Sixties. NCRIEEO Tipsheet, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliburton, Warren J.

    The "elitist" tradition of American education was found out in the 1960's. Not until a social force quite alien to the profession took hold and a revolution was declared, was the system of education called to task. In education, the response generated a spate of books that examined the many inequities, recommending remedies. Some of these studies…

  3. Increasing the Number of Ethnically Diverse Faculty in Special Education Programs: Issues and Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    Many universities are grappling with the issue of diversifying the faculty lines in higher education. While this appears to be a global issue across disciplines, those of us who are in special education may find it to be of greater concern because special education legislation, the Individuals with disabilities Act (IDEA) strongly supports…

  4. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed. PMID:24771083

  5. Disparities in receipt of radiotherapy and survival by age, sex and ethnicity among patients with stage I diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binay Kumar; Bista, Amir; Shafii, Bahman

    2015-04-01

    Disparities in cancer care have been documented. However, less is known about the disparities in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We reviewed the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to evaluate disparities in receipt of radiotherapy (RT) and relative survival among patients diagnosed with stage I DLBCL between 1998 and 2008 on the basis of age, sex and ethnicity. African Americans and other races were significantly less likely to receive RT compared to Caucasians (adjusted odds ratio [OR] of 0.743 and 0.81, respectively). Similarly, patients aged 60 + years and males were less likely to receive RT compared to their counterparts (p < 0.001). Caucasian race, younger age and female sex were associated with better survival among patients receiving RT. This study showed that 38.2% of patients with stage I DLBCL received radiotherapy. Survival rates were significantly higher for patients who received RT. PMID:24991720

  6. Nursing education and the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.

    1989-05-01

    As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.

  7. Highlighting Specific Patient Education Needs in an Aging Cardiac Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Abby C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This article describes how, by using a paper-and-pencil, multiple-risk-factor assessment instrument referred to as the Heart Health Assessment Questionnaire, the specific educational needs of an aging veteran population were more clearly identified. Findings are discussed in relation to the pivotal role of the health education professional for…

  8. Drugs Education and Prevention for School-Aged Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Drug misuse in Northern Ireland, like many parts of the world, is becoming one of the major issues facing society today. A first stage to addressing this problem is effective drugs education and prevention strategies to school-aged young people. A survey of a range of education providers including mainstream and special needs schools, and school…

  9. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

  10. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are both proactive and aggressive. Taking this approach will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age

  11. Teachers' Reflections on Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, Laura Kyser; Osborn, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents profiles of and reflections by teachers with international experience, including the authors, who offer insights on education in a global age. The respondents who were colleagues of the authors were interviewed to learn about their K-12 education, insights into and analysis of their experiences teaching abroad, and thoughts…

  12. Drugs Education and Prevention for School-Aged Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Drug misuse in Northern Ireland, like many parts of the world, is becoming one of the major issues facing society today. A first stage to addressing this problem is effective drugs education and prevention strategies to school-aged young people. A survey of a range of education providers including mainstream and special needs schools, and school…

  13. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

  14. Teachers' Reflections on Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, Laura Kyser; Osborn, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents profiles of and reflections by teachers with international experience, including the authors, who offer insights on education in a global age. The respondents who were colleagues of the authors were interviewed to learn about their K-12 education, insights into and analysis of their experiences teaching abroad, and thoughts…

  15. Gender and Age in Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajek, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities' rights have to be secured, but also majorities…

  16. Art Education in the Age of Guantanamo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistolesi, Edie

    2007-01-01

    Censorship exists in institutions where art exists, and also where art education exists. In fall 2005, a group of instructors and the author taught a group project with a political theme--peace. In this article, she examines institutionalized censorship within schools, and the ramifications of teaching the subject of peace in a time of war.…

  17. Art Education in the Age of Guantanamo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistolesi, Edie

    2007-01-01

    Censorship exists in institutions where art exists, and also where art education exists. In fall 2005, a group of instructors and the author taught a group project with a political theme--peace. In this article, she examines institutionalized censorship within schools, and the ramifications of teaching the subject of peace in a time of war.…

  18. Higher Education in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Everette E., Ed.; LaMay, Craig L., Ed.

    This book of 16 author-contributed chapters examines issues of the media and public institutions of higher education including: the media ranking of universities and their contribution to low expectations of universities; the disjunction between massive support for college and university sports events and the intellectual and presumed academic…

  19. Drama Education in the Age of AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This article arose out of my involvement in an undergraduate drama module at the School of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, where I made use of workshop theatre methodologies to explore how second-year drama students construct knowledge and develop sociocultural understandings of critical issues in society. The workshop theatre project…

  20. Flourishing Creativity: Education in an Age of Wonder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2015-01-01

    The twenty-first century is often described as an age of uncertainty and ambiguity with unprecedented challenges. Those with a creative mind-set however might call this millennium an age of wonder. New technologies and digital media are facilitating imagination and inventiveness. How are we innovating education? Are schools and classroom fostering…

  1. Clickers in Teacher Education: Student Perceptions by Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheesman, Elaine A.; Winograd, Gaynelle R.; Wehrman, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of classroom response systems, or "clickers," by teacher-candidates of diverse ages and both genders. Participants (n = 63) included 53 females and 10 males aged 21 to 57 who attended small-enrollment reading methods courses in a special education licensure program. Responses to a 32-item survey suggested…

  2. Flourishing Creativity: Education in an Age of Wonder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2015-01-01

    The twenty-first century is often described as an age of uncertainty and ambiguity with unprecedented challenges. Those with a creative mind-set however might call this millennium an age of wonder. New technologies and digital media are facilitating imagination and inventiveness. How are we innovating education? Are schools and classroom fostering…

  3. The Prevalence of Spirituality, Optimism, Depression, and Fatalism in a Bi-ethnic Stroke Population

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Smith, Melinda A.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Risser, Jan M. H.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2011-01-01

    To provide insight into the reduced post-stroke all-cause mortality among Mexican Americans, we explored ethnic differences in the pre-stroke prevalence of (1) spirituality, (2) optimism, (3) depression, and (4) fatalism in a Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke population. The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project is a population-based stroke surveillance study in Nueces County, Texas. Seven hundred ten stroke patients were queried. For fatalism, optimism, and depression scales, unadjusted ethnic comparisons were made using linear regression models. Regression models were also used to explore how age and gender modify the ethnic associations after adjustment for education. For the categorical spirituality variables, ethnic comparisons were made using Fisher's exact tests. Mexican Americans reported significantly more spirituality than non-Hispanic whites. Among women, age modified the ethnic associations with pre-stroke depression and fatalism but not optimism. Mexican American women had more optimism than non-Hispanic white women. With age, Mexican American women had less depression and fatalism, while non-Hispanic white women had more fatalism and similar depression. Among men, after adjustment for education and age, there was no ethnic association with fatalism, depression, and optimism. Spirituality requires further study as a potential mediator of increased survival following stroke among Mexican Americans. Among women, evaluation of the role of optimism, depression, and fatalism as they relate to ethnic differences in post-stroke mortality should be explored. PMID:21184281

  4. Aging 2000: Consumer Empowerment through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filinson, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Aging 2000 is a Rhode Island organization of community-based networks working to improve geriatric health care through consumer empowerment. Evaluation of workshops on health behavior and the health-care system shows the viability of using older adult volunteers as peer teachers. (SK)

  5. Access to Education in Peninsular Malaysia: Ethnicity, Social Class, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-ling

    1995-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive examination of the development of postindependent Malaysia's education policies. Compulsory education combined with sustained economic growth has produced a literate and upwardly mobile Malay population. Preferential policies for the Malays, however, have resulted in increased stratification and inequality among the…

  6. Access to Education in Peninsular Malaysia: Ethnicity, Social Class, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-ling

