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1

Norms for Letter and Category Fluency: Demographic Corrections for Age, Education, and Ethnicity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used multiple regression analysis to develop demographically corrected norms for letter and category fluency in 768 normal adults. Together, age, education, and ethnicity were significant predictors of letter and category fluency performance. Presents tables for converting raw fluency scores to these norms. (SLD)

Gladsjo, Julie Akiko; Schuman, Catherine C.; Evans, Jovier D.; Peavy, Guerry M.; Miller, S. Walden; Heaton, Robert K.

1999-01-01

2

Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

2011-01-01

3

Ethnicity and Aging: A Bibliography. Checklists in the Humanities and Education: Series Number Eight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature on ethnicity and aging is listed in this bibliography, which is intended to assist researchers, teachers, and policymakers. The bibliography is divided into seven categories: (1) multiethnic and general studies; (2) Black Americans; (3) Hispanic Americans; (4) Native Americans; (5) Asian and Pacific Americans; (6) European origin ethnic

Murguia, Edward, Comp.; And Others

4

Ethnicity: A Continuum on Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to develop a clearer understanding of the role of education in the formation of ethnicity. The basic meaning of the term "ethnicity" is that it gives a distinct identity to a community and distinguishes one community or an individual from another. It has been found that ethnic consciousness or ethnic identity has been in increase…

Chakraborty, Sujata; Ghosh, Bhola Nath

2013-01-01

5

Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

2014-01-01

6

Race, Ethnicity and Public Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue contains papers on race and ethnicity in public education: "Introduction" (Philip Hart); "Toward Democratic Education: The Importance of Culturally Responsive Leadership in 21st Century Schools" (Donna M. Davis); "Improving the Selection Process for Identifying Gifted Ethnic Minority Children" (John Dillard and Nettye R. Brazil);…

Hart, Philip S., Ed.

2002-01-01

7

Education and physical activity mediate the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in late middle-aged adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status, particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the

Meredith C. Masel; Mukaila Raji; M. Kristen Peek

2010-01-01

8

Ethnic Inequalities in Education in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses Kenya's survey data to explore ethnic inequalities in education in Kenya. It focuses on some ethnic groups that may have resources and opportunities as a result of their geographical location and ethnic proximity to the ruling elite. The factors examined to explain potential educational inequalities among ethnic groups include the Gross Enrolment Ratios, the number of schools,

Alwiya Alwy; Susanne Schech

2004-01-01

9

The Education of Ethnic Groups in Israel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education of ethnic groups in Israel is explored in light of the rapidly growing population and the desire of members of all ethnic groups for upward economic and social mobility. Major ethnic groups include Moslems, Christians, Druze, and various religious and non-religious groups of Jews including Ashkenazim, Sephardim, and Kibbutznik. Ethnic

Kravetz, Nathan

10

Bold Choices: How Ethnic Inequalities in Educational Attainment Are Suppressed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I examine ethnic inequalities in educational attainment in England and Wales. I focus on the two main educational transitions in England and Wales: the transition at age 16, from compulsory to post-compulsory education, and the transition at age 18, from school to university. I take into account the distinction made by Boudon (1974)…

Jackson, Michelle

2012-01-01

11

Is Child Like Parent? Educational Attainment and Ethnic Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speed at which immigrants assimilate is the subject of debate. Human capital formation plays a major role in this discussion. This paper compares the educational attainment of second generation immigrants to those of natives in the same age cohort. Evidence using a large German data set suggests ethnicity does matter: the size of the ethnic network has a positive

Ira N. Gang; Klaus F. Zimmermann

1996-01-01

12

How the relationship of attitudes toward mental health treatment and service use differs by age, gender, ethnicity\\/race and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Promoting help-seeking for mental health problems can result in improved treatment rates. For the most impact, social marketing\\u000a interventions need to be tailored to targeted demographic subgroups. We investigated the influence of interactions between\\u000a attitudes toward treatment and age, gender, ethnicity\\/race and education for both general medical and specialty care. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Cross-sectional data from the 2001–2003 National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)

Jodi M. Gonzalez; Margarita Alegría; Thomas J. Prihoda; Laurel A. Copeland; John E. Zeber

2011-01-01

13

Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Educations in Ethnic Violence", Matthew Lange explores the effects education has on ethnic violence. Lange contradicts the widely-held belief that education promotes peace and tolerance. Rather, Lange finds that education commonly contributes to aggression, especially in environments with ethnic divisions, limited resources, and ineffective…

Lange, Matthew

2011-01-01

14

The Role of Ethnicity in Nigerian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethnicity has played a postive role in Nigerian education in that it has helped to generate noncolonial reforms and to stimulate the need for expanded higher education. However, regional and tribal loyalties and differing ethnic value systems have also contributed to inequality with regard to educational opportunity. (Author/GC)

Aguolu, C. C.

1979-01-01

15

Race, Ethnicity, and Education. Praeger Perspectives. [Four Volumes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book moves beyond traditional thinking and approaches to multicultural education to more accurately reflect the dramatically changing circumstances faced by North American schools in an age of globalization. The volumes address ways in which race and ethnicity affect learning across the life span, at all levels of formal education as well as…

Ross, E. Wayne, Ed.; Pang, Valerie Ooka, Ed.

2006-01-01

16

Ethnicity and Conflict in Physical Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little research dealing with the issues of teaching ethnic minority groups in physical education (PE), in particular that which takes the perceptions of teachers and their pupils as the focal point to examine the issues and conflicts. This research takes a social action perspective by studying Muslim children in a northern comprehensive school. The areas of conflict

Bob Carroll; Graeme Hollinshead

1993-01-01

17

Education, Ethnicity, and Political Socialization in Pakistan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the correlation between educational policies and political conditions as an indicator of socialization in the nation and state building process in Pakistan. Because of the discrepancies between official statements and the level of ethnic conflict, this study seeks to analyze the standard national social studies curriculum for…

Kazi, Aftab A.

1986-01-01

18

Ethnicity, Forms of Capital, and Educational Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Bourdieu's theory of cultural capital, which explains how social class influences transmission of educational inequality, this article questions the extent to which various forms of capital also apply to ethnic minorities. Discusses a study of Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan students, which found that there was no mediating effect…

Driessen, Geert W. J. M.

2001-01-01

19

Education and Ethnic Prejudice in Europe: Explanations for Cross-National Variances in the Educational Effect on Ethnic Prejudice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied cross-national variances in the effect of education on ethnic prejudice using data from11 European countries with a total sample of 11,904 adults. Findings show that a country's democratic tradition and degree of religious heterogeneity are important for the strength of an educational effect on ethnic prejudice, while ethnic composition…

Hello, Evelyn; Scheepers, Peer; Gijsberts, Merove

2002-01-01

20

Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.  

PubMed

This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants. PMID:21323155

Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

2010-12-01

21

Financial Education in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. Design/methodology/approach: A postal survey was used to investigate the financial needs of owner/managers in 64 ethnic minority SMEs and a control sample of 23 non-ethnic SMEs.…

Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry; Scott, Jonathan M.

2008-01-01

22

Do Mothers' Educational Expectations Differ by Race and Ethnicity, or Socioeconomic Status?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has linked parents' educational expectations to children's educational attainment, but findings are inconsistent regarding differences in educational expectations by race and ethnicity. In addition, existing studies have focused on school-age children and their parents. In this study, we use a state representative sample to examine…

Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael; Clancy, Margaret

2013-01-01

23

Education and ethnic prejudice in Europe : explanations for cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education is often found to be a strong determinant of ethnic pre judice. However, there is preliminary evidence that this educational effect varies across countries. Moreover, there are also theoretical arguments to expect cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic pre judice. From both a cultural and structural perspective, we set out to explain these cross-national variances in the

Evelyn Hello; Peer Scheepers; Mérove Gijsberts

2002-01-01

24

Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…

Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.

25

American Indian College Students' Ethnic Identity and Beliefs about Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-seven American Indian and 96 European-American undergraduate students responded to questions about their educational and ethnic beliefs and their perceptions of their mother's and father's support for education. The American Indian participants completed some additional items regarding their ethnic beliefs and their perceptions of their…

Okagaki, Lynn; Helling, Mary Kay; Bingham, Gary E.

2009-01-01

26

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Participation in Higher Education. Indicator of the Month.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief report summarizes data on racial and ethnic differences in participation in higher education. Major findings include: (1) between 1993 and 1995, white high school graduates aged 18-24 enrolled in college at a rate 9 percentage points higher than blacks and Hispanics; (2) between 1972 and 1995, the college enrollment rate for whites aged

National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

27

THE NEW WORKFORCE: AGE AND ETHNIC CHANGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing number of elderly worldwide presents distinct challenges. In the United States, the looming issue is the aging of the baby boom generation. Employers face the possibility of a sustained retirement of an unprecedented magnitude of their most experienced and knowledgeable employees over the next several years. The public sector appears to be even more vulnerable with an older

JUDI L. MCCLELLAN; RICHARD HOLDEN

28

Ethnicity, Gender, Social Class and Achievement Gaps at Age 16: Intersectionality and "Getting It" for the White Working Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender. However, little research has sought to compare the relative size of these gaps or to explore interactions between these factors. This paper analyses the educational achievement at age 11, 14…

Strand, Steve

2014-01-01

29

Differential Item Functioning of Pathological Gambling Criteria: An Examination of Gender, Race\\/Ethnicity, and Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria\\u000a based on gender, race\\/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic\\u000a Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital

Paul SaccoLuis; Luis R. Torres; Renee M. Cunningham-Williams; Carol Woods; G. Jay Unick

2011-01-01

30

The Attainment of White and Ethnic Minority Students in Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At UK institutions of higher education, the academic attainment of White students tends to be higher than that of students from other ethnic groups. The present study confirmed this trend in students who were taking courses by distance learning with the UK's Open University. It was apparent in students of all ages apart from the youngest, and it…

Richardson, John Thomas Edwin

2012-01-01

31

A glance to education in the middle east under the shadow of politic and ethnic conflicts in the region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education in the Middle East has been effective and important during the ages and the civilizations in the region have shaped both economic and social life around the region. But later Middle East education systems have entered the twenty century with problems and political differences. And these political differences, colonialism, missionaries and ethnics conflicts have colored their education systems. There

Ender Kanalan; Cevat Celep

2011-01-01

32

Toward an Ethnic Studies Critique for Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to humanize students of color in teacher education research, this study shifts away from the question, "How can we add students of color?" and instead asks, "How might teacher education programs be transformed to make space for students of color?" To begin, we articulate an ethnic studies critique for teacher…

Chung, Jennifer Y.; Harrison, Lisa M.

2015-01-01

33

Ethnic Diversity, National Unity and Multicultural Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to review ethnic diversity, national unity and multicultural education in China with graduate students in a multicultural education course and pose some questions for discussion. China is a rapidly developing multiethnic country facing several challenges, including pollution, growing income inequality and low political…

Hinton, Samuel

2011-01-01

34

Vocational Education for China's Ethnic Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes the current status and problems of vocational education for China's ethnic minorities. It concludes that these problems have both universal areas in common with China's overall education situation and individual characteristics; they also have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities. The universal areas include the…

Qian, Minhui

2013-01-01

35

On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

Mingyuan, Gu

2014-01-01

36

Age and Ethnic Variation in Children's Thinking about the Nature of Racism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A content analysis of interviews with an ethnically diverse group of 202 children aged 6 to 10 describes what children think racism is, and examines associations between age, ethnicity, and children's thinking about racism. Children's narratives capture many dimensions of racism, including stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and ethnic

McKown, Clark

2004-01-01

37

Visually Translating Educational Materials for Ethnic Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing populations of older adults, ethnic minorities, and the low-literate create unique concerns for the design of visual information. Those for whom text presents a barrier will respond most to legibility, use of familiar formats and symbols, and simplification. Guidelines for those processes are needed, and this paper, in particular,…

Schiffman, Carole B.

38

Ethnicity, Race, and Nationality in Education: A Global Perspective. The Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 12 papers originally presented at the 14th Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education in 1999. The symposium explored contemporary issues of ethnic, cultural, and national identities and their influence on the social construction of identity. Papers include: (1) "Reconceptualizing Ethnicity and Educational Achievement"…

Shimahara, N. Ken, Ed.; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra, Ed.

39

Ethnicity  

E-print Network

2012 even if the cultural differences between ethnic groupsrather than cultural difference. The source material leavescultural identity. As in earlier periods, naming patterns may also point to ethnic difference;

Riggs, Christina; Baines, John

2012-01-01

40

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups. NCES 2010-015  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups" examines the educational progress and challenges of students in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that over time, the numbers of students of each race/ethnicity who have completed high school and continued their education in college have increased. Despite these…

Aud, Susan; Fox, Mary Ann; KewalRamani, Angelina

2010-01-01

41

Ethnic Studies, Citizenship Education, and the Public Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1990s, ethnic studies and other components of multicultural education have been criticized by neo-conservative and assimilationist scholars who maintain that school diversity initiatives weaken national identity and fail to help students attain the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function effectively in the national mainstream…

Banks, James A.

2012-01-01

42

Race-Ethnicity, Education, and Employment after Spinal Cord Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…

Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David

2010-01-01

43

Development of Ethnic Education and Educational Equality in China: A Statistical Analysis Based on the Two Recent Population Censuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparative analysis of the statistics of the two population censuses conducted in 1990 and 2000 showed that with the development of ethnic education, average years of school attainment have been increased for all ethnic nationalities, and education has been more equalized within different ethnic nationalities. However, educational inequality…

Sun, Baicai; Qi, Jinyu

2007-01-01

44

Effects of Ethnicity, Family Income, and Education on Dietary Intake among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The aim of the study is to describe the overall diet and potential effects of gender, ethnicity, family income, and parents' education on dietary patterns in adolescents aged 11 to 20 years who participated in a cohort study in 12 Southern California communities. Methods. A validated 131-item youth\\/adolescent food frequency questionnaire was administrated among 3,201 participants in the Children's

Bin Xie; Frank D Gilliland; Yu-Fen Li; Helaine RH Rockett

2003-01-01

45

Different People: Studies in Ethnicity and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Originally presented as lectures at Georgia State University in 1982, these three papers address the themes of multiethnic societies in the United States and Great Britain. In the first paper "Identity, Conflict, and Survival Mechanisms for Asian Americans," the author discusses how the observable patterns of mobility through education and…

Gumbert, Edgar B., Ed.

46

Ethnicity, Identity and Educational Achievement in Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identity is central for research on education since, under certain conditions, it may influence school choice, career preferences and classroom behaviour. Identity also determines disposition toward schooling because it may have the capacity to shape and modify the values, beliefs and characteristics that distinguish one person from another, by…

Flores-Crespo, Pedro

2007-01-01

47

Race, ethnicity and education under New Labour  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long?standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of ‘failing’ schools exacerbated school segregation and racial inequalities. Policies intended to improve the achievement

Sally Tomlinson

2005-01-01

48

Race, Ethnicity and Education under New Labour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long-standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of 'failing' schools exacerbated school segregation…

Tomlinson, Sally

2005-01-01

49

Wealth, race\\/ethnicity, and children's educational outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the extent to which disparities in wealth by race\\/ethnicity are related to gaps in children's educational outcomes, and find that family socio-demographics and parental resources account for a substantial proportion of black\\/white and Hispanic\\/white disparities in children's participation in gifted programs, extracurricular activities and grade retention. Black children, however, continue to face high risk of expulsion or suspension

Neeraj Kaushal; Lenna Nepomnyaschy

2009-01-01

50

Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…

Gibson, Sandy

2011-01-01

51

Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners’ World Assumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had significant effects on World Assumption Scale (WAS) scores,

Sandy Gibson

2011-01-01

52

Personal and environmental factors associated with physical inactivity among different racial-ethnic groups of U.S. middle-aged and older-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal, program-based, and environmental barriers to physical activity were explored among a U.S. population-derived sample of 2,912 women 40 years of age and older. Factors significantly associated with inactivity included American Indian ethnicity, older age, less education, lack of energy, lack of hills in one's neighborhood, absence of enjoyable scenery, and infrequent observation of others exercising in one's neighborhood. For

Abby C. King; Cynthia Castro; Sara Wilcox; Amy A. Eyler; James F. Sallis; Ross C. Brownson

2000-01-01

53

Aging Education: A National Imperative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…

McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna

2005-01-01

54

Looking Inward: The impact of race, ethnicity, gender, and social class background on teaching sociocultural theory in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I examine how and to what extent various elements of my biography—race, ethnicity, gender, age, social class background, and prior personal and professional experiences—influenced my relationships with students in a graduate course examining the impact of race, gender, and social class on education. My lived experiences as an immigrant woman of color in United States society and

Allison Skerrett

2006-01-01

55

Ethnicity, aging, and oral health outcomes: a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

An expanded version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization is used as the theoretical and analytical framework for the International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II). The conceptual framework for understanding determinants of oral health is based on a "systems" perspective. The framework posits that characteristics of the external environment, the dental care delivery system, and the personal characteristics of the population influence oral health behaviors. The expanded behavioral model conceptualizes health behaviors (oral hygiene practices and dental services utilization) as intermediate dependent variables, which in turn influence oral health outcomes (evaluated, perceived, patient satisfaction). The framework is presented with an increased focus on the effects of race-ethnicity and age cohort, the major exogenous variables used in this study for systematic assessment of the differences in the multitude of factors influencing oral health. The framework can be applied by policy analysis and health services managers to help describe, predict, and explain population-based health behaviors and health outcomes. PMID:9549985

Andersen, R M; Davidson, P L

1997-05-01

56

Ethnic differences in influences on quality of life at older ages: a quantitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets out to examine ethnic differences in the key influences on quality of life for older people in the context of the increasing health and wealth of British older people generally and the ageing of the post-1945 migrants. It is based on secondary multivariate analysis of the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities of England and Wales. Respondents

MADHAVI BAJEKAL; DAVID BLANE; INI GREWAL; SAFFRON KARLSEN; JAMES NAZROO

2004-01-01

57

Racial and ethnic differences in mammography use among U.S. women younger than age 40  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Evidence-based recommendations for routine breast cancer screening suggest that women begin mammography at age 40, although\\u000a some women receive a mammogram before that age. Little is known about mammography use among younger women, especially with\\u000a respect to race and ethnicity. Methods We used data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey to examine racial\\/ethnic differences in mammography use among

Julie M. Kapp; A. Blythe Ryerson; Steven S. Coughlin; Trevor D. Thompson

2009-01-01

58

Education, Ethnic Identity, and Acculturation as Predictors of Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity of 150 Latino adolescents enrolled in either a bilingual or traditional education program. Bilingual education programs were established to ensure that academic failure was not the product of limited English proficiency. Grade point average (GPA), acculturation, and ethnic

Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

2009-01-01

59

The Development of the Sentiment for Ethnic Studies in American Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The roots of the current movement for ethnic studies in American education can be traced to the early colonial period of American history. The Dutch appear to be the earliest settlers with an interest in ethnic studies. The efforts to resist the dominant English culture began in New York in about 1660. Education became one of the ways non-English…

Crouchett, Lawrence P.

60

Education of Minority Ethnic Groups in Scotland: A Review of Research. SCRE Research Report Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examines research done and information made available regarding the education of minority ethnic groups in Scotland. Compilers of the review used and commented on available statistical information and Scottish studies relevant to minority ethnic groups and their education at all levels. The intent of the review was to determine whether…

Powney, Janet; McPake, Joanna; Hall, Stuart; Lyall, Lindsay

61

Training Workshops for Adult Education Personnel in Cultural and Ethnic Understanding. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Federally sponsored regional training workshops for adult education personnel in cultural/ethnic understanding were designed to increase the level of awareness of cultural/ethnic differences. A training design was developed following an analysis of the Culturally Oriented Teacher Education Materials developed by the Phelps-Stokes Fund, a…

Ford, Claudette, Ed.

62

Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.  

PubMed

This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted. PMID:24722777

Shin, Jung-Hye

2014-06-01

63

Playing the "Race" Card? Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible…

Flintoff, Anne

2015-01-01

64

Age, body mass index and Type 2 diabetes—associations modified by ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ethnicity on the association between age and body mass index as well as the prevalence of diabetes.Methods  We selected population-based studies carried out after 1980 in the DECODE\\/A studies representing different ethnic groups: 11 European, 1 Maltese, 3 Indian, 2 Chinese and 3 Japanese surveys. The total numbers of subjects

2003-01-01

65

Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

Sigelman, Carol K.

2012-01-01

66

Curriculum Approaches to Canadian Ethnic Histories in the Context of Citizenship Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books in the Canadian Ethnic History Series are used to explore three curriculum approaches to citizenship education. The books are reviewed in terms of (1) increasing citizens' knowledge, (2) providing accurate interpretations of the experiences of specific ethnic groups, and (3) encouraging critical reflection about Canadian quality of life. (AV)

Aoki, Ted T.

1978-01-01

67

Vocational Education and Training in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to investigate the provision of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses (SEMBs) operating in the West Midlands region of the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative approach is employed, involving in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 66 owner/managers of small ethnic minority…

Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry

2007-01-01

68

Interactional Issues in the Teaching of "Race" and Ethnicity in UK Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on research into the teaching of "race" and ethnicity in higher education, including interviews with lecturers and students of specialist sociology of "race" options. It focuses particularly on interactional issues: the conversations conducted about "race" and ethnicity within seminar rooms were often conflictual and emotional in…

Jacobs, Susie

2006-01-01

69

Conceptions of Learning and Approaches to Studying among White and Ethnic Minority Students in Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The attainment of White students at UK institutions of higher education tends to be higher than that of students from other ethnic groups, but the causes of this are unclear. Aims: This study compared White students and students from other ethnic groups in their conceptions of learning, their approaches to studying, and their academic…

Richardson, John T. E.

2010-01-01

70

Ethnocentrism and Ethnic-Based Peer Preferences in Higher Education Institutions: Challenges and Implications for Ethiopia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…

Admasu Gebru, Demewoz

2012-01-01

71

Obstacles to Addressing Race and Ethnicity in the Mathematics Education Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Research Commentary builds on a 2-stage literature review to argue that there are 4 obstacles to making a sociopolitical turn in mathematics education that would allow researchers to talk about race and ethnicity in ways that take both identity and power seriously: (a) the marginalization of discussions of race and ethnicity; (b) the…

Parks, Amy Noelle; Schmeichel, Mardi

2012-01-01

72

Ethnicity and Education in China and Vietnam: Discursive Formations of Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to understand how ethnicity is discursively framed in national policies in China and Vietnam and argues that policy discourses affect how the "problem" of ethnicity and educational inequalities is framed and how these inequalities can be addressed. The analysis shows how both Marxist and market-economy governing…

DeJaeghere, Joan; Wu, Xinyi; Vu, Lisa

2015-01-01

73

The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Succession in Ethnic Minority Family Firms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly competitive UK economy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a complex conceptual model of ethnic minority graduates' economic activities and outlines the possible…

Hussain, Javed G.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Matlay, Harry

2010-01-01

74

Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

2010-01-01

75

Education for an Aging Planet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…

Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall

2010-01-01

76

The influence of number of siblings on educational attainment: a comparison of racial/ethnic groups  

E-print Network

The following study utilizes the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS: 88) in an effort to assess the effects of the dilution hypothesis across race and ethnic groups. While this hypothesis has been tested extensively with Anglo male study...

Martinez, Alma Isabel

1999-01-01

77

Ethnic Variability in Body Size, Proportions and Composition in Children Aged 5 to 11 Years: Is Ethnic-Specific Calibration of Bioelectrical Impedance Required?  

PubMed Central

Background Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) has the potential to be used widely as a method of assessing body fatness and composition, both in clinical and community settings. BIA provides bioelectrical properties, such as whole-body impedance which ideally needs to be calibrated against a gold-standard method in order to provide accurate estimates of fat-free mass. UK studies in older children and adolescents have shown that, when used in multi-ethnic populations, calibration equations need to include ethnic-specific terms, but whether this holds true for younger children remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to examine ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years, and to establish the extent to which such differences could influence BIA calibration. Methods In a multi-ethnic population of 2171 London primary school-children (47% boys; 34% White, 29% Black African/Caribbean, 25% South Asian, 12% Other) detailed anthropometric measurements were performed and ethnic differences in body size and proportion were assessed. Ethnic differences in fat-free mass, derived by deuterium dilution, were further evaluated in a subsample of the population (n?=?698). Multiple linear regression models were used to calibrate BIA against deuterium dilution. Results In children <11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities. They also had larger waist and limb girths and relatively longer legs. Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass?=?1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance)+0.18*weight). Conclusion Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required. PMID:25478928

Lee, Simon; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Lum, Sooky; Stocks, Janet; Bonner, Rachel; Naik, Mitesh; Fothergill, Helen; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

2014-01-01

78

Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

2014-07-01

79

Issues in Ethnic Minority Education in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceiving ethnic minority schools merely as institutions which provide competency in the language of heritage is a limited view. History, values, and cultural traditions are also within the curricula of most ethnic schools. The subject matter often conflicts with modern American values, which stress change and mobility rather than tradition. In…

Parker, Sandra M.

80

The Multi-Ethnic European City and Educational Provision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In European cities, ethnic minorities concentrate in physically and socially dilapidated areas, according to two different patterns. In the traditional pattern, ethnic minorities (who are among the lowest socioeconomic status groups) concentrate in the old and dilapidated buildings in inner city areas. Because inner city areas are becoming…

Blanc, Maurice

81

Affirmative Action and the University: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Higher Education Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the impact of affirmative action on higher education hiring practices. Using data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics, the book summarizes, tracks, and evaluates changes in the gender and ethnic makeup of academic and nonacademic…

Rai, Kul B.; Critzer, John W.

82

Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education: Summary of a Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education" is the summary of a workshop held in September 2013 to take a fresh look at the impediments to greater diversification in engineering education. The workshop brought together educators in engineering from two- and four-year colleges and staff members from the three…

National Academies Press, 2014

2014-01-01

83

Migration and ethnic group disproportionality in special education: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues of educational equity and opportunity cannot be understood without regard to special education, as a key response to disabilities, disadvantages, and difficulties. Likewise, globalization cannot be understood without regard to cross?border migration and minority group status in society. Illuminating the nexus of these, research into disproportionality in special education, defined as the over? or under?representation of particular ethnic groups

Susan L. Gabel; Svjetlana Curcic; Justin J. W. Powell; Khaled Khader; Lynn Albee

2009-01-01

84

Ongoing Issues of Racial and Ethnic Stigma in Education 50 Years after Brown v. Board  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Brown v. Board of Education" was focused on eliminating racial stigma and creating greater racial equity in education. Unfortunately, racial and ethnic stigma is still a powerful force in educational institutions of all kind. In this manuscript, I review the ways that stigma impedes academic performance, shapes the classroom climate and…

Zirkel, Sabrina

2005-01-01

85

Online Learning across Ethnicity and Age: A Study on Learning Interaction Participation, Perception, and Learning Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed-method study examined whether online learning interaction participation, perception, and learning satisfaction would be consistent across varied age and ethnicity groups. Data were collected from students enrolled in 28 online courses via content analysis with online interaction transcripts, structural equation modeling with the…

Ke, Fengfeng; Kwak, Dean

2013-01-01

86

Success and Persistence of Developmental Mathematics Students Based on Age and Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ex post facto study examined the fall-to-fall persistence and academic success of students in a medium-sized Virginia community college. The variables of age and ethnicity in combination with whether a student's first mathematics course was developmental were used to examine the effects of each. It was found that neither the interaction of…

Wolfle, James D.

2012-01-01

87

Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

2012-01-01

88

Cultural Orientation in Asian American Adolescents: Variation by Age and Ethnic Density  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…

Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.

2008-01-01

89

Incidence of Parkinson's Disease: Variation by Age, Gender, and Race\\/Ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to estimate the incidence of Parkinson's disease by age, gender, and ethnicity. Newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease cases in 1994-1995 were identified among members of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California, a large health maintenance organization. Each case met modified standardized criteria\\/Hughes diagnostic criteria as applied by a movement disorder specialist. Incidence

Stephen K. Van Den Eeden; Caroline M. Tanner; Allan L. Bernstein; Robin D. Fross; Amethyst Leimpeter; Daniel A. Bloch; Lorene M. Nelson

2003-01-01

90

Forensic age estimation in living subjects: the ethnic factor in wisdom tooth mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiological assessment of the mineralization stage of third molars is a major criterion for age estimation of living people involved in criminal proceedings. To date insufficient knowledge has been obtained about how the ethnic origin can influence tooth mineralization. A comparative study of wisdom tooth mineralization was carried out on three population samples: one German, one Japanese and one South

Andreas Olze; Andreas Schmeling; Mari Taniguchi; Hitoshi Maeda; Piet van Niekerk; Klaus-Dieter Wernecke; Gunther Geserick

2004-01-01

91

Ethnic Education Should Undertake the Major Historic Task of Ethnic Unity and the Possibility of and Explorations into the Localization of Diversified Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that the choice of cultures by ethnic education was determined by a given form of elitist ideology and a power agency. After the conversion of China's society from a planned economy to a market economy, this elitist ideology and power agency has become diversified and includes the elitist ideology of statism. Empowerment has…

Minhui, Qian

2010-01-01

92

Parental Perceptions of Participation in Special Education: Foci on Hispanic and White Children's Ethnicity and Educational Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this study discuss past research, litigation, and legislation pertaining to the topic of parental involvement in special education. In particular, the study examined parental perceptions of their roles as communicators and decision makers in the special education process in terms of ethnicity and child's educational level. Very few…

Krach, S. Kathleen; Ochoa, Salvador Hector; Palmer, Douglas J.

2005-01-01

93

Effects of ethnicity on skeletal maturation: consequences for forensic age estimations.  

PubMed

An X-ray of the hand is an important method in forensic science for estimation of the age of juvenile suspects with uncertain date of birth. Relevant X-ray standards for evaluation of skeletal maturity are available for white US Americans as well as for North and Central Europeans. The applicability of these standards to members of ethnic groups different from the reference population has been the subject of controversial discussion. More than 80 publications were analysed with the view to finding out whether skeletal maturation is affected by ethnic identity. It was concluded that skeletal maturation takes place in phases which are identically defined for all ethnic groups. Time-related differences in passing those stages of skeletal maturation within the relevant age group appear to be unaffected by ethnic identity. It is the socioeconomic status of a given population which is of decisive importance to the rate of ossification. The application of X-ray standards to individuals of a socio-economic status lower than that of the reference population usually leads to underestimation of that person's age. In terms of criminal responsibility, this is of no adverse effect on the person concerned. PMID:11009058

Schmeling, A; Reisinger, W; Loreck, D; Vendura, K; Markus, W; Geserick, G

2000-01-01

94

University of NebraskaLincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color,  

E-print Network

-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability

Farritor, Shane

95

Ethnic identity and risky health behaviors in school-age Mexican-American children.  

