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Sample records for age education ethnicity

  1. Education and Physical Activity Mediate the Relationship between Ethnicity and Cognitive Function in Late Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masel, Meredith C.; Raji, Mukaila; Peek, M. Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status (SES), particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the mediating characteristics of education or physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in younger aged groups. Most research conducted focuses only on older adults during a time when degeneration of brain tissue may complicate the exploration of the relationships among ethnicity and cognitive function. The current research will expand existing knowledge about education, physical activity, and cognitive function in minority groups. Design The study presents data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults (n=9,204, mean age +-sd=55.8+-3.1). Regression and mediation testing determined the mediating effects of education and physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function. Results Significant association between white ethnicity and higher scores on cognitive tests was evident as early as late middle age. The magnitude of the association significantly diminished on adjusting for education and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential mediating role of education and physical activity on the ethnic differences in cognitive tests in late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults. Our findings suggest a need for studies to understand if adult education and culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions in middle age influence ethnic disparities in prevalence of cognitive impairment in old age. PMID:20401816

  2. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51

  3. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  4. Language, Education and Ethnicity: Whose Rights Will Prevail in an Age of Globalisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Education and ethnicity cannot be discussed without taking language into account. This paper will argue that any discussion of ethnic minorities cannot ignore the question of language, nor can any discussion of human rights ignore the question of language rights. Unfortunately, in today's globalised world, governments and minorities are faced with…

  5. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  6. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream

  7. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  8. Skin cancer risk perceptions: A comparison across ethnicity, age, education, gender, and income

    PubMed Central

    Buster, Kesha J.; You, Zhiying; Fouad, Mona; Elmets, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of non-cutaneous and cutaneous malignancies support the hypothesis that poor risk-perception status contributes to health disparity. Objective We evaluated skin cancer risk perceptions across race and other demographic markers using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) and compared them to discover differences in perception that may contribute to the disparities in skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. Methods Respondents with no prior history of skin cancer were randomly selected to answer questions assessing perceived risk and knowledge of preventive strategies of skin cancer. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations between perceptions of skin cancer and demographic variables including self-described race, age, sex, education, income, and health insurance status. Results Blacks, the elderly, and people with less education perceived themselves as at lower risk of developing skin cancer. They, along with Hispanics, were also more likely to believe that one cannot lower their skin cancer risk and that there are so many different recommendations on how to prevent skin cancer that it makes it difficult to know which ones to follow. Lower education also correlated with greater reluctance to have a skin exam. Limitations HINTS is a cross-sectional instrument, thus it only provides a snapshot of skin cancer perceptions. Conclusion Uncertainty and altered perceptions are more common in the skin cancer risk perceptions of ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those with less education. These are the same groups that are subject to disparities in skin cancer outcomes. Educational programs directed at these demographic groups may help to reduce the skin cancer-related health disparities. PMID:21875760

  9. Ethnicity and Aging: A Bibliography. Checklists in the Humanities and Education: Series Number Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murguia, Edward, Comp.; And Others

    Literature on ethnicity and aging is listed in this bibliography, which is intended to assist researchers, teachers, and policymakers. The bibliography is divided into seven categories: (1) multiethnic and general studies; (2) Black Americans; (3) Hispanic Americans; (4) Native Americans; (5) Asian and Pacific Americans; (6) European origin ethnic…

  10. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. PMID:23168270

  11. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    de Castro Maymone, Mayra Buainain; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  12. Ethnicity: A Continuum on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraborty, Sujata; Ghosh, Bhola Nath

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop a clearer understanding of the role of education in the formation of ethnicity. The basic meaning of the term "ethnicity" is that it gives a distinct identity to a community and distinguishes one community or an individual from another. It has been found that ethnic consciousness or ethnic identity has been in increase…

  13. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  14. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  15. Race, Ethnicity and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Philip S., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This theme issue contains papers on race and ethnicity in public education: "Introduction" (Philip Hart); "Toward Democratic Education: The Importance of Culturally Responsive Leadership in 21st Century Schools" (Donna M. Davis); "Improving the Selection Process for Identifying Gifted Ethnic Minority Children" (John Dillard and Nettye R. Brazil);…

  16. Multicultural Education: Beyond Ethnic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.; Plata, Maximo

    1988-01-01

    The development of multicultural education to its current role of promoting ethnic pluralism as a social value is described. The article surveys the variety and scope of definitions of multicultural education. The role of ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, and gender in shaping a child are discussed. (JL)

  17. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  18. Ethnic Inequalities in Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwy, Alwiya; Schech, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses Kenya's survey data to explore ethnic inequalities in education in Kenya. It focuses on some ethnic groups that may have resources and opportunities as a result of their geographical location and ethnic proximity to the ruling elite. The factors examined to explain potential educational inequalities among ethnic groups include the

  19. Ethnicity, Aging and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    What is the relationship between ethnicity and the mental health problems of the elderly in American society? This paper offers some suggestions and reviews some data that might encourage further efforts in this area. (Author)

  20. Bold Choices: How Ethnic Inequalities in Educational Attainment Are Suppressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine ethnic inequalities in educational attainment in England and Wales. I focus on the two main educational transitions in England and Wales: the transition at age 16, from compulsory to post-compulsory education, and the transition at age 18, from school to university. I take into account the distinction made by Boudon (1974)

  1. Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women: the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Neurocognitive Substudy.

    PubMed

    Manly, Jennifer J; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth T; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther; Martin, Eileen M; Young, Mary

    2011-10-01

    Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%), and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed. PMID:21950512

  2. The Education of Ethnic Groups in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravetz, Nathan

    Education of ethnic groups in Israel is explored in light of the rapidly growing population and the desire of members of all ethnic groups for upward economic and social mobility. Major ethnic groups include Moslems, Christians, Druze, and various religious and non-religious groups of Jews including Ashkenazim, Sephardim, and Kibbutznik. Ethnic…

  3. Educating Other People's Children: Race, Class, Ethnicity, Aging, and the Politics of School Funding in Long Island, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan

    Long Island, New York, including Nassau and Suffolk Counties, is a patchwork of small ethnically, racially, and economically segregated towns organized into 126 school districts. School funding patterns and problems conform to racial, ethnic, and class lines. Predominantly minority school districts generally have higher property tax rates, fewer…

  4. Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In "Educations in Ethnic Violence", Matthew Lange explores the effects education has on ethnic violence. Lange contradicts the widely-held belief that education promotes peace and tolerance. Rather, Lange finds that education commonly contributes to aggression, especially in environments with ethnic divisions, limited resources, and ineffective…

  5. Ethnic Inequalities and Educational Attainment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jao, Jui-Chang; McKeever, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine educational stratification in Taiwan against the background of an ethnically based political economy. They investigate how educational attainment is related to ethnicity and other background factors, such as parental class and education, and if these relationships changed over time as Taiwan became a more

  6. Ethnic Inequalities and Educational Attainment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jao, Jui-Chang; McKeever, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine educational stratification in Taiwan against the background of an ethnically based political economy. They investigate how educational attainment is related to ethnicity and other background factors, such as parental class and education, and if these relationships changed over time as Taiwan became a more…

  7. Trilingual Education for Ethnic Minorities: Toward Empowerment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2010-01-01

    Trilingual education (encompassing ethnic minority languages, Chinese, and English) for minority students gains popular support from local ethnic communities to redress educational inequality issues affecting majority and minority groups in China. This paper explores the uses of these three languages on two university campuses, representative of…

  8. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants

  9. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  10. Ethnic Stereotypes, Prejudicial Attitudes, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines the assumption often made in the sociology literature that stereotypy and prejudice are equivalent phenomena through study of the variation of both dimensions of ethnic attitudes by education. (Editor)

  11. Community health education: reaching ethnically diverse elders.

    PubMed

    States, Rebecca A; Susman, William M; Riquelme, Luis F; Godwin, Ellen M; Greer, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    To address disparities in access to health care information, we developed a model program of community-based, health education workshops to be delivered in English and Spanish to older urban adults from diverse ethnic, cultural, and language backgrounds. The workshops were created through an interdisciplinary collaboration among faculty from seven health care professions and focused on three healthcare topics identified in Healthy People 2010: dementia and depression, stress reduction, and physical activity. The development of workshop content and structure, including didactic and interactive components, an approach to interdisciplinary student involvement, and program evaluation by clients and community center staff, are presented as a model for other educators. The workshops presented at five senior centers were attended by 1110 mostly female clients with an average age of 74 yrs and with a large proportion self-identified as of minority background. One hundred seven students from seven healthcare programs helped deliver the workshops. Interviews and surveys of the clients demonstrated that most had a positive learning experience, whereas the evidence of intent to take action on health care issues was less definitive. Analysis of student essays demonstrated increased student understanding of older adults and of community services. A website, Geriatric Educational Resources for Instructors and Elders (www.GERIE.org), was created to provide access to the instructional and resource materials used for the workshops, including presentation materials in Spanish. This model program may help address the substantial health education needs of a growing population of older adults from diverse ethnic, cultural, and language minorities. PMID:17243436

  12. Ethnicity and Gender in Australian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Jim

    The Australian education system is denying equity and social justice to ethnic minorities and women. This paper examines the development of Australia's educational policy for those two groups. It argues that the educational disadvantages they have experienced have been enhanced by the marginalization of the issues. Policies such as multicultural…

  13. Ethnicity, Forms of Capital, and Educational Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessen, Geert W. J. M.