    1995-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive examination of the development of postindependent Malaysia's education policies. Compulsory education combined with sustained economic growth has produced a literate and upwardly mobile Malay population. Preferential policies for the Malays, however, have resulted in increased stratification and inequality among the…

  7. Ethnic Disparities in Graduate Education: A Selective Review of Quantitative Research, Social Theory, and Quality Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Somer L.; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we analyzed research studies in the field of graduate education. In particular, we explored the issue of inequity in graduate education through three key lenses of social science analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed selected quantitative research studies that undertook a comparative examination of aggregate trends in enrollment and…

  8. Education of Ethnic and National Minorities in the USSR: A Report on Current Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravetz, Nathan

    This report analyzes and compares information on educational achievements of minorities in the USSR. It also reviews and assesses Soviet educational policy for nationalities and suggests some areas for further study. Data are based on the USSR 1970 All-Union Census and later evidence. National minorities in the USSR have historically been…

  9. Dreams Deferred? The Relationship between Early and Later Postsecondary Educational Aspirations among Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michelle Asha

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 to test a conceptual model that integrates aspects of sociological and econometric frameworks into a traditional status attainment model for educational aspirations. Using descriptive and logistic analyses, this study advanced understanding of the patterns and stability of…

  10. The Ethnic and the Intercultural in Conceptual and Pedagogical Discourses within Higher Education in Oaxaca, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez Apodaca, Erika

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents some reflections about pedagogical and conceptual approaches to intercultural education (in middle high and high schools) in Mexico. The propositions under discussion are expressions of an emerging educational discourse between the highest levels of government and the self-management initiatives of the indigenous pueblos and…

  11. Ethnic Disparities in Special Education Labeling among Children with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Davis, Jasmine K.; Bevans, Katherine; Guevara, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined disparities in special education labeling among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by merging calendar year 2002 special education records and Medicaid mental health claims for 4,852 children who had been diagnosed with ADHD in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Thirty-eight percent were receiving…

  12. Effects of Motivation on Educational Attainment: Ethnic and Developmental Differences among First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propero, Moises; Russell, Amy Catherine; Vohra-Gupta, Shetal

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in educational motivation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-generation students (FGS). Participants were 315 high school and college students who completed a revised academic motivation survey that measured participants' educational motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation).…

  13. Students' Perception of the "Others" in Ethnic Separated School Systems: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedelcu, Anca; Iucu, Romita; Ciolan, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes qualitative data obtained from focus groups with students learning in schools with a majority and minority language of instruction from Estonia, Latvia, Romania, and Slovakia. The focus groups were developed within the framework of the project "Divided Education, Divided Citizens?" conducted by the Network of Education Policy…

  14. Education of Ethnic and National Minorities in the USSR: A Report on Current Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravetz, Nathan

    This report analyzes and compares information on educational achievements of minorities in the USSR. It also reviews and assesses Soviet educational policy for nationalities and suggests some areas for further study. Data are based on the USSR 1970 All-Union Census and later evidence. National minorities in the USSR have historically been…

  15. Education Supports Racial and Ethnic Equality in STEM. ESA Issue Brief #05-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beede, David; Julian, Tiffany; Khan, Beethika; Lehrman, Rebecca; McKittrick, George; Langdon, David; Doms, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) workers are essential to American innovation and competitiveness in an increasingly dynamic and global marketplace. In this report, the authors examine demographic disparities in STEM education and find that educational attainment may affect equality of opportunity in these critical, high-quality…

  16. Effects of Motivation on Educational Attainment: Ethnic and Developmental Differences among First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propero, Moises; Russell, Amy Catherine; Vohra-Gupta, Shetal

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in educational motivation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-generation students (FGS). Participants were 315 high school and college students who completed a revised academic motivation survey that measured participants' educational motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation).…

  17. Students' Perception of the "Others" in Ethnic Separated School Systems: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedelcu, Anca; Iucu, Romita; Ciolan, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes qualitative data obtained from focus groups with students learning in schools with a majority and minority language of instruction from Estonia, Latvia, Romania, and Slovakia. The focus groups were developed within the framework of the project "Divided Education, Divided Citizens?" conducted by the Network of Education Policy…

  18. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  19. Food Category Purchases Vary by Household Education and Race/Ethnicity: Results from Grocery Receipts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to characterize food group purchases from grocery receipts. Food shoppers (aged >/=19 years with at least one child aged

  20. Association between reported education and intellectual functioning in an ethnically diverse adult psychiatric inpatient sample.

    PubMed

    Baker, F M; Fujii, Daryl; Hishinuma, Earl S

    2002-01-01

    Patients' pre-existing survival skills, educational attainment, and intellectual functioning should be included in the development and implementation of treatment planning for adult psychiatric inpatients. When considering culturally diverse inpatient populations with possible cultural and language barriers, these variables may attain additional importance. Utilizing a sample (N = 60) primarily consisting of Asian/Pacific Islander inpatients, the present study investigated: (a) the rate at which professionals from different disciplines inquired about educational attainment; (b) the association between self-reported education and standardized measures of intelligence; and (c) the correspondence between different IQ scores. Axis 1 diagnoses included schizophrenia (N = 19; 32%), schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder (N = 23; 38%), and organic or substance-related disorders (N = 18; 30%). Thirty-five percent of the sample (N = 21) had dual diagnoses. The results indicated that only psychologists who administered IQ tests consistently inquired about educational attainment. An expected overall positive association between self-reported education and standardized intelligence measures was found. High correlations between the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 2nd edition (TONI-2) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test-Revised (WAISQ-R) IQs suggested that both tests were valid in the assessment of intellectual functioning. Implications included the need for more systematic assessment and incorporation of pre-existing skill-based information and the utility of self-reported education and different measures of intellectual functioning (including TONI-2). PMID:11837353

  1. An exploratory examination of the relationships among emotional intelligence, elementary school science teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, race/ethnicity, gender, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okech, Allan P.

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in Texas public schools are discussed.

  2. The Participation of Ethnic Minority Pupils in Further and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Maurice; Craft, Alma

    1983-01-01

    Reports the findings of a replication study of participation in higher education by fifth- and sixth-form students in London. Performance on public examinations, social class, and enrollment in postsecondary institutions were compared for White, Asian, West Indian, and other groups. (SK)

  3. Educational Needs of Alaska. A Summary by Region and Ethnic Group, 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World-Wide Education and Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT.

    During 1972 Worldwide Education and Research Institute conducted a statewide needs assessment in Alaska. Initially more than 2,000 Alaskans responded to an extensive questionnaire or interview about the State's schools. After gathering the data, 9 groups of representative Alaskans were convened for documenting and validating critical educational…

  4. Sex and Ethnic Differences in Educational Investment in Malaysia: The Effect of Reward Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Bee-Lan Chan

    1980-01-01

    This study of male and female Malay and Chinese students indicated that groups which perceive postsecondary education to lead to a greater certainty of university attendance and/or better job prospects are more likely to continue their schooling than groups which perceive the benefits to them to be less attractive. (Author/SJL)

  5. Education and Racial-Ethnic Differences in Types of Exercise in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological research typically focuses on the intensity, frequency, or duration of physical activity, without consideration of the socially meaningful dimensions of exercise. The authors use data from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey (N = 17,455) and information on participation in 15 exercise behaviors to examine educational

  6. Violence, Schools, and Dropping out: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Educational Consequence of Student Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Without a doubt, exposure to violence and victimization can be profoundly detrimental to the overall well-being and development of all youth. Moreover, violence and victimization that occurs within a school context is particularly alarming because a successful educational process is essential toward establishing socioeconomic success later in…

  7. Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language of…

  8. Home Language and Educational Attainments of Ethnic Minorities in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Yanbi

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses effects of home language usage on minority student educational attainment in western China. Using survey data, the author finds that non-Chinese-speaking minority students are at a disadvantage in the transition to senior secondary schools. However, their transition to junior secondary schools is even more complicated. Rural…

  9. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes: Racial and Ethnic Variations in Peer Network Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goza, Franklin; Ryabov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents' academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results…

  10. Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language of…

  11. The Effects of Poverty, Ethnicity, and Special Education Status on Louisiana School Performance Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Sara J.; Fillippino, Tonja M.

