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1

Use of force in minority communities is related to police education, age, experience, and ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some experts argue that better-educated police may use less force, but research has been equivocal. In three mainly-minority US cities, 511 officers reported their use of force, acceptance of others’ force use, age, experience, ethnicity, and education. Among patrol officers only, education predicted less frequent force and lower levels of force use. Across all duties, including patrol officers, detectives and

Christopher Chapman

2011-01-01

2

Education and Physical Activity Mediate the Relationship between Ethnicity and Cognitive Function in Late Middle Aged Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status (SES), particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the mediating characteristics of education or physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in younger aged groups. Most research conducted focuses only on older adults during a time when degeneration of brain tissue may complicate the exploration of the relationships among ethnicity and cognitive function. The current research will expand existing knowledge about education, physical activity, and cognitive function in minority groups. Design The study presents data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults (n=9,204, mean age +-sd=55.8+-3.1). Regression and mediation testing determined the mediating effects of education and physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function. Results Significant association between white ethnicity and higher scores on cognitive tests was evident as early as late middle age. The magnitude of the association significantly diminished on adjusting for education and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential mediating role of education and physical activity on the ethnic differences in cognitive tests in late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults. Our findings suggest a need for studies to understand if adult education and culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions in middle age influence ethnic disparities in prevalence of cognitive impairment in old age. PMID:20401816

Masel, Meredith C.; Raji, Mukaila; Peek, M. Kristen

2013-01-01

3

Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

2011-01-01

4

Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

2013-01-01

5

Ethnicity and Aging: A Bibliography. Checklists in the Humanities and Education: Series Number Eight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature on ethnicity and aging is listed in this bibliography, which is intended to assist researchers, teachers, and policymakers. The bibliography is divided into seven categories: (1) multiethnic and general studies; (2) Black Americans; (3) Hispanic Americans; (4) Native Americans; (5) Asian and Pacific Americans; (6) European origin ethnic

Murguia, Edward, Comp.; And Others

6

Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.  

PubMed

An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ? 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. PMID:23168270

Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

2013-02-01

7

Ethnicity: A Continuum on Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to develop a clearer understanding of the role of education in the formation of ethnicity. The basic meaning of the term "ethnicity" is that it gives a distinct identity to a community and distinguishes one community or an individual from another. It has been found that ethnic consciousness or ethnic identity has been in increase…

Chakraborty, Sujata; Ghosh, Bhola Nath

2013-01-01

8

Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999–2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the “earlier aging” of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health. PMID:23095066

Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A.; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M.

2013-01-01

9

Education and physical activity mediate the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in late middle-aged adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status, particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the

Meredith C. Masel; Mukaila Raji; M. Kristen Peek

2010-01-01

10

Bold Choices: How Ethnic Inequalities in Educational Attainment Are Suppressed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I examine ethnic inequalities in educational attainment in England and Wales. I focus on the two main educational transitions in England and Wales: the transition at age 16, from compulsory to post-compulsory education, and the transition at age 18, from school to university. I take into account the distinction made by Boudon (1974)…

Jackson, Michelle

2012-01-01

11

How the relationship of attitudes toward mental health treatment and service use differs by age, gender, ethnicity\\/race and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Promoting help-seeking for mental health problems can result in improved treatment rates. For the most impact, social marketing\\u000a interventions need to be tailored to targeted demographic subgroups. We investigated the influence of interactions between\\u000a attitudes toward treatment and age, gender, ethnicity\\/race and education for both general medical and specialty care. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Cross-sectional data from the 2001–2003 National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)

Jodi M. Gonzalez; Margarita Alegría; Thomas J. Prihoda; Laurel A. Copeland; John E. Zeber

2011-01-01

12

Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Educations in Ethnic Violence", Matthew Lange explores the effects education has on ethnic violence. Lange contradicts the widely-held belief that education promotes peace and tolerance. Rather, Lange finds that education commonly contributes to aggression, especially in environments with ethnic divisions, limited resources, and ineffective…

Lange, Matthew

2011-01-01

13

Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women: The WIHS Neurocognitive Substudy  

PubMed Central

Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well-suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible, and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1653) were administered the Trailmaking Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportion of variance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%) and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed. PMID:21950512

Manly, Jennifer J.; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A.; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther

2012-01-01

14

Educating Other People's Children: Race, Class, Ethnicity, Aging, and the Politics of School Funding in Long Island, New York.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Long Island, New York, including Nassau and Suffolk Counties, is a patchwork of small ethnically, racially, and economically segregated towns organized into 126 school districts. School funding patterns and problems conform to racial, ethnic, and class lines. Predominantly minority school districts generally have higher property tax rates, fewer…

Singer, Alan

15

Language Education and Ethnic Children's Literature at Penn State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gross stereotypes, subtle distortions, and omissions in references to ethnic groups in children's literature play a direct part in forming children's attitudes at an early age. One of the requirements for elementary education teacher certification at Penn State University is a course in children's literature with an emphasis on guiding students…

Singh, Jane M.

16

Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

2012-01-01

17

"Ethnic Choosing": Minority Ethnic Students, Social Class and Higher Education Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviewed ethnic minority students in England to determine the impact of social class and ethnicity on higher education choice. Overall, the processes, concerns, resources, and outcomes of choosing differed among ethnic groups in relation to social class. Class differences were more apparent and significant than minority ethnic similarities. For…

Ball, Stephen J.; Reay, Diane; Miriam, David

2002-01-01

18

Age and ethnic variations in sebaceous lipids  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to compare lipid components of sebum from persons from three ethnic backgrounds—Caucasian, African American and Northern Asian. Men and women with no acne in two age groups (18?25 y and 35?45 y) were recruited. Skin surface hydration (SkiCon 200EX and NovaMeter), barrier function (Delfin VapoMeter), high-resolution clinical imaging, self-assessments and two pairs of sebutapes on the forehead that extracted the lipids on the surface of their skin were used. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in skin hydration between African Americans and Caucasians in both age groups were noted, with the order from highest to lowest absolute values: African American > Northern Asian > Caucasian. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements demonstrated that African Americans and Caucasians were significantly different (p < 0.05), with the trend being the inverse of the hydration trend—Caucasian > Northern Asian > African American, which would indicate better barrier function for African Americans with a lower TEWL. African American women had more total lipid production than Northern Asian or Caucasian women. When analyzing the three lipid classes (free fatty acids, triglycerides and wax esters), the trend became significant (p < 0.05) in the wax ester fraction when directly comparing African Americans with Caucasians. Additionally, six lipids were identified in the wax ester fractions that were significantly different in quantity (p < 0.05) between African Americans and Caucasians. These results identified significant differences in sebaceous lipid profiles across ethnic groups and determined that the differences correlated with skin barrier function. PMID:24194973

Pappas, Apostolos; Fantasia, Jared; Chen, Theresa

2013-01-01

19

Education and Ethnic Prejudice in Europe: Explanations for Cross-National Variances in the Educational Effect on Ethnic Prejudice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied cross-national variances in the effect of education on ethnic prejudice using data from11 European countries with a total sample of 11,904 adults. Findings show that a country's democratic tradition and degree of religious heterogeneity are important for the strength of an educational effect on ethnic prejudice, while ethnic composition…

Hello, Evelyn; Scheepers, Peer; Gijsberts, Merove

2002-01-01

20

Ethnicity and the Schools: Educating Minorities for Mainstream America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major theme of this book is that those who work in the schools should treat students equally and have a commitment to basic education for all children. Ethnicity should be considered a private matter in which the schools should remain neutral. First, the resurgence of ethnicity is examined. Ethnicity is defined and the shift in emphasis from…

Selakovich, Daniel

21

Racial/Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Nursing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an overview of activities to increase racial/ethnic and gender diversity in nursing and nursing education. Data are from a survey on gender diversity completed by 193 nursing education administrators in the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and the District of Columbia and a survey about the racial/ethnic

Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

22

Ethnic, gender, and age differences in adolescent nonfatal suicidal behaviors.  

PubMed

This study examined ethnic differences in adolescent nonfatal suicidal behaviors as well as age and gender variation both across and within ethnic groups. Using a large (n = 14, 346) sample of adolescents in Grades 7 through 12, African Americans reported relatively high rates of suicidal thoughts and attempts and Southeast Asians reported high rates of suicidal thoughts. Hispanic Americans, European Americans, and Asian Americans were similar in their reports of nonfatal suicidal behaviors. Gender differences also varied across ethnicity as Southeast Asian boys (particularly older boys) reported more suicidal thoughts and attempts than Southeast Asian girls. PMID:24517593

Supple, Andrew J; Graves, Kelly; Daniel, Stephanie; Kiang, Lisa; Su, Jinni; Cavanaugh, Alyson M

2013-10-01

23

The limits of social class in explaining ethnic gaps in educational attainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an analysis of the educational attainment and progress between age 11 and age 14 of over 14,500 students from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. The mean attainment gap in national tests at age 14 between White British and several ethnic minority groups was large, more than three times the size of the

Steve Strand

2011-01-01

24

The Limits of Social Class in Explaining Ethnic Gaps in Educational Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports an analysis of the educational attainment and progress between age 11 and age 14 of over 14,500 students from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. The mean attainment gap in national tests at age 14 between White British and several ethnic minority groups was large, more than three times…

Strand, Steve

2011-01-01

25

American Indian College Students' Ethnic Identity and Beliefs about Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-seven American Indian and 96 European-American undergraduate students responded to questions about their educational and ethnic beliefs and their perceptions of their mother's and father's support for education. The American Indian participants completed some additional items regarding their ethnic beliefs and their perceptions of their…

Okagaki, Lynn; Helling, Mary Kay; Bingham, Gary E.

2009-01-01

26

Ethnicity, Education, and Earnings in Bolivia and Guatemala.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Guatemala and Bolivia, countries with high proportions of ethnic (Native) population, indigenous workers had lower educational attainment and earned less at every educational level, relative to nonindigenous workers. The differences between ethnic groups were greater in Guatemala than Bolivia. (SV)

Psacharopoulos, George

1993-01-01

27

Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…

Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.

28

Children's Ocular Components and Age, Gender, and Ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Purpose This cross-sectional report includes ocular component data as a function of age, gender, and ethnicity from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Methods The ocular components of 4881 school-aged children were examined using cycloplegic autorefraction (refractive error), keratometry (corneal curvature), ultrasonography (axial dimensions), and videophakometry (lens curvature). Results The average age (± SD) was 8.8 ± 2.3 years, and 2458 were girls (50.4%). Sixteen percent were African American, 14.8% were Asian, 22.9% were Hispanic, 11.6% were Native American, and 34.9% were White. More myopic/less hyperopic refractive error was associated with greater age, especially in Asians, less in Whites and African Americans. Corneal power varied slightly with age, with girls showing a greater mean corneal power. Native-American children had greater corneal toricity with a markedly flatter horizontal corneal power. Anterior chambers were deeper with age, and boys had deeper anterior chambers. Native-American children had the shallowest anterior chambers and Whites the deepest. Girls had higher Gullstrand and calculated lens powers than boys. Boys had longer vitreous chambers and axial lengths, and both were deeper with age. Native Americans had the longest vitreous chambers and Whites the shortest. Conclusions Most ocular components showed little clinically meaningful variation by ethnicity. The shallower anterior chambers and deeper vitreous chambers of Native-American children appeared to be offset by flatter corneas. The relatively deeper anterior chamber and shallower vitreous chambers of White children appeared to be offset by steeper corneas. Asian children had more myopic spherical equivalent refractive errors, but for a given refractive error the ocular parameters of Asian children were moderate in value compared to those of other ethnic groups. Asian children may develop longer, myopic eyes more often than other ethnic groups, but the eyes of Asian emmetropes do not appear to be innately longer. PMID:19650241

Twelker, J. Daniel; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Messer, Dawn H.; Bhakta, Rita; Jones, Lisa A.; Mutti, Donald O.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Zadnik, Karla

2010-01-01

29

Age, Sex and Ethnic Trade-Offs in Faculty Employment: You Can't Have Your Cake and Eat It Too.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age, sex, and ethnic trade-offs in faculty employment in higher education give rise to dilemmas--situations requiring a choice between equally undesirable alternatives. When an over-age-65 faculty member retains a full time position, someone else--probably a woman, ethnic minority, and/or young person--is deprived of a position. The problem of age

Linnell, Robert H.

30

Wideband acoustic immittance normative data: ethnicity, gender, aging, and instrumentation.  

PubMed

This article describes the effect of ethnicity, gender, aging, and instrumentation on wideband acoustic immittance (WAI). This is an important topic to investigate as the goal of any audiological test is optimize the test's sensitivity and specificity. One way to improve the test's sensitivity and specificity is to reduce the variability of the normative data. The impact of the aforementioned demographic characteristics on WAI norms has been reviewed, and where applicable its potential impact on clinical outcome has been discussed. Overall, differences observed between Caucasian and Chinese ethnic groups in adults population may warrant the use of ethnicity-specific norms especially for detection of otosclerosis; however, these differences in the school-aged children are not large enough to warrant the use of ethnicity-specific norms. It is important to explore whether the observed differences between Caucasian and Chinese ethnic groups is due to body-size indices and whether these differences can be replicated in other East Asian ethnic groups that share similar body-size indices. The differences observed between school-aged children and adults could also potentially impact clinical decision analysis. Therefore, use of age-specific norm is recommended. The differences in WAI between different systems are not clinically significant, and the use of instrument-specific norms does not result in improved test performance at least for the detection of otosclerosis. However, measuring WAI at ambient pressure (static) or at pressure corresponding to the peak (dynamic mode) could potentially impact the normative data and may prove to be clinically useful in cases of negative and positive middle ear pressure. PMID:23900176

Shahnaz, Navid; Feeney, M Patrick; Schairer, Kim S

2013-07-01

31

Education, Horizontal Inequalities and Ethnic Relations in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article focuses on the role of higher education in generating or mitigating inequality among ethno-regional groups and its impact on ethnic relations with evidence from Nigeria. It shows that access to education in Nigeria has been politicised. This is because of the perceived role of education in engendering political and socio-economic…

Ukiwo, Ukoha

2007-01-01

32

Age and ethnic variation in children's thinking about the nature of racism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content analysis of interviews with an ethnically diverse group of 202 children aged 6 to 10 describes what children think racism is, and examines associations between age, ethnicity, and children's thinking about racism. Children's narratives capture many dimensions of racism, including stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and ethnic conflict. With age, children's ideas about racism become more elaborated and differentiated. At

Clark McKown

2004-01-01

33

Ethnicity, Gender, Social Class and Achievement Gaps at Age 16: Intersectionality and "Getting It" for the White Working Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender. However, little research has sought to compare the relative size of these gaps or to explore interactions between these factors. This paper analyses the educational achievement at age 11, 14…

Strand, Steve

2014-01-01

34

Health Education and Sensitivity to Cultural, Religious, and Ethnic Beliefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines conflicts occurring between health education with various students' cultural, religious, and ethnic backgrounds through the example of the religous teachings of Judaism. Suggestions for health educators are offered to prevent instruction from leading to conflict between home and school values. (Author/CB)

Galli, Nicholas; And Others

1987-01-01

35

Vocational Education for China's Ethnic Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes the current status and problems of vocational education for China's ethnic minorities. It concludes that these problems have both universal areas in common with China's overall education situation and individual characteristics; they also have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities. The universal areas include the…

Qian, Minhui

2013-01-01

36

Unproven Links: Can Poverty Explain Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high degree of overlap of race and poverty in our society has led to the presumption in both research and practice that ethnic disproportionality in special education is in large measure an artifact of the effects of poverty. This article explores relationships among race, poverty, and special education identification to arrive at a more…

Skiba, Russell J.; Poloni-Staudinger, Lori; Simmons, Ada B.; Feggins-Azziz, L. Renae; Choong-Geun, Chung

2005-01-01

37

Age and Ethnic Variation in Children's Thinking about the Nature of Racism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A content analysis of interviews with an ethnically diverse group of 202 children aged 6 to 10 describes what children think racism is, and examines associations between age, ethnicity, and children's thinking about racism. Children's narratives capture many dimensions of racism, including stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and ethnic

McKown, Clark

2004-01-01

38

Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.  

PubMed

The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture. PMID:25045950

Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

2014-07-01

39

Socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices among USA ethnic and age groups.  

PubMed

In this study, socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices were examined across several dentate ethnic and age groups. Oral hygiene scale scores were constructed from toothbrushing and dental floss frequencies self-reported by population-based samples of middle-aged (35-44 years) and older (65-74 years) dentate adults representing Baltimore African-American and White, San Antonio Hispanic and non-Hispanic White, and Navajo and Lakota Native American persons participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) survey. Female gender, education, certain oral health beliefs, household income, and the presence of a usual source of care were revealed with multivariate analysis to show a significant positive relationship with higher oral hygiene scale scores (indicating better personal oral hygiene practices). Other socio-behavioral variables exhibited a more varied, ethnic-specific pattern of association with oral hygiene scale scores. PMID:9549990

Davidson, P L; Rams, T E; Andersen, R M

1997-05-01

40

Aging and Nutrition Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…

Bazzarre, Terry L.

1978-01-01

41

Psychological reactance: examination across age, ethnicity, and gender.  

PubMed

Psychological reactance is a motivational state aroused when real or perceived personal freedoms are threatened, reduced, or eliminated. Although psychological reactance theory has existed for almost 40 years, there is still dissent over some of its most basic characteristics. Research on age and ethnicity is scant, and research on gender has not produced a clear pattern of results. We attempted to clarify the relationships of these variables to psychological reactance. A total of 3,499 undergraduates completed the Therapeutic Reactance Scale and a brief demographic questionnaire. We found a curvilinear relationship between age and reactance, with older and younger participants exhibiting higher reactance than the middle age group. African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics exhibited higher total, behavioral, and verbal reactance than Caucasians and Native Americans. Men produced higher total, behavioral, and verbal reactance scores than women. We discuss the implications of these findings and make suggestions for further research. PMID:17444358

Woller, Kevin M P; Buboltz, Walter C; Loveland, James M

2007-01-01

42

Nuclear Age Education Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

43

Education and Training Needs of the Ethnic Entrepreneur in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 209 ethnic entrepreneurs in Australia that found that entrepreneurship education makes a significant difference in business performance by giving them effective planning and strategizing skills. Participants expressed a need for further training in specific business issues. (Contains 64 references.) (JOW)

Chavan, Meena

2003-01-01

44

Race-Ethnicity, Education, and Employment after Spinal Cord Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…

Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David

2010-01-01

45

The Melting of the Ethnics: Education of the Immigrants, 1880-1914. Perspectives in American Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, one in a five-volume series dealing with perspectives in American education, discusses the education of ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of the series is to create a better understanding of the education process and the relation of education to human welfare. Chapter one discusses multicultural education, examining the…

Krug, Mark

46

Ethnicity, Inequality, and Higher Education in Malaysia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the development since 1957 of Malaysian education policies aimed at providing equitable access to higher education. Suggests that these policies have increased representation of the Malay underclass in tertiary institutions and the professions, but have had little effect on intraethnic class inequalities. 46 references. (SV)

Selvaratnam, Viswanathan

1988-01-01

47

Bilingual Education for China's Ethnic Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language of instruction is the medium through which knowledge is transmitted during the educational process. Because of this, the issue of what language the teachers use when giving lectures and what language is used to compile the text materials they adopt becomes a core issue in educational development for any multiethnic, multilingual…

Rong, Ma

2007-01-01

48

Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background.  

PubMed

This study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8 years. One parent completed a questionnaire to measure their own and their child's fruit consumption, parenting style, education level and ethnicity. In mediation and moderation analyses, child fruit consumption was regressed on parental fruit consumption, parenting style, parental education and ethnicity. Participating children consumed on average 7.5 pieces of fruit per week. Fourteen percent met the recommended Dutch norm of two pieces of fruit per day. Parental and child fruit consumption were positively associated. The association was more pronounced under higher levels of psychological control and behavioural control, and among ethnic groups. Additionally, parental education and child fruit consumption were positively associated. Parental fruit consumption partially mediated this association. Interventions are needed to increase child fruit consumption. Interventions should focus on increasing parental fruit consumption and positive parental modelling, with particular focus on low-SES families. Additionally, interventions that combine positive modelling with positive general parenting skills (e.g. increasing behavioural control) may be more effective than interventions that focus on parental modelling alone. PMID:22094182

Rodenburg, Gerda; Oenema, Anke; Kremers, Stef P J; van de Mheen, Dike

2012-02-01

49

Race, Ethnicity and Education under New Labour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long-standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of 'failing' schools exacerbated school segregation…

Tomlinson, Sally

2005-01-01

50

Personal and Environmental Factors Associated With Physical Inactivity Among Different Racial–Ethnic Groups of U.S. Middle-Aged and Older-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal, program-based, and environmental barriers to physical activity were explored among a U.S. population-derived sample of 2,912 women 40 years of age and older. Factors significantly associated with inactivity included American Indian ethnicity, older age, less education, lack of energy, lack of hills in one's neighborhood, absence of enjoyable scenery, and infrequent observation of others exercising in one's neighborhood. For

Abby C. King; Cynthia Castro; Sara Wilcox; Amy A. Eyler; James F. Sallis; Ross C. Brownson

2000-01-01

51

The Ongoing Pursuit of Educational Equity in Japan: The Accreditation of Ethnic High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2003, the Japanese Ministry of Education accredited the high school diplomas of most "ethnic high schools," which are schools by and for specific ethnic minority populations, such as Korean, Brazilian, or Chinese students in Japan. Prior to this policy, diplomas from most ethnic high schools were not recognized by the Japanese government as…

Tokunaga, Tomoko; Douthirt-Cohen, Beth

2012-01-01

52

Looking Inward: The Impact of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Social Class Background on Teaching Sociocultural Theory in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I examine how and to what extent various elements of my biography--race, ethnicity, gender, age, social class background, and prior personal and professional experiences--influenced my relationships with students in a graduate course examining the impact of race, gender, and social class on education. My lived experiences as an…

Skerrett, Allison

2006-01-01

53

Dental maturity of Saudi children: Role of ethnicity in age determination  

PubMed Central

Purpose Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. Materials and Methods A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffé's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). Results The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. Conclusion We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one. PMID:24380066

2013-01-01

54

The Tibetans - School for Survival or Submission. An Investigation of Ethnicity and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book investigates if there is a link between Tibetan ethnicity and education and, if so, how it functions. Research focused on the questions "Do the educational achievements of Tibetans in Tibet, India, and Switzerland differ and how can possible differences be attributed to their position as an ethnic group in these countries?" Interviews…

Goldstein-Kyaga, Katrin

55

Education, Ethnic Identity, and Acculturation as Predictors of Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity of 150 Latino adolescents enrolled in either a bilingual or traditional education program. Bilingual education programs were established to ensure that academic failure was not the product of limited English proficiency. Grade point average (GPA), acculturation, and ethnic

Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

2009-01-01

56

Epidemiological study of complete and partial hydatidiform mole in Abu Dhabi: influence age and ethnic group  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unmatched case control study of molar pregnancy was carried out at this hospital between 1978 and 1987 to investigate the influence of maternal age and ethnic group on the incidence of complete and partial hydatidiform mole. The age specific incidence of complete mole was minimal between the ages of 30 and 34 years (relative risk 1), showed a minor

I H Graham; A M Fajardo; R L Richards

1990-01-01

57

Comments on “Gender, Ethnic, Age, and Relationship Differences in NonTraditional College Student Alcohol Consumption: A Tri-Ethnic Study”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of these comments is to serve as a reaction to an article by Stephanie Babb, Cynthia Stewart, and Christine Bachman of the University of Houston-Downtown. The article is ambitiously titled “Gender, Ethnic, Age, and Relationship Differences in Non-Traditional College Students’ Alcohol Consumption: A Tri-Ethnic Study” and is published in this issue of the Journal of Ethnicity in Substance

Victor B. Stolberg

2012-01-01

58

Effects of aging and ethnicity on serum free prostate specific antigen.  

PubMed

Understanding the relationship between ethnicity and free prostate specific antigen (fPSA) could identify the population that should be targeted for intervention and prevention program regarding prostate disease. In this study, we therefore examine the effects of aging and ethnicity on fPSA, measured in serum by chemiluminescent assay (CLIA) method of 351 men visiting Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH) for fPSA test from December to March. Medicinal records abstracts were used to obtain information regarding the ethnicity and age of the cases. Those cases whose age and surname could not be obtained were excluded in our study. The subjects were stratified in four ethnic groups viz; Indo-Nepalese, Tibeto-Nepalese, Indigenous and Other based on the origin. The relationship between age and fPSA level was analysed using bivariate coorelation. The age and the fPSA level of the cases were expressed in Mean ± SEM. The association among different age-group and ethnicity with fPSA were analysed using one way ANOVA. The mean fPSA and mean age of the subjects were 1.74 ± 0.22 and 66.84 ± 0.64 respectively. fPSA level was fairly correlated with the age (r=0.146, p=<0.01). The mean fPSA level (ng/ml) among the four age category (<45, 45-60, 60-75 and >75) were 0.49 ± 0.13, 0.69 ± 0.10, 1.94 ± 0.04 and 2.33 ± 0.43 respectively. The difference in mean fPSA level among four different age-groups was statistically significant (p=0.031). Analysis showed no correlation between the fPSA level and the ethnicity. These data suggest that the fPSA level is associated with the age. PMID:22320948

Shah, Sudip; Jha, Bharat; Khanal, Madhav Prashad

2011-01-01

59

English Education and Aging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

Gillis, Candida

1983-01-01

60

Socioeconomic inequality of obesity in the United States: do gender, age, and ethnicity matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study introduces the concentration index (CI) to assess socioeconomic inequality in the distribution of obesity among American adults aged 18–60 years old. The CI provides a summary measure of socioeconomic inequality, and enabled comparisons across gender, age, and ethnicity. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994 (NHANES III) were used. The degree of socioeconomic inequality

Qi Zhang; Youfa Wang

2004-01-01

61

Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

Sigelman, Carol K.

2012-01-01

62

Self-report stability of adolescent substance use: are there differences for gender, ethnicity and age?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and is the first to examine a 2-year report stability of substance use among adolescents while stratifying for gender, ethnicity, and age. This study examined lifetime use and age at onset report stability, and the internal consistency of reports while excluding nonusers and incident cases (respondents who may have initiated substance

A. M. Shillington; J. D. Clapp

2000-01-01

63

The Relationship Between Education and Ethnic Minority Factors in Income Among Asian Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates greater educational achievements and occupational aspirations of Asian Americans. However, little research has explicated the relationship between educational attainment and actual income among Asian Americans. Factors related to the ethnic minority experience may be related to or may change the positive, linear relationship between education and income found in the general population. The current study examined how education

Carmel S. Saad; Stanley Sue; Nolan Zane; Young Il Cho

2012-01-01

64

The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Succession in Ethnic Minority Family Firms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly competitive UK economy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a complex conceptual model of ethnic minority graduates' economic activities and outlines the possible…

Hussain, Javed G.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Matlay, Harry

2010-01-01

65

Differential item functioning of pathological gambling criteria: an examination of gender, race/ethnicity, and age.  

PubMed

This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria based on gender, race/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital status. Compared to the reference groups (i.e., Male, Caucasian, and ages 25-59 years), women (OR = 0.62; P < .001) and Asian Americans (OR = 0.33; P < .001) were less likely to endorse preoccupation (Criterion 1). Women were more likely to endorse gambling to escape (Criterion 5) (OR = 2.22; P < .001) but young adults (OR = 0.62; P < .05) were less likely to endorse it. African Americans (OR = 2.50; P < .001) and Hispanics were more likely to endorse trying to cut back (Criterion 3) (OR = 2.01; P < .01). African Americans were more likely to endorse the suffering losses (OR = 2.27; P < .01) criterion. Young adults were more likely to endorse chasing losses (Criterion 9) (OR = 1.81; P < .01) while older adults were less likely to endorse this criterion (OR = 0.76; P < .05). Further research is needed to identify factors contributing to DIF, address criteria level bias, and examine differential test functioning. PMID:20623329

Sacco, Paul; Torres, Luis R; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M; Woods, Carol; Unick, G Jay

2011-06-01

66

Jewish–Palestinian Integrated Education in Israel and its Potential Influence on National and\\/or Ethnic Identities and Intergroup Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a second round of interviews conducted with students in an integrated bilingual (Arabic–Hebrew) Palestinian–Jewish school and with similar-age students in standard monolingual schools in Israel. Our research looks at the potential influence of integrated bilingual education on national and\\/or ethnic identities and perceptions of intergroup relations and conflict. The interviews demonstrate the children's perceptions of ethnic

Zvi Bekerman; Ayala Habib; Nader Shhadi

2011-01-01

67

Space Age Driver Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

Gray, Walter W.

1970-01-01

68

Education and obesity at age 40 among American adults  

PubMed Central

Although many have studied the association between educational attainment and obesity, studies to date have not fully examined prior common causes and possible interactions by race/ethnicity or gender. It is also not clear if the relationship between actual educational attainment and obesity is independent of the role of aspired educational attainment or expected educational attainment. The authors use generalized linear log link models to examine the association between educational attainment at age 25 and obesity (BMI?30) at age 40 in the USA’s National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, adjusting for demographics, confounders, and mediators. Race/ethnicity but not gender interacted with educational attainment. In a complete case analysis, after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, among whites only, college graduates were less likely than high school graduates to be obese (RR= 0.69, 95%CI: 0.57, 0.83). The risk ratio remained similar in two sensitivity analyses when the authors adjusted for educational aspirations and educational expectations and analyzed a multiply imputed dataset to address missingness. This more nuanced understanding of the role of education after controlling for a thorough set of confounders and mediators helps advance the study of social determinants of health and risk factors for obesity. PMID:23246398

Cohen, Alison K.; Rehkopf, David H.; Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara

2012-01-01

69

Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

2014-07-01

70

Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a) review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research,

Anna Woodall; Craig Morgan; Claire Sloan; Louise Howard

2010-01-01

71

Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

2012-01-01

72

Cultural Orientation in Asian American Adolescents: Variation by Age and Ethnic Density  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…

Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.

2008-01-01

73

Online Learning across Ethnicity and Age: A Study on Learning Interaction Participation, Perception, and Learning Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed-method study examined whether online learning interaction participation, perception, and learning satisfaction would be consistent across varied age and ethnicity groups. Data were collected from students enrolled in 28 online courses via content analysis with online interaction transcripts, structural equation modeling with the…

Ke, Fengfeng; Kwak, Dean

2013-01-01

74

Children's Attitudes toward Singing and Song Recordings Related to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines students' attitudes toward singing and choir participation related to gender, age, and ethnic background. It also looks at attitudes toward recordings from basal music series that are designed to provide an appropriate model and to encourage singing. Participants (N = 249) were third to fifth graders enrolled in two public…

Siebenaler, Dennis

2008-01-01

75

Age-Related Crossover in Breast Cancer Incidence Rates Between Black and White Ethnic Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Although breast cancer incidence is higher in black women than in white women among women younger than 40 years, the reverse is true among those aged 40 years or older. This crossover in incidence rates between black and white ethnic groups has been well described, has not been completely understood, and has been viewed as an artifact. Methods To

William F. Anderson; Philip S. Rosenberg; Idan Menashe; Aya Mitani; Ruth M. Pfeiffer

2008-01-01

76

Test Anxiety and Study Behavior of Community College Students in Relation to Ethnicity, Gender, and Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted on community college students in order to determine the correlational values among the variables of test anxiety and study behavior, and the student characteristics of age, gender, and ethnicity. Students enrolled in introductory psychology and English classes at American River College and Sacramento City College in…

Rasor, Lori T.; Rasor, Richard A.