    2001-11-01

    Bourdieu's cultural capital thesis is an attempt to explain how social class influences the transmission of educational inequality. In this article, the question of the extent to which various forms of capital also apply to ethnic minorities stands central. On the basis of Dutch and American research findings, a model is formulated and empirically tested with the aid of data from the Dutch Primary Education cohort study. Students from four ethnic groups are included: Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan. The main variables are language and math test scores, socio-economic milieu, and a number of capital indicators, including financial resources, linguistic resources, parental reading behavior, and educational resources within the family. The results show no mediating effect of resources within the various ethnic groups. The findings also suggest that in research and practice it is relevant to not treat ethnic groups as one homogenous group, but to differentiate between the various groups.

  14. Age and ethnic variations in sebaceous lipids

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Apostolos; Fantasia, Jared; Chen, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare lipid components of sebum from persons from three ethnic backgrounds—Caucasian, African American and Northern Asian. Men and women with no acne in two age groups (18‒25 y and 35‒45 y) were recruited. Skin surface hydration (SkiCon 200EX and NovaMeter), barrier function (Delfin VapoMeter), high-resolution clinical imaging, self-assessments and two pairs of sebutapes on the forehead that extracted the lipids on the surface of their skin were used. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in skin hydration between African Americans and Caucasians in both age groups were noted, with the order from highest to lowest absolute values: African American > Northern Asian > Caucasian. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements demonstrated that African Americans and Caucasians were significantly different (p < 0.05), with the trend being the inverse of the hydration trend—Caucasian > Northern Asian > African American, which would indicate better barrier function for African Americans with a lower TEWL. African American women had more total lipid production than Northern Asian or Caucasian women. When analyzing the three lipid classes (free fatty acids, triglycerides and wax esters), the trend became significant (p < 0.05) in the wax ester fraction when directly comparing African Americans with Caucasians. Additionally, six lipids were identified in the wax ester fractions that were significantly different in quantity (p < 0.05) between African Americans and Caucasians. These results identified significant differences in sebaceous lipid profiles across ethnic groups and determined that the differences correlated with skin barrier function. PMID:24194973

  15. Educational Encouragement, Parenting Styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Current study examines the predictors of academic achievement: role of parenting styles, educational encouragement, gender and ethnicity among special education students. Participants of this study consisted 200 special education students (N = 105 boys and N = 95 girls) age varies 14 to 19 years from one school located at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.…

  16. The Effects of a Multi-Ethnic Educational Program upon the Selection of Best Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marilyn; And Others

    Multiethnic education programs are viewed as a force in promoting crossethnic interaction. The interaction can be measured by identifying whether students select friends from different ethnic groups to which they are exposed when participating in a multiethnic education program. Fifty-two students, ages 7-13, from three ethnic groups (Korean,…

  17. Education, Ethnicity, and Political Socialization in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazi, Aftab A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the correlation between educational policies and political conditions as an indicator of socialization in the nation and state building process in Pakistan. Because of the discrepancies between official statements and the level of ethnic conflict, this study seeks to analyze the standard national social studies curriculum for…

  18. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants. PMID:21323155

  19. Bilingual Education among Ethnic Koreans in China: Ethnic Language Maintenance and Upward Social Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority education is a challenge for developing countries and a matter of international urgency. This paper imputes bilingual policy for ethnic Koreans as an example for exploring the implementation of bilingual education during China's reform period. Drawn from an ethnographic research study at a bilingual Korean school in northeast…

  20. Ethnic Studies and Multiculturalism: SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBelle, Thomas J.; Ward, Christopher R.

    This book examines ethnic studies and multiculturalism movements at the higher education level. It notes the different viewpoints of these two movements, with ethnic studies usually involving a focus on a single ethnic group at the departmental level, whereas multiculturalism involves infusion of multiethnic themes into the curriculum across…

  1. Financial Education in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry; Scott, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. Design/methodology/approach: A postal survey was used to investigate the financial needs of owner/managers in 64 ethnic minority SMEs and a control sample of 23 non-ethnic SMEs.…

  2. Body image: gender, ethnic, and age differences.

    PubMed

    Demarest, J; Allen, R

    2000-08-01

    Using figure drawings (E. Fallon & P. Rozin, 1985), 120 male and female U.S. college students--African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian--indicated their current and ideal figures, the figures that they considered most attractive to the opposite sex, and the opposite-sex figures most attractive to themselves. Dissatisfaction with body shape was greater among the women regardless of ethnicity. Both the men and the women misjudged which shapes the opposite sex would rate as most attractive: The women guessed that the men preferred shapes thinner than those that they actually reported. The African American women had the most accurate perceptions of what the men found attractive, whereas the Caucasian women had the most distorted views. The men guessed that the women preferred shapes bulkier than those that they actually indicated. These findings may be relevant to the lower incidence of eating disorders among African American women and the higher incidence of such disorders among Caucasian women. PMID:10981375

  3. Do Mothers' Educational Expectations Differ by Race and Ethnicity, or Socioeconomic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael; Clancy, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Research has linked parents' educational expectations to children's educational attainment, but findings are inconsistent regarding differences in educational expectations by race and ethnicity. In addition, existing studies have focused on school-age children and their parents. In this study, we use a state representative sample to examine…

  4. Children's Ocular Components and Age, Gender, and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Twelker, J. Daniel; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Messer, Dawn H.; Bhakta, Rita; Jones, Lisa A.; Mutti, Donald O.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Zadnik, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This cross-sectional report includes ocular component data as a function of age, gender, and ethnicity from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Methods The ocular components of 4881 school-aged children were examined using cycloplegic autorefraction (refractive error), keratometry (corneal curvature), ultrasonography (axial dimensions), and videophakometry (lens curvature). Results The average age (± SD) was 8.8 ± 2.3 years, and 2458 were girls (50.4%). Sixteen percent were African American, 14.8% were Asian, 22.9% were Hispanic, 11.6% were Native American, and 34.9% were White. More myopic/less hyperopic refractive error was associated with greater age, especially in Asians, less in Whites and African Americans. Corneal power varied slightly with age, with girls showing a greater mean corneal power. Native-American children had greater corneal toricity with a markedly flatter horizontal corneal power. Anterior chambers were deeper with age, and boys had deeper anterior chambers. Native-American children had the shallowest anterior chambers and Whites the deepest. Girls had higher Gullstrand and calculated lens powers than boys. Boys had longer vitreous chambers and axial lengths, and both were deeper with age. Native Americans had the longest vitreous chambers and Whites the shortest. Conclusions Most ocular components showed little clinically meaningful variation by ethnicity. The shallower anterior chambers and deeper vitreous chambers of Native-American children appeared to be offset by flatter corneas. The relatively deeper anterior chamber and shallower vitreous chambers of White children appeared to be offset by steeper corneas. Asian children had more myopic spherical equivalent refractive errors, but for a given refractive error the ocular parameters of Asian children were moderate in value compared to those of other ethnic groups. Asian children may develop longer, myopic eyes more often than other ethnic groups, but the eyes of Asian emmetropes do not appear to be innately longer. PMID:19650241

  5. Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.

    This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…

  6. Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.

    This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of

  7. Ethnicity, Education, and Earnings in Bolivia and Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George

    1993-01-01

    In Guatemala and Bolivia, countries with high proportions of ethnic (Native) population, indigenous workers had lower educational attainment and earned less at every educational level, relative to nonindigenous workers. The differences between ethnic groups were greater in Guatemala than Bolivia. (SV)

  8. The New Workforce: Age and Ethnic Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Judi L.; Holden, Richard

    As the United States population ages, employers face the possibility of a sustained retirement of the baby boom generation and a loss of their most experienced and knowledgeable employees. The public sector appears to be even more vulnerable, with an older-than-average workforce as well as a more traditional retirement system that encourages early…

  9. Citizenship, Education, and Identity: A Comparative Study of Ethnic Chinese in Korea and Ethnic Koreans in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sheena

    2004-01-01

    The crux of this study lies in the consideration of the manner in which rights to citizenship are granted or denied, and in which the ensuing educational policy toward an ethnic minority influences identity formation. In this article the author first introduces a brief background of the two ethnic groups, ethnic Chinese in Korea and ethnic Koreans…

  10. Age, Sex and Ethnic Trade-Offs in Faculty Employment: You Can't Have Your Cake and Eat It Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Robert H.

    Age, sex, and ethnic trade-offs in faculty employment in higher education give rise to dilemmas--situations requiring a choice between equally undesirable alternatives. When an over-age-65 faculty member retains a full time position, someone else--probably a woman, ethnic minority, and/or young person--is deprived of a position. The problem of age…

  11. Ethnicity, Gender, Social Class and Achievement Gaps at Age 16: Intersectionality and "Getting It" for the White Working Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender. However, little research has sought to compare the relative size of these gaps or to explore interactions between these factors. This paper analyses the educational achievement at age 11, 14

  12. Ethnicity, Gender, Social Class and Achievement Gaps at Age 16: Intersectionality and "Getting It" for the White Working Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender. However, little research has sought to compare the relative size of these gaps or to explore interactions between these factors. This paper analyses the educational achievement at age 11, 14…

  13. Ethnicity and Education: Cultural Homogeneity and Ethnic Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazerson, Marvin

    Americans have long equated popular education with social cohesion and social mobility. After the American revolution, the school became a focus for patriotism and the institution where individuals learned how to become citizens. The testbooks of the mid-19th and early 20th century emphasized white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant values. While the values…

  14. Cardiovascular Health: Associations with Race-ethnicity, Nativity, and Education in a Diverse, Population-based Sample of Californians