    The Louisiana high stakes testing program has raised questions about equity issues. Students from lower socioeconomic groups are less likely to have access to quality penetration tools, and, like minority students, are less likely to have knowledge and skills of their more affluent peers. Students in special education have needs that place them at…

  12. Mathematics Students' Aspirations for Higher Education: Class, Ethnicity, Gender and Interpretative Repertoire Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Martinez, Paul; Black, Laura; Williams, Julian; Davis, Pauline; Pampaka, Maria; Wake, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports how students talk about their aspirations in regard to higher education (HE) and their mathematics, what "repertoires" they use to mediate this discourse, and how students' predominant "repertoire style" relates to their cultural background. Our analyses draw on an interview sample (n=40) of students selected because they are…

  13. From Ethnic Segregation to Bilingual Education: What Can Bilingual Education Do for the Future of the Israeli Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura; Zelniker, Tamar; Azaiza, Faisal

    2008-01-01

    In May 2006, a group of experts in language education from Europe, Canada and Israel gathered to discuss and reflect in a conference entitled: "Into the Future--Towards Bilingual Education in Israel." The conference, held at the University of Haifa, was initiated and organized by the Jewish-Arab Center and sponsored by the Zeit Stiftung from…

  14. Adult Education in Multi-Ethnic Europe: A Handbook for Organisational Change. International Perspectives in Adult Education, No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadzie, Stella, Comp.

    This is a handbook to assist European adult educators in teaching in a multicultural society, presenting models of intercultural practice for organizational and staff development in youth and adult education. Section 1 explains the document's purpose and use, discusses the objectives and major activities of the Learning to Live in a Multi-Cultural…

  15. [Genetic demographic description of the Ust-Aldan rural population of Sakha Republic (Yakutia): ethnic, sex, and age compositions, vital statistics, and surname structure].

    PubMed

    Kucher, A N; Maksimova, N R; Nogovitsina, A N; Sukhomiasova, A L

    2004-05-01

    Information on the sex, age, and ethnic compositions; reproductive parameters; intensity of natural selection (Crow's indices); and surname diversity of three rural populations (the Byadi, Dyupsya, and Cheriktey villages) of the Ust-Aldan ulus (district) of Sakha Republic (Yakutia) has been analyzed. The rural Yakut population of the Ust-Aldan ulus is demographically young (the mean age 25-31 years) and characterized by low outbreeding, unfavorable sex ratio in both prereproductive and reproductive ages, and high fertility (3.58-5.45 children surviving until the reproductive age per woman that has completed the reproductive period), although the actual reproductively active period is shorter than half its physiological duration. In the structure of total selection, the differential-fertility component is considerably greater than the differential-mortality component (Itot = 0.625, Im = 0.093, and If = 0.487). In the villages studied, some surnames are accumulated (45-65% of the population have five most frequent surnames), which determines the low surname diversity (alpha = 11.62-25.19) and high random isonymy (Ir = 0.0391-0.0823). PMID:15272566

  16. Bidirectional associations between parenting practices and conduct problems in boys from childhood to adolescence: the moderating effect of age and African-American ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Dustin A; Fite, Paula J; Burke, Jeffrey D

    2008-07-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied across African-American and Caucasian families. Overall, the results supported a bidirectional relationship between conduct problems and all parenting practices examined from childhood to adolescence. The influence of conduct problems on changes in parenting behaviors was as strong as the influence of parenting behaviors on changes in conduct problems across development. Changes in the bidirectional relationship across development were found in some, but not all, models. While corporal punishment was more strongly related to changes in teacher-reported conduct problems for African-American boys compared to Caucasian boys, more similarities than differences were found between the ethnic groups in terms of the bidirectional associations examined. PMID:17899362

  17. Bidirectional Associations between Parenting Practices and Conduct Problems in Boys from Childhood to Adolescence: The Moderating Effect of Age and African-American Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Paula J.; Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied across African-American and Caucasian families. Overall, the results supported a bidirectional relationship between conduct problems and all parenting practices examined from childhood to adolescence. The influence of conduct problems on changes in parenting behaviors was as strong as the influence of parenting behaviors on changes in conduct problems across development. Changes in the bidirectional relationship across development were found in some, but not all, models. While corporal punishment was more strongly related to changes in teacher-reported conduct problems for African-American boys compared to Caucasian boys, more similarities than differences were found between the ethnic groups in terms of the bidirectional associations examined. PMID:17899362

  18. Ethnicity and HIV risk behaviour, testing and knowledge in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tory M.; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Design. Data on 16,205 women aged 15–49 and 6822 men aged 15–59 from the 2008–2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). Results. The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. Conclusions. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24834462

  19. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7–12 years. METHODS A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). RESULTS The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that < 7% of subjects were grossly misclassified. Moderate correlations noted between the two methods ranged from r = 0.310 (p < 0.001) for fat to r = 0.497 (p < 0.001) for energy. The reproducibility of the FFQ, as assessed by Cronbach’s alpha, ranged from 0.61 (protein) to 0.70 (energy, carbohydrates and fat). Spearman’s correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from rho = 0.333 (p = 0.072) for protein to rho = 0.479 (p < 0.01) for fat. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that the FFQ is valid and reliable for measuring the average intake of energy and macronutrients in a population of multi-ethnic children aged 7–12 years in Malaysia. PMID:26702165

  20. The Aerospace Age. Aerospace Education I. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the textbook entitled "The Aerospace Age," published in the Aerospace Education I series. The guide is organized by objectives, behavioral objectives, textbook outline, orientation, suggested key points, suggestions for teaching, instructional aids, projects, and further reading. Major points stressed in the…

  1. Educating Parents on Developmentally Age-Appropriate Learning in Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mitzi C.

    This practicum paper reports on a project undertaken to enhance the knowledge of age-appropriate learning for parents of 3-year-old preschoolers. The project implemented a variety of techniques and strategies to improve parent knowledge, including parent education classes, a monthly newsletter for parents that addressed current research on…

  2. The New Age of Telecommunication: Setting the Context for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J.

    1986-01-01

    This overview provides a technological context for the telecommunications age by describing existing and emerging systems--telephone, broadcasting, cable television, fiber optic, satellite, optical disk, and computer technology--and services available via these systems. It is suggested that educators need to become technologically literate and…

  3. Correlates of Education, Income, and Poverty among Aged Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.

    1988-01-01

    Examined correlates of education, income, and poverty among a national sample of elderly Black adults (N=581). Analyses indicated gender, marital status, age, employment status, urbanicity, and region were all important predictors of these measures of socio-economic status. Highlights demographic differences and overall depressed socio-economic…

  4. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    This paper presents a career developmental model covering the ages of 5 to 18. Career development education includes experiences which facilitate self-awareness, career-awareness and career decision-making. Before choosing a model for career development, it is necessary to decide on a model for child development. The model developed here borrows…

  5. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1974-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a framework by which educators interested in stimulating career development can choose the learning experiences most likely to have payoffs for different age youth. Eight stages of child development are described with career development themes suggested for each stage along with sample activities. (Author)

  6. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  7. Media Arts: Arts Education for a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppler, Kylie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: New technologies have been largely absent in arts education curriculum even though they offer opportunities to address arts integration, equity, and the technological prerequisites of an increasingly digital age. This paper draws upon the emerging professional field of "media arts" and the ways in which youth use new…

  8. Coming of Age. Canadian Adult Education in the 1960's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, J. Roby, Ed.; Selman, Gordon R., Ed.