77

Migration and ethnic group disproportionality in special education: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues of educational equity and opportunity cannot be understood without regard to special education, as a key response to disabilities, disadvantages, and difficulties. Likewise, globalization cannot be understood without regard to cross?border migration and minority group status in society. Illuminating the nexus of these, research into disproportionality in special education, defined as the over? or under?representation of particular ethnic groups

Susan L. Gabel; Svjetlana Curcic; Justin J. W. Powell; Khaled Khader; Lynn Albee

2009-01-01

78

Education, Ethnicity, Gender, and Social Transformation in Israel and South Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines racial/ethnic and gender patterns of educational, occupational, and income attainment in Israel and South Africa in the early 1980s, with reference to four theoretical perspectives on how educational expansion affects subordinate groups. Concludes that occupational and income equity are not increased by educational expansion alone, but…

Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Nkomo, Mokubung; Smith, Stephen Samuel

2001-01-01

79

A Preliminary Discussion on Several Forms of Alternate Location Schooling in Ethnic Minority Education and the Problems Therein  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Alternate location schooling" ("yidi banxue"), a special measure adopted in China to advance ethnic minority education and especially basic education, adheres to the principle of providing focused educational support in Tibet and Xinjiang and giving consideration to education in ethnic minority regions nationwide. Since the founding of the…

Ba, Zhanlong

2010-01-01

80

Plasma Cytokine Levels in a Population-Based Study: Relation to Age and Ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Background Aging is one factor believed to contribute to processes that underlie chronic low-grade inflammation in older adults. Moreover, more recent studies have suggested that cytokine levels are influenced by ethnicity. Methods In this study, we determined plasma cytokine profiles in a population-based sample (n = 1,411; aged 25–91 years) to determine the relationship between circulating cytokine levels, aging, and ethnicity. We measured interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), interleukin (IL)-6, -10, C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 (TNF-r1). Results IL-6 and TNF-r1 significantly increased with age, whereas IL-1ra, IL-10, and CRP did not significantly increase with age. After adjusting for age, non-Hispanic whites had significantly higher levels of IL-1ra than Mexican Americans, whereas non-Hispanic blacks had significantly higher levels of IL-6 and CRP than Mexican Americans as well as non-Hispanic whites. CRP levels in non-Hispanic blacks were no longer significantly higher after adjusting for body mass index (BMI), indicating that BMI is an important predictor of this inflammatory marker. Conclusions These results demonstrate that cytokine levels are influenced by both age and ethnicity. Furthermore, these results show that inflammatory profiles for Mexican Americans are lower than non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks. PMID:20018825

Peek, M. Kristen; Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Goodwin, James S.

2010-01-01

81

University of NebraskaLincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color,  

E-print Network

-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability

Farritor, Shane

82

Making Ethnic Citizens: The Politics and Practice of Education in Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the politics and practice of education in Malaysia within the context of ethnicity and nation building. Public education in Malaysia--particularly, but not exclusively, at the pre-university level--is promoted as a nation-building tool, seeking to inculcate a sense of Malaysian-ness and patriotism. Simultaneously, however,…

Brown, Graham K.

2007-01-01

83

Ethnic Studies Methods and Materials for Teacher Training: A Model for Schools of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected teacher resource projects for ethnic studies are identified and reviewed in this document. Developed at 16 educational institutions across the United States, the projects range in focus from general multiethnic education to specific minority groups including Japanese-, Afro-, French-, Polish-, Italian-, Mexican-, and Ozark-Americans, and…

Smith, Iva A.

84

Bilingual Education in the Ethnically Mixed Areas along the Slovene-Italian Border  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper focuses on education language policy in Slovene Istria and of Slovenia in Italy. On both sides of the Slovene-Italian border there is an ethnically mixed population of Italians and Slovenes, an Italian minority in Slovenia, and a Slovene minority in Italy. On both sides of the border apparently similar systems of bilingual education have…

Cok, Lucija; Pertot, Susanna

2010-01-01

85

Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2011. Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino,…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

86

Effects of ethnicity on skeletal maturation: consequences for forensic age estimations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An X-ray of the hand is an important method in forensic science for estimation of the age of juvenile suspects with uncertain\\u000a date of birth. Relevant X-ray standards for evaluation of skeletal maturity are available for white US Americans as well as\\u000a for North and Central Europeans. The applicability of these standards to members of ethnic groups different from the

A. Schmeling; W. Reisinger; D. Loreck; K. Vendura; W. Markus; G. Geserick

2000-01-01

87

Stigmatized Students: Age, Sex, and Ethnicity Effects in the Stigmatization of Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the stigmatization of obesity relative to the stigmatization of various disabilities among young men and women. Attitudes across ethnic groups were compared. In addition, these findings were compared with data showing severe stigmatization of obesity among children.Research Methods and Procedures: Participants included 356 university students (56% women; mean age, 20.6 years; mean BMI, 23.3 kg\\/m2; range, 14.4

Janet D. Latner; Albert J. Stunkard; G. Terence Wilson

2005-01-01

88

The relationships of age, sex, ethnicity, and weight to stereotypes of obesity and self perception.  

PubMed

In order to assess the relationships of stereotypes of obesity and of self perceptions to age, sex, ethnicity and weight, 447 adults and children varying in sex, ethnic background and weight rated 12 line drawings of people who varied in age, sex and weight, as well as giving self ratings on similar scales. The normal weight stimuli, compared with the fat oe thin ones, were more wanted as friends and were seen as happier, having more friends, being smarter, and better looking but less lonely and mean. The thin stimulus figures were seen as having more friends, being better looking, smarter and meaner than the fat ones. These trends held for both the sexes, all ages, all ethnic groups, and children of all weights. Names or nicknames assigned to the stimuli also reflected stereotypes: Fat nicknames were given primarily to the fat stimuli; Thin and Height-related ones were given to the thin stimuli; and the average stimuli received more Neutral/Normal and Clearly Positive and fewer Other/Ambiguous and Clearly Negative names. Self evaluations suggested that fifth graders and American Indians were lowest in self concept on some scales, consistent with other research. Overweight subjects were generally similar to average and underweight ones in self ratings, contrary to expectation. Apparently these subjects did not perceive themselves as negatively as previous research and their ratings of the obese stimuli might have caused us to expect. PMID:6629643

Harris, M B; Smith, S D

1983-01-01

89

Education for Peace: Protest Strategies of Ethnic Resistance Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While studying the consequences of violent and non-violent protests, the current literature is mostly mute on the question of why some ethnic collectivities prefer violent political action over non-violence. This question is especially interesting as recent empirical studies reveal functional effectiveness of non-violent tactics vis-a-vis violent…

Shaykhutdinov, Renat

2011-01-01

90

Higher Education Access and Equality among Ethnic Minorities in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market reform, financial decentralization, and economic globalization in recent years have greatly accentuated China's social and regional inequalities. These inequalities stem from many factors, including the rise of an urban middle class, a change in the status of women, a resurgence of ethnic identities, an increase in rural-to-urban migration,…

Zhu, Zhiyong

2010-01-01

91

Degradation: A Case Study Calling for Ethnic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many credible sources refer to the various immigrant groups in a derogatory manner. Negative citations can be categorized in numerous ways. They might arise as a result of the geographic origin of the ethnic group; attraction to a particular occupation class; peculiarity of custom; religious or political affiliation; rate of delinquency, crime, or…

Ciampa, Bartholomew J.

92

Current Status, History and Prospects of Jingpo People's Bilingual Education System: The Cultural Vicissitudes an Old Ethnic Group Encountered in Modern Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is a multi-ethnic nation. Chinese educational practices towards ethnic minorities in the long run have clearly indicated that only by carefully fostering of an appropriate relationship between the native languages of different ethnic groups and Chinese language, could the goals of popularizing the compulsory education system to and improving qualities of the people of all ethnic minorities be gained.

Dong Yan

93

Age and Interest in Continuing Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results are reported from a study of the relationships between age and teacher interest in continuing professional education. It is concluded that age-related alternatives in continuing education programs should be made available to teachers. (Author/GK)

Willie, Reynold; Kummerow, Jean M.

1981-01-01

94

Racial\\/Ethnic Socialization and Parental Involvement in Education as Predictors of Cognitive Ability and Achievement in African American Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial\\/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement\\u000a in education and its relationship to children’s cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial\\/ethnic socialization\\u000a and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of African American youth. Two dimensions\\u000a of racial\\/ethnic socialization, cultural exposure (i.e.,

Meeta BanerjeeZaje; Zaje A. T. Harrell; Deborah J. Johnson

2011-01-01

95

Education in Old Age: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various educational and…

Luppi, Elena

2009-01-01

96

Epidemiological study of complete and partial hydatidiform mole in Abu Dhabi: influence age and ethnic group.  

PubMed Central

An unmatched case control study of molar pregnancy was carried out at this hospital between 1978 and 1987 to investigate the influence of maternal age and ethnic group on the incidence of complete and partial hydatidiform mole. The age specific incidence of complete mole was minimal between the ages of 30 and 34 years (relative risk 1), showed a minor peak in teenagers (relative risk 3.1, 95% confidence interval 6.5-1.4), and a major peak in those of 35 years and over. Between 35 and 39 years the relative risk was 2.5 (95% CI 6.2-1.0) and at 40 years or more the relative risk was 9.8 (95% CI 28.9-3.3). No age group showed a significantly increased risk of partial mole. The women of Abu Dhabi had increased risks of both forms of molar pregnancy relative to women in Nottingham, England (relative risk 1): the risk of complete mole was increased threefold (95% CI 4.2-2.2) and that of partial mole twofold (95% CI 4.0-1.2). The increased risk of complete mole was greatest in Gulf Arabs (mainly Omanis and Yemenis) who had a sixfold increase in crude relative risk (95% CI 10.7-3.5). The increased risks of complete mole associated with maternal ethnic group remained after adjustment for maternal age distribution. PMID:2401735

Graham, I H; Fajardo, A M; Richards, R L

1990-01-01

97

Adolescent Self-Esteem: Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age  

PubMed Central

Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race/ethnic/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter race/ethnic differences in extreme response style, reduced but did not eliminate the subgroup differences. Age differences in self-esteem are modest, with 12th graders reporting the highest scores. The findings are highly consistent across 18 annual surveys from 1991 through 2008, and self-esteem scores show little overall change during that period. PMID:22279425

Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent

2012-01-01

98

Racial/Ethnic Socialization and Parental Involvement in Education as Predictors of Cognitive Ability and Achievement in African American Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of…

Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A. T.; Johnson, Deborah J.

2011-01-01

99

A culturally competent education program to increase understanding about medicines among ethnic minorities.  

PubMed

Background It has been previously suggested that the risk of medicine-related problems-i.e., negative clinical outcomes, adverse drug reactions or adverse drug events resulting from the use (or lack of use) of medicines, and human error including that caused by healthcare personnel-is higher among specific ethnic minority groups compared to the majority population. Objective The focus of this study was on reducing medicine-related problems among Arabic-speaking ethnic minorities living in Denmark. The aim was twofold: (1) to explore the perceptions, barriers and needs of Arabic-speaking ethnic minorities regarding medicine use, and (2) to use an education program to enhance the knowledge and competencies of the ethnic minorities about the appropriate use of medicines. Settings Healthcare in Denmark is a tax-financed public service that provides free access to hospitals and general practitioners. In contrast to the USA or the UK, serving ethnically diverse populations is still a relatively new phenomenon for the Danish healthcare system. Ethnic minorities with a non-Western background comprised a total of 6.9 % of the Danish population. Methods Data were collected through qualitative research. Four focus group interviews were conducted before and four after the education program. Thirty Arabic-speaking participants were recruited from language and job centers in Copenhagen. Participants received teaching sessions in Arabic on appropriate medicine use. The education program was evaluated by two methods: a written quiz for knowledge evaluation and focus group interviews for process evaluation. It took place during the first semenester of 2012. Results The majority of the participants were dissatisfied with the knowledge about medicines inherited from their parents. They also expressed their frustrations due to communication problems with Danish doctors. According to the impressions and quiz results of participants, the program was relevant, rich in information and effective. The program helped bridge the gap between participants and doctors. The commonality of the culture, language and gender shared by the researcher pharmacist and participants enhanced the success of the program. Conclusion The education program may potentially reduce medicine-related problems by providing participants with knowledge and competencies about appropriate medicine use. We recommend implementing education programs for ethnic minorities using the cultural competence approach to the appropriate use of medicines. Ideally, programs should be implemented in places that are frequented by ethnic minorities, and taught by health professionals with the same ethnic background as participants. PMID:25193266

Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Kassem, Dumoue; Traulsen, Janine Marie

2014-10-01

100

Physical model reproduction from ct scans classified according to gender, ethnicity, and age - biomed 2009.  

PubMed

Eye trauma is an increasing problem, especially in the military, due to blunt force trauma. One way to mitigate eye injury is to wear protective eye equipment. An essential part of creating protective eye equipment is prototype testing in controlled eye trauma simulations. In addition, the protective equipment must fit properly and thus incorporate variance, specifically among gender, ethnicity, and age. It is beneficial to create standard orbits classified according to the aforementioned categories of gender, ethnicity, and age. Using head CT scans from grossly normal subjects, segmentation of the ocular orbit was performed. This segmented mask was then imported into a three dimensional printing software. Orbits from different sizes, ages, genders, and races were created and printed using a ZCorp printer. A mold negative was then created from the 3D printed orbits using InstaMold. After the mold was cured and removed from the printed orbit, reproductions of the eye orbit were created from this negative. These methods will be used in the future to make molds for many different ages, genders, and races in order to create accurate models of the eye orbit. These can then be used to develop impact tests by incorporating eye samples into these sockets of uniform shape. These methods for creating surrogate eye sockets will reduce the need for cadaver eye sockets and will increase the number of tests that can be performed. By creating accurate models, more accurate representations of eye trauma and its prevention can be investigated. PMID:19369791

Taylor, Lindsey A; Danelson, Kerry A; Gayzik, F Scott; Loftis, Kathryn L; Stitzel, Joel D

2009-01-01

101

Minority Language Education in Malaysia: Four Ethnic Communities' Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses minority language education in Malaysia, a multilingual and multicultural country. Looks at four language minority groups and what they have done to to provide beginning education programs for their children that use the children's native languages. (Author/VWL)

Smith, Karla J.

2003-01-01

102

The Benefits of Higher Education: Sex, Racial/Ethnic, and Socioeconomic Group Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes data from the NELS:92/00 to explore sex, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic group differences in the benefits that high school graduates realize from college. Sex differences in higher education benefits may be a source of observed differences between women and men in college enrollment and degree attainment rates. The findings…

Perna, Laura W.

2005-01-01

103

A Comparison of Students' Choices of 9th Grade Physical Education Activities by Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to determine physical education activity preferences of 9th grade students in a southern California school district and to compare preferences by ethnicity. Results indicated that basketball, football, bowling, softball/baseball, swimming, and volleyball were the most preferred activities. These preferences may be…

Hill, Grant M.; Cleven, Brian

2006-01-01

104

Dutch Policies on Socio-Economic and Ethnic Inequality in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1960s The Netherlands has produced policy to combat educational inequalities stemming from the social milieu and ethnicity of pupils. This policy has evolved from local to central policy and back again to a decentralised level. The initial focus on disadvantaged native Dutch pupils in big cities has shifted to immigrant groups and--at…

Driessen, Geert; Dekkers, Hetty

2008-01-01

105

Do Teachers’ Race, Gender, and Ethnicity Matter? Evidence From the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS), the authors find that the match between teachers' race, gender, and ethnicity and those of their students had little association with how much the students learned, but in several instances it seems to have been a significant determinant of teachers' subjective evaluations of their students. For example, test scores

Ronald G Ehrenberg; Daniel D Goldhaber; Dominic J Brewer

1995-01-01

106

Preferences towards sex education and information from an ethnically diverse sample of young people  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15–18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular, and receiving this at school from someone ‘professional’ and of

L. Coleman; A. Testa

2007-01-01

107

Culture-Blind? Parental Discourse on Religion, Ethnicity and Secularism in the French Educational Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines policy mediation and adaptation in a context where religious, ethnic and other cultural identities are not officially recognised in the public sphere but considered part of the private sphere. French educational policy is firmly rooted within a secular Republican framework which relies on a colour-blind approach to promote…

Raveaud, Maroussia

2008-01-01

108

Gender Differences in Educational Achievement within Racial and Ethnic Groups. ERIC Digest Number 164.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational Testing Service (ETS) research highlights more similarities than variations in gender differences among student racial/groups, though variations exist in how the differences are manifested. This digest presents highlights from Richard Coley's findings in "Differences in the Gender Gap: Comparisons across Racial/Ethnic Groups in…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY.

109

Our University: Ethnicity, Higher Education and the Quest for State Legitimacy in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In East Africa, no other country has witnessed as great a surge in university institutions as Kenya. The intent of this paper is to explore the persistence of the ethnic configurations in the surge of higher education in Kenya, within the context of the country's history. Outlining the major flashpoints in the country's history will be…

Munene, Ishmael I.

2012-01-01

110

Evidence of Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education in an English Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in the proportions of students identified as having special educational needs (SENs) across ethnic groups have historically been of concern in the United Kingdom and the United States. However, the absence of student-level data has hindered investigation of the reasons for such disproportionality. The authors present an analysis of the…

Strand, Steve; Lindsay, Geoff

2009-01-01

111

The experience of black and minority ethnic staff working in higher education  

E-print Network

and minority ethnic (BME) staff working in higher education through direct engagement and consultation with BME in the sector, with particular reference to recruitment, retention, promotion and development of BME staff of staff or student 22 7. Discussing transition with others 25 8. The day of transition 27 9. Post

112

School and Residential Ethnic Segregation: An Analysis of Variations across England's Local Education Authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Johnston R., Burgess S., Wilson D. and Harris R. (2006) School and residential ethnic segregation: an analysis of variations across England's Local Education Authorities, Regional Studies40, 973–990. Schools are central to the goals of a multicultural society, but their ability to act as arenas within which meaningful intercultural interactions take place depends on the degree to which students from various

Ron Johnston; Simon Burgess; Deborah Wilson; Richard Harris

2006-01-01

113

Preferential Policies and Ethnic Differences in Post-Secondary Education in Peninsular Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we use the second wave of the Malaysian family life survey conducted in 1988-1989 to examine the effects of the national economic policy (NEP) instituted by the Malaysian government in 1971 to promote educational opportunities of hitherto disadvantaged ethnic Malays. The analysis focuses on the probability of entering post-secondary…

Agadjanian, Victor; Peng Liew, Hui

2005-01-01

114

Educational Provision for Ethnic Minority Groups in Nicaragua.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines effect of Nicaragua's 1979 revolution on education, especially for minority Miskito Indians. Summarizes history of Indian culture in region. Suggests Sandinista government began emphasizing bilingual, bicultural education in 1982-83, sparked by deteriorating economic situation. Concludes multicultural education program, while hindered by…

Docherty, F. J.

1988-01-01

115

Gender by ethnic equity issues as they pertain to success in science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science is traditionally a white-male dominated field. This trend has foundations in beliefs and practices accepted before the Enlightenment period. Sixteenth and seventeenth century writers further promoted perceptions that women lacked intellectual capacity to indulge in science. A similar viewpoint was applied to non-white ethnic groups during the 19th and 20th centuries. Questions over Eurocentric and androcentric aspects of science were first raised publicly in 1869, yet significant change in the proportions of women and minorities in science-related fields remains disproportionately low. Public awareness of this situation extends to education where students demonstrate beliefs that opportunities in science are primarily for white males. This commonly shared belief typically produces negative effects on success rates in science education for females and minorities. The purpose of this study was to determine if gender-by-ethnic factors are culturally specific. Do members of one gender/ethnic subgroup experience deterrents to success in science education not common in other ethnic groups? Contrariwise, are negative factors shared across ethnic groups? An effort is made to identify potential gender/ethnic-related barriers that serve to reduce success rates and potentially generate negative attitudes for students about science. A 74-item Likert scale was developed to reveal students' perceptions of issues relative to science education. This instrument was administered to 30 female and 30 male high school students in each of four ethnic groups (African American, Mexican American, American Indian, and Euro American) from public or tribal schools in a large southwestern (United States) urban community. Randomly selected participants from each subgroup were then interviewed to expound upon relevant issues. A reoccurring pattern of reduced interest and experiences in science activities was noted among male American Indians. These participants most often differed with one or more of the other gender/ethnic subgroups in expectations and opportunities for academic success. Most students anticipated support from parents and educators if they were to choose a science related career; however, few expected like consideration from peers. Historical and current issues of cultural relevance are considered as potential sources for outcome patterns noted from the study. Possible areas for future studies are offered.

Snyder, Jan David

116

Ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factor burden among middle-aged women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We evaluated ethnic differences in the 10-year risk of myocardial infarction or coronary death derived from Framingham risk equation and in a composite measure of emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors in women and whether statistical adjustments for educational attainment, geographic location, and lifestyle attenuated the magnitude of the ethnic differences in risk.\\u000aMETHODS: Two thousand eight hundred thirty-four premenopausal

Karen A. Matthews; Mary Fran Sowers; Carol A. Derby; Evan Stein; Heidi Miracle-McMahill; Sybil L. Crawford; Richard C. Pasternak

2005-01-01

117

Adolescents' Educational Outcomes: Racial and Ethnic Variations in Peer Network Importance  

PubMed Central

Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents’ academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results reveal that, in addition to those factors typically associated with academic outcomes (e.g., school composition), two individual-level peer network measures, SES and heterogeneity, had significant effects. Although educational attainment was generally worse in low SES schools, for all ethnic groups higher attainment was associated with attending schools with higher concentrations of minority students. At the individual level, however, membership in integrated peer networks was negatively related to high school graduation for Asians, Latinos, and non-Hispanic whites, and to GPA for Asians and Latinos, as only African-American achievement increased in more racially/ethnically heterogeneous peer networks. Our results suggest that co-ethnic and co-racial peer friendship networks should not be viewed as obstacles to the educational accomplishments of today’s youth. In fact, in many cases the opposite was true, as results generally support the ethnic social capital hypothesis while providing little corroboration for oppositional culture theory. Results also suggest that co-racial and co-ethnic ties may mediate the negative effects of school choice, or more specifically of between-school socioeconomic segregation. Consequently, we conclude that school policies aimed at socioeconomic desegregation are likely to beneficially affect the academic outcomes of all race/ethnic groups. PMID:19669905

Ryabov, Igor

2013-01-01

118

Ethnic Language and East Asian Endogamy and Exogamy in the United States  

E-print Network

logistic regression models to investigate the influence of ethnic language on the probabilities of endogamy and exogamy of East Asians in the U.S. Ethnicity, English ability, gender, age, nativity status, and college education are included. Findings...

Jan, Jie-Sheng

2012-02-14

119

Illegitimate participation? A group of young minority ethnic children’s experiences of early childhood education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north?west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried out

Ian Barron

2009-01-01

120

Illegitimate Participation? A Group of Young Minority Ethnic Children's Experiences of Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north-west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried…

Barron, Ian

2009-01-01

121

Playing a different game: the contextualised decision?making processes of minority ethnic students in choosing a higher education institution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper adds to the small but growing body of literature which probes the complex decision?making processes undertaken by minority ethnic students, and particularly working?class minority ethnic students, when choosing a higher education institution. Previous studies have focussed on areas with ethnically diverse local populations. This article presents the findings of a small?scale study examining the decision?making processes of minority

Heather Smith

2007-01-01

122

Educational Opportunities. Tackling Ethnic, Class and Gender Inequality through Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection presents a cross section of research into the theme of equal opportunities in education in the Netherlands. The majority of articles are on the Dutch situation, which resembles that of other countries in many respects. Contributions include: (1) "Educational Inequality Research in the Netherlands. Conditions, Constraints and…

Driessen, Geert, Ed.; Jungbluth, Paul, Ed.

123

Educating Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam: Policies and Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher education programs in Vietnam, like their counterparts in most multicultural societies, struggle to address the issues of access, equity, and excellence. The nation's minority groups, about 13 percent of the population, traditionally have not gained admission to educational opportunities on a par with members of the majority group,…

Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie

2007-01-01

124

‘Just open your eyes a bit more’: the methodological challenges of researching black and minority ethnic students' experiences of physical education teacher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss some of the challenges of centralising ‘race’ and ethnicity in Physical Education (PE) research, through reflecting on the design and implementation of a study exploring Black and minority ethnic students' experiences of their teacher education. Our aim in the paper is to contribute to ongoing theoretical and methodological debates about intersectionality, and specifically about difference

Anne Flintoff; Louisa Webb

2011-01-01

125

Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices  

PubMed Central

Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N.; Moss, Cynthia

2014-01-01

126

Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices.  

PubMed

Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N; Moss, Cynthia

2014-04-01

127

Ethnic Differences in the Dynamics of Depressive Symptoms in Middle Aged and Older Americans  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study examined differences in the trajectory of depressive symptoms between Hispanic, black, and white Americans in middle and old age. Methods Data came from a national sample of Americans with up to 6 repeated assessments spanning 11 years. Hierarchical linear models with time-varying covariates were used. Results Hispanics started with the worst depressive symptomatology, followed by black Americans, while white Americans had the fewest symptoms. These differences, however, diminished over time. More importantly, net of socioeconomic and health differentials, the depressive symptoms trajectory did not differ between blacks and whites; while Hispanics still started with worse symptoms and had a greater rate of reduction in symptomatology compared to whites. Discussion Significant ethnic differences exist in both the intercept and rate of change in depressive symptoms in middle aged and older Americans. These variations are substantially confounded by socioeconomic and health differentials. PMID:20495153

Xu, Xiao; Liang, Jersey; Bennett, Joan M.; Quiñones, Ana R.; Ye, Wen

2010-01-01

128

Moderation of age, sex, and ethnicity on psychosocial predictors of increased exercise and improved eating.  

PubMed

Although research indicates that treatment-induced improvements in self-regulation, mood, and self-efficacy significantly predict increased exercise and improved eating, moderation by participants' personal characteristics is largely unknown. Severely obese adults (N = 414; 47% White, 53% African American) volunteered for a behavioral exercise and nutrition treatment and demonstrated significant within-group improvements in self-efficacy for exercise, self-regulation for exercise, mood, self-efficacy for controlled eating, self-regulation for controlled eating, exercise volume, and fruit and vegetable intake over 26 weeks. After testing age, sex, and race/ethnicity as possible moderators of the prediction of changes in exercise volume and fruit and vegetable consumption by changes in self-regulation, mood, and self-efficacy, only age significantly moderated change in volume of exercise. Implications for theory and treatment were discussed. PMID:24003590

Annesi, James J

2013-01-01

129

Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

2010-03-01

130

History of 19th Century Women's Education: A Plea for Inclusion of Class, Race, and Ethnicity. Working Paper No. 114.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this overview of precedents set in the informal and formal education of women of the 19th century, a revisionist approach to the history of education is outlined. Such an approach focuses not only on the elite women's struggles for education, but also on the education of women of color, different classes, and various ethnic backgrounds. Popular…

Brenzel, Barbara M.

131

The Culture Care Meaning of Comfort for Ethnically Diverse Pre-Licensure Baccalaureate Nursing Students in the Educational Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nursing profession is calling for enhanced diversity within the ranks of registered nurses to meet the health care needs of an increasingly diverse society. Nursing education is faced with the challenge of retaining ethnically diverse nursing students. Students who are ethnically diverse face unique challenges in addition to the universal…

Zajac, Lynne K.

2010-01-01

132

The Impossibility of Minority Ethnic Educational "Success"? An Examination of the Discourses of Teachers and Pupils in British Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that in Britain dominant educational discourses of "the ideal pupil" exclude minority ethnic pupils and prevent them from inhabiting a position of authentic "success". It suggests that "the successful pupil" is a desired yet refused subject position for many minority ethnic young people--even for those who are (to some extent)…

Archer, Louise

2008-01-01

133

University of NebraskaLincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color,  

E-print Network

-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability­Lincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age

Farritor, Shane

134

University of NebraskaLincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color,  

E-print Network

-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex­Lincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age

Farritor, Shane

135

Ethnic and age-related fat free mass loss in older Americans: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although age-related loss of fat free mass (FFM) is well known, there is paucity of data on national estimates, and on the differential influence of ethnicity on the decline in FFM with increasing age. We determined whether age-related loss in FFM and fat free mass index (FFMI) vary by gender and or ethnicity, using representative data from the Third

Thomas O Obisesan; Muktar H Aliyu; Vernon Bond; Richard G Adams; Abimbola Akomolafe; Charles N Rotimi

2005-01-01

136

Short Sleep Duration across Income, Education and Race/Ethnic Groups: Population Prevalence and Growing Disparities over 34 Years of Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Purpose Little is known about population determinants of short sleep duration. The authors examined associations between short sleep duration and income, education and race/ethnicity, and assessed changes over time in relative disparities. Methods Questionnaire data from the Alameda County Health and Ways of Living Study (ACS) was obtained at five time-points (1965, 1974, 1983, 1994, and 1999) for short sleep duration (<7 hours sleep per night). Household income, education level and race/ethnicity were assessed at baseline (n=6928). Odds ratios were computed to examine short sleep duration across income, education and race/ethnicity, adjusting for age, sex and time-varying covariates, and to assess changes over time. Results Prevalence of short sleep at baseline was 15.2%.The (age-adjusted) odds of short sleep was increased for the lowest household income quintile (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.94), those with less than high school education (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.75), and among African Americans (odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68, 2.30). Relative disparities increased over time for African Americans and Hispanics compared to whites. Conclusions Socioeconomic position is a robust determinant of short sleep duration, even after adjusting for health-related characteristics linked to short sleep duration. PMID:17855122

Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Kaplan, George A.; Roberts, Robert E.

2007-01-01

137

Ethnic Minority Pupils in Swedish Schools: Some Trends in Over-Representation of Minority Pupils in Special Educational Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The way categories, labels, and taxonomies are used depends upon national ideologies and nationally specific conceptions of citizenship and normality. Ethnicity, differences, disability and deviance are social constructions. Underachievement or overachievement in social (cognitive) performance or overrepresentation in special educational

Berhanu, Girma

2008-01-01

138

Ethnicity and sexual behavior in Ghana.  