    PubMed Central

    Bostean, Georgiana; Roberts, Christian K.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Prelip, Michael; Peters, Anne; Belin, Thomas R.; McCarthy, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined how race-ethnicity, nativity, and education interact to influence disparities in cardiovascular (CV) health, a new concept defined by the American Heart Association (AHA). We assessed whether race-ethnicity and nativity disparities in CV health vary by education, and whether the foreign-born differ in CV health from their US-born race-ethnic counterparts with comparable education. Methods We used data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to determine the prevalence of optimal CV health metrics (based on selected AHA guidelines) among adults ages 25 and over (n = 42,014). We examined the interaction between education and ethnicity-nativity, comparing predicted probabilities of each CV health measure between US-born and foreign-born Whites, Asians, and Latinos. Results All groups were at high risk of suboptimal physical activity levels, fruit and vegetable and fast food consumption, and overweight/obesity. Those with higher education were generally better-off, except among Asians. Ethnicity-nativity differences were more pronounced among those with less than a college degree. The foreign-born exhibited both advantages and disadvantages in CV health compared to their US-born counterparts that varied by ethnicity-nativity. Conclusions Education influences ethnicity-nativity disparities in CV health, with most race-ethnic and nativity differences occurring among the less educated. Studies of nativity differences in CV health should stratify by education in order to adequately address SES differences. PMID:23726820

  15. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    This report provides an overview of activities to increase racial/ethnic and gender diversity in nursing and nursing education. Data are from a survey on gender diversity completed by 193 nursing education administrators in the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and the District of Columbia and a survey about the racial/ethnic…

  16. Education, Horizontal Inequalities and Ethnic Relations in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukiwo, Ukoha

    2007-01-01

    The article focuses on the role of higher education in generating or mitigating inequality among ethno-regional groups and its impact on ethnic relations with evidence from Nigeria. It shows that access to education in Nigeria has been politicised. This is because of the perceived role of education in engendering political and socio-economic…

  17. Socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices among USA ethnic and age groups.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P L; Rams, T E; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    In this study, socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices were examined across several dentate ethnic and age groups. Oral hygiene scale scores were constructed from toothbrushing and dental floss frequencies self-reported by population-based samples of middle-aged (35-44 years) and older (65-74 years) dentate adults representing Baltimore African-American and White, San Antonio Hispanic and non-Hispanic White, and Navajo and Lakota Native American persons participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) survey. Female gender, education, certain oral health beliefs, household income, and the presence of a usual source of care were revealed with multivariate analysis to show a significant positive relationship with higher oral hygiene scale scores (indicating better personal oral hygiene practices). Other socio-behavioral variables exhibited a more varied, ethnic-specific pattern of association with oral hygiene scale scores. PMID:9549990

  18. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a) review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b) review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed. PMID:21126334

  19. Toward an Ethnic Studies Critique for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Jennifer Y.; Harrison, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to humanize students of color in teacher education research, this study shifts away from the question, "How can we add students of color?" and instead asks, "How might teacher education programs be transformed to make space for students of color?" To begin, we articulate an ethnic studies critique for teacher…

  20. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  1. Ethnic Diversity, National Unity and Multicultural Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review ethnic diversity, national unity and multicultural education in China with graduate students in a multicultural education course and pose some questions for discussion. China is a rapidly developing multiethnic country facing several challenges, including pollution, growing income inequality and low political…

  2. Vocational Education for China's Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the current status and problems of vocational education for China's ethnic minorities. It concludes that these problems have both universal areas in common with China's overall education situation and individual characteristics; they also have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities. The universal areas include the…

  3. Toward an Ethnic Studies Critique for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Jennifer Y.; Harrison, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to humanize students of color in teacher education research, this study shifts away from the question, "How can we add students of color?" and instead asks, "How might teacher education programs be transformed to make space for students of color?" To begin, we articulate an ethnic studies critique for teacher

  4. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of

  5. Education, Ethnicity, and Political Socialization: The Case of Pakistan. Studies in Education & Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazi, Aftab A.

    This study examines the relationship between the educational system, the ethnic communities, and political instability in Pakistan. The major assumption of this study is that, with socioeconomic and political inequities aside, the educational policies alone lack the representation of indigeneous ethnic values in the national educational system,…

  6. Ethnic Bilingual Education for Canada's Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, James Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Historical forces and factors affecting the development of Canada's bilingual programs for ethnic minorities include changing immigration policies, a decline in Anglo-conformism and growth in multiculturalism, fears about native language maintenance and second language learning, and language and cultural attitudes in second language learning. (MSE)

  7. Visually Translating Educational Materials for Ethnic Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Carole B.

    Growing populations of older adults, ethnic minorities, and the low-literate create unique concerns for the design of visual information. Those for whom text presents a barrier will respond most to legibility, use of familiar formats and symbols, and simplification. Guidelines for those processes are needed, and this paper, in particular,…

  8. Infant health, race/ethnicity, and early educational outcomes using the ECLS-B.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jamie L

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort," this article emphasizes the central role of poor infant health as a mechanism in the formation of early educational disparities. Results indicate that the varying prevalence of poor infant health across racial/ethnic groups explains a significant portion of the black disadvantage and a moderate portion of the Asian advantage relative to whites in math and reading skills at age four. Results also demonstrate that infant health is an equal opportunity offender across social groups as children with poor health are equally disadvantaged in terms of early cognitive development, regardless of racial/ethnic status. Overall, results indicate that health at birth has important consequences for individual educational achievement and racial/ethnic disparities in cognitive development and school readiness. PMID:22171366

  9. Nuclear Age Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…

  10. Ethnic Studies, Citizenship Education, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1990s, ethnic studies and other components of multicultural education have been criticized by neo-conservative and assimilationist scholars who maintain that school diversity initiatives weaken national identity and fail to help students attain the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function effectively in the national mainstream…

  11. Ethnicity, Social Class and Out-of-School Education Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Rodney J.

    1975-01-01

    Results suggest that SES is a greater determinant of participation in private and semi-private out-of-school educational opportunities than is ethnicity. For public area activities use was fairly similar except for the Asian American's reported greater use than the black Americans. Neither propinquity nor parental attitude is related to use.…

  12. Race-Ethnicity, Education, and Employment after Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…

  13. Differences in Earnings and Education Among Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Geoffrey

    Data for this study comes from the 1971 Current Population survey made in March 1972 by the Bureau of the Census. Findings indicate that there has been little change in the relative educational achievement of the major European ethnic groups during the last fifty years. Russians continue to maintain the large lead they has after one generation in…

  14. Education and Training Needs of the Ethnic Entrepreneur in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavan, Meena

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 209 ethnic entrepreneurs in Australia that found that entrepreneurship education makes a significant difference in business performance by giving them effective planning and strategizing skills. Participants expressed a need for further training in specific business issues. (Contains 64 references.) (JOW)

  15. Age and Ethnic Variation in Children's Thinking about the Nature of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2004-01-01

    A content analysis of interviews with an ethnically diverse group of 202 children aged 6 to 10 describes what children think racism is, and examines associations between age, ethnicity, and children's thinking about racism. Children's narratives capture many dimensions of racism, including stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and ethnic…

  16. Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…

  17. Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had

  18. Ethnicity, education, and the non-proportional hazard of first marriage in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gore, DeAnna L; Carlson, Elwood

    2010-07-01

    This study uses the 1998 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey to estimate non-proportional piecewise-constant hazards for first marriage among women in Turkey by education and ethnicity, with controls for region of residence and rural-urban migration. At low education levels Kurdish speakers married earlier than women who spoke Turkish or other languages, but at high education levels Kurdish women delayed marriage more than other women. This reversal across education groups furnishes a new illustration of the minority-group-status hypothesis specifically focused on marriage as the first step in the family formation process. The ethnic contrast concerned only marriage timing in Turkey, not proportions ever marrying. Eventual marriage remained nearly universal for all groups of women. This means that an assumption of proportional duration hazards (widespread in contemporary research) across the whole range of marriage-forming ages should be replaced by models with non-proportional duration hazards. PMID:20383804

  19. The Melting of the Ethnics: Education of the Immigrants, 1880-1914. Perspectives in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krug, Mark

    This book, one in a five-volume series dealing with perspectives in American education, discusses the education of ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of the series is to create a better understanding of the education process and the relation of education to human welfare. Chapter one discusses multicultural education, examining the…

  20. Age as a Factor in Ethnic Accent Identification in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ying Ying

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to answer two research questions. First, can listeners distinguish the ethnicity of the speakers on the basis of voice quality alone? Second, do demographic differences among the listeners affect discriminability? A simple but carefully designed and controlled ethnic identification test was carried out on 325 Singaporean…

  1. Personal and environmental factors associated with physical inactivity among different racial-ethnic groups of U.S. middle-aged and older-aged women.