    This book is a collection of selected writings and speeches which document the developments in the Canadian adult education movement during the 1960's. The writings and speeches are presented in six sections as follow: (1) Introduction, (2) The Setting, (3) Organizing for Work, (4) Programs and Experiences, (5) The Learner, and (6) Coming of Age.…

  9. Age and educational track influence adolescent discounting of delayed rewards.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; de Groot, Renate H M; Boschloo, Annemarie; Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in a specific aspect of adolescent decision-making, namely the preference for future versus immediate outcomes. A sample of 622 Dutch adolescents aged 12-17 years completed a temporal discounting task. Participants were asked to choose between a delayed reward of €50 or an immediate reward of lower value. The delay interval was varied in three blocks (1 week, 1 month, 6 months). Results showed that preferences for large delayed rewards over smaller immediate rewards increased with age: late adolescents made more long-term decisions than early adolescents. This change was related to educational track. In the lower educational track, an age-related decrease in discounting was found for all three delay intervals. In the higher educational track this decrease only occurred for the 6 month delay interval. However, across all delay intervals enrolment in a higher level educational track was associated with an increased preference for long-term rewards. These results suggest that late adolescents are less susceptible than early adolescents to the competing presence of an immediate reward when making long-term decisions, a skill which becomes increasingly important as they transition into adulthood. PMID:24421778

  10. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength in subjects of Han ethnicity: impact of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Baoguo; Yu, Keli; Zheng, Lianbin

    2012-10-01

    The ratio of the length of the second finger to the fourth finger (2D:4D) is considered to be a putative proxy of prenatal exposure to testosterone, and has been increasingly used as a promising tool to evaluate the impact of prenatal androgenization in humans in such traits as physical performance. In this study, for the first time, we present 2D:4D data on adult participants of Han ethnicity. We consider the sexual dimorphism of 2D:4D and handgrip strength, and also report the relationship between 2D:4D and handgrip strength of males and females. The sample consisted of 54 males and 55 females recruited from a remote village in the Qinling Mountains, China. We found sexual dimorphism of both 2D:4D and handgrip strength, i.e., males had lower 2D:4D and right-left 2D:4D than females and greater handgrip strength than females. There was a sex-specific correlation between 2D:4D and handgrip strength, i.e., 2D:4D in the right hand was negatively correlated with handgrip strength in males but not in females. This relationship may be driven by sexual selection operating on fetal programming. PMID:22886721

  11. Associations between air pollution and socioeconomic characteristics, ethnicity and age profile of neighbourhoods in England and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Fischer, Paul; Fortunato, Léa; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Marra, Marten; Kruize, Hanneke; Vienneau, Danielle; Beelen, Rob; Hansell, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Air pollution levels are generally believed to be higher in deprived areas but associations are complex especially between sensitive population subgroups. We explore air pollution inequalities at national, regional and city level in England and the Netherlands comparing particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and publicly available population characteristics (deprivation, ethnicity, proportion of children and elderly). We saw higher concentrations in the most deprived 20% of neighbourhoods in England (1.5 ?g/m(3) higher PM10 and 4.4 ?g/m(3) NO2). Concentrations in both countries were higher in neighbourhoods with >20% non-White (England: 3.0 ?g/m(3) higher PM10 and 10.1 ?g/m(3) NO2; the Netherlands: 1.1 ?g/m(3) higher PM10 and 4.5 ?g/m(3) NO2) after adjustment for urbanisation and other variables. Associations for some areas differed from the national results. Air pollution inequalities were mainly an urban problem suggesting measures to reduce environmental air pollution inequality should include a focus on city transport. PMID:25622242

  12. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

  13. Reflection on Balanced Allocation of Fundamental Education Teachers in Poverty-Stricken Areas of Ethnic Minorities: Example of a Survey in the Tibetan Autonomous County of Tianzhu in Gansu Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Balanced allocation of fundamental education teachers is one of the most important ways to achieve the highest quality of compulsory education. It also guarantees an accelerated achievement of a balanced development of fundamental education. In poverty-stricken areas of ethnic minorities, unbalanced teacher allocation is a major factor that…

  14. Reflection on Balanced Allocation of Fundamental Education Teachers in Poverty-Stricken Areas of Ethnic Minorities: Example of a Survey in the Tibetan Autonomous County of Tianzhu in Gansu Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Balanced allocation of fundamental education teachers is one of the most important ways to achieve the highest quality of compulsory education. It also guarantees an accelerated achievement of a balanced development of fundamental education. In poverty-stricken areas of ethnic minorities, unbalanced teacher allocation is a major factor that…

  15. Third-Age Education in Canada and Japan: Attitudes toward Aging and Participation in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hori, Shigeo; Cusack, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Lifelong learning is essential to participation in society, and presents important challenges for educational gerontology. This study compares Canadian and Japanese perspectives on (a) attitudes toward aging, (b) the learning needs of older adults, and (c) the role of centers of learning. Surveys were conducted of sample populations in two elder…

  16. Educational expansion and the education gradient in health: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health. PMID:26458119

  17. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P < 0.0001) overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39-1.94), Chinese, 1.39 (1.06-1.83), African, 1.67 (1.37-2.02), and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65). Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.12-1.39) and African Americans (HR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.01-1.32). Finally, when using a binary definition of MetS-PC (cut point 0.505) designed to match the NCEP definition in terms of prevalence in the Health ABC cohort (35%), the fully adjusted HR for CVD events was 1.39, 95%CI 1.17-1.64 compared with 1.46, 95%CI 1.23-1.72 using the NCEP definition. Conclusion. MetS-PC is a continuous measure of metabolic syndrome and was a better predictor of CVD events overall and in individual ethnicities. Additionally, a binary MetS-PC definition was better than the NCEP MetS definition in predicting incident CVD events in the MESA cohort, but this superiority was not evident in the Health ABC cohort. PMID:22536533

  18. Understanding Latino Student Racial and Ethnic Identification: Theories of Race and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The process of Latino self-identification, both racially and ethnically, is of limited conversation among educators. The research on Latinos focuses on either their ethnic construction or absence of including a racial identification. This article focuses on the span of research about ethnicity and race for Latino groups.

  19. Characteristics and effectiveness of diabetes self-management educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not clear to what extent educational programs aimed at promoting diabetes self-management in ethnic minority groups are effective. The aim of this work was to systematically review the effectiveness of educational programs to promote the self-management of racial/ethnic minority groups with type 2 diabetes, and to identify programs’ characteristics associated with greater success. Methods We undertook a systematic literature review. Specific searches were designed and implemented for Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scirus, Current Contents and nine additional sources (from inception to October 2012). We included experimental and quasi-experimental studies assessing the impact of educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups with type 2 diabetes. We only included interventions conducted in countries members of the OECD. Two reviewers independently screened citations. Structured forms were used to extract information on intervention characteristics, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness. When possible, we conducted random-effects meta-analyses using standardized mean differences to obtain aggregate estimates of effect size with 95% confidence intervals. Two reviewers independently extracted all the information and critically appraised the studies. Results We identified thirty-seven studies reporting on thirty-nine educational programs. Most of them were conducted in the US, with African American or Latino participants. Most programs obtained some benefits over standard care in improving diabetes knowledge, self-management behaviors and clinical outcomes. A meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled trials (3,094 patients) indicated that the programs produced a reduction in glycated hemoglobin of -0.31% (95% CI -0.48% to -0.14%). Diabetes knowledge and self-management measures were too heterogeneous to pool. Meta-regressions showed larger reduction in glycated hemoglobin in individual and face to face delivered interventions, as well as in those involving peer educators, including cognitive reframing techniques, and a lower number of teaching methods. The long-term effects remain unknown and cost-effectiveness was rarely estimated. Conclusions Diabetes self-management educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups can produce a positive effect on diabetes knowledge and on self-management behavior, ultimately improving glycemic control. Future programs should take into account the key characteristics identified in this review. PMID:25037577