PubMed

Using data from the 1993 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, this study explores the relationship between ethnicity and sexual behavior: having sex before age 17 and premarital sexual experience. All ethnic groups show substantial sexual experience before age 17 and premarital sexual engagement. Logistic regression analyses reveal that in general ethnicity influences the behaviors studied, especially for ever-married women. The data suggest that groups that practice matrilineal and patrilineal systems show differences in the likelihood of having sex before age 17. Contrary to expectation, there is an inverse relationship between education and sexual experience before age 17. The findings highlight the importance of group-specific programs in Africa. PMID:10842499

Addai, I

1999-01-01

139

Associations of Candidate Genes to Age-related Macular Degeneration Among Racial/Ethnic Groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the relationships of selected candidate genes to the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a cohort of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Setting Multicenter study. Study Population 2456 persons aged 45–84 years with genotype information and fundus photographs. Procedures Twelve of 2862 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 11 of 233 candidate genes for cardiovascular disease were selected for analysis based on screening with marginal unadjusted P value <0.001 within 1 or more racial/ethnic groups. Logistic regression models tested for association in case-control samples. Main Outcome Measure Prevalence of early AMD. Results Early AMD was present in 4.0% of the cohort and varied from 2.4% in blacks to 6.0% in whites. The odds ratio increased from 2.3 for one to 10.0 for four risk alleles in a joint effect analysis of Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 rs10490924 and Complement Factor H Y402H (P for trend=4.2×10?7). Frequencies of each SNP varied among the racial/ethnic groups. Adjusting for age and other factors, few statistically significant associations of the 12 SNPs with AMD were consistent across all groups. In a multivariate model, most candidate genes did not attenuate the comparatively higher odds of AMD in whites. The higher frequency of risk alleles for several SNPs in Chinese Americans may partially explain their AMD frequency approaching that of whites. Conclusions The relationships of 11 candidate genes to early AMD varied among 4 racial/ethnic groups, and partially explained the observed variations in early AMD prevalence among them. PMID:23938121

Klein, Ronald; Li, Xiaohui; Kuo, Jane Z.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Wong, Tien Y.; Taylor, Kent D.; Rotter, Jerome I.

2013-01-01

140

Addiction treatment trials: how gender, race/ethnicity, and age relate to ongoing participation and retention in clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Introduction Historically, racial and ethnic minority populations have been underrepresented in clinical research, and the recruitment and retention of women and ethnic minorities in clinical trials has been a significant challenge for investigators. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) conducts clinical trials in real-life settings and regularly monitors a number of variables critical to clinical trial implementation, including the retention and demographics of participants. Purpose The examination of gender, race/ethnicity, and age group differences with respect to retention characteristics in CTN trials. Methods Reports for 24 completed trials that recruited over 11,000 participants were reviewed, and associations of gender, race/ethnicity, and age group characteristics were examined along with the rate of treatment exposure, the proportion of follow-up assessments obtained, and the availability of primary outcome measure(s). Results Analysis of the CTN data did not indicate statistical differences in retention across gender or race/ethnicity groups; however, retention rates increased for older participants. Conclusion These results are based on a large sample of patients with substance use disorders recruited from a treatment-seeking population. The findings demonstrate that younger participants are less likely than older adults to be retained in clinical trials. PMID:24474858

Korte, Jeffrey E; Rosa, Carmen L; Wakim, Paul G; Perl, Harold I

2011-01-01

141

Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

2007-01-01

142

Risk of Low Birth Weight Associated with Advanced Maternal Age Among Four Ethnic Groups in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine and compare the risk of low birth weight associated with delayed childbearing in four ethnic groups using nationally representative data in the United States. Methods: We compared the risk of low (Results: African Americans and Puerto Ricans, and to a lesser extent Mexican Americans, had higher risk differences associated with advanced maternal age. For first births, the

Babak Khoshnood; Stephen Wall; Kwang-sun Lee

2005-01-01

143

The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

2004-01-01

144

One-year rates of public shelter utilization by race\\/ethnicity, age, sex and poverty status for New York City (1990 and 1995) and Philadelphia (1995)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study calculates public homeless shelter utilization rates by sex, race\\/ethnicity and age status for New York City (1990 and 1995) and Philadelphia (fiscal year 1995) to determine the relative risk for shelter use among different demographic groups in these cities. The resulting shelter utilization rates reveal large disparities among age groups and across racial\\/ethnic groups, as well as showing

DENNIS CULHANE; STEPHEN METRAUX

1999-01-01

145

Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

2013-01-01

146

Ethnicity Is an Independent Determinant of Age-Specific PSA Level: Findings from a Multiethnic Asian Setting  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the baseline PSA profile and determine the factors influencing the PSA levels within a multiethnic Asian setting. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1054 men with no clinical evidence of prostate cancer, prostate surgery or 5?-reductase inhibitor treatment of known prostate conditions. The serum PSA concentration of each subject was assayed. Potential factors associated with PSA level including age, ethnicity, height, weight, family history of prostate cancer, lower urinary tract voiding symptoms (LUTS), prostate volume and digital rectal examination (DRE) were evaluated using univariable and multivariable analysis. Results There were 38 men (3.6%) found to have a PSA level above 4 ng/ml and 1016 (96.4%) with a healthy PSA (?4 ng/ml). The median PSA level of Malay, Chinese and Indian men was 1.00 ng/ml, 1.16 ng/ml and 0.83 ng/ml, respectively. Indians had a relatively lower median PSA level and prostate volume than Malays and Chinese, who shared a comparable median PSA value across all 10-years age groups. The PSA density was fairly similar amongst all ethnicities. Further analysis showed that ethnicity, weight and prostate volume were independent factors associated with age specific PSA level in the multivariable analysis (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings support the concept that the baseline PSA level varies between different ethnicities across all age groups. In addition to age and prostate volume, ethnicity may also need to be taken into account when investigating serum PSA concentrations in the multiethnic Asian population. PMID:25111507

Sothilingam, Selvalingam; Malek, Rohan; Sundram, Murali; Hisham Bahadzor, Badrul; Ong, Teng Aik; Ng, Keng Lim; Sivalingam, Sivaprakasam; Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul

2014-01-01

147

Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity.  

PubMed

The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. PMID:20400068

Mijal, Renée S; Holzman, Claudia B

2010-07-01

148

Aging among Jewish Americans: Implications for Understanding Religion, Ethnicity, and Service Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…

Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

2009-01-01

149

Ethnicity in the Electronic Age: Looking at the Internet through a Multicultural Lens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report examines the unique preferences, attitudes, motivations, and practices of ethnic Internet users, particularly African Americans and Hispanic Americans, discussing implications for marketing to U.S. ethnic communities. Data come from field research collected between August-November 2000. Researchers partnered with popular…

Tseng, Thomas

150

Dynamics of Acculturation, Enculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Influence of Psychocultural Constructs on Conscientiousness and Expectations of Higher Education among Latinos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influence of psychocultural variables (e.g., acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity) and personality characteristics in relation to educational expectations among 345 Latino middle school students in the U.S. Results from a path model indicate that 24.4% of the variance of educational expectations was accounted…

Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.; Davis, Matthew J.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Vaquero, Juana; Thompson, Keisha V.; Saldivar, Isaac M.

2012-01-01

151

Enhancing Ethnic Diversity at a Big Ten University Through Project TEAM: A Case Study in Teacher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project Transformative Educational Achievement Model (TEAM) is an instructional initiative designed to increase the number of students from underrepresented minorities at Indiana University who enter a teacher education program (P–12), complete their baccalaureate degree, and obtain teaching licensure in Indiana. A conceptual framework based on theories of campus climate and integrated pluralism, ethnic identity development, and teaching for social justice

Christine I. Bennett

2002-01-01

152

Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Students from Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups in Special Education: A Resource Document.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is designed to facilitate efforts to develop and implement equitable educational policies and procedures, and remedy discriminatory practices that lead to disproportionate representation of students from racial and ethnic minority groups in special education. It aims to enable technical assistance providers to provide more effective…

Markowitz, Joy; And Others

153

Eighth-Grade Students' Perceptions of School Climate Based on School Diversity, Ethnicity, Educational Category, Socioeconomic Status, and Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research study was to investigate if there were differences in students' school climate perceptions based on the independent variables, which were measured on a nominal scale and included school diversity (highly, moderately, minimally), ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White, Other), educational category (general education, special…

Edwards, Patricia Thomas

2010-01-01

154

Planning for Diversity: Education in Multi-Ethnic and Multicultural Societies. International Institute for Educational Planning Policy Forum (17th, Paris, France, June 19-20, 2003)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In June 2003, the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) organized its annual Policy Forum to discuss the impact of increasingly multi-ethnic and multicultural societies on education in general and the implications for educational planning in particular. The proceedings of this Policy Forum are presented in this volume. Part I,…

Hernes, Gudmund

2004-01-01

155

The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA), and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA), race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births) was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status. PMID:22985092

2012-01-01

156

Science education in a secular age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.

Long, David E.

2013-03-01

157

The Day-to-Day Impact of Urogenital Aging: Perspectives from Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Urogenital symptoms affect up to half of women after menopause, but their impact on women’s day-to-day functioning and wellbeing is poorly understood. METHODS Postmenopausal women aged 45 to 80 years reporting urogenital dryness, soreness, itching, or pain during sex were recruited to participate in in-depth focus groups to discuss the impact of their symptoms. Focus groups were homogenous with respect to race/ethnicity and stratified by age (for White or Black women) or language (for Latina women). Transcripts of sessions were analyzed according to grounded theory. RESULTS Six focus groups were conducted, involving 44 women (16 White, 14 Black, 14 Latina). Five domains of functioning and wellbeing affected by symptoms were identified: sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations. For some participants, symptoms primarily affected their ability to have and enjoy sex, as well as be responsive to their partners. For others, symptoms interfered with everyday activities, such as exercising, toileting, or sleeping. Participants regarded their symptoms as a sign that they were getting old or their body was deteriorating; women also associated symptoms with a loss of womanhood or sexuality. Additionally, participants reported feeling depressed, embarrassed, and frustrated about their symptoms, and expressed reluctance to discuss them with friends, family, or health care providers. CONCLUSIONS Urogenital symptoms can have a marked impact on sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations after menopause. Clinicians may need to question women actively about these symptoms, as many are reluctant to seek help for this problem. PMID:19908103

Luft, Janis; Grady, Deborah; Kuppermann, Miriam

2009-01-01

158

Race/Ethnicity, Educational Attainment, and Foregone Health Care in the United States in the 2007-2009 Recession  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This study assessed possible associations between recessions and changes in the magnitude of social disparities in foregone health care, building on previous studies that have linked recessions to lowered health care use. Methods. Data from the 2006 to 2010 waves of the National Health Interview Study were used to examine levels of foregone medical, dental and mental health care and prescribed medications. Differences by race/ethnicity and education were compared before the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009, during the early recession, and later in the recession and in its immediate wake. Results. Foregone care rose for working-aged adults overall in the 2 recessionary periods compared with the pre-recession. For multiple types of pre-recession care, foregoing care was more common for African Americans and Hispanics and less common for Asian Americans than for Whites. Less-educated individuals were more likely to forego all types of care pre-recession. Most disparities in foregone care were stable during the recession, though the African American–White gap in foregone medical care increased, as did the Hispanic–White gap and education gap in foregone dental care. Conclusions. Our findings support the fundamental cause hypothesis, as even during a recession in which more advantaged groups may have had unusually high risk of losing financial assets and employer-provided health insurance, they maintained their relative advantage in access to health care. Attention to the macroeconomic context of social disparities in health care use is warranted. PMID:24328647

Hawkins, Jaclynn M.

2014-01-01

159

The impact of ethnicity, family income, and parental education on children's health and use of health services.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study characterized ethnic disparities for children in demographics, health status, and use of services; explored whether ethnic subgroups (Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Mexican) have additional distinctive differences; and determined whether disparities are explained by differences in family income and parental education. METHODS: Bivariate and multivariate analyses of data on 99,268 children from the 1989-91 National Health Interview Surveys were conducted. RESULTS: Native American, Black, and Hispanic children are poorest (35%, 41% below poverty level vs 10% of Whites), least healthy (66%-74% in excellent or very good health vs 85% of Whites), and have the least well educated parents. Compared with Whites, non-White children average fewer doctor visits and are more likely to have excessive intervals between visits. Hispanic subgroup differences in demographics, health, and use of services equal or surpass differences among major ethnic groups. In multivariate analyses, almost all ethnic group disparities persisted after adjustment for family income, parental education, and other relevant covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Major ethnic groups and subgroups of children differ strikingly in demographics, health, and use of services; subgroup differences are easily overlooked; and most disparities persist even after adjustment for family income and parental education. PMID:10394317

Flores, G; Bauchner, H; Feinstein, A R; Nguyen, U S

1999-01-01

160

Predictors of Recidivism among Delinquent Youth: Interrelations among Ethnicity, Gender, Age, Mental Health Problems, and Posttraumatic Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the interrelations among mental health problems, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), age, ethnicity, gender, and recidivism over a three-year period in a sample of 417 male and 170 female juvenile offenders. At the time of first admission to a juvenile detention center, boys reported higher alcohol\\/drug use, whereas girls reported greater anger\\/irritability. Caucasian offenders evidenced higher rates of

Stephen P. Becker; Patricia K. Kerig; Ji-Young Lim; Rebecca N. Ezechukwu

2012-01-01

161

Relationship of Alcohol Use to Delinquency and Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents: Gender, Age, and Racial\\/Ethnic Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol use has been linked to other substance use and delinquency in adolescents. However, few studies have examined variations in these relationships in representative subsamples of gender, age and racial\\/ethnic groups. Respondents in this study were 19,321 New York State 7–12th grade students. After controlling for significant sociodemographic factors in a regression analysis, all of the alcohol measures remained strong

Grace M. Barnes; John W. Welte; Joseph H. Hoffman

2002-01-01

162

African American Adolescents’ Future Education Orientation: Associations with Self-efficacy, Ethnic Identity, and Perceived Parental Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study, using data from 374 African American students (59.4% female) in grades 7–12 attending a rural, southern\\u000a county public school, addressed associations of self-efficacy, ethnic identity and parental support with “future education\\u000a orientation.” Both gender and current level of achievement distinguished adolescents with differing levels of future education\\u000a orientation. The strongest predictors of future education orientation were self-efficacy,

Jennifer L. Kerpelman; Suna Eryigit; Carolyn J. Stephens

2008-01-01

163

The role of age, ethnicity and environmental factors in modulating malaria risk in Rajasthali, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is endemic in the Rajasthali region of the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh and the Rajasthali region is the most endemic area of Bangladesh. Quantifying the role of environmental and socio-economic factors in the local spatial patterns of malaria endemicity can contribute to successful malaria control and elimination. This study aimed to investigate the role of environmental factors on malaria risk in Rajasthali and to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Method A total of 4,200 (78.9%; N = 5,322) households were targeted in Rajasthali in July, 2009, and 1,400 individuals were screened using a rapid diagnostic test (Falci-vax). These data were linked to environmental and socio-economic data in a geographical information system. To describe the association between environmental factors and malaria risk, a generalized linear mixed model approach was utilized. The study investigated the role of environmental factors on malaria risk by calculating their population-attributable fractions (PAF), and used residual semivariograms to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Results Overall malaria prevalence was 11.7%. Out of 5,322 households, 44.12% households were living in areas with malaria prevalence of ? 10%. The results from statistical analysis showed that age, ethnicity, proximity to forest, household density, and elevation were significantly and positively correlated with the malaria risk and PAF estimation. The highest PAF of malaria prevalence was 47.7% for third tertile (n = 467) of forest cover, 17.6% for second tertile (n = 467) of forest cover and 19.9% for household density >1,000. Conclusion Targeting of malaria health interventions at small spatial scales in Bangladesh should consider the social and socio-economic risk factors identified as well as alternative methods for improving equity of access to interventions across whole communities. PMID:22171950

2011-01-01

164

Researching race\\/ethnicity and educational inequality in the Netherlands: a critical review of the research literature between 1980 and 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes and critically analyzes how educational sociologists in the Netherlands have studied the relationship between race\\/ethnicity and educational inequality between 1980 and 2008. Five major research traditions are identified: (1) political arithmetic; (2) racism and ethnic discrimination; (3) school characteristics; (4) school choice; and (5) family background. The development of particular research traditions is explained by pointing to

Peter A. J. Stevens; Noel Clycq; Christianne Timmerman; Mieke Van Houtte

2011-01-01

165

Researching Race/Ethnicity and Educational Inequality in the Netherlands: A Critical Review of the Research Literature between 1980 and 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes and critically analyzes how educational sociologists in the Netherlands have studied the relationship between race/ethnicity and educational inequality between 1980 and 2008. Five major research traditions are identified: (1) political arithmetic; (2) racism and ethnic discrimination; (3) school characteristics; (4) school…

Stevens, Peter A. J.; Clycq, Noel; Timmerman, Christianne; Van Houtte, Mieke

2011-01-01

166

Parental Aspirations for Their Children's Educational Attainment: Relations to Ethnicity, Parental Education, Children's Academic Performance, and Parental Perceptions of School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined parental aspirations for their children's educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children's academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality and climate of their children's school with a sample of 13,577 middle and high school parents. All…

Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Matto, Holly C.

2009-01-01

167

The Impact of Aging on Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The percentage of adults aged 65 years or older is expected to increase from 12 percent of the population in 1980 to more than 21 percent by the year 2030. Since many adults stay involved with learning activities well into their 80s and 90s, educational organizations have a great opportunity to supply learning activities to this population. To…

Davis, Angela

168

Citizenship Education and Human Rights in Sites of Ethnic Conflict: Toward Critical Pedagogies of Compassion and Shared Fate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present essay discusses the value of citizenship as shared fate in sites of ethnic conflict and analyzes its implications for citizenship education in light of three issues: first, the requirements of affective relationality in the notion of citizenship-as-shared fate; second, the tensions between the values of human rights and shared fate in…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2012-01-01

169

Creating a Multicultural Curriculum in Han-Dominant Schools: The Policy and Practice of Ethnic Solidarity Education in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the recent heightened interethnic conflicts that were regarded as threatening national unity and stability, the Chinese government issued "ethnic solidarity education" as a top-down, centrally administered mandate to be implemented "correctly" and in a standardised way by schools throughout China. This paper…

Zhang, Donghui; Chen, Lipeng

2014-01-01

170

The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

2012-01-01

171

Special Issue: Ethnic and Racial Administrative Diversity--Understanding Work Life Realities and Experiences in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph provides policymakers, administrators, faculty, researchers, and governing board members with information about diversifying the administrative ranks of colleges and universities in terms of race or ethnicity. It focuses primarily on relevant literature on administrators of color in higher and post-secondary education, with an…

Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; O'Callaghan, Elizabeth M.

2009-01-01

172

Motivation, Ethnic Identity, and Post-Secondary Education Language Choices of Graduates of Intensive French Language Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the motivation for learning French, the ethnic identities, and the decision to pursue post-secondary education in French of anglophone graduates of intensive French language programs in high school. Sixty-two graduates of either French immersion, Advanced Placement French, or the International Baccalaureate French program…

Goldberg, Erin; Noels, Kimberly A.

2006-01-01

173

African American Adolescents' Future Education Orientation: Associations with Self-Efficacy, Ethnic Identity, and Perceived Parental Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study, using data from 374 African American students (59.4% female) in grades 7-12 attending a rural, southern county public school, addressed associations of self-efficacy, ethnic identity and parental support with "future education orientation." Both gender and current level of achievement distinguished adolescents with differing…

Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Eryigit, Suna; Stephens, Carolyn J.

2008-01-01

174

New technologies, new differences. Gender and ethnic differences in pupils' use of ICT in primary and secondary education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the accessibility and attractiveness of different types of ICT applications in education for girls and boys and for pupils from families with an ethnic minority background and from the majority population in the Netherlands. A study was conducted in seven schools (primary and secondary). Data were collected on participation, ICT skills and learning results, ICT attitudes and

Monique Volman; Edith Van Eck; I. M. C. C. Heemskerk; Els Kuiper

2005-01-01

175

Age and ethnic differences in volumetric breast density in new zealand women: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Breast cancer incidence differs by ethnicity in New Zealand (NZ) with M?ori (the indigenous people) women having the highest rates followed by Pakeha (people primarily of British/European descent), Pacific and Asian women, who experience the lowest rates. The reasons for these differences are unclear. Breast density, an important risk factor for breast cancer, has not previously been studied here. We used an automated system, Volpara™, to measure breast density volume from the medio-lateral oblique view of digital mammograms, by age (?50 years and >50 years) and ethnicity (Pakeha/M?ori/Pacific/Asian) using routine data from the national screening programme: age; x-ray system and mammography details for 3,091 Pakeha, 716 M?ori, 170 Pacific and 662 Asian (total n?=?4,239) women. Linear regression of the natural logarithm of absolute and percent density values was used, back-transformed and expressed as the ratio of the geometric means. Covariates were age, x-ray system and, for absolute density, the natural log of the volume of non-dense tissue (a proxy for body mass index). Median age for Pakeha women was 55 years; M?ori 53 years; and Pacific and Asian women, 52 years. Compared to Pakeha women (reference), M?ori had higher absolute volumetric density (1.09; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.03-1.15) which remained following adjustment (1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.12) and was stronger for older compared to younger M?ori women. Asian women had the greatest risk of high percentage breast density (1.35; 95% CI 1.27-1.43) while Pacific women in both the ?50 and >50 year age groups (0.78; 95% CI 0.66-0.92 and 0.81; 95% CI 0.71-0.93 respectively) had the lowest percentage breast density compared to Pakeha. As well as expected age differences, we found differential patterns of breast density by ethnicity consistent with ethnic differences seen in breast cancer risk. Breast density may be a contributing factor to NZ's well-known, but poorly explained, inequalities in breast cancer incidence. PMID:23936166

Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; McKenzie, Fiona; Highnam, Ralph; Cave, Andrew; Walker, Jenny; Jeffreys, Mona

2013-01-01

176

Ethnic Similarity, Tutor Expertise, and Tutor Satisfaction in Cross-Age Tutoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Path analysis examined effects of tutor-tutee ethnic similarity (ES), tutor expertise, and perceived goal attainment (PGA) on the satisfaction of 425 college student tutors of disadvantaged elementary school students. The major influence on satisfaction was tutors' PGA; ES had an indirect impact and expertise had direct and indirect effects. (SLD)

Fresko, Barbara; Chen, Michael

1989-01-01

177

Generic Tobacco Use among Four Ethnic Groups in a School Age Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…

De Moor, Carl; And Others

1989-01-01

178

Enhance Ideological Political Education Work for Ethnic Minority Students and Build up Harmonious Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To accelerate the development of the ethnic minority regions and cultivate ethnic minority talent, the state has successively implemented policies of setting up the Tibet Class and the Xinjiang Class in institutions of higher learning in China's interior regions ("neidi"), enabling some of the finest young students among the ethnic minorities to…

Liu, Yi

2010-01-01

179

University of NebraskaLincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color,  

E-print Network

-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race­Lincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age

Farritor, Shane

180

Dietary intakes of preschool-aged children in relation to caregivers' race/ethnicity, acculturation, and demographic characteristics: results from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the influence of acculturation on dietary behaviors of young children while controlling for other demographic variables. The purpose of this study was to assess reported dietary intakes of preschool-aged children (3-5 years) and subsequent associations with caregivers' race/ethnicity, acculturation and demographic characteristics, using data from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Analysis was restricted to Hispanic and non-Hispanic white caregivers and their preschool-aged children (n = 1,105). Caregivers' acculturation was assessed using place of birth, duration of United States residence, and language spoken at home. Proxy-reports by caregivers to a dietary screener were used to estimate children's intakes of fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables, sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages consumed. In multivariate analyses, Hispanic caregivers reported their children consumed fewer servings of vegetables than did the children of non-Hispanic white caregivers; there were no other statistically significant differences in children's dietary intakes by caregivers' race/ethnicity. Caregivers' acculturation was associated with caregiver-reported consumption of sweets by children (? = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.01-0.18). Demographic characteristics that were associated with reported dietary intakes of children included caregivers' age, education, and geographic region of residence. In contrast to past studies of acculturation and diet in older children and adults, this study suggests that for 3-5 year olds, caregivers' level of acculturation does not play as strong a role in the dietary intakes of the younger children under their care. PMID:22160613

Erinosho, Temitope O; Berrigan, David; Thompson, Frances E; Moser, Richard P; Nebeling, Linda C; Yaroch, Amy L

2012-12-01

181

Racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education as predictors of cognitive ability and achievement in African American children.  

PubMed

Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of African American youth. Two dimensions of racial/ethnic socialization, cultural exposure (i.e., exposure to diverse cultures) and cultural socialization (i.e., in-group pride), were examined in a sample of 92 African American mother-child dyads, of which 50% were female. Maternal reports of involvement during their child's 5th grade year were examined as a moderator in the relationship between racial/ethnic socialization and cognitive ability and achievement. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mothers' reports of cultural exposure messages measured in 4th grade predicted children's scores on 5th grade assessments of passage comprehension. There was also a significant interaction indicating that greater cultural exposure and more parental involvement in education predicted better reading passage comprehension scores over time. The implications for assessing dimensions relevant to cognitive ability and achievement in African American children are discussed. PMID:20582622

Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A T; Johnson, Deborah J

2011-05-01

182

Practices in Old Age ICT Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lifelong learning as an individual activity that spans over one’s life is not a reality yet, despite the general guides of\\u000a educational policy. Especially the elderly, those over 65 years, are in danger of lagging behind. The solid trust in one’s\\u000a own activity and learning skills is required, besides, many aged today lack the learning culture (Tikkanen, 2003, Gerontologia, Helsinki:

Minnamari Naumanen; Markku Tukiainen

183

Ethnic and National Conflicts in the Age of Globalisation: Withering Away, Persisting, or Domesticated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article challenges rather widespread claims that in the twenty?first century the role of nation states as the main actors on the global political scene is diminishing; that, at present, nation statehood is universal; and that nationalism and ethno?national conflicts will subside in the foreseeable future. Since the continuing salience of ethnic and national identities and of ethno?national strife and

Anatoly M. Khazanov

2005-01-01

184

Masculinities, the Metrosexual, and Media Images: Across Dimensions of Age and Ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

By inviting two generations of ethnically diverse men to define masculinity, this study makes visible ways men conform to, negotiate, and resist forces of hegemonic masculinity in the 21st century.\\u000a Masculine gender role conflict theory provides underpinning for a textual analysis of empirical evidence gathered among U.S.\\u000a young college men (N?=?80) in focus groups and their fathers\\/uncles (N?=?27) during interviews.

Donnalyn Pompper

2010-01-01

185

Racial/ethnic disparities in fatal unintentional drowning among persons aged ? 29 years - United States, 1999-2010.  

PubMed

In the United States, almost 4,000 persons die from drowning each year. Drowning is responsible for more deaths among children aged 1-4 years than any other cause except congenital anomalies. For persons aged ?29 years, drowning is one of the top three causes of unintentional injury death (2). Previous research has identified racial/ethnic disparities in drowning rates. To describe these differences by age of decedent and drowning setting, CDC analyzed 12 years of combined mortality data from 1999-2010 for those aged ?29 years. Among non-Hispanics, the overall drowning rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) was twice the rate for whites, and the rate for blacks was 1.4 times the rate for whites. Disparities were greatest in swimming pools, with swimming pool drowning rates among blacks aged 5-19 years 5.5 times higher than those among whites in the same age group. This disparity was greatest at ages 11-12 years; at these ages, blacks drown in swimming pools at 10 times the rate of whites. Drowning prevention strategies include using barriers (e.g., fencing) and life jackets, actively supervising or lifeguarding, teaching basic swimming skills and performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The practicality and effectiveness of these strategies varies by setting; however, basic swimming skills can be beneficial across all settings. PMID:24827409

Gilchrist, Julie; Parker, Erin M

2014-05-16

186

The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities  

PubMed Central

Background UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W) and non-white (NW) students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students. Methods Attainment at GCSE and A level, and selection for medical school in relation to ethnicity, were analysed in two separate databases. The 10th cohort of the Youth Cohort Study provided data on 13,698 students taking GCSEs in 1999 in England and Wales, and their subsequent progression to A level. UCAS provided data for 1,484,650 applicants applying for admission to UK universities and colleges in 2003, 2004 and 2005, of whom 52,557 applied to medical school, and 23,443 were accepted. Results NW students achieve lower grades at GCSE overall, although achievement at the highest grades was similar to that of W students. NW students have higher educational aspirations, being more likely to go on to take A levels, especially in science and particularly chemistry, despite relatively lower achievement at GCSE. As a result, NW students perform less well at A level than W students, and hence NW students applying to university also have lower A-level grades than W students, both generally, and for medical school applicants. NW medical school entrants have lower A level grades than W entrants, with an effect size of about -0.10. Conclusion The effect size for the difference between white and non-white medical school entrants is about B0.10, which would mean that for a typical medical school examination there might be about 5 NW failures for each 4 W failures. However, this effect can only explain a portion of the overall effect size found in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations of about -0.32. PMID:18416818

McManus, IC; Woolf, Katherine; Dacre, Jane

2008-01-01

187

Ethnicity and Race: Creating Educational Opportunities around the Globe. International Advances in Education: Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice takes a resource perspective toward culture, ethnicity, and race. Its purpose is to foster global dialog about race and ethnicity, with an emphasis on sharing strategies and solutions. While one might view problems stemming from racial and ethnic differences as intractable, the book's…

Brown, Elinor L., Ed.; Gibbons, Pamela E., Ed.

2011-01-01

188

Racial Discrimination and Psychological Distress: The Impact of Ethnic Identity and Age Among Immigrant and United States-Born Asian Adults  

PubMed Central

The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to 50, 51 to 75) and nativity status (i.e., immigrant vs. U.S.-born), ethnic identity was tested as either a protective or exacerbating factor. Analyses showed that ethnic identity buffered the association between discrimination and mental health for U.S.-born individuals 41 to 50 years of age. For U.S.-born individuals 31 to 40 years of age and 51 to 75 years of age, ethnic identity exacerbated the negative effects of discrimination on mental health. The importance of age and immigrant status for the association between ethnic identity, discrimination, and well-being among Asians in the United States is discussed. PMID:18473644

Yip, Tiffany; Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

2009-01-01

189

Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989-2005.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals' life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

Everett, Bethany G; Rogers, Richard G; Hummer, Robert A; Krueger, Patrick M

2011-01-01

190

Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989-2005  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.

2012-01-01

191

Exploring Alcohol-Use Behaviors Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescents: Intersections With Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined sexual orientation status differences in alcohol use among youths aged 13 to 18 years or older, and whether differences were moderated by sex, age, or race/ethnicity. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and conducted weighted analyses, adjusting for complex design effects. We operationalized sexual orientation status with items assessing sexual orientation identity, sexual behavior, sexual attraction, or combinations of these. Results. Compared with exclusively heterosexual youths, sexual-minority youths were more likely to report each of the primary study outcomes (i.e., lifetime and past-month alcohol use, past-month heavy episodic drinking, earlier onset of drinking, and more frequent past-month drinking). Alcohol-use disparities were larger and more robust for (1) bisexual youths than lesbian or gay youths, (2) girls than boys, and (3) younger than older youths. Few differences in outcomes were moderated by race/ethnicity. Conclusions. Bisexual youths, sexual-minority girls, and younger sexual-minority youths showed the largest alcohol-use disparities. Research is needed that focuses on identifying explanatory or mediating mechanisms, psychiatric or mental health comorbidities, and long-term consequences of early onset alcohol use, particularly frequent or heavy use, among sexual-minority youths. PMID:24328614

Talley, Amelia E.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Aranda, Frances; Birkett, Michelle; Marshal, Michael P.