PubMed

The study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and risky health behaviors in 1,892 Mexican-American students (M age= 14.6, SD= 1.35; 50.3% male) in South Texas. The Ethnic Identity Scale assessed ethnic identity and questions from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured risky health behaviors (mixed use of alcohol and drugs, heavy drinking, driving under the influence, regular marijuana use, regular cigarette smoking, lack of regular exercise, not eating breakfast regularly, and carrying a gun or knife to school). Logistic regression tested the relationships between ethnic identity and report of risky health behaviors controlling for potential confounders (sex, free school lunch status, grade, and self-reported school grade). Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence intervals were calculated. Results indicated that being associated with Mexican-American cultural identity was significantly associated with a decreased mixed use of alcohol and drugs (AOR= .97), heavy drinking (AOR= .98), and regular marijuana use (AOR= .97). A stronger ethnic identity was protective against engaging in risky health behaviors among these Mexican-American adolescents. PMID:16933671

Love, Ashley S; Yin, Zenong; Codina, Edward; Zapata, Jesse T

2006-06-01

96

Macro and Micro Factors in Ethnic Identity Construction and Educational Outcomes: Minority University Students in the People's Republic of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article develops a theoretical model for examining the interrelationship between ethnic identity and educational outcomes. The model is aimed at developing an understanding of why ethnicity may at times make a difference in academic performance and student empowerment. Ethnic identity is conceptualized as a product of multiple levels of…

Kayongo-Male, Diane; Lee, Maryjo Benton

2004-01-01

97

The Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents as Related to Parent Education Level and Race\\/Ethnicity in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores associations between scores on the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA), parent education level, and race\\/ethnicity in a normative sample of 450 children. Small but significant associations were found between parent education level and the RSCA Sense of Relatedness Scale score. Race\\/ethnicity did not contribute unique variance when parent education level was controlled.

Sandra Prince-Embury

2009-01-01

98

The race/ethnic age crossover effect in drug use and heavy drinking.  

PubMed

Existing literature suggests that Blacks and to some extent Hispanics are less likely than Whites to use substances in their youth. However, by age 35 their use rates are higher than those of Whites. This has been referred to as the race/ethnic age crossover effect in substance use. However, more research is needed to clarify whether this is true for Blacks and Hispanics, males and females, and for drugs and alcohol. It is also empirically unclear why this crossover effect occurs. The present study explores these issues. The National Household Survey of Drug Abuse is merged for four years (1999-2002) to study the race/ethnic age crossover effect (n = 208,878). The results suggest that the race/ethnic age crossover effect cannot be used to describe Hispanic relative to White substance use. However, it is applicable to Black substance use, in particular illegal drug use for Black males and heavy drinking for Black females. Additional analyses reveal that the crossover effect for Blacks is eliminated when socio-demographic controls are included. With controls, drug use and heavy drinking for Blacks are lower than that of Whites for all age groups and for both males and females. Process differences are also revealed in the effects of the socio-demographic correlates. More specifically, these analyses of composition and process suggest that drug availability/exposure is a particularly important factor which likely contributes to the crossover effect in substance use and deserves further study. PMID:19842303

Watt, Toni Terling

2008-01-01

99

Equal Access of Ethnic Minority Students to Different Types of Higher Education Institutions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we focus on answering the question "Is there equal access to different types of higher education institutions (HEIs) for ethnic minority (EM) students in Yunnan Province (China), and what explanation might be found for any differences?" In order to answer this question, we rely on the education attainment theory, and a sample of…

Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

2012-01-01

100

Making Ethnic Citizens: The Politics and Practice of Education in Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the politics and practice of education in Malaysia within the context of ethnicity and nation building. Public education in Malaysia--particularly, but not exclusively, at the pre-university level--is promoted as a nation-building tool, seeking to inculcate a sense of Malaysian-ness and patriotism. Simultaneously, however,…

Brown, Graham K.

2007-01-01

101

Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2011. Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino,…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

102

Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2006. Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

103

Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2009. Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education". The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

2009-01-01

104

Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2008. Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino,…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

105

Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2010. Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education". The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

106

Ethnic Studies Methods and Materials for Teacher Training: A Model for Schools of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected teacher resource projects for ethnic studies are identified and reviewed in this document. Developed at 16 educational institutions across the United States, the projects range in focus from general multiethnic education to specific minority groups including Japanese-, Afro-, French-, Polish-, Italian-, Mexican-, and Ozark-Americans, and…

Smith, Iva A.

107

Widening Participation for Black and Ethnic Minority Women: A Pilot Educational Intervention Using Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The project's objective was to provide a course in community and career development to enable women with a diversity of educational and ethnic backgrounds to move into appropriate employment or to enter mainstream education or training. Design: The course was developed using action research with continuous feedback from participants.…

Gregory, Pat; Lester, Carolyn; O'Neill, Martin; Gray, Louise

2005-01-01

108

Ethnic and Gender Trends for Cardiovascular Risk Behaviors in Anglo and Mexican American Children, Ages Four to Seven.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender and ethnic trends in Mexican American and Anglo preschoolers at home and school using physical, physiological, dietary, activity, and socioenvironmental assessments. Height and total skinfolds showed significant ethnic differences, confirming that preschool represents an age of rapid habit and behavior development…

Nader, Philip R.; And Others

1995-01-01

109

Determinants of Dental Care Utilization for Diverse Ethnic and Age Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental services utilization in the past 12 months was compared across population-based samples of African-American, Navajo, Lakota, Hispanic, and White adults participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) at USA research locations. Bivariate results revealed that ethnic minority groups in both age cohorts reported significantly fewer dental visits in the past 12 months compared with

P. L. Davidson; R. M. Andersen

1997-01-01

110

Effects of ethnicity on skeletal maturation: consequences for forensic age estimations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An X-ray of the hand is an important method in forensic science for estimation of the age of juvenile suspects with uncertain\\u000a date of birth. Relevant X-ray standards for evaluation of skeletal maturity are available for white US Americans as well as\\u000a for North and Central Europeans. The applicability of these standards to members of ethnic groups different from the

A. Schmeling; W. Reisinger; D. Loreck; K. Vendura; W. Markus; G. Geserick

2000-01-01

111

Social or Ethnic Determinants of Educational Opportunities? Results from the Evaluation of the Education Priority Policy Programme in The Netherlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relative importance of social background and ethnic origin in explaining differences in position of immigrants and native Dutch students in the educational system in the Netherlands is studied using data from a study of 19,524 first-year secondary students evaluating the national educational priority policy program and its classification of…

Driessen, Geert W. J. M.

1993-01-01

112

Higher Education Access and Equality among Ethnic Minorities in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market reform, financial decentralization, and economic globalization in recent years have greatly accentuated China's social and regional inequalities. These inequalities stem from many factors, including the rise of an urban middle class, a change in the status of women, a resurgence of ethnic identities, an increase in rural-to-urban migration,…

Zhu, Zhiyong

2010-01-01

113

The Importance of Ethnic Cultural Competency in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of cultural competency in physical education is unmistakable. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) has identified elements of cultural competency within both the National Standards for Physical Education and the National Standards and Guidelines for Physical Education Teacher Education. Although there…

Hansen, Ken

2014-01-01

114

Gender, race, ethnicity, and science education in the middle grades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines gender differences in science achievements and attitudes during the middle grade, when our nation's scientific pipeline begins to emerge. It uses data from a large, nationally representative sample of eighth-grade students (NELS-88). The findings show that in these grades female students do not lag behind their male classmates in science achievements tests, grades, and course enrollments. Actually, some female students have higher probabilities of enrolling in high-ability classes than males. However, female students have less positive attitudes toward science, participate in fewer relevant extracurricular activities, and aspire less often to science careers than males. Students' science attitudes and career interests vary according to students' gender as well as their racial or ethnic background. These findings emphasize the need to further examine the interrelationships between gender and race or ethnicity in our efforts to understand the processes leading to women's limited participation in science-related careers.Received: 2 August 1993; Revised: 8 August 1994;

Catsambis, Sophia

115

University of NebraskaLincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color,  

E-print Network

-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability, sexual orientation-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability

Farritor, Shane

116

Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender.  

PubMed

Family and neighborhood influences related to low-income were examined to understand their association with harsh parenting among an ethnically diverse sample of families. Specifically, a path model linking household income to harsh parenting via neighborhood disorder, fear for safety, maternal depressive symptoms, and family conflict was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 2,132 families with children ages 5-16 years from Chicago. The sample was 42% Mexican American, 41% African American, and 17% European American. Results provide support for a family process model where a lower income-to-needs ratio is associated with higher reports of neighborhood disorder, greater fear for safety, and more family conflict, which is in turn, associated with greater frequency of harsh parenting. Our tests for moderation by ethnicity/immigrant status, child gender, and child age (younger child vs. adolescent) indicate that although paths are similar for families of boys and girls, as well as for families of young children and adolescents, there are some differences by ethnic group. Specifically, we find the path from neighborhood disorder to fear for safety is stronger for Mexican American (United States born and immigrant) and European American families in comparison with African American families. We also find that the path from fear for safety to harsh parenting is significant for European American and African American families only. Possible reasons for such moderated effects are considered. PMID:25383794

Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2014-12-01

117

Adolescent Self-Esteem: Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age  

PubMed Central

Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race/ethnic/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter race/ethnic differences in extreme response style, reduced but did not eliminate the subgroup differences. Age differences in self-esteem are modest, with 12th graders reporting the highest scores. The findings are highly consistent across 18 annual surveys from 1991 through 2008, and self-esteem scores show little overall change during that period. PMID:22279425

Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent

2012-01-01

118

Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

119

Special Issue: Racial and Ethnic Minority Students' Success in STEM Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph provides educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners with an overview of existing knowledge regarding factors that influence success among racial and ethnic minority students in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) circuit. To accomplish this task, the authors reviewed more than four hundred…

Museus, Samuel D.; Palmer, Robert T.; Davis, Ryan J.; Maramba, Dina C.

2011-01-01

120

Early Childhood Care and Education: Effects on Ethnic and Racial Gaps in School Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examine black, white, and Hispanic children's differing experiences in early childhood care and education and explore links between these experiences and racial and ethnic gaps in school readiness. Children who attend center care or preschool programs enter school more ready to learn, but both the share of children enrolled in these…

Magnuson, Katherine A.; Waldfogel, Jane

2005-01-01

121

"We Raised It with the Head": The Educational Practices of Minority Ethnic, Middle-Class Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses findings from a small-scale empirical exploration of the views, experiences and educational practices of middle-class minority ethnic families in the United Kingdom. It draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with 36 parents, pupils and "young professionals". Analyses consider to what extent generic class resources, as…

Archer, Louise

2010-01-01

122

Access to Higher Education of 25 Ethnic Minorities in Yunnan Province, South Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The level of development of higher education (HE) is an important indicator to measure the development of the social economy and the civilization of a region or country. In this article, we compare the distribution of the freshmen of ethnic minorities (EMs) with the distribution of EMs over the population, based on a sample of 1 464 freshmen from…

Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

2010-01-01

123

Crossing Ethnic Barriers in the Southwest: Women's Agricultural Extension Education, 1914-1940. Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From its inception in 1914 until 1940, the New Mexico Agricultural Extension Service was quite successful in delivering educational programs to non-English speaking, Hispanic women in Santa Fe County and almost totally unsuccessful in Dona Ana County. Criteria for success were involvement of ethnic women in the program, ability to adapt national…

Jensen, Joan M.

124

A Comparison of Students' Choices of 9th Grade Physical Education Activities by Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to determine physical education activity preferences of 9th grade students in a southern California school district and to compare preferences by ethnicity. Results indicated that basketball, football, bowling, softball/baseball, swimming, and volleyball were the most preferred activities. These preferences may be…

Hill, Grant M.; Cleven, Brian

2006-01-01

125

Exploring the Educational Benefits of Attending an Ethnically Diverse Magnet High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to gather teacher and student perceptions of the educational benefits that emerge from providing diverse learning environments for students attending an inter-district magnet school. Research Questions were (1) In what ways do teachers and students report that the magnet school offers an ethnically diverse learning…

Carey, Jill

2010-01-01

126

Ethnic Environment during Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and…

Bygren, Magnus; Szulkin, Ryszard

2010-01-01

127

Our University: Ethnicity, Higher Education and the Quest for State Legitimacy in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In East Africa, no other country has witnessed as great a surge in university institutions as Kenya. The intent of this paper is to explore the persistence of the ethnic configurations in the surge of higher education in Kenya, within the context of the country's history. Outlining the major flashpoints in the country's history will be…

Munene, Ishmael I.

2012-01-01

128

China's Policies for Minority Nationalities in Higher Education: Negotiating National Values and Ethnic Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores China's educational policies for ethnic minorities in one particular academic setting, the Central University for Nationalities (CUN) in Beijing, and how these policies are experienced by the students who are supposed to benefit from them. The study takes an emic perspective by looking at the perceptions of minority students at…

Clothey, Rebecca

2005-01-01

129

Preferences towards Sex Education and Information from an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…

Coleman, L.; Testa, A.

2007-01-01

130

Dutch Policies on Socio-Economic and Ethnic Inequality in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1960s The Netherlands has produced policy to combat educational inequalities stemming from the social milieu and ethnicity of pupils. This policy has evolved from local to central policy and back again to a decentralised level. The initial focus on disadvantaged native Dutch pupils in big cities has shifted to immigrant groups and--at…

Driessen, Geert; Dekkers, Hetty

2008-01-01

131

A Comparison of Trilingual Education Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent decades, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has instigated language policies in education ostensibly designed to foster trilingualism in ethnic minority groups. The policies, which, as this paper shows, vary from region to region, encompass the minority group's home language, Chinese, and English. Based on data arising from interviews,…

Adamson, Bob; Feng, Anwei

2009-01-01

132

Gender by ethnic equity issues as they pertain to success in science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science is traditionally a white-male dominated field. This trend has foundations in beliefs and practices accepted before the Enlightenment period. Sixteenth and seventeenth century writers further promoted perceptions that women lacked intellectual capacity to indulge in science. A similar viewpoint was applied to non-white ethnic groups during the 19th and 20th centuries. Questions over Eurocentric and androcentric aspects of science were first raised publicly in 1869, yet significant change in the proportions of women and minorities in science-related fields remains disproportionately low. Public awareness of this situation extends to education where students demonstrate beliefs that opportunities in science are primarily for white males. This commonly shared belief typically produces negative effects on success rates in science education for females and minorities. The purpose of this study was to determine if gender-by-ethnic factors are culturally specific. Do members of one gender/ethnic subgroup experience deterrents to success in science education not common in other ethnic groups? Contrariwise, are negative factors shared across ethnic groups? An effort is made to identify potential gender/ethnic-related barriers that serve to reduce success rates and potentially generate negative attitudes for students about science. A 74-item Likert scale was developed to reveal students' perceptions of issues relative to science education. This instrument was administered to 30 female and 30 male high school students in each of four ethnic groups (African American, Mexican American, American Indian, and Euro American) from public or tribal schools in a large southwestern (United States) urban community. Randomly selected participants from each subgroup were then interviewed to expound upon relevant issues. A reoccurring pattern of reduced interest and experiences in science activities was noted among male American Indians. These participants most often differed with one or more of the other gender/ethnic subgroups in expectations and opportunities for academic success. Most students anticipated support from parents and educators if they were to choose a science related career; however, few expected like consideration from peers. Historical and current issues of cultural relevance are considered as potential sources for outcome patterns noted from the study. Possible areas for future studies are offered.

Snyder, Jan David

133

Exploring the Relationship Between Race\\/Ethnicity, Age of First School-Based Services Utilization, and Age of First Specialty Mental Health Care for At-Risk Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated race\\/ethnic variations in age of entry into school-based services and specialty mental health outpatient services among 1552 high-risk youths served in a publicly funded system of care. Non-Hispanic White youths were more likely to receive school-based services as compared to ethnic minority groups, and to begin use at an earlier age. In addition, the earlier a child

Patricia A. Wood; May Yeh; David Pan; Katina M. Lambros; Kristen M. McCabe; Richard L. Hough

2005-01-01

134

Ethnicity, Equality and Hierarchy: The Fate of Ethnic Groups Under an Open Access Model of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The academic fate of students from different ethnic groups under open admissions at City University of New York is examined. Three central questions are addressed: (1) Who came and how was the ethnic composition of the university affected by open admissions? (2) To what degree did different parts of the university become ethnically integrated? (3)…

Lavin, David E.; And Others

135

Illegitimate participation? A group of young minority ethnic children’s experiences of early childhood education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north?west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried out

Ian Barron

2009-01-01

136

Illegitimate Participation? A Group of Young Minority Ethnic Children's Experiences of Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north-west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried…

Barron, Ian

2009-01-01

137

Age-dependent changes in eumelanin composition in hairs of various ethnic origins.  

PubMed

Hair pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes of humans. From a chemical point of view, however, data remain scarce regarding human hair pigmentation characteristics. To determine melanin content and composition in human eumelanic hair from individuals of different ethnic origins and at different ages, we collected hair from 56 subjects with eumelanic hair from each group of African-American, East Asian, and Caucasian origin. The 56 subjects consist of 14, seven each of males and females, each from four age classes of younger than 11, between 12 and 19, between 20 and 45, and older than 46. We analysed hair colour scale, total melanin value, and contents of pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA). We measured age-dependent increases in the relative quantity of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs in the three ethnic groups. Regarding melanin composition, we observed an increase in the PDCA/PTCA ratio with age in African-American and Caucasian hairs until approaching the quite constant level of the ratio in East Asian hairs in the elderly individuals. Our results evidence differences in the content and composition of eumelanin in human hair among African-American, Caucasian and East Asian individuals. Furthermore, we show evidence of age-dependent changes in the quantity and quality of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs. In particular, the age-dependent modification of the PDCA/PTCA ratio, a marker for 5,6-dihydroxyindole units in eumelanin, suggests a chronological evolution of hair follicle melanocyte phenotype (e.g. decrease in dopachrome tautomerase expression). PMID:22017184

Commo, S; Wakamatsu, K; Lozano, I; Panhard, S; Loussouarn, G; Bernard, B A; Ito, S

2012-02-01

138

Health Status Measurement Performance and Health Status Differences by Age, Ethnicity, and Gender: Assessment in the Medical Outcomes Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The comparative measurement performance of self-reported health status instruments for African American and Hispanic elderly has rarely been studied, despite evidence of their poor health status. This study examined psychometric performance and health status differences by age, ethnicity, and gender among 10,569 ethnically diverse patients who completed the Short-Form General Health Survey in the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). Hispanics and

William E. Cunningham; Ron D. Hays; Tanya M. Burton; Raynard S. Kington

2000-01-01

139

Health Status Measurement Performance and Health Status Differences by Age, Ethnicity, and Gender: Assessment in the Medical Outcomes Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative measurement performance of self-reported health status instruments for African American and Hispanic elderly has rarely been studied, despite evidence of their poor health status. This study examined psychometric performance and health status differences by age, ethnicity, and gender among 10,569 ethnically diverse patients who completed the Short-Form General Health Survey in the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS). Hispanics and

MPH William E. Cunningham; Ron D. Hays

2000-01-01

140

Educational Opportunities. Tackling Ethnic, Class and Gender Inequality through Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection presents a cross section of research into the theme of equal opportunities in education in the Netherlands. The majority of articles are on the Dutch situation, which resembles that of other countries in many respects. Contributions include: (1) "Educational Inequality Research in the Netherlands. Conditions, Constraints and…

Driessen, Geert, Ed.; Jungbluth, Paul, Ed.

141

History of 19th Century Women's Education: A Plea for Inclusion of Class, Race, and Ethnicity. Working Paper No. 114.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this overview of precedents set in the informal and formal education of women of the 19th century, a revisionist approach to the history of education is outlined. Such an approach focuses not only on the elite women's struggles for education, but also on the education of women of color, different classes, and various ethnic backgrounds. Popular…

Brenzel, Barbara M.

142

Temporal Trends in Chorioamnionitis by Maternal Race/Ethnicity and Gestational Age (1995–2010)  

PubMed Central

Objective. To characterize trends in chorioamnionitis (CAM) by maternal race/ethnicity and gestational age. Study Design. We examined trends in CAM from 1995–2010 among singleton births in all Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals (n = 471,821). Data were extracted from Perinatal Service System and clinical utilization records. Gestational age- and race/ethnicity-specific biannual diagnosis rates were estimated using the Poisson regression after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results. Overall diagnosis rates of CAM increased from 2.7% in 1995-1996 to 6.0% in 2009-2010 with a relative increase of 126% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 113%–149%). From 1995-1996 to 2009-2010, CAM increased among the Whites (1.8% to 4.3%, P-value for trend <.001), Blacks (2.2% to 3.7%, P-value for trend <.001), Hispanics (2.4% to 5.8%, P-value for trend <.001), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (3.6% to 9.0%, P-value for trend <.001). The adjusted relative percentage change in CAM from 1995-1996 to 2009-2010 was for Whites [preterm 21% (9%–78%), term 138% (108%–173%)], for Blacks [preterm 24% (?9%–81%), term 62% (30%–101%)], for Hispanics [preterm 31% (3%–66%), term 135% (114%–159%)], and for Asian/Pacific Islanders [preterm 44% (9%–127%), term 145% (109%–188%)]. Conclusion. The findings suggest that CAM diagnosis rate has increased for all race/ethnic groups. This increase is primarily due to increased diagnosis at term gestation.

Wing, Deborah A.

2013-01-01

143

Educational Resources and Outcomes in California, by Race and Ethnicity. California Counts Population Trends and Profiles. Volume 6, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of California Counts explores educational resources and outcomes across racial and ethnic groups in the state. Family and school resources, student outcomes, and public policy initiatives affecting California's students from early childhood through university are examined. Several factors that potentially contribute to racial and ethnic

Reed, Deborah

2005-01-01

144

Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices.  

PubMed

Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N; Moss, Cynthia

2014-04-01

145

Swimming Pool Drownings Among US Residents Aged 5–24 Years: Understanding Racial/Ethnic Disparities  

PubMed Central

Objective. We examined circumstances surrounding swimming pool drownings among US residents aged 5 to 24 years to understand why Black males and other racial/ethnic groups have high drowning rates. Methods. We obtained data about drowning deaths in the United States (1995–1998) from death certificates, medical examiner reports, and newspaper clippings collected by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Results. During the study period, 678 US residents aged 5 to 24 years drowned in pools. Seventy-five percent were male, 47% were Black, 33% were White, and 12% were Hispanic. Drowning rates were highest among Black males, and this increased risk persisted after we controlled for income. The majority of Black victims (51%) drowned in public pools, the majority of White victims (55%) drowned in residential pools, and the majority of Hispanic victims (35%) drowned in neighborhood pools (e.g., an apartment complex pool). Foreign-born males also had an increased risk for drowning compared with American-born males. Conclusions. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce the incidence of swimming pool drownings across racial/ethnic groups, particularly adult supervision at public pools. PMID:16507730

Saluja, Gitanjali; Brenner, Ruth A.; Trumble, Ann C.; Smith, Gordon S.; Schroeder, Tom; Cox, Christopher

2006-01-01

146

Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices  

PubMed Central

Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N.; Moss, Cynthia

2014-01-01

147

Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

2010-03-01

148

Ethnic Minority Pupils in Swedish Schools: Some Trends in Over-Representation of Minority Pupils in Special Educational Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The way categories, labels, and taxonomies are used depends upon national ideologies and nationally specific conceptions of citizenship and normality. Ethnicity, differences, disability and deviance are social constructions. Underachievement or overachievement in social (cognitive) performance or overrepresentation in special educational

Berhanu, Girma

2008-01-01

149

Longitudinal Effects of a Decade of Aging on Carotid Artery Stiffness: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Arterial stiffening is associated with hypertension, stroke, and cognitive decline; however, the effects of aging and cardiovascular disease risk factors on carotid artery stiffening have not been assessed prospectively in a large multi-ethnic, longitudinal study. Methods Distensibility coefficient and Young’s elastic modulus of the right common carotid artery were calculated at baseline and after a mean (standard deviation) of 9.4 (0.5) years in 2,650 participants. Effects of age and cardiovascular disease risk factors were evaluated by multivariable mixed regression and analysis of covariance models. Results At baseline, participants were 59.9 (9.4) years old (53% female; 25% Black, 22% Hispanic, 14% Chinese). Young’s elastic modulus increased from 1,581 (927) to 1,749 (1,306) mmHg (p<0.0001) and distensibility coefficient decreased from 3.1 (1.3) to 2.7 (1.1) x 10?3 mmHg?1 (p<0.001), indicating progressive arterial stiffening. Young’s elastic modulus increased more among participants who were >75 years old at baseline (p<0.0001). In multivariable analyses, older age and less education independently predicted worsening Young’s elastic modulus and distensibility coefficient. Stopping antihypertensive medication during the study period predicted more severe worsening of Young’s elastic modulus (?=360.2 mmHg, p=0.008). Starting antihypertensive medication after exam 1 was predictive of improvements in distensibility coefficient (? =1.1 x 10?4, mmHg?1; p=0.024). Conclusions Arterial stiffening accelerates with advanced age. Older individuals experience greater increases in Young’s elastic modulus than do younger adults, even after considering the effects of traditional risk factors. Treating hypertension may slow the progressive decline in carotid artery distensibility observed with aging and improve cerebrovascular health. PMID:24253542

Gepner, Adam D.; Korcarz, Claudia E.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Hom, Elizabeth K.; Tattersall, Matthew C.; Astor, Brad C.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Liu, Kiang; Stein, James H.

2014-01-01

150

Differential association of socioeconomic status in ethnic and age defined suicides  

PubMed Central

Suicide rates vary among racial- and age-defined groups, yet little is known about how suicide risk factors differentially impact individual groups. This study assessed differential associations of socioeconomic status among age- and race-defined groups of suicide victims. A database containing demographic information on declared suicides in Fulton County, GA from 01/01/1988 through 12/31/2003 was combined with annual per capita income by zip code in Atlanta, GA. Analyses were performed to evaluate differential associations of socioeconomic status among age- and race-defined groups of suicide victims. Compared to the respective ethnic populations of Fulton County, white suicide victims lived in areas with lower per capita income ($51,232 v. $35,893); African American suicide victims did not ($17,384 v. $18,179). Elderly suicide victims (?65 years) were more likely to live in the lowest per capita income areas compared to other age groups (OR 1.80, 95% C.I. 1.14, 2.84). Cox proportional hazards models showed increasing income increased the instantaneous risk of suicide among adolescents (HR 2.76; 95% C.I. 2.15, 3.53), particularly African American adolescents (HR 4.22; 95% C.I. 2.19, 8.11), and decreased risk among the elderly (HR 0.58; 95% C.I. 0.50, 0.68). Socioeconomic status has differential associations among age- and race-defined groups of suicide victims. PMID:19395050

Heninger, Michael; Hanzlick, Randy; Garlow, Steven J.

2009-01-01

151

Interrogating Orthodox Voices: Gender, Ethnicity and Educational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in educational leadership and management, while comprehensive in its scope and direction, has considerable imbalances that have contributed to what Blackmore (1999) has termed the monoculture of the powerful. The focus on the apparent intractability of leadership as a male domain and ways in which women have negotiated the gendered nature…

Fitzgerald, Tanya

2003-01-01

152

Racial/ethnic differences in dementia risk among older type 2 diabetic patients: the diabetes and aging study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Although patients with type 2 diabetes have double the risk of dementia, potential racial/ethnic differences in dementia risk have not been explored in this population. We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in dementia and potential explanatory factors among older diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We identified 22,171 diabetic patients without preexisting dementia aged ?60 years (14,546 non-Hispanic whites, 2,484 African Americans, 2,363 Latinos, 2,262 Asians, 516 Native Americans) from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry. We abstracted prevalent medical history (1 January 1996 to 31 December 1997) and dementia incidence (1 January 1998 to 31 December 2007) from medical records and calculated age-adjusted incidence densities. We fit Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, education, diabetes duration, and markers of clinical control. RESULTS Dementia was diagnosed in 3,796 (17.1%) patients. Age-adjusted dementia incidence densities were highest among Native Americans (34/1,000 person-years) and African Americans (27/1,000 person-years) and lowest among Asians (19/1,000 person-years). In the fully adjusted model, hazard ratios (95% CIs) (relative to Asians) were 1.64 (1.30-2.06) for Native Americans, 1.44 (1.24-1.67) for African Americans, 1.30 (1.15-1.47) for non-Hispanic whites, and 1.19 (1.02-1.40) for Latinos. Adjustment for diabetes-related complications and neighborhood deprivation index did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS Among type 2 diabetic patients followed for 10 years, African Americans and Native Americans had a 40-60% greater risk of dementia compared with Asians, and risk was intermediate for non-Hispanic whites and Latinos. Adjustment for sociodemographics, diabetes-related complications, and markers of clinical control did not explain observed differences. Future studies should investigate why these differences exist and ways to reduce them. PMID:24271192

Mayeda, Elizabeth R; Karter, Andrew J; Huang, Elbert S; Moffet, Howard H; Haan, Mary N; Whitmer, Rachel A

2014-04-01

153

On the Discrepancy of Access to Higher Education in a Province with a Large Ethnic Minority Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a survey of students from different social strata, different family backgrounds and different levels of access to higher education in 10 higher education institutions (HEIs) in Yunnan, an ethnic minority (EM) province, this essay tries to find out the discrepancy in the enrollment opportunity of higher education for children from…

Dong, Yunchuan; Zhang, Jianxin

2007-01-01

154

The Hidden Costs of Ethnic Conflict: Decomposing Trends in Educational Outcomes of Young Kosovars. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of ethnic segmentation in education on educational outcomes. Between 1991 and the late 1990s, the Albanian Kosovar population received education services in an informal system parallel to the official one. Using the 2000 Kosovo Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) data, this paper exploits cohort differences in…

Alva, Soumya; Murrugarra, Edmundo; Paci, Pierella

155

Social Competence as an Educational Goal: The Role of the Ethnic Composition and the Urban Environment of the School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article concerns the relationship between social-educational goals and the school context. We used a questionnaire to map the educational goals of teachers in pre-vocational education in the field of social competence, and investigated whether these goals were related to the percentage of students from ethnic-minority groups and to the urban…

Zwaans, Annemieke; van der Veen, Ineke; Volman, Monique; ten Dam, Geert

2008-01-01

156

Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Incident Cardiovascular Disease: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a risk indicator for coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events independent of other known risk factors in a multi-ethnic cohort. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Participants A diverse population sample of 6233 men and women aged 45–84 without known CVD from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Methods Participants in the MESA had retinal photographs taken between 2002 and 2003. Photographs were evaluated for AMD. Incident CHD/CVD events were ascertained during clinical follow-up visits for up to 8 years after the retinal images were taken. Main Outcome Measures Incident CHD/CVD events. Results Of the 6814 persons at risk of CHD, there were 893 participants with early AMD (13.1%) and 27 (0.5%) at baseline. Over a mean follow-up period of 5.4 years, there was no statistically significant difference in incident CHD or CVD between the AMD and non-AMD groups (5.0%vs. 3.9%, p=0.13 for CHD and 6.6 vs. 5.5%, p=0.19 for CVD, respectively). In Cox regression models adjusting for CVD risk factors, there was no significant relationship between presence of any AMD and any CHD/CVD events (HR=0.99, 95% CI 0.74–1.33, p=0.97). No significant association was found between subgroups of early AMD or late AMD and incident CHD/CVD events. Conclusions In persons without a history of cardiovascular disease, AMD was not associated with an increased risk of CHD or CVD. PMID:22197438

Fernandez, Antonio B; Wong, Tien Y.; Klein, Ronald; Collins, Dorothea; Burke, Gregory; Cotch, Mary Frances; Klein, Barbara; Sadeghi, Mehran M.; Chen, Jersey

2011-01-01

157

University of NebraskaLincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color,  

E-print Network

-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability, sexual orientation's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race

Farritor, Shane

158

The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

2004-01-01

159

Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

2007-01-01

160

The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

2010-01-01

161

Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

2006-01-01

162

Development of Ethnic, Racial, and National Prejudice in Childhood and Adolescence: A Multinational Meta-Analysis of Age Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…

Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

2011-01-01

163

The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

2011-01-01

164

Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

2013-01-01

165

Education, Aging and the Quality of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores education as a creative force affecting all aspects of life. The main emphasis is on developmental possibilities and personal achievements as continuing through the entire lifespan and into the later stages of old age. (CT)

Sihvola, Tapan

1985-01-01

166

Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain this differences. Therefore we propose that older Fars and Turkmen people may have elevated requirement for antioxidants. Supplementation with vitamin or dietary free radical scavengers such as vitamin E and C or foodstuff containing these such as tomatoes, oranges and similars have a potential role in boosting antioxidant related defenses and may be important for older people of two ethnic groups.

Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

167

How Useful Is Body Mass Index for Comparison of Body Fatness across Age, Sex, and Ethnic Groups?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis that body mass index (BMI) is representative of body fatness independent of age, sex, and ethnicity. Between 1986 and 1992, the authors studied a total of 202 black and 504 white men and women who resided in or near New York City, were ages 20-94 years, and had BMIs of 18-35 kg\\/m2. Total body fat,

Dympna Gallagher; Marjolein Visser; Dennis Sepulveda; Richard N. Pierson; Tamara Harris; Steven B. Heymsfield

1996-01-01

168

Multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis arterial age versus framingham 10-year or lifetime cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Methods to improve coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction include incorporation of coronary artery calcium (CAC) within risk models and considering longer time horizons such as evaluation of lifetime cardiovascular risk (LTR). We compared the accuracy of 10-year Framingham risk score (FRS), LTR, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) arterial age-adjusted 10-year risk for prediction of incident CHD events in men in the Prospective Army Coronary Calcium Project. We studied 1,633 healthy men (mean age 43 years, range 40 to 50 years, mean FRS 4.6%) with electron-beam computed tomography for CAC. Events (CHD death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome with nonelective coronary revascularization) were prospectively assessed over 5.6 ± 1.5 years. Predicted risk using 10-year FRS for CHD and cardiovascular disease, LTR, and MESA arterial age were evaluated in relation with CAC and CHD events. CAC prevalence was strongly related to LTR, increasing in a graded fashion from 10.1% to 66.7% across 8 categories of increasing LTR. On receiver operating characteristic analysis, MESA arterial age (area under curve 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.93) had the largest area under the curve but similar areas under the curve were observed for 10-year risk (CHD 0.74, 0.61 to 0.86; cardiovascular disease 0.70, 0.59 to 0.82), LTR (0.68, 0.49 to 0.76), and LTR with CAC as a covariate (0.76, 0.63 to 0.89). Inclusion of family history of CHD or body mass index did not improve model accuracy. In conclusion, increasing LTR was associated with increasingly prevalent CAC in this low-risk cohort and inclusion of CAC improved the accuracy of LTR for short-term event prediction. PMID:22921999

Villines, Todd C; Taylor, Allen J

2012-12-01

169

Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity  

SciTech Connect

The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2010-07-15

170

Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity.  

PubMed

The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. PMID:20400068

Mijal, Renée S; Holzman, Claudia B

2010-07-01

171

The Human Age in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes emergence of Human Age, period of evolution when people, institutions, and organizations begin to focus on tremendous potential of human beings to create beneficial relationships in schools and other settings. Sees primary aim during Human Age to be cultivation of relationships and nurturance of environments in which emerge higher order…

Aspy, Cheryl B.; Aspy, David N.

1993-01-01

172

Educational Communication in a Revolutionary Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a tribute to Dr. Edgar Dale on his retirement from Ohio State University, the papers in this book refer to "the failures of education,""the impotence of the school,""the need for sweeping change," the existence of a "systems break," and "incipient civil war," all of which are products of an age of revolution which continues today. Educational

Tyler, I. Keith, Comp.; Williams, Catharine M., Comp.

173

Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Students from Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups in Special Education: A Resource Document.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is designed to facilitate efforts to develop and implement equitable educational policies and procedures, and remedy discriminatory practices that lead to disproportionate representation of students from racial and ethnic minority groups in special education. It aims to enable technical assistance providers to provide more effective…

Markowitz, Joy; And Others

174

Dynamics of Acculturation, Enculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Influence of Psychocultural Constructs on Conscientiousness and Expectations of Higher Education among Latinos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influence of psychocultural variables (e.g., acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity) and personality characteristics in relation to educational expectations among 345 Latino middle school students in the U.S. Results from a path model indicate that 24.4% of the variance of educational expectations was accounted…

Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.; Davis, Matthew J.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Vaquero, Juana; Thompson, Keisha V.; Saldivar, Isaac M.

2012-01-01

175

The effect of ethnicity and age on palatal size and shape: a study in a northern Chilean healthy population.  

PubMed

Race and ethnicity influence the form of the human craniofacial complex in varying ways. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the effects of ethnicity (mestizos, Aymara, non-Aymara), age (adolescents and adults), and sex on the form (size and shape) of the hard palate in normal Native American individuals. From the dental casts of 51 individuals with a complete permanent dentition, the x, y, and z coordinates of several standardized palatal landmarks were obtained with a computerized 3-dimensional digitizer. Palatal landmarks were used to derive a mathematical equation for palatal shape in the frontal and sagittal planes. Palatal width and length, frontal and sagittal heights, sagittal slope, and deviation of the raphe from the midline were also calculated. In the Aymara subjects, there was no effect of sex on palatal size, but there was an effect on palatal shape independent of size, especially with respect to male growth. Indeed, female palates apparently did not change their shape between adolescence and adulthood, while male palates increased their posterior "height." Overall, the 3 ethnic groups appeared to possess similar palatal size, with small significant differences. In the adult individuals, ethnicity did not seem to influence palatal shape. In contrast, adolescent males showed differences: non-Aymara subjects had the "highest" palatal shape, Aymara the "lowest," and mestizos an intermediate position. In conclusion, ethnicity does not seem to be a factor of major variability of human hard palate morphology, at least in the present 3 northern Chilean groups, as already found for dental arch shape. Age probably has a larger effect, particularly in the posterior part of the palate, where the eruption of the second and third molars between adolescence and young adulthood may play a role. A further development of the present investigation may involve larger samples of individuals from different ethnic groups. PMID:11307201

Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Tartaglia, G M; Carvajal, R; Palomino, H

2000-01-01

176

Race/Ethnicity, Educational Attainment, and Foregone Health Care in the United States in the 2007–2009 Recession  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This study assessed possible associations between recessions and changes in the magnitude of social disparities in foregone health care, building on previous studies that have linked recessions to lowered health care use. Methods. Data from the 2006 to 2010 waves of the National Health Interview Study were used to examine levels of foregone medical, dental and mental health care and prescribed medications. Differences by race/ethnicity and education were compared before the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009, during the early recession, and later in the recession and in its immediate wake. Results. Foregone care rose for working-aged adults overall in the 2 recessionary periods compared with the pre-recession. For multiple types of pre-recession care, foregoing care was more common for African Americans and Hispanics and less common for Asian Americans than for Whites. Less-educated individuals were more likely to forego all types of care pre-recession. Most disparities in foregone care were stable during the recession, though the African American–White gap in foregone medical care increased, as did the Hispanic–White gap and education gap in foregone dental care. Conclusions. Our findings support the fundamental cause hypothesis, as even during a recession in which more advantaged groups may have had unusually high risk of losing financial assets and employer-provided health insurance, they maintained their relative advantage in access to health care. Attention to the macroeconomic context of social disparities in health care use is warranted. PMID:24328647

Hawkins, Jaclynn M.

2014-01-01

177

Science education in a secular age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.

Long, David E.

2013-03-01

178

Aging among Jewish Americans: Implications for Understanding Religion, Ethnicity, and Service Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…

Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

2009-01-01

179

Futurism, Aging, and Health Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of futurism is important to gerontology in order to bridge the gap between theory, policy statement, and actual practice in the field of aging. There is a need to prepare competent individuals for direct service, and to provide increased exposure to gerontology throughout the curriculum. (Author/LPG)

Burdman, Geral Dene M.

1979-01-01

180

Researching Race/Ethnicity and Educational Inequality in the Netherlands: A Critical Review of the Research Literature between 1980 and 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes and critically analyzes how educational sociologists in the Netherlands have studied the relationship between race/ethnicity and educational inequality between 1980 and 2008. Five major research traditions are identified: (1) political arithmetic; (2) racism and ethnic discrimination; (3) school characteristics; (4) school…

Stevens, Peter A. J.; Clycq, Noel; Timmerman, Christianne; Van Houtte, Mieke

2011-01-01

181

Researching race\\/ethnicity and educational inequality in the Netherlands: a critical review of the research literature between 1980 and 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes and critically analyzes how educational sociologists in the Netherlands have studied the relationship between race\\/ethnicity and educational inequality between 1980 and 2008. Five major research traditions are identified: (1) political arithmetic; (2) racism and ethnic discrimination; (3) school characteristics; (4) school choice; and (5) family background. The development of particular research traditions is explained by pointing to

Peter A. J. Stevens; Noel Clycq; Christianne Timmerman; Mieke Van Houtte

2011-01-01

182

Racial/Ethnic Group and Socioeconomic Status Variation in Educational and Occupational Expectations from Adolescence to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the development of educational and occupational expectations from adolescence to adulthood in relation to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) group membership. Hierarchical linear modeling on national data (NELS:88) spanning 12 years yielded several findings: (a) African American participants reported the…

Mello, Zena R.

2008-01-01

183

Motivation, Ethnic Identity, and Post-Secondary Education Language Choices of Graduates of Intensive French Language Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the motivation for learning French, the ethnic identities, and the decision to pursue post-secondary education in French of anglophone graduates of intensive French language programs in high school. Sixty-two graduates of either French immersion, Advanced Placement French, or the International Baccalaureate French program…

Goldberg, Erin; Noels, Kimberly A.

2006-01-01

184

African American Adolescents' Future Education Orientation: Associations with Self-Efficacy, Ethnic Identity, and Perceived Parental Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study, using data from 374 African American students (59.4% female) in grades 7-12 attending a rural, southern county public school, addressed associations of self-efficacy, ethnic identity and parental support with "future education orientation." Both gender and current level of achievement distinguished adolescents with differing…

Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Eryigit, Suna; Stephens, Carolyn J.

2008-01-01

185

A Community Needs Assessment for Post-Secondary Education on the Multi-Ethnic Island of Lana'i.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To gather information for Maui Community College's (MCC's), on the Multi-Ethnic Island of Lana'i. fall 1992 of students and residents of the island of Lana'i to assess community interests and educational needs. Responses were received from 232 Lana'i residents, of whom 49% were current or former students, 31% were male, and 84% were employed.…

Pezzoli, J. A.; McOmber, Phyllis

186

Who's in STEM? An Exploration of Race, Ethnicity, and Citizenship Reporting in a Federal Education Dataset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the United States becomes more racially and ethnically diverse and draws more students from across the globe, more representative data are needed to understand at-risk and underrepresented populations in higher education, particularly in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. The authors argue that the current…

Byrd, W. Carson; Dika, Sandra L.; Ramlal, Letticia T.

2013-01-01

187

Citizenship Education and Human Rights in Sites of Ethnic Conflict: Toward Critical Pedagogies of Compassion and Shared Fate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present essay discusses the value of citizenship as shared fate in sites of ethnic conflict and analyzes its implications for citizenship education in light of three issues: first, the requirements of affective relationality in the notion of citizenship-as-shared fate; second, the tensions between the values of human rights and shared fate in…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2012-01-01

188

Creating a Multicultural Curriculum in Han-Dominant Schools: The Policy and Practice of Ethnic Solidarity Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the recent heightened interethnic conflicts that were regarded as threatening national unity and stability, the Chinese government issued "ethnic solidarity education" as a top-down, centrally administered mandate to be implemented "correctly" and in a standardised way by schools throughout China. This paper…

Zhang, Donghui; Chen, Lipeng

2014-01-01

189

New Technologies, New Differences. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Pupils' Use of ICT in Primary and Secondary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the accessibility and attractiveness of different types of ICT applications in education for girls and boys and for pupils from families with an ethnic minority background and from the majority population in the Netherlands. A study was conducted in seven schools (primary and secondary). Data were collected on…

Volman, Monique; van Eck, Edith; Heemskerk, Irma; Kuiper, Els

2005-01-01

190

Improving Ethnic Balance and Intergroup Relations; An Advisory Report to the Board of Education, Santa Barbara City Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on field observations and a review of data, this report presents the findings of a study of the ethnic and racial composition and intergroup relations in the Santa Barbara Unified District schools. These findings are information on (1) unequal educational opportunities, (2) the district's policy in intergroup relations, (3) staff…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Intergroup Relations.

191

A community cohort study about childhood social and economic circumstances: racial/ethnic differences and associations with educational attainment and health of older adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Typical measures of childhood socioeconomic status (SES), such as father's occupation, have limited the ability to elucidate mechanisms by which childhood SES affects adult health. Mechanisms could include schooling experiences or work opportunities. Having previously used qualitative methods for concept development, we developed new retrospective measures of multiple domains of childhood social and economic circumstances in ethnically diverse older adults. We administered the new measures in a large sample and explored their association with adult SES. Design We used a cross-sectional survey design with a community sample. Setting The San Francisco Bay Area in California. Participants 400 community-dwelling adults from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds (Whites, African Americans, Latinos and Asians/Pacific Islanders) aged 55 and older (mean=67?years); 61% were women. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured attitudes towards schooling, extracurricular activities and adult encouragement and discouragement during the childhood/teen years. Bivariate analysis tested racial/ethnic differences on the various measures. Multivariate regression models estimated the extent to which retrospective circumstances were independently associated with adult educational attainment and adult health. Results Most of the childhood circumstances measures differed across racial/ethnic groups. In general, Whites reported more positive circumstances than non-Whites. Family financial circumstances, respondent's perception of schooling as a means to get ahead, high school extracurricular activities, summer travel and summer reading were each statistically significantly associated with adult SES. Family composition, age began work, high school extracurricular activities, attitudes towards schooling and adult discouragement were associated with adult health. PMID:23562813

Yen, Irene H; Gregorich, Steven; Cohen, Alison K; Stewart, Anita

2013-01-01

192

Neuropsychological impairment in racial/ethnic minorities with HIV infection and low literacy levels: Effects of education and reading level in participant characterization  

PubMed Central

Educational attainment is an important factor in the interpretation of cognitive test scores but years of education are not necessarily synonymous with educational quality among racial/ethnic minority populations. This study investigated the comparability of educational attainment with reading level and examined whether discrepancies in education and reading level accounted for differences in neuropsychological test performance between HIV+ racial/ethnic minority and nonminority participants. Study participants (N = 200) were derived from the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank (MHBB) where 50% of the cohort had ?8th grade reading level but only 5% had ?8 years of education. Significantly lower reading ability and education was found among African Americans and Hispanics, and these participants were more likely to have discrepant reading and education levels compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Discrepancy in reading and education level was associated with worse neuropsychological performance while racial/ethnic minority status was not. As years of schooling overestimated racial/ethnic minority participants’ educational quality, standard norms based on education may inflate impairment rates among racial/ethnic minorities. Identifying appropriate normative standards is and will continue to be important in the detection of cognitive impairment in racial/ethnic minorities with HIV. PMID:16519268

RYAN, ELIZABETH L.; BAIRD, REON; MINDT, MONICA RIVERA; BYRD, DESIREE; MONZONES, JENNIFER; MORGELLO, SUSAN

2006-01-01

193

Stages of Ethnic Identity Development: Implications for Educational Decision-Making.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the research and theories on ethnic identity development, and draws some implications from these ideas for improving curriculum design for, and instructional effectiveness with, ethnically different students, especially Black Americans. The paradigm of "the developmental stages of ethnic identity transformation" presented relies…

1983

194

Singapore Education Sector Analysis: Improvement and Challenges in Academic Performance of Four Ethnic Groups in Singapore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singapore is a multi-ethnic nation-state with the following ethnic groups: Chinese (76.8%), Malay (13.9%), Indian (7.9%), and Others (1.4%) such as Eurasians, Europeans, Arabs, Jews, and Japanese. A bilingual policy, which takes English as a lingua franca and Mandarin, Malay, and Tamil as mother tongue for each ethnic group, reflects this…

Yamashita, Mika

195

Aging and Adult Education: A Challenge for Adult Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By the year 2000, at least 20 percent of Europeans will be over 60 years old. As the labor force ages, older employees will have to contribute more to the productivity of organizations. Due to rapid technological changes, more retraining will be required. Education can fulfill important functions for older adults, but their learning style must be…

van der Kamp, Max

196

Dietary intakes of preschool-aged children in relation to caregivers' race/ethnicity, acculturation, and demographic characteristics: results from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the influence of acculturation on dietary behaviors of young children while controlling for other demographic variables. The purpose of this study was to assess reported dietary intakes of preschool-aged children (3-5 years) and subsequent associations with caregivers' race/ethnicity, acculturation and demographic characteristics, using data from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Analysis was restricted to Hispanic and non-Hispanic white caregivers and their preschool-aged children (n = 1,105). Caregivers' acculturation was assessed using place of birth, duration of United States residence, and language spoken at home. Proxy-reports by caregivers to a dietary screener were used to estimate children's intakes of fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables, sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages consumed. In multivariate analyses, Hispanic caregivers reported their children consumed fewer servings of vegetables than did the children of non-Hispanic white caregivers; there were no other statistically significant differences in children's dietary intakes by caregivers' race/ethnicity. Caregivers' acculturation was associated with caregiver-reported consumption of sweets by children (? = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.01-0.18). Demographic characteristics that were associated with reported dietary intakes of children included caregivers' age, education, and geographic region of residence. In contrast to past studies of acculturation and diet in older children and adults, this study suggests that for 3-5 year olds, caregivers' level of acculturation does not play as strong a role in the dietary intakes of the younger children under their care. PMID:22160613

Erinosho, Temitope O; Berrigan, David; Thompson, Frances E; Moser, Richard P; Nebeling, Linda C; Yaroch, Amy L

2012-12-01

197

Binge Drinking, Cannabis and Tobacco Use Among Ethnic Norwegian and Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Oslo, Norway.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions. PMID:25037580

Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars

2014-07-19

198

Generic Tobacco Use among Four Ethnic Groups in a School Age Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…

De Moor, Carl; And Others

1989-01-01

199

‘To Be an Englishman’: Nation, Ethnicity and English Cricket in the Global Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution is concerned with two central issues in contemporary English cricket, both of which touch on notions of ethnicity and nation. Firstly, it explores the paradox in which, on the one hand, cricket has been an enduring motif of an unchanging Englishness while, on the other, particularly since the 1960s, the English cricket authorities have availed themselves of an

Stephen Wagg

2007-01-01

200

From professional lives to inclusive practice: Science teachers and scientists' views of gender and ethnicity in science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide insight into issues of gender and ethnicity in science education, we examine the views of approximately 60 secondary science teachers and university scientists from three different research projects. In each project, participants and researcher explored the intersection of professional and personal identities; views of the nature of science; beliefs related to students' experiences in science education; and kinds of curricular and instructional strategies used to promote access and equity for all students. Participants' interviews were analyzed qualitatively for patterns across these four dimensions of inclusive science education. Analysis of data revealed a wide range of beliefs and experiences along each dimension. From our findings, we argue for careful examination of the ways identities shape instructors' professional experiences and educational practices; critical, constructive conversations about feminist science studies scholarship between professional developers and science teachers or scientists; and reasoned reflection on how views of students can inform recommendations for inclusive content and instruction. We conclude with the call for increased sophistication in the conceptualization and implementation of solutions to the problem of women and ethnic minorities in science education, for balancing recognition of systematic gender and ethnic bias with sensitivity to instructors and students' diverse interests and experiences.

Bianchini, Julie A.; Cavazos, Lynnette M.; Helms, Jenifer V.

2000-08-01

201

Practices in Old Age ICT Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lifelong learning as an individual activity that spans over one’s life is not a reality yet, despite the general guides of\\u000a educational policy. Especially the elderly, those over 65 years, are in danger of lagging behind. The solid trust in one’s\\u000a own activity and learning skills is required, besides, many aged today lack the learning culture (Tikkanen, 2003, Gerontologia, Helsinki:

Minnamari Naumanen; Markku Tukiainen

202

Increasing the involvement of national and regional racial and ethnic minority organizations in HIV information and education.  

PubMed Central

Responding to the facts that (a) the AIDS epidemic is occurring among black and Hispanic populations disproportionately to their percentage of the U.S. population and (b) effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs are racially, ethnically, and culturally relevant and sensitive, CDC in 1988 initiated a 5-year grant program for HIV prevention efforts by national racial and ethnic minority organizations and regional consortia of racial and ethnic minority organizations. A total of 33 organizations received first-year funds. Of the 32 grants that are ongoing, 15 primarily target blacks, 12 Hispanics, 4 Native Americans and Alaskan Natives, and 1 Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Some grants are for more than one racial or ethnic population. Programs may be categorized as (a) education programs within national non-AIDS organizations and their respective affiliate networks to increase their understanding, support, and community out-reach for HIV prevention; for example, National Urban League, Inc.; (b) programs providing specific HIV prevention expertise and technical assistance to community-based and other organizations; for example, National Minority AIDS Council; (c) HIV prevention programs emphasizing communications and media; for example, Hispanic Designers, Inc; and (d) prevention programs targeted to a specific racial or ethnic group within a geographic area; for example, Midwest Hispanic AIDS Coalition. As a result of these grants, substantial resources are being invested in prevention programs developed by and for racial and ethnic minorities. Other overall benefits include an expanded foundation of organizations to address AIDS and other health problems affecting these populations, strengthened interrelationships among HIV-focused and broader-based minority organizations, and extensive collaboration of private sector organizations with Federal and State public health and education agencies. PMID:1659717

Holman, P B; Jenkins, W C; Gayle, J A; Duncan, C; Lindsey, B K

1991-01-01

203

The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities  

PubMed Central

Background UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W) and non-white (NW) students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students. Methods Attainment at GCSE and A level, and selection for medical school in relation to ethnicity, were analysed in two separate databases. The 10th cohort of the Youth Cohort Study provided data on 13,698 students taking GCSEs in 1999 in England and Wales, and their subsequent progression to A level. UCAS provided data for 1,484,650 applicants applying for admission to UK universities and colleges in 2003, 2004 and 2005, of whom 52,557 applied to medical school, and 23,443 were accepted. Results NW students achieve lower grades at GCSE overall, although achievement at the highest grades was similar to that of W students. NW students have higher educational aspirations, being more likely to go on to take A levels, especially in science and particularly chemistry, despite relatively lower achievement at GCSE. As a result, NW students perform less well at A level than W students, and hence NW students applying to university also have lower A-level grades than W students, both generally, and for medical school applicants. NW medical school entrants have lower A level grades than W entrants, with an effect size of about -0.10. Conclusion The effect size for the difference between white and non-white medical school entrants is about B0.10, which would mean that for a typical medical school examination there might be about 5 NW failures for each 4 W failures. However, this effect can only explain a portion of the overall effect size found in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations of about -0.32. PMID:18416818

McManus, IC; Woolf, Katherine; Dacre, Jane

2008-01-01

204

Ethnicity and Race: Creating Educational Opportunities around the Globe. International Advances in Education: Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice takes a resource perspective toward culture, ethnicity, and race. Its purpose is to foster global dialog about race and ethnicity, with an emphasis on sharing strategies and solutions. While one might view problems stemming from racial and ethnic differences as intractable, the book's…

Brown, Elinor L., Ed.; Gibbons, Pamela E., Ed.

2011-01-01

205

The Under-Attainment of Ethnic Minority Students in UK Higher Education: What We Know and What We Don't Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In UK higher education, ethnic differences in academic attainment are ubiquitous and have persisted for many years. They are only partly explained by ethnic differences in entry qualifications. They vary from one institution to another and from one subject area to another. This suggests that they result in part from teaching and assessment…

Richardson, John T. E.

2015-01-01

206

Risk of developing multimorbidity across all ages in an historical cohort study: differences by sex and ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the incidence of de novo multimorbidity across all ages in a geographically defined population with an emphasis on sex and ethnic differences. Design Historical cohort study. Setting All persons residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA on 1 January 2000 who had granted permission for their records to be used for research (n=123?716). Participants We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records-linkage system to identify all of the county residents. We identified and removed from the cohort all persons who had developed multimorbidity before 1 January 2000 (baseline date), and we followed the cohort over 14?years (1 January 2000 through 31 December 2013). Main outcome measures Incident multimorbidity was defined as the development of the second of 2 conditions (dyads) from among the 20 chronic conditions selected by the US Department of Health and Human Services. We also studied the incidence of the third of 3 conditions (triads) from among the 20 chronic conditions. Results The incidence of multimorbidity increased steeply with older age; however, the number of people with incident multimorbidity was substantially greater in people younger than 65?years compared to people age 65?years or older (28?378 vs 6214). The overall risk was similar in men and women; however, the combinations of conditions (dyads and triads) differed extensively by age and by sex. Compared to Whites, the incidence of multimorbidity was higher in Blacks and lower in Asians. Conclusions The risk of developing de novo multimorbidity increases steeply with older age, varies by ethnicity and is similar in men and women overall. However, as expected, the combinations of conditions vary extensively by age and sex. These data represent an important first step toward identifying the causes and the consequences of multimorbidity. PMID:25649210

St Sauver, Jennifer L; Boyd, Cynthia M; Grossardt, Brandon R; Bobo, William V; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Roger, Véronique L; Ebbert, Jon O; Therneau, Terry M; Yawn, Barbara P; Rocca, Walter A

2015-01-01

207

Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

2012-01-01

208

Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989-2005.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals' life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

Everett, Bethany G; Rogers, Richard G; Hummer, Robert A; Krueger, Patrick M

2011-01-01

209

Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989–2005  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.

2012-01-01

210

Masculinities, the Metrosexual, and Media Images: Across Dimensions of Age and Ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

By inviting two generations of ethnically diverse men to define masculinity, this study makes visible ways men conform to, negotiate, and resist forces of hegemonic masculinity in the 21st century.\\u000a Masculine gender role conflict theory provides underpinning for a textual analysis of empirical evidence gathered among U.S.\\u000a young college men (N?=?80) in focus groups and their fathers\\/uncles (N?=?27) during interviews.

Donnalyn Pompper

2010-01-01

211

Adolescent Self-esteem: Differences by Race\\/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race\\/ethnic\\/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter

Jerald G. Bachman; Patrick M. OMalley; Peter Freedman-Doan; Kali H. Trzesniewski; M. Brent Donnellan

2010-01-01

212

Adolescent Self-esteem: Differences by Race\\/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race\\/ethnic\\/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter

Jerald G. Bachman; Patrick M. OMalley; Peter Freedman-Doan; Kali H. Trzesniewski; M. Brent Donnellan

2011-01-01

213

The Nonlinear Relationship between Education and Mortality: An Examination of Cohort, Race/Ethnic, and Gender Differences  

PubMed Central

Researchers investigating the relationship between education and mortality in industrialized countries have consistently shown that higher levels of education are associated with decreased mortality risk. The shape of the education-mortality relationship and how it varies by demographic group have been examined less frequently. Using the U.S. National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files, which link the 1986 through 2004 NHIS to the National Death Index through 2006, we examine the shape of the education-mortality curve by cohort, race/ethnicity, and gender. Whereas traditional regression models assume a constrained functional form for the dependence of education and mortality, in most cases semiparametric models allow us to more accurately describe how the association varies by cohort, both between and within race/ethnic and gender subpopulations. Notably, we find significant changes over time in both the shape and the magnitude of the education-mortality gradient across cohorts of women and white men, but little change among younger cohorts of black men. Such insights into demographic patterns in education and mortality can ultimately help increase life expectancies. PMID:24288422

Everett, Bethany G.; Rehkopf, David H.; Rogers, Richard G.

2013-01-01

214

Exploring Alcohol-Use Behaviors Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescents: Intersections With Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined sexual orientation status differences in alcohol use among youths aged 13 to 18 years or older, and whether differences were moderated by sex, age, or race/ethnicity. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and conducted weighted analyses, adjusting for complex design effects. We operationalized sexual orientation status with items assessing sexual orientation identity, sexual behavior, sexual attraction, or combinations of these. Results. Compared with exclusively heterosexual youths, sexual-minority youths were more likely to report each of the primary study outcomes (i.e., lifetime and past-month alcohol use, past-month heavy episodic drinking, earlier onset of drinking, and more frequent past-month drinking). Alcohol-use disparities were larger and more robust for (1) bisexual youths than lesbian or gay youths, (2) girls than boys, and (3) younger than older youths. Few differences in outcomes were moderated by race/ethnicity. Conclusions. Bisexual youths, sexual-minority girls, and younger sexual-minority youths showed the largest alcohol-use disparities. Research is needed that focuses on identifying explanatory or mediating mechanisms, psychiatric or mental health comorbidities, and long-term consequences of early onset alcohol use, particularly frequent or heavy use, among sexual-minority youths. PMID:24328614

Hughes, Tonda L.; Aranda, Frances; Birkett, Michelle; Marshal, Michael P.

2014-01-01

215

Education biographies from the science pipeline: An analysis of Latino/a student perspectives on ethnic and gender identity in higher education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is a qualitative narrative analysis on the importance and relevance of the ethnic and gender identities of 17 Latino/a (Hispanic) college students in the biological sciences. This research study asks the question of how one's higher education experience within the science pipeline shapes an individual's direction of study, attitudes toward science, and cultural/ethnic and gender identity development. By understanding the ideologies of these students, we are able to better comprehend the world-makings that these students bring with them to the learning process in the sciences. Informed by life history narrative analysis, this study examines Latino/as and their persisting involvement within the science pipeline in higher education and is based on qualitative observations and interviews of student perspectives on the importance of the college science experience on their ethnic identity and gender identity. The findings in this study show the multiple interrelationships from both Latino male and Latina female narratives, separate and intersecting, to reveal the complexities of the Latino/a group experience in college science. By understanding from a student perspective how the science pipeline affects one's cultural, ethnic, or gender identity, we can create a thought-provoking discussion on why and how underrepresented student populations persist in the science pipeline in higher education. The conditions created in the science pipeline and how they affect Latino/a undergraduate pathways may further be used to understand and improve the quality of the undergraduate learning experience.