  20. Pilot educational program to enhance empowering patient education of school-age children with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nurses have a crucial role in patient education of children with type 1 diabetes, but they often exhibit lack of knowledge of the patient education process. This study aimed to describe an educational program to enhance empowering patient education process for the blood glucose monitoring education of school-age children and nurses’ perceptions of using empowering techniques. Methods An empowering patient education process for the diabetes education of school-age children was developed. The researcher collected nurse’s perceptions of managing the educational program by semi-structured interviews. Ten nurses carried out the diabetes education, and 8 of them participated in the interview. Three nurses implemented the diabetes education twice and were interviewed twice. The data consisted of 11 descriptions of the blood glucose monitoring education. The interviewer analyzed the data deductively and inductively by content analysis. Results Nurses described successful managing of the empowering patient education process. The need assessment consisted of using multiple methods and clarifying the capabilities and challenges of children and their parents. Planning manifested itself in adequate preparation and multiple objectives stated together with the family. Implementation comprised the relevant content, and the use of suitable teaching materials and methods. Evaluation was performed with various methods and documented accurately. Nurses also faced some challenges related to management and leadership, ambivalence with traditional and empowering patient education, and families’ overall situation. Conclusion An example of developing evidence-based patient education program is presented, but besides education other factors supporting changes in work practices should be considered in further development. PMID:23641969

  1. Contribution of fat free mass and fat mass to bone mineral density among reproductive-aged women of white, black, and Hispanic race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Newman, Jennifer L.; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the contribution of fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) among reproductive-aged women. Methods Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were performed on 708 healthy black, white, and Hispanic women, 16-33 years old. The independent effect of FFM and FM on BMD and BMAD and the interaction of body composition measurements with race/ethnicity and age, were evaluated. Results FFM correlated more strongly than FM with BMD at the lumbar spine (r=0.52 vs. r=0.39, P<.01) and the femoral neck (r=0.54 vs. r=0.41, P<.01). There was a significant positive association between bone density measures [ln(BMD) and ln(BMAD)] and both ln(FFM) and ln(FM). The association of FFM with spinal BMD was stronger in 16-24-year-old women than in 25-33-year-old women (P=.006). The effect of FFM on femoral neck BMD was greater in blacks (P=.043) than Hispanics, while the effect of FM on spinal BMD was less (P=.047). Conclusions Both FM and FFM are important contributors to bone density although the balance of importance is slightly different between BMD and BMAD. PMID:19285893

  2. Ethnic family structure.

    PubMed

    Mcdonald, P

    1989-04-01

    Using information from large-scale statistical collections and elaborations from ethnographic studies, this paper examines the underlying social processes and structures of migrant families in Australia. Migrants in Australia are often confronted by family values and behavior which run counter to their own. For some migrants, particularly those from the United Kingdom and Western European countries, there is little conflict as Australian family values and behavior approximate their own; the feminine conception of the family is not foreign to them. On the other hand, migrants from Mediterranean countries and from Asia are likely to face a clash between the masculine conception of the family and the dominant feminine conception they find in Australia. Economic structure also often forces an accommodation to the feminine conception of the family. For example, migrant women in Australia are heavily involved in the work force outside the family circle, and, in the main, have relatively low fertility. Age at marriage is increasing and many single women of migrant origin are being educated at the tertiary level and are working before marriage. These changes necessarily expose women and youths to the dominant social values and increase their economic independence, thus disrupting the conventional male family authority. There is evidence of a degree of accommodation to Australian patterns of behavior in migrant groups more inclined to a masculine conception of the family. In other areas, however, which are less directly related to economic pressure, migrant values have been far less accommodating. There is still a high level of endogamy, the 1st birth occurs soon after marriage, divorce rates are low, and the aged are very likely to live with their children. Large migrant groups have been able to maintain these patterns of behavior through the formation of ethnic substructures that form their principal social environment. In the longer term, however, their children are deeply exposed to the dominant Australian social environment. PMID:12282096

  3. Ethnic Hairdressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Flora B.

    The practical aspects of ethnic hairdressing for the beginning student in the field of Cosmetology are presented in this manual. Lessons and review questions are provided to give the student a knowledge of the problems encountered in dealing with the many different variations in hair, as well as to serve as a foundation for more complex material.…

  4. Anticipatory injustice among adolescents: age and racial/ethnic differences in perceived unfairness of the justice system.

    PubMed

    Woolard, Jennifer L; Harvell, Samantha; Graham, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines age differences in anticipatory injustice, or the expectation of unfair or discriminatory treatment in the legal system. 1,393 adolescents and young adults from the community or from detention centers and jails were interviewed regarding demographic and justice system experience, intelligence, expectations about fair treatment, and legal decisions. African Americans and Latinos and those with more system experience expected greater injustice across multiple legal contexts. Anticipatory injustice increased with age among African Americans and those with the most system experience. It also predicted choices about police interrogation, attorney consultation, and plea agreements. Anticipations of injustice during adolescence may affect future interactions with court officials as well as more general constructs of legal socialization. PMID:18344171

  5. Ethnicity and Image: Correlates of Crowd Affiliation among Ethnic Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, B. Bradford; Herman, Melissa; Hamm, Jill V.; Heck, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Because ethnicity is a basis for defining peer crowds in ethnically diverse American high schools, some may question whether crowds foster discrimination and stereotyping or affirm minority youths' positive ties to their ethnic background. Through examination of both self- and peer ratings of crowd affiliation among 2,465 high school youth aged

  6. "The Big Ones Swallow the Small Ones". Or Do They? Language-in-Education Policy and Ethnic Minority Education in the Lao PDR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincotta-Segi, Angela Rose

    2011-01-01

    The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse nations in Southeast Asia. The post-1975 government's policies regarding ethnic minority peoples are often considered to represent an ideological shift from earlier monocultural orientations to a discourse of interethnic equality and solidarity.…

  7. HIV and coronary artery calcium score: comparison of the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cardiovascular Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dominic; Young, Rebekah; Valcour, Nicole; Kronmal, Richard A.; Lum, Corey J.; Parikh, Nisha I.; Tracy, Russell P.; Budoff, Matthew; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of HIV, immunologic, and inflammatory factors on coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Cross-sectional study comparing baseline data of males from Hawaii Aging with HIV –Cardiovascular Study (HAHCS) with the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. The cohorts were pooled to determine effects of HIV on CAC and explore immunologic and inflammatory factors that may explain development of CAC in HIV. Multivariable regression models compared CAC prevalence in HAHCS with MESA adjusting for coronary heart disease (CHD) risk profiles. Results We studied 100 men from HAHCS and 2733 men from MESA. Positive CAC was seen in 58% HAHCS participants and 57% MESA participants. Mean CAC was 260.8 in HAHCS and 306.5 in MESA. Using relative risk (RR) regression, HAHCS participants had a greater risk (RR=1.20, P<0.05) of having positive CAC than MESA when adjusting for age, smoking status, diabetes, antihypertensive therapy, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. Among participants with positive CAC, HIV infection was not associated with larger amounts of CAC. Among HAHCS participants, current HIV viral load, CD4, length of HIV, interleukin 6 (IL-6), fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer were not associated with the presence or amount of CAC. Discussion HIV was independently associated with a positive CAC in men with increased likelihood occurring between 45 and 50 years of age. Current HIV viral load, CD4 count, length of HIV, and inflammatory markers were unrelated to either presence or amount of CAC. PMID:26038953

  8. Is neighborhood racial/ethnic composition associated with depressive symptoms? The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mair, Christina; Diez Roux, Ana V; Osypuk, Theresa L; Rapp, Stephen R; Seeman, Teresa; Watson, Karol E