2014-01-01

192

The relation of age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors to self-esteem among students in nonmainstream schools.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two nonmainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a modified version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and the National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Grunbaum et al., 1999), respectively. Results indicated that nonmainstream students with high self-esteem were more likely to engage in their first sexual experience and to begin marijuana use later in life. African American students reported having their first sexual experience at an older age, but having more sexual partners than did Latino students. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:15673223

Connor, Jennifer M; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

2004-01-01

193

Ethnic differences in the association between blood pressure components and chronic kidney disease in middle aged and older Asian adults  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging public health problem worldwide. Previous studies have shown an association between blood pressure (BP) and CKD. However, it is not clear if there are ethnic differences in this association. We examined the association between BP and CKD in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Singapore. Methods We analysed data from three large population-based studies conducted between 2004–2011, (n=3,167 Chinese, 3,082 Malays and 3,228 Indians) aged 40–80 years. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73m2 from serum creatinine. Hypertension was defined as a self-reported current use of antihypertensive medication or systolic BP ?140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ?90 mm Hg. We also analysed the association of CKD with individual BP components. Results The prevalence of both hypertension and CKD was higher among Malays (68.6, 21%) compared to Chinese (57.9, 5.9%) and Indians (56.0, 7.4%), but treatment for hypertension was lower among Malays (53.4%) compared to Chinese (89.8%) and Indians (83.1%). Hypertension was associated with CKD in all three ethnic groups (OR [95% CI] = 2.71 [1.59-4.63], 2.08 [1.62-2.68], 2.43 [1.66-3.57] in Chinese, Malays and Indians). Among the BP components, both systolic and diastolic BP were associated with CKD in Malays whereas, systolic BP was not significantly associated with CKD, and diastolic BP showed an inverse association which was explained by anti-hypertensive medication use in Chinese and Indians. Conclusions Hypertension was associated with CKD in Chinese, Malays and Indians. However, the BP components were associated with CKD only in Malays. PMID:23590421

2013-01-01

194

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Education–Occupation Mismatch Status Among Immigrants in South Africa and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a comparative–international approach is used to examine race–ethnic disparities in education–occupation mismatch\\u000a status among immigrants. Using data from the USA and South Africa, this study finds that immigrants are most likely to be\\u000a undereducated, or have less schooling for their jobs, when their racial characteristics are similar to those of the local\\u000a racial majority. Black immigrants in

Kevin J. A. Thomas

2010-01-01

195

Comparison of clinicopathologic features and survival in young American women aged 18-39 years in different ethnic groups with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Ethnic disparities in breast cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have assessed differences specifically between Asians American(s) and other ethnic groups, particularly among Asian American(s) subgroups, in women aged 18–39 years. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify women aged 18–39 years diagnosed with breast cancer from 1973 to 2009. Incidence rates, clinicopathologic features, and survival among broad ethnic groups and among Asian subgroups. Results: A total of 55?153 breast cancer women aged 18–39 years were identified: 63.6% non-Hispanic white (NHW), 14.9% black, 12.8% Hispanic-white (HW), and 8.7% Asian. The overall incidence rates were stable from 1992 to 2009. Asian patients had the least advanced disease at presentation and the lowest risk of death compared with the other groups. All the Asian subgroups except the Hawaiian/Pacific Islander subgroup had better DSS than NHW, black, and HW patients. Advanced tumour stage was associated with poorer DSS in all the ethnic groups. High tumour grade was associated with poorer DSS in the NHW, black, HW, and Chinese groups. Younger age at diagnosis was associated with poorer DSS in the NHW and black groups. Conclusion: The presenting clinical and pathologic features of breast cancer differ by ethnicity in the United States, and these differences impact survival in women younger than 40 years. PMID:23907433

Liu, P; Li, X; Mittendorf, E A; Li, J; Du, X L; He, J; Ren, Y; Yang, J; Hunt, K K; Yi, M

2013-01-01

196

Ethnic Studies in U.S. Higher Education: History, Development, and Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutions of higher learning in the United States have hastened to create ethnic studies programs, perhaps as a sort of "fire insurance" against student activism and protests. Certainly the move toward ethnic studies has roots in the student activism of the 1960s. Such studies are particularly prominent in large public institutions, which are…

Hu-DeHart, Evelyn

197

Investigation of Ethnic Self-Labeling in the Latina Population: Implications for Counselors and Counselor Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a qualitative approach, the author explored the process of ethnic label selection, change, and the meaning assigned to ethnic labels. Ten women of Mexican descent participated in semistructured, in-depth interviews. Phenomenological analysis of the data revealed several themes, including the importance of family, ancestral traditions, and…

Malott, Krista M.

2009-01-01

198

[Genetic demographic characteristics of the rural population of the Tuva Republic: ethnic and tribal composition and sex and age structure].  

PubMed

The ethnic, tribal, sex, and age composition was studied in populations of three districts of the Tuva Republic that were remote from one another. These were the Kyzylskii (the Shinaan population), Todzhinskii, and Bai-Taiginskii raions. The Todzhinskii population was characterized by a mixed ethnic composition dominated by Tuvinians and Russians (62.35 and 35.52%, respectively); the other two districts were only inhabited by Tuvinians. The studied populations differed from one another in the set and proportions of tribal groups--in the Todzhinskii raion, Turkic tribal groups were prevalent, whereas in the Shinaan and Bai-Taiginskii populations, many tribal groups of Mongolian origin were found. The estimations of relationship by isonymy indicated a considerable contribution of geographic isolation to the genetic differentiation of the populations: the estimated relationship between the highland Shinaan and Todzhinskii populations, which are difficult of access, was the minimum (Ri = 0.00262); the coefficients of the relationship by isonymy between the Shinaan and Bai-Taiginskii populations and between the Todzhinskii and Bai-Taiginskii populations were 0.00336 and 0.00483, respectively. All the studied populations were characterized by a "growing" age pyramid; however, the Bai-Taiginskii and Todzhinskii populations showed a tendency to narrowing its base. In addition, these two populations exhibited an unfavorable sex ratio at the reproductive age. The obtained results suggest that the Tuva population is genetically heterogeneous, which is accounted for by the tribal characteristics, the history of populations, and the geographic characteristics of the region. PMID:10495953

Kucher, A N; Puzyrev, V P; Sanchat, N O; Erdynieva, L S

1999-05-01

199

Edentulism Trends among Middle-aged and Older Adults in the United States: Comparison of Five Racial/Ethnic Groups  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study examined edentulism trends among adults aged 50 and above in five ethnic groups in the United States: Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and non-Hispanic Caucasians. Methods Data came from the National Health Interview Surveys between 1999 and 2008. Respondents included 616 Native Americans, 2,666 Asians, 15,295 African Americans, 13,068 Hispanics, and 86,755 Caucasians. Results In 2008, Native Americans had the highest predicated rate of edentulism (23.98%), followed by African Americans (19.39%), Caucasians (16.90%), Asians (14.22%), and Hispanics (14.18%). Overall, there was a significant downward trend in edentulism rates between 1999 and 2008 (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.98). However, compared to Caucasians, Native Americans showed significantly less decline of edentulism during this period (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.19). Conclusions While there was a downward trend in edentulism between 1999 and 2008, significant variations existed across racial/ethnic groups. Innovative public health programs and services are essential to prevent oral health diseases and conditions for minority populations who are lack of access to adequate dental care. Additionally, given the increasing numbers of adults retaining their natural teeth, interventions designed to assist individuals maintaining healthy teeth becomes more critical. PMID:21974715

Liang, Jersey; Plassman, Brenda L.; Remle, R. Corey; Luo, Xiao

2013-01-01

200

A Case of Educational Reform from the Ground up: Involving Ethnic Minority Parents in the Life of the School in South East Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the challenge of education reform and presents an alternative to dominant approaches. In doing so, it draws on the work of three projects: first, the "Advancing Education Quality and Inclusion" initiative; second, the APREME (Advancing the Participation and Representation of Ethnic Minorities in Education) project which…

Frost, David

2012-01-01

201

Predicting resistance to health education messages for cannabis use: the role of rebelliousness, autic mastery, health value and ethnicity.  

PubMed

The prevalent use of cannabis by adolescents and young adults, combined with the common misconception that smoking cannabis is relatively harmless, warrants the exploration of factors influencing resistance to health education messages about cannabis use. This investigation did so within a Reversal Theory framework. One hundred and thirteen undergraduate students responded to an informative leaflet detailing the health effects of smoking cannabis. The most significant independent predictor of message resistance was frequency of cannabis use, followed by proactive rebelliousness, autic mastery, health value and ethnicity. These findings have implications for the development, design and targeting of cannabis health education programmes. PMID:22459759

Boddington, Ellen L; McDermott, Mark R

2013-02-01

202

Higher Education and Happiness in the Age of Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

2011-01-01

203

VARIATIONS IN MANIFEST ANXIETY DUE TO SEX, AGE, AND EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GREEK FORM OF THE TAYLOR MA SCALE WAS GIVEN TO A SAMPLE OF 400 ATHENIAN ADULTS REPRESENTATIVE OF THE LARGER POPULATION WITH RESPECT TO SEX, AGE, EDUCATION, AND INCOME. SEX, AGE, AND EDUCATION WERE FURTHER ANALYZED USING A 2 * 3 * 4 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE DESIGN. SEX AND EDUCATION WERE SOURCES OF VARIATION. THERE WAS NO INTERACTION BETWEEN

VASSO VASSILIOU; JAMES G. GEORGAS; GEORGE VASSILIOU

1967-01-01

204

Overweight at age two years in a multi-ethnic cohort (ABCD study): the role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood overweight/obesity is a major public health problem worldwide which disproportionally affects specific ethnic groups. Little is known about whether such differences already exist at an early age and which factors contribute to these ethnic differences. Therefore, the present study assessed possible ethnic differences in overweight at age 2 years, and the potential explanatory role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors. Methods Data were derived from a multi-ethnic cohort in the Netherlands (the ABCD study). Weight and height data of 3,156 singleton infants at age 2 years were used. Five ethnic populations were distinguished: Dutch native (n = 1,718), African descent (n = 238), Turkish (n = 162), Moroccan (n = 245) and other non-Dutch (n = 793). Overweight status was defined by the International Obesity Task Force guidelines. The explanatory role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors in ethnic disparities in overweight (including obesity) was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to the native Dutch (7.1%), prevalence of overweight was higher in the Turkish (19.8%) and Moroccan (16.7%) group, whereas the prevalence was not increased in the African descent (9.2%) and other non-Dutch (8.8%) group. Although maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index partly explained the ethnic differences, the odds ratio (OR) of being overweight remained higher in the Turkish (OR: 2.66; 95%CI: 1.56-4.53) and Moroccan (OR: 2.11; 95%CI: 1.31-3.38) groups after adjusting for prenatal factors. The remaining differences were largely accounted for by weight gain during the first 6 months of life (postnatal factor). Maternal height, birth weight and gender were independent predictors for overweight at age 2 years, but did not explain the ethnic differences. Conclusion Turkish and Moroccan children in the Netherlands have 2- to 3-fold higher odds for being overweight at age 2 years, which is largely attributed to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during the first 6 months of life. Further study on the underlying factors of this early weight gain is required to tackle ethnic differences in overweight among these children. PMID:21806791

2011-01-01

205

Phenotypic Bias and Ethnic Identity in Filipino Americans*  

PubMed Central

Objective Links between phenotypes (skin tone, physical features) and a range of outcomes (income, physical health, psychological distress) were examined. Ethnic identity was examined as a protective moderator of phenotypic bias. Method Data were from a community sample of 2,092 Filipino adults in San Francisco and Honolulu. Results After controlling for age, nativity, marital status, and education, darker skin was associated with lower income and lower physical health for females and males. For females, more ethnic features were associated with lower income. For males, darker skin was related to lower psychological distress. One interaction was found such that females with more ethnic features exhibited lower distress; however, ethnic identity moderated distress levels of those with less ethnic features. Conclusions Phenotypic bias appears prevalent in Filipino Americans though specific effects vary by gender and skin color versus physical features. Discussion centers on the social importance of appearance and potential strengths gained from ethnic identification. PMID:20107617

Kiang, Lisa; Takeuchi, David T.

2009-01-01

206

Prevalence and phenotype consequence of FRAXA and FRAXE alleles in a large, ethnically diverse, special education-needs population.  

PubMed Central

We conducted a large population-based survey of fragile X (FRAXA) syndrome in ethnically diverse metropolitan Atlanta. The eligible study population consisted of public school children, aged 7-10 years, in special education-needs (SEN) classes. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence among whites and, for the first time, African Americans, among a non-clinically referred population. At present, 5 males with FRAXA syndrome (4 whites and 1 African American), among 1,979 tested males, and no females, among 872 tested females, were identified. All males with FRAXA syndrome were mentally retarded and had been diagnosed previously. The prevalence for FRAXA syndrome was estimated to be 1/3,460 (confidence interval [CI] 1/7,143-1/1,742) for the general white male population and 1/4, 048 (CI 1/16,260-1/1,244) for the general African American male population. We also compared the frequency of intermediate and premutation FRAXA alleles (41-199 repeats) and fragile XE syndrome alleles (31-199 repeats) in the SEN population with that in a control population, to determine if there was a possible phenotype consequence of such high-repeat alleles, as has been reported previously. No difference was observed between our case and control populations, and no difference was observed between populations when the probands were grouped by a rough estimate of IQ based on class placement. These results suggest that there is no phenotype consequence of larger alleles that would cause carriers to be placed in an SEN class. PMID:9973286

Crawford, D C; Meadows, K L; Newman, J L; Taft, L F; Pettay, D L; Gold, L B; Hersey, S J; Hinkle, E F; Stanfield, M L; Holmgreen, P; Yeargin-Allsopp, M; Boyle, C; Sherman, S L

1999-01-01

207

The influence of number of siblings on educational attainment: a comparison of racial/ethnic groups  

E-print Network

hypothesis: high fertility and dropout rates. The results indicate that while there is little variation across the race and ethnic groups regarding the influence of number of siblings on graduation from high school, interesting findings are revealed...

Martinez, Alma Isabel

2012-06-07

208

Paternal Age and Risk of Autism in an Ethnically Diverse, Non-Industrialized Setting: Aruba  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine paternal age in relation to risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in a setting other than the industrialized west. Design A case-control study of Aruban-born children (1990–2003). Cases (N?=?95) were identified at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic, the only such clinic in Aruba; gender and age matched controls (N?=?347) were gathered from public health records. Parental age was defined categorically (?29, 30–39, 40–49, ?50y). The analysis was made, using conditional logistic regression. Results Advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk of ASDs in offspring. In comparison to the youngest paternal age group (?29y), risk of autism increased 2.18 times for children born from fathers in their thirties, 2.71 times for fathers in their forties, and 3.22 thereafter. Conclusion This study, part of the first epidemiologic study of autism in the Caribbean, contributes additional evidence, from a distinctive sociocultural setting, of the risk of ASD associated with increased paternal age. PMID:22984615

van Balkom, Ingrid D. C.; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Vuijk, Pieter Jelle; Hubert, Jan; Susser, Ezra; Hoek, Hans W.

2012-01-01

209

All-age relationship between arm span and height in different ethnic groups.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to establish multiethnic, all-age prediction equations for estimating stature from arm span in males and females. The arm span/height ratio (ASHR) from 13 947 subjects (40.9% females), aged 5-99 years, from nine centres (in China, Europe, Ghana, India and Iran) was used to predict ASHR as a function of age using the lambda, mu and sigma method. Z-scores for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC in 1503 patients were calculated using measured height and height calculated from arm span and age. ASHR varied nonlinearly with age, was higher in males than in females and differed significantly between the nine sites. The data clustered into four groups: Asia, Europe, Ghana and Iran. Average predicted FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC using measured or predicted height did not differ, with standard deviations of 4.6% for FEV1, 5.0% for FVC and 0.3% for FEV1/FVC. The percentages of disparate findings for a low FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC in patients, calculated using measured or predicted height, were 4.2%, 3.2% and 0.4%, respectively; for a restrictive pattern, there were 1.0% disparate findings. Group- and sex-specific equations for estimating height from arm span and age to derive predicted values for spirometry are clinically useful. PMID:25063245

Quanjer, Philip H; Capderou, André; Mazicioglu, Mumtaz M; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Banik, Sudip Datta; Popovic, Stevo; Tayie, Francis A K; Golshan, Mohammad; Ip, Mary S M; Zelter, Marc

2014-10-01

210

University of Nebraska-Lincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color,  

E-print Network

University of Nebraska-Lincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability Place Child's Picture Here Symptoms: Give Checked Medication**: ** (To be determined by physician

Farritor, Shane

211

Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

2011-01-01

212

Age, Race, and Ethnicity in the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Health Self-ManagementEvidence from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Determine if complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use for treating existing conditions and for health maintenance differs by age and ethnicity. Methods: Data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey were used to operationalize distinct types of CAM in terms of (a) no use, (b) use for treatment only, (c) use for prevention only, and (d) use for both

Joseph G. Grzywacz; Wei Lang; Cynthia Suerken; Sara A. Quandt; Ronny A. Bell; Thomas A. Arcury

2005-01-01

213

Reaction Paper to "Ethnicity and the Schools."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines ethnicity in American society and the role of ethnic studies in education in the context of a critical response to a paper presented at the National Council for the Social Studies in November, 1977. The original study, "Ethnicity and the Schools," by Daniel Selakovich, claimed that ethnic studies should play no role in education

Codianni, Anthony V.

214

MULTI-ETHNIC REFERENCE VALUES FOR SPIROMETRY FOR THE 3-95 YEAR AGE RANGE: THE GLOBAL LUNG FUNCTION 2012 EQUATIONS  

PubMed Central

Objective Derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Material Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5–95 years. Methods Lung function data were collated, and prediction equations derived using the LMS (?, µ, ?) method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. Results After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals from 3–95 years for Caucasians (N=57,395), African Americans (N=3,545), and North (N=4,992) and South East Asians (N=8,255). FEV1 and FVC between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV1/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Conclusion Spirometric prediction equations for the 3–95 age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent, Arab, Polynesian, Latin American countries, and Africa will further improve these equations in the future. PMID:22743675

Quanjer, Philip H.; Stanojevic, Sanja; Cole, Tim J.; Baur, Xaver; Hall, Graham L.; Culver, Bruce H.; Enright, Paul L.; Hankinson, John L.; Ip, Mary S.M.; Zheng, Jinping; Stocks, Janet

2013-01-01

215

The Needs of the Aging: Implications for Home Economics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Home economics teachers sensitive to aging can be effective agents in forming healthy attitudes toward the aged and aging; they will see the need for increased concern for the influence of housing on the aged. Housing will be seen as an arrangement promoting continuous education. (Author)

Wolf, Mary Louise; Whatley, Alice Elrod

1975-01-01

216

Young maternal age and low birth weight risk: An exploration of racial/ethnic disparities in the birth outcomes of mothers in the United States1  

PubMed Central

This study considers how low birth weight (LBW) prevalence varies by race/ethnicity and maternal age and explores mechanisms that explain disparities. Results show that maternal age patterns in LBW risk for African Americans differ from whites and foreign- and U.S.-born Hispanics. Background socioeconomic disadvantage, together with current socioeconomic status and smoking during pregnancy, explain almost all of the LBW disparity between white teenage mothers and their older counterparts. These findings suggest that social disadvantage is a primary driver in unfavorable birth outcomes among white teenage mothers compared to older white mothers. Alternatively, background disadvantage and other social characteristics explain very little of the LBW disparities among African Americans and U.S.- and foreign-born Hispanics. Overall, these results indicate LBW disparities by maternal age are a complex product of socioeconomic disadvantage and current social and behavioral factors, such that LBW risk does not operate uniformly by race/ethnicity or maternal age. PMID:25328275

Dennis, Jeff A.; Mollborn, Stefanie

2014-01-01

217

Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Educational Expectations of Adolescents: Does Pursuing Higher Education Mean Something Different to Latino Students Compared to White and Black Students?  

PubMed Central

There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents’ academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49% Latino, 23% White, 22% Black, and 6% other; 51% female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in five years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844

Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y.; Milan, Stephanie

2012-01-01

218

Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the

Kevin Ma; Paymann Moin; Aifeng Zhang; Brent Liu

2010-01-01

219

"...But that's Just the Stereotype": Gender and Ethnicity in Transition to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role of gender and ethnicity in young minority ethnic British citizens' transition to adulthood. As part of a larger study using a mixed methods approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young men and women aged 14-24 at different stages of education, employment and non-employment. By employing Bourdieu's…

Basit, Tehmina N.

2012-01-01

220

Minority Rights and Majority Rule: Ethnic Tolerance in Romania and Bulgaria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of data from national surveys of majority ethnic groups in Romania and Bulgaria examined the effects on tolerance toward minority groups of education, community ethnic composition, urbanism, age, gender, perceived threat to national security from the minority group's homeland, democratic values, and prevailing political ideology. Contains…

McIntosh, Mary E.; And Others

1995-01-01

221

Bias at School: Perceptions of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination among Latino and European American Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latino and White/European American children (N = 99; 5-11 years of age) participated in a study designed to examine their perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in educational settings. Children heard scenarios involving two children of different races/ethnicities, one who received a more positive outcome from a teacher than the other.…

Brown, Christia Spears

2006-01-01

222

Can the relationship between ethnicity and obesity-related behaviours among school-aged children be explained by deprivation? A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives It is unclear whether cultural differences or material disadvantage explain the ethnic patterning of obesogenic behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine ethnicity as a predictor of obesity-related behaviours among children in England, and to assess whether the effects of ethnicity could be explained by deprivation. Setting Five primary care trusts in England, 2010–2011. Participants Parents of white, black and South Asian children aged 4–5 and 10–11?years participating in the National Child Measurement Programme (n=2773). Primary outcome measures Parent-reported measures of child behaviour: low level of physical activity, excessive screen time, unhealthy dietary behaviours and obesogenic lifestyle (combination of all three obesity-related behaviours). Associations between these behaviours and ethnicity were assessed using logistic regression analyses. Results South Asian ethnic groups made up 22% of the sample, black ethnic groups made up 8%. Compared with white children, higher proportions of Asian and black children were overweight or obese (21–27% vs16% of white children), lived in the most deprived areas (24–47% vs 14%) and reported obesity-related behaviours (38% with obesogenic lifestyle vs 16%). After adjusting for deprivation and other sociodemographic characteristics, black and Asian children were three times more likely to have an obesogenic lifestyle than white children (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.2 for Asian children; OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.7 to 4.3 for black children). Conclusions Children from Asian and black ethnic groups are more likely to have obesogenic lifestyles than their white peers. These differences are not explained by deprivation. Culturally specific lifestyle interventions may be required to reduce obesity-related health inequalities. PMID:24413346

Falconer, Catherine L; Park, Min Hae; Croker, Helen; Kessel, Anthony S; Saxena, Sonia; Viner, Russell M; Kinra, Sanjay

2014-01-01

223

Race, Ethnicity, and Multiculturalism. Policy and Practice. Missouri Symposium on Research and Educational Policy, Volume 1. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 1029.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapters in this volume are based on papers presented at the First Missouri Symposium on Research and Educational Policy (Columbia, Missouri) March 24-26, 1994). Four chapters are revisions of presentations at this symposium. Taken with the others, they explore the relationship between education and race and ethnicity, with an emphasis on black…

Hall, Peter M., Ed.

224

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Education-Occupation Mismatch Status Among Immigrants in South Africa and the United States  

PubMed Central

In this study, a comparative–international approach is used to examine race–ethnic disparities in education–occupation mismatch status among immigrants. Using data from the USA and South Africa, this study finds that immigrants are most likely to be undereducated, or have less schooling for their jobs, when their racial characteristics are similar to those of the local racial majority. Black immigrants in South Africa and White immigrants in the USA are the most likely to be undereducated. Having racial characteristics similar to those of the local racial majority is associated with a lower likelihood of overeducation among immigrants. PMID:25018670

2014-01-01

225

Ethnic ancestry and increased paternal age are risk factors for breast cancer before the age of 40 years.  

PubMed

To study the risk factors associated with breast cancer in women younger than 40 years, a cohort study (The Jerusalem Perinatal Study) of 42 822 female offspring born in hospitals in West Jerusalem during 1964-1976 was carried out. Hazard ratios of potential parental and perinatal risk factors for early breast cancer were measured. The overall incidence of breast cancer was 5.2/100 000 person-years. The highest incidence was found among Jewish women of West Asian ancestry (8.6/100 000 person-years), specifically those whose maternal grandfathers were born in Iraq, Iran or Afghanistan (9.5/100 000 person-years). Using Cox models we found independent risk factors for early breast cancer to be paternal age (relative risk/year=1.06, 95% confidence interval=1.02-1.10, P=0.005), and ancestry from Iraq/Iran/Afghanistan (relative risk=3.1, 95% confidence interval=1.50-6.52, P=0.002). The study confirms a previously observed effect of advanced paternal age on the occurrence of early breast cancer and identifies a novel population group at increased risk for the disease. The excess risk of early breast cancer associated with ancestry from Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan suggests involvement of genetic determinants, environmental exposures and/or lifestyle factors and mandates further investigation. PMID:18090128

Weiss-Salz, Inbal; Harlap, Susan; Friedlander, Yehiel; Kaduri, Luna; Levy-Lahad, Efrat; Yanetz, Rivka; Deutsch, Lisa; Hochner, Hagit; Paltiel, Ora

2007-12-01

226

The Coming of Age of Statistical Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper outlines developments in statistical education in the period preceding the formation of the International Association for Statistical Education (IASE) 1991, and takes a tentative look at the future. The first section reviews the history of the ISI's Statistical Education Committee from its setting up in 1948 to the birth of the IASE in 1991. The second section

David Vere-Jones

1995-01-01

227

Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…

Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.

2009-01-01

228

Ethnic Studies Materials Analysis Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instrument for analyzing ethnic studies curriculum materials for grades K-12 is presented. The Social Science Education Consortium (SSEC), Inc. staff designed the analysis instrument to check ethnic accuracy of materials as an aid to classroom teachers who are preparing ethnic studies curriculum. The booklet is divided into two main sections.…

Social Science Education Consortium, Inc., Boulder, CO.

229

A systematic review of age, sex, ethnicity, and race as predictors of violent recidivism.  

PubMed

Recidivism of released prisoners, especially violent recidivism, is an important policy issue. Equally important is an understanding of how demographic risk factors may act as moderators of recidivism. Knowledge of such relationships is important in developing a deeper theoretical understanding of the risk of recidivism as well as identifying points of intervention that may need to be re-oriented to reduce recidivism. The present study conducts a meta-analytic review of the violent recidivism literature focusing on the role of several demographic risk factors. Findings show that age, sex, and race (Whites) were significantly related to violent recidivism. Implications and directions for future research are identified. PMID:24335783

Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Diamond, Brie; Reingle, Jennifer M

2015-01-01

230

Re-Seeing Race in a Post-Obama Age: Asian American Studies, Comparative Ethnic Studies, and Intersectional Pedagogies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…

Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.

2011-01-01

231

Moral Education of Youths in the Information Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Chinese societies, moral education has always been considered the most essential component of education because the nurturing of moral persons is the prime function of schooling. The implementation of moral education has relied on the inculcation of values that reflect moral ideals. The emergence of the Information Age, with a plethora of…

Lo, Leslie N. K; Wang, Fang

2006-01-01

232

Race/Ethnicity, Education, and Treatment Parameters as Moderators and Predictors of Outcome in Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Binge eating disorder (BED) is prevalent among individuals from minority racial/ethnic groups and among individuals with lower levels of education, yet the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for these groups has not been examined in adequately powered analyses. This study investigated the relative variance in treatment retention and post-treatment symptom levels accounted for by demographic, clinical, and treatment variables as moderators and predictors of outcome. Method Data were aggregated from eleven randomized, controlled trials of psychosocial treatments for BED conducted at treatment sites across the United States. Participants were N = 1,073 individuals meeting criteria for BED including n = 946 Caucasian, n = 79 African American, and n = 48 Hispanic/Latino participants. Approximately 86% had some higher education; 85% were female. Multi-level regression analyses examined moderators and predictors of treatment retention, Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) global score, frequency of objective bulimic episodes (OBEs), and OBE remission. Results Moderator analyses of race/ethnicity and education were non-significant. Predictor analyses revealed African Americans were more likely to drop out of treatment than Caucasians, and lower level of education predicted greater post-treatment OBEs. African Americans showed a small but significantly greater reduction in EDE global score relative to Caucasians. Self-help treatment administered in a group showed negative outcomes relative to other treatment types, and longer treatment was associated with better outcome. Conclusions Observed lower treatment retention among African Americans and lesser treatment effects for individuals with lower levels of educational attainment are serious issues requiring attention. Reduced benefit was observed for shorter treatment length and self-help administered in groups. PMID:23647283

Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Franko, Debra L.; Thompson, Douglas R.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Roehrig, James P.; Richards, Lauren K.; Bryson, Susan W.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crow, Scott J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Gorin, Amy A.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Masheb, Robin; Mitchell, James E.; Peterson, Carol B.; Safer, Debra L.; Striegel, Ruth H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

2014-01-01

233

The Role of Ethnicity in the Attainment and Experiences of Graduates in Distance Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK, the attainment of White graduates (as measured by the class of honours that they have been awarded) tends to be higher than that of graduates from other ethnic groups. This is apparent, in particular, in graduates who have taken courses by distance learning with the Open University. Analysis of data from Open University graduates over…

Richardson, John T. E.

2009-01-01

234

"It's Different Lives": A Guatemalan American Adolescent's Construction of Ethnic and Gender Identities across Educational Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from a multiyear ethnography and a longitudinal case study, this article examines how one Guatemalan American teenager negotiates the multiple socializations to ethnic and gender identities in her home, her Pentecostal church, and her high school. She must face processes of Americanization and Mexicanization. Americanization's thrust is to…

Ek, Lucila D.

2009-01-01

235

Promoting Ethnic Tolerance and Patriotism: The Role of Education System Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on political socialization has overlooked the influence of system characteristics of schooling on civic values and youth political identities. This article addresses that gap by investigating the degree to which system differentiation relates to the values of ethnic tolerance and patriotism. We distinguish between pedagogical…

Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mons, Nathalie

2011-01-01

236

Ethnic Heritage Study Program: A Learning Experience for the Colorado Educator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ethnic attitude test is designed to be a learning experience in which Colorado elementary and secondary teachers can share ideas, change attitudes if need be, clarify information, and/or reinforce what they knew to be true all along about the multicultural heritage of the state. Participants are asked to indicate the extent of their agreement…

Martinez, Roger D.

237

Elementary Science Education in Classrooms and Outdoors: Stakeholder Views, Gender, Ethnicity, and Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we present a mixed-methods study of 2 schools' elementary science programs including outdoor instruction specific to each school's culture. We explore fifth-grade students in measures of science knowledge, environmental attitudes, and outdoor comfort levels including gender and ethnic differences. We further examine…

Carrier, Sarah J.; Thomson, Margareta M.; Tugurian, Linda P.; Stevenson, Kathryn Tate

2014-01-01

238

Age of MSM sexual debut and risk factors: results from a multisite study of racial/ethnic minority YMSM living with HIV.  