    PubMed

    King, A C; Castro, C; Wilcox, S; Eyler, A A; Sallis, J F; Brownson, R C

    2000-07-01

    Personal, program-based, and environmental barriers to physical activity were explored among a U.S. population-derived sample of 2,912 women 40 years of age and older. Factors significantly associated with inactivity included American Indian ethnicity, older age, less education, lack of energy, lack of hills in one's neighborhood, absence of enjoyable scenery, and infrequent observation of others exercising in one's neighborhood. For all ethnic subgroups, caregiving duties and lacking energy to exercise ranked among the top 4 most frequently reported barriers. Approximately 62% of respondents rated exercise on one's own with instruction as more appealing than undertaking exercise in an instructor-led group, regardless of ethnicity or current physical activity levels. The results underscore the importance of a multifaceted approach to understanding physical activity determinants in this understudied, high-risk population segment. PMID:10907654

  2. Family, Ethnicity, and Immigrant Youths' Educational Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Data from the 1988 National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) are used to examine immigrant youths' reading comprehension and mathematics' standardized scores as well as their parents' demographic characteristics and parent-child relations that could influence children's educational achievements. The comparisons were among parents who had…

  3. Ethnicity, Inequality, and Higher Education in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvaratnam, Viswanathan

    1988-01-01

    Traces the development since 1957 of Malaysian education policies aimed at providing equitable access to higher education. Suggests that these policies have increased representation of the Malay underclass in tertiary institutions and the professions, but have had little effect on intraethnic class inequalities. 46 references. (SV)

  4. Bilingual Education for China's Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Ma

    2007-01-01

    The language of instruction is the medium through which knowledge is transmitted during the educational process. Because of this, the issue of what language the teachers use when giving lectures and what language is used to compile the text materials they adopt becomes a core issue in educational development for any multiethnic, multilingual…

  5. Development of Ethnic Education and Educational Equality in China: A Statistical Analysis Based on the Two Recent Population Censuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Baicai; Qi, Jinyu

    2007-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the statistics of the two population censuses conducted in 1990 and 2000 showed that with the development of ethnic education, average years of school attainment have been increased for all ethnic nationalities, and education has been more equalized within different ethnic nationalities. However, educational inequality…

  6. Ethnicity, aging, and oral health outcomes: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R M; Davidson, P L

    1997-05-01

    An expanded version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization is used as the theoretical and analytical framework for the International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II). The conceptual framework for understanding determinants of oral health is based on a "systems" perspective. The framework posits that characteristics of the external environment, the dental care delivery system, and the personal characteristics of the population influence oral health behaviors. The expanded behavioral model conceptualizes health behaviors (oral hygiene practices and dental services utilization) as intermediate dependent variables, which in turn influence oral health outcomes (evaluated, perceived, patient satisfaction). The framework is presented with an increased focus on the effects of race-ethnicity and age cohort, the major exogenous variables used in this study for systematic assessment of the differences in the multitude of factors influencing oral health. The framework can be applied by policy analysis and health services managers to help describe, predict, and explain population-based health behaviors and health outcomes. PMID:9549985

  7. Ethnicity, educational level and attitudes contribute to parental intentions about genetic testing for child obesity.

    PubMed

    Kocken, Paul L; Theunissen, Meinou H C; Schönbeck, Yvonne; Henneman, Lidewij; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Detmar, Symone B

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess parental beliefs and intentions about genetic testing for their children in a multi-ethnic population with the aim of acquiring information to guide interventions for obesity prevention and management. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in parents of native Dutch children and children from a large minority population (Turks) selected from Youth Health Care registries. The age range of the children was 5-11 years. Parents with lower levels of education and parents of non-native children were more convinced that overweight has a genetic cause and their intentions to test the genetic predisposition of their child to overweight were firmer. A firmer intention to test the child was associated with the parents' perceptions of their child's susceptibility to being overweight, a positive attitude towards genetic testing, and anticipated regret at not having the child tested while at risk for overweight. Interaction effects were found in ethnic and socio-economic groups. Ethnicity and educational level play a role in parental beliefs about child overweight and genetic testing. Education programmes about obesity risk, genetic testing and the importance of behaviour change should be tailored to the cultural and behavioural factors relevant to ethnic and socio-economic target groups. PMID:23389423

  8. Race, Ethnicity and Education under New Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2005-01-01

    From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long-standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of 'failing' schools exacerbated school segregation

  9. Ethnicity, Communal Relations, and Education in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. L.

    Communal life in Malaysia is characterized by discords, tensions, and strife, especially between the Malays and Chinese. By and large, Malays are educationally and economically backward in comparison to non-Malays. Malays seek to redress what they consider racial imbalances through use of their political power. Constitutionally, certain privileges…

  10. Race, Ethnicity and Education under New Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2005-01-01

    From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long-standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of 'failing' schools exacerbated school segregation…

  11. Ethnicity, Identity and Educational Achievement in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Crespo, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    Identity is central for research on education since, under certain conditions, it may influence school choice, career preferences and classroom behaviour. Identity also determines disposition toward schooling because it may have the capacity to shape and modify the values, beliefs and characteristics that distinguish one person from another, by…

  12. The Hispanic Paradox and Predictors of Mortality in an Aging Bi-ethnic Cohort of Mexican Americans and European Americans: The San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Sara E.; Jung, Inkyung; Hazuda, Helen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine predictors of mortality in aging Mexican Americans (MAs) and European Americans (EAs). DESIGN Longitudinal, observational cohort study. SETTING Socioeconomically diverse neighborhoods in San Antonio, Texas. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred and ninety-four MA and 355 EA community-dwelling older adults (65+) who completed the baseline examination (1992–96) of the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA) and for whom vital status was ascertained over an average 8.2 years of follow-up. MEASUREMENTS Ethnic group was classified using a validated algorithm. Hazards ratios (HR) for mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models with age, sex, ethnic group, education, income, frailty, diabetes with and without complications, comorbidity, cognition, depressive symptoms, and body mass index included as predictors in sequential models. RESULTS At baseline, MAs had higher prevalence of diabetes and frailty and lower socioeconomic status (SES) compared to EAs. The age- and sex-adjusted ethnic HR (MA vs. EA) for mortality was 1.54 (95% CI: 1.17–2.03). After adjusting for SES, the ethnic HR was no longer significant (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.83–1.61). In the final model, comorbidity, diabetes with complications, depressive symptoms, and cognitive impairment were significant independent risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION Contrary to the Hispanic paradox, MAs were at increased risk of mortality. Moreover, this ethnic disparity was largely explained by SES differences. Significant independent predictors of mortality, regardless of ethnic group, included diabetes with complications, comorbidity, depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment. Mortality reduction in older MAs requires attention to both socioeconomic disparities and disease factors. PMID:24000922

  13. Education, Ethnicity, Genetics and Intelligence. Jensenism: Another Excuse for Failure to Educate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.

    1969-01-01

    This issue of the IRCD Bulletin is devoted to commentaries on an article by Arthur R. Jensen on the nature-nurture controversy in a recent number of "Harvard Educational Review." Contents of the Bulletin are comprised of the following: "Education, Ethnicity, Genetics and Intelligence; Jensenism: Another Excuse for Failure to Educate" (Edmund W.…

  14. Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted. PMID:24722777

  15. Ethnic, gender, and age preferences among deaf and hearing preschool peers.

    PubMed

    Lederberg, A R; Chapin, S L; Rosenblatt, V; Vandell, D L

    1986-04-01

    The present study concerns ethnic, age, and gender playmate preferences of deaf and hearing preschoolers who were observed during outdoor free play at their respective schools over a 7-month period. Hispanic, black, and white children were included. It was hypothesized that peer preferences would be less apparent among deaf children than among hearing children if these preferences were based on (a) language differences between ethnic groups (e.g., Spanish-English differences), age groups (e.g., verbal fluency differences), or gender groups; or (b) cultural values communicated by speech. Both deaf and hearing children preferred to play with children of the same ethnicity, gender, and age as themselves. In addition, play among children of the same ethnicity, gender, and age was qualitatively different from play among children of different ethnicity, gender, and age. The only effect of deafness was to decrease the amount of gender segregation that occurred. The results suggest that the development of ethnic, gender, and age playmate preferences is not dependent on intergroup language differences or spoken cultural messages. Several nonlinguistic factors that might contribute to early peer preferences are discussed. PMID:3956318

  16. Aging Education: A National Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…

  17. Ethnic Segregation in Malaysia's Education System: Enrolment Choices, Preferential Policies and Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Santhiram R.; Sua, Tan Yao

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic segregation has become an emerging feature in Malaysia's education system even though the institutional role of education should have been a unifying force for the country's multi-ethnic society. The underlying problem is that, at all levels of education provision in Malaysia, alternative streams are allowed to coexist alongside mainstream…

  18. Ethnic Segregation in Malaysia's Education System: Enrolment Choices, Preferential Policies and Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Santhiram R.; Sua, Tan Yao

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic segregation has become an emerging feature in Malaysia's education system even though the institutional role of education should have been a unifying force for the country's multi-ethnic society. The underlying problem is that, at all levels of education provision in Malaysia, alternative streams are allowed to coexist alongside mainstream

  19. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education and income fully explained ethnic inequalities in experience of dental caries between Whites and African descents, and largely explained inequalities between Whites and Mixed Race. PMID:26694321

  20. Weight Status and Sexual Orientation: Differences by Age and Within Racial and Ethnic Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Deputy, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined differences in weight at age 18 years and at current age and weight change by sexual orientation within different racial/ethnic populations, stratifying by gender. Methods. We used 2001–2007 data from the California Health Interview Survey, resulting in an unweighted sample of 120 274 individuals aged 18 to 74 years. Using regression models, we examined overweight status and change in weight by sexual orientation, stratifying by race/ethnicity and gender. Results. Compared with heterosexual women of the same race/ethnicity, White and African American lesbians and bisexuals had increased likelihood of being overweight at age 18 years and maintaining overweight status during adulthood. Sexual minority status was unrelated to weight among Latinas and inconsistently linked to weight among Asian women compared with heterosexual women of the same race/ethnicity. Sexual minority status was protective against unhealthy weight among White, African American, Asian, and Latino men compared with heterosexual counterparts of the same race/ethnicity. This protective effect was seen after age 18 years except among African American bisexual men. Conclusions. Our findings indicate a need for age- and culture-sensitive interventions that reduce weight or prevent weight gain in sexual minority women and men. PMID:24228650

  1. It takes two: the role of partner ethnicity and age characteristics on condom negotiations of heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Amy G; Barnhart, James E

    2006-02-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women across four California universities indicated significant effects of partner ethnicity and age on condom negotiation strategies. Asian women with non-Asian partners were more likely to use nonverbal-direct strategies than those with Asian partners. Asian women with older partners were less likely to use verbal strategies (verbal-direct, verbal-indirect) than those with same-age partners. This study suggests that Asian women's safer sex communication varies by partner characteristics. Obtaining information such as partner ethnicity and age can help health educators provide more culturally appropriate sexual communication skills to clients. PMID:16539577