Lujan, Vanessa Beth

216

Increased Education is Associated with Decreased Compliance in an Urban Multi-Ethnic Lupus Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the factors associated with medication compliance in a multi-ethnic population of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in an urban community. Methods We surveyed patients in our cohort using the standardized measures of the Compliance-Questionnaire-Rheumatology (CQR), the Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire (BMQ), as well as patient self-reported compliance. Demographic and clinical characteristics of compliant and non-compliant patients underwent bivariate analysis. A multivariate analysis was then performed on variables of interest. Results Of the 94 patients who agreed to participate in the survey, 89 fully completed each questionnaire. Overall, 48% of patients were compliant by CQR. In multivariate analyses, higher education level was associated with non-compliance. Spanish-speaking patients and those with an income of greater than $15,000 per year were more likely to be compliant. Conclusions In this urban lupus population, several factors may influence medication compliance. Factors associated with non-compliance are not what have been found in other populations. Further studies looking into specific reasons for certain areas of non-compliance as well as addressing these issues will be important in both treatment and outcomes in lupus patients in implementing appropriate interventions. PMID:25419480

Gross, Rachel; Graybill, Jennifer; Wahezi, Dawn; Jordan, Nicole C.; Putterman, Chaim; Blanco, Irene

2014-01-01

217

Blood Relatives: Language, Immigration, and Education of Ethnic Returnees in Germany and Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000 "Nikkeijin," or people of Japanese…

Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.

2007-01-01

218

Ethnic & Linguistic Minority Children with Special Needs. A Critical Review of Educational Language & Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes experiences in teaching ethnic and linguistic minority children with learning difficulties and counseling their families, from 1976 to 1992 in Pakistan and England. The paper begins with a vignette describing an ethnic minority child with learning difficulties. A global approach to the issues is then presented, examining the…

Miles, Christine

219

Phenotypic Bias and Ethnic Identity in Filipino Americans*  

PubMed Central

Objective Links between phenotypes (skin tone, physical features) and a range of outcomes (income, physical health, psychological distress) were examined. Ethnic identity was examined as a protective moderator of phenotypic bias. Method Data were from a community sample of 2,092 Filipino adults in San Francisco and Honolulu. Results After controlling for age, nativity, marital status, and education, darker skin was associated with lower income and lower physical health for females and males. For females, more ethnic features were associated with lower income. For males, darker skin was related to lower psychological distress. One interaction was found such that females with more ethnic features exhibited lower distress; however, ethnic identity moderated distress levels of those with less ethnic features. Conclusions Phenotypic bias appears prevalent in Filipino Americans though specific effects vary by gender and skin color versus physical features. Discussion centers on the social importance of appearance and potential strengths gained from ethnic identification. PMID:20107617

Kiang, Lisa; Takeuchi, David T.

2009-01-01

220

Predicting resistance to health education messages for cannabis use: the role of rebelliousness, autic mastery, health value and ethnicity.  

PubMed

The prevalent use of cannabis by adolescents and young adults, combined with the common misconception that smoking cannabis is relatively harmless, warrants the exploration of factors influencing resistance to health education messages about cannabis use. This investigation did so within a Reversal Theory framework. One hundred and thirteen undergraduate students responded to an informative leaflet detailing the health effects of smoking cannabis. The most significant independent predictor of message resistance was frequency of cannabis use, followed by proactive rebelliousness, autic mastery, health value and ethnicity. These findings have implications for the development, design and targeting of cannabis health education programmes. PMID:22459759

Boddington, Ellen L; McDermott, Mark R

2013-02-01

221

Higher Education and Happiness in the Age of Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

2011-01-01

222

Edentulism Trends among Middle-aged and Older Adults in the United States: Comparison of Five Racial/Ethnic Groups  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study examined edentulism trends among adults aged 50 and above in five ethnic groups in the United States: Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and non-Hispanic Caucasians. Methods Data came from the National Health Interview Surveys between 1999 and 2008. Respondents included 616 Native Americans, 2,666 Asians, 15,295 African Americans, 13,068 Hispanics, and 86,755 Caucasians. Results In 2008, Native Americans had the highest predicated rate of edentulism (23.98%), followed by African Americans (19.39%), Caucasians (16.90%), Asians (14.22%), and Hispanics (14.18%). Overall, there was a significant downward trend in edentulism rates between 1999 and 2008 (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.98). However, compared to Caucasians, Native Americans showed significantly less decline of edentulism during this period (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.19). Conclusions While there was a downward trend in edentulism between 1999 and 2008, significant variations existed across racial/ethnic groups. Innovative public health programs and services are essential to prevent oral health diseases and conditions for minority populations who are lack of access to adequate dental care. Additionally, given the increasing numbers of adults retaining their natural teeth, interventions designed to assist individuals maintaining healthy teeth becomes more critical. PMID:21974715

Liang, Jersey; Plassman, Brenda L.; Remle, R. Corey; Luo, Xiao

2013-01-01

223

Effect of ethnicity, gender and age on the amount and composition of residual skin surface components derived from sebum, sweat and epidermal lipids  

PubMed Central

Background/purpose The superficial layer on the skin surface, known as the acid mantle, comprises a mixture of sebum, sweat, corneocyte debris and constituents of natural moisturizing factor. Thus, the phrase ‘residual skin surface components’ (RSSC) is an appropriate term for the mixture of substances recovered from the skin surface. There is no general agreement about the effects of ethnicity, gender and age on RSSC. The aim of this human volunteer study was to evaluate RSSC in relation to ethnicity, gender and age. A suitable acquisition medium for RSSC collection was identified and samples of RSSC were subsequently analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gravimetry. Methods A total of 315 volunteers participated in the study from a range of self-declared ethnic backgrounds. Six acquisition media were compared to determine the most suitable media for RSSC collection. The effect of age, gender and ethnicity on RSSC collection was evaluated by gravimetric analysis while GC-MS was used to determine the composition of RSSC. Results Of the six candidate materials assessed, cigarette paper provided the most practical and reproducible sample acquisition medium. There was no significant difference in the amount of RSSC collected when based on gender and ethnicity and no significant correlation between RSSC recovery and age. Up to 49 compounds were detected from human RSSC when analysed by GC-MS. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that RSSC can be effectively collected using cigarette paper and analysed by GC-MS. Ethnicity, gender and age had no significant impact on the quantity of RSSC recovered from the skin surface. PMID:23865719

Shetage, Satyajit S; Traynor, Matthew J; Brown, Marc B; Raji, Mahad; Graham-Kalio, Diepiriye; Chilcott, Robert P

2014-01-01

224

Marital Happiness and Sleep Disturbances in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Middle-Aged Women  

PubMed Central

Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N=2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single-item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4-items from the Women’s Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women. PMID:19116797

Troxel, Wendy M.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.

2009-01-01

225

The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups  

PubMed Central

Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African American and Hispanic youth, high maternal satisfaction with the relationship was significantly protective of smoking initiation. For older Hispanics, high parental presence and high parent-family connectedness were protective against smoking initiation while lack of awareness about the adolescent’s whereabouts was a risk factor for initiation in both younger and older Caucasians, and in the older Hispanics. Our results underscore the importance of maintaining high levels of family bonding with the adolescent throughout early and late adolescence in order to decrease tobacco initiation. PMID:22267899

Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

2011-01-01

226

Ethnic Minorities and Achievements: The Black Hole in Science Ranks. Part 2: Post-16 Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the overrepresentation of ethnic minority postsecondary students into the arts and humanities instead of science and technical coursework and its impact on employability. The factors that impact this trend are highlighted. (GR)

Rasekoala, Elizabeth

1997-01-01

227

Two steps forward, one step back: Race/ethnicity and student achievement in education policy research  

E-print Network

of both the Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Island aggregate groups there are substantial, though not always statistically significant, academic performance differences among ethnic subgroups, with a range of math performance among Hispanic subgroups of 10...

Baker, Bruce D.; Keller-Wolff, Christine; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa E.

2000-09-01

228

The Consortium on Race, Gender, and Ethnicity Latino/a Heritage Month 2013  

E-print Network

The Consortium on Race, Gender, and Ethnicity FACT SHEET Latino/a Heritage Month 2013 September 15 of mixed indigenous, African, and european heritage with roots in Latin America. It generally excludes The Consortium on Race, Gender and Ethnicity LATINOS VALUE EDUCATION · Seventy eight percent (78%) age 18-24 have

Hill, Wendell T.

229

The Consortium on Race, Gender, and Ethnicity Latino/a Heritage Month 2014  

E-print Network

The Consortium on Race, Gender, and Ethnicity FACT SHEET Latino/a Heritage Month 2014 September 15 of mixed indigenous, African, and european heritage with roots in Latin America. It generally excludes The Consortium on Race, Gender and Ethnicity Latinos VaLue education · Seventy eight percent (78%) age 18-24 have

Hill, Wendell T.

230

Pensacola Junior College Educational Support Development Plan for the Aging and Aged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report recommends three general categories of involvement in the development of educational programs for the aging and aged at Pensacola Junior College (Florida). (1) Pre-retirement Education: courses should include the psychology of aging, family structures, estate planning, federal laws that affect the elderly, employment opportunities, and…

Tamburello, G. B.

231

Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. veteran. Inquirie  

E-print Network

Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status.biotech.iastate.edu/service_facilities. Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion

Mayfield, John

232

Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

2011-01-01

233

Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

2014-01-01

234

The Impact of Developmental Mathematics Courses and Age, Gender, and Race and Ethnicity on Persistence and Academic Performance in Virginia Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study examined the 2006 cohort of First-Time-in-College students from all 23 community colleges in Virginia. The goal was to examine fall-to-fall persistence and success in the first college-level mathematics course. Predictor variables used were developmental status, age, gender, and race and ethnicity of the student. Interaction…

Wolfle, James D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

2014-01-01

235

Racial/Ethnic differences in the educational expectations of adolescents: does pursuing higher education mean something different to latino students compared to white and black students?  

PubMed

There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents' academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49 % Latino, 23 % White, 22 % Black, and 6 % other; 51 % female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in 5 years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844

Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y; Milan, Stephanie

2013-09-01

236

MULTI-ETHNIC REFERENCE VALUES FOR SPIROMETRY FOR THE 3–95 YEAR AGE RANGE: THE GLOBAL LUNG FUNCTION 2012 EQUATIONS  

PubMed Central

Objective Derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Material Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5–95 years. Methods Lung function data were collated, and prediction equations derived using the LMS (?, µ, ?) method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. Results After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals from 3–95 years for Caucasians (N=57,395), African Americans (N=3,545), and North (N=4,992) and South East Asians (N=8,255). FEV1 and FVC between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV1/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Conclusion Spirometric prediction equations for the 3–95 age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent, Arab, Polynesian, Latin American countries, and Africa will further improve these equations in the future. PMID:22743675

Quanjer, Philip H.; Stanojevic, Sanja; Cole, Tim J.; Baur, Xaver; Hall, Graham L.; Culver, Bruce H.; Enright, Paul L.; Hankinson, John L.; Ip, Mary S.M.; Zheng, Jinping; Stocks, Janet

2013-01-01

237

Age, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Patterns in Early Computer UseA National Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents were interviewed about the media habits of their 6-month to 6-year-old children. For children who had used computers, linear increases in computer usage occurred across this age range with a shift from using a computer on a parent’s lapat aboutage 21\\/2 to autonomous computer and mouse use at about age 31\\/2. There were almost no gender differences in early

Sandra L. Calvert; Victoria J. Rideout; Jennifer L. Woolard; Rachel F. Barr; Gabrielle A. Strouse

2005-01-01

238

Strategies That Address the Disproportionate Number of Students from Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups Receiving Special Education Services: Case Studies of Selected States and School Districts. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes strategies identified from interviews with educators in eight school districts in three states (Arkansas, New Mexico, and Pennsylvania) concerning the disproportionate number of students from racial/ethnic minority groups receiving special education services. The first section describes the methodology of the case study…

Markowitz, Joy

239

Racial discrimination and psychological distress: The impact of ethnic identity and age among immigrant and United States–born Asian adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to

Tiffany Yip; Gilbert C. Gee; David T. Takeuchi

2008-01-01

240

Trajectories of Externalizing Behavior from Age 2 to Age 9: Relations with Gender, Temperament, Ethnicity, Parenting, and Rater  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trajectories of children's externalizing behavior were examined using multilevel growth curve modeling of data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. According to ratings by both mothers and caregivers/teachers when children were 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 years old, externalizing behavior declined with age. However, mothers rated…

Miner, Jennifer L.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

2008-01-01

241

Can the relationship between ethnicity and obesity-related behaviours among school-aged children be explained by deprivation? A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives It is unclear whether cultural differences or material disadvantage explain the ethnic patterning of obesogenic behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine ethnicity as a predictor of obesity-related behaviours among children in England, and to assess whether the effects of ethnicity could be explained by deprivation. Setting Five primary care trusts in England, 2010–2011. Participants Parents of white, black and South Asian children aged 4–5 and 10–11?years participating in the National Child Measurement Programme (n=2773). Primary outcome measures Parent-reported measures of child behaviour: low level of physical activity, excessive screen time, unhealthy dietary behaviours and obesogenic lifestyle (combination of all three obesity-related behaviours). Associations between these behaviours and ethnicity were assessed using logistic regression analyses. Results South Asian ethnic groups made up 22% of the sample, black ethnic groups made up 8%. Compared with white children, higher proportions of Asian and black children were overweight or obese (21–27% vs16% of white children), lived in the most deprived areas (24–47% vs 14%) and reported obesity-related behaviours (38% with obesogenic lifestyle vs 16%). After adjusting for deprivation and other sociodemographic characteristics, black and Asian children were three times more likely to have an obesogenic lifestyle than white children (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.2 for Asian children; OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.7 to 4.3 for black children). Conclusions Children from Asian and black ethnic groups are more likely to have obesogenic lifestyles than their white peers. These differences are not explained by deprivation. Culturally specific lifestyle interventions may be required to reduce obesity-related health inequalities. PMID:24413346

Falconer, Catherine L; Park, Min Hae; Croker, Helen; Kessel, Anthony S; Saxena, Sonia; Viner, Russell M; Kinra, Sanjay

2014-01-01

242

Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye where they are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Current dietary databases make it difficult to ascertain their individual roles in eye health because their concentrations ...

243

Diversity Statement Furman University's Teacher Education Program celebrates the inherent worth of all  

E-print Network

of all individuals, regardless of ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status, age, gender, exceptionalities populations (including higher education and P-12 school faculty, other candidates, students in P-12 schools

244

Race/Ethnicity, Education, and Treatment Parameters as Moderators and Predictors of Outcome in Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Binge eating disorder (BED) is prevalent among individuals from minority racial/ethnic groups and among individuals with lower levels of education, yet the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for these groups has not been examined in adequately powered analyses. This study investigated the relative variance in treatment retention and post-treatment symptom levels accounted for by demographic, clinical, and treatment variables as moderators and predictors of outcome. Method Data were aggregated from eleven randomized, controlled trials of psychosocial treatments for BED conducted at treatment sites across the United States. Participants were N = 1,073 individuals meeting criteria for BED including n = 946 Caucasian, n = 79 African American, and n = 48 Hispanic/Latino participants. Approximately 86% had some higher education; 85% were female. Multi-level regression analyses examined moderators and predictors of treatment retention, Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) global score, frequency of objective bulimic episodes (OBEs), and OBE remission. Results Moderator analyses of race/ethnicity and education were non-significant. Predictor analyses revealed African Americans were more likely to drop out of treatment than Caucasians, and lower level of education predicted greater post-treatment OBEs. African Americans showed a small but significantly greater reduction in EDE global score relative to Caucasians. Self-help treatment administered in a group showed negative outcomes relative to other treatment types, and longer treatment was associated with better outcome. Conclusions Observed lower treatment retention among African Americans and lesser treatment effects for individuals with lower levels of educational attainment are serious issues requiring attention. Reduced benefit was observed for shorter treatment length and self-help administered in groups. PMID:23647283

Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Franko, Debra L.; Thompson, Douglas R.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Roehrig, James P.; Richards, Lauren K.; Bryson, Susan W.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crow, Scott J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Gorin, Amy A.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Masheb, Robin; Mitchell, James E.; Peterson, Carol B.; Safer, Debra L.; Striegel, Ruth H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

2014-01-01

245

Teaching minority children hygiene: investigating hygiene education in kindergartens and homes of ethnic minority children in northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Design. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20 homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. Findings. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified as potentially important institutions for improving child hygiene education, essential and well-functioning hygiene infrastructures were lacking. Also, hygiene teaching relied on theoretical and non-practice-based learning styles, which did not facilitate hygiene behaviour change in small children. Minority children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Conclusions. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt a strong practice-based teaching approach in daily work and in teacher's education. To support highland minority children in particular, teaching styles must take local living conditions and caregiver structures into account and teach in local languages. Creating stronger links between home and institutional learning environments can be vital to support disadvantaged highland families in improving child health. PMID:24875851

Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

2015-06-01

246

The Politics of Arabic Language Education: Moroccan Immigrant Children's Language Socialization into Ethnic and Religious Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the…

Garcia-Sanchez, Inmaculada M.

2010-01-01

247

Imagined Identity of Ethnic Koreans and Its Implication for Bilingual Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imagined identity is the way of positioning individuals or being positioned by others in an imagined world, where individuals' cultural identifications interplay with cultural and language practices. This lays the basis for the current research on the construction of imagined memberships by two young ethnic Korean students in China. An analysis of…

Gao, Fang

2012-01-01

248

"It's Different Lives": A Guatemalan American Adolescent's Construction of Ethnic and Gender Identities across Educational Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from a multiyear ethnography and a longitudinal case study, this article examines how one Guatemalan American teenager negotiates the multiple socializations to ethnic and gender identities in her home, her Pentecostal church, and her high school. She must face processes of Americanization and Mexicanization. Americanization's thrust is to…

Ek, Lucila D.

2009-01-01

249

The Role of Ethnicity in the Attainment and Experiences of Graduates in Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK, the attainment of White graduates (as measured by the class of honours that they have been awarded) tends to be higher than that of graduates from other ethnic groups. This is apparent, in particular, in graduates who have taken courses by distance learning with the Open University. Analysis of data from Open University graduates over…

Richardson, John T. E.

2009-01-01

250

Elementary Science Education in Classrooms and Outdoors: Stakeholder Views, Gender, Ethnicity, and Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we present a mixed-methods study of 2 schools' elementary science programs including outdoor instruction specific to each school's culture. We explore fifth-grade students in measures of science knowledge, environmental attitudes, and outdoor comfort levels including gender and ethnic differences. We further examine…

Carrier, Sarah J.; Thomson, Margareta M.; Tugurian, Linda P.; Stevenson, Kathryn Tate

2014-01-01

251

Using Intercollegiate Response Groups To Help Teacher Education Students Bridge Differences of Race, Class, Ethnicity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide preservice teachers with opportunities for contact with people from racially and ethnically different backgrounds, one university initiated intercollegiate reader response groups using the WebCT format, which allowed students to converse with one another over distances, both within and across universities. Students from separate…

Singer, Judith; Smith, Sally

252

Ethnic Preferences of Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A projective picture instrument was used to determine ethnic stereotypes of 90 children of 4-5 years. Findings indicate that although 4-year-olds were ambivalent about their ethnic preferences, by age 5 children had developed clear ethnic preferences. (RJC)

Jaffe, Eliezer D.

1988-01-01

253

The Limits of Educational Policy and Practice? The Case of Ethnic Minorities in The Netherlands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes four types of immigrants to The Netherlands since World War II and three phases of educational policies aimed at compensating for their educational disadvantages. Discusses the disappointing outcomes of compensatory education, bilingual education, intercultural education, and preschool and early school programs, and describes the…

Driessen, Geert

2000-01-01

254

Ethnic differences in the association of SERPING1 with age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.  

PubMed

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) are leading causes of irreversible blindness in developed countries. In this study, we investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G, member 1 (SERPING1) gene with neovascular AMD and PCV. Two haplotype-tagging SNPs, rs1005510 and rs11603020, of SERPING1 were genotyped in 708 unrelated Chinese individuals: 200 neovascular AMD, 233 PCV and 275 controls. A meta-analysis was also performed for all reported associations of SERPING1 SNPs with AMD and PCV. None of the tagging SNPs had a significant association with neovascular AMD or PCV (P > 0.05) in our study cohort. The meta-analyses showed that the most-studied SNP rs2511989 was not significantly associated with all forms of AMD, neovascular AMD, or PCV in East Asians (P = 0.98, 0.93 and 0.30, respectively) but was associated with AMD in Caucasians (P = 0.04 for all AMD and 0.004 for neovascular AMD). Therefore, the results of our study and meta-analysis suggest that SERPING1 is not a major genetic component of AMD or PCV in East Asians but is a genetic risk factor for AMD in Caucasians, providing evidence for an ethnic diversity in the genetic etiology of AMD. PMID:25800435

Liu, Ke; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Ma, Li; Lai, Frank H P; Young, Alvin L; Brelen, Marten E; Tam, Pancy O S; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia

2015-01-01

255

Ethnic differences in the association of SERPING1 with age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy  

PubMed Central

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) are leading causes of irreversible blindness in developed countries. In this study, we investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G, member 1 (SERPING1) gene with neovascular AMD and PCV. Two haplotype-tagging SNPs, rs1005510 and rs11603020, of SERPING1 were genotyped in 708 unrelated Chinese individuals: 200 neovascular AMD, 233 PCV and 275 controls. A meta-analysis was also performed for all reported associations of SERPING1 SNPs with AMD and PCV. None of the tagging SNPs had a significant association with neovascular AMD or PCV (P > 0.05) in our study cohort. The meta-analyses showed that the most-studied SNP rs2511989 was not significantly associated with all forms of AMD, neovascular AMD, or PCV in East Asians (P = 0.98, 0.93 and 0.30, respectively) but was associated with AMD in Caucasians (P = 0.04 for all AMD and 0.004 for neovascular AMD). Therefore, the results of our study and meta-analysis suggest that SERPING1 is not a major genetic component of AMD or PCV in East Asians but is a genetic risk factor for AMD in Caucasians, providing evidence for an ethnic diversity in the genetic etiology of AMD. PMID:25800435

Liu, Ke; Lai, Timothy Y. Y.; Ma, Li; Lai, Frank H. P.; Young, Alvin L.; Brelen, Marten E.; Tam, Pancy O. S.; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia

2015-01-01

256

Race-ethnic, family income, and education differentials in nutritional and lipid biomarkers in US children and adolescents: NHANES 2003–20061234  

PubMed Central

Background: Children from ethnic minority and low-income families in the United States have higher rates of poor health and higher mortality rates. Diet, an acknowledged correlate of health, may mediate the known race-ethnic and socioeconomic differentials in the health of US children. Objective: The objective was to examine the independent association of race-ethnicity, family income, and education with nutritional and lipid biomarkers in US children. Design: We used data from the NHANES 2003–2006 to examine serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12; serum concentrations of folate, carotenoids, and lipids; and dietary intakes of corresponding nutrients for 2–19-y-old children (n = ?2700–7500). Multiple covariate–adjusted regression methods were used to examine the independent and joint associations of race-ethnicity, family income, and education with biomarker status. Results: Non-Hispanic blacks had lower mean serum concentrations of vitamins A, B-6, and E and ?-carotene than did non-Hispanic whites. Both non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans had higher mean serum vitamin C, ?-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin but lower folate and vitamin D concentrations compared with non-Hispanic whites. In comparison with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to have low serum HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides. Family income and education predicted few biomarker or dietary outcomes, and the observed associations were weak. Moreover, modification of race-ethnic differentials by income or education (or vice versa) was noted for very few biomarkers. Conclusion: Race-ethnicity, but not family income or education, was a strong independent predictor of serum nutrient concentrations and dietary micronutrient intakes in US children and adolescents. PMID:22836030

Graubard, Barry I

2012-01-01

257

Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow recommendations. PMID:24513174

Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

2014-05-28

258

Utah's Age Waves and Their Potential Consequences  

E-print Network

1 Utah's Age Waves and Their Potential Consequences: Public & Higher Education Utah Education Deans of Utah Overview Population Trends Regional population trends Birth cycles and their effect on age structure Immigration and migration patterns Increasing cultural and ethnic diversity Utah Higher Education

259

Individual Education Plan Goals and Services for Adolescents With Autism: Impact of Age and Educational Setting  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to describe the educational programs for adolescents with autism (age 12—16 years) in inclusion and noninclusion settings as reflected in their Individual Education Plan (IEP) goals, services, and curricular adaptations...

Kurth, Jennifer A.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.

2010-11-01

260

Differences in beliefs and home environments regarding energy balance behaviors according to parental education and ethnicity among schoolchildren in Europe: the ENERGY cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background To explore differences in personal and home environmental factors that are regarded as determinants of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) according to parental education and ethnic background among 10–12 year old schoolchildren across Europe. Methods A school-based survey among 10–12 year olds was conducted in eight countries across Europe. A range of personal and home environment variables relevant for soft drink consumption, daily breakfast, sport participation and TV time was assessed by means of child report. Personal factors included attitude, health beliefs, and preference/liking. Home environment factors included parental subjective norm, modeling, support, practices and home availability. Children were classified based on parental education (i.e., low vs. high) and ethnic background (i.e., native vs. non-native). Data from 6018 children originating from 83 schools were included in the analyses. Results Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that the majority of the factors tested –and especially home environment variables- were more favorable among children from higher educated parents and from native ethnicity. None of the personal and home environment factors was found to be more favorable among children from lower educated parents or non-native ethnicity. Conclusions The present study indicates that schoolchildren from lower educated and non-native parents across Europe have EBRB-related beliefs and are exposed to home environments that are less favorable for engagement in healthy EBRBs. PMID:24934085

2014-01-01

261

78 FR 39738 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice for Request for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...representing various levels of education in schools of nursing (i...nursing, higher secondary education, and associate degree schools...representatives of advanced education nursing groups (such as nurse...age, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and...

2013-07-02

262

The Role of Ethnicity in the Higher Education Institution Selection Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in the higher education landscape have led to many higher education institutions reassessing their recruitment and marketing strategies. A proper understanding of the relative importance of the choice factors that prospective students consider when selecting a higher education institution will enable higher education administrators and…

Jordaan, Y.; Wiese, M.

2010-01-01

263

Culturally responsive teaching in special education for ethnically diverse students: setting the stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major premises are developed in this discussion. One is that many students of color are disproportionately assigned to special education because educators lack knowledge about or appreciation for their cultural values and socialization, and how these aÄ ect learning behaviors. The other premise is that the educational quality of students of color in both special and regular education can

Geneva Gay

2002-01-01

264

Experiential Environmental Education for Primary Aged Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.…

Prince, Heather

265

Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

Torbert, Brison

266

Distribution of Traumatic and Other Stressful Life Events by Race\\/Ethnicity, Gender, SES and Age: A Review of the Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has shown that reports of stressful life events are related to a wide variety of psychiatric and physical health\\u000a outcomes. Relatively little research exists, however, on the distribution of the events according to gender, age, racial\\/ethnic\\u000a background, and socioeconomic status (SES). Such information would help identify groups at greatest risk for further investigation.\\u000a This paper presents a review

Stephani L. Hatch; Bruce P. Dohrenwend

2007-01-01

267

The Obesity Epidemic in the United States—Gender, Age, Socioeconomic, Racial\\/Ethnic, and Geographic Characteristics: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of the obesity epidemic provides a comprehensive description of the current situation, time trends, and disparities across gender, age, socioeconomic status, racial\\/ethnic groups, and geographic regions in the United States based on national data. The authors searched studies published between 1990 and 2006. Adult overweight and obesity were defined by using body mass index (weight (kg)\\/height (m)2) cutpoints

Youfa Wang; May A. Beydoun

2007-01-01

268

Normal reference ranges for and variability in the levels of blood manganese and selenium by gender, age, and race/ethnicity for general U.S. population.  

PubMed

Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2011-2012 were used to determine normal reference ranges and percentile distributions for manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) in blood by gender, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status as determined by annual family income, and smoking status. The effect of gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, and smoking status on the levels of Mn and Se was also determined by fitting regression models. Males had lower adjusted levels of Mn and higher adjusted levels of Se than females. Adjusted levels of Mn decreased with increase in age but adjusted levels of Se were lower in adolescents aged 12-19 years than adults aged 20-64 years. Non-Hispanic black (NHB) had the lowest levels of both Mn and Se and non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) had the highest levels of both Mn and Se. Non-Hispanic white (NHW) and NHB had lower levels of Mn than Hispanics (HISP) and NHAS. NHB and HISP had lower levels of Se than NHW and NHAS. Low annual income (<$20,000) was associated with lower levels of Se than high annual income (?$55,000). Smoking negatively affected the adjusted levels of Se among seniors aged ?65 years but this was not observed in other age groups. Mn levels were not affected by smoking. PMID:25596656

Jain, Ram B; Choi, Y Sammy

2015-04-01

269

Ethnic Background and the Transition from Vocational Education to Work: A Multi-Level Analysis of the Differences in Labour Market Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the impact of ethnic background on employment and earnings among people with a vocational education in Norway. I differentiate between three different groups: majority, first-generation non-Westerners and second-generation non-Westerners. Panel data from several public register databases of the entire population of…

Brekke, Idunn

2007-01-01

270

A Report on Racial/Ethnic Equity and Desegregation in Connecticut's Public Schools. Prepared for Presentation to the Connecticut Board of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demographic trends are developing in Connecticut that show increasing racial segregation and divided educational facilities in contiguous urban and suburban school districts. Racial balance on a statewide basis is not sufficient to counteract the effects of the growth of the state's minority populations, the residential clustering of racial/ethnic

Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

271

An Analysis of the Impact of Parent Education Level and Family Income on the Academic Achievement of Students of Hispanic and White Ethnicities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the socioeconomic factors of parent education level and family income on the academic achievement of students of Hispanic and white ethnicities. Scaled scores from the 2009 administration of the California Standards Tests in English language arts and mathematics and matched demographic…

Siegel, Scott M.

2011-01-01

272

Researching Race/Ethnicity and Educational Inequality in English Secondary Schools: A Critical Review of the Research Literature between 1980 and 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes and critically analyzes how sociologists in England have studied racial/ethnic inequalities in secondary education between 1980 and 2005. This study is different from earlier literature reviews conducted in this particular area in that it adopts a more systematic approach and includes the most recent studies in this field.…

Stevens, Peter A. J.

2007-01-01

273

Race, Rurality and Representation: Black and Minority Ethnic Mothers' Experiences of Their Children's Education in Rural Primary Schools in England, UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is little research that has examined the role of mothers in their children's education in the rural space of the school, particularly in relation to the experiences of Black and minority ethnic (BME) families who are newcomers to the rural space. This article attempts to redress the balance and examine how BME mothers are positioned in…

Bhopal, Kalwant

2014-01-01

274

Native Mascots and Ethnic Fraud in Higher Education: Using Tribal Critical Race Theory and the Interest Convergence Principle as an Analytic Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines one university's policies regarding Native mascots and ethnic fraud through a Tribal Critical Race Theory analytic lens. Using the principle of interest convergence, we argue that institutions of higher education allow and even work actively towards a particular form or level of diversity, but they do not extend it far…

Castagno, Angelina E.; Lee, Stacey J.