PubMed

The average reported age of sexual debut for youth in the United States is 14.4 years, with approximately 7% reporting their sexual debut prior to age 13. While the research literature on sexual debut for youth addresses gender and ethnic differences (with males and African-American youth experiencing earlier sexual debut), there is limited data regarding factors associated with sexual debut for young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Early sexual debut poses potential health risks, such as contracting HIV with an increased risk of unprotected intercourse. Given current high HIV infection rates for racial/ethnic minority YMSM, learning more about their sexual debuts and associated risk factors of this population is of great importance. This study investigated risk behaviors and emotional distress, and their association with MSM sexual debut for a multisite cohort of racial/ethnic minority YMSM living with HIV. We hypothesized that a MSM sexual debut younger than age 16 would be associated with engagement in more high-risk sexual behaviors (unprotected sex and exchange sex), substance use, and emotional distress than a MSM sexual debut at age 16 or older. Results indicated that participants having a MSM sexual debut before the age of 16 reported more exchange sex; drug use (specifically marijuana); emotional/psychological problems related to substance use; and a history of suicide attempts, compared to participants with later MSM sexual debuts. Comprehensive interventions that are racially/ethnically sensitive, inquire about initial sexual experiences, and focus on sexual health and healthy relationships are needed to improve health outcomes for this population. PMID:21711140

Outlaw, Angulique Y; Phillips, Gregory; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Fields, Sheldon D; Hidalgo, Julia; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Green-Jones, Monique

2011-08-01

239

Moral Education in an Age of Globalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.

Noddings, Nel

2010-01-01

240

Marketing education in the postmodern age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that Australian public education is taking up a series of market identities and raises a number of selected matters that caused us concern as we both surveyed the field and the available critical literature and considered the social justice issues which are raised by markets in education. These matters are, first, the inadequacy of current conceptual, frameworks

Jane Kenway; Chris Bigum; Lindsay Fitzclarence

1993-01-01

241

The Obesity Epidemic in the United States—Gender, Age, Socioeconomic, Racial\\/Ethnic, and Geographic Characteristics: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of the obesity epidemic provides a comprehensive description of the current situation, time trends, and disparities across gender, age, socioeconomic status, racial\\/ethnic groups, and geographic regions in the United States based on national data. The authors searched studies published between 1990 and 2006. Adult overweight and obesity were defined by using body mass index (weight (kg)\\/height (m)2) cutpoints

Youfa Wang; May A. Beydoun

2007-01-01

242

Relation of Demographic and Lifestyle Factors to Symptoms in a Multi Racial\\/Ethnic Population of Women 40-55 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community-based survey was conducted during 1995-1997 of factors related to menopausal and other symptoms in a multi-racial\\/ethnic sample of 16,065 women aged 40-55 years. Each of seven sites comprising the Study of Women's Health across the Nation (SWAN) surveyed one of four minority populations and a Caucasian population. The largest adjusted prevalence odds ratios for all symptoms, particularly hot

Ellen B. Gold; Barbara Sternfeld; Jennifer L. Kelsey; Charlotte Brown; Charles Mouton; Nancy Reame; Loran Salamone; Rebecca Stellato

243

Transmissibility of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in New Zealand: effective reproduction number and influence of age, ethnicity and importations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first wave of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) has sub- sided in New Zealand as in other southern hemisphere countries. This study aimed to estimate the effective reproduction number (R) of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) taking into account imported cases. It also aimed to show the temporal variation of R through- out the New Zealand epidemic, changes in age- and ethnicity-specific

S Paine; G N Mercer; P M Kelly; D Bandaranayake; M G Baker; Q S Huang; G Mackereth

244

The Role of Ethnicity in the Higher Education Institution Selection Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in the higher education landscape have led to many higher education institutions reassessing their recruitment and marketing strategies. A proper understanding of the relative importance of the choice factors that prospective students consider when selecting a higher education institution will enable higher education administrators and…

Jordaan, Y.; Wiese, M.

2010-01-01

245

Differences in beliefs and home environments regarding energy balance behaviors according to parental education and ethnicity among schoolchildren in Europe: the ENERGY cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background To explore differences in personal and home environmental factors that are regarded as determinants of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) according to parental education and ethnic background among 10–12 year old schoolchildren across Europe. Methods A school-based survey among 10–12 year olds was conducted in eight countries across Europe. A range of personal and home environment variables relevant for soft drink consumption, daily breakfast, sport participation and TV time was assessed by means of child report. Personal factors included attitude, health beliefs, and preference/liking. Home environment factors included parental subjective norm, modeling, support, practices and home availability. Children were classified based on parental education (i.e., low vs. high) and ethnic background (i.e., native vs. non-native). Data from 6018 children originating from 83 schools were included in the analyses. Results Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that the majority of the factors tested –and especially home environment variables- were more favorable among children from higher educated parents and from native ethnicity. None of the personal and home environment factors was found to be more favorable among children from lower educated parents or non-native ethnicity. Conclusions The present study indicates that schoolchildren from lower educated and non-native parents across Europe have EBRB-related beliefs and are exposed to home environments that are less favorable for engagement in healthy EBRBs. PMID:24934085

2014-01-01

246

Maternal education and excessive gestational weight gain in New York city, 1999-2001: the effect of race/ethnicity and neighborhood socioeconomic status.  

PubMed

To examine the association between maternal education and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) and whether this association differs by maternal race/ethnicity and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES). A sample of 56,911 New York City births between 1999 and 2001 was used. Self-reported EGWG was defined as gaining >40 pounds. Maternal education and race/ethnicity were obtained from birth record data. Neighborhood SES was determined from 2000 US Census data. Women with a high school [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.21; 95 % CI 1.10-1.32] and some college (PR = 1.33; 95 % CI 1.21-1.47) education were more likely to gain excessive weight during pregnancy than their counterparts with less than a high school education. Having a college or more education was associated with a decreased EGWG for non-Hispanic white women (PR = 0.81; 95 % CI 0.67-0.96) but an increased EGWG for Hispanic women (PR = 1.25; 95 % CI 1.12-1.44). EGWG increased for women with a college or more education in medium and low SES neighborhoods (1.26; 95 % CI 1.04-1.53 and 1.20; 95 % CI 1.10-1.30, respectively); whereas a college or more education was not significant in the high SES neighborhoods. Our findings suggest that maternal education is associated with EGWG. However, this association depends on race/ethnicity and SES of the neighborhood of residence. PMID:23456346

Huynh, Mary; Borrell, Luisa N; Chambers, Earle C

2014-01-01

247

Nursing education and the nuclear age  

SciTech Connect

As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.

McKay, S.

1989-05-01

248

Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are both proactive and aggressive. Taking this approach will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age

Ohler, Jason

2011-01-01

249

Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

Ohler, Jason

2012-01-01

250

Multiculturalism or Ethnic Hegemony: A Critique of Multicultural Education in Toronto.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the historical development of multicultural education in Toronto (Ontario), and considers the relevance of different models. Argues that present educational policy continues to preserve an Anglo-Saxon hegemony. (FMW)

Rahim, Aminur

1990-01-01

251

Race, Ethnicity, and Higher Education Policy: The Use of Critical Quantitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-sectional frameworks, or between-group approaches, in quantitative research in higher education have limitations that hinder what we know about the intersection of race and educational opportunities and outcomes. (Contains 5 figures.)

Teranishi, Robert T.

2007-01-01

252

Racial and ethnic differences in motivation for educational achievement in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study [National Educational Longitudinal Study, (1994). NationalEducational Longitudinal Study: second follow-up (Report No.94-374). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education] show that on standardised scores in mathematics, reading and science, the highest mean scores are obtained by Asians and whites and lower scores are obtained by Hispanics and blacks. The same differences are present for

Wei-Cheng Mau; Richard Lynn

1999-01-01

253

Diverging or Converging Trends: An Investigation of Education Policies Concerning the Incorporation of Ethnic Minority Children in England, France and Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses specifically on the incorporation of ethnic minority children within the education systems of England, France and Germany. The trends in policy development after World War II in these countries are examined through the prism of three ideal-typical incorporation strategies--integration, assimilation and separation. This is done…

Qureshi, Yasmeen F.; Janmaat, Jan Germen

2014-01-01

254

Native Mascots and Ethnic Fraud in Higher Education: Using Tribal Critical Race Theory and the Interest Convergence Principle as an Analytic Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines one university's policies regarding Native mascots and ethnic fraud through a Tribal Critical Race Theory analytic lens. Using the principle of interest convergence, we argue that institutions of higher education allow and even work actively towards a particular form or level of diversity, but they do not extend it far enough. Once racial remedies no longer hold

Angelina E. Castagno; Stacey J. Lee

2007-01-01

255

Because the Numbers Matter: Transforming Postsecondary Education Data on Student Race and Ethnicity to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Nation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, the Office of Management and Budget revised guidelines for treatment of racial and ethnic data, adding a requirement to allow respondents to indicate more than one race and mandating a change in all federal data collection and reporting by January 1, 2003. Nearly 2 years after the deadline for implementation, however, higher education institutions had not yet been

Kristen A. Renn; Christina J. Lunceford

2004-01-01

256

Researching Race/Ethnicity and Educational Inequality in English Secondary Schools: A Critical Review of the Research Literature between 1980 and 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes and critically analyzes how sociologists in England have studied racial/ethnic inequalities in secondary education between 1980 and 2005. This study is different from earlier literature reviews conducted in this particular area in that it adopts a more systematic approach and includes the most recent studies in this field.…

Stevens, Peter A. J.

2007-01-01

257

Race, Rurality and Representation: Black and Minority Ethnic Mothers' Experiences of Their Children's Education in Rural Primary Schools in England, UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is little research that has examined the role of mothers in their children's education in the rural space of the school, particularly in relation to the experiences of Black and minority ethnic (BME) families who are newcomers to the rural space. This article attempts to redress the balance and examine how BME mothers are positioned in…

Bhopal, Kalwant

2014-01-01

258

"You've Got to Be Tough and I'm Trying": Black and Minority Ethnic Student Teachers' Experiences of Initial Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whilst Black and minority ethnic (BME) recruitment to initial teacher education (ITE) in the UK is increasing, completion rates are lower than for White students, and this study reports the experiences of BME student teachers on a primary postgraduate programme that had been particularly successful in increasing recruitment of BME students.…

Wilkins, Chris; Lall, Rajinder

2011-01-01

259

Higher Education in the Information Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book of 16 author-contributed chapters examines issues of the media and public institutions of higher education including: the media ranking of universities and their contribution to low expectations of universities; the disjunction between massive support for college and university sports events and the intellectual and presumed academic…

Dennis, Everette E., Ed.; LaMay, Craig L., Ed.

260

Geometry and Education in the Internet Age  

E-print Network

Interactive Geometry is a major tool in modern geometry education and various software tools are available. We discuss the requirements of such tools and how they can be fulfilled. We also explain how a geometry tool can benefit from the Internet and present Cinderella's Café, which is an internet-aware geometry tool with a high mathematical background.

Ulrich H. Kortenkamp; Jürgen Richter-Gebert

1998-01-01

261

Psychological Skills Education for School Aged Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the potential for teaching psychological skills to student athletes in school sport programs, outlining a conceptual approach to psychological skills training for athletic coaches. The paper details how to develop a psychological skills education curriculum, explaining issues of curriculum sequence and implementation strategies in the…

Haslam, Ian R.

2002-01-01

262

Increasing the Number of Ethnically Diverse Faculty in Special Education Programs: Issues and Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many universities are grappling with the issue of diversifying the faculty lines in higher education. While this appears to be a global issue across disciplines, those of us who are in special education may find it to be of greater concern because special education legislation, the Individuals with disabilities Act (IDEA) strongly supports…

Dooley, Elizabeth A.

2003-01-01

263

Lehigh University seeks talented faculty, staff, and students from diverse backgrounds. Lehigh University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, sex  

E-print Network

University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, sexual orientation, or veteran status in any area...................................................................................................4 LEHIGH UNIVERSITY NON-DISCRIMINATION STATEMENT

Gilchrist, James F.

264

Lehigh University seeks talented faculty, staff, and students from diverse backgrounds. Lehigh University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, sex  

E-print Network

University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, sexual orientation, or veteran status in any area

Gilchrist, James F.

265

Lehigh University seeks talented faculty, staff, and students from diverse backgrounds. Lehigh University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, sex  

E-print Network

backgrounds. Lehigh University does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, marital status, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, sexual orientation, or veteran status

Napier, Terrence

266

Clickers in Teacher Education: Student Perceptions by Age and Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the perceptions of classroom response systems, or "clickers," by teacher-candidates of diverse ages and both genders. Participants (n = 63) included 53 females and 10 males aged 21 to 57 who attended small-enrollment reading methods courses in a special education licensure program. Responses to a 32-item survey suggested…

Cheesman, Elaine A.; Winograd, Gaynelle R.; Wehrman, Joseph D.

2010-01-01

267

Ethnic Identity and Power: Cultural Contexts of Political Action in School and Society. SUNY Series, Power, Social Identity, and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection provide insights into the dilemmas faced by immigrants and ethnic minorities and by school personnel and policy makers. The first part of the book consists of comparative studies of ethnic identity, and the second part focuses on some lessons learned from studies of ethnic identification and equity, with implications…

Zou, Yali, Ed.; Trueba, Enrique T., Ed.

268

Age, Education and Occupational Earnings Inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we will investigate the effect of six factors on occupational earnings inequality across all occupations in our sample and across occupations in five major Census subgroups. Those six factors are: differences in tasks, different levels of efficiency, institutional factors, time worked, the demand for labor and discrimination. Age and schooling will receive primary attention in our work

Edward N. Wolff; Dennis M. Bushe

1976-01-01

269

Ethnic Disparities in Special Education Labeling Among Children With Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined disparities in special education labeling among children diagnosed with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by merging calendar year 2002 special education records and Medicaid mental health claims for 4,852 children who had been diagnosed with ADHD in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Thirty-eight percent were receiving special education services. In adjusted analyses, Black children were less likely than White children to receive

David S. Mandell; Jasmine K. Davis; Katherine Bevans; James P. Guevara

2008-01-01

270

Health-related characteristics and preferred methods of receiving health education according to dominant language among Latinos Aged 25 to 64 in a large Northern California health plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Latinos are a fast growing segment of the U.S. health care population. Acculturation factors, including English fluency, result in an ethnic group heterogeneous with regard to SES, health practices, and health education needs. This study examined how demographic and health-related characteristics of Spanish-dominant (SD), Bilingual (BIL), and English-dominant (ED) Latino men and women aged 25–64 differed among members of

Nancy P Gordon; Carlos Iribarren

2008-01-01

271

Students' Perception of the "Others" in Ethnic Separated School Systems: Implications for Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes qualitative data obtained from focus groups with students learning in schools with a majority and minority language of instruction from Estonia, Latvia, Romania, and Slovakia. The focus groups were developed within the framework of the project "Divided Education, Divided Citizens?" conducted by the Network of Education Policy…

Nedelcu, Anca; Iucu, Romita; Ciolan, Lucian

2011-01-01

272

Ethnic Disparities in Special Education Labeling among Children with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined disparities in special education labeling among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by merging calendar year 2002 special education records and Medicaid mental health claims for 4,852 children who had been diagnosed with ADHD in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Thirty-eight percent were receiving…

Mandell, David S.; Davis, Jasmine K.; Bevans, Katherine; Guevara, James P.

2008-01-01

273

Migration and Ethnic Group Disproportionality in Special Education: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues of educational equity and opportunity cannot be understood without regard to special education, as a key response to disabilities, disadvantages, and difficulties. Likewise, globalization cannot be understood without regard to cross-border migration and minority group status in society. Illuminating the nexus of these, research into…

Gabel, Susan L.; Curcic, Svjetlana; Powell, Justin J. W.; Khader, Khaled; Albee, Lynn

2009-01-01

274

Examining Racial and Ethnic Diversity in American Higher Education: A Public Policy Talking Points Memo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most higher education scholars associate access to higher education with the Associate Colleges sector. While Associate College (ACs), better known to the public as community colleges have a long standing and well documented relationship with access, regional universities are also agents of access. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of…

Kinkead, J. Clint

2011-01-01

275

Hoosiers, Hicks, and Hayseeds: The Controversial Place of Marginalized Ethnic Whites in Multicultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor white children, often with roots in Appalachia, can present puzzling and intractable challenges for the multicultural educator. These students are not considered in multicultural textbooks, yet they face language and dialect issues, low educational attainment, under-representation in curriculum, and negative cultural stereotypes. This article…

Heilman, Elizabeth

2004-01-01

276

Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education: Case Studies of Suburban School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: The last two reauthorizations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act established a policy mandate for districts to take action to reduce high rates of minority overrepresentation in special education. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: The overrepresentation of Black and Latino students in special…

Ahram, Roey; Fergus, Edward; Noguera, Pedro

2011-01-01

277

What Poverty Does to Girls' Education: The Intersection of Class, Gender, and Ethnicity in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay examines poverty in Latin America and its effect on education. It focuses on sexual bias and emphasizes that poverty is inherent in the social and economic structure of the region. The text examines how states in Latin America view the role of education, and it describes the growing chasm between the poor and the gentrified in various…

Stromquist, Nelly P.

278

Dreams Deferred? The Relationship between Early and Later Postsecondary Educational Aspirations among Racial/Ethnic Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 to test a conceptual model that integrates aspects of sociological and econometric frameworks into a traditional status attainment model for educational aspirations. Using descriptive and logistic analyses, this study advanced understanding of the patterns and stability of…

Cooper, Michelle Asha

2009-01-01

279

Parental perceptions of multicultural education in an ethnically\\/racially diverse school district  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine parent's perceptions of multicultural education, including how they thought a multicultural approach in education may effect their children. The parents were asked to complete a survey. The study was conducted in a small city which butts up against the city of Detroit. Many residents of this city are poor with about 41%

Mary Jo Haveman

1999-01-01

280

The Individual and Ethnic Identity: A Guide for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to teaching ethnicity from the ethnic individual's point of view is designed to accompany the student sourcebook, The Individual and Ethnic Identity (see SO 013 157). The sourcebook, suitable for secondary and higher education, contains quotations of 51 individuals from varying ethnic backgrounds and varying degrees of ethnicity. It…

Brownstein, Henry H.; And Others

281

Colorado State University and University of Idaho provides equal opportunity in education and employment on the basis or race, color, religion, national origin, gender, age, disability, or status as a Vietnam-era veteran, as required by state and federal  

E-print Network

Colorado State University and University of Idaho provides equal opportunity in education and employment on the basis or race, color, religion, national origin, gender, age, disability, or status______________________________________________ Gender_____ Race/Ethnicity _____ Adult/Youth ____ Cut along dotted line and keep bottom portion for your

Stephens, Graeme L.

282

Two steps forward, one step back: Race/ethnicity and student achievement in education policy research  

E-print Network

resolution to this problem is to group (school) mean-center each analysis. 4 This approach, however, is problematic when the variable(s) of interest, in this case RACE or racial subgroup, is not randomly distributed across organizations. 5 For example... Educational Research Association. New Orleans, LA. Dawson, M. (1987). Minority student performance: Is the Montessori magnet school effective? ERIC document 309881. Donato, K.M. & Wojtkiewicz, R.A. (1996). The educational achievement of U...

Baker, Bruce D.; Keller-Wolff, Christine; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa E.

2000-09-01

283

Race/Ethnicity Disparities in Dysglycemia Among U.S. Women of Childbearing Age Found Mainly in the Nonoverweight/Nonobese  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To describe the burden of dysglycemia—abnormal glucose metabolism indicative of diabetes or high risk for diabetes—among U.S. women of childbearing age, focusing on differences by race/ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (1999–2008), we calculated the burden of dysglycemia (i.e., prediabetes or diabetes from measures of fasting glucose, A1C, and self-report) in nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15–49 years) by race/ethnicity status. We estimated prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) for dysglycemia in subpopulations stratified by BMI (measured as kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), using predicted marginal estimates and adjusting for age, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, and socioeconomic factors. RESULTS Based on data from 7,162 nonpregnant women, representing >59,000,000 women nationwide, 19% (95% CI 17.2–20.9) had some level of dysglycemia, with higher crude prevalence among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans vs. non-Hispanic whites (26.3% [95% CI 22.3–30.8] and 23.8% [19.5–28.7] vs. 16.8% [14.4–19.6], respectively). In women with BMI <25 kg/m2, dysglycemia prevalence was roughly twice as high in both non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans vs. non-Hispanic whites. This relative increase persisted in adjusted models (PRRadj 1.86 [1.16–2.98] and 2.23 [1.38–3.60] for non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, respectively). For women with BMI 25–29.99 kg/m2, only non-Hispanic blacks showed increased prevalence vs. non-Hispanic whites (PRRadj 1.55 [1.03–2.34] and 1.28 [0.73–2.26] for non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans, respectively). In women with BMI >30 kg/m2, there was no significant increase in prevalence of dysglycemia by race/ethnicity category. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that dysglycemia affects a significant portion of U.S. women of childbearing age and that disparities by race/ethnicity are most prominent in the nonoverweight/nonobese. PMID:23780951

Marcinkevage, Jessica A.; Alverson, C.J.; Narayan, K.M. Venkat; Kahn, Henry S.; Ruben, Julia; Correa, Adolfo

2013-01-01

284

Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.  

PubMed

A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M age = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (? = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (? = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed. PMID:24771083

Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

2014-12-01

285

Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language of…

Ewing, E. Thomas

2006-01-01

286

Education and Racial-Ethnic Differences in Types of Exercise in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epidemiological research typically focuses on the intensity, frequency, or duration of physical activity, without consideration of the socially meaningful dimensions of exercise. The authors use data from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey (N = 17,455) and information on participation in 15 exercise behaviors to examine educational

Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Krueger, Patrick M.

2011-01-01

287

Violence, Schools, and Dropping out: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Educational Consequence of Student Victimization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Without a doubt, exposure to violence and victimization can be profoundly detrimental to the overall well-being and development of all youth. Moreover, violence and victimization that occurs within a school context is particularly alarming because a successful educational process is essential toward establishing socioeconomic success later in…

Peguero, Anthony A.

2011-01-01

288

Beyond Narrow Confines: Special Education Leadership for Ethnically Diverse Urban Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban school building administrators are aware of sociocultural dynamics that affect today's urban schools, but they seem to lack the will to make the necessary changes that could buttress programmatic stability and integrity. For some, the debate focuses on the issue of equity in the pursuit of educational excellence for all children. For others,…

Mukuria, Gathogo; Obiakor, Festus E.

2006-01-01

289

The Effects of Poverty, Ethnicity, and Special Education Status on Louisiana School Performance Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Louisiana high stakes testing program has raised questions about equity issues. Students from lower socioeconomic groups are less likely to have access to quality penetration tools, and, like minority students, are less likely to have knowledge and skills of their more affluent peers. Students in special education have needs that place them at…

Lindsey, Sara J.; Fillippino, Tonja M.

290

Sex and Ethnic Differences in Educational Investment in Malaysia: The Effect of Reward Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of male and female Malay and Chinese students indicated that groups which perceive postsecondary education to lead to a greater certainty of university attendance and/or better job prospects are more likely to continue their schooling than groups which perceive the benefits to them to be less attractive. (Author/SJL)

Wang, Bee-Lan Chan

1980-01-01

291

Educational Needs of Mental Health Administrators Serving the Aged.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature and personal interviews with mental health administrators and other informed persons revealed that multiple inservice and preservice educational needs exist among administrators serving the aged in hospitals, nursing homes and other care facilities, mental health centers, and mental health associations. Specific…

Tindel, Connie

292

Media Arts: Arts Education for a Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: New technologies have been largely absent in arts education curriculum even though they offer opportunities to address arts integration, equity, and the technological prerequisites of an increasingly digital age. This paper draws upon the emerging professional field of "media arts" and the ways in which youth use new…

Peppler, Kylie A.

2010-01-01

293

Gender Differences in Educational Achievement to Age 25  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in educational achievement were examined in a cohort of 1265 individuals studied from birth to age 25. There was a small but pervasive tendency for females to score better than males on standardised tests and to achieve more school and post-school qualifications. The differences could not be explained by differences in cognitive…

Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

2008-01-01

294

Age and educational track influence adolescent discounting of delayed rewards  

PubMed Central

This study examined age-related changes in a specific aspect of adolescent decision-making, namely the preference for future versus immediate outcomes. A sample of 622 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 years completed a temporal discounting task. Participants were asked to choose between a delayed reward of €50 or an immediate reward of lower value. The delay interval was varied in three blocks (1 week, 1 month, 6 months). Results showed that preferences for large delayed rewards over smaller immediate rewards increased with age: late adolescents made more long-term decisions than early adolescents. This change was related to educational track. In the lower educational track, an age-related decrease in discounting was found for all three delay intervals. In the higher educational track this decrease only occurred for the 6 month delay interval. However, across all delay intervals enrolment in a higher level educational track was associated with an increased preference for long-term rewards. These results suggest that late adolescents are less susceptible than early adolescents to the competing presence of an immediate reward when making long-term decisions, a skill which becomes increasingly important as they transition into adulthood. PMID:24421778

Lee, Nikki C.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Boschloo, Annemarie; Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

2013-01-01

295

Five Paradigms of Ethnic Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that a major focus of contemporary U.S. education is the nature and character of interethnic relationships. Discusses five models of ethnic relations: (1) traditional Eurocentric Racism; (2) Melting Pot Assimilationism; (3) Ethnic Nationalism; (4) Globalism; and (5) Centered Pluralism. (CFR)

Janzen, Rod

1994-01-01

296

Learning Reconsidered: Education in the Digital Age. Communications, Convergence and the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes thoughts of seven educators on the place of digital communication in journalism and mass communication education. Discusses communication scholars and the professional field's readiness for the digital age. Notes educators' attitudes towards technology and technology's applications in education. (PM)

Dennis, Everette E.; Meyer, Philip; Sundar, S. Shyam; Pryor, Larry; Rogers, Everett M.; Chen, Helen L.; Pavlik, John

2003-01-01

297

Education and racial-ethnic differences in types of exercise in the United States.  

PubMed

Epidemiological research typically focuses on the intensity, frequency, or duration of physical activity, without consideration of the socially meaningful dimensions of exercise. The authors use data from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey (N = 17,455) and information on participation in 15 exercise behaviors to examine educational differences in exercise among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans. Factor analysis identifies three types of exercise: team sports (e.g., basketball, football), fitness activities (e.g., running, weight lifting), and activities that require the use of specialized facilities (e.g., golf, tennis). Cultural capital and human capital perspectives offer insight into different dimensions of the relationship between education and exercise. Whites disproportionately undertake facility-based exercise, blacks tend toward team and fitness activities, and Mexican Americans gravitate toward team sports. Our findings offer insight into the social stratification of health and can aid the design of public health interventions. PMID:21673147

Saint Onge, Jarron M; Krueger, Patrick M

2011-06-01

298

Adolescents’ Educational Outcomes: Racial and Ethnic Variations in Peer Network Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents’\\u000a academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement\\u000a and attainment. Results reveal that, in addition to those factors typically associated with academic outcomes

Franklin Goza; Igor Ryabov

2009-01-01

299

Colorless, Tasteless and Odorless? College Students' Perceptions of Their Racial and Ethnic Identities. Rural, Urban and Minority Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined perceptions of racial and ethnic identities held by 31 undergraduate students, including preservice teachers. Identified five primary themes: "whiteness" as invisible to whites; whites' belief that being non-white is a condition that can be overcome; varying perceptions of "race,""ethnicity," and "nationality"; whites' belief that culture…

Williams, Karen Cachevki; Okintunde, Omowale

2000-01-01

300

Preferences in North Carolina Higher Education: Racial and Ethnic Preferences in Undergraduate Admissions at Six North Carolina Public Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which racial and ethnic preferences were used in the admissions policies of six North Carolina public universities ranging from the most to the least selective. Data were collected on applicants, admittees, rejectees, and enrollees regarding racial or ethnic group, SAT scores, and high school grade point averages.…

Lerner, Robert; Nagai, Althea K.

301

Ethnic stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlines present conceptualizations of stereotypes in psychology, and discusses theoretical approaches linking ethnic stereotypes to negative attitudes and discriminatory behavior. Research results concerning the content of ethnic stereotypes, their development and resistance to change, and the reciprocal nature of intergroup stereotypes are reviewed. Several critical issues, E.g., methodological problems and the \\

John C. Brigham

1971-01-01

302

Treatment Acceptability of Social Skills Programs for Children with Autism: The Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Problem Severity  

E-print Network

This study compared the treatment acceptability of four social skills interventions that are commonly used with children with autism, as rated by parents of children with autism spectrum disorders, general education teachers, and special education...

Fragioudakis, Maria

2010-10-12

303

Adolescent alcohol use in the Netherlands: the role of ethnicity, ethnic intermarriage, and ethnic school composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To examine the association between ethnicity, ethnic intermarriage, ethnic composition of schools and adolescent alcohol use.Design. Data were derived from the National Survey of Students in the Netherlands, a repeated, nationally representative, cross-sectional study of students aged 11–20 in secondary school. Surveys conducted in 1994, 1996, 1999, and 2001 were pooled, leading to a total of 30,346 native Dutch

Frank van Tubergen; Anne-Rigt Poortman

2010-01-01

304

[A new question for educational and training activity: population aging].  

PubMed

Aging is without doubt the major characteristic of the current demographic evolution of industrialized countries. Societies in which 30% or more of the population is aged 60 or over will eventually become the norm. The public in developed countries considers low fertility normal and desirable, but the demographic aging that is partially a consequence of low fertility is often perceived as a problem. A major contradiction in industrialized societies is that considerable effort is expanded to increase life expectancies while aging as a social phenomenon is regarded as a malady. Existing analyses have concentrated on age itself and have neglected the aging process. An abundant literature documents the marginalization of the elderly in industrial societies. Educational action could be helpful in demonstrating that the "generation gap" identified by Margaret Mead is not irreversible. Educational programs could point out the simultaneous unity and complexity of the life cycle, the birth to death, as well as the importance of intergenerational relations. The manner in which relations between generations are presented is important. Sociodemographic concepts such as generation, calendar, social time, and life cycle could be especially helpful in a multidisciplinary educational program presenting the ages of life and intergenerational relations. A study of the relationships of life cycles and demographic structures would be a good approach to problems of pension funding and would help correct misconceptions about the nature and direction of intergenerational transfers. Research by the Center for the Study of Revenues and Costs demonstrates that intergenerational solidarity does not operate only in 1 direction through pensions, but also functions through financial aid given by the elderly to their children and through child care provided for grandchildren. Educational activities directed toward the elderly could facilitate their more effective participation in social life. Several countries have organized educational programs for retired persons to enlarge their cultural horizons, increase their knowledge, stimulate their creativity, and promote their participation in all aspects of society. A comparison of educational programs involving the elderly in different countries could be used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches and stimulate development of more satisfactory programs. PMID:12286406

Gani, L

1993-03-01

305

Ethnicity and Schooling: A Caribbean Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the relationship of ethnicity to students' experiences in and responses to schooling? How is success in school related to ethnicity? In this dissertation the schools and community of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, provide the setting for a multi-ethnic comparative case study in educational anthropology which addresses these questions.…

Gibson, Margaret A.

306

Reflection on Balanced Allocation of Fundamental Education Teachers in Poverty-Stricken Areas of Ethnic Minorities: Example of a Survey in the Tibetan Autonomous County of Tianzhu in Gansu Province  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Balanced allocation of fundamental education teachers is one of the most important ways to achieve the highest quality of compulsory education. It also guarantees an accelerated achievement of a balanced development of fundamental education. In poverty-stricken areas of ethnic minorities, unbalanced teacher allocation is a major factor that…

Yang, Jun

2006-01-01

307

The Effect of Education on Age-Related Functional Activation During Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education has been suggested to play a protective role against the development of age-related dementias. Accordingly, we examined modulation of functional activation during working memory by age and education. Eight older individuals with a college education, six older individuals with a high school education, and eight younger individuals with a college education performed a working memory task during O [water

Marc W. Haut; Hiroto Kuwabara; Maria T. Moran; Sharon Leach; Robert Arias; David Knight

2005-01-01

308

Bias at school: Perceptions of racial\\/ethnic discrimination among Latino and European American children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latino and White\\/European American children (N=99; 5–11 years of age) participated in a study designed to examine their perceptions of racial\\/ethnic discrimination in educational settings. Children heard scenarios involving two children of different races\\/ethnicities, one who received a more positive outcome from a teacher than the other. Children were then asked about the reasons for the differential outcomes. The role

Christia Spears Brown

2006-01-01

309

The Influence Of Special Education On Education Support Of Ethnic Students As Perceived By Administrators And Teachers In Selected Public Schools In Education Service Center, Region 20, Texas  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to identify educators' beliefs indicating the most preferred support for students with disabilities in the general education classroom setting. This study examined professional educators' attitudes regarding four...