  2. Investigating Possible Effects of Ethnicity and Age on Gambling as an Escape.

    PubMed

    Cookman, Matthew L; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that there are a number of risk factors for disordered and problem gambling, including an individual's ethnicity and age. Endorsing gambling as an escape has also been shown to contribute to and maintain disordered gambling. The present study examined potential interactions between ethnicity and age as they relate to disordered gambling, as well as if ethnicity and age would be predictors of endorsing gambling as an escape. Three hundred fifteen adults from the United States completed measures relating to gambling. Participants were grouped into ethnic categories of Caucasian and non-Caucasian, and age groups of 18-25, 26-35, 36-55, and 56 years old and above. Non-Caucasians reported more gambling problems than Caucasians. A significant interaction was found between ethnicity and age for 36-55 year olds. Overall, participants were more likely to gamble for positive than negative reinforcement. However, only gambling as an escape was a significant predictor of disordered gambling. Implications and limitations are discussed with the thought that these results are informative to practitioners treating disordered gambling. PMID:26032667

  3. Race/ethnic disparities in reproductive age: An examination of ovarian reserve estimates across four race/ethnic groups of healthy, regularly-cycling women

    PubMed Central

    Bleil, Maria E.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Adler, Nancy E.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rosen, Mitchell P.; Cedars, Marcelle I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether reproductive age, indexed by a validated marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone [AMH]), varies between women of different race/ethnic backgrounds. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based sample. Patients Multi-ethnic sample of 947 (277 white, 237 African-American, 220 Latina, and 213 Chinese) healthy and regularly-cycling pre-menopausal women, ages 25-45. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures(s) AMH level. Results A multivariate model was fit examining race/ethnicity, covariates, non-linear terms for age (age2, age3) and BMI (BMI2, BMI3), and 2-way interactions between race/ethnicity and each other predictor variable in relation to AMH. Following backward elimination, significant effects included race/ethnicity (F=8.45), age (F=349.94), race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction (F=4.67), age2 (F=31.61), and BMI (F=10.69). Inspection of the significant race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction showed AMH levels were consistently lower in the Latina vs. white women across all ages, whereas AMH levels were lower in the African-American and Chinese women vs. white women at younger and middle ages, respectively, and AMH levels were higher in the African-American vs. Latina and Chinese women at older ages. Conclusions Although results must be considered preliminary, findings are two-fold, suggesting 1) African-American women may have lower AMH levels at younger ages but experience less of a reduction in AMH with advancing age; and 2) Latina and Chinese women, compared to white women, may have lower AMH levels, marking a lower ovarian reserve and possible increased risk for earlier menopause. PMID:24182412

  4. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with

  5. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  6. Racial-Ethnic Comparisons of Temperament Constructs for Three Age Groups Using the Student Styles Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Mary E.; Oakland, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses construct validity for comparisons of racial-ethnic group response patterns on the SSQ when age is considered as a factor. Assesses whether the SSQ's factor structure is similar for African American, Hispanic American, and Anglo American children and youth, grouped by ages 8-10, 11-13, and 14-17 years old. (RJM)

  7. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  8. Ethnic Identity Development and In-service Teacher Education: A Case Study in Resistance and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makkawi, Ibrahim

    This case study examined ethnic identity development within inservice teacher education. Participants were 11 white, female teachers in a summer course on multicultural education. Course readings were selected and sequenced to represent the experiences of ethnic and racial groups in American society while emphasizing intergroup power relations.…

  9. Fostering a Pluralistic Society through Multi-Ethnic Education. Fastback 107.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ricardo L.

    The purpose of multiethnic education is to prepare all students to live harmoniously in a multiethnic society. Multiethnic education pursues these goals by reflecting ethnic diversity in the curriculum, dealing directly with ethnic group similarities and differences, and helping students understand their uniqueness in a pluralistic milieu.…

  10. Resurgence of Ethnic Nationalism in California and Germany: The Impact on Recent Progress in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macias, Jose

    1996-01-01

    A comparative study examines ethnic group conflict in California, with its Proposition 187, and in Germany, with its hostility toward foreign residents. Historical and ethnographic studies reveal a connection between historically constructed ethnic ideology, intergroup experience, and education. Education is key to finding new ways of combating…

  11. Education, Ethnic Identity, and Acculturation as Predictors of Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity of 150 Latino adolescents enrolled in either a bilingual or traditional education program. Bilingual education programs were established to ensure that academic failure was not the product of limited English proficiency. Grade point average (GPA), acculturation, and ethnic

  12. The Tibetans - School for Survival or Submission. An Investigation of Ethnicity and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein-Kyaga, Katrin

    This book investigates if there is a link between Tibetan ethnicity and education and, if so, how it functions. Research focused on the questions "Do the educational achievements of Tibetans in Tibet, India, and Switzerland differ and how can possible differences be attributed to their position as an ethnic group in these countries?" Interviews…

  13. Nassau County Educational Resources Center Catalog of Professional Materials. Multi-Ethnic Materials Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassau County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Westbury, NY.

    The Nassau Educational Resource Center is a multimedia, multi-area curriculum and instructional materials center, with an educational communications training component. The catalog contains listings of the professional resources made available at the Center in the area of multi-ethnic studies by the Racial Ethnic Action Project (REAP). REAP,…

  14. Determinants of dental care utilization for diverse ethnic and age groups.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P L; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    Dental services utilization in the past 12 months was compared across population-based samples of African-American, Navajo, Lakota, Hispanic, and White adults participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) at USA research locations. Bivariate results revealed that ethnic minority groups in both age cohorts reported significantly fewer dental visits in the past 12 months compared with White adults. When dentate status was controlled for, age cohort differences were not significant in Baltimore (African-American and White) and San Antonio (Hispanic and White) research locations. In contrast, older Native Americans (65-74 years) reported visiting the dentist significantly less often compared with their middle-aged (35-44 years) counterparts. Multivariate results indicated that generalizable variables were associated with dental contact in every ICS-II USA ethnic group (i.e., dentate, usual source of dental care, oral pain). Among the diverse ethnic groups, other determinants presented a varied pattern of risk factors for underutilizing dental care. Information on ethnic-specific risk factors can be used to design culturally appropriate and acceptable oral health promotion programs. Generalizable risk factors across ethnic groups inform oral health policy-makers about changing national priorities for promoting oral health. PMID:9549991

  15. Feasibility of Utilizing Ethnic Beauty Salons for Cervical Cancer Screening Education.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio; Lee, Eunice

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using ethnic beauty salons to reach out to Vietnamese and Korean American women for cervical cancer screening education. Participants (N = 62) were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two feasibility questionnaires were separately administered to cosmetologists and their customers. Findings support the view that ethnic beauty salons can be used as a gateway to reach out to these populations, and cosmetologists have the potential to operate as community lay health workers to deliver cervical cancer screening education aimed at reducing disparities in cervical cancer and screening to their ethnic customers. PMID:24698810

  16. Ethnic Variability in Body Size, Proportions and Composition in Children Aged 5 to 11 Years: Is Ethnic-Specific Calibration of Bioelectrical Impedance Required?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Simon; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Lum, Sooky; Stocks, Janet; Bonner, Rachel; Naik, Mitesh; Fothergill, Helen; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) has the potential to be used widely as a method of assessing body fatness and composition, both in clinical and community settings. BIA provides bioelectrical properties, such as whole-body impedance which ideally needs to be calibrated against a gold-standard method in order to provide accurate estimates of fat-free mass. UK studies in older children and adolescents have shown that, when used in multi-ethnic populations, calibration equations need to include ethnic-specific terms, but whether this holds true for younger children remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to examine ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years, and to establish the extent to which such differences could influence BIA calibration. Methods In a multi-ethnic population of 2171 London primary school-children (47% boys; 34% White, 29% Black African/Caribbean, 25% South Asian, 12% Other) detailed anthropometric measurements were performed and ethnic differences in body size and proportion were assessed. Ethnic differences in fat-free mass, derived by deuterium dilution, were further evaluated in a subsample of the population (n = 698). Multiple linear regression models were used to calibrate BIA against deuterium dilution. Results In children <11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities. They also had larger waist and limb girths and relatively longer legs. Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass = 1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance)+0.18*weight). Conclusion Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required. PMID:25478928

  17. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  18. Playing the "Race" Card? Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible…

  19. Invasive breast cancer incidence trends by detailed race/ethnicity and age.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Juanjuan; Wu, Anna H; Pike, Malcolm C; Deapen, Dennis

    2012-01-15

    Racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence may contain important evidence for understanding and control of the disease. Monitoring the incidence trends of breast cancer by race/ethnicity allows identification of high risk groups and development of targeted prevention programs. Using population-based cancer registry data from the Los Angeles Cancer Surveillance Program, we examined the invasive female breast cancer incidence trends among the diverse racial/ethnic populations in Los Angeles County, California, from 1972 to 2007. Age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIRs) and age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) were calculated and examined respectively for non-Hispanic (NH) white, black, Hispanic, Chinese, Filipina, Japanese and Korean women by calendar year and time period. Rising trends of AAIRs were found in all racial/ethnic groups during the 1980s and 1990s. The breast cancer risk increased more substantially in Japanese and Filipinas than in Chinese and Koreans. During 2000-2007, the trends of AAIRs declined significantly among NH white women and slightly in blacks, remained unchanged for Hispanics and continued to rise significantly among all Asian subgroups. The patterns of ASIRs by race/ethnicity changed dramatically over time. By 2000-2007, younger Hispanic women had the lowest breast cancer risk, replacing the Chinese and Koreans who formerly had the lowest risk. Rapidly increasing breast cancer incidence trends among Asian-Americans underline the importance of behavioral and lifestyle changes as a result of acculturation on the development of the disease. The unique trends of breast cancer incidence by race/ethnicity suggest the need for targeted breast cancer control programs for different racial/ethnic populations. PMID:21351091