2007-01-01

275

Diverging or Converging Trends: An Investigation of Education Policies Concerning the Incorporation of Ethnic Minority Children in England, France and Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses specifically on the incorporation of ethnic minority children within the education systems of England, France and Germany. The trends in policy development after World War II in these countries are examined through the prism of three ideal-typical incorporation strategies--integration, assimilation and separation. This is done…

Qureshi, Yasmeen F.; Janmaat, Jan Germen

2014-01-01

276

Complex Inequalities of Educational Opportunities: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study on the Relation between Gender, Social Class, Ethnicity, and School Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the relationships between gender, social class, ethnicity, and school success using data from a large-scale longitudinal database, the Dutch Secondary Education Students Cohort. Results show that school success is not always predicted by expected additive or multiplicative effects of the different background variables. Discusses…

Dekkers, Hetty P. J. M.; Bosker, Roel J.; Driessen, Geert W. J. M.

2000-01-01

277

Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

Ohler, Jason

2012-01-01

278

State Higher Education Policies in the Information Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy issues relating to the integration of information and communications technology into higher education are addressed, primarily for those with policy development responsibility at the state level. The following chapters are included: (1) "State Higher Education Policies in the Information Age: An Introduction to the Issues" (Robert G.…

McGill, Mollie A., Ed.; Jonsen, Richard W., Ed.

279

Learning, Technology, and Education Reform in the Knowledge Age or \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 2000 will mark the 10, anniversary of the arrival of the Knowledge Age in the United States. It will also mark nearly 20 years of efforts in the current round of education reform in the U. S. It's time to take a step back to a wide-angle view of the central roles learning and education will increasingly play

Bernie Trilling; Paul Hood

280

Saving Higher Education in the Age of Money  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Saving Higher Education in the Age of Money" is a critique of the pernicious syndrome set in motion when the means and concomitant benefits of higher education--money and prestige, in particular--became increasingly accepted as its most important and fundamental ends. The book contends, on the basis of extensive evidence and documentation, that…

Engell, James; Dangerfield, Anthony

2007-01-01

281

Early community contexts, race/ethnicity and young adult CVD risk factors: the protective role of education.  

PubMed

Using a sample of 13,500 adolescents (53% female and 47% male) who participated in all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study used multilevel regression to examine the influence of early structural community adversity (as measured by rates of community poverty, single-parent headed families, and two indicators of employment) and racial/ethnic status on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors of young adults (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure). The moderating role of youth's socioeconomic attainment was also examined. Results indicate that early community adversity and African American racial status place young adults at risk for CVD. Youth's socioeconomic attainment does not erase the persistent influences of early community adversity and African American racial status on CVD risk. However, the level of education attained can protect African American young adults and those experiencing early community adversity from CVD risk factors. PMID:22101680

Wickrama, K A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lott, Ryan E

2012-08-01

282

Inner City Education: A Review of Ethnic Studies in the Sixties. NCRIEEO Tipsheet, Number 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "elitist" tradition of American education was found out in the 1960's. Not until a social force quite alien to the profession took hold and a revolution was declared, was the system of education called to task. In education, the response generated a spate of books that examined the many inequities, recommending remedies. Some of these studies…

Halliburton, Warren J.

283

Efé cacy of an intensive home-based educational intervention programme for 4- to 6-year-old ethnic minority children in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of an intensive home-based educational intervention programme for 4- to 6-year-old children at risk of educational failure. The programme, Opstap Opnieuw (''Step-up Anew''), was developed in the Netherlands as an alternative to the well-known HIPPY-programme, of which a Dutch version was carried out in the early 1990s for ethnic minority groups, without apparent success. Building

Cathy van Tuijl; Paul P. M. Leseman

2001-01-01

284

Nursing education and the nuclear age  

SciTech Connect

As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.

McKay, S.

1989-05-01

285

Ethnic Identity and Power: Cultural Contexts of Political Action in School and Society. SUNY Series, Power, Social Identity, and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection provide insights into the dilemmas faced by immigrants and ethnic minorities and by school personnel and policy makers. The first part of the book consists of comparative studies of ethnic identity, and the second part focuses on some lessons learned from studies of ethnic identification and equity, with implications…

Zou, Yali, Ed.; Trueba, Enrique T., Ed.

286

Psychological Skills Education for School Aged Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the potential for teaching psychological skills to student athletes in school sport programs, outlining a conceptual approach to psychological skills training for athletic coaches. The paper details how to develop a psychological skills education curriculum, explaining issues of curriculum sequence and implementation strategies in the…

Haslam, Ian R.

2002-01-01

287

Ageing, Community Adult Education, and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In-depth interviews with nine adults over 50 in a socially disadvantaged area explored their reactions to British government policy on the role of adult education. Government emphasis on vocational relevance and economic motives for lifelong learning did not correlate with their needs, interests, or motivations. Respondents tended toward intrinsic…

Bowman, Helen; Burden, Tom

2002-01-01

288

Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of medical ethics in the medical curriculum reviews its recent history, examines areas of consensus, and describes teaching objectives and methods, course content, and program evaluation at preclinical and clinical levels. Prerequisites for successful institutionalization of medical ethics education are defined, and its future is…

Miles, Steven H.; And Others

1989-01-01

289

Art Education in the Age of Guantanamo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Censorship exists in institutions where art exists, and also where art education exists. In fall 2005, a group of instructors and the author taught a group project with a political theme--peace. In this article, she examines institutionalized censorship within schools, and the ramifications of teaching the subject of peace in a time of war.…

Pistolesi, Edie

2007-01-01

290

Individual Education Plan Goals and Services for Adolescents with Autism: Impact of Age and Educational Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to describe the educational programs for adolescents with autism (age 12-16 years) in inclusion and noninclusion settings as reflected in their Individual Education Plan (IEP) goals, services, and curricular adaptations. Students who were included in general education math and language arts instruction had fewer…

Kurth, Jennifer; Mastergeorge, Ann M.

2010-01-01

291

Migration and Ethnic Group Disproportionality in Special Education: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues of educational equity and opportunity cannot be understood without regard to special education, as a key response to disabilities, disadvantages, and difficulties. Likewise, globalization cannot be understood without regard to cross-border migration and minority group status in society. Illuminating the nexus of these, research into…

Gabel, Susan L.; Curcic, Svjetlana; Powell, Justin J. W.; Khader, Khaled; Albee, Lynn

2009-01-01

292

Ethnic Disparities in Graduate Education: A Selective Review of Quantitative Research, Social Theory, and Quality Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we analyzed research studies in the field of graduate education. In particular, we explored the issue of inequity in graduate education through three key lenses of social science analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed selected quantitative research studies that undertook a comparative examination of aggregate trends in enrollment and…

Franklin, Somer L.; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.

2014-01-01

293

Education of Ethnic and National Minorities in the USSR: A Report on Current Developments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1917, Soviet policy has stressed self-determination of non-Russian populations and a commitment to their education. Using 1970 All-Union Census data and some later information, the author examines progress made toward this goal and the educational achievement of various groups. Success is noted and some problems outlined. (Author/SJL)

Kravetz, Nathan

1980-01-01

294

Dreams Deferred? The Relationship between Early and Later Postsecondary Educational Aspirations among Racial/Ethnic Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 to test a conceptual model that integrates aspects of sociological and econometric frameworks into a traditional status attainment model for educational aspirations. Using descriptive and logistic analyses, this study advanced understanding of the patterns and stability of…

Cooper, Michelle Asha

2009-01-01

295

Effects of Motivation on Educational Attainment: Ethnic and Developmental Differences among First-Generation Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated differences in educational motivation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-generation students (FGS). Participants were 315 high school and college students who completed a revised academic motivation survey that measured participants' educational motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation).…

Propero, Moises; Russell, Amy Catherine; Vohra-Gupta, Shetal

2012-01-01

296

Education of Ethnic and National Minorities in the USSR: A Report on Current Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes and compares information on educational achievements of minorities in the USSR. It also reviews and assesses Soviet educational policy for nationalities and suggests some areas for further study. Data are based on the USSR 1970 All-Union Census and later evidence. National minorities in the USSR have historically been…

Kravetz, Nathan

297

Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education: Case Studies of Suburban School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: The last two reauthorizations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act established a policy mandate for districts to take action to reduce high rates of minority overrepresentation in special education. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: The overrepresentation of Black and Latino students in special…

Ahram, Roey; Fergus, Edward; Noguera, Pedro

2011-01-01

298

Parents' Educational Expectations for their Young Children: SES, Race\\/Ethnicity and School Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

After over forty years of study, sociologists continue to debate the educational system’s role in reducing or reproducing intergenerational patterns of inequality. Theoretical perspectives frame schools as both equalizers that reduce inequality across generations and as agents of social reproduction, recreating and legitimizing inequality. This study focuses on an understudied aspect of these intergenerational processes: parents’ early educational expectations for

Lisa Munson Weinberg

2009-01-01

299

Ethnic Disparities in Special Education Labeling among Children with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined disparities in special education labeling among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by merging calendar year 2002 special education records and Medicaid mental health claims for 4,852 children who had been diagnosed with ADHD in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Thirty-eight percent were receiving…

Mandell, David S.; Davis, Jasmine K.; Bevans, Katherine; Guevara, James P.

2008-01-01

300

Education Supports Racial and Ethnic Equality in STEM. ESA Issue Brief #05-11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) workers are essential to American innovation and competitiveness in an increasingly dynamic and global marketplace. In this report, the authors examine demographic disparities in STEM education and find that educational attainment may affect equality of opportunity in these critical, high-quality…

Beede, David; Julian, Tiffany; Khan, Beethika; Lehrman, Rebecca; McKittrick, George; Langdon, David; Doms, Mark

2011-01-01

301

Students' Perception of the "Others" in Ethnic Separated School Systems: Implications for Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes qualitative data obtained from focus groups with students learning in schools with a majority and minority language of instruction from Estonia, Latvia, Romania, and Slovakia. The focus groups were developed within the framework of the project "Divided Education, Divided Citizens?" conducted by the Network of Education Policy…

Nedelcu, Anca; Iucu, Romita; Ciolan, Lucian

2011-01-01

302

Educational Needs of Alaska. A Summary by Region and Ethnic Group, 1972-73.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 1972 Worldwide Education and Research Institute conducted a statewide needs assessment in Alaska. Initially more than 2,000 Alaskans responded to an extensive questionnaire or interview about the State's schools. After gathering the data, 9 groups of representative Alaskans were convened for documenting and validating critical educational

World-Wide Education and Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT.

303

Prevalence of vaccination rates in systolic heart failure: a prospective study of 549 patients by age, race, ethnicity, and sex in a heart failure disease management program.  

PubMed

Healthy People 2010 aims at immunizing 60% of high-risk adults annually against influenza and once against pneumococcal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a standardized approach to improve vaccination rates in patients with heart failure (HF); to determine whether disparities exist based on age, race, ethnicity, or sex at baseline and follow-up; and to evaluate the impact of clinical variables on the odds of being vaccinated. A prospective study of 549 indigent patients enrolled in a systolic HF disease management program (HFDMP) began enrollment from August 2007 to January 2009 at Jackson Memorial Hospital. Patients were interviewed at their initial visit for immunization status; those without vaccinations were offered the vaccines. Prevalence of vaccination (POV) for influenza and pneumococcal disease was obtained at baseline and at follow-up. The odds ratio for being vaccinated was calculated using logistic regression. The study population comprised mostly Hispanic (56%), black (37%), and male (70%) patients, with a mean age of 56 ± 12 years and a mean ejection fraction of 25% ± 10%. The initial POV for both was 22% at baseline. At follow-up, POV improved to 60.5%. Of those not vaccinated at baseline, 17.5% refused vaccination. Odds ratios at baseline for age, race/ethnicity, and sex were 0.99 (P=.99), 0.63 (P=.08), and 0.62 (P=.14), respectively. These did not change significantly at follow-up. Prevalence of vaccination in our cohort was low. Enrollment into the HFDMP improved immunization prevalence without creating age, race, ethnicity, or sex disparities. PMID:21091613

Hebert, Kathy; Marzouka, George; Arcement, Lee; Julian, Elyse; Cortazar, Frank; Dias, Andre; Tamariz, Leonardo

2010-01-01

304

The Prevalence of Spirituality, Optimism, Depression, and Fatalism in a Bi-ethnic Stroke Population  

PubMed Central

To provide insight into the reduced post-stroke all-cause mortality among Mexican Americans, we explored ethnic differences in the pre-stroke prevalence of (1) spirituality, (2) optimism, (3) depression, and (4) fatalism in a Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke population. The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project is a population-based stroke surveillance study in Nueces County, Texas. Seven hundred ten stroke patients were queried. For fatalism, optimism, and depression scales, unadjusted ethnic comparisons were made using linear regression models. Regression models were also used to explore how age and gender modify the ethnic associations after adjustment for education. For the categorical spirituality variables, ethnic comparisons were made using Fisher's exact tests. Mexican Americans reported significantly more spirituality than non-Hispanic whites. Among women, age modified the ethnic associations with pre-stroke depression and fatalism but not optimism. Mexican American women had more optimism than non-Hispanic white women. With age, Mexican American women had less depression and fatalism, while non-Hispanic white women had more fatalism and similar depression. Among men, after adjustment for education and age, there was no ethnic association with fatalism, depression, and optimism. Spirituality requires further study as a potential mediator of increased survival following stroke among Mexican Americans. Among women, evaluation of the role of optimism, depression, and fatalism as they relate to ethnic differences in post-stroke mortality should be explored. PMID:21184281

Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Smith, Melinda A.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Risser, Jan M. H.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

2011-01-01

305

Age and education effects on relationships of cognitive test scores with brain structure in demographically diverse older persons  

PubMed Central

This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Caucasians received neuropsychological testing; volumetric MRI measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available for 79 African Americans, 102 Hispanics, and 134 Caucasians. Latent variable modeling was used to examine effects of age, education, and brain volumes on test scores and determine how much variance brain volumes explained in unadjusted and age and education adjusted scores. Age adjustment resulted in weaker relationships of test scores with MRI variables and adjustment for ethnicity yielded stronger relationships. Education adjustment increased relationships with MRI in the combined sample and in Hispanics, made no difference in Caucasians, but decreased some associations in African Americans. Results suggest that demographic adjustment is beneficial when demographic variables are strongly related to test scores independent of measures of brain structure, but adjustment has negative consequences when effects of demographic characteristics are mediated by brain structure. PMID:19290743

Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R.; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; DeCarli, Charles

2010-01-01

306

Reversal of the decline in breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia? Ethnic and educational differentials and data quality issues.  

PubMed

Data from the First and Second Malaysian Family Life Surveys in 1976 and 1988, respectively, are analyzed to examine long-term trends in breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia, educational and ethnic differences therein, and the quality of retrospective data on infant feeding. The steady decrease between the mid-1950's and mid-1970's in breastfeeding was reversed to become a nearly monotonic increase since 1975. Part of the change is attributable to the changing composition of the Malaysian population. Over time, the percentages of births to subgroups with higher rates of breastfeeding--particularly Malays and more highly educated women--have increased. However, there is also evidence of changes in rates of breastfeeding within these subgroups. Many Malaysian infants have a total duration of breastfeeding (including with supplementation) considerably shorter than WHO's recommended four months of exclusive (unsupplemented) breastfeeding. Moreover, nearly all breastfed infants are first given supplementary food or beverage shortly after birth. Breastfeeding promotion efforts in Malaysia need to emphasize the appropriate timing of and types of supplementary feeding. PMID:7973841

DaVanzo, J; Sine, J; Peterson, C; Haaga, J

1994-01-01

307

Food Category Purchases Vary by Household Education and Race/Ethnicity: Results from Grocery Receipts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to characterize food group purchases from grocery receipts. Food shoppers (aged >/=19 years with at least one child aged

308

Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.  

PubMed

A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (? = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (? = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed. PMID:24771083

Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

2014-12-01

309

From Ethnic Segregation to Bilingual Education: What Can Bilingual Education Do for the Future of the Israeli Society?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2006, a group of experts in language education from Europe, Canada and Israel gathered to discuss and reflect in a conference entitled: "Into the Future--Towards Bilingual Education in Israel." The conference, held at the University of Haifa, was initiated and organized by the Jewish-Arab Center and sponsored by the Zeit Stiftung from…

Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura; Zelniker, Tamar; Azaiza, Faisal

2008-01-01

310

Learning Reconsidered: Education in the Digital Age. Communications, Convergence and the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes thoughts of seven educators on the place of digital communication in journalism and mass communication education. Discusses communication scholars and the professional field's readiness for the digital age. Notes educators' attitudes towards technology and technology's applications in education. (PM)

Dennis, Everette E.; Meyer, Philip; Sundar, S. Shyam; Pryor, Larry; Rogers, Everett M.; Chen, Helen L.; Pavlik, John

2003-01-01

311

Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language of…

Ewing, E. Thomas

2006-01-01

312

Twentieth-Century Transformation in Catalonia and the Ukraine: Ethnic Implications in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the parallel histories of cultural and language preservation in the minority regions of Catalonia (Spain) and Ukraine (former Soviet Union) during the twentieth century. Discusses large societal changes, national government policies about language of instruction, bilingual education, the comparative status of Catalan and Ukrainian, and…

Petherbridge-Hernandez, Patricia; Raby, Rosalind Latiner

1993-01-01

313

Violence, Schools, and Dropping out: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Educational Consequence of Student Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Without a doubt, exposure to violence and victimization can be profoundly detrimental to the overall well-being and development of all youth. Moreover, violence and victimization that occurs within a school context is particularly alarming because a successful educational process is essential toward establishing socioeconomic success later in…

Peguero, Anthony A.

2011-01-01

314

Education and Racial-Ethnic Differences in Types of Exercise in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epidemiological research typically focuses on the intensity, frequency, or duration of physical activity, without consideration of the socially meaningful dimensions of exercise. The authors use data from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey (N = 17,455) and information on participation in 15 exercise behaviors to examine educational

Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Krueger, Patrick M.

2011-01-01

315

Perceptions of Professionalism Vary Most with Educational Rank and Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess whether the perception of what constitutes professionalism varies with age, discipline, gender, or educational level among students and faculty at the major academic health sciences center in West Virginia. This exploratory descriptive survey study asked participants to classify behaviors described in a survey as professional, unpro- fessional, or unrelated to professionalism. Results

Charlotte Nath; Rebecca Schmidt; Erdogan Gunel; Robert C. Byrd

316

Education and survival: Birth cohort, period, and age effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have found that educational differences in mortality are weaker among the elderly. In this study I examine whether either cohort or period effects may have influenced the interpretation of age effects. Six 10-year birth cohorts are followed over 30 years through decennial censuses. Differential survival is inferred from changes in the relative proportions of a cohort in each

Diane S. Lauderdale

2001-01-01

317

Relationship of argumentativeness to age and higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication traits comprise an important part of communication theory, yet, little is known about either their longitudinal stability over the life course or their cross?sectional uniformity in the adult population. We report a cross?sectional study (N = 639) of trait argumentativeness as a function of age and higher education, and test hypotheses based on physiological, cultural, and developmental perspectives. Argumentativeness

Nancy M. Schullery; Stephen E. Schullery

2003-01-01

318

Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

Textor, Martin R.

1986-01-01

319

Educational Needs of Mental Health Administrators Serving the Aged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature and personal interviews with mental health administrators and other informed persons revealed that multiple inservice and preservice educational needs exist among administrators serving the aged in hospitals, nursing homes and other care facilities, mental health centers, and mental health associations. Specific…

Tindel, Connie

320

Wisconsin's Aging Workforce: Trends in Vocational Education. A Research Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the aging work force and vocational education trends in Wisconsin was conducted using the following methods: literature review, analysis of a sample of 10% of Wisconsin technical college student records for 1986-1990, a focus group discussion with 5 employers and one with 10 adult students over 40, and a telephone survey of 100…

Fox Valley Technical Coll., Appleton, WI.

321

An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a career developmental model covering the ages of 5 to 18. Career development education includes experiences which facilitate self-awareness, career-awareness and career decision-making. Before choosing a model for career development, it is necessary to decide on a model for child development. The model developed here borrows…

Tuckman, Bruce W.

322

Age and educational track influence adolescent discounting of delayed rewards  

PubMed Central

This study examined age-related changes in a specific aspect of adolescent decision-making, namely the preference for future versus immediate outcomes. A sample of 622 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 years completed a temporal discounting task. Participants were asked to choose between a delayed reward of €50 or an immediate reward of lower value. The delay interval was varied in three blocks (1 week, 1 month, 6 months). Results showed that preferences for large delayed rewards over smaller immediate rewards increased with age: late adolescents made more long-term decisions than early adolescents. This change was related to educational track. In the lower educational track, an age-related decrease in discounting was found for all three delay intervals. In the higher educational track this decrease only occurred for the 6 month delay interval. However, across all delay intervals enrolment in a higher level educational track was associated with an increased preference for long-term rewards. These results suggest that late adolescents are less susceptible than early adolescents to the competing presence of an immediate reward when making long-term decisions, a skill which becomes increasingly important as they transition into adulthood. PMID:24421778

Lee, Nikki C.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Boschloo, Annemarie; Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

2013-01-01

323

Education Demand and Age at School Enrollment in Tanzania.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimations of enrollment age and schooling duration for Tanzanian children revealed different patterns for boys and girls. Although girls have lower levels of education, they enroll earlier, either because of lower returns to preschool experience for girls or parental desire to prepare them for the marriage market as soon as possible. (SK)

Bommier, Antoine; Lambert, Sylvie

2000-01-01

324

Bias at school: Perceptions of racial\\/ethnic discrimination among Latino and European American children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latino and White\\/European American children (N=99; 5–11 years of age) participated in a study designed to examine their perceptions of racial\\/ethnic discrimination in educational settings. Children heard scenarios involving two children of different races\\/ethnicities, one who received a more positive outcome from a teacher than the other. Children were then asked about the reasons for the differential outcomes. The role

Christia Spears Brown

2006-01-01

325

The Second Educational Revolution: Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper drew upon a recent book ("Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology") to summarize a number of prospects and challenges arising from the appropriation of digital technology into learning and educational practice. Tensions between traditional models of schooling and the affordances of digital media were noted, while the promise of…

Collins, A.; Halverson, R.

2010-01-01

326

Education and racial-ethnic differences in types of exercise in the United States.  

PubMed

Epidemiological research typically focuses on the intensity, frequency, or duration of physical activity, without consideration of the socially meaningful dimensions of exercise. The authors use data from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey (N = 17,455) and information on participation in 15 exercise behaviors to examine educational differences in exercise among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans. Factor analysis identifies three types of exercise: team sports (e.g., basketball, football), fitness activities (e.g., running, weight lifting), and activities that require the use of specialized facilities (e.g., golf, tennis). Cultural capital and human capital perspectives offer insight into different dimensions of the relationship between education and exercise. Whites disproportionately undertake facility-based exercise, blacks tend toward team and fitness activities, and Mexican Americans gravitate toward team sports. Our findings offer insight into the social stratification of health and can aid the design of public health interventions. PMID:21673147

Saint Onge, Jarron M; Krueger, Patrick M

2011-06-01

327

The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

2014-01-01

328

Education, race\\/ethnicity and out-migration from a border city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a combination of high immigration rates and differential fertility, communities along the U.S.-Mexico border have\\u000a become overwhelmingly Hispanic. El Paso, Texas, located across the border from Ciudad Juárez, forms part of the world’s largest\\u000a urban center on a land border. El Paso ranks among the bottom 10 large U.S. metropolitan areas with the smallest proportion\\u000a of college-educated adults, causing

Leticia Fernández; Cheryl Howard; Jon Amastae

2007-01-01

329

Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. veteran. Inquirie  

E-print Network

Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status.biotech.iastate.edu/biotechnology- service-facilities. Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age

Mayfield, John

330

[A new question for educational and training activity: population aging].  

PubMed

Aging is without doubt the major characteristic of the current demographic evolution of industrialized countries. Societies in which 30% or more of the population is aged 60 or over will eventually become the norm. The public in developed countries considers low fertility normal and desirable, but the demographic aging that is partially a consequence of low fertility is often perceived as a problem. A major contradiction in industrialized societies is that considerable effort is expanded to increase life expectancies while aging as a social phenomenon is regarded as a malady. Existing analyses have concentrated on age itself and have neglected the aging process. An abundant literature documents the marginalization of the elderly in industrial societies. Educational action could be helpful in demonstrating that the "generation gap" identified by Margaret Mead is not irreversible. Educational programs could point out the simultaneous unity and complexity of the life cycle, the birth to death, as well as the importance of intergenerational relations. The manner in which relations between generations are presented is important. Sociodemographic concepts such as generation, calendar, social time, and life cycle could be especially helpful in a multidisciplinary educational program presenting the ages of life and intergenerational relations. A study of the relationships of life cycles and demographic structures would be a good approach to problems of pension funding and would help correct misconceptions about the nature and direction of intergenerational transfers. Research by the Center for the Study of Revenues and Costs demonstrates that intergenerational solidarity does not operate only in 1 direction through pensions, but also functions through financial aid given by the elderly to their children and through child care provided for grandchildren. Educational activities directed toward the elderly could facilitate their more effective participation in social life. Several countries have organized educational programs for retired persons to enlarge their cultural horizons, increase their knowledge, stimulate their creativity, and promote their participation in all aspects of society. A comparison of educational programs involving the elderly in different countries could be used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches and stimulate development of more satisfactory programs. PMID:12286406

Gani, L

1993-03-01

331

Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

332

Diversity and ethnicity in nurse education: the perspective of nurse lecturers.  

PubMed

This paper is a report on a qualitative study which considered the issue of how lecturers feel about teaching and managing the topic of culture and racism within their role as nurse educators. The issue of cultural diversity and the related issue of racism within nursing and society more generally means that the problem cannot be ignored since one of the central tenets of nursing is that care should be delivered in non-discriminatory ways. We interviewed a group of lecturers within a UK university to explore their views on the topic. We produced six themes: Culture; the existence of racism within nursing; challenging racism; political correctness; strategies adopted to address issues in the classroom and the presence of cultural diversity within the curriculum. We identified that the lecturers in our study were keen to address the issue but were also very concerned about their own abilities and confidence in this area. PMID:21419532

Nairn, Stuart; Hardy, Carolyn; Harling, Martyn; Parumal, Logan; Narayanasamy, Melanie

2012-04-01

333

An exploratory examination of the relationships among emotional intelligence, elementary school science teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, race/ethnicity, gender, and age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in Texas public schools are discussed.

Okech, Allan P.

334

The Influence Of Special Education On Education Support Of Ethnic Students As Perceived By Administrators And Teachers In Selected Public Schools In Education Service Center, Region 20, Texas  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to identify educators' beliefs indicating the most preferred support for students with disabilities in the general education classroom setting. This study examined professional educators' attitudes regarding four...

Faldik, Nancy Jean

2011-10-21

335

Education and survival: Birth cohort, period, and age effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have found that educational differences in mortality are weaker among the elderly. In this study I examine\\u000a whether either cohort or period effects may have influenced the interpretation of age effects. Six 10-year birth cohorts are\\u000a followed over 30 years through decennial censuses. Differential survival is inferred from changes in the relative proportions\\u000a of a cohort in each

Diane S. Lauderdale

2001-01-01

336

Characteristics and effectiveness of diabetes self-management educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression  

PubMed Central

Background It is not clear to what extent educational programs aimed at promoting diabetes self-management in ethnic minority groups are effective. The aim of this work was to systematically review the effectiveness of educational programs to promote the self-management of racial/ethnic minority groups with type 2 diabetes, and to identify programs’ characteristics associated with greater success. Methods We undertook a systematic literature review. Specific searches were designed and implemented for Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scirus, Current Contents and nine additional sources (from inception to October 2012). We included experimental and quasi-experimental studies assessing the impact of educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups with type 2 diabetes. We only included interventions conducted in countries members of the OECD. Two reviewers independently screened citations. Structured forms were used to extract information on intervention characteristics, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness. When possible, we conducted random-effects meta-analyses using standardized mean differences to obtain aggregate estimates of effect size with 95% confidence intervals. Two reviewers independently extracted all the information and critically appraised the studies. Results We identified thirty-seven studies reporting on thirty-nine educational programs. Most of them were conducted in the US, with African American or Latino participants. Most programs obtained some benefits over standard care in improving diabetes knowledge, self-management behaviors and clinical outcomes. A meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled trials (3,094 patients) indicated that the programs produced a reduction in glycated hemoglobin of -0.31% (95% CI -0.48% to -0.14%). Diabetes knowledge and self-management measures were too heterogeneous to pool. Meta-regressions showed larger reduction in glycated hemoglobin in individual and face to face delivered interventions, as well as in those involving peer educators, including cognitive reframing techniques, and a lower number of teaching methods. The long-term effects remain unknown and cost-effectiveness was rarely estimated. Conclusions Diabetes self-management educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups can produce a positive effect on diabetes knowledge and on self-management behavior, ultimately improving glycemic control. Future programs should take into account the key characteristics identified in this review. PMID:25037577

2014-01-01

337

Cross-validation of the very short form of the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI-VS): invariance across genders, age groups, ethnicities and weight statuses.  