    2010-08-01

    The racial/ethnic composition of a neighborhood may be related to residents' depressive symptoms through differential levels of neighborhood social support and/or stressors. We used the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to investigate cross-sectional associations of neighborhood racial/ethnic composition with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale in adults aged 45-84. The key exposure was a census-derived measure of the percentage of residents of the same racial/ethnic background in each participant's census tract. Two-level multilevel models were used to estimate associations of neighborhood racial/ethnic composition with CES-D scores after controlling for age, income, marital status, education and nativity. We found that living in a neighborhood with a higher percentage of residents of the same race/ethnicity was associated with increased CES-D scores in African American men (p < 0.05), and decreased CES-D scores in Hispanic men and women and Chinese women, although these differences were not statistically significant. Models were further adjusted for neighborhood-level covariates (social cohesion, safety, problems, aesthetic quality and socioeconomic factors) derived from survey responses and census data. Adjusting for other neighborhood characteristics strengthened protective associations amongst Hispanics, but did not change the significant associations in African American men. These results demonstrate heterogeneity in the associations of race/ethnic composition with mental health and the need for further exploration of which aspects of neighborhood environments may contribute to these associations. PMID:20541303

  9. Replication of genetic loci for ages at menarche and menopause in the multi-ethnic Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study

    PubMed Central

    Carty, C.L.; Spencer, K.L.; Setiawan, V.W.; Fernandez-Rhodes, L.; Malinowski, J.; Buyske, S.; Young, A.; Jorgensen, N.W.; Cheng, I.; Carlson, C.S.; Brown-Gentry, K.; Goodloe, R.; Park, A.; Parikh, N.I.; Henderson, B.; Le Marchand, L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Fornage, M.; Matise, T.C.; Hindorff, L.A.; Arnold, A.M.; Haiman, C.A.; Franceschini, N.; Peters, U.; Crawford, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do genetic associations identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) replicate in women of diverse race/ancestry from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study? SUMMARY ANSWER We replicated GWAS reproductive trait single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in our European descent population and found that many SNPs were also associated with AM and ANM in populations of diverse ancestry. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Menarche and menopause mark the reproductive lifespan in women and are important risk factors for chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Both events are believed to be influenced by environmental and genetic factors, and vary in populations differing by genetic ancestry and geography. Most genetic variants associated with these traits have been identified in GWAS of European-descent populations. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A total of 42 251 women of diverse ancestry from PAGE were included in cross-sectional analyses of AM and ANM. MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS SNPs previously associated with ANM (n = 5 SNPs) and AM (n = 3 SNPs) in GWAS were genotyped in American Indians, African Americans, Asians, European Americans, Hispanics and Native Hawaiians. To test SNP associations with ANM or AM, we used linear regression models stratified by race/ethnicity and PAGE sub-study. Results were then combined in race-specific fixed effect meta-analyses for each outcome. For replication and generalization analyses, significance was defined at P < 0.01 for ANM analyses and P < 0.017 for AM analyses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We replicated findings for AM SNPs in the LIN28B locus and an intergenic region on 9q31 in European Americans. The LIN28B SNPs (rs314277 and rs314280) were also significantly associated with AM in Asians, but not in other race/ethnicity groups. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns at this locus varied widely among the ancestral groups. With the exception of an intergenic SNP at 13q34, all ANM SNPs replicated in European Americans. Three were significantly associated with ANM in other race/ethnicity populations: rs2153157 (6p24.2/SYCP2L), rs365132 (5q35/UIMC1) and rs16991615 (20p12.3/MCM8). While rs1172822 (19q13/BRSK1) was not significant in the populations of non-European descent, effect sizes showed similar trends. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Lack of association for the GWAS SNPs in the non-European American groups may be due to differences in locus LD patterns between these groups and the European-descent populations included in the GWAS discovery studies; and in some cases, lower power may also contribute to non-significant findings. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The discovery of genetic variants associated with the reproductive traits provides an important opportunity to elucidate the biological mechanisms involved with normal variation and disorders of menarche and menopause. In this study we replicated most, but not all reported SNPs in European descent populations and examined the epidemiologic architecture of these early reported variants, describing their generalizability and effect size across differing ancestral populations. Such data will be increasingly important for prioritizing GWAS SNPs for follow-up in fine-mapping and resequencing studies, as well as in translational research. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) The Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) program is funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), supported by U01HG004803 (CALiCo), U01HG004798 (EAGLE), U01HG004802 (MEC), U01HG004790 (WHI) and U01HG004801 (Coordinating Center), and their respective NHGRI ARRA supplements. The authors report no conflicts of interest. PMID:23508249

  10. Vitamin A status of the minority ethnic group of Karen hill tribe children aged 1-6 years in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tienboon, Prasong; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is the most common cause of childhood blindness in the developing world. It is estimated that by giving adequate vitamin A, in vitamin A deficient populations, child mortality from measles can be reduced by 50%, and mortality from diarrheal disease by 40%. Overall mortality in children 6-59 months of age can be reduced by 23%. This paper reported results from a study of vitamin A status and malnutrition of the minority ethnic group of Karen hill tribe children aged 1-6 years in the north of Thailand. All children aged 1-6 years (N = 158; 83 boys, 75 girls) from the three Karen villages (Mae Hae Tai, Mae Yot, Mae Raek) of Mae Chaem district in the north of Thailand were studied. The Karen is the largest mountain ethnic minority ("hill tribe") group in Thailand. All children were examined by a qualified medical doctor and were assessed for their vitamin A intakes using 24 hours dietary recall. Thai food composition table from Ministry of Health, Thailand were used as references. The results were compared with the Thai Recommended Dietary Allowances. Children aged 1-3 years and 4-6 years were separately analysed due to the differences in Thai Recommended Dietary Allowances between the two age groups. A whole blood of 300 microL was obtained by "fingerstick" for determination of serum vitamin A. Community or village's vitamin A status was assessed by using Simplified Dietary Assessment (SDA) method and Helen Keller International (HKI) food frequency method. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. All families of the study boys and girls had income lower than the Thailand poverty line (US $ 1,000/year). On average, 63% of children from Mae Hae Tai village, 1.5% of children from Mae Yot village and none of children from Mae Raek village had serum vitamin A<0.7 micromol/L which indicated VAD. All boys and only girls from Mae Raek village consumed vitamin A more than the Thai RDA but girls from Mae Hae Tai village and Mae Yot village consumed vitamin A less than the Thai RDA. Both boys and girls from Mae Raek village and also girls from Mae Yot village consumed vitamin A more than the Thai RDA. Using SDA and HKI methods to assess vitamin A status of the villages to see whether VAD is a village's nutritional problem, it was found that all children from the three villages were at risk of VAD. In order to improve vitamin A status of the Karen children in Mae Chaem district, recommendations were made as follow: (1) increased use of fat and oil, particularly in areas with high risk of VAD; (2) more general work with Karen communities on how children's diets might be improved in a culturally acceptable manner, so as to bring vitamin A consumption closer to recommended allowance level. PMID:17215193

  11. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Ford, Margaret C; Gordon, Nancy P; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E; Greenspan, Louise C; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R Grant; Lo, Joan C

    2016-01-01

    Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3-5, 44.2% were 6-11, and 41.6% were 12-17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents. PMID:26885385

  12. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Margaret C.; Gordon, Nancy P.; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R. Grant; Lo, Joan C.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3–5, 44.2% were 6–11, and 41.6% were 12–17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents. PMID:26885385

  13. Positionings of Racial, Ethnic, and Linguistic Minority Students in High School Biology Class: Implications for Science Education in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, I analyze ethnographic data from a year-long study of two Advanced Placement (AP) Biology classes that enrolled students with diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. Specifically, I consider participation, positioning, and learning of newcomer Korean students in the focal classes. Building on the notion of figured…