  20. Invasive Breast Cancer Incidence Trends by Detailed Race/Ethnicity and Age

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Juanjuan; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Deapen, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence may contain important evidence for understanding and control of the disease. Monitoring the incidence trends of breast cancer by race/ethnicity allows identification of high risk groups and development of targeted prevention programs. Using population-based cancer registry data from the Los Angeles Cancer Surveillance Program, we examined the invasive female breast cancer incidence trends among the diverse racial/ethnic populations in Los Angeles County, California, from 1972 to 2007. Age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) and age-specific incidence rates (ASIR) were calculated and examined respectively for non-Hispanic (NH) white, black, Hispanic, Chinese, Filipina, Japanese, and Korean women by calendar year and time period. Rising trends of AAIR were found in all racial/ethnic groups during the 1980s and 1990s. The breast cancer risk increased more substantially in Japanese and Filipinas than in Chinese and Koreans. During 2000–2007, the trends of AAIR declined significantly among NH white women and slightly in blacks, remained unchanged for Hispanics, and continued to rise significantly among all Asian subgroups. The patterns of ASIR by race/ethnicity changed dramatically over time. By 2000–2007, younger Hispanic women had the lowest breast cancer risk, replacing the Chinese and Koreans who formerly had the lowest risk. Rapidly increasing breast cancer incidence trends among Asian-Americans underline the importance of behavioral and lifestyle changes as a result of acculturation on the development of the disease. The unique trends of breast cancer incidence by race/ethnicity suggest the need for targeted breast cancer control programs for different racial/ethnic populations. PMID:21351091

  1. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  2. Success and Persistence of Developmental Mathematics Students Based on Age and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, James D.

    2012-01-01

    This ex post facto study examined the fall-to-fall persistence and academic success of students in a medium-sized Virginia community college. The variables of age and ethnicity in combination with whether a student's first mathematics course was developmental were used to examine the effects of each. It was found that neither the interaction of

  3. Children's Attitudes toward Singing and Song Recordings Related to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebenaler, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    This study examines students' attitudes toward singing and choir participation related to gender, age, and ethnic background. It also looks at attitudes toward recordings from basal music series that are designed to provide an appropriate model and to encourage singing. Participants (N = 249) were third to fifth graders enrolled in two public…

  4. Variations in Students' School- and Teacher-Related Attitudes across Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Riccio, Cynthia A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined differences across gender, ethnicity, and age with regard to the nature of participants' self-reported attitudes toward school and teachers, based on previous research suggesting that students' school- and teacher-related attitudes appear to have an influence on academic achievement. This study employed an archival…

  5. Online Learning across Ethnicity and Age: A Study on Learning Interaction Participation, Perception, and Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng; Kwak, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method study examined whether online learning interaction participation, perception, and learning satisfaction would be consistent across varied age and ethnicity groups. Data were collected from students enrolled in 28 online courses via content analysis with online interaction transcripts, structural equation modeling with the…

  6. Ethnicity and Education in China and Vietnam: Discursive Formations of Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJaeghere, Joan; Wu, Xinyi; Vu, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to understand how ethnicity is discursively framed in national policies in China and Vietnam and argues that policy discourses affect how the "problem" of ethnicity and educational inequalities is framed and how these inequalities can be addressed. The analysis shows how both Marxist and market-economy governing

  7. The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Succession in Ethnic Minority Family Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed G.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Matlay, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly competitive UK economy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a complex conceptual model of ethnic minority graduates' economic activities and outlines the possible

  8. Ethnicity and Education in China and Vietnam: Discursive Formations of Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJaeghere, Joan; Wu, Xinyi; Vu, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to understand how ethnicity is discursively framed in national policies in China and Vietnam and argues that policy discourses affect how the "problem" of ethnicity and educational inequalities is framed and how these inequalities can be addressed. The analysis shows how both Marxist and market-economy governing…

  9. Investigation on the Development of Preschool Education Informationization of Ethnic Region in Gansu, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the informationization situation of preschool education taking Linxia City in Gansu province. The analysis was conducted by the mean of questionnaire survey and individual interview which was collected in July 2013 in seven ethnic counties in Hui autonomous prefecture of Linxia. As a typical ethnic region, Linxia can…

  10. Obstacles to Addressing Race and Ethnicity in the Mathematics Education Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Amy Noelle; Schmeichel, Mardi

    2012-01-01

    This Research Commentary builds on a 2-stage literature review to argue that there are 4 obstacles to making a sociopolitical turn in mathematics education that would allow researchers to talk about race and ethnicity in ways that take both identity and power seriously: (a) the marginalization of discussions of race and ethnicity; (b) the

  11. The New Paradigm of Ethnic Minority Educational Research: Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Dong-ge; Huang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research and quantitative research have their own advantages, so mixed use both to improve scientific research. Too many Chinese Ethnic Minority Educational Research in qualitative research, and few use quantitative research, leading the results with many subjective factors. The reason is that selecting ethnic minority educational…

  12. Ethnocentrism and Ethnic-Based Peer Preferences in Higher Education Institutions: Challenges and Implications for Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admasu Gebru, Demewoz

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…

  13. Education of Ethnic Minority Children in Denmark: Monocultural Hegemony and Counter Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has

  14. The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Succession in Ethnic Minority Family Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed G.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Matlay, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly competitive UK economy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a complex conceptual model of ethnic minority graduates' economic activities and outlines the possible…

  15. Ethnicity, Education and Empowerment: Identity Construction among Minority Students in Southwestern China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, MaryJo Benton

    1998-01-01

    Eight percent of the population of the People's Republic of China is comprised of ethnic minority people, people with cultures (particularly languages and religions) that are distinct from the majority (or Han) Chinese. Ethnic students in China and elsewhere face considerable obstacles to getting a good education. A tiny percentage of Chinese…

  16. Interactional Issues in the Teaching of "Race" and Ethnicity in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Susie

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on research into the teaching of "race" and ethnicity in higher education, including interviews with lecturers and students of specialist sociology of "race" options. It focuses particularly on interactional issues: the conversations conducted about "race" and ethnicity within seminar rooms were often conflictual and emotional in…

  17. Education of Ethnic Minority Children in Denmark: Monocultural Hegemony and Counter Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has…

  18. Ethnic differences in breast cancer in Hawai'i: age, stage, hormone receptor status, and survival.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kathryn L; Fong, Megan; Gotay, Carolyn C; Chong, Clayton D K

    2004-09-01

    Previous examinations of breast cancer and survival in Hawai'i's 5 major ethnic groups have found that Native Hawaiian women have the highest breast cancer mortality rates. Although ethnic disparities in survival are reduced when age and stage at diagnosis are controlled for statistically, prior studies could not explain ethnic variation in survival among women who were diagnosed at the same stage. We examined variations in breast tumor characteristics for a multiethnic sample of 4,583 women diagnosed in 1990-1997 by stage and age group and extended previous multivariate analyses by adding a new prognostic variable: estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of age, stage, and hormone status on 5-year survival. With a few exceptions, greater proportions of Native Hawaiian women were diagnosed both in later stages of disease and at earlier ages compared to women of other ethnicities, and smaller proportions of Native Hawaiians survived 5 years post diagnosis in each stage and age group. Surprisingly, greater proportions of Native Hawaiian women in all age groups had ER/PR positive tumors, which is a prognostic indicator for better, not worse, survival. Native Hawaiian women had an increased risk of death and Japanese women had an increased chance of survival after controlling for age, stage, and ER/PR status. Future studies should examine other reasons for better survival of Japanese women and worse survival of Native Hawaiian women, including socioeconomic status, access to health insurance, adequacy of recommended screening frequency, co-morbid conditions, treatment appropriateness and compliance, and genetic markers of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:16281692

  19. Managing Legitimacy in the Educational Quasi-Market: A Study of Ethnically Diverse, Inclusive Schools in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mampaey, Jelle; Zanoni, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how ethnically diverse, inclusive schools manage their legitimacy in an educational quasi-market. These schools are often threatened with a loss of legitimacy as ethnic majority parents perceive an ethnically diverse student population and radical pedagogical practices as signs of lower quality education. However,…

  20. Current State of Economic Returns from Education in China's Ethnic Regions and Explorations into Ways of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijun, Zhang; Fei, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and social progress in China's ethnic minority regions depend on improvements in population attributes brought about by education. Developing education in China's ethnic regions is a project of fundamental significance for realizing sustainable economic and social development in the ethnic regions. Improving the economic…

  1. Education for an Aging Planet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…

  2. Space Age Driver Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Walter W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

  3. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  4. The Lateral Brow: Position in relation to age, gender and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Lora Rabin Dagi; Lira, Jennifer; Enkhbold, Enkhnasan; Dimont, Emmanuel; Scofield, Stacy; Sherwood, Pamela R.; Winn, Bryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite multiple studies regarding modes of eyebrow measurement and movement over time, the lateral aspect of the brow has been relatively ignored in literature. Therefore, we arranged a study of the most lateral aspect of the eyebrow; in doing so, we hoped to ascertain the most practical line or angle of measurement. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adults aged 18 and older with no history of congenital or acquired periorbital or orbital pathology or surgery; brow tattooing or heavy plucking; phthisis; or strabismus were measured using a combination of in-office metrics and computer analysis. Subjects were asked to identify their ethnicity and country of origin. Models of age, gender, age and ethnicity were created. Results 1024 subjects were included (1944 eyes). Measurements of nasal ala to lateral brow (NALB), lateral brow plumb line (LBPL, the vertical line between the tail of the brow and a horizontal line extending from the lateral canthus), and angle from the mid-brow to the lateral brow tail all showed statistically significant decline over time. The angle and LBPL varied most by ethnicity. The angle narrowed approximately 3 degrees per 20 years, while the LBPL fell approximately 2.5 mm per 20 years. The NALB varied most by age, and fell approximately 3 mm per 20 years. Conclusions The lateral tail of the brow descends with age. Measurements of its location and rate of change vary between genders and within ethnic groups. Two easily measured values – NALB and LBPL – can be used for pre-operative planning and post-operative documentation. PMID:25069068