PubMed

In a recent review of various physical self-concept instruments, Marsh and Cheng (in press) noted that the very short 12-item version of the French Physical Self-Inventory (PSI-VS) represents an important contribution to applied research but that further research was needed to investigate the robustness of its psychometric properties in new and diversified samples. The present study was designed to answer these questions based on a sample of 1103 normally achieving French adolescents. The results show that the PSI-VS measurement model is quite robust and fully invariant across subgroups of students formed according to gender, weight, age and ethnicity. The results also confirm the convergent validity and scale score reliability of the PSI-VS subscales. PMID:21803009

Morin, Alexandre J S; Maïano, Christophe

2011-09-01

338

University of Nebraska-Lincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin,  

E-print Network

-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability," to originate electronic entries transferring funds from (debits) or to (credits) Customer's account listed that all entries on Customer's account originated by UNL Children's Center are in the correct amounts

Farritor, Shane

339

Associations between air pollution and socioeconomic characteristics, ethnicity and age profile of neighbourhoods in England and the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Air pollution levels are generally believed to be higher in deprived areas but associations are complex especially between sensitive population subgroups. We explore air pollution inequalities at national, regional and city level in England and the Netherlands comparing particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and publicly available population characteristics (deprivation, ethnicity, proportion of children and elderly). We saw higher concentrations in the most deprived 20% of neighbourhoods in England (1.5 ?g/m(3) higher PM10 and 4.4 ?g/m(3) NO2). Concentrations in both countries were higher in neighbourhoods with >20% non-White (England: 3.0 ?g/m(3) higher PM10 and 10.1 ?g/m(3) NO2; the Netherlands: 1.1 ?g/m(3) higher PM10 and 4.5 ?g/m(3) NO2) after adjustment for urbanisation and other variables. Associations for some areas differed from the national results. Air pollution inequalities were mainly an urban problem suggesting measures to reduce environmental air pollution inequality should include a focus on city transport. PMID:25622242

Fecht, Daniela; Fischer, Paul; Fortunato, Léa; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Marra, Marten; Kruize, Hanneke; Vienneau, Danielle; Beelen, Rob; Hansell, Anna

2015-03-01

340

The University of Virginia does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, political affiliation, race, religion, sex  

E-print Network

and activities as required by Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, the Americans with Disabilities Act designated to handle inquiries regarding the American with Disabilities Act, the Rehabilitation ActThe University of Virginia does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender

Acton, Scott

341

Is neighborhood racial/ethnic composition associated with depressive symptoms? The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

The racial/ethnic composition of a neighborhood may be related to residents' depressive symptoms through differential levels of neighborhood social support and/or stressors. We used the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to investigate cross-sectional associations of neighborhood racial/ethnic composition with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale in adults aged 45-84. The key exposure was a census-derived measure of the percentage of residents of the same racial/ethnic background in each participant's census tract. Two-level multilevel models were used to estimate associations of neighborhood racial/ethnic composition with CES-D scores after controlling for age, income, marital status, education and nativity. We found that living in a neighborhood with a higher percentage of residents of the same race/ethnicity was associated with increased CES-D scores in African American men (p < 0.05), and decreased CES-D scores in Hispanic men and women and Chinese women, although these differences were not statistically significant. Models were further adjusted for neighborhood-level covariates (social cohesion, safety, problems, aesthetic quality and socioeconomic factors) derived from survey responses and census data. Adjusting for other neighborhood characteristics strengthened protective associations amongst Hispanics, but did not change the significant associations in African American men. These results demonstrate heterogeneity in the associations of race/ethnic composition with mental health and the need for further exploration of which aspects of neighborhood environments may contribute to these associations. PMID:20541303

Mair, Christina; Diez Roux, Ana V; Osypuk, Theresa L; Rapp, Stephen R; Seeman, Teresa; Watson, Karol E

2010-08-01

342

Is neighborhood racial/ethnic composition associated with depressive symptoms? The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

The racial/ethnic composition of a neighborhood may be related to residents’ depressive symptoms through differential levels of neighborhood social support and/or stressors. We used the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to investigate cross-sectional associations of neighborhood racial/ethnic composition with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale in adults aged 45–84. The key exposure was a census-derived measure of the percentage of residents of the same racial/ethnic background in each participant’s census tract. Two-level multilevel models were used to estimate associations of neighborhood racial/ethnic composition with CES-D scores after controlling for age, income, marital status, education and nativity. We found that living in a neighborhood with a higher percentage of residents of the same race/ethnicity was associated with increased CES-D scores in African American men (p < 0.05), and decreased CES-D scores in Hispanic men and women and Chinese women, although these differences were not statistically significant. Models were further adjusted for neighborhood-level covariates (social cohesion, safety, problems, aesthetic quality and socioeconomic factors) derived from survey responses and census data. Adjusting for other neighborhood characteristics strengthened protective associations amongst Hispanics, but did not change the significant associations in African American men. These results demonstrate heterogeneity in the associations of race/ethnic composition with mental health and the need for further exploration of which aspects of neighborhood environments may contribute to these associations. PMID:20541303

Mair, Christina; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Rapp, Stephen R.; Seeman, Teresa; Watson, Karol E.

2010-01-01

343

Ethnic Incongruence and the Student-Teacher Relationship: The Perspective of Ethnic Majority Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among 36 ethnic-Dutch school teachers in the Netherlands, the present study examined the role of ethnic incongruence in perceived student-teacher relationship quality. Teachers rated their relationships with 59 Turkish-Dutch, 62 Moroccan-Dutch, and 109 ethnic-Dutch students attending grades 4 through 6 (M[subscript age] = 10.81 years, SD = 1.05).…

Thijs, Jochem; Westhof, Saskia; Koomen, Helma

2012-01-01

344

Working-class Boys at the Margins: Ethnic Prejudice, Cultural Capital, and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a population sample of 465 Norwegian adolescents (mean age 19.3 years), the relationship between ethnic prejudice and social class of origin, cultural capital, own education\\/work, and gender was investigated. The findings revealed that a unidimensional perspective on social class does not hold: least prejudice was found among adolescents from parts of the intermediate strata. High prejudice scores were found

Willy Pedersen

1996-01-01

345

Ethnic differences in stress among residents in a deprived neighbourhood in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research aimed to explore how stress varies by socio-demographic characteristics among immigrants compared to the host population in a deprived neighbourhood. Data used in the analyses were collected through questionnaires from 1160 inhabitants in Esbjerg, Denmark. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for ethnic Danes and immigrants to examine the stress' association with gender, age, education, marital status,

Delia Bancila; Carsten Kronborg Bak; Pernille Tanggaard Andersen

2012-01-01

346

Diagnostic Accuracy of the MMSE in Detecting Probable and Possible Alzheimer's Disease in Ethnically Diverse Highly Educated Individuals: An Analysis of the NACC Database  

PubMed Central

Background. To validate and extend the findings of a raised cut score of O’Bryant and colleagues (O’Bryant SE, Humphreys JD, Smith GE, et al. Detecting dementia with the mini-mental state examination in highly educated individuals. Arch Neurol. 2008;65(7):963–967.) for the Mini-Mental State Examination in detecting cognitive dysfunction in a bilingual sample of highly educated ethnically diverse individuals. Methods. Archival data were reviewed from participants enrolled in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center minimum data set. Data on 7,093 individuals with 16 or more years of education were analyzed, including 2,337 cases with probable and possible Alzheimer's disease, 1,418 mild cognitive impairment patients, and 3,088 nondemented controls. Ethnic composition was characterized as follows: 6,296 Caucasians, 581 African Americans, 4 American Indians or Alaska natives, 2 native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders, 149 Asians, 43 “Other,” and 18 of unknown origin. Results. Diagnostic accuracy estimates (sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio) of Mini-Mental State Examination cut scores in detecting probable and possible Alzheimer's disease were examined. A standard Mini-Mental State Examination cut score of 24 (?23) yielded a sensitivity of 0.58 and a specificity of 0.98 in detecting probable and possible Alzheimer's disease across ethnicities. A cut score of 27 (?26) resulted in an improved balance of sensitivity and specificity (0.79 and 0.90, respectively). In the cognitively impaired group (mild cognitive impairment and probable and possible Alzheimer's disease), the standard cut score yielded a sensitivity of 0.38 and a specificity of 1.00 while raising the cut score to 27 resulted in an improved balance of 0.59 and 0.96 of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusions. These findings cross-validate our previous work and extend them to an ethnically diverse cohort. A higher cut score is needed to maximize diagnostic accuracy of the Mini-Mental State Examination in individuals with college degrees. PMID:22396476

Spering, Cynthia C.; Hobson, Valerie; Lucas, John A.; Menon, Chloe V.; Hall, James R.

2012-01-01

347

A Dialogue About Race and Ethnicity in Education: Struggling To Understand Issues in Cross-Cultural Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dialogic approach explores some of the complex issues related to race and ethnicity to identify implications for more effective cross-cultural leadership in diverse schools. Revisited field notes, as well as data from interviews and surveys from various research projects, provide the background about the difficulties of understanding race and…

Shields, Carolyn M.; Larocque, Linda J.; Oberg, Steven Lynn

2002-01-01

348

Investigation Gender/Ethnicity Heterogeneity in Course Management System Use in Higher Education by Utilizing the MIMIC Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the issue of learning equity in colleges and universities where teaching and learning have come to depend heavily on computer technologies. The study uses the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) latent variable model to quantitatively investigate whether there is a gender /ethnicity difference in using computer based…

Li, Yi

2012-01-01

349

School Size and the Interpersonal Side of Education: An Examination of Race\\/Ethnicity and Organizational Context-super-  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to extend research on the connection between school size and student outcomes by examining how school size was related to interpersonal processes and whether the interpersonal effects of school size varied by race\\/ethnicity. Copyright (c) 2004 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

Robert Crosnoe; Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson; Glen H. Elder

2004-01-01

350

Contours of Race and Ethnicity: Institutional Context and Hmong American Students' Negotiations of Racial Formation in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hmong American students and their struggles are largely invisible yet grossly misunderstood when seen. This study reveals how Hmong Americans negotiate the contours of race and ethnicity to construct an affirming identity on their respective university campuses. A framework of campus racial climate is employed to investigate how institutional…

Vue, Rican

2013-01-01

351

A Field Research Study Which Analyses Ethnic Values and Aesthetic/Art Education: As Observed in Wisconsin Indian Community Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate allegations by Indian artists that their ethnic values/traditions are being omitted from art curricula in their Wisconsin community schools, the study conducted ethnographic observations and interviews in a reservation elementary public school, a public elementary and high school located just outside the reservation, and a…

Stuhr, Patricia L.

352

Accelerated Reader: The Relation to Age of Entry into Formal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature on age of entry into formal education is inconsistent at best in determining if early or late entry impacts the educational experience in positive or negative ways. The purpose of the current study was to add to the literature by examining the relationship between age of entry into formal education and participation in the Accelerated…

Long, Tiffani; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

2012-01-01

353

An Examination of the RCMAS-2 Scores across Gender, Ethnic Background, and Age in a Large Asian School Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and U.S. norms of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Second Edition (RCMAS-2; C. R. Reynolds & B. O. Richmond, 2008a) scores in a Singapore sample of 1,618 school-age children and adolescents. Although there were small statistically…

Ang, Rebecca P.; Lowe, Patricia A.; Yusof, Noradlin

2011-01-01

354

COMPARATIVE ETHNIC STUDIES SYMPOSIUM Monday, October 22, 2012  

E-print Network

Educational and Cultural Center Pamela Jackson Center for Research on Race & Ethnicity in Society Sponsors: Asian American Studies Center for Research on Race & Ethnicity in Society American Studies History

Indiana University

355

Caring for an Aging Society: Issues and Strategies for Gerontology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monograph addresses the need in the United States for greater numbers of gerontology programs and education in the health care of, and human services for, an aging society. Statistical information is provided concerning the aging of America within the U.S. and the 15 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states as well as the aging of…

Denton, David R.

356

What stresses men? predictors of perceived stress in a population-based multi-ethnic cross sectional cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Perceived stress (PS) is a risk factor for a variety of diseases. However, relatively little is known about age- or ethnicity-specific differences in the effect of potential predictors of PS in men. Methods We used a population-based survey of 6,773 White, 1,681 Black, and 617 Hispanic men in Southeastern Pennsylvania to evaluate the relationship of self-reported PS and financial security, health status, social factors, and health behaviors. Interactions across levels of age and ethnicity were tested using logistic regression models adjusted for overall health status, education, and household poverty. Results High PS decreased significantly with age (p < 0.0001) and varied by ethnicity (p = 0.0001). Exposure to health-related and economic factors were more consistently associated with elevated PS in all ethnicities and ages, while social factors and health behaviors were less strongly or not at all associated with PS in most groups. Significant differences in the relationship of high PS by age and ethnicity were observed among men who are medically uninsured (p = 0.0002), reported missing a meal due to cost (p < 0.0001), or had spent a night in the hospital (p = 0.020). In contrast, not filling a prescription due to cost and diagnosed with a mental health condition were associated with high PS but did not differ by age and ethnicity subgroup. Conclusions These data suggest that some, but not all, factors associated with high PS differ by age and/or ethnicity. Research, clinical, or public health initiatives that involve social stressors should consider differences by age and ethnicity. PMID:23388399

2013-01-01

357

The Comparison of Parents’ Educational Level on the Breastfeeding Status Between Turkman and Non-Turkman Ethnic Groups in the North of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Mother's milk plays an important role in infant's health, and World Health Organization (WHO) recommends infants should be breastfed for 2 years or up. Aim: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the breastfeeding status based on parents’ educational level with comparison between Turkman and non-Turkman ethnic groups in the North of Iran in 2010. Subjects and Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study, which was carried out on 6519 subjects (3897 = non-Turkman and 2622 = Turkman) in urban and rural areas. Data have been collected through interviewing with primary school children's mothers. The schools and students were selected using multi-cluster random sampling methods. Breastfeeding was defined based on WHO predominant definition. Results: Of all mothers, 5.8% (377/6519) breastfed for 6 months, 34.8% (2265/6519) for 7-18 months, 57.4% (3745/6519) for 18-24 months and 2% (132/6519) didn’t breastfeed their infants. Breastfeeding prevalence at 19-24 months in Turkman ethnic group (64.7%; 1696/2622) was significantly more than in non-Turkman ethnic group (52.6%; 2049/3897) (P < 0.01) besides early weaning prevalence (at 6 months) in Turkman group was significantly less than in non-Turkman group (4.7%; 123/2622 vs. 6.5%; 254/3897) (P < 0.01). Odds ratio for weaning before 6 months in non-Turkman mothers were 0.563 (0.365-0.786, confidence interval [CI] 95%) in 1-12 years schooling and 0.665 (0.486-0.910, CI: 95%) in uneducated groups compared to college educated. This ratio in Turkman fathers was 3.413 (1.726-6.746, CI: 95%) in 1-12 years schooling compared with college educated. Conclusion: The duration of breastfeeding was longer among Turkman compared with non-Turkman mothers, and longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with higher educational level in the Turkman but not in the non-Turkman mothers. PMID:25506483

Veghari, G; Ahmadpour-Kacho, M; Zahedpasha, Y

2014-01-01

358

The role of early life factors in the development of ethnic differences in growth and overweight in preschool children: a prospective birth cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnic differences in childhood and adulthood are known, but ethnic differences in preschool overweight and associated factors are less studied. We assessed ethnic differences in pre-school age overweight, and studied the mediating role of early life factors in this association. Furthermore, we assessed body mass index (BMI) z-score development from birth to age 4 years to study ethnic-specific differences in BMI z-score trajectory. Methods We used data on 4581 children participating in a birth cohort who were born between 2002 and 2006 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Child’s ethnicity was defined according to country of birth of the parents. Weight and length/height was repeatedly measured between 1 and 45 months of age. Overweight at age 4 years was defined according to cut-off points for BMI from the international obesity task force. We performed logistic regression to obtain independent estimates of the association between ethnicity and preschool-age overweight, and to assess the mediating role of early life risk factors. Mixed models were used to describe BMI-z development for each ethnic group from birth to preschool age. Results Relative to native Dutch children, non-Dutch children were more likely to be overweight at age 4 years, except for Surinamese-Hindustani children. Socio-demographic factors, parental BMI, and infant weight change in the first 6 months after birth reduced associations. After full adjustment, Turkish (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.34-3.04) and Antillean/Surinamese Creole (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.06-3.02) children were still more likely to be overweight at age 4 years. Conclusion Ethnic differences on the prevalence of overweight in preschool children can be partially explained by maternal educational level, parental overweight and early infant weight change. These may be possible targets to reduce ethnic inequalities in preschool age overweight. PMID:25022314

2014-01-01

359

Effect of Age, Education, and Bilingualism on Confrontation Naming in Older Illiterate and Low-Educated Populations  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of age as well as the linked factors of education and bilingualism on confrontation naming in rural Kashmir by creating a culturally appropriate naming test with pictures of 60 objects. We recruited 48 cognitively normal participants whose ages ranged from 18 to 28 and from 60 to 85. Participants in our study were illiterate monolinguals (N = 18) and educated Kashmiri-Urdu bilinguals (N = 30). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that younger adults performed better than older adults (P < 0.01) and the age effect was quadratic (age2). It also showed Age X Education and Age X L2 Speaking interactions predicted naming performance. The Age X Education interaction indicated that the advantages of greater education increased with advancing age. Since education is in the second language (L2) in our population, this finding is no doubt linked to the Age X L2 Speaking interaction. This suggests that L2 speaking proficiency contributed more to first language (L1) naming with advancing age. PMID:24825965

Ashaie, Sameer; Obler, Loraine

2014-01-01

360

Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

2013-01-01

361

Poverty Measure Changes Our Perceptions of Who Is Living in Poverty An Examination of Poverty by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, and Marital Status  

E-print Network

In response to concerns about the adequacy of the official federal poverty measure, a new Supplemental Poverty Measure was recently developed to more accurately assess poverty. This fact sheet presents a rather different picture of poverty in the United States for the various demographic groups based on the Supplemental Poverty Measure and compares this new picture to the understanding of poverty based on the official measure, using data for the 2010 calendar year. The poverty rate is higher under the Supplemental Poverty Measure (15.9 percent poor, IWPR analysis of BLS data) than it is under the official poverty measure (15.1 percent poor; DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, and Smith 2011) for the total U.S. population and for most of the demographic groups examined. Under the Supplemental Poverty Measure, there is also less inequality in poverty across gender, race/ethnicity, age, and marital status than is found using the standard measure. The new measure will now be released by the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) along with the official measure each year. The key differences between the Supplemental Poverty Measure and the official poverty measure are that the supplemental measure includes a more accurate assessment of resources and a more accurate measure of the poverty line (also known as the threshold, the point at which a household's resources are inadequate enough to define it as living in poverty; Women of Color Policy Network 2011). More specifically, in

unknown authors

2012-01-01

362

Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity  

MedlinePLUS

... 10, 2012 Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity When pregnant women use alcohol, tobacco, ... among Pregnant Women Aged 15 to 44, by Race/Ethnicity and Substance: 2002 to 2010 Source: The ...

363

Do dimensions of ethnic identity mediate the association between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms?  

PubMed

Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25090147

Brittian, Aerika S; Kim, Su Yeong; Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Schwartz, Seth J; Villalta, Ian K; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Juang, Linda P; Castillo, Linda G; Hudson, Monika L

2015-01-01

364

Normal left ventricular myocardial thickness for middle aged and older subjects with SSFP cardiac MR: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Increased left ventricular myocardial thickness (LVMT) is a feature of several cardiac diseases. The purpose of this study was to establish standard reference values of normal LVMT with cardiac MR (CMR) and to assess variation with image acquisition plane, demographics and LV function. Methods and Results End-diastolic LVMT was measured on CMR steady-state free precession cine long and short axis images in 300 consecutive participants free of cardiac disease (169 women; 65.6±8.5 years) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort. Mean LVMT on short axis images at the mid-cavity level was 5.3±0.9mm and 6.3±1.1mm for women and men, respectively. The average of the maximum LVMT at the mid-cavity for women/men were 7mm/9mm (long axis) and 7mm/8mm (short axis). Mean LVMT was positively associated with weight (0.02mm/kg, p=0.01) and body-surface-area (1.1mm/m2, p<0.001). No relationship was found between mean LVMT and age or height. Greater mean LVMT was associated with lower LV end-diastolic volume (0.01mm/ml, p<0.01), a lower LV end-systolic volume (?0.01mm/ml, p=0.01) and lower LV stroke volume (?0.01mm/ml, p<0.05). LVMT measured on long axis images at the basal and mid-cavity level were slightly greater (by 6% and 10%, respectively) than measurements obtained on short axis images; apical LVMT values on long axis images were 20% less than those on short axis images. Conclusion Normal values for wall thickness are provided for middle-aged and older subjects. Normal LVMT is lower for women than men. Observed values vary depending on the imaging plane for measurement. PMID:22705587

Kawel, Nadine; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Eng, John; Gomes, Antoinette S.; Hundley, W. Gregory; Johnson, Craig; Masri, Sofia C.; Prince, Martin R.; van der Geest, Rob J.; Lima, João A. C.; Bluemke, David A.

2012-01-01

365

Ethnic enclaves and gestational diabetes among immigrant women in New York City.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that immigrants living in their own ethnic enclave are at decreased risk of poor health outcomes, but this question has not been studied in relation to gestational diabetes, an important early marker of lifecourse cardiovascular health. We ascertained gestational diabetes, census tract of residence, and individual-level covariates for Sub-Saharan African, Chinese, South Central Asian, Non-Hispanic Caribbean, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Mexican, and Central and South American migrant women using linked birth-hospital discharge data for 89,703 singleton live births in New York City for the years 2001-2002. Using 2000 census data, for each immigrant group we defined a given census tract as part of an ethnic enclave based on the population distribution for the corresponding ethnic group. We estimated odds ratios for associations between living in an ethnic enclave and risk of gestational diabetes adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, percent commercial space, education, age, parity, and insurance status, using multilevel logistic regression. Overall, we found no effect of ethnic enclave residence on gestational diabetes in most immigrant groups. Among South Central Asian and Mexican women, living in a residential ethnic enclave was associated with an increased odds of gestational diabetes. Several explanations are proposed for these findings. Mechanisms explaining an increased risk of gestational diabetes in South Central Asian and Mexican ethnic enclaves should be examined. PMID:25259656

Janevic, T; Borrell, L N; Savitz, D A; Echeverria, S E; Rundle, A

2014-11-01

366

A Study of Elementary and Secondary Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes toward Aging and the Implementation of Aging Education in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study surveys elementary and secondary teachers in Taiwan and compares the findings with other studies conducted in America and Japan. The objective is to explore differences among teachers in Taiwan, Japan, and the United States in terms of their knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging and the implementation of aging education in schools.…

Huang, Chin-Shan

2012-01-01

367

SUMMER 2013 MINNESOTA CHAIR IN LONG-TERM CARE AND AGING CENTER ON AGING MINNESOTA AREA GERIATRIC EDUCATION CENTER  

E-print Network

GERIATRIC EDUCATION CENTER OldNews Center on Aging Summer Institute 2013 Dementia: The Disease of Our implications of dementia in our aging population, the focus of this year's Summer Institute was especially progression of the disease, but currently that's not possible. The four FDA-approved drugs for Alzheimer

Blanchette, Robert A.

368

Social Work Knowledge of Facts on Aging: Influence of Field and Classroom Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) was used to measure aging knowledge outcomes of 323 practicum students engaged in aging-focused practica at pre- and posttest across 11 universities. Significant improvement in knowledge scores (p = 0.0001) was found for graduates of the enhanced field education programs. Taking aging course work was a…

Birkenmaier, Julie; Rowan, Noell L.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

2009-01-01

369

Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.  

PubMed

Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions. PMID:24934272

Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C

2014-06-17

370

Development of an educational program of Christian formation for the Baptist Church of Quintana, Hato Rey, Puerto Rico to deal with the racial and ethnic prejudice in the congregation and the local community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The doctoral thesis Development of an Educational Program of Christian Formation for the Baptist Church of Quintana, Hato Rey, Puerto Rico, to Deal with the Racial and Ethnic Prejudice in the Congregation and the Local Community, has as its goal to begin a change of attitude among the lay people of the Baptist Church Quintana so that the church can

David Casillas Galarza

2001-01-01

371

The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Elementary and Secondary Education. A Briefing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights Held in Washington, D.C., July 28, 2006. Briefing Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On July 28, 2006, a panel of experts briefed members of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on the putative benefits of racial and ethnic diversity in elementary and secondary education. Four experts presented written statements to the Commissioners that assessed the social science literature on this issue. They also addressed whether or not…

US Commission on Civil Rights, 2006

2006-01-01

372

Reflections of middle school students by gender and race/ethnicity on obtaining a successful science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixty-five eighth grade students responded to a science beliefs survey during a science-inquiry lab unit in an action research project to assess whether gender has an effect on how the students perceive their science classes. The survey was given to eighth grade students during the first week of school. Student results were categorized by gender and by race/ethnicity. The middle school where the study took place is fairly diverse with 540 total students of which 48% of them are White, 42% are Black, and 10% are Hispanic. Six female science teachers are employed at the middle school, two per grade. The first unit that is taught in science is inquiry skills, the basics of all science such as graphing, laboratory tools, safety, etc. This unit is taught in 6 th, 7th, and 8th grades, as a part of our standards. Inquiry test results for 8th graders are also given in this thesis, and are categorized again by gender and race/ethnicity. The results of the surveys and the assessment show a gap in the way students think about and complete activities in science. It was exciting to see that the female students scored better overall than male students on an inquiry-based summative assessment, while white students overall scored better than Black and Hispanic students. White males tended to rank science as the class they enjoyed the most of all core classes and thought science was easier than all the other data demographics. The conclusion found was stunning, in that the true gap in student's beliefs about science lies within the different races/ethnicities, rather than just gender alone.

Mihalik, Bethany

373

Teaching Strategies for Ethnic Studies. Fifth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major goal of this fifth edition is to help present and future teachers acquire the knowledge, concepts, strategies, and resources needed to integrate information about ethnic groups into the mainstream curriculum. This edition incorporates new terms and concepts that are emerging in the field of multicultural education. Information on ethnic

Banks, James A.

374

Household and neighborhood conditions partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in the National Health and Aging Trends Study.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (educational effects into direct effects and indirect effects via household and neighborhood conditions, using sample weights and adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, household size, BMI, self-reported health, and number of medical conditions in 6874 community-dwelling participants. Education was directly associated with SPPB scores (? = 0.055, p < 0.05) and peak flow (? = 0.095, p < 0.05), but not grip strength. Also, indirect effects were found for household disorder with SPPB scores (? = 0.013, p < 0.05), grip strength (? = 0.007, p < 0.05), and peak flow (? = 0.010, p < 0.05). Indirect effects were also found for street disorder with SPPB scores (? = 0.012, p < 0.05). Indirect effects of household and neighborhood conditions accounted for approximately 35%, 27% and 14% of the total association between education and SPPB scores, grip strength level, and peak expiratory flow level, respectively. Household disorder and street disorder partially accounted for educational disparities in physical capacity. However, educational disparities in SPPB scores and peak expiratory flow persisted after accounting for household and neighborhood conditions and chronic conditions, suggesting additional pathways. Interventions and policies aiming to support aging in place should consider addressing household-level and street-level disorder. PMID:25594954

Samuel, Laura J; Glass, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J; Szanton, Sarah L; Roth, David L

2015-03-01

375

Liberal Education in the Age of the Unthinkable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those who work in all sectors of higher education--from community and liberal arts colleges to undergraduate programs in public and research universities--often assert that a "liberal education" is precisely the kind of undergraduate education that is needed for both living and working in the challenging 21st-century world. "Liberal education" or…

Shinn, Larry D.

2012-01-01

376

Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship and citizenship education. He argues that citizenship education should be reformed so that it reflects the

James A. Banks

2008-01-01

377

Explaining US racial\\/ethnic disparities in health declines and mortality in late middle age: The roles of socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive health disparities continue to exist among racial\\/ethnic minority groups, but the factors related to these disparities have not been fully elucidated. We undertook this prospective cohort study to determine the independent contributions of socioeconomic status (SES), health behaviors, and health insurance in explaining racial\\/ethnic disparities in mortality and health declines. Our study period was 1992–1998, and our study population

Joseph J. Sudano; David W. Baker

2006-01-01

378

Learning to Participate: Effect of Child Age and Parental Education on Participation in Pediatric Visits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's participation in health care improves outcomes, yet little is known about factors that affect participation. We examine how child age and parental education affect participation. Visit videotapes were coded to reflect key visit tasks: information giving, information gathering, and relationship building. Multivariable models were used to analyze how participation was associated with child age and parental education. For each

Elizabeth D. Cox; Maureen A. Smith; Roger L. Brown; Mary A. Fitzpatrick

2009-01-01

379

Two-Sided Estimation of Mate Preferences for Similarities in Age, Education, and Religion  

E-print Network

Two-Sided Estimation of Mate Preferences for Similarities in Age, Education, and Religion John's preferences for relative age, education and religious characteristics of potential mates using cross of potential mates, and a much stronger preference for religious homogamy among conservative Protestants

Hoff, Peter

380

What Educational Opportunities Should Professionals in Aging Provide?: A Pilot Community Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the aging workforce and the increase of older adults, educational needs of the workforce in aging services are broadening. The pilot study used a survey to examine the types of educational opportunities and needs of professionals providing services to older adults in eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. Respondents (25.9%) reported learning…

Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Leson, Suzanne M.

2010-01-01

381

Challenges and Opportunities for Vocational Education and Training in the Light of Raising the Participation Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By 2015, all young people must participate in some form of education and training until they are aged 18. This review discusses the challenges and opportunities involved if vocational education and training is to contribute to this raising of the participation age. We argue that as well as ensuring that young people who have made a full-time…

Acquah, Daniel K.; Huddleston, Prue

2014-01-01

382

Association between ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 S18Y variant and risk of Parkinson's disease: the impact of ethnicity and onset age.  