Faldik, Nancy Jean

2011-10-21

310

Seven-Year Patterns in US Cigar Use Epidemiology Among Young Adults Aged 18-25 Years: A Focus on Race/Ethnicity and Brand  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined patterns in cigar use among young adults, aged 18–25 years, focusing on race/ethnicity and brand. Methods. We conducted a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002–2008, using multivariate logistic regression to assess time trends in past 30 days cigar use, past 30 days use of a “top 5” cigar brand, cigar use intensity, and age at first cigar use. Results. Cigar use has increased among White non-Hispanic men aged 18 to 25 years, from 12.0% in 2002 to 12.7% in 2008. Common predictors of all outcomes included male gender and past 30 days use of cigarettes, marijuana, and blunts. Additional predictors of past 30 days cigar and “top 5” brand use included younger age, non-Hispanic Black or White race, lower income, and highest level of risk behavior. College enrollment predicted intensity of use and “top 5” brand use. Conclusions. Recent legislative initiatives have changed how cigars are marketed and may affect consumption. National surveys should include measures of cigar brand and little cigar and cigarillo use to improve cigar use estimates. PMID:21852638

Mowery, Paul; Delnevo, Cristine; Allen, Jane A.; Sokol, Natasha; Byron, M. Justin; Thornton-Bullock, Amber

2011-01-01

311

Characteristics and effectiveness of diabetes self-management educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression  

PubMed Central

Background It is not clear to what extent educational programs aimed at promoting diabetes self-management in ethnic minority groups are effective. The aim of this work was to systematically review the effectiveness of educational programs to promote the self-management of racial/ethnic minority groups with type 2 diabetes, and to identify programs’ characteristics associated with greater success. Methods We undertook a systematic literature review. Specific searches were designed and implemented for Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scirus, Current Contents and nine additional sources (from inception to October 2012). We included experimental and quasi-experimental studies assessing the impact of educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups with type 2 diabetes. We only included interventions conducted in countries members of the OECD. Two reviewers independently screened citations. Structured forms were used to extract information on intervention characteristics, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness. When possible, we conducted random-effects meta-analyses using standardized mean differences to obtain aggregate estimates of effect size with 95% confidence intervals. Two reviewers independently extracted all the information and critically appraised the studies. Results We identified thirty-seven studies reporting on thirty-nine educational programs. Most of them were conducted in the US, with African American or Latino participants. Most programs obtained some benefits over standard care in improving diabetes knowledge, self-management behaviors and clinical outcomes. A meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled trials (3,094 patients) indicated that the programs produced a reduction in glycated hemoglobin of -0.31% (95% CI -0.48% to -0.14%). Diabetes knowledge and self-management measures were too heterogeneous to pool. Meta-regressions showed larger reduction in glycated hemoglobin in individual and face to face delivered interventions, as well as in those involving peer educators, including cognitive reframing techniques, and a lower number of teaching methods. The long-term effects remain unknown and cost-effectiveness was rarely estimated. Conclusions Diabetes self-management educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups can produce a positive effect on diabetes knowledge and on self-management behavior, ultimately improving glycemic control. Future programs should take into account the key characteristics identified in this review. PMID:25037577

2014-01-01

312

Bidirectional associations between parenting practices and conduct problems in boys from childhood to adolescence: the moderating effect of age and African-American ethnicity.  

PubMed

This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied across African-American and Caucasian families. Overall, the results supported a bidirectional relationship between conduct problems and all parenting practices examined from childhood to adolescence. The influence of conduct problems on changes in parenting behaviors was as strong as the influence of parenting behaviors on changes in conduct problems across development. Changes in the bidirectional relationship across development were found in some, but not all, models. While corporal punishment was more strongly related to changes in teacher-reported conduct problems for African-American boys compared to Caucasian boys, more similarities than differences were found between the ethnic groups in terms of the bidirectional associations examined. PMID:17899362

Pardini, Dustin A; Fite, Paula J; Burke, Jeffrey D

2008-07-01

313

20 CFR 410.426 - Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria. 410...1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410...disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria. ...to do his previous coal mine work, but also cannot (or...

2011-04-01

314

Logical Inference Skills in Adult Reading Comprehension: Effects of Age and Formal Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College-educated adults (44 aged 18-22, 20 aged 30-49, and 20 aged 61-79) and adults with no college education (15 aged 62-68) were given the task of making deductive inferences in prose passages. There were no differences among college-educated adults, but the oldest college-educated group performed significantly better than those with no…

Franks, Bridget A.

1998-01-01

315

On November 3, 1998, voters in Washington State passed Initiative 200, which prohibits preferential treat-ment based on race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin in public employment, education, and contracting.  

E-print Network

and educational disadvantage, cul- tural awareness, overcoming personal adversity, a school adversity factor preferential treat- ment based on race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin in public employment, education, and contracting. This document outlines a three-pronged approach to help maintain the diversity

Queitsch, Christine

316

School-Aged Children Who Are Educated at Home by Their Parents: Is There a Role for Educational Psychologists?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the literature on home education with reference to issues that may concern educational psychologists. It notes the fast growing number of families (at present, 1% of the UK school population) who have chosen to educate their school-aged children at home. The great majority of home-educated children are reported to be well…

Arora, Tiny C. M. J.

2003-01-01

317

The Latino Education Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latinos now constitute the largest minority group in the United States and the fastest growing segment of its school-age population. Yet they are the least educated of all major ethnic groups. Poverty, lack of access to high-quality preschool, low levels of parental education attainment, and hypersegregated schools all play a crucial role. The…

Gandara, Patricia

2010-01-01

318

Gender, ethnicity, culture and social class influences on childhood obesity among Australian schoolchildren: implications for treatment, prevention and community education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to explore the associations between obesity, weight perceptions and gender, ethnicity, culture and social class in a large national study of Australian school children. Primary and high schools (N = 47) were recruited from every state and territory of Australia and included 7889 children from government, private and Catholic schools (82% response rate) in

Jennifer A. O'Dea; Diet MPH PI-ID

2008-01-01

319

Ethnicity and Image: Correlates of Crowd Affiliation among Ethnic Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because ethnicity is a basis for defining peer crowds in ethnically diverse American high schools, some may question whether crowds foster discrimination and stereotyping or affirm minority youths' positive ties to their ethnic background. Through examination of both self- and peer ratings of crowd affiliation among 2,465 high school youth aged

Brown, B. Bradford; Herman, Melissa; Hamm, Jill V.; Heck, Daniel J.

2008-01-01

320

Paradox Revisited: A Further Investigation of Race/Ethnic Differences in Infant Mortality by Maternal Age1  

PubMed Central

We reexamine the epidemiological paradox of lower overall infant mortality rates in the Mexican-origin population relative to US-born non-Hispanic whites using the 1995–2002 U.S. NCHS linked cohort birth-infant death files. A comparison of infant mortality rates among US-born non-Hispanic white and Mexican-origin mothers by maternal age reveals an infant survival advantage at younger maternal ages when compared to non-Hispanic whites, which is consistent with the Hispanic infant mortality paradox. However, this is accompanied by higher infant mortality at older ages for Mexican-origin women, which is consistent with the weathering framework. These patterns vary by nativity of the mother and do not change when rates are adjusted for risk factors. The relative infant survival disadvantage among Mexican-origin infants born to older mothers may be attributed to differences in the socioeconomic attributes of US-born non-Hispanic white and Mexican-origin women. PMID:23055238

Powers, Daniel A.

2013-01-01

321

Accelerated Reader: The Relation to Age of Entry into Formal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature on age of entry into formal education is inconsistent at best in determining if early or late entry impacts the educational experience in positive or negative ways. The purpose of the current study was to add to the literature by examining the relationship between age of entry into formal education and participation in the Accelerated…

Long, Tiffani; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

2012-01-01

322

Ethnic differences in functional and neuropsychological test performance in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies outline discrepancies in neuropsychological test profiles in African American and European American samples, despite similarities on major background factors. In our clinical sample of convenience, African American and European American older adults did not diverge on age, years of formal education, or global cognitive impairment. We predicted that ethnic groups would differ on a financial index, reading, and

Anne Dull Baird; Marvella Ford; Kenneth Podell

2007-01-01

323

Recent Studies in Canadian Immigration and Ethnic History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent historical studies of immigration patterns of ethnic groups into Canada. The author examines educational history, ethnic relations and nativism (including anti-semitism), working class history, and urban history. An extensive bibliogaphy is included. (AM)

Palmer, Howard

1982-01-01

324

Nutrition Knowledge is Influenced by Education, Age, and Wellness Program Participation in Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To define the influence of age, education, and wellness program participation on nutrition knowledge in older women.The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of age, education, and wellness program participation on nutrition knowledge in Caucasian females aged 60+. Two subsamples from previously gathered data were used: 1) a convenience sample of women in their 60s

S. M. Elbon; M. A. Johnson; J. G. Fischer

1997-01-01

325

Caring for an Aging Society: Issues and Strategies for Gerontology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monograph addresses the need in the United States for greater numbers of gerontology programs and education in the health care of, and human services for, an aging society. Statistical information is provided concerning the aging of America within the U.S. and the 15 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states as well as the aging of…

Denton, David R.

326

What is ethnic in an ethnic economy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines critically the relationship between ethnicity and entrepreneurship in the sociology of immigrant economies. It argues that what is ethnic in an ethnic economy has often been confusingly conceptualised and that several factors now call for re-assessing the ethnic nature of immigrants' business activities. On the basis of a review of recent research, three such factors are outlined:

Antoine Pécoud

2010-01-01

327

Journal of Public Affairs Education 377 Review of Cultural Competency  

E-print Network

, Grutter v. Bollinger et al., was based upon the premise that diversity in the classroom improves of Public Affairs Education competency along the lines of race, ethnicity, gender, age, ability, religion

Vermont, University of

328

Normal left ventricular myocardial thickness for middle aged and older subjects with SSFP cardiac MR: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Increased left ventricular myocardial thickness (LVMT) is a feature of several cardiac diseases. The purpose of this study was to establish standard reference values of normal LVMT with cardiac MR (CMR) and to assess variation with image acquisition plane, demographics and LV function. Methods and Results End-diastolic LVMT was measured on CMR steady-state free precession cine long and short axis images in 300 consecutive participants free of cardiac disease (169 women; 65.6±8.5 years) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort. Mean LVMT on short axis images at the mid-cavity level was 5.3±0.9mm and 6.3±1.1mm for women and men, respectively. The average of the maximum LVMT at the mid-cavity for women/men were 7mm/9mm (long axis) and 7mm/8mm (short axis). Mean LVMT was positively associated with weight (0.02mm/kg, p=0.01) and body-surface-area (1.1mm/m2, p<0.001). No relationship was found between mean LVMT and age or height. Greater mean LVMT was associated with lower LV end-diastolic volume (0.01mm/ml, p<0.01), a lower LV end-systolic volume (?0.01mm/ml, p=0.01) and lower LV stroke volume (?0.01mm/ml, p<0.05). LVMT measured on long axis images at the basal and mid-cavity level were slightly greater (by 6% and 10%, respectively) than measurements obtained on short axis images; apical LVMT values on long axis images were 20% less than those on short axis images. Conclusion Normal values for wall thickness are provided for middle-aged and older subjects. Normal LVMT is lower for women than men. Observed values vary depending on the imaging plane for measurement. PMID:22705587

Kawel, Nadine; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Eng, John; Gomes, Antoinette S.; Hundley, W. Gregory; Johnson, Craig; Masri, Sofia C.; Prince, Martin R.; van der Geest, Rob J.; Lima, Joao A. C.; Bluemke, David A.

2012-01-01

329

Caregivers' Experience during Their Children's Transition Process from Early Childhood Special Education Services to School-Aged Special Education Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates caregivers' perceptions of the transition process for children transitioning from Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) to School Age Special Education services (SA). Interest in this topic developed during the researcher's 18 years of experience as an Itinerant Early Childhood Special Education Teacher during which she…

Hicks, Linda Yvonne

2011-01-01

330

LOGICAL INFERENCE SKILLS IN ADULT READING COMPREHENSION: EFFECTS OF AGE AND FORMAL EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied knowledge about inference?making from the deductive reasoning literature to drawing of specific inferences from prose passages. It explored the effects of age, inference form, prior knowledge, and formal education on inferential comprehension skills in adult readers. Subjects were college?aged, middle?aged, and older adults with some college education and older adults with no college education. All subjects read

Bridget A. Franks

1998-01-01

331

34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through...ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Authorization...for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three...

2010-07-01

332

34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through...ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Authorization...for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three...

2012-07-01

333

34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.  

...Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through...ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Authorization...for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three...

2014-07-01

334

34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through...ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Authorization...for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three...

2011-07-01

335

34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through...ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Authorization...for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three...

2013-07-01

336

A Study of Elementary and Secondary Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Aging and the Implementation of Aging Education in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study surveys elementary and secondary teachers in Taiwan and compares the findings with other studies conducted in America and Japan. The objective is to explore differences among teachers in Taiwan, Japan, and the United States in terms of their knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging and the implementation of aging education in schools. Multistage sampling was adopted, with a

Chin-Shan Huang

2012-01-01

337

Age as a Diversity Issue in Grades K-12 and in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aging and ageism are diversity issues and should be addressed in diversity training. A balanced understanding of aging can be developed using appropriate techniques at all levels of education. Instructors should vary teaching approaches to accommodate older adult students. (SK)

Wircenski, Michelle; Walker, Michelle; Allen, Jeff; West, Lynda

1999-01-01

338

MAJOR DEPRESSION AND INSULIN RESISTANCE AMONG NONDIABETIC U.S. ADULTS AGED 20-39 YEARS: THE ROLES OF GENDER AND RACE/ETHNICITY  

E-print Network

The relationship between depression and insulin resistance has been evaluated in previous studies but with conflicting results. No study was found that investigates the role of race/ethnicity in the relationship between ...

Shen, Qiuhua

2011-04-19

339

Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

2013-01-01

340

The role of early life factors in the development of ethnic differences in growth and overweight in preschool children: a prospective birth cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnic differences in childhood and adulthood are known, but ethnic differences in preschool overweight and associated factors are less studied. We assessed ethnic differences in pre-school age overweight, and studied the mediating role of early life factors in this association. Furthermore, we assessed body mass index (BMI) z-score development from birth to age 4 years to study ethnic-specific differences in BMI z-score trajectory. Methods We used data on 4581 children participating in a birth cohort who were born between 2002 and 2006 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Child’s ethnicity was defined according to country of birth of the parents. Weight and length/height was repeatedly measured between 1 and 45 months of age. Overweight at age 4 years was defined according to cut-off points for BMI from the international obesity task force. We performed logistic regression to obtain independent estimates of the association between ethnicity and preschool-age overweight, and to assess the mediating role of early life risk factors. Mixed models were used to describe BMI-z development for each ethnic group from birth to preschool age. Results Relative to native Dutch children, non-Dutch children were more likely to be overweight at age 4 years, except for Surinamese-Hindustani children. Socio-demographic factors, parental BMI, and infant weight change in the first 6 months after birth reduced associations. After full adjustment, Turkish (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.34-3.04) and Antillean/Surinamese Creole (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.06-3.02) children were still more likely to be overweight at age 4 years. Conclusion Ethnic differences on the prevalence of overweight in preschool children can be partially explained by maternal educational level, parental overweight and early infant weight change. These may be possible targets to reduce ethnic inequalities in preschool age overweight. PMID:25022314

2014-01-01

341

Impact of Racial, Ethnic, and Socioeconmic Diversity: Student Perceptions of Educational Outcomes in a Northern Virginia Public School System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between diverse learning environments and students’ perceptions of their educational experiences within a large Northern Virginia public school system via quantitative, nonexperimental, survey methods. Five areas reflecting frequently established goals of education were explored: student diversity; curricular diversity; student learning and peer interaction, to include development of critical thinking skills; future educational aspirations; and goals

Joseph F. Fontanella

2008-01-01

342

Impact of Racial, Ethnic and Socioeconomic Diversity: Student Perceptions of Educational Outcomes In Prince William County Public Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between diverse learning environments and students’ perceptions of their educational experiences within a large Northern Virginia public school system via quantitative, nonexperimental, survey methods. Five areas reflecting frequently established goals of education were explored: student diversity; curricular diversity; student learning and peer interaction, to include development of critical thinking skills; future educational aspirations; and goals

Joseph Fontanella

2008-01-01

343

Racial/Ethnic disparities in the use of nicotine replacement therapy and quit ratios in lifetime smokers ages 25 to 44 years.  

PubMed

We examined racial/ethnic variations in the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and quit ratios among Caucasian, African American, Asian, and Latino lifetime smokers ages 25 to 44 years. We conducted cross-sectional analyses using data from individuals (n = 27,031) screened for enrollment in the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Nicotine Dependence. Participants were randomly sampled from three Midwestern metropolitan areas using Health Maintenance Organization membership lists in Detroit, MI and Minneapolis, MN and a driver's license registry in St. Louis, MO from March 2003 to August 2005. A telephone survey collected information on smoking history, previous quit attempts, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among lifetime smokers (n = 9,216), univariate analysis indicated that African Americans (22%) and Latinos (22%) were significantly less likely to report having ever used NRT for smoking cessation than Caucasians (31%). Asians (22%) also reported lower rates of using NRT than Caucasians, but this difference was marginally significant (P = 0.06). These disparities persisted in multivariate analysis for African Americans [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.76; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.63-0.91; P < 0.01] but not for Latinos (adjusted OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.54-1.06; P = 0.11) or Asians (adjusted OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.60-1.60; P = 0.95). As measured by the quit ratio, African Americans (35%) were less likely to have quit smoking than Caucasians (52%). This disparity persisted in multivariate logistic regression (adjusted OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.78; P < 0.001). Asian and Latino smokers were as likely as Caucasians to report smoking cessation. Future prospective studies are needed to assess whether lower utilization of cessation treatments such as NRT contribute to the observed disparity in quit ratios for African Americans. PMID:18583471

Fu, Steven S; Kodl, Molly M; Joseph, Anne M; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Johnson, Eric O; Breslau, Naomi; Wu, Baolin; Bierut, Laura

2008-07-01

344

Loyola College School of Education  

E-print Network

Loyola College School of Education The Joseph A. Sellinger, S.J. School of Business and Management not discriminate on the basis of race, sex, color, national or ethnic origin, age, religion, disability, marital status, or sexual orien- tation in the administration of any of its educational programs and activities

Morrell, Christopher H.

345

Statistics on Working Children and Education Children Age Percent  

E-print Network

In 2011, Cambodia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government issued regulations that defined unsafe working conditions in agriculture, including separate regulations for cassava and tobacco production, and freshwater fishing that are prohibited to children. The Government also adopted the 2011-2013 National Plan of Action on the Suppression of Human Trafficking, Smuggling, Labor, and Sexual Exploitation (NPA-STSLS), which includes a section on child labor. Similarly, the Government passed the National Social Protection Strategy for the Poor and Vulnerable, which directly targets child laborers and their families for conditional cash transfers, school feeding programs and take-home rations. However, the legal framework continued to have important gaps that leave children vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. There is no compulsory education requirement, and the law allows children as young as age 12 to work in domestic service. Children continue to be involved in the worst forms of child labor, particularly in dangerous activities in agriculture and as victims of trafficking.

unknown authors

346

Principles and Practices of Mature-Age Education at U3As  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A movement known as the Universities of the Third Age (U3As) provides educational, cultural and social services for mature-age people in Australia and internationally. This paper focuses on the educational courses run by U3As and discusses two basic questions: What are the expectations of learners who enrol in these classes? and How can tutors…

Siedle, Rob

2011-01-01

347

Does School Time Matter?--On the Impact of Compulsory Education Age on School Dropout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A straightforward way to prevent students from leaving education without a higher secondary diploma is increasing the compulsory education age. The idea is that, by staying longer in school, more students eventually obtain a higher secondary diploma. This paper examines the impact of a one-year increase in compulsory school-age on dropping out of…

Cabus, Sofie J.; De Witte, Kristof

2011-01-01

348

Revisioning Education for All in the Age of Migration: Global Challenges and Opportunities for Lifelong Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper revisits and revisions Education for All (EFA) in the age of global migration with the aim of developing more inclusive approaches towards social justice and equity in education. Drawing on cases of internal and international migration in China and Canada, this paper compares and contrasts policies and practices in the education of…

Guo, Shibao

2014-01-01

349

Maryland Special Education Data on Exiting Students Aged 14-21, School Year 1993-94.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphs and charts present data on students aged 14-21 exiting special education services in Maryland during the 1993-1994 school year. Reasons for leaving special education are analyzed by local education areas and by disability, with specific charts devoted to students with mental retardation, speech or language impairments, serious emotional…

Maryland State Dept. of Education. Baltimore. Div. of Planning, Results and Information Management.

350

Distance Education in the Digital Age: Common Misconceptions and Challenging Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses in its first part three common misconceptions related to the operation of distance education providers in the digital age: The tendency to relate to e-learning as the new generation of distance education; the confusion between ends and means of distance education; and the absence of the teachers' crucial role in the…

Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah

2009-01-01

351

Race & Ethnicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The English Server at the University of Washington (see the December 12, 1996 Scout Report) consists of reference material, essays, fiction and non-fiction books, and other resources "addressing issues of race and ethnicity in the United States." The Server's selections are discriminating and up-to-date with essays by luminaries in the field such as bell hooks, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Cornel West; autobiographical narratives from Frederick Douglass and W.E.B. DuBois; a useful list of links to high-quality Websites; and famous "quotables" such as Martin Luther King's "I have a Dream" speech and Nelson Mandela's speech upon his release from prison. A keyword search engine is also available.

1990-01-01

352

Does school time matter?—On the impact of compulsory education age on school dropout  

Microsoft Academic Search

A straightforward way to prevent students from leaving education without a higher secondary diploma is increasing the compulsory education age. The idea is that, by staying longer in school, more students eventually obtain a higher secondary diploma. This paper examines the impact of a one-year increase in compulsory school-age on dropping out of secondary education by a difference-in-differences analysis. For

Sofie J. Cabus; Kristof De Witte

2011-01-01

353

Gender and the Education-Employment Paradox in Ethnic and Religious Contexts: The Case of Arab Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is weakly related to employment for some groups of U.S. women. As such, it may be less of a resource for reducing gender inequality than commonly believed. Drawing on ethnographic field notes and in-depth interviews with Arab Americans, we recast the motivations and consequences of female education in terms of cultural schemas and…

Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Oselin, Sharon

2008-01-01

354

The Role of Ethnic Culture in Work-Family Balance among Armenian Women in Leadership Positions in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contemporary society women leaders in education have struggled to balance work and family. While some women have succeeded in finding that balance, many others are still struggling. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of three Armenian women in senior-level leadership positions in higher education in the United…

Baran, Hasmig

2012-01-01

355

Do wealth disparities contribute to health disparities within racial/ethnic groups?  

PubMed Central

Background Though wide disparities in wealth have been documented across racial/ethnic groups, it is largely unknown whether differences in wealth are associated with health disparities within racial/ethnic groups. Methods Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (2004, ages 25–64) and the Health and Retirement Survey (2004, ages 50+), containing a wide range of assets and debts variables, was used to calculate net worth (a standard measure of wealth). Among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white populations, we tested whether wealth was associated with self-reported poor/fair health status after accounting for income and education. Results Except among the younger Hispanic population, net worth was significantly associated with poor/fair health status within each racial/ethnic group in both datasets. Adding net worth attenuated the association between education and poor/fair health (in all racial/ethnic groups) and between income and poor/fair health (except among older Hispanics). Conclusions The results add to literature indicating the importance of including measures of wealth in health research for what they may reveal about disparities not only between but also within different racial/ethnic groups. PMID:23427209

Pollack, Craig Evan; Cubbin, Catherine; Sania, Ayesha; Hayward, Mark; Vallone, Donna; Flaherty, Brian; Braveman, Paula A.

2013-01-01

356

Educational Equity in the Access to Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of Ethnic Minorities in China with Aboriginals in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides insight into equity issues in post-secondary education by exploring and assessing the history, the reality and the potential developments in higher education for minority students in China, in comparison to post-secondary education for aboriginal students in Canada. It highlights access to post-secondary education by these…

Wang, Fei

2013-01-01

357

Does SES or Acculturation Modify the Association between Ethnicity and Hypertension Treatment before Stroke?  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation may modify the association between ethnicity and hypertension treatment before stroke. We assessed pre-stroke treatment of hypertension by ethnicity, education (proxy for SES), and English proficiency (EP, proxy for acculturation) in a population-based stroke surveillance project. Methods Among 763 first-ever stroke patients aged ?45 years in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project from 2000–2006, we examined self-reported hypertension treatment at the time of the stroke by ethnicity (MA vs. NHW) in the overall sample, within education strata (high school), and after dichotomizing MAs by self-reported EP (limited vs. proficient). Logistic regression adjusted associations for age, sex, education, diabetes, coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, and health insurance. Results NHWs and MAs reported similar hypertension treatment (84% vs. 86%; P=0.53). Hypertension treatment was 84% for NHWs and 90% for MAs (P=0.18) in high school stratum (ethnicity-by-education interaction P=0.09). Hypertension treatment was 83% for NHWs, 87% for MAs with EP (PvsNHWs=0.35), and 90% for MAs with limited EP (PvsNHWs=0.13)(ethnicity-by-EP interaction P=0.22). Stroke patients with no health insurance (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 0.13; 95%CI, 0.03–0.60) or no physician visit ?6 months (aOR, 0.09; 95%CI, 0.03–0.24) had lower odds of hypertension treatment. Conclusion We found no evidence that SES or acculturation modify the association between ethnicity and hypertension treatment before stroke. PMID:24046006

Levine, Deborah A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Smith, Melinda A.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

2013-01-01

358

Barriers to Nutrition Education for Older Adults, and Nutrition and Aging Training Opportunities for Educators, Healthcare Providers, Volunteers and Caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature citations of barriers to nutrition education found in those who teach and care for older adults, as well as within older adults themselves, are discussed. No attempt was made to compare educational barriers for learners of varying ages. These obstacles need to be addressed in order for nutrition to be taught or learned effectively so that nutrition practices and

Mary Meck Higgins; Mary Clarke Barkley

2004-01-01

359

Building a Global Community of Policymakers, Researchers and Educators to Move Education Systems into the Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The EDUsummIT 2011 aimed to develop (a) recommendations for policy, practice and research that will help educational systems move into the digital age and (b) strategies to build a global community of researchers, policymakers and teachers in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education. Thematic working groups…

Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.

2013-01-01

360

A new education for a new digital age?  

Microsoft Academic Search

These are exciting yet uncertain times in which to be studying education and technology, with rapid developments in digital\\u000a media entwined with contemporary education change. In particular, growing numbers of writers and researchers are portraying\\u000a the emergence of so-called ‘web 2.0’ internet technologies in transformatory terms. There has been much discussion, for instance,\\u000a of a general recasting of education provision

Neil Selwyn

361

Too Latino and Not Latino Enough: The Role of Ethnicity-Related Stressors on Latino College Students' Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between demographics (generation status, age, gender, education level) and ethnicity-related stressors, namely, perceived discrimination, stereotype confirmation concern, and own-group conformity pressure, and the life satisfaction of 115 Latino college students was examined. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated…

Ojeda, Lizette; Navarro, Rachel L.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Arbona, Consuelo

2012-01-01

362

Factors in Exposure Assessment: Ethnic and Socioeconomic Differences in Fishing and Consumption of Fish Caught along the Savannah River  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Carolina has issued fish consumption advisories for the Savannah River based on mercury and radionuclide levels. We examine differences in fishing rates and fish consumption of 258 people interviewed while fishing along the Savannah River, as a function of age, education, ethnicity, employment history, and income, and test the assumption that the average consumption of fish is less than

Joanna Burger; Warren L. Stephens; C. Shane Boring; Michelle Kuklinski; J. Whitfield Gibbons; Michael Gochfeld

1999-01-01

363

Favorite Foods of Older Adults Living in the Black Belt Region of the United States: Influences of Ethnicity, Gender, and Education  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine food preferences of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the Southeastern United States and the extent to which food preferences vary according to ethnicity, gender, and educational level. 270 older adults who were receiving home health services were interviewed in their home and were queried regarding their favorite foods. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Chi-square analysis or one-way analyses of variance was used, where appropriate, in bivariate analyses, and logistic regression models were used in multivariate analyses. A total of 1,857 favorite foods were reported (mean per person = 6.88). The top ten favorite foods reported included: 1) chicken (of any kind), 2) collard greens, 3) cornbread, 4) green or string beans, 5) fish (fried catfish is implied), 6) turnip greens, 7) potatoes, 8) apples, 9) tomatoes, fried chicken, and eggs tied, and 10) steak and ice cream tied. African Americans and those with lower levels of education were more likely to report traditional Southern foods among their favorite foods and had a more limited repertoire of favorite foods. Findings have implications for understanding health disparities that may be associated with diet and development of culturally-appropriate nutrition interventions. PMID:23262296

Yang, Yongbin; Buys, David R.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Gower, Barbara A.; Locher, Julie L.

2012-01-01

364

Early Learning Left Out: An Examination of Public Investments in Education and Development by Child Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents the most comprehensive picture, to date, of public investments in the education and development of children by three age groupings--the early learning years (roughly 0-5), the school-aged years (roughly 6-18), and the college-aged years (roughly 19-23). It is based upon detailed analysis of state, federal, and school district…

Bruner, Charles; Elias, Victor; Stein, Debbie; Schaefer, Stephanie

2004-01-01

365

Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS-11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…

Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole

2011-01-01

366

Labor Market Advancement for Young Men: How It Differs by Educational Attainment and Race\\/Ethnicity During the Initial Transition to Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006–2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who

Michael A. Stoll

2010-01-01

367

Overflowing Every Idea of Age, Very Young Children as Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I explore if and how very young children can be the educators of their early childhood educators. I describe and discuss a story constructed from a fieldwork done in one early childhood setting in Norway. The story is read with Levinas and his concepts Said and Saying. Further I discuss if and how this might be understood as…

Johannesen, Nina

2013-01-01

368

Windows on the Future: Education in the Age of Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to help educators cope with changes created by technology and embrace a new mindset necessary to access the burgeoning technological advances, in order to keep schools and students relevant in the 21st century. The book looks through several "windows" on the future, and asks educators to consider their own paradigms and the…

McCain, Ted; Jukes, Ian

369

The Possibility of Public Education in an Instrumentalist Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In our increasingly instrumentalist culture, debates over the privatization of schooling may be beside the point. Whether we hatch some new plan for chartering or funding schools, or retain the traditional model of government-run schools, the ongoing instrumentalization of education threatens the very possibility of public education. Indeed, in…

Higgins, Chris

2011-01-01

370

Post-Secondary Education: Entering the Age of the Consumer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional sellers' market in higher education has become a buyers' market, with both the nature of the student body and the services offered being changed. Marketing, as a comprehensive tool for planning and delivery of educational services, offers an integrated method for meeting the disparate demands growing from the shift to a longer…

Lencyk, John A.