  5. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  6. The Relationship of Age, Race, and Ethnicity with Survival in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Keith C.; Yu, Alison J.; Ma, Jennie Z.; Greene, Tom; Yu, Wei; Cheung, Alfred K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Reports on the racial and ethnic differences in dialysis patient survival rates have been inconsistent. The literature suggests that these survival differences may be modified by age as well as categorizing white race as inclusive of Hispanic ethnicity. The goal of this study was to better understand these associations by examining survival among US dialysis patients by age, ethnicity, and race. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Between 1995 and 2009, 1,282,201 incident dialysis patients ages 18 years or older were identified in the United States Renal Data System. Dialysis survival was compared among non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics overall and stratified by seven age groups. Results The median duration of follow-up was 22.3 months. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, a lower mortality risk was seen in Hispanics in all age groups. Consequently, when Hispanic patients were excluded from the white race, the mortality rates in white race all increased. Using non-Hispanic whites as the reference, a significantly lower mortality risk for non-Hispanic blacks was consistently observed in all age groups above 30 years (unadjusted hazard ratios ranged from 0.70 to 0.87; all P<0.001). In the 18- to 30-years age group, there remained an increased mortality risk in blacks versus non-Hispanic whites after adjustment for case mix (adjusted hazard ratio=1.19, 95% confidence interval=1.13–1.25). Conclusions The mortality risk was lowest in Hispanics, intermediate in non-Hispanic blacks, and highest in non-Hispanic whites. This pattern generally holds in all age groups except for the 18- to 30-years group, where the adjusted mortality rate for non-Hispanic blacks exceeds the adjusted mortality rate of non-Hispanic whites. PMID:23539227

  7. A Preliminary Discussion on Several Forms of Alternate Location Schooling in Ethnic Minority Education and the Problems Therein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ba, Zhanlong

    2010-01-01

    "Alternate location schooling" ("yidi banxue"), a special measure adopted in China to advance ethnic minority education and especially basic education, adheres to the principle of providing focused educational support in Tibet and Xinjiang and giving consideration to education in ethnic minority regions nationwide. Since the founding of the…

  8. A Preliminary Discussion on Several Forms of Alternate Location Schooling in Ethnic Minority Education and the Problems Therein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ba, Zhanlong

    2010-01-01

    "Alternate location schooling" ("yidi banxue"), a special measure adopted in China to advance ethnic minority education and especially basic education, adheres to the principle of providing focused educational support in Tibet and Xinjiang and giving consideration to education in ethnic minority regions nationwide. Since the founding of the

  9. Racial/ethnic disparities in contraceptive use: Variation by age and women's reproductive experiences

    PubMed Central

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Park, Seo Young; Emeremni, Chetachi A.; Comer, Ms. Diane; Vincett, Ms. Kathryn; Borrero, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Objective Disparities in unintended pregnancy in the United States are related, in part, to black and Hispanic women being overall less likely to use effective contraceptive methods. However, the fact that these same groups are more likely to use female sterilization, a highly effective method, suggests there may be variability in disparities in contraceptive use across a woman’s life course. We sought to assess the relationship between race/ethnicity and contraceptive use in a nationally representative sample and to approximate a life-course perspective by examining effect modification on these disparities by women’s age, parity and history of unintended pregnancy. Study Design We conducted an analysis of the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to determine the association between race/ethnicity and 1) use of any method; 2) use of a highly or moderately effective method among women using contraception; and 3) use of a highly effective method among women using contraception. We then performed analyses to assess interactions between race/ethnicity and age, parity and history of unintended pregnancy (ies). Results Our sample included 7,214 women aged 15–44. Compared to whites, blacks were less likely to use any contraceptive method (AOR: 0.65); and blacks and Hispanics were less likely to use a highly or moderately effective method (AORs: 0.49 and 0.57, respectively). Interaction analyses revealed that racial/ethnic disparities in contraceptive use varied by women’s age, with younger women having more prominent disparities. Conclusions Interventions designed to address disparities in unintended pregnancy should focus on improving contraceptive use among younger women. PMID:24495671

  10. The World in Our Neighbourhood: Black and Ethnic Minority Communities and Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohri, Ashok

    This report is a review of development education and the black and ethnic minority communities in Great Britain. The development education movement in the United Kingdom has been based on producing resources, training, and support to the deliverers of education, whether teachers, youth workers, or community organizers. A feature of the movement…

  11. Ongoing Issues of Racial and Ethnic Stigma in Education 50 Years after Brown v. Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Sabrina

    2005-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" was focused on eliminating racial stigma and creating greater racial equity in education. Unfortunately, racial and ethnic stigma is still a powerful force in educational institutions of all kind. In this manuscript, I review the ways that stigma impedes academic performance, shapes the classroom climate and…

  12. Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education" is the summary of a workshop held in September 2013 to take a fresh look at the impediments to greater diversification in engineering education. The workshop brought together educators in engineering from two- and four-year colleges and staff members from the three

  13. Affirmative Action and the University: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Higher Education Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Kul B.; Critzer, John W.

    This book examines the impact of affirmative action on higher education hiring practices. Using data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics, the book summarizes, tracks, and evaluates changes in the gender and ethnic makeup of academic and nonacademic…

  14. Consolidation of Science Education in Ethnically Divided Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šorgo, Andrej; Živkovic, Mate

    2015-01-01

    Because of war and civil war on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, education in ethnically divided country has become fragmented. Because of postwar divisions thirteen different ministries of education or similar bodies are responsible for education, resulting in inefficiency and low quality. To overcome differences, a committee of experts…

  15. Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education" is the summary of a workshop held in September 2013 to take a fresh look at the impediments to greater diversification in engineering education. The workshop brought together educators in engineering from two- and four-year colleges and staff members from the three…

  16. Ethnic and Racial Difference in Higher Education Access: Effects of Family and School Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Sun Ah

    2010-01-01

    Despite many years and multiple plans by educational policy makers and government to achieve educational equity, there is still a wide disparity in college enrollment rates across racial/ethnic groups. The present study was designed to examine this problem by focusing on the educational resources that might contribute to the persisting enrollment…

  17. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L.; Fiese, Barbara H.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n=30) with a preschool-age child were videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: `Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), `Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and `Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in `action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. PMID:24183134

  18. Cultural Development in Ethnic Groups: Anthropological Explorations in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varese, Stefano

    1985-01-01

    Described is a program in which ethnic groups in Oaxaca, Mexico, are being taught to have a sense of security and confidence in their own systems of thought and knowledge and their way of looking at the world. (RM)

  19. Ethnic Education Should Undertake the Major Historic Task of Ethnic Unity and the Possibility of and Explorations into the Localization of Diversified Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minhui, Qian

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that the choice of cultures by ethnic education was determined by a given form of elitist ideology and a power agency. After the conversion of China's society from a planned economy to a market economy, this elitist ideology and power agency has become diversified and includes the elitist ideology of statism. Empowerment has

  20. Ethnic Education Should Undertake the Major Historic Task of Ethnic Unity and the Possibility of and Explorations into the Localization of Diversified Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minhui, Qian

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that the choice of cultures by ethnic education was determined by a given form of elitist ideology and a power agency. After the conversion of China's society from a planned economy to a market economy, this elitist ideology and power agency has become diversified and includes the elitist ideology of statism. Empowerment has…

  1. Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2014-12-01

    Family and neighborhood influences related to low-income were examined to understand their association with harsh parenting among an ethnically diverse sample of families. Specifically, a path model linking household income to harsh parenting via neighborhood disorder, fear for safety, maternal depressive symptoms, and family conflict was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 2,132 families with children ages 5-16 years from Chicago. The sample was 42% Mexican American, 41% African American, and 17% European American. Results provide support for a family process model where a lower income-to-needs ratio is associated with higher reports of neighborhood disorder, greater fear for safety, and more family conflict, which is in turn, associated with greater frequency of harsh parenting. Our tests for moderation by ethnicity/immigrant status, child gender, and child age (younger child vs. adolescent) indicate that although paths are similar for families of boys and girls, as well as for families of young children and adolescents, there are some differences by ethnic group. Specifically, we find the path from neighborhood disorder to fear for safety is stronger for Mexican American (United States born and immigrant) and European American families in comparison with African American families. We also find that the path from fear for safety to harsh parenting is significant for European American and African American families only. Possible reasons for such moderated effects are considered. PMID:25383794

  2. Glaucomatous blindness in the Negev: a descriptive study of age, sex, and ethnic patterns.

    PubMed Central

    David, R; Dan, Y; Stone, D H

    1983-01-01

    Two sources of data (a blind register and the records of a glaucoma clinic) were used to study the age, sex, and ethnic characteristics of sufferers of glaucomatous blindness in the Negev region of Israel. Glaucoma was found to be the cause of blindness relatively infrequently (10% of eyes) among the registered blind population. The rate of blindness from glaucoma in the population was 0.38/1000. Glaucomatous blindness affected more males than females and more individuals of Eastern and Western origin. A steep gradient of increasing number of blind with advancing age was found in both sexes and both ethnic groups, but the gradient was steeper in males and females of Eastern origin. These findings are consistent with the pattern expected of a developing country and represent the first descriptive profile of the pattern of personal characteristics of sufferers from glaucomatous blindness in this region. The ethnic pattern resembles what is known about the natural history of glaucoma in pigmented and nonpigmented races. PMID:6871145