PubMed

The Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCHL1) is a candidate risk gene for Parkinson' disease (PD), and a function SNP (rs5030732) in the coding region of this gene has been studied for the association with the disease extensively among worldwide populations, but the results were inconsistent and controversial. Here, to estimate the association between UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism and risk of PD in general population, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis by combining all available case-control subjects in Asian, European, and American populations, with a total of 7742 PD cases and 8850 healthy controls, and the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism and PD were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method with a fixed- or random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was also performed in different onset age-matched groups. Among high-quality studies, UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism was moderately associated with the risk of PD (allele contrasts, OR = 1.063, 95% CI 1.008-1.122; p = 0.024; regressive genetic model, OR = 1.078, 95% CI 1.005-1.157; p = 0.035). When stratifying for ethnicity, none association were observed in subgroups. Analysis of early-onset PD (EOPD) and late-onset PD (LOPD) revealed that the polymorphism was not associated with the risk of PD. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism is moderately associated with susceptibility to PD, and more studies are needed to confirm our conclusion. PMID:25370916

Liu, Ying; Chen, Yan-Yan; Liu, Hui; Yao, Ci-Jiang; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Dao-Jun; Yang, Jin; Lu, You-Jin; Cao, Ji-Yu

2015-02-01

383

The Relationship Between Ethnic Prejudice and Student Teaching Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was designed to determine (1) differences in ethnic prejudice between 43 student teachers in early childhood education, 124 in elementary, and 195 in secondary; (2) how prejudice toward Negroes differs from that toward other ethnic groups; and (3) the relationship of ethnic prejudice to various student teaching behavior characteristics.…

Cullen, Robert J.; Auria, Carl

384

Internal and External Ethnic Assessments in Eastern Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey data for majority and minority ethnicities in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Russia illustrate how internal ethnic identification and other social characteristics influence external ethnic classification. Logistic regressions show how interviewers use negative social characteristics (poverty, low education) to classify respondents as Roma…

Ahmed, Patricia; Feliciano, Cynthia; Emigh, Rebecca Jean

2007-01-01

385

The Artful Dodgers: Directors of Ethnic Studies Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the vast amount of ethnic studies promoted by state education departments, one conclusion can be easily made: East European ethnic studies are conspicuously absent. Suggestions are given to increase the awareness of Eastern European culture and heritage and promote their inclusion in formal ethnic studies curriculum. (Author/DE)

Fenchak, Paul

1974-01-01

386

Too Latino and Not Latino Enough: The Role of Ethnicity-Related Stressors on Latino College Students' Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between demographics (generation status, age, gender, education level) and ethnicity-related stressors, namely, perceived discrimination, stereotype confirmation concern, and own-group conformity pressure, and the life satisfaction of 115 Latino college students was examined. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated…

Ojeda, Lizette; Navarro, Rachel L.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Arbona, Consuelo

2012-01-01

387

Older Adult Education in a Maltese University of the Third Age: a critical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The education of older adults has been considered the fastest growing branch of adult education in post-industrial countries and one of the most crucial challenges facing current adult European education. It has generated a significant number of research projects and publications seeking to analyse the character of third age learning. This article represents a further attempt, in Sandra Cusack's words,

MARVIN FORMOSA

388

University of Wisconsin Milwaukee Baccalaureate Degree Early Childhood Education (Ages 0-8 certification)  

E-print Network

University of Wisconsin ­ Milwaukee Baccalaureate Degree Early Childhood Education (Ages 0-8 certification) Wisconsin Technical College System A.A.S. Early Childhood Education Effective Date: For students Description and Rationale: Students completing the AAS degree in Early Childhood Education at one

Saldin, Dilano

389

Revisioning Education for All in the Age of Migration: Global Challenges and Opportunities for Lifelong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper revisits and revisions Education for All (EFA) in the age of global migration with the aim of developing more inclusive approaches towards social justice and equity in education. Drawing on cases of internal and international migration in China and Canada, this paper compares and contrasts policies and practices in the education of…

Guo, Shibao

2014-01-01

390

Does SES or Acculturation Modify the Association between Ethnicity and Hypertension Treatment before Stroke?  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation may modify the association between ethnicity and hypertension treatment before stroke. We assessed pre-stroke treatment of hypertension by ethnicity, education (proxy for SES), and English proficiency (EP, proxy for acculturation) in a population-based stroke surveillance project. Methods Among 763 first-ever stroke patients aged ?45 years in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project from 2000–2006, we examined self-reported hypertension treatment at the time of the stroke by ethnicity (MA vs. NHW) in the overall sample, within education strata (high school), and after dichotomizing MAs by self-reported EP (limited vs. proficient). Logistic regression adjusted associations for age, sex, education, diabetes, coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, and health insurance. Results NHWs and MAs reported similar hypertension treatment (84% vs. 86%; P=0.53). Hypertension treatment was 84% for NHWs and 90% for MAs (P=0.18) in high school stratum (ethnicity-by-education interaction P=0.09). Hypertension treatment was 83% for NHWs, 87% for MAs with EP (PvsNHWs=0.35), and 90% for MAs with limited EP (PvsNHWs=0.13)(ethnicity-by-EP interaction P=0.22). Stroke patients with no health insurance (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 0.13; 95%CI, 0.03–0.60) or no physician visit ?6 months (aOR, 0.09; 95%CI, 0.03–0.24) had lower odds of hypertension treatment. Conclusion We found no evidence that SES or acculturation modify the association between ethnicity and hypertension treatment before stroke. PMID:24046006

Levine, Deborah A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Smith, Melinda A.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

2013-01-01

391

Ability of university-level education to prevent age-related decline in emotional intelligence  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging. PMID:24653697

Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

2014-01-01

392

The Case for Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In six brief chapters, mixed-age grouping of young children in schools and child care centers is explored and advocated. Chapter 1 defines mixed-age grouping, examines limitations of single-age grouping, and points out positive characteristics of mixed-age classes. Chapter 2 discusses social development as seen in children's interactions in…

Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

393

Enhancing Ethnic Diversity at a Big Ten University through Project TEAM: A Case Study in Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of Project Transformative Educational Achievement Model (TEAM), an instructional initiative intended to increase the numbers of diverse students at Indiana University who enter teacher education, graduate, and obtain teaching licensure in Indiana. Data from interviews, meta-comment papers, and student transcripts focus on…

Bennett, Christine I.

2002-01-01

394

The Role of Ethnic Culture in Work-Family Balance among Armenian Women in Leadership Positions in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contemporary society women leaders in education have struggled to balance work and family. While some women have succeeded in finding that balance, many others are still struggling. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of three Armenian women in senior-level leadership positions in higher education in the United…

Baran, Hasmig

2012-01-01

395

Race & Ethnicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The English Server at the University of Washington (see the December 12, 1996 Scout Report) consists of reference material, essays, fiction and non-fiction books, and other resources "addressing issues of race and ethnicity in the United States." The Server's selections are discriminating and up-to-date with essays by luminaries in the field such as bell hooks, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Cornel West; autobiographical narratives from Frederick Douglass and W.E.B. DuBois; a useful list of links to high-quality Websites; and famous "quotables" such as Martin Luther King's "I have a Dream" speech and Nelson Mandela's speech upon his release from prison. A keyword search engine is also available.

396

Educational Equity in the Access to Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of Ethnic Minorities in China with Aboriginals in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides insight into equity issues in post-secondary education by exploring and assessing the history, the reality and the potential developments in higher education for minority students in China, in comparison to post-secondary education for aboriginal students in Canada. It highlights access to post-secondary education by these…

Wang, Fei

2013-01-01

397

Building a Global Community of Policymakers, Researchers and Educators to Move Education Systems into the Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The EDUsummIT 2011 aimed to develop (a) recommendations for policy, practice and research that will help educational systems move into the digital age and (b) strategies to build a global community of researchers, policymakers and teachers in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education. Thematic working groups…

Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.

2013-01-01

398

Early Learning Left Out: An Examination of Public Investments in Education and Development by Child Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents the most comprehensive picture, to date, of public investments in the education and development of children by three age groupings--the early learning years (roughly 0-5), the school-aged years (roughly 6-18), and the college-aged years (roughly 19-23). It is based upon detailed analysis of state, federal, and school district…

Bruner, Charles; Elias, Victor; Stein, Debbie; Schaefer, Stephanie

2004-01-01

399

Invatamantul cu Predarea in Limbile Minoritatilor Nationale din Romania. In Anul Scolar 1992/1993 = The Education System in Romania: Tuition in the Languages of Ethnic Minorities. The School Year 1992/1993 = L'enseignement dispense dans les langues des minorites nationales de Roumanie. L'annee scolaire 1992/1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documentation of the Romanian system of language instruction in ethnic minority languages is presented in Romanian, French, and English. It consists of: relevant provisions from the national constitution concerning the rights of ethnic minority members; organization and functioning of the educational system at the elementary, middle, and secondary…

Council for National Minorities, Bucharest (Romania).

400

Favorite Foods of Older Adults Living in the Black Belt Region of the United States: Influences of Ethnicity, Gender, and Education  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine food preferences of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the Southeastern United States and the extent to which food preferences vary according to ethnicity, gender, and educational level. 270 older adults who were receiving home health services were interviewed in their home and were queried regarding their favorite foods. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Chi-square analysis or one-way analyses of variance was used, where appropriate, in bivariate analyses, and logistic regression models were used in multivariate analyses. A total of 1,857 favorite foods were reported (mean per person = 6.88). The top ten favorite foods reported included: 1) chicken (of any kind), 2) collard greens, 3) cornbread, 4) green or string beans, 5) fish (fried catfish is implied), 6) turnip greens, 7) potatoes, 8) apples, 9) tomatoes, fried chicken, and eggs tied, and 10) steak and ice cream tied. African Americans and those with lower levels of education were more likely to report traditional Southern foods among their favorite foods and had a more limited repertoire of favorite foods. Findings have implications for understanding health disparities that may be associated with diet and development of culturally-appropriate nutrition interventions. PMID:23262296

Yang, Yongbin; Buys, David R.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Gower, Barbara A.; Locher, Julie L.

2012-01-01

401

Labor Market Advancement for Young Men: How It Differs by Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity during the Initial Transition to Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006-2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who…

Stoll, Michael A.

2010-01-01

402

Preadolescents' Understanding of Ethnic Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social representation theory was used as a heuristic framework for investigating preadolescents' (193 Dutch and ethnic minority respondents between 10 and 13 years of age) understanding of discrimination in the Netherlands. Shared beliefs and understandings were found regarding when a specific act was considered discriminatory, who the actors were, and why the discrimination occurred. The prototypical example of discrimination was

Maykel Verkuyten; Barbara Kinket; Charlotte van der Wielen

1997-01-01

403

Current and Emerging Forces Impacting Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the methodology of force field analysis, the paper develops possible futures for special education based on current trends. Demographic forces impacting special education include age changes, ethnicity changes, the needs of emerging language minorities, specific change in the youth population, environmental factors and the incidence of…

Yates, James R.

404

Early Childhood Education for Handicapped Children (Ages 3 through 5). Special Education in North Dakota. Guide VII.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed primarily for use by personnel involved in North Dakota public school programs for preschool-age handicapped children (ages 3-5). It is also intended to provide parents and personnel in health, human services, and other child service agencies with an understanding of the scope and purpose of educational services for young…

Niebergall, Shelby; Oas, Brenda

405

Education mitigates age-related decline in N-Acetylaspartate levels  

PubMed Central

Background Greater educational attainment is associated with better neurocognitive health in older adults and is thought to reflect a measure of cognitive reserve. In vivo neuroimaging tools have begun to identify the brain systems and networks potentially responsible for reserve. Methods We examined the relationship between education, a commonly used proxy for cognitive reserve, and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in neurologically healthy older adults (N = 135; mean age = 66 years). Using single voxel MR spectroscopy, we predicted that higher levels of education would moderate an age-related decline in NAA in the frontal cortex. Results After controlling for the variance associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, sex, annual income, and creatine levels, there were no significant main effects of education (B = 0.016, P = 0.787) or age (B = ?0.058, P = 0.204) on NAA levels. However, consistent with our predictions, there was a significant education X age interaction such that more years of education offset an age-related decline in NAA (B = 0.025, P = 0.031). When examining working memory via the backwards digit span task, longer span length was associated with greater education (P < 0.01) and showed a trend with greater NAA concentrations (P < 0.06); however, there was no age X education interaction on digit span performance nor a significant moderated mediation effect between age, education, and NAA on digit span performance. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that higher levels of education may attenuate an age-related reduction in neuronal viability in the frontal cortex. PMID:25798329

Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M; Radchenkova, Polina; Sutton, Bradley P; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

2015-01-01

406

The Need for Nursing and Midwifery Programmes of Education to Address the Health Care Needs of Minority Ethnic Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nursing education should play an important role in developing culturally sensitive health care. Nurses and midwives should be trained in assessing health needs of different cultural groups and developing appropriate care. (SK)

Papadopoulos, Irena; Alleyne, Jo

1995-01-01

407

Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike.…

Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

2013-01-01

408

Ethnic-Based Nuptial Regimes and Marriage Behaviour  

PubMed Central

What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socioeconomic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question in the context of Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence—as articulated by local ethnic-based laws and customs known as ‘adat’—influence actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviours, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that ethnic-based nuptial regimes can be critical and persistent determinants of marriage behaviours even as societies rapidly develop. PMID:19851937

Buttenheim, Alison M.; Nobles, Jenna

2009-01-01

409

Early educational and health enrichment at age 3-5 years is associated with increased autonomic and central nervous system arousal and orienting at age 11 years: evidence from the Mauritius Child Health Project.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effects of environmental enrichment on psychophysiological measures of arousal and orienting in humans. This study tests the hypothesis that early educational and health enrichment is associated with long-term increases in psychophysiological orienting and arousal. One hundred children were experimentally assigned to a two-year enriched nursery school intervention at ages 3-5 years and matched at age 3 years on psychophysiological measures, gender, and ethnicity to 100 comparisons who received the normal educational experience. Children were retested 6-8 years later at age 11 years on skin conductance (SC) and electroencephalogram (EEG) measures of arousal and attention during pre- and postexperimental rest periods and during the continuous performance task. Nursery enrichment was associated with increased SC amplitudes, faster SC rise times, faster SC recovery times, and less slow-wave EEG during both rest and CPT conditions. This is believed to be the first study to show that early environmental enrichment is associated with long-term increases in psychophysiological orienting and arousal in humans. Results draw attention to the important influence of the early environment in shaping later psychophysiological functioning. PMID:11347871

Raine, A; Venables, P H; Dalais, C; Mellingen, K; Reynolds, C; Mednick, S A

2001-03-01

410

College-Educated Women’s Personality Development in Adulthood: Perceptions and Age Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adulthood encompasses a large time span and includes a series of psychosocial challenges (E. H. Erikson, 1950). Five aspects of personality (identity certainty, confident power, concern with aging, generativity, and personal distress) were assessed in a cross-sectional study of college-educated women who at the time of data collection were young adults (age: M = 26 years), middle-aged adults (age: M

Alyssa N. Zucker; Joan M. Ostrove; Abigail J. Stewart

2002-01-01

411

Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS-11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…

Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole

2011-01-01

412

Post-Secondary Education: Entering the Age of the Consumer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional sellers' market in higher education has become a buyers' market, with both the nature of the student body and the services offered being changed. Marketing, as a comprehensive tool for planning and delivery of educational services, offers an integrated method for meeting the disparate demands growing from the shift to a longer…

Lencyk, John A.

413

The Possibility of Public Education in an Instrumentalist Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In our increasingly instrumentalist culture, debates over the privatization of schooling may be beside the point. Whether we hatch some new plan for chartering or funding schools, or retain the traditional model of government-run schools, the ongoing instrumentalization of education threatens the very possibility of public education. Indeed, in…

Higgins, Chris

2011-01-01

414

Ethnicity and Health Disparities in Alcohol Research  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in alcohol research continue to build our understanding of alcohol consumption and related consequences for U.S. ethnic minority groups. National surveys show variations across ethnicities in drinking, alcohol use disorders, alcohol problems, and treatment use. Higher rates of high-risk drinking among ethnic minorities are reported for Native Americans and Hispanics, although within-ethnic group differences (e.g., gender, age-group, and other subpopulations) also are evident for ethnicities. Whites and Native Americans have a greater risk for alcohol use disorders relative to other ethnic groups. However, once alcohol dependence occurs, Blacks and Hispanics experience higher rates than Whites of recurrent or persistent dependence. Furthermore, the consequences of drinking appear to be more profound for Native Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks. Disparities in alcohol treatment utilization are most apparent for Hispanics. Explanations for these differences are complex, likely affected by risky drinking behaviors, immigration experiences, racial/ethnic discrimination, economic and neighborhood disadvantage, and variations in alcohol-metabolizing genes. Research must maintain a systematic, strong, and growing focus on ethnic minorities. A more complete understanding of these effects for ethnic minority groups is needed to enable researchers to face the challenges of reducing and ultimately eliminating health disparities in the alcohol field. PMID:21209793

Chartier, Karen; Caetano, Raul

2010-01-01

415

Family Background, Adolescents' Educational Aspirations, and Australian Young Adults' Educational Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study, relationships were examined between educational aspirations and educational attainment for Australian young adults from different ethnic and social status backgrounds. Participants included 6,811 (3,547 women and 3,264 men) young adults (mean age = 20.3 years) who were in Year 9 when the study began. In the analysis,…

Marjoribanks, Kevin

2005-01-01

416

Efficacy, national/international practices and motivational factors of lifelong driver education for the aging population  

E-print Network

In a society facing a significant increase in its aging population, older driver education/training is emerging as a potential solution to help seniors drive more safely, thus maintaining their mobility and quality of life. ...

Israels, Richard (Richard Steven)

2006-01-01

417

Using the Freirian Model To Develop an Ethnically Sensitive Sexuality Education Curriculum for an American Indian Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of the Eagle Creek community in the Cherokee Nation explored the development of a sexuality education curriculum using Paulo Freire's model. Data indicated that the curriculum empowered people, helped to uncover socio-political and cultural issues that affect behavior, and emphasized the collective knowledge that emerges when a group…

Goodman, Deborah Downing

418

U.S. Educational Achievement on International Assessments: The Role of Race and Ethnicity. RTI Research Report Series. Occasional Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The debate about the performance of US students on international assessments of educational achievement routinely fails to account for one consistently stark result: US achievement is bifurcated between a group of high-performing Asian and white students and an exceptionally low-performing group of black and Hispanic students. By summarizing…

Dalton, Ben

2011-01-01

419

Language, Ethnicity and Education: Case Studies on Immigrant Minority Groups and Immigrant Minority Languages. Multilingual Matters 111.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immigrant minority groups and immigrant minority languages in Europe are viewed from three perspectives (demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational) through case studies. The first part, using a demographic approach, includes research on immigrant minority groups in population statistics of both European Union and English-dominant countries…

Broeder, Peter; Extra, Guus

420

Daily intragroup contact in diverse settings: implications for asian adolescents' ethnic identity.  

PubMed

This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard for adolescents, who were highly identified with their ethnic group and who attended predominantly White or ethnically heterogeneous schools. In addition, using time lag analyses, contact with same-ethnic others yesterday was positively related to ethnic private regard today, but ethnic private regard yesterday was unrelated to contact with same-ethnic others today, suggesting that adolescents' identity is responsive to their environments. The implications of these findings for the development of ethnic identity are discussed. PMID:23294295

Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J Nicole

2013-01-01

421

Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity  

PubMed Central

This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age 14) attending 4 high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard for adolescents who were highly identified with their ethnic group and who attended predominantly White or ethnically heterogeneous schools. In addition, using time lag analyses, contact with same-ethnic others yesterday was positively related to ethnic private regard today, but ethnic private regard yesterday was unrelated to contact with same-ethnic others today, suggesting that adolescents' identity is responsive to their environments. The implications of these findings for the development of ethnic identity are discussed. PMID:23294295

Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara E.; Shelton, J. Nicole

2013-01-01

422

The Office of Naval Research support underrepresented ethnic groups mentoring model redirecting science education: An "investigative" case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the debate about education in general and science education in particular for every student continues world wide and in the United States of America, the debate points to an underrepresentation of and underachievement by African-Americans (Ferguson, 1981). Given the intent of access to scientific knowledge for every student, the value of scientific knowledge in our society and the fact that the United States of America is a community espousing equal opportunity, it is important to investigate whether or not the situation allows access to scientific knowledge that can be improved through a specific mentoring program for African Americans on historically white university campuses. Education is a cultural process (Gay & Cole, 1966). Each member of a society or a group must learn to act appropriately as a cultural member and contribute to its maintenance and, occasionally to its improvement. The primary aim of education in all societies, either formal or informal, is to provide every citizen with the skills to be self-sufficient and to contribute to the nation's welfare. This is a cultural study of African-American students in a mentoring program. Accordingly, it highlights an understanding of the relationship between schools and communities, educational and social systems, and educational and cultural settings that are meaningful in the present paradigm. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the efforts of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) program which mentors African-Americans by redirecting and encouraging them to pursue careers in the scientific fields. The study investigates whether African-American students at Florida State University (FSU), a historically white university, and a participant in the Office of Naval Research (ONR) program, significantly benefits African-American students by providing a mentor with the same cultural background. The study also explores findings that were generated through research to explain the importance of mentoring African-Americans is disproportionately affected by the pedagogical content knowledge base for science practice on the university campus. The research is significant because it highlights an understanding of underrepresentation of African-Americans and the African-American students understanding of those who are charged with the responsibility of educating them on historically white university campuses.

Garner-Williams, Elizabeth

423

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale: A Differential Item Functioning Analysis  

PubMed Central

The authors examined the impact of race/ethnicity on responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale, one of the most widely used discrimination scales in epidemiologic and public health research. Participants were 3,295 middle-aged US women (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese) from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) baseline examination (1996–1997). Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the Everyday Discrimination Scale by race/ethnicity. After adjustment for age, education, and language of interview, meaningful DIF was observed for 3 (out of 10) items: “receiving poorer service in restaurants or stores,” “being treated as if you are dishonest,” and “being treated with less courtesy than other people” (all P's < 0.001). Consequently, the “profile” of everyday discrimination differed slightly for women of different racial/ethnic groups, with certain “public” experiences appearing to have more salience for African-American and Chinese women and “dishonesty” having more salience for racial/ethnic minority women overall. “Courtesy” appeared to have more salience for Hispanic women only in comparison with African-American women. Findings suggest that the Everyday Discrimination Scale could potentially be used across racial/ethnic groups as originally intended. However, researchers should use caution with items that demonstrated DIF. PMID:22306556

Lewis, Tené T.; Yang, Frances M.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Fitchett, George

2012-01-01

424

A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

Perez, Shireese Redmond

2011-01-01

425

Bullying and Victimization among Adolescents: The Role of Ethnicity and Ethnic Composition of School Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the relationships between ethnicity, peer-reported bullying and victimization, and whether these relationships were moderated by the ethnic composition of the school classes. Participants were 2386 adolescents (mean age: 13 years and 10 months; 51.9% boys) from 117 school classes in the Netherlands. Multilevel analyses…

Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Overbeek, Geertjan

2010-01-01

426

Children's Implicit and Explicit Ethnic Group Attitudes, Ethnic Group Identification, and Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing amount of research explores how children distinguish different aspects of ethnic group attitudes. However, little work has focused on how these aspects tie in with other social and psychological processes. In the present study, 112 black and white children aged 5-, 7- and 9-years completed tests of implicit and explicit ethnic group…

Davis, Stephanie C.; Leman, Patrick J.; Barrett, Martyn

2007-01-01

427

Ethnic Fraud?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For American Indian scholars, securing a job in higher education can sometimes be as simple as checking a box. Most of the country's colleges and universities do not require proof of tribal enrollment from faculty or staff who identify themselves as American Indians. Students looking to receive financial aid, however, must submit proof that they…

Pember, Mary Annette

2007-01-01

428

Norwegian-American Ethnicity and Ethnic Clothing, Textiles, and Household Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the association between ownership of ethnic articles by a sample of Norwegian American women and predictive factors such as educational level of husband, social class, generation, travel to Norway, communication with relatives in Norway, and endogamy. (MC)

Jacobsen, Mary Ann; Gates, Ruth E.

1979-01-01

429

Music education technology for older elementary school aged children: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music education is essential to forming a well-rounded student. With this important concept in mind, our goal for this project was to produce an interactive tool for students and give them an opportunity to \\

Steve Altieri; Meghan Bruce; Chris Lindo; Tim Miller

2005-01-01

430

How Pervasive Are Relative Age Effects in Secondary School Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relative age effects (RAEs; R. H. Barnsley, A. H. Thompson, & P. E. Barnsley, 1985) convey school attainment (dis)advantages depending on whether one is relatively older or younger within annually age-grouped cohorts. In the present study, the authors examined the pervasiveness of RAEs by examining (a) attainment in 4 secondary school subjects,…

Cobley, Stephen; McKenna, Jim; Baker, Joeseph; Wattie, Nick

2009-01-01

431

How Pervasive Are Relative Age Effects in Secondary School Education?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative age effects (RAEs; R. H. Barnsley, A. H. Thompson, & P. E. Barnsley, 1985) convey school attainment (dis)advantages depending on whether one is relatively older or younger within annually age-grouped cohorts. In the present study, the authors examined the pervasiveness of RAEs by examining (a) attainment in 4 secondary school subjects, (b) attainment consistency across subjects, (c) pupils enrolled

Stephen Cobley; Jim McKenna; Joeseph Baker; Nick Wattie

2009-01-01

432

Preparing for an Aging Workforce: The Role of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given population trends and societal views on aging, academic programs preparing human-resource-development professionals should address competencies needed for dealing with an aging workforce. Programs should be reviewed using the competencies identified by the American Society for Training and Development. (SK)

Beatty, Paulette T.; Burroughs, Lisa

1999-01-01

433

Teaching about Ethnic Diversity. ERIC Digest No. 32.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ERIC digest examines the paradox posed to social studies educators by the new wave of immigrants and increasing ethnic diversity: namely, how do educators depict accurately and fairly the rich ethnic diversity of the United States and also teach core values of a common American heritage? With the underlying theme being the promotion of both…

Cohen, Cheryl Bernstein

434

The Significance of Dewey's Aesthetics in Art Education in the Age of Globalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the occasion of Dewey's sesquicentennial anniversary, Kazuyo Nakamura explores Dewey's aesthetics, which holds the plurality of art and culture in high regard. Nakamura develops a theoretical foundation for art education in the present age of globalization based on educational insights drawn from Dewey's aesthetics. The theme of this essay…

Nakamura, Kazuyo

2009-01-01

435

The Influence of Education and Age on Neurocognitive Test Performance in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research involves an examination of the relationship between education and age on a wide array of neuropsychological test measures among patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of education as an attenuating factor to neurocognitive decline in dementia. Although numerous…

DenBesten, Nicholas P.

2009-01-01

436

Ethics and Retail Management Professionals: An Examination of Age, Education, and Experience Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical maturity and behavior are of great concern to all educators, firms, and investors, and even more so in a recession. This research surveyed managers and employees in the retail environment to measure their Personal Business Ethics Scores (PBES) to see if age, education, and management experience makes a difference in making more ethical…

Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.; Cavico, Frank J.; McCartney, Timothy O.; DiPaolo, Peter T.

2009-01-01

437

Intergenerational and Homogeneous-Age Education: Mutually Exclusive Strategies for Faith Communities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores whether intergenerational (IG) and homogeneous-age group strategies for intentional education in faith communities are mutually exclusive or complementary. Examines the validity of generational differentiation in educational processes, addresses two difficulties raised for IG programs, and discusses insights on developmental theory and IG…

Harkness, Allan G.

2000-01-01

438

Distance Education in the Digital Age: College Students in Virtual Academic Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance education in the digital age has experienced a dramatic increase in student enrollment, especially in virtual programs. Using a mixed-method approach, this study explores how students exclusively enrolled in virtual programs in invest their time and energy in activities related to desired educational pursuits and outcomes, i.e.…

Jones, Wilma P. L

2009-01-01

439

Education and Vocationalism in the Age of the "Death of Work."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Publicly supported education will change dramatically in the postmarket age. Rapid disappearance of mass employment and economic marginalization undermines both rationales for public mass education: economic utility and cultural/intellectual development. The technological elite and unemployed will find the common-school ideal irrelevant. Instead…

Paquett, Jerry

1997-01-01

440

Effective Game Based Citizenship Education in the Age of New Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational systems worldwide are being challenged to respond effectively to the digital revolution and its implications for learning in the 21st century. In the present new media age, educational reforms are desperately needed to support more open and flexible structures of on-demand learning that equip students with competencies required in a…

Chee, Yam San; Mehrotra, Swati; Liu, Qiang

2013-01-01

441

Support for Comprehensive Sexuality Education: Perspectives from Parents of School-Age Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Controversy about school-based sexuality education in public schools has continued over the past decade, despite mounting evidence that comprehensive sexuality education effectively promotes sexual health and that parents support these programs in public schools. The present study replicates and expands upon previous findings regarding public views on school-based sexuality education. Methods: One thousand six hundred five parents of school-age

Marla E. Eisenberg; Debra H. Bernat; Linda H. Bearinger; Michael D. Resnick

2007-01-01

442

Asian American Literature: Resource and Training for Multi-Cultural Education. Final Reports: Program Performance and Financial Status. Ethnic Heritage Studies Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the report of a project designed to train secondary school teachers and other ethnic studies personnel in Hawaii in the area of Asian American literature so as to enhance their understanding of ethnic identity, interethnic relations, and the process of American multiculturalism. The project performance report includes a description of a…

Ogawa, Dennis M.

443

Ascertainment of Hispanic Ethnicity on California Death Certificates: Implications for the Explanation of the Hispanic Mortality Advantage  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We determined the size and correlates of underascertainment of Hispanic ethnicity on California death certificates. Methods. We used 1999 to 2000 vital registration data. We compared Hispanic ethnicity reported on the death certificate to Hispanic ethnicity derived from birthplace for the foreign-born and an algorithm that used first and last name and percentage of Hispanics in the county of residence for the US-born. We validated death certificate nativity by comparing data with that in linked Social Security Administration records. Results. Ethnicity and birthplace information was concordant for foreign-born Hispanics, who have mortality rates that are 25% to 30% lower than those of non-Hispanic Whites. Death certificates likely underascertain deaths of US-born Hispanics, particularly at older ages, for persons with more education, and in census tracts with lower percentages of Hispanics. Conservative correction for under-ascertainment eliminates the Hispanic mortality advantage for US-born men. Conclusions. Hispanic ethnicity is accurately ascertained on the California death certificate for immigrants. Immigrant Hispanics have lower age-adjusted mortality rates than do non-Hispanic Whites. For US-born Hispanics, the mortality advantage compared with non-Hispanic Whites is smaller and may be explained by underreporting of Hispanic ethnicity on the death certificate. PMID:17077407

Eschbach, Karl; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Goodwin, James S.

2006-01-01

444

Education Does Not Protect against Age-Related Decline of Switching Focal Attention in Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this experimental study, effects of age and education on switching focal attention in working memory were investigated among 44 young (20-30 years) and 40 middle-aged individuals (50-60 years). To this end, a numeric n-back task comprising two lag conditions (1- and 2-back) was administered within groups. The results revealed a comparable…

Van Gerven, Pascal W.M.; Meijer, Willemien A.; Jolles, Jelle

2007-01-01

445

Disabled or Young? Relative Age and Special Education Diagnoses in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends recent findings of a relationship between the relative age of students among their peers and their probability of disability classification. Using three nationally representative surveys spanning 1988-2004 and grades K-10, we find that an additional month of relative age decreases the likelihood of receiving special education

Dhuey, Elizabeth; Lipscomb, Stephen

2010-01-01

446

EFFECTS OF AGING ON SELECTED ACOUSTIC VOICE PARAMETERS: PRELIMINARY NORMATIVE DATA AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported in this article attempted to obtain normative acoustic data of voice for elderly male and female speakers and to explore the educational implications of the effects of aging on those selected acoustic parameters. Voice samples from 21 male and 23 female elderly speakers aged 70 to 80 years were obtained on measures of 15 selected Multi-Dimensional Voice

2001-01-01

447

Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

Hones, Donald F.

448

Education and Health among U.S. Working-Age Adults: A Detailed Portrait across the Full Educational Attainment Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents detailed estimates of relative and absolute health inequalities among U.S. working-age adults by educational attainment, including six postsecondary schooling levels. We also estimate the impact of several sets of mediating variables on the education-health gradient. Data from the 1997–2009 National Health Interview Survey (N?=?178,103) show remarkable health differentials. For example, high school graduates have 3.5 times the

Anna Zajacova; Robert A. Hummer; Richard G. Rogers

2012-01-01

449

Maternal health care utilization in Viet Nam: increasing ethnic inequity  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To investigate changes that took place between 2006 and 2010 in the inequity gap for antenatal care attendance and delivery at health facilities among women in Viet Nam. Methods Demographic, socioeconomic and obstetric data for women aged 15–49 years were extracted from Viet Nam’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for 2006 (MICS3) and 2010–2011 (MICS4). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine if antenatal care attendance and place of delivery were significantly associated with maternal education, maternal ethnicity (Kinh/Hoa versus other), household wealth and place of residence (urban versus rural). These independent variables correspond to the analytical framework of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Findings Large discrepancies between urban and rural populations were found in both MICS3 and MICS4. Although antenatal care attendance and health facility delivery rates improved substantially between surveys (from 86.3 to 92.1% and from 76.2 to 89.7%, respectively), inequities increased, especially along ethnic lines. The risk of not giving birth in a health facility increased significantly among ethnic minority women living in rural areas. In 2006 this risk was nearly five times higher than among women of Kinh/Hoa (majority) ethnicity (odds ratio, OR: 4.67; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.94–7.43); in 2010–2011 it had become nearly 20 times higher (OR: 18.8; 95% CI: 8.96–39.2). Conclusion Inequity in maternal health care utilization has increased progressively in Viet Nam, primarily along ethnic lines, and vulnerable groups in the country are at risk of being left behind. Health-care decision-makers should target these groups through affirmative action and culturally sensitive interventions. PMID:23599548

Lincetto, Ornella; Du, Nguyen Huy; Burgess, Craig; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong

2013-01-01

450

Disabled or young? Relative age and special education diagnoses in schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extends recent findings of a relationship between the relative age of students among their peers and their probability of disability classification. Using three nationally representative surveys spanning 1988–2004 and grades K-10, we find that an additional month of relative age decreases the likelihood of receiving special education services by 2–5 percent. Relative age effects are strong for learning

Elizabeth Dhuey; Stephen Lipscomb

2010-01-01

451

Race and Ethnic Inequality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in a sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity explores topics of race/ethnicity, gender and income to look at patterns of inequality among education, occupation and earning between different groups. This activity uses four customized data sets; two made from combining census information from 1950-2000 and two from the 2000 Censuss and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Kofi Benefo

452

Tuition Reimbursement for Racial and Ethnic Minority RNs Pursuing PCFNP APPLICATION DEADLINE: Thursday, September 18, 2014  

E-print Network

Tuition Reimbursement for Racial and Ethnic Minority RNs Pursuing PCFNP APPLICATION DEADLINE is to provide financial support to a racial and ethnic minority registered nurses pursuing graduate education racial and ethnic minority students pursuing a PCFNP nursing education track and are in agreement to work

453

Ethnicity and sexuality  

E-print Network

for understanding ethnic relations, I review constructionist models of ethnicity and sexuality in the social sciences and humanities, and I discuss ethnosexual boundary processes in several historical and contemporary settings: the sexual policing of nationalism...