371

Consideration of Ethnic Variables in the Assessment of Frail Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to appropriately assess the needs of the frail elderly, and to establish effective treatment plans and goals, ethnic variables must be considered. Ethnicity can affect individuals in various ways as they age. One's sense of self and perception of others in later life are influenced by the values and traditions of one's ethnic heritage.…

Cole, Lois H.

372

The future of health care: students' perceptions, education, and training in aging and health in India.  

PubMed

This study examined the students' perceptions on the care of the older persons and their education and training in geriatrics and gerontology in India. Students (n = 229) from medicine, nursing, and social work programs completed a survey. Three key findings emerged: (a) strong family ties and filial piety in aging care, (b) acknowledging the importance of social, economic, and religious factors in the care of the older persons while not recognizing the age-related health needs, and (c) although participants described their education and training as being adequate, lack of awareness of aging policies highlight the need for formalized educational and training opportunities. PMID:21807627

Kumar, Amenda; Johnson, Shanthi; Kamalanabhan, T J

2012-11-01

373

Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike.…

Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

2013-01-01

374

Courses: Education: Curriculum and Teaching (EDCT) Page 293Sonoma State University 2012-2013 Catalog Education: Curriculum and Teaching (EDCT)  

E-print Network

to and influence technological access and use, and power and privilege. Age, gender, race/ethnicity, social class will be grounded within current perspectives and trends of new media technologies and take into account educational Educational Technology thesis or cognate project. EDCT 559 EDuCaTion mEDia anD inTErnET rEsourCE DEv

Ravikumar, B.

375

Page 292 Courses: Education: Curriculum and Teaching (EDCT) Sonoma State University 2011-2012 Catalog Education: Curriculum and Teaching (EDCT)  

E-print Network

to and influence technological access and use, and power and privilege. Age, gender, race/ethnicity, social class will be grounded within current perspectives and trends of new media technologies and take into account educational Educational Technology thesis or cognate project. edCt 559 eduCAtiOn MediA And internet reSOurCe de

Ravikumar, B.

376

No Protective Effects of Education During Normal Cognitive Aging: Results From the 6Year Follow-Up of the Maastricht Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent large-scale longitudinal aging studies question earlier claims that higher education protects against cognitive decline in older age. In the present study, the authors addressed this issue by determining whether educational level had an attenuating effect on the rate of cognitive change assessed with a broad range of neuropsychological tests in a community sample of 872 healthy individuals aged 49

Koene R. A. Van Dijk; Pascal W. M. Van Gerven; Martin P. J. Van Boxtel; Wim Van der Elst; Jelle Jolles

2008-01-01

377

College-Educated Women’s Personality Development in Adulthood: Perceptions and Age Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adulthood encompasses a large time span and includes a series of psychosocial challenges (E. H. Erikson, 1950). Five aspects of personality (identity certainty, confident power, concern with aging, generativity, and personal distress) were assessed in a cross-sectional study of college-educated women who at the time of data collection were young adults (age: M = 26 years), middle-aged adults (age: M

Alyssa N. Zucker; Joan M. Ostrove; Abigail J. Stewart

2002-01-01

378

Language and the Development of Children’s Ethnic Prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers whether the study of children’s language in intergroup contexts enhances our understanding of the development of children’s ethnic prejudice. It is concluded that whereas children’s ethnic preferences may be well established by 6 years of age, ethnic prejudice does not emerge in middle childhood. In addition, whether children develop ethnic prejudice does not appear to be directly

Drew Nesdale

2001-01-01

379

U.S. Educational Achievement on International Assessments: The Role of Race and Ethnicity. RTI Research Report Series. Occasional Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The debate about the performance of US students on international assessments of educational achievement routinely fails to account for one consistently stark result: US achievement is bifurcated between a group of high-performing Asian and white students and an exceptionally low-performing group of black and Hispanic students. By summarizing…

Dalton, Ben

2011-01-01

380

Does the Educational Debt Burden of Science and Engineering Doctorates Differ by Race/Ethnicity and Sex? SRS Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An issue often arising in discussions about government support for graduate education in science and engineering is student indebtedness. An earlier issue brief entitled "What is the Debt Burden of New Science and Engineering Ph.D.'s?" (NSF-98-318) provided information about the debt owed by new doctorate recipients at the time of Ph.D. conferral…

Rapoport, Alan I.

381

The Condition of Education 2009: Indicator 8--Language Minority School-Age Children. NCES 2009-081  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Condition of Education" is a congressionally mandated report that provides an annual portrait of education in the United States. This document includes information from "The Condition of Education 2009" about language minority school-age children. Between 1979 and 2007, the number of school-age children (children ages 5-17) who spoke a…

Planty, Michael; Hussar, William; Snyder, Thomas; Kena, Grace; KewalRamani, Angelina; Kemp, Jana; Bianco, Kevin; Dinkes, Rachel

2009-01-01

382

Measurement of social support across women from four ethnic groups: evidence of factorial invariance.  

PubMed

To examine whether a multidimensional social support instrument can be used for comparative research in four diverse ethnic groups of women (African American, Latina, Chinese, non-Latina White). The social support instrument was administered as part of a larger survey to 1,137 women. We tested the reliability and validity of this instrument. A confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) framework was used to test for the invariance of the instrument's psychometric properties across ethnic groups. We used multitrait scaling to eliminate items that did not meet the item-convergence criterion (r > 0.30) and where items were non-convergent items in at least three groups. A series of nested CFA models assessed the level of factorial invariance. One thousand seventy-four women completed the survey; Their mean age was 61 years with Chinese and Latinas reporting lower education compared to non-Latino Whites (p <. 001). A four-factor model (Tangible, Informational, Financial, Emotional/Companionship) fit within each ethnic group separately, suggested good fit. Multi-group CFA supported configural and metric invariance across all ethnic groups. Only partial scalar invariance was supported. This 8-item instrument is a reliable and valid tool that can be used as a multidimensional measure of social support. It can used to examine social support within one ethnic group and for comparative research across diverse ethnic groups of women. PMID:20182911

Wong, Sabrina T; Nordstokke, David; Gregorich, Steven; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

2010-03-01

383

Experiences in the Bilingual Education of a Child of Pre-School Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on experiences in the bilingual education, psychologically and pedagogically planned, of a child who died of brain cancer at age 5. Conclusions are drawn regarding order and method of language learning. (CHK)

Zierer, Ernesto

1977-01-01

384

Efficacy, national/international practices and motivational factors of lifelong driver education for the aging population  

E-print Network

In a society facing a significant increase in its aging population, older driver education/training is emerging as a potential solution to help seniors drive more safely, thus maintaining their mobility and quality of life. ...

Israels, Richard (Richard Steven)

2006-01-01

385

Temporal summation of pain as a prospective predictor of clinical pain severity in adults aged 45 years and above with knee osteoarthritis: ethnic differences  

PubMed Central

Objective Enhanced pain facilitation is reportedly an important contributor to the clinical pain experiences of individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Ethnic differences in the prevalence and severity of knee OA in addition to associated pain are also well documented. Temporal summation (TS) of pain is a widely applicable quantitative sensory testing method that invokes neural mechanisms related to pain facilitatory processes. This study tested whether TS of pain, an index of pain facilitation, differentially predicts the clinical pain experiences of African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites with symptomatic knee OA. Methods A total of 225 study participants underwent assessment of TS of mechanical and heat pain stimuli applied to their most symptomatic knee and their ipsilateral hand (mechanical) or forearm (heat). Using telephone-based surveys, participants subsequently reported their average and worst clinical pain severity across four consecutive weeks following assessment of TS. Results In predicting future clinical pain, ethnicity interacted with TS of mechanical pain (but not heat pain), such that TS of mechanical pain at the knee significantly predicted greater clinical ratings of average (b = .02, p = .016) and worst (b = .02, p = .044) clinical pain for non-Hispanic Whites but not African Americans (p’s > .30). Conclusions These results reveal the importance of considering ethnicity when examining pain facilitation and the clinical pain of individuals with symptomatic knee OA. The results of this study are discussed in terms of ethnic differences in the predictors of clinical pain experiences among African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites with knee OA. PMID:24804882

Goodin, Burel R.; Bulls, Hailey W.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Schmidt, Jessica; King, Christopher D.; Glover, Toni L.; Sotolongo, Adriana; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Staud, Roland; Fessler, Barri J.; Redden, David T.; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B.

2014-01-01

386

Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report composite of 2 clinical measures of self-regulation—the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (version 11; BIS-11) and the

Dana L. Charles McCoy; C. Cybele Raver; Amy E. Lowenstein; Nicole Tirado-Strayer

2011-01-01

387

Does school time matter? On the impact of compulsory education age on school dropout  

Microsoft Academic Search

A straightforward way to prevent students from leaving education without a higher secondary diploma consists of increasing the compulsory education age. By staying longer in school, the idea is that more students eventually obtain a higher secondary diploma. This paper examines by a difference-in-differences analysis the causal impact of a one-year increase in compulsory school-age on dropping out at secondary

S. J. Cabus; Witte de K

2010-01-01

388

A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

Perez, Shireese Redmond

2011-01-01

389

Education and the changing age pattern of American fertility: 1963–1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using pooled data from the 1980, 1985, and 1990 Current Population Surveys, we describe fertility trends by age and education\\u000a for the period 1963–1989. Interest focuses on whether the effects of education have changed across this period. We show that\\u000a women with college degrees experienced dramatic shifts toward later ages of childbearing. This shift is consistent with arguments\\u000a we develop

Ronald R. Rindfuss; S. Philip Morgan; Kate Offutt

1996-01-01

390

Effectiveness of The Food Guide Pyramid As A Nutrition Education Tool for School-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To determine the effectiveness of the Food Guide Pyramid as a nutrition education tool for school-aged children and their parents.This study was performed to examine the effectiveness of the Food Guide Pyramid as a nutrition education tool for school-aged children. The sample consisted of 57 students in the fifth, seventh, and eighth grade classes at St. Bernard Elementary

K. D. Wright; R. M. Fournet

1997-01-01

391

Asian American Literature: Resource and Training for Multi-Cultural Education. Final Reports: Program Performance and Financial Status. Ethnic Heritage Studies Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the report of a project designed to train secondary school teachers and other ethnic studies personnel in Hawaii in the area of Asian American literature so as to enhance their understanding of ethnic identity, interethnic relations, and the process of American multiculturalism. The project performance report includes a description of a…

Ogawa, Dennis M.

392

Primary Prevention Approaches to the Development of Mental Health Services for Ethnic Minorities: A Challenge to Social Work Education and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains articles on mental health needs, experiences, and preventive social work programs in ethnic minority communities. An overview by Gwenelle Styles O'Neal reviews factors that influence the mental health of ethnic minorities and explores family and community support networks for alleviating stress. Susan Bellinger examines…

Miller, Samuel O., Ed.; And Others

393

Effective Game Based Citizenship Education in the Age of New Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational systems worldwide are being challenged to respond effectively to the digital revolution and its implications for learning in the 21st century. In the present new media age, educational reforms are desperately needed to support more open and flexible structures of on-demand learning that equip students with competencies required in a…

Chee, Yam San; Mehrotra, Swati; Liu, Qiang

2013-01-01

394

Distance Education in the Age of Globalization: An Overwhelming Desire towards Blended Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to discuss the nature and status of distance education in the age of globalization, i.e. how best it fits for the present educational scenario. In this connection, we will discuss how Blended Learning (hence after, BL) is one among the other learning strategies mostly helpful for the learners. Keeping this view in mind,…

Sethy, Satya Sundar

2008-01-01

395

The Significance of Dewey's Aesthetics in Art Education in the Age of Globalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the occasion of Dewey's sesquicentennial anniversary, Kazuyo Nakamura explores Dewey's aesthetics, which holds the plurality of art and culture in high regard. Nakamura develops a theoretical foundation for art education in the present age of globalization based on educational insights drawn from Dewey's aesthetics. The theme of this essay…

Nakamura, Kazuyo

2009-01-01

396

Effects of Maternal Education, Age, and Parity of Fatal Infant Accidents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of computerized linked birth and death record information found that maternal age and education are inversely related to infant mortality, while mother's parity is directly related. Accident mortality rate differentials by educational level were more evident for certain categories of accident (suffocation, death by fire). (Author/GC)

Wicklund, Kristine; And Others

1984-01-01

397

Understanding Health in Old Age: A Role for the Health Educator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Areas of concern for health educators who work with older Americans are addressed, including: (1) the nature of the aging population; (2) their health status and needs; and (3) impact of federal policies on their care. Health educators should dispel stereotypes, focus on wellness, and advocate consumerism. (PP)

Bolton, Christopher R.; Ball, Janice

1983-01-01

398

Education and Vocationalism in the Age of the "Death of Work."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Publicly supported education will change dramatically in the postmarket age. Rapid disappearance of mass employment and economic marginalization undermines both rationales for public mass education: economic utility and cultural/intellectual development. The technological elite and unemployed will find the common-school ideal irrelevant. Instead…

Paquett, Jerry

1997-01-01

399

Influence of neighbourhood ethnic density, diet and physical activity on ethnic differences in weight status: a study of 214,807 adults in Australia.  

PubMed

We investigated whether ethnic and country of birth differences in adult Body Mass Index (BMI) were associated with differences in diet, physical activity and ethnic density (the percentage of an ethnic group within the neighbourhood environment). A sample of 214,807 adults living in Australia was extracted from the 45 and Up Study. Analyses comprised multilevel modelling of BMI for 38 ethnic and country of birth groups. Physical activity was ascertained using the Active Australia Survey. Dietary measures included self-reported consumption of fruit, vegetables, meat and cheese. Ethnic density was objectively measured using 2006 Australian Census data. Possible confounders included age, gender, household income, educational qualifications, economic status, couple status, language, duration of residence, neighbourhood affluence and remoteness. Compared to Australian-born Australians (age-gender adjusted mean BMI = 27.1, 95%CI 27.1, 27.2), overseas-born groups often had lower mean BMI, especially the Chinese born in China (23.2, 23.0, 23.4). Exceptions included the Italians (BMI = 28.1), Greeks (28.5), Maltese (27.6), Lebanese (28.4) and Croatians (27.8) born in their ethnic-country of origin. Regardless of birthplace, BMI was lower for the English, Scottish, and Chinese, but higher for Italians and Greeks. Some ethnic differences reflected the 'healthy migrant' hypothesis, whereas others did not. These differences were only partially attenuated by controls for portions of fruit and vegetables, meat and cheese, frequency of participation in physical activity, and other explanatory variables. Ethnic density was associated with lower BMI for the English and Irish (p < 0.05), regardless of whether they were born in the UK, Ireland, or Australia. Ethnic differences in adult weight status in Australia do not appear to be fully explained by conventional risk factors. For some groups, but not all, living among others of the same ethnic group may proxy unmeasured health-promoting factors and these contexts, along with other factors that harm health (e.g. racial discrimination) warrant further investigation. PMID:23906123

Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Croteau, Karen; Kolt, Gregory S

2013-09-01

400

First in the Class? Age and the Education Production Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older children outperform younger children in a school-entry cohort well into their school careers. The existing literature has provided little insight into the causes of this phenomenon, leaving open the possibility that school-entry age is zero-sum game, where relatively young students lose what relatively old students gain. In this paper, we estimate the effects of relative age using data from

Elizabeth Cascio; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach

2007-01-01

401

Voices of Varied Racial Ethnicities Enrolled in Multicultural/Antiracist Education Computer and Telecommunication Courses: Protocols for Multicultural Technology Education Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two case studies involving graduate education majors illustrate how multicultural/antiracist education and computer-mediated communication can interact successfully and further broaden cultural sensitivity in technology through diverse perceptions and contributions. Facilitating factors included theory-to-practice concepts, Internet dialogue, and…

Donaldson, Karen; Carter, Lucretia

2000-01-01

402

Is Our Aging Population a Threat to Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great many New England institutions of higher education are about to find out if demography will determine their fate because unprecedented and substantial population change is sweeping across the region. With fewer than 15 million year-round residents, it is the nation's smallest and one of the slowest-growing of the nine census divisions.…

Francese, Peter

2014-01-01

403

Special Education Solutions in the Age of NCLB  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The No Child Left Behind Act specifies schools' responsibilities for including special education students in their overall assessment programs. These students must be assessed under a standardized test that is used for all students within a district--a test that is designed to show whether a student is meeting that state's standards for learning.…

Harvey, Cathryn

2004-01-01

404

The Effects of Age on Player Behavior in Educational Games  

E-print Network

behavior, analytics, children. 1. INTRODUCTION Video game players are a diverse group of people with varied of games for children. Young children make up a large portion of video game players, in part due behavior. This is particularly impor- tant when developing educational games for children, since research

Washington at Seattle, University of

405

Assessment, Technology and Democratic Education in the Age of Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contends that powerful techniques to manipulate data, enabled by technological and economic developments, can be easily co-opted to serve the restrictive frameworks of hyper-controlling, managerial accountability that characterise current cultures of summative assessment in education. In response to these challenges, research is…

Perrotta, Carlo

2013-01-01

406

A Golden Age for Adult Education: The Collective Disorienting Dilemma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The continuing challenge of engaging adult learners in the process of positive social change has summoned adult educators to a new understanding of their role as change agents in an increasingly complex world. Despite all obstacles presented by our contemporary culture, the nature of adult development continues to offer opportunities for adult…

Johnston, Susan

2011-01-01

407

Educational Assessment: Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grounded in the real world of public schools and students, this engaging, insightful, and highly readable text introduces the inner-workings of K-12 educational assessment. It covers traditional topics in an approachable and understandable way; analyzes and interprets "hot-button" issues of today's complex measurement concerns; relates theory to…

Wright, Robert J.

2007-01-01

408

Catholic Theological Education in a Religiously Pluralistic Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the transformation of Catholic theological education over the last fifty years from a highly defensive posture vis-a-vis other religions toward dialogical engagement with members of other religions and all persons of good will. Until Vatican II, most Catholic theologians and officials distrusted exploration of other…

Lefebure, Leo D.

2006-01-01

409

The Victorian Age: A Teacher's Guide. Heritage Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide accompanies a videocassette for teaching about the Victorian Era in the United States through the study of homes from that period. The teaching unit can be adopted for students in grades 4 through 12 and can also be used in college classes and in adult education. Skills are identified to help students interpret their physical…

Van Buren, Maurie

410

Racial/ethnic differences in responses to the everyday discrimination scale: a differential item functioning analysis.  

PubMed

The authors examined the impact of race/ethnicity on responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale, one of the most widely used discrimination scales in epidemiologic and public health research. Participants were 3,295 middle-aged US women (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese) from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) baseline examination (1996-1997). Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the Everyday Discrimination Scale by race/ethnicity. After adjustment for age, education, and language of interview, meaningful DIF was observed for 3 (out of 10) items: "receiving poorer service in restaurants or stores," "being treated as if you are dishonest," and "being treated with less courtesy than other people" (all P's < 0.001). Consequently, the "profile" of everyday discrimination differed slightly for women of different racial/ethnic groups, with certain "public" experiences appearing to have more salience for African-American and Chinese women and "dishonesty" having more salience for racial/ethnic minority women overall. "Courtesy" appeared to have more salience for Hispanic women only in comparison with African-American women. Findings suggest that the Everyday Discrimination Scale could potentially be used across racial/ethnic groups as originally intended. However, researchers should use caution with items that demonstrated DIF. PMID:22306556

Lewis, Tené T; Yang, Frances M; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Fitchett, George

2012-03-01

411

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale: A Differential Item Functioning Analysis  

PubMed Central

The authors examined the impact of race/ethnicity on responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale, one of the most widely used discrimination scales in epidemiologic and public health research. Participants were 3,295 middle-aged US women (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese) from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) baseline examination (1996–1997). Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the Everyday Discrimination Scale by race/ethnicity. After adjustment for age, education, and language of interview, meaningful DIF was observed for 3 (out of 10) items: “receiving poorer service in restaurants or stores,” “being treated as if you are dishonest,” and “being treated with less courtesy than other people” (all P's < 0.001). Consequently, the “profile” of everyday discrimination differed slightly for women of different racial/ethnic groups, with certain “public” experiences appearing to have more salience for African-American and Chinese women and “dishonesty” having more salience for racial/ethnic minority women overall. “Courtesy” appeared to have more salience for Hispanic women only in comparison with African-American women. Findings suggest that the Everyday Discrimination Scale could potentially be used across racial/ethnic groups as originally intended. However, researchers should use caution with items that demonstrated DIF. PMID:22306556

Lewis, Tene T.; Yang, Frances M.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Fitchett, George

2012-01-01

412

Attitudes toward Personal Aging and Older Adults in Adult Education Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes toward adults aged 40-59 and 60-79 were measured for graduate students in adult education (31 men, 61 women). Attitudes toward older adults were positive but became less so as the age of referents increased. Gender bias toward women over 60 was apparent. Males' attitudes toward both groups of older females and the 60-79 group of males…

Robson-Funk, Bridget; Yopp, Martha C.; McMurtry, Jerry C.; Phillips-Miller, Dianne; Young, Margaret H.

2000-01-01

413

Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

Hones, Donald F.

414

Down syndrome, paternal age and education: comparison of California and the Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The association between maternal age and risk of Down syndrome has been repeatedly shown in various populations. However, the effect of paternal age and education of parents has not been frequently studied. Comparative studies on Down syndrome are also rare. This study evaluates the epidemiological characteristics of Down syndrome in two culturally and socially contrasting population settings, in California

Dagmara Dzurova; Hynek Pikhart

2005-01-01

415

Intraocular Pressure, Ethnicity, and Refractive Error  

PubMed Central

Purpose The ethnically-diverse Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study cohort provides a unique opportunity to explore associations among intraocular pressure (IOP), ethnicity, and refractive error while adjusting for potential confounding variables. Methods Mixed linear models were used to examine the effect of age, refractive error (cycloplegic autorefraction), ethnicity, sex, and measurement protocol on IOP (Tono-pen) in 3,777 children, aged 6-14 years at their first CLEERE visit (1995-2009). Children who became myopic during follow-up were used to examine the relationship between time since myopia onset and IOP. Clinically meaningful differences in IOP were preset at > 2 mm Hg. Results IOP differed among refractive error categories with higher IOP in children with low/moderate myopia than those with high hyperopia (differences < 1 mm Hg). There was a statistically significant relationship between age and IOP that depended on ethnicity (interaction p<0.0001) and measurement protocol (interaction p<0.0001). The relationship between sex and IOP depended on measurement protocol (interaction p=0.0004). For children who became myopic during follow-up, the adjusted mean IOP showed a significant decline for only Asian (p=0.024) and White children (p=0.004). As with other statistically significant results, these changes in mean adjusted IOPs from two years before to two years after myopia onset were < 2 mm Hg. Conclusions Small but significant differences in IOP by refractive error category were found in this ethnically diverse cohort of children. Relationships between IOP and age, ethnicity, sex, and measurement protocol were complicated by significant interactions between these parameters. Longitudinal analysis of children before and after myopia onset showed changes in IOP over time that varied by ethnicity. Higher IOPs before and at myopia onset were not present in all ethnic groups, with differences before and after onset too small to suggest a role for IOP in the onset of myopia. PMID:21946783

Manny, Ruth E.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Cotter, Susan A.; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Mutti, Donald O.; Twelker, J. Daniel; Zadnik, Karla

2011-01-01

416

Eating Healthy Ethnic Food  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents/Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to ... Aim for a Healthy Weight Pocket Guide to Eating Healthy on the Go features tips on ordering ...

417

Knowledge and acceptability of the HPV vaccine among ethnically diverse black women.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to examine HPV vaccine knowledge and acceptability among ethnically diverse Black women. Forty-four women were interviewed in 6 focus groups (2 African American, 2 English-speaking Caribbean, 1 Haitian, and 1 African). Thematic content analysis was used to generate common concepts and themes and to compare findings across groups. There was varied but limited knowledge and confusion across ethnic groups about the HPV infection and vaccine. African and Haitian women had the least knowledge. Overall, women were generally receptive toward the HPV vaccine for girls but unclear about the need to vaccinate boys. Concerns about the HPV vaccine were mainly related to side effects/safety and vaccinating children at a young age. Healthcare provider's recommendation of the vaccination was important for decision making. Educational interventions with Black women about HPV vaccination should recognize cultural beliefs that vary by ethnic group. PMID:23197180

Wilson, Rula; Brown, Diane R; Boothe, Makini A S; Harris, Caroline E S

2013-08-01

418

Family Background, Adolescents' Educational Aspirations, and Australian Young Adults' Educational Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study, relationships were examined between educational aspirations and educational attainment for Australian young adults from different ethnic and social status backgrounds. Participants included 6,811 (3,547 women and 3,264 men) young adults (mean age = 20.3 years) who were in Year 9 when the study began. In the analysis,…

Marjoribanks, Kevin

2005-01-01

419

Family background, adolescents' educational aspirations, and Australian young adults' educational attainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this longitudinal study, relationships were examined between educational aspirations and educational attainment for Australian young adults from different ethnic and social status backgrounds. Participants included 6, 811 (3, 547 women and 3, 264 men) young adults (mean age = 20.3 years) who were in Year 9 when the study began. In the analysis, the AM Statistical Software was used

Kevin Marjoribanks

420

AGING EDUCATION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

From kindergarten to college, as today's students learn to see the world as a global village, they can also learn that aging is part of the human condition, that older people do exist, and that the increasing numbers of older people is both a national resource and a national problem. Students can develop an awareness of the interdependence not only

Richard O. Ulin

1982-01-01

421

Transforming Higher Education in the Information Age: Presidents Respond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College presidents respond to an article by Richard Nolan challenging college and university presidents and chancellors to transform their campuses for survival and competitive advantage in the information age. Respondents include Richard D. Breslin, David M. Clarke, Joseph Cronin, Thomas Ehrlich, Donald N. Langenberg, Harold McAninch, and Donald…

Breslin, Richard D.; And Others

1991-01-01

422

Employment and Ethnicity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Occupational stratification based on ethnic group membership is still a part of American society. In the past, ethnic stratification was perceived in conjunction with ethnic succession and it was assumed that no group would be permanently relegated to low occupational status. Today, however, flaws in the system are showing. The idea that at the…

Rozen, Freida Shoenberg

423

Aspects of Media Education: Strategic Imperatives in the Information Age. Media Education Publication 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume examines current trends in media education, modern information and communication technologies (MICT), open and distance learning (ODL), and science and technology education. Papers include: "Towards a Communal Curriculum: Strategic Planning and the Emerging Knowledge of Media Education" (Seppo Tella, Marja Mononen-Aaltonen, & Heikki…

Tella, Seppo, Ed.

424

Nutrition Education to Prevent Obesity in School-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 15.3% of children ages 6-11 are obese; an 8% increase since 1980. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys have provided nationally representative data on health statistics since the 1960’s. Comparing these surveys, the growing rates of childhood obesity are undeniable, as are the increasing rates of children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and multiple other conditions associated

Marilyn Susanne Lee

2004-01-01

425

Effect of birth weight, maternal education and prenatal smoking on offspring intelligence at school age.  

PubMed

To examine the combined effect of birth weight, mothers' education and prenatal smoking on psychometrically measured intelligence at school age 1,822 children born in 1992-1999 and attending the first six grades from 45 schools representing all of the fifteen Estonian counties with information on birth weight, gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, parity and smoking in pregnancy, and intelligence tests were studied. The scores of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were related to the birth weight: in the normal range of birth weight (>or=2500 g) every 500 g increase in birth weight was accompanied by around 0.7-point increase in IQ scores. A strong association between birth weight and IQ remained even if gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, place of residence, parity and smoking during pregnancy have been taken into account. Maternal prenatal smoking was accompanied by a 3.3-point deficit in children's intellectual abilities. Marriage and mother's education had an independent positive correlation with offspring intelligence. We concluded that the statistical effect of birth weight, maternal education and smoking in pregnancy on offspring's IQ scores was remarkable and remained even if other factors have been taken into account. PMID:20634008

Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Pullmann, Helle; Allik, Jüri

2010-08-01

426

Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, ‘to build in’), we propose an active model of education (educare, ‘to bring out’) in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning. PMID:24349000

Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

2013-01-01

427

Strong genetic influence on a UK nationwide test of educational achievement at the end of compulsory education at age 16.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, 'to build in'), we propose an active model of education (educare, 'to bring out') in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning. PMID:24349000

Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

2013-01-01

428

Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught.  

PubMed

Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health. PMID:22763460

Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng

2013-04-01

429

The Impact of Ethnicity and Religious Affiliation on the Alienation of Staff from Their Work Environment in Nigerian Universities: A Comparative Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the comparative influence of ethnicity and religious affiliation on the alienation of Nigerian university staff from their work environment. The influence of certain moderator variables such as the location of the university, gender, age, educational qualification, staff category, official rank and staff communicative…

Nnekwu, Duvie Adanma

2010-01-01

430

Comparative Ethnic Identification of Residents, Gavilan Students, and High School Seniors from Gilroy, Hollister, and Morgan Hill for 1999-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report compares the ethnicities of residents aged 18 and over, Gavilan students, and high school seniors from the cities of Gilroy, Hollister, and Morgan Hill for 1999-2000. The data was gathered from the 2000 census website, California Department of Education Dataquest website, and the campus MIS data warehouse. Some of the key findings of…

Willett, Terrence

431

Parental perceptions of the importance of providing multicultural education for their children's education at elementary, middle, and high schools in an ethnically-diverse suburban school district  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine parents' perceptions of multicultural education and the positive effects of a multicultural approach. Parents who were attending parent-teacher conferences in a single suburban school district were asked to complete a survey.^ A total of 351 parents completed and returned the survey that was adapted from previous research to measure parents' perceptions of

Lyllette Woods

2006-01-01

432

Predictors of discrepancies between informants' ratings of preschool-aged children's behavior: An examination of ethnicity, child characteristics, and family functioning  

PubMed Central

The present study examined predictors of discrepancies between mothers’, fathers’, and teachers’ ratings of 3-year-old children’s hyperactivity, attention problems, and aggression. Participants were families of 196 3-year-old children who took part in child and family assessments. Ethnicity was one of the most consistent predictors of discrepancies. African American mothers and fathers were more likely to rate their children’s hyperactivity, attention problems, and aggression lower than teachers. In contrast, Latina mothers were more likely to rate their children as more hyperactive and inattentive than teachers. ADHD/ODD diagnoses, parental depression, number of children, and children’s pre-academic skills were also predictive of discrepancies for some measures for some informants. These findings provide insight into factors that may contribute to informant discrepancies in ratings of preschool children. PMID:23935240

Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Fischer, Candice; Weieneth, Julie L.; Hurwitz, Sara D.; Sayer, Aline G.

2013-01-01

433

Meeting the educational needs of an aging population: The Australian experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of older people in Australia is growing fast, and gerontology has recently become a recognised area of study in tertiary institutions. However, negative attitudes persist among health and welfare professionals, and ways in which gerontology courses can combat the myths associated with aging and the aged are discussed. It is pointed out that people do not grow old in isolation, but in a social context. Education for older people should be seen as a part of social policy, recognising the lifelong right to education. The University of the Third Age (U3A) is a response to the demand for education from older people. The origins of this movement in Europe, and its spread to North America and Australia, are outlined. To meet the needs of older people, courses offered by U3A's have to be multidisciplinary.