  14. Positionings of Racial, Ethnic, and Linguistic Minority Students in High School Biology Class: Implications for Science Education in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, I analyze ethnographic data from a year-long study of two Advanced Placement (AP) Biology classes that enrolled students with diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. Specifically, I consider participation, positioning, and learning of newcomer Korean students in the focal classes. Building on the notion of figured…

  15. Contours of Race and Ethnicity: Institutional Context and Hmong American Students' Negotiations of Racial Formation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vue, Rican

    2013-01-01

    Hmong American students and their struggles are largely invisible yet grossly misunderstood when seen. This study reveals how Hmong Americans negotiate the contours of race and ethnicity to construct an affirming identity on their respective university campuses. A framework of campus racial climate is employed to investigate how institutional…

  16. Contours of Race and Ethnicity: Institutional Context and Hmong American Students' Negotiations of Racial Formation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vue, Rican

    2013-01-01

    Hmong American students and their struggles are largely invisible yet grossly misunderstood when seen. This study reveals how Hmong Americans negotiate the contours of race and ethnicity to construct an affirming identity on their respective university campuses. A framework of campus racial climate is employed to investigate how institutional…

  17. Investigation Gender/Ethnicity Heterogeneity in Course Management System Use in Higher Education by Utilizing the MIMIC Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the issue of learning equity in colleges and universities where teaching and learning have come to depend heavily on computer technologies. The study uses the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) latent variable model to quantitatively investigate whether there is a gender /ethnicity difference in using computer based…

  18. Educational Experiences of Immigrant Students from the Former Soviet Union: A Case Study of an Ethnic School in Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanova, Jazira

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the academic and psychosocial outcomes of immigrant students from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in an ethnic school in Toronto. Based on interviews with the principal, teachers, students and parents, together with questionnaire responses, the paper describes school programmes and practices that contribute to FSU immigrant…

  19. Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions. PMID:24934272

  20. Distributions of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-09-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 19 urinary metabolites of 15 parent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Smokers were found to have statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than nonsmokers for selected urinary metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene-styrene, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Female nonsmokers were found to have lower adjusted levels of selected metabolites of acrolein, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide than male nonsmokers but female smokers had higher levels of each of these metabolites than male smokers. In addition, female smokers also had higher adjusted levels of selected metabolites of 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, and ethylbenzene-styrene. Thus, constituents other than VOCs in tobacco smoke affect excretion of certain VOC metabolites differently among males and females. Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) had higher adjusted levels than non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) for 8 metabolites. NHB had statistically significantly lower adjusted levels than Hispanics for 5 VOC metabolites and lower levels than non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) for 6 metabolites. Hispanics had statistically significantly higher levels than NHAS for 5 metabolites. Levels of 11 of the 19 metabolites analyzed increased with increase in age. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with increased levels of 9 metabolites. Increase in the number of days tobacco products were used during the last five days was associated with increased levels of 12 of the 19 VOC metabolites. PMID:26282484

  1. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal communication for patient satisfaction among American Indians. Results will be of special interest to health researchers, clinicians, and policy makers working in fields related to minority health. PMID:15450700

  2. Race, ethnicity, and the physician assistant profession.

    PubMed

    LeLacheur, Susan; Barnett, Jacqueline; Straker, Howard

    2015-10-01

    The physician assistant (PA) profession has long had a focus on providing primary healthcare to all. In order to best serve an increasingly diverse population, we examine the racial and ethnic diversity trends experienced in PA education and the PA profession, in the context of national demographics, and the racial and ethnic diversity of other health professions. We also offer recommendations to improve the racial and ethnic diversity of the PA profession. PMID:26406176

  3. What stresses men? predictors of perceived stress in a population-based multi-ethnic cross sectional cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Perceived stress (PS) is a risk factor for a variety of diseases. However, relatively little is known about age- or ethnicity-specific differences in the effect of potential predictors of PS in men. Methods We used a population-based survey of 6,773 White, 1,681 Black, and 617 Hispanic men in Southeastern Pennsylvania to evaluate the relationship of self-reported PS and financial security, health status, social factors, and health behaviors. Interactions across levels of age and ethnicity were tested using logistic regression models adjusted for overall health status, education, and household poverty. Results High PS decreased significantly with age (p < 0.0001) and varied by ethnicity (p = 0.0001). Exposure to health-related and economic factors were more consistently associated with elevated PS in all ethnicities and ages, while social factors and health behaviors were less strongly or not at all associated with PS in most groups. Significant differences in the relationship of high PS by age and ethnicity were observed among men who are medically uninsured (p = 0.0002), reported missing a meal due to cost (p < 0.0001), or had spent a night in the hospital (p = 0.020). In contrast, not filling a prescription due to cost and diagnosed with a mental health condition were associated with high PS but did not differ by age and ethnicity subgroup. Conclusions These data suggest that some, but not all, factors associated with high PS differ by age and/or ethnicity. Research, clinical, or public health initiatives that involve social stressors should consider differences by age and ethnicity. PMID:23388399

  4. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

  5. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

  6. Race/Ethnic Disparities in Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in a Tri-Ethnic Community Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Racial-ethnic disparities exist in cardiovascular risk factors, morbidity and mortality. Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is a predictor of mortality and of cardiovascular outcome including incident heart failure. We sought to assess whether race-ethnic differences in diastolic function exist. Such differences may contribute to the observed disparities in cardiovascular outcomes. Methods Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed in 760 participants (539 Hispanic, 117 non-Hispanic black, 104 non-Hispanic white) from the Cardiac Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study. LV diastolic function was assessed by standard Doppler flow profile and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Early (E) and late (A) trans-mitral diastolic flow, and mitral annulus early diastolic velocities (E’) were recorded and E/A and E/E’ ratios were calculated. Results Blacks and Hispanics had higher body mass index (p=0.04, p<0.01), higher prevalence of hypertension (both p?0.05) and diabetes (both p<0.01), and lower level of education (both p<0.01) compared to whites. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, Hispanics and blacks showed worse indices of diastolic function than whites. Hispanics had lower E/A ratio (p=0.01), lower E’ and higher E/E’ (both p<0.01) than whites, whereas blacks had lower E’ (p<0.05) and a trend toward a higher E/E’ ratio (p=0.09) compared with whites. These race-ethnic differences in diastolic function were attenuated in multivariate models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Differences in LV diastolic function exist between race-ethnic groups. However, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and socio-demographic variables, rather than intrinsic race-ethnic heterogeneity, seem to explain most of the observed differences. PMID:20598986

  7. The Changing Nature of Adult Education in the Age of Transnational Migration: Toward a Model of Recognitive Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.

  8. The role of early life factors in the development of ethnic differences in growth and overweight in preschool children: a prospective birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethnic differences in childhood and adulthood are known, but ethnic differences in preschool overweight and associated factors are less studied. We assessed ethnic differences in pre-school age overweight, and studied the mediating role of early life factors in this association. Furthermore, we assessed body mass index (BMI) z-score development from birth to age 4 years to study ethnic-specific differences in BMI z-score trajectory. Methods We used data on 4581 children participating in a birth cohort who were born between 2002 and 2006 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Child’s ethnicity was defined according to country of birth of the parents. Weight and length/height was repeatedly measured between 1 and 45 months of age. Overweight at age 4 years was defined according to cut-off points for BMI from the international obesity task force. We performed logistic regression to obtain independent estimates of the association between ethnicity and preschool-age overweight, and to assess the mediating role of early life risk factors. Mixed models were used to describe BMI-z development for each ethnic group from birth to preschool age. Results Relative to native Dutch children, non-Dutch children were more likely to be overweight at age 4 years, except for Surinamese-Hindustani children. Socio-demographic factors, parental BMI, and infant weight change in the first 6 months after birth reduced associations. After full adjustment, Turkish (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.34-3.04) and Antillean/Surinamese Creole (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.06-3.02) children were still more likely to be overweight at age 4 years. Conclusion Ethnic differences on the prevalence of overweight in preschool children can be partially explained by maternal educational level, parental overweight and early infant weight change. These may be possible targets to reduce ethnic inequalities in preschool age overweight. PMID:25022314