Nagel, Joane

2000-01-01

454

Eating Healthy Ethnic Food  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents/Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to ... Aim for a Healthy Weight Pocket Guide to Eating Healthy on the Go features tips on ordering ...

455

A Golden Age for Adult Education: The Collective Disorienting Dilemma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The continuing challenge of engaging adult learners in the process of positive social change has summoned adult educators to a new understanding of their role as change agents in an increasingly complex world. Despite all obstacles presented by our contemporary culture, the nature of adult development continues to offer opportunities for adult…

Johnston, Susan

2011-01-01

456

Assessment, Technology and Democratic Education in the Age of Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contends that powerful techniques to manipulate data, enabled by technological and economic developments, can be easily co-opted to serve the restrictive frameworks of hyper-controlling, managerial accountability that characterise current cultures of summative assessment in education. In response to these challenges, research is…

Perrotta, Carlo

2013-01-01

457

Day School Israel Education in the Age of Birthright  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are North American Jewish day schools doing when they engage in Israel education, what shapes their practices, and to what ends? In this article, we report on a multi-method study inspired by these questions. Our account is organized around an analytical model that helps distinguish between what we call the vehicles, intensifiers, and…

Pomson, Alex; Deitcher, Howard

2010-01-01

458

Political Education: National Policy Comes of Age. The Updated Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Political insider Christopher Cross has updated his critically acclaimed book to reflect recent education policy developments, including the impact of the Obama administration and "Race to the Top" as well as the controversy over NCLB's reauthorization. Featuring a new introduction and the addition of postscripts for key chapters, this important…

Cross, Christopher T.

2010-01-01

459

The Effects of Age on Player Behavior in Educational Games  

E-print Network

behavior, analytics, children. 1. INTRODUCTION Video game players are a diverse group of people with varied of games for children. Young children make up a large portion of video game players, in part due behavior. This is particularly impor- tant when developing educational games for children, since research

Washington at Seattle, University of

460

Correctional Education: Methods and Practices in the Computer Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is suggested that correctional educational programs for adults must be designed in such a manner as to rehabilitate the many who are presently incarcerated and prevent many potential perpetrators from ever engaging in crime. The continually increasing problem of overcrowding in prisons throughout the country has made the need for relevant and…

Dobbs, Ralph

461

At Age 100, Chemical Engineering Education Faces Changing World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stresses the need for chemical engineering education to keep abreast of current needs. Explores the need for global economics, marketing strategy, product differentiation, and patent law in the curriculum. Questions the abilities of current chemical engineering graduate students in those areas. (MVL)

Krieger, James

1988-01-01

462

User Education in the Online Age. IATUL Proceedings, Vol. 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers presented at an August 1982 international seminar on online user education include "The Impact of New Technology on Libraries and Their Users," Brian C. Vickery (United Kingdom); "The Role of NORDINFO in Promoting Online Activity: NORDINFO-Origins and Control," Theodora Oker-Blom (Finland); "Librarians and the New Technology: The Process of…

Fjallbrant, Nancy, Ed.

1982-01-01

463

The prevalence of age-related maculopathy by geographic region and ethnicity 1 This paper has been edited by Neville N. Osborne, PhD, DSc, Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, University of Oxford, Walton Street, Oxford, UK; and Gerald J. Chader, The Foundation Fighting Blindness, Hunt Valley, MS. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) varies considerably in different locations and racial\\/ethnic groups around the world. At present there are insufficient data to determine whether it is likely that these differences in prevalence, especially for the early forms of ARM are due to variations in genetic and environmental factors or due to variations in age of the cohorts and

Ronald Klein; Barbara E. K Klein; Karen J Cruickshanks

1999-01-01

464

Multi-Ethnic Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiethnic curriculum reflects and is sensitive to the ethnic diversity within American society. In this kind of curriculum, ethnic content about a variety of ethnic groups is incorporated into all subject areas, from preschool through grade twelve. Several goals should be considered when developing a multiethnic curriculum. The curriculum…

Robbins, Natalie

465

Ethnic differences in HSV1 and HSV2 seroprevalence in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) and 2 (HSV2) infection can lead to significant morbidity, and HSV2 is considered a risk factor for HIV transmission. The majority of HSV-infected people are asymptomatic and unaware of their infection. We aimed to determine the HSV1 and HSV2 prevalence among various ethnic groups in a large urban area in the Netherlands. In 2004, serum samples from a population-based serum repository of 1,325 people over 18 years living in Amsterdam were tested for HSV1 and HSV2 antibodies in order to determine high-risk groups. Prevalence ratios were estimated and all analyses were weighted by sex, age, and ethnicity. In the general population of Amsterdam, 67% had HSV1 antibodies, 22% had HSV2 antibodies, 15% had HSV1 and HSV2 antibodies, and 26% had no indication of HSV infection. In multivariate analyses, HSV1 seroprevalence increased with age, and was higher among people of Turkish and Moroccan origin, homosexual men, and individuals with low educational level. HSV2 seroprevalence was associated with increasing age, Surinamese/Antillean background, and having a history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). These differences between ethnic groups in Amsterdam regarding the distribution of HSV1 and HSV2 infection emphasise the importance of an ethnic-specific approach of serological testing as well as campaigns aimed at behavioural change and counselling to raise awareness of the risk of HSV transmission. PMID:18761942

Kramer, M A; Uitenbroek, D G; Ujcic-Voortman, J K; Pfrommer, C; Spaargaren, J; Coutinho, R A; Dukers-Muijrers, N H T M

2008-06-12

466

Transforming Higher Education in the Information Age: Presidents Respond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College presidents respond to an article by Richard Nolan challenging college and university presidents and chancellors to transform their campuses for survival and competitive advantage in the information age. Respondents include Richard D. Breslin, David M. Clarke, Joseph Cronin, Thomas Ehrlich, Donald N. Langenberg, Harold McAninch, and Donald…

Breslin, Richard D.; And Others

1991-01-01

467

School-Aged Victims of Sexual Abuse: Implications for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year in the United States, thousands of school-aged children become involved in sexual activities arranged by adults for purposes of pleasure and profit. Nationwide, annual profits from the child pornography industry and from female and male child prostitution are in the tens of millions of dollars. Heretofore, the majority of…

Wishon, Phillip M.

468

The effects of physical activity, education, and body mass index on the aging brain.  

PubMed

Normal human aging is accompanied by progressive brain tissue loss and cognitive decline; however, several factors are thought to influence brain aging. We applied tensor-based morphometry to high-resolution brain MRI scans to determine whether educational level or physical activity was associated with brain tissue volumes in the elderly, particularly in regions susceptible to age-related atrophy. We mapped the 3D profile of brain volume differences in 226 healthy elderly subjects (130F/96M; 77.9 ± 3.6 SD years) from the Cardiovascular Health Study-Cognition Study. Statistical maps revealed the 3D profile of brain regions whose volumes were associated with educational level and physical activity (based on leisure-time energy expenditure). After controlling for age, sex, and physical activity, higher educational levels were associated with ~2-3% greater tissue volumes, on average, in the temporal lobe gray matter. After controlling for age, sex, and education, greater physical activity was associated with ~2-2.5% greater average tissue volumes in the white matter of the corona radiata extending into the parietal-occipital junction. Body mass index (BMI) was highly correlated with both education and physical activity, so we examined BMI as a contributing factor by including physical activity, education, and BMI in the same model; only BMI effects remained significant. This is one of the largest MRI studies of factors influencing structural brain aging, and BMI may be a key factor explaining the observed relationship between education, physical activity, and brain structure. Independent contributions to brain structure could not be teased apart as all these factors were highly correlated with one another. PMID:20715081

Ho, April J; Raji, Cyrus A; Becker, James T; Lopez, Oscar L; Kuller, Lewis H; Hua, Xue; Dinov, Ivo D; Stein, Jason L; Rosano, Caterina; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

2011-09-01

469

Aspects of Media Education: Strategic Imperatives in the Information Age. Media Education Publication 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume examines current trends in media education, modern information and communication technologies (MICT), open and distance learning (ODL), and science and technology education. Papers include: "Towards a Communal Curriculum: Strategic Planning and the Emerging Knowledge of Media Education" (Seppo Tella, Marja Mononen-Aaltonen, & Heikki…

Tella, Seppo, Ed.

470

e-Leadership in Higher Education: The Fifth "Age" of Educational Technology Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the relative lack of research into e-leadership in educational technology in education is followed by an outline of selected prior literature in the field. The paper proposes that, as part of a natural evolution of educational technology research, considerably more attention needs to be focused on research and development in…

Jameson, Jill

2013-01-01

471

Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, ‘to build in’), we propose an active model of education (educare, ‘to bring out’) in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning. PMID:24349000

Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

2013-01-01

472

[Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE): Determination of cutoff scores according to age and educational level].  

PubMed

For the last 38 years, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used as a dementia screening measure in everyday clinical practice as well as in both cohort and cross-sectional studies. Its validity and reliability for the Greek population has explicitly been documented. However, the effect of age and education on the subject's performance makes it necessary to reckon them in the estimation of the "cutoff score". The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of dementia in Greek population and determine the "cutoff score" by age and education-corrected norms. Cross sectional study of 630 patients older than 55 years, who live independently in Ilion and Helioupolis Municipalities was conducted, 27.3% of the subjects tested in the study were diagnosed with memory disorder according to their MMSE scores and the validation for the Greek population. The effect of age and education to the subjects' performance was statistically significant (p=.000). The use of standard "cutoff score" was not proved to be useful for the personalized interpretation of the results, as documented by the fact that older individuals with lower education had a poorer performance relatively to younger, highly educated subjects. Comparatively to the group age of 55-60 years, the odds ratio after the age of 75 years varies from 2.58 to 4.91. Regarding the variable factor of education, the odds ratio for the first degree education graduates decreases from 1.43 to 3.19 for the third degree education graduates in comparison with the group of illiterates. In conclusion, the use of the "cutoff score" algorithm and the simultaneous estimation of age and education effect on MMSE score may prove useful for the proper evaluation of MMSE performance. According to the age and education of examine candidates in the community and the primary care, we propose the use of the 25th percentile as a more useful cutoff score in order to decrease the false positive results. PMID:25630544

Solias, A; Skapinakis, P; Degleris, N; Pantoleon, M; Katirtzoglou, E; Politis, A

2014-01-01

473

Parents' Perceptions of Pediatric Primary Care Quality: Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Language, and Access  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effects of race/ethnicity, language, and potential access on parents' reports of pediatric primary care experiences. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary survey data were collected (67 percent response rate) from 3,406 parents of students in kindergarten through sixth grade in a large urban school district in California during the 1999–2000 school year. Data Collection The data were collected by mail, telephone, and in person. Surveys were administered in English, Spanish, Vietnamese, and Tagalog. Study Design Data were analyzed using multiple regression models. The dependent variable was parents' reports of primary care quality, assessed via the previously validated Parents' Perceptions of Primary Care measure (P3C). The independent variables were race/ethnicity, language, and potential access to care (insurance status, presence of a regular provider of care), controlling for child age, gender, and chronic health condition status, and mother's education. Principal Findings Parents' reports of primary care quality varied according to race/ethnicity, with Asian and Latino parents reporting lower P3C scores than African Americans and whites. In multivariate analyses, both language and potential access exerted strong independent effects on primary care quality, reducing the effect of race/ethnicity such that the coefficient for Latinos was no longer significant, and the coefficient for Asians was much smaller, though still statistically significant. Conclusions To reduce racial/ethnic disparities in primary care, attention should be paid both to policies aimed at improving potential access and to providing linguistically appropriate services. PMID:12968814

Seid, Michael; Stevens, Gregory D; Varni, James W

2003-01-01

474

Integrated Geospatial Education and Technology Training for High School Age Youth (HiGETT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landsat series of satellites provides high quality, consistent, 30 m resolution data for studies of landscape-scale change over time at no cost to the user. The availability of the Landsat data archive and the effectiveness and ease of its use to solve practical societal problems, particularly integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS), has been a key factor in a movement to bring remote sensing education to community colleges (as in the "iGETT" program funded by the National Science Foundation, 2007-2011) and now to younger students of high school age. "Integrated Geospatial Education and Technology Training for High School Age Youth (HiGETT)" was a two-day meeting convened April 4-5, 2011 to explore and articulate effective means of reaching teens with geospatial technology education and career awareness. Participants represented industry, government, academia, and informal education organizations such as 4-H and Girl Scouts. This poster will summarize a report on that meeting.

Allen, J. E.

2012-12-01

475

Differences in diffusion of FDA antidepressant risk warnings across racial-ethnic groups.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Numerous articles have identified that medical technologies diffuse more rapidly among non-Latino whites compared with other racial-ethnic groups. However, whether health risk warnings also diffuse differentially across racial-ethnic minority groups is uncertain. This study assessed racial-ethnic variation in children's antidepressant use before and after the 2004 black-box warning concerning risks of antidepressants for youths. METHODS Data consisted of responses for white, black, and Latino youths ages five through 17 from the 2002-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=44,422). The dependent variable was any antidepressant use in the prior year. Independent variables were race-ethnicity, year, psychological impairment, income, insurance status, region, and parents' education level. Logistic regression models were used to assess antidepressant use conditional on race-ethnicity, time, interaction between race-ethnicity and time, need, socioeconomic status, and Institute of Medicine-concordant estimates of disparities in predicted antidepressant use before and after the warning. RESULTS The warnings affected antidepressant use differentially for whites, blacks, and Latinos. Usage rates among whites decreased from 3.3 to 2.1 percentage points between prewarning and postwarning, whereas usage rates remained steady among Latinos and increased among blacks. Findings were significant in multiple regression analyses, in which predictions were adjusted for need. CONCLUSIONS The findings indicate that health safety information on antidepressant usage among children diffused faster among whites than nonwhites, suggesting the need to improve infrastructure for delivering important health messages to racial-ethnic minority populations. PMID:23412363

DePetris, Andrea Elizabeth; Cook, Benjamin L

2013-05-01

476

Ethnic Differences in Physiological Responses to Fear Conditioned Stimuli  

PubMed Central

The idea that emotional expression varies with ethnicity is based largely on questionnaires and behavioral observations rather than physiological measures. We therefore compared the skin conductance responses (SCR) of Hispanic (Puerto Rican) and White non-Hispanic subjects in a fear conditioning and fear extinction task. Subjects were recruited from two sites: San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR), and Boston, Massachusetts (MA), using identical methods. A total of 78 healthy subjects (39 from PR, 39 from MA) were divided by sex and matched for age and educational level. Females from the two sites did not differ in their SCRs during any experimental phase of fear conditioning (habituation, conditioning, or extinction). In contrast, PR males responded significantly to the conditioned stimulus than MA males or PR females. Subtracting ethnic differences observed during the habituation phase (prior to conditioning) eliminated differences from subsequent phases, suggesting that PR males are elevated in their response to novelty rather than fear learning. Our findings suggest that, in addition to sex differences, there are ethnic differences in physiological responses to novel stimuli at least in males, which could be relevant for the assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25501365

Martínez, Karen G.; Franco-Chaves, José A.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Quirk, Gregory J.

2014-01-01

477

An Examination of the Perceptions of Older Americans on Successful Aging and Adult Education Programs to Meet Their Aging Needs in Southeast Alabama  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the personal perceptions of older Americans in regards to the aging process and the characteristics of successful aging. In addition, the study aimed to determine individual perceptions of adult education programs and resources necessary in aging successfully. The study examined current resources, services…

Cobb, Ileeia Anjale

2011-01-01

478

Effectiveness of a Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program for Ethnic Groups in Two Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Objective As young women from certain ethnic minority groups have reported less pursuit of the thin ideal and body dissatisfaction than European American young women we tested whether a dissonance-based prevention program designed to reduce thin-ideal internalization among women with body dissatisfaction is less effective for the former relative to the later groups. We also tested whether intervention effects are larger when participants from minority groups worked with a facilitator matched versus not matched on ethnicity. Method In Study 1, 426 female undergraduates (M age = 21.6, SD = 5.6) were randomized to clinician-led Body Project groups or an educational control group. In Study 2, 189 female undergraduates were randomized to peer-led Body Project groups or a waitlist control condition. Results Although there was some variation in risk factor scores across ethnic groups, ethnic minority participants did not demonstrate consistently higher or lower risk relative to European American participants. Intervention effects did not significantly differ for participants from minority groups versus European American participants in either trial. There was no evidence that effects were significantly larger when minority participants and facilitators were matched on ethnicity. Conclusions Results suggest that the Body Project is similarly effective for African American, Asian American, European American, and Hispanic female college students, and when participants and facilitators are matched or not on minority ethnicity status, implying that this prevention program can be broadly disseminated in this population. PMID:24655465

Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Cheng, Zhen Hadassah

2014-01-01

479

Have OSCEs come of age in nursing education?  

PubMed

This article is intended to contribute to the current debate as to whether the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) should become a standard assessment tool for undergraduate nursing education as they currently are for medicine. The authors describe how one UK university developed an OSCE for a nursing undergraduate programme with the aim of emphasising the need for nursing students to be competent in clinical skills and offering a means of standardising the assessment of these skills. There has been an increasing number of research studies carried out in this area at international level and this article's main contribution to the literature is the description of the Angoff standard-setting procedure that was used to calibrate the OSCE at this University and which makes it the first nursing OSCE in the UK to incorporate a scientific standard-setting procedure. PMID:25849236

Traynor, Marian; Galanouli, Despina

2015-04-01

480

Ethnicity and infant mortality in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Malaysian infant mortality differentials are a worthwhile subject for study, because socioeconomic development has very clearly had a differential impact by ethnic group. The Chinese rates of infant mortality are significantly lower than the Malay or Indian rates. Instead of examining the obvious access to care issues, this study considered factors related to the culture of infant care. Practices include the Chinese confinement of the mother in the first month after childbirth ("pe'i yue") and Pillsbury's 12 normative rules for Malaysian Chinese care. Malay practices vary widely by region and history. Indian mothers are restricted by diet. Data-recording flaws do not permit analysis of Sarawak or Sabah. The general assumption that Western medicine favors better health for mothers and infants is substantiated among peninsular communities, however, there are also negative impacts which affect infant mortality. The complex interaction of factors impacting on infant mortality reported in seven previous studies is discussed. A review of these studies reveals that immediate causes are infections, injuries, and dehydration. Indirect causes are birth weight or social and behavioral factors such as household income or maternal education. Indirect factors, which are amenable to planned change and influence the biological proximate determinants of infant mortality, are identified as birth weight, maternal age at birth, short pregnancy intervals or prior reproductive loss, sex of the child, birth order, duration of breast feeding and conditions of supplementation, types of household water and sanitation, year of child's birth, maternal education, household income and composition, institution of birth, ethnicity, and rural residence. Nine factors are identified empirically as not significant: maternal hours of work in the child's first year, maternal occupation, distance from home to workplace, presence of other children or servants, incidence of epidemics in the child's first year of life, community types of sanitation, prices and availability of infant foods, and access to various types of medical care. Future empirical study should consider factors such as class differences, place of residence, or extent of illiteracy as underlying or related to ethnicity. Policy-makers should be aware that future decline in infant mortality rates may depend on the blending of traditional with modern practices. PMID:12287522

Dixon, G

1993-06-01

481

Chicana/o Students Respond to Arizona's Anti-Ethnic Studies Bill, SB 1108: Civic Engagement, Ethnic Identity, and Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arizona Senate Bill 1108, the "anti-ethnic studies bill," proposed to eliminate ethnic studies programs and ethnic-based organizations from state-funded education. Along with other anti-immigrant legislation, this bill is creating an oppressive climate of discrimination against individuals of Mexican descent in Arizona. This study investigates the…

O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Romero, Andrea J.

2011-01-01

482

Education Level Predicts Retrospective Metamemory Accuracy in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064

Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

2013-01-01

483

Ethnic Differences in Suicidal Ideation and Attempts  

PubMed Central

Suicide is one of the leading causes of death, and suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. However, little is known about the relationship between ethnicity and suicidal behaviors. The goal of this article is to provide an update on the relationship between ethnicity and suicidal ideation and attempts. We review the rates of suicide ideation/attempts across ethnic groups in the US, and the risk factors associated with suicide attempts in each ethnic group. The results of published studies have been inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that non-Hispanic Whites have significantly higher suicide attempt risk than other ethnic groups, while two studies using national data did not find any significant relationship between race/ethnicity and suicide ideation or attempts. From the epidemiological point of view, these findings underscore the need to conduct large studies in general population samples that include enough individuals from all ethnic groups and that are large enough to detect significant effects among those groups. From the clinical point of view, mental health professionals should focus on factors that have been consistently found to be strongly associated with suicide attempts across different populations, including major depression and other psychiatric disorders, female gender, and young age. PMID:20354589

Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A.; Blanco, Carlos

2009-01-01

484

Myocardial infarction symptom recognition by the lay public: the role of gender and ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Study objective To find out if gender and ethnicity are associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) symptom recognition and the recommendation of enlisting emergency medical services. Design In an experiment, a random sample of the public was provided a scenario of a person experiencing symptoms of AMI; the gender of the character (male, female, or indeterminate) was manipulated. Setting Vancouver, Canada Participants 976 people from a population based random sample of 3419 people, 40 years of age and older, participated in a telephone survey given in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, and Punjabi. Main results 78% of the respondents identified the symptoms as heart related. Unadjusted analyses showed that ethnicity, education, income, and AMI knowledge were significantly associated with symptom recognition (Chinese respondents were least likely to identify the symptoms as heart related). Thirty seven per cent recommended calling emergency services, which was associated with symptom recognition, ethnicity (Chinese respondents were least likely to make the recommendation), AMI knowledge, having an immediate family member with AMI, and having talked with a health professional about the signs and symptoms of AMI. Neither the gender of the respondent nor of the affected person in the scenario was associated with symptom recognition. Conclusions Heart health education must be targeted to and tailored for ethnic communities. Health professionals must discuss the signs and symptoms of AMI, and the correct course of action, with their patients. PMID:16790833

Ratner, Pamela A; Tzianetas, Roula; Tu, Andrew W; Johnson, Joy L; Mackay, Martha; Buller, Christopher E; Rowlands, Maureen; Reime, Birgit

2006-01-01

485

Parental Education is Related to C-Reactive Protein among Female Middle Aged Community Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence suggests that socioeconomic attributes of both childhood and adulthood confer risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this study, we examine the association of both parental and individual educational attainment with C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory mediator relevant to cardiovascular pathophysiology, in a midlife community sample. Subjects were 811 men and women (394 men/417 women; 87 % European-American/13 % African American), 30–54 years of age. Plasma concentrations of CRP were determined from blood samples obtained at a single session following an overnight fast. Regression analyses adjusting for age and race showed both parental education and individual education to be associated inversely with CRP in women, but not men. The relationship of parental education with CRP in women persisted on multivariable adjustment for both lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, exercise, body mass index) and individual SES. Independent of reported personal educational attainment, mid-life adult women whose parents achieved fewer years of educational attainment exhibit higher levels of circulating CRP than women with higher parental education. This association may help explain the increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity and mortality conferred by low childhood socioeconomic status. PMID:19486653

Phillips, Jennifer E; Marsland, Anna L; Flory, Janine D; Muldoon, Matthew F; Cohen, Sheldon; Manuck, Stephen B

2009-01-01

486

Why Learning Not Education?--Analysis of Transnational Education Policies in the Age of Globalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The profound influence of globalization seems helping outshine the concept of "education" with the more flexible notion of "learning" in the education policies of major transnational organizations. With considerable differences in concepts, all of them are promoting "learning", more specifically LLL (lifelong learning) through their policies.…

Mandal, Sayantan

2012-01-01

487

Moving into the Age of Computer-Supported Education: A Regional Experience in Nursing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a 3-year project funded by a grant from the Division of Nursing, Health Resources and Services Administration to provide continuing education in computer technology for nursing faculty in college-based nursing programs in the 15 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states. The report begins with an overview of computer…

Aiken, Eula

488

Timing Issues with Early Childhood Education Programs: How Effect Sizes Vary by Starting Age, Program Duration and Persistence of Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to…

Duncan, Greg J.; Leak, James A.; Li, Weilin; Magnuson, Katherine; Schindler, Holly; Yoshikawa, Hiro

2011-01-01

489

The Association between Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphism and Mild Cognitive Impairment among Different Ethnic Minority Groups in China  

PubMed Central

The association, in different ethnic groups, of apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene polymorphism with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been unclear. Few studies have examined the association in Chinese minorities. The current study explores the association between apoE gene polymorphism and MCI in one of the biggest ethnic groups—the Hui—and compares it with the Han. The Minimental State Exam, Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 306 ethnic Hui and 618 ethnic Han people aged ?55 years. ApoE genotypes were determined using the high resolution melting curve method. The distribution of the apoE genotype and the frequency of alleles ?2, ?3, and ?4 were similar in the Hui and Han groups. In analyses adjusted for age, gender, and education level, the ?4 allele was a risk factor for MCI in both the Hui group (OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.02–6.66) and the Han group (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.19–4.67), but the apoE ?2 allele was protective for MCI only in the Han group (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.38–0.88). The association of some apoE genotypes with MCI may differ in different ethnic groups in China. Further studies are needed to explore this effect among different populations. PMID:25161798

Wang, ZhiZhong; Ma, Wanrui; Liu, Lan

2014-01-01

490

Ethnic Differences in Drowning Rates in Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

The scientific literature suggests ethnicity may be a risk factor for drowning. Ontario, Canada is one of the most ethnically diverse places in the world. The objective of our study was to determine if Asians, Africans and Hispanics were at an increased risk of drowning compared to Greater Europeans. Ethnicity served as a surrogate for country of origin. Using Coroner's reports, all unintentional drowning deaths in Ontario from 2004 to 2008 were reviewed. The ethnicity of drowning victims was estimated using a previously validated name-based ethnicity classifier. Age-standardized drowning rates were calculated by sex and place of residence (rural vs. non-rural) for people of each ethnicity group using the method of direct standardization. For residents of Ontario living in rural areas, the age-standardized drowning rate was significantly higher among men of Asian, African, or Hispanic ethnicity compared to men of Greater European ethnicity (RR 13.9; 95 % CI 8.1-23.8) and for women of Asian, African, or Hispanic ethnicity compared to women of Greater European ethnicity (RR 23.9; 95 % CI 6.4-89.1). These high-risk individuals need to be considered when developing drowning prevention strategies. PMID:25187321

Gallinger, Zane R; Fralick, Michael; Hwang, Stephen W

2014-09-01

491

Minority Ethnic Pupils in Mainly White Schools. Research Report .  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the situation of ethnic minority students in predominantly white British schools, highlighting factors affecting their educational achievement and examining the perspectives of ethnic minority students and their parents and teachers. Surveys of the performance of over 34,000 students in predominantly white schools in 35…

Cline, Tony; de Abreu, Guida; Fihosy, Cornelius; Gray, Hilary; Lambert, Hannah; Neale, Jo

492

Transforming the Curriculum: Ethnic Studies and Women's Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a collection of 19 essays that discuss curricular change in higher education regarding ethnic and women's studies, and presents the theoretical and practical bases for accomplishing this restyling. The papers and authors are as follows: "The Difficult Dialogue of Curriculum Transformation: Ethnic Studies and Women's Studies"…

Butler, Johnnella E., Ed.; Walter, John C., Ed.

493

National Unity and Ethnic Identity in a Vietnamese University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss the ways in which Vietnam's educational policies for ethnic minorities are enacted in the bachelor of arts (BA) program in ethnic minority cultures (EMC) at the Hanoi University of Culture (HUC). Hanoi University of Culture is one of only two universities in Vietnam that offer this program. Although the BA is…

Tran, Linh T.; Walter, Pierre G.

2010-01-01

494

Learning and Learning Strategies: Perceptions of Ethnic Minority Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined ethnic minority students' reported learning strategies and how they used them to accommodate their perceived learning styles in relation to their educational and occupational goals. The experiences and perceptions of 129 (62 male, 57 female) Montreal (Canada) born grade 11 students of ethnic origin, whose mother-tongue and…

Kandarakis, Helen M.

495

Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

2010-01-01

496

Relative Age Effects on Physical Education Attainment and School Sport Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The "Relative Age Effect" (RAE) has consistently been demonstrated to influence attainment in various contexts. In education, RAE appears to provide an advantage to those born during initial months of an academic year, compared with those born in later months. A similar effect has been noted in many sports, with those born shortly…

Cobley, Stephen; Abraham, Colin; Baker, Joseph

2008-01-01

497

Relative age effects on physical education attainment and school sport representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The ‘Relative Age Effect’ (RAE) has consistently been demonstrated to influence attainment in various contexts. In education, RAE appears to provide an advantage to those born during initial months of an academic year, compared with those born in later months. A similar effect has been noted in many sports, with those born shortly after a ‘cut-off’ date being over-represented

Stephen Cobley; Colin Abraham; Joseph Baker

2008-01-01

498

Postsecondary Educational Engagement among Formerly-Incarcerated Transition-Age Young Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors explore correlates of engagement in postsecondary educational programs (including technical/trade schools, 2-year colleges, and 4-year colleges) among young men who served mandatory probation camp sentences as juveniles. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with a sample of 75 men (average age of 20.5) who…

Abrams, Laura S.; Franke, Todd M.

2013-01-01

499

Roles for Technology in the Information-Age Paradigm of Education: Learning Management Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a detailed description of the powerful and necessary role which technology can play in the information-age paradigm of education described in the four articles comprising this series. This article calls for a learning management system (LMS), a comprehensive and integrated application of technology to the learning process,…

Reigeluth, Charles M.; Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunkyung Lee; Dutta, Pratima; Chen, Zengguan; Powell, Nathan D. P.

2008-01-01

500

Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

2009-01-01