Minichiello, Victor

1992-07-01

434

Integrated Geospatial Education and Technology Training for High School Age Youth (HiGETT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landsat series of satellites provides high quality, consistent, 30 m resolution data for studies of landscape-scale change over time at no cost to the user. The availability of the Landsat data archive and the effectiveness and ease of its use to solve practical societal problems, particularly integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS), has been a key factor in a movement to bring remote sensing education to community colleges (as in the "iGETT" program funded by the National Science Foundation, 2007-2011) and now to younger students of high school age. "Integrated Geospatial Education and Technology Training for High School Age Youth (HiGETT)" was a two-day meeting convened April 4-5, 2011 to explore and articulate effective means of reaching teens with geospatial technology education and career awareness. Participants represented industry, government, academia, and informal education organizations such as 4-H and Girl Scouts. This poster will summarize a report on that meeting.

Allen, J. E.

2012-12-01

435

Age, education and dementia related deaths. The Norwegian Counties Study and The Cohort of Norway.  

PubMed

An inverse relationship between educational level and dementia has been reported in several studies. In this study we investigated the relationship between educational level and dementia related deaths for cohorts of people all born during 1915-39. The cohorts were followed up from adulthood or old age, taking into account possible confounders and mediating paths. Our study population comprised participants in Norwegian health examination studies in the period 1974-2002; The Counties Study and Cohort of Norway (CONOR). Dementia related deaths were defined as deaths with a dementia diagnosis on the death certificate and linked using the Cause of Death Registry to year 2012. The study included 90,843 participants, 2.06million person years and 2440 dementia related deaths. Cox regression was used to assess the association between education and dementia related deaths. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with lower dementia related death risk compared to those with low education when follow-up started in adulthood (35-49years, high versus low education: HR=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.93; 50-69years, high versus low education: HR=0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.80). However, when follow-up started at old age (70-80years) there was no significant association between education and dementia related death. Restricting the study population to those born during a five-year period 1925-29 (the birth cohort overlapping all three age groups), gave similar main findings. The protective effects found for both high and middle educational level compared to low education were robust to adjustment for cardiovascular health and life style factors, suggesting education to be a protective factor for dementia related death. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with decreased dementia related death risk compared with low educational level when follow-up started in adulthood, but no association was observed when follow-up started at old age. PMID:25034053

Strand, Bjørn Heine; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Rosness, Tor A; Bergem, Astrid Liv Mina; Engedal, Knut; Nafstad, Per; Tell, Grethe S; Ormstad, Heidi; Tambs, Kristian; Bjertness, Espen

2014-10-15

436

Long Run Returns to Education: Does Schooling Lead to an Extended Old Age?  

PubMed Central

While there is no doubt that health is strongly correlated with education, whether schooling exerts a causal impact on health is not firmly established. We exploit a Dutch compulsory schooling law to estimate the causal effect of education on mortality. The reform provides a powerful instrument, significantly raising years of schooling, which, in turn, has a significant and robust negative effect on mortality. For men surviving to age 81, an extra year of schooling is estimated to reduce the probability of dying before the age of 89 by almost 3 percentage points relative to a baseline of 50 percent. PMID:21874068

van Kippersluis, Hans; O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

2011-01-01

437

Cervical cancer screening among ethnically diverse black women: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices.  

PubMed

This is a descriptive study of cervical cancer screening knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices among ethnically diverse black women. We conducted 6 focus groups with Haitian, African, English-speaking Caribbean, and African American women recruited from a federally qualified health center. Overall, there was limited knowledge and confusion across ethnic groups about cervical cancer and its risk factors, the Pap test, and the human papilloma virus (HPV) and its association with cervical cancer. At the same time, there were distinct differences between ethnic groups in knowledge, practices, and cultural beliefs about cervical cancer. African women knew the least among all the groups, while African American participants had the greatest knowledge of HPV. However, their knowledge was still limited. Patient-doctor relationship was the single most important facilitator for cervical cancer screening. Barriers to cervical cancer screening included cost, busy work schedule, fear of the unknown, lack of insurance or being unemployed, and fear of disclosing immigration status. Interventions with ethnically diverse black women would benefit from recognizing cultural barriers and misconceptions that vary by ethnic group. Culturally based strategies suggested by the focus groups include the use of existing social networks, the use of indigenous community-based health workers, and the inclusion of women of all ages in cervical cancer education because of the roles they have in extended families. PMID:22046849

Brown, Diane R; Wilson, Rula M; Boothe, Makini A S; Harris, Caroline E S

2011-08-01

438

Parents' Perceptions of Pediatric Primary Care Quality: Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Language, and Access  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effects of race/ethnicity, language, and potential access on parents' reports of pediatric primary care experiences. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary survey data were collected (67 percent response rate) from 3,406 parents of students in kindergarten through sixth grade in a large urban school district in California during the 1999–2000 school year. Data Collection The data were collected by mail, telephone, and in person. Surveys were administered in English, Spanish, Vietnamese, and Tagalog. Study Design Data were analyzed using multiple regression models. The dependent variable was parents' reports of primary care quality, assessed via the previously validated Parents' Perceptions of Primary Care measure (P3C). The independent variables were race/ethnicity, language, and potential access to care (insurance status, presence of a regular provider of care), controlling for child age, gender, and chronic health condition status, and mother's education. Principal Findings Parents' reports of primary care quality varied according to race/ethnicity, with Asian and Latino parents reporting lower P3C scores than African Americans and whites. In multivariate analyses, both language and potential access exerted strong independent effects on primary care quality, reducing the effect of race/ethnicity such that the coefficient for Latinos was no longer significant, and the coefficient for Asians was much smaller, though still statistically significant. Conclusions To reduce racial/ethnic disparities in primary care, attention should be paid both to policies aimed at improving potential access and to providing linguistically appropriate services. PMID:12968814

Seid, Michael; Stevens, Gregory D; Varni, James W

2003-01-01

439

Why Learning Not Education?--Analysis of Transnational Education Policies in the Age of Globalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The profound influence of globalization seems helping outshine the concept of "education" with the more flexible notion of "learning" in the education policies of major transnational organizations. With considerable differences in concepts, all of them are promoting "learning", more specifically LLL (lifelong learning) through their policies.…

Mandal, Sayantan

2012-01-01

440

Education Level Predicts Retrospective Metamemory Accuracy in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064

Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

2013-01-01

441

Linguistic Skills of Adult Native Speakers, as a Function of Age and Level of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the level of their EP (low versus high), were tested on…

Mulder, Kimberley; Hulstijn, Jan H.

2011-01-01

442

Impact of a Two-Generation Early Education Program on Parenting Processes at Age 18  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Infant Health and Development Program is a two-generation early education model designed to improve parenting competence and child well-being. As part of an 8-site randomized clinical trial involving low birthweight premature children, assessments of children and parents were gathered at the time of program completion (age 3), with follow-up at ages 5, 8, and 18. Two key parenting processes

Robert H. Bradley; Leanne Whiteside-Mansell; Patrick H. Casey; Kathleen Barrett

2010-01-01

443

Differences in diffusion of FDA antidepressant risk warnings across racial-ethnic groups.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Numerous articles have identified that medical technologies diffuse more rapidly among non-Latino whites compared with other racial-ethnic groups. However, whether health risk warnings also diffuse differentially across racial-ethnic minority groups is uncertain. This study assessed racial-ethnic variation in children's antidepressant use before and after the 2004 black-box warning concerning risks of antidepressants for youths. METHODS Data consisted of responses for white, black, and Latino youths ages five through 17 from the 2002-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=44,422). The dependent variable was any antidepressant use in the prior year. Independent variables were race-ethnicity, year, psychological impairment, income, insurance status, region, and parents' education level. Logistic regression models were used to assess antidepressant use conditional on race-ethnicity, time, interaction between race-ethnicity and time, need, socioeconomic status, and Institute of Medicine-concordant estimates of disparities in predicted antidepressant use before and after the warning. RESULTS The warnings affected antidepressant use differentially for whites, blacks, and Latinos. Usage rates among whites decreased from 3.3 to 2.1 percentage points between prewarning and postwarning, whereas usage rates remained steady among Latinos and increased among blacks. Findings were significant in multiple regression analyses, in which predictions were adjusted for need. CONCLUSIONS The findings indicate that health safety information on antidepressant usage among children diffused faster among whites than nonwhites, suggesting the need to improve infrastructure for delivering important health messages to racial-ethnic minority populations. PMID:23412363

DePetris, Andrea Elizabeth; Cook, Benjamin L

2013-05-01

444

Ethnicity and infant mortality in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Malaysian infant mortality differentials are a worthwhile subject for study, because socioeconomic development has very clearly had a differential impact by ethnic group. The Chinese rates of infant mortality are significantly lower than the Malay or Indian rates. Instead of examining the obvious access to care issues, this study considered factors related to the culture of infant care. Practices include the Chinese confinement of the mother in the first month after childbirth ("pe'i yue") and Pillsbury's 12 normative rules for Malaysian Chinese care. Malay practices vary widely by region and history. Indian mothers are restricted by diet. Data-recording flaws do not permit analysis of Sarawak or Sabah. The general assumption that Western medicine favors better health for mothers and infants is substantiated among peninsular communities, however, there are also negative impacts which affect infant mortality. The complex interaction of factors impacting on infant mortality reported in seven previous studies is discussed. A review of these studies reveals that immediate causes are infections, injuries, and dehydration. Indirect causes are birth weight or social and behavioral factors such as household income or maternal education. Indirect factors, which are amenable to planned change and influence the biological proximate determinants of infant mortality, are identified as birth weight, maternal age at birth, short pregnancy intervals or prior reproductive loss, sex of the child, birth order, duration of breast feeding and conditions of supplementation, types of household water and sanitation, year of child's birth, maternal education, household income and composition, institution of birth, ethnicity, and rural residence. Nine factors are identified empirically as not significant: maternal hours of work in the child's first year, maternal occupation, distance from home to workplace, presence of other children or servants, incidence of epidemics in the child's first year of life, community types of sanitation, prices and availability of infant foods, and access to various types of medical care. Future empirical study should consider factors such as class differences, place of residence, or extent of illiteracy as underlying or related to ethnicity. Policy-makers should be aware that future decline in infant mortality rates may depend on the blending of traditional with modern practices. PMID:12287522

Dixon, G

1993-06-01

445

Chicana/o Students Respond to Arizona's Anti-Ethnic Studies Bill, SB 1108: Civic Engagement, Ethnic Identity, and Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arizona Senate Bill 1108, the "anti-ethnic studies bill," proposed to eliminate ethnic studies programs and ethnic-based organizations from state-funded education. Along with other anti-immigrant legislation, this bill is creating an oppressive climate of discrimination against individuals of Mexican descent in Arizona. This study investigates the…

O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Romero, Andrea J.

2011-01-01

446

Ethnic identity of older Chinese in Canada.  

PubMed

In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada. PMID:22198551

Lai, Daniel W L

2012-06-01

447

The incidence of low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction in relationship to maternal ethnicity and gestational age at birth - A PEARL study analysis from the State of Qatar  

PubMed Central

Objective: To analyze the association between maternal ethnicity and gestational age with the incidence of low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: Prospective, analytic study Methods: The study was conducted between March 14th and April 4th 2011 in Women's Hospital HMC. The data was ascertained from the delivery register of labor ward on daily basis using predesigned, structured questionnaire. Data was stratified according to the maternal ethnicity groups and gestational age at birth (term and preterm). Results: The total deliveries during the study period were 890; 35.5% Qatari (n 316) and 64.5% non-Qatari (n 574). The incidence of LBW was 12.36% (n 110). The difference of LBW incidence between Qatari (13.6% n 43) and non-Qatari (11.67% n 67) groups was non significant (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.82-1.67, p = 0.401). The same was between non-Qatari sub groups (p < 0.05). The incidence of IUGR was 6% (n 54; 49.09% of LBW). The incidence of IUGR between Qatari (5.7% n 18) and non-Qatari (6.27% n 36) groups was significant (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.3-0.6 p>0.05). The incidence of LBW was 7.85% (n 60) in term babies and 39.68% (n 50) in preterm babies. The incidence if IUGR was 3.79% (n 29) in term babies and 19.84% (n 25) in preterm babies. Preterm babies had a five times higher risk of both being LBW (RR 5.05; 95%CI 3.65-6.99; p < 0.001) and IUGR (RR 5.23; 95% CI 3.17-8.62; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of low birth weight is independent of maternal ethnicity in Qatar. However, the incidence of IUGR is significantly higher among the non-Qatari population. The relative risk of being LBW or IUGR is five times higher in preterm babies. Further in depth studies are indicated. PMID:25003038

Abdulkader, Zeyad Mohannad; ur Rahman, Sajjad; Nimeri, Nuha

2012-01-01

448

The Effects of Health Education through Face To Face Teaching and Educational Movies, on Suburban Women in Childbearing Age  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of ‘face-to-face education’ and ‘educational movies’ on ‘knowledge’ and ‘practice’ of women of child-bearing-age, in terms of health-care during pregnancy and during infancy in a suburban region near Tehran City, Iran. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, the sample included 873 married women. Questionnaires for knowledge and practice assessment were designed. The women were assigned to three groups: control (group I), face-to-face education (group II), and educational movie (group III). Knowledge questionnaires were completed before and immediately after intervention. Practice questionnaires were completed before and three months after intervention. Both questionnaires consisted of two types of questions: type A (concerning infant care issues) and type B (concerning prenatal health care). Results: There was a significant difference in post-test knowledge between groups I and II and between groups I and III, but not between groups II and III. In terms of post-test practice, the changes were determined for every individual question, and significantly, better results were seen in group II, especially concerning type B questions. Conclusion: Face to face education lead to better practice than educational movies. In addition, significantly better practice occurred regarding child health care issues rather than prenatal issues in both groups. Realistic and tangible issues, those easy to practice, and with little or no economical burden imposed on the family, progressed from the knowledge state to the practice state more successfully in both groups. PMID:23113010

Vameghi, R; Mohammad, K; Karimloo, M; Soleimani, F; Sajedi, F

2010-01-01

449

Inequality of child mortality among ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa.  

PubMed Central

Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries (Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia) to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health and survival chances, compared to the rest of the national population, as a result of their geographical location. The factors examined to explain potential child survival inequalities among ethnic groups included residence in the largest city, household economic conditions, educational attainment and nutritional status of the mothers, use of modern maternal and child health services including immunization, and patterns of fertility and migration. The results show remarkable consistency. In all 11 countries there were significant differentials between ethnic groups in the odds of dying during infancy or before the age of 5 years. Multivariate analysis shows that ethnic child mortality differences are closely linked with economic inequality in many countries, and perhaps with differential use of child health services in countries of the Sahel region. Strong and consistent results in this study support placing the notion of ethnicity at the forefront of theories and analyses of child mortality in Africa which incorporate social, and not purely epidemiological, considerations. Moreover, the typical advantage of relatively small, clearly defined ethnic groups, as compared to the majority in the national population, according to fundamental indicators of wellbeing--child survival, education, housing, and so forth--suggests that many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, despite their widespread poverty, are as marked by social inequality as are countries in other regions in the world. PMID:10686731

Brockerhoff, M.; Hewett, P.

2000-01-01

450

major code major conc codeconcentration program code program degree coll dept AGED Agricultural Education No Concentration AGED-MS Agricultural Education MS AG AGED  

E-print Network

-MS Electrical Engineering MS EN ECE ELTC Elementary School Certificate No Concentration ELTC-CERT Elementary School Certificate CERT ED EDUC ENGL English No Concentration ENGL-MA English MA LS ENGL ENGR Engineering PHD LS CHEM COLL College Teaching Certificate No Concentration COLL-CERT College Teaching Certificate

Dyer, Bill

451

Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

2010-01-01

452

The Game of Late Life: A Novel Education Activity for the Psychology of Ageing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and evaluation of The Game of Late Life--a novel education activity for the psychology of ageing. The game was designed to provide transformational learning where students imagine themselves as older adults and move through late life via a game board, encountering various life events along the way. One of the…

Brinker, Jay K.; Roberts, Pamela; Radnidge, Belinda

2014-01-01

453

Fecundity and Wife Age and Educational Hypogamy: A Biological Basis for the Gender Wage Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models how a longer fecundity horizon for males than females leads to age and educational differences between husbands and wives. Empirical support is given first based on cross-national data from over 60 countries, second based on US data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, third based on historical Swedish data from the 18th and 19th centuries, and

Solomon W. Polachek; Xu Zhang

454

A Biological Basis for the Gender Wage Gap: Fecundity and Wife Age and Educational Hypogamy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models how a longer fecundity horizon for males than females leads to age and educational differences between husbands and wives. Empirical support is given first based on cross-national data from over 60 countries, second based on US data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, third based on historical Swedish data from the 18th and 19th centuries, and

Solomon W. Polachek; Xu Zhang; Xing Zhou

455

The Relationship between Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies, Age, and Level of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research investigated the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies by 60 young and 90 adult learners of different levels of education across different fields of study. The intermediate level young participants included junior-high and senior-high school learners between the ages of 14 and 17. The high-intermediate adult…

Khezrlou, Sima

2012-01-01

456

The Message Is the Medium: Geographic Education in the Age of the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the articles in this edition of "Journal of Geography" that address the conceptual, cognitive, and pedagogic issues in the age of the Internet. Discusses the transformation of media from print to electronic communication and the implications for geography and geographic education in a broader context. (CMK)

Sui, Daniel Z.; Bednarz, Robert S.

1999-01-01

457

Act Smart. HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum for Three Age Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff facilitator…

American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

458

Postsecondary Educational Engagement among Formerly-Incarcerated Transition-Age Young Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors explore correlates of engagement in postsecondary educational programs (including technical/trade schools, 2-year colleges, and 4-year colleges) among young men who served mandatory probation camp sentences as juveniles. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with a sample of 75 men (average age of 20.5) who…

Abrams, Laura S.; Franke, Todd M.

2013-01-01

459

Thinking about higher education? Will you be aged 21 or over when you start your course?  

E-print Network

Thinking about higher education? Will you be aged 21 or over when you start your course? Why and pastoral support for students, and has one of the highest retention rates in the country ­ just one per not visit the University to find out more? We run a series of events for mature students throughout the year

Steiner, Ullrich

460

Educational "Anticipations" of Traditional Age Community College Students: A Prolegomena to Any Future Accountability Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a five-level variable that highlights the level and the consistency of a student's educational "anticipations," and tests the explanatory power of this approach to the histories of traditional age community college students using the postsecondary transcript files of the NELS:88\\2000 longitudinal study. In logistic models of…

Adelman, Clifford

2005-01-01

461

Bridging the Gap between Academic Gerontology and the Educational Needs of the Aging Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and universities have failed to meet the long-recognized, growing need for nonacademic-credit gerontology education. With the explosive growth of the aging network, other organizations have readily responded to the fast-growing market. Results of two needs assessments over a 5-year period demonstrate employers' higher support for…

Karcher, Barbara C.; Whittlesey, Valerie

2007-01-01

462

Family Life Education: A Problem-Solving Curriculum for Adolescents (Ages 15-19).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rising incidence of teenage sexual activity and the subsequent growth in numbers of teenage parents provide the rationale for this problem-solving curriculum guide on family life education. This model curriculum for adolescents aged 15-19 is designed to promote problem-solving skills, self-confidence, self-awareness, self-control, and…

Feibelman, Barbara; Hamrick, Michael

463

Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

2009-01-01

464

Relative Age Effects on Physical Education Attainment and School Sport Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The "Relative Age Effect" (RAE) has consistently been demonstrated to influence attainment in various contexts. In education, RAE appears to provide an advantage to those born during initial months of an academic year, compared with those born in later months. A similar effect has been noted in many sports, with those born shortly…

Cobley, Stephen; Abraham, Colin; Baker, Joseph

2008-01-01

465

Pericardial adipose tissue and coronary artery calcification in The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationship of pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) with coronary artery calcification in MESA, a large cohort in which associations by race/ethnicity can be compared. The baseline cohort comprised 6,814 Caucasian (38%), African American (28%), Chinese American (12%) and Hispanic (22%) adults aged 45–84, without known clinical cardiovascular disease. Cardiac CT was used to measure PAT (cm3) and calcification (Agatston score). We examined cross-sectional associations of PAT with the presence (score>0) and severity (continuous score if >0) of calcification using prevalence ratio (PR) (n=6,672) and linear regression (n=3,362), respectively. Main models were adjusted for age, age2, gender, race/ethnicity, field site, smoking, physical activity, alcohol and education. PAT volume (adjusted for age, height, weight and site) was greatest in Chinese males, while Black males had less PAT than all but Black females. PAT was associated with presence [PR per standard deviation (SD): 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.08)] and severity [difference in log Agatston score per SD: 0.15 (0.09, 0.21)] of calcification, but neither association varied by race/ethnicity. Adjustment for generalized adiposity attenuated but did not eliminate the associations. With further adjustment for traditional risk factors and inflammatory markers, only the association with severity remained statistically significant [PR: 1.02 (1.00, 1.04), difference: 0.10 (0.03, 0.17)]. Heterogeneity by sex was observed for presence of calcification (PR in men: 1.04; in women: 1.08; p for interaction<0.0001). Pericardial adipose tissue was associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery calcification in this cohort, but despite differences in PAT volumes and calcification across race/ethnic groups, neither association varied by race/ethnicity. PMID:23784910

McClain, JE; Hsu, FC; Brown, ER; Burke, GL; Carr, JJ; Harris, TB; Kritchevsky, SB; Szklo, M; Tracy, RP; Ding, J

2012-01-01

466

Timing Issues with Early Childhood Education Programs: How Effect Sizes Vary by Starting Age, Program Duration and Persistence of Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to…

Duncan, Greg J.; Leak, James A.; Li, Weilin; Magnuson, Katherine; Schindler, Holly; Yoshikawa, Hiro

2011-01-01

467

Degree of bilingualism predicts age of diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in low-education but not in highly educated Hispanics.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the relationship between bilingual language proficiency and onset of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 44 Spanish-English bilinguals at the UCSD Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Degree of bilingualism along a continuum was measured using Boston Naming Test (BNT) scores in each language. Higher degrees of bilingualism were associated with increasingly later age-of-diagnosis (and age of onset of symptoms), but this effect was driven by participants with low education level (a significant interaction between years of education and bilingualism) most of whom (73%) were also Spanish-dominant. Additionally, only objective measures (i.e., BNT scores), not self-reported degree of bilingualism, predicted age-of-diagnosis even though objective and self-reported measures were significantly correlated. These findings establish a specific connection between knowledge of two languages and delay of AD onset, and demonstrate that bilingual effects can be obscured by interactions between education and bilingualism, and by failure to obtain objective measures of bilingualism. More generally, these data support analogies between the effects of bilingualism and "cognitive reserve" and suggest an upper limit on the extent to which reserve can function to delay dementia. PMID:22001315

Gollan, Tamar H; Salmon, David P; Montoya, Rosa I; Galasko, Douglas R

2011-12-01

468

Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project Overviews: Student Reading Booklets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents six 10-20 page student booklets for the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Project for secondary schools. Booklet I, "Acculturation," discusses how immigrants became Americanized through education and intermarriage. Booklet II defines and enlarges upon various concepts relating to ethnicity. Booklet III presents background information…

Tipple, Bruce E.; Whitehead, Pamela

469

National Unity and Ethnic Identity in a Vietnamese University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss the ways in which Vietnam's educational policies for ethnic minorities are enacted in the bachelor of arts (BA) program in ethnic minority cultures (EMC) at the Hanoi University of Culture (HUC). Hanoi University of Culture is one of only two universities in Vietnam that offer this program. Although the BA is…

Tran, Linh T.; Walter, Pierre G.

2010-01-01

470

Parallel lives? Ethnic segregation in schools and neighbourhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide evidence on the extent of ethnic segregation experienced by children across secondary schools and neighbourhoods (wards). Using 2001 Schools Census and Population Census data we employ the indices of dissimilarity and isolation and compare patterns of segregation across nine ethnic groups, and across Local Education Authorities in England. Looking at both schools and neighbourhoods, we find high levels

Simon Burgess; Ruth Lupton; Deborah Wilson

2005-01-01

471

Integrating Ethnicity and Migration As Determinants of Canadian Women's Health  

PubMed Central

Health Issue This chapter investigates (1) the association between ethnicity and migration, as measured by length of residence in Canada, and two specific self-reported outcomes: (a) self-perceived health and (b) self-reports of chronic conditions; and (2) the extent to which these selected determinants provide an adequate portrait of the differential outcomes on Canadian women's self-perceived health and self-reports of chronic conditions. The 2000 Canadian Community Health Survey was used to assess these associations while controlling for selected determinants such as age, sex, family structure, highest level of education attained and household income. Key Findings • Recent immigrant women (2 years or less in Canada) are more likely to report poor health than Canadian-born women (OR = 0.48 CI: 0.30–0.77). Immigrant women who have been in Canada 10 years and over are more likely to report poor health than Canadian-born women (OR = 1.31 CI: 1.18–1.45). • Although immigrant women are less likely to report chronic conditions than Canadian-born women, this health advantage decreased over time in Canada (OR from 0.35 to 0.87 for 0–2 years to 10 years and above compared with Canadian born women). Data Gaps and Recommendations • Migration experience needs to be conceptualized according to the results of past studies and included as a social determinant of health above and beyond ethnicity and culture. It is expected that the upcoming longitudinal survey of immigrants will help enhance surveillance capacity in this area. • Variables need to be constructed to allow women and men to best identify themselves appropriately according to ethnic identity and number of years in the host country; some of the proposed categories used as a cultural group may simply refer to skin colour without capturing associated elements of culture, ethnicity and life experiences. PMID:15345095

Vissandjee, Bilkis; Desmeules, Marie; Cao, Zheynuan; Abdool, Shelly; Kazanjian, Arminee

2004-01-01

472

The Association between Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphism and Mild Cognitive Impairment among Different Ethnic Minority Groups in China  

PubMed Central

The association, in different ethnic groups, of apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene polymorphism with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been unclear. Few studies have examined the association in Chinese minorities. The current study explores the association between apoE gene polymorphism and MCI in one of the biggest ethnic groups—the Hui—and compares it with the Han. The Minimental State Exam, Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 306 ethnic Hui and 618 ethnic Han people aged ?55 years. ApoE genotypes were determined using the high resolution melting curve method. The distribution of the apoE genotype and the frequency of alleles ?2, ?3, and ?4 were similar in the Hui and Han groups. In analyses adjusted for age, gender, and education level, the ?4 allele was a risk factor for MCI in both the Hui group (OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.02–6.66) and the Han group (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.19–4.67), but the apoE ?2 allele was protective for MCI only in the Han group (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.38–0.88). The association of some apoE genotypes with MCI may differ in different ethnic groups in China. Further studies are needed to explore this effect among different populations. PMID:25161798

Wang, ZhiZhong; Ma, Wanrui; Liu, Lan

2014-01-01

473

Preferences in Maryland Higher Education: Racial and Ethnic Preferences in Undergraduate Admissions at Maryland Four-Year Public Colleges and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which racial and ethnic preferences were used in the admissions policies of Maryland's four-year public colleges and universities. Ten institutions provided data on in-state enrollees (race, sex, and SAT scores). Data analysis indicated that white in-state enrollees on average had substantially higher SAT scores…

Lerner, Robert; Nagai, Althea K.

474

The effects of ethnicity, education and an informational video on pregnant women's knowledge and decisions about a prenatal diagnostic screening test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal screening for genetic disease and developmental disabilities is rapidly becoming a routine part of the management of low-risk pregnancies. Yet research on how to best inform pregnant women about these tests and their special ethical entailments remains sparse. We asked 130 low-risk pregnant women of diverse ethnic and social class backgrounds a series of questions about a prenatal test

C. H. Browner; Mabel Preloran

1996-01-01

475

Ethnicity as Social Capital: An Examination of First-Generation, Ethnic-Minority Students at a Canadian University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we use interview data collected in a four-year longitudinal study of first-generation university students to answer the question: how might the ethnicity of first-generation students impact their university experiences? After briefly examining previous literature written on the educational achievement levels of ethnic-minority…

Birani, Aisha; Lehmann, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

476

Comparative Ethnic Studies  

E-print Network

Comparative Ethnic Studies College of Arts and Sciences Degree Options Bachelor of Arts on popular culture, sports, media, and social issues and how they relate to race, class, and gender. � CES: Foundations of Comparative Ethnic Studies CES 209: Hip Hop Around the Globe CES 260: Race and Racism in US

Collins, Gary S.

477

Ethnicity in American Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is comprised of three articles. (1) Ethnicity in American Life: The Historical Perspective, by John Hope Franklin, recounts the trends in the last three centuries. It is contended that ethnicity has extended and continues to extend beyond race; that at times it meant language, customs, religion, and national origin, but that it has…

Franklin, John Hope; And Others

478

Britain's Ethnic Minorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

Central Office of Information, London (England).

479

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adults in Randomized Clinical Trials of Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent studies suggest that binge eating disorder (BED) is as prevalent among African American and Hispanic Americans as among Caucasian Americans; however, data regarding the characteristics of treatment-seeking individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic differences in demographic characteristics and eating disorder symptoms in participants enrolled in treatment trials for BED. Method Data from 11 completed randomized, controlled trials were aggregated in a single database, the Clinical Trials of Binge Eating Disorder (CT-BED) database, which included 1,204 Caucasian, 120 African American, and 64 Hispanic participants assessed at baseline. Age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index (BMI), binge eating frequency, and Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) Restraint, Shape, Weight, and Eating Concern subscale scores were examined. Results Mixed model analyses indicated that African American participants in BED treatment trials had higher mean BMI than Caucasian participants, and Hispanic participants had significantly greater EDE shape, weight, and eating concerns than Caucasian participants. No racial or ethnic group differences were found on the frequency of binge eating episodes. Observed racial/ethnic differences in BED symptoms were not substantially reduced after adjusting for BMI and education. Comparisons between the CT-BED database and epidemiological data suggest limitations to the generalizability of data from treatment-seeking samples to the BED community population, particularly regarding the population with lower levels of education. Conclusions Further research is needed to assess alternative demographic, psychological, and culturally specific variables to better understand the diversity of treatment-seeking individuals with BED. PMID:22201327

Franko, Debra L.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Thompson, Douglas R.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Davis, Angela; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Roehrig, James P.; Bryson, Susan W.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crow, Scott J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Gorin, Amy A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Masheb, Robin M.; Mitchell, James E.; Peterson, Carol B.; Safer, Debra L.; Striegel, Ruth H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

2013-01-01

480

Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources. PMID:22087564

2011-01-01

481

Age Differences in Reaction Time and Attention in a National Telephone Sample of Adults: Education, Sex, and Task Complexity Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study demonstrated effects of age, education, and sex on complex reaction time in a large national sample (N = 3,616) with a wide range in age (32-85) and education. Participants completed speeded auditory tasks (from the MIDUS [Midlife in the U.S.] Stop and Go Switch Task) by telephone. Complexity ranged from a simple repeated task to an…

Tun, Patricia A.; Lachman, Margie E.

2008-01-01