  9. Ethnic enclaves and gestational diabetes among immigrant women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Janevic, T; Borrell, L N; Savitz, D A; Echeverria, S E; Rundle, A

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has shown that immigrants living in their own ethnic enclave are at decreased risk of poor health outcomes, but this question has not been studied in relation to gestational diabetes, an important early marker of lifecourse cardiovascular health. We ascertained gestational diabetes, census tract of residence, and individual-level covariates for Sub-Saharan African, Chinese, South Central Asian, Non-Hispanic Caribbean, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Mexican, and Central and South American migrant women using linked birth-hospital discharge data for 89,703 singleton live births in New York City for the years 2001-2002. Using 2000 census data, for each immigrant group we defined a given census tract as part of an ethnic enclave based on the population distribution for the corresponding ethnic group. We estimated odds ratios for associations between living in an ethnic enclave and risk of gestational diabetes adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, percent commercial space, education, age, parity, and insurance status, using multilevel logistic regression. Overall, we found no effect of ethnic enclave residence on gestational diabetes in most immigrant groups. Among South Central Asian and Mexican women, living in a residential ethnic enclave was associated with an increased odds of gestational diabetes. Several explanations are proposed for these findings. Mechanisms explaining an increased risk of gestational diabetes in South Central Asian and Mexican ethnic enclaves should be examined. PMID:25259656

  10. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Ethnicity Are Independent Factors Associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Rohan; Sundram, Murali; Tan, Guan Hee; Bahadzor, Badrulhisham; Ong, Teng Aik; Ng, Keng Lim; Abdul Razack, Azad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) profile and factors affecting its degree of severity including cardiovascular risk profile, age, ethnicity, education level and prostate volume in a multiethnic Asian setting. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1021 men aged 40–79 years with no clinical evidence of prostate cancer, prostate surgery or 5?-reductase inhibitor treatment of known prostate conditions. The severity of LUTS was assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Potential factors associated with LUTS including age, ethnicity, education, history of hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, height, weight, and prostate volume were evaluated using univariable and multivariable analyses. Results There were 506 (50%) men found to have moderate-to-severe LUTS attaining an IPSS above 7. Overall, nocturia (45.5%) was the most frequently reported symptom. Multivariable analysis showed that age, ethnicity, prostate volume and history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were independent factors associated with severity of LUTS (p < 0.05). Considering individual lower urinary tract symptoms, we found a strong association of storage symptom with history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Malay men were significantly bothered by post micturition symptom compared to their Chinese and Indian counterparts. Stratified analyses of LUTS demonstrated a mutually exclusive cardiovascular risk factors profile defined by ethnicity. Conclusion Severity of LUTS varies between different ethnicities across all age groups. In addition to age and prostate volume, ethnicity and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia may also need to be taken into account in managing men with LUTS. PMID:26098884

  11. Teaching an Undergraduate Course on Ethnic Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organista, Pamela Balls; Chun, Kevin M.; Marin, Gerardo

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the course, Psychology of Ethnic Groups in the United States (University of San Francisco). Explains that the goals of the course are to educate, sensitize, and stimulate critical thinking about the role of culture and ethnicity in human social behavior. Addresses course content and issues, the class project, and student evaluation of the…

  12. Indochinese Refugees: An Emerging Ethnic Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Kenneth A.; Hendricks, Glenn L.

    This paper examines the extent to which educational and other institutions of the dominant society are shaping the ethnic self-identity of Indochinese refugees. It is argued that an institutionally-defined ethnic self-identity is being imposed on the Indochinese as a precondition for consideration as a minority group in United States society.…

  13. Spirituality on Campus: The Emergence of a Postsecular Age in American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subbiondo, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of a "postsecular age" in American higher education: an age in which the academic study and practice of spirituality is alive and well. This emerging age stands in contrast to the centuries-old secular age with its origins in the empirical revolution of seventeenth-century Europe. In the secular age, objective…

  14. Spirituality on Campus: The Emergence of a Postsecular Age in American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subbiondo, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of a "postsecular age" in American higher education: an age in which the academic study and practice of spirituality is alive and well. This emerging age stands in contrast to the centuries-old secular age with its origins in the empirical revolution of seventeenth-century Europe. In the secular age, objective…

  15. Cognitive Diversity in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults: The Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereiro-Rozas, Arturo X.; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Facal, David; Pérez-Fernández, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    This study examines cognitive diversity through performance of four attentional tasks and a vocabulary measure in relation to age and level of education. Tasks were performed by 168 participants (aged between 45 and 91 years) who were grouped according to age and level of education. Multivariate analyses of variance were applied to Z scores…

  16. Cognitive Diversity in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults: The Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereiro-Rozas, Arturo X.; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Facal, David; Pérez-Fernández, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    This study examines cognitive diversity through performance of four attentional tasks and a vocabulary measure in relation to age and level of education. Tasks were performed by 168 participants (aged between 45 and 91 years) who were grouped according to age and level of education. Multivariate analyses of variance were applied to Z scores…

  17. Reflections of middle school students by gender and race/ethnicity on obtaining a successful science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalik, Bethany

    Sixty-five eighth grade students responded to a science beliefs survey during a science-inquiry lab unit in an action research project to assess whether gender has an effect on how the students perceive their science classes. The survey was given to eighth grade students during the first week of school. Student results were categorized by gender and by race/ethnicity. The middle school where the study took place is fairly diverse with 540 total students of which 48% of them are White, 42% are Black, and 10% are Hispanic. Six female science teachers are employed at the middle school, two per grade. The first unit that is taught in science is inquiry skills, the basics of all science such as graphing, laboratory tools, safety, etc. This unit is taught in 6 th, 7th, and 8th grades, as a part of our standards. Inquiry test results for 8th graders are also given in this thesis, and are categorized again by gender and race/ethnicity. The results of the surveys and the assessment show a gap in the way students think about and complete activities in science. It was exciting to see that the female students scored better overall than male students on an inquiry-based summative assessment, while white students overall scored better than Black and Hispanic students. White males tended to rank science as the class they enjoyed the most of all core classes and thought science was easier than all the other data demographics. The conclusion found was stunning, in that the true gap in student's beliefs about science lies within the different races/ethnicities, rather than just gender alone.

  18. The Relationship between Principal Ethnicity and Other Chosen Demographics and Student Achievement as Measured by the Texas Education Agency's Accountability Rating System in Predominantly Hispanic Public High Schools in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tresslar, Christopher Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to examine the relationship between principal ethnicity and other chosen demographics (community type of the school, average years of teacher experience, and percent of students qualifying as economically disadvantaged) and student achievement as measured by the Texas Education Agency's (TEA's) accountability rating…

  19. The Relationship between Principal Ethnicity and Other Chosen Demographics and Student Achievement as Measured by the Texas Education Agency's Accountability Rating System in Predominantly Hispanic Public High Schools in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tresslar, Christopher Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to examine the relationship between principal ethnicity and other chosen demographics (community type of the school, average years of teacher experience, and percent of students qualifying as economically disadvantaged) and student achievement as measured by the Texas Education Agency's (TEA's) accountability rating…

  20. The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Elementary and Secondary Education. A Briefing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights Held in Washington, D.C., July 28, 2006. Briefing Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Commission on Civil Rights, 2006

    2006-01-01

    On July 28, 2006, a panel of experts briefed members of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on the putative benefits of racial and ethnic diversity in elementary and secondary education. Four experts presented written statements to the Commissioners that assessed the social science literature on this issue. They also addressed whether or not…