  3. Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierstein, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Education is moving into the digital age. Pedagogies have changed to engage the latest digital technologies. The methods of distribution are now a blend between face-to-face and some other combination of virtual interfaces. The content is moving from traditional text-based learning to text-plus-multimedia. The community is now involved in the…

  4. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  5. Treatment of Race/Ethnicity in Career-Technical Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Xing, Xue

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how researchers of career-technical education have treated the construct of race/ethnicity in recent studies. Fifty-one of 71 articles published in the Career and Technical Education Research (CTER) over a 7-year span (2005-2011) were included. A content analysis found that only one quarter (n = 13, 25.49%) of eligible studies…

  6. Making Ethnic Citizens: The Politics and Practice of Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Graham K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the politics and practice of education in Malaysia within the context of ethnicity and nation building. Public education in Malaysia--particularly, but not exclusively, at the pre-university level--is promoted as a nation-building tool, seeking to inculcate a sense of Malaysian-ness and patriotism. Simultaneously, however,…

  7. Equal Access of Ethnic Minority Students to Different Types of Higher Education Institutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we focus on answering the question "Is there equal access to different types of higher education institutions (HEIs) for ethnic minority (EM) students in Yunnan Province (China), and what explanation might be found for any differences?" In order to answer this question, we rely on the education attainment theory, and a sample of…

  8. Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2009. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education". The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…

  9. Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2008. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino,…

  10. Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2011. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino,…

  11. Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2010. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education". The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…

  12. Education, Ethnic Identity, and Acculturation as Predictors of Self-Esteem in Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity of 150 Latino adolescents enrolled in either a bilingual or traditional education program. Bilingual education programs were established to ensure that academic failure was not the product of limited English proficiency. Grade point average (GPA), acculturation, and ethnic…

  13. Bilingual Education in the Ethnically Mixed Areas along the Slovene-Italian Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cok, Lucija; Pertot, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on education language policy in Slovene Istria and of Slovenia in Italy. On both sides of the Slovene-Italian border there is an ethnically mixed population of Italians and Slovenes, an Italian minority in Slovenia, and a Slovene minority in Italy. On both sides of the border apparently similar systems of bilingual education have…

  14. Ethnic Studies Methods and Materials for Teacher Training: A Model for Schools of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Iva A.

    Selected teacher resource projects for ethnic studies are identified and reviewed in this document. Developed at 16 educational institutions across the United States, the projects range in focus from general multiethnic education to specific minority groups including Japanese-, Afro-, French-, Polish-, Italian-, Mexican-, and Ozark-Americans, and…

  15. Black & ethnic minority clients: meeting needs (continuing education credit).

    PubMed

    Chan, T L

    No matter where nurses work they are bound to come across some clients from the black and ethnic minority populations whose first language is not English. It is therefore necessary for nurses to understand the different needs of these clients and to develop the skills to provide sensitive and appropriate health care services for them. PMID:8471464

  16. Goal Displacement in the Education of Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviram, Ovadia

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problems of socially integrating low income Jewish ethnic groups in Israel boarding schools into mainstream Israeli culture. Presents a participant observation review of one boarding school. Uses study of three boarding schools to explore discipline and control tactics as obstructions to the attainment of instrumental and expressive…

  17. Higher Education Access and Equality among Ethnic Minorities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    Market reform, financial decentralization, and economic globalization in recent years have greatly accentuated China's social and regional inequalities. These inequalities stem from many factors, including the rise of an urban middle class, a change in the status of women, a resurgence of ethnic identities, an increase in rural-to-urban migration,…

  18. Degradation: A Case Study Calling for Ethnic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciampa, Bartholomew J.

    Many credible sources refer to the various immigrant groups in a derogatory manner. Negative citations can be categorized in numerous ways. They might arise as a result of the geographic origin of the ethnic group; attraction to a particular occupation class; peculiarity of custom; religious or political affiliation; rate of delinquency, crime, or…

  19. The Education of Ethnic Subgroups in Contemporary Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludanyi, Andrew

    Hungarian state policy affecting ethnic minorities (Slovaks, Germans, Croatians, Rumanians, Serbians, and other groups) has been greatly influenced by political and social developments in the country. The pluralist perspective that Hungary has maintained throughout most of its history dates back to King Istvan I's 11th century admonition that…

  20. Education for Peace: Protest Strategies of Ethnic Resistance Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaykhutdinov, Renat

    2011-01-01

    While studying the consequences of violent and non-violent protests, the current literature is mostly mute on the question of why some ethnic collectivities prefer violent political action over non-violence. This question is especially interesting as recent empirical studies reveal functional effectiveness of non-violent tactics vis-a-vis violent…

  1. A Differential Item Functional Analysis by Age of Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination in a Multi-racial/ethnic Sample of Adults.

    PubMed

    Owens, Sherry; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether individual items on the nine item William's Perceived Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) functioned differently by age (<45 vs ≥ 45) within five racial groups in the United States: Asians (n=2,017); Hispanics (n=2,688); Black Caribbeans (n=1,377); African Americans (n=3,434); and Whites (n=854). We used data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Lives and the 2001-2003 National Latino and Asian Studies. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models (MIMIC) were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the EDS by age within each racial/ethnic group. Overall, Asian and Hispanic respondents reported less discrimination than Whites; on the other hand, African Americans and Black Caribbeans reported more discrimination than Whites. Regardless of race/ethnicity, the younger respondents (aged <45 years) reported less discrimination than the older respondents (aged ≥ 45 years). In terms of age by race/ethnicity, the results were mixed for 19 out of 45 tests of DIF (40%). No differences in item function were observed among Black Caribbeans. "Being called names or insulted" and others acting as "if they are afraid" of the respondents were the only two items that did not exhibit differential item functioning by age across all racial/ethnic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that the EDS scale should be used with caution in multi-age multi-racial/ethnic samples. PMID:26673317

  2. Age-dependent changes in eumelanin composition in hairs of various ethnic origins.

    PubMed

    Commo, S; Wakamatsu, K; Lozano, I; Panhard, S; Loussouarn, G; Bernard, B A; Ito, S

    2012-02-01

    Hair pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes of humans. From a chemical point of view, however, data remain scarce regarding human hair pigmentation characteristics. To determine melanin content and composition in human eumelanic hair from individuals of different ethnic origins and at different ages, we collected hair from 56 subjects with eumelanic hair from each group of African-American, East Asian, and Caucasian origin. The 56 subjects consist of 14, seven each of males and females, each from four age classes of younger than 11, between 12 and 19, between 20 and 45, and older than 46. We analysed hair colour scale, total melanin value, and contents of pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA). We measured age-dependent increases in the relative quantity of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs in the three ethnic groups. Regarding melanin composition, we observed an increase in the PDCA/PTCA ratio with age in African-American and Caucasian hairs until approaching the quite constant level of the ratio in East Asian hairs in the elderly individuals. Our results evidence differences in the content and composition of eumelanin in human hair among African-American, Caucasian and East Asian individuals. Furthermore, we show evidence of age-dependent changes in the quantity and quality of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs. In particular, the age-dependent modification of the PDCA/PTCA ratio, a marker for 5,6-dihydroxyindole units in eumelanin, suggests a chronological evolution of hair follicle melanocyte phenotype (e.g. decrease in dopachrome tautomerase expression). PMID:22017184

  3. Age at menopause and determinants of hysterectomy and menopause in a multi-ethnic community: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Murphy, Lorna; Morrison, Lynn; Reza, Angela; Brown, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A lifespan approach was used to evaluate age at menopause, and determinants of surgical and natural menopause, in the multi-ethnic community of Hilo, Hawaii. Study design Participants aged 40–60 years (n=898) were drawn from a larger, randomly-generated sample recruited by postal questionnaires. Median age at natural menopause was computed by probit analysis. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine determinants of hysterectomy, and Cox regression analysis was used to examine risk factors for an earlier age at menopause. Main outcome measures History of hysterectomy, Age at menopause Results Frequency of hysterectomy was 19.2% at a mean age of 40.5 years. The likelihood of hysterectomy increased with older ages, lower education, mixed ancestry, having been overweight at age 30, and married 20 years prior to survey. Median age at natural menopause was 53.0 years. Smoking and not being married 10 years before survey were associated with an earlier age at menopause. Conclusions Median age at menopause was later than the national average. Ethnicity and education were determinants of hysterectomy, but not associated with age at natural menopause. Events later in the lifespan (e.g., smoking and not being married 10 years prior to the survey) were more important than earlier events (e.g., childhood residence) in relation to age at menopause. The timing of weight gain and marital status appear to be important in relation to surgical menopause, and the timing of marital status appears to be important in relation to the timing of natural menopause. PMID:24054435

  4. Gender, race, ethnicity, and science education in the middle grades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catsambis, Sophia

    This article examines gender differences in science achievements and attitudes during the middle grade, when our nation's scientific pipeline begins to emerge. It uses data from a large, nationally representative sample of eighth-grade students (NELS-88). The findings show that in these grades female students do not lag behind their male classmates in science achievements tests, grades, and course enrollments. Actually, some female students have higher probabilities of enrolling in high-ability classes than males. However, female students have less positive attitudes toward science, participate in fewer relevant extracurricular activities, and aspire less often to science careers than males. Students' science attitudes and career interests vary according to students' gender as well as their racial or ethnic background. These findings emphasize the need to further examine the interrelationships between gender and race or ethnicity in our efforts to understand the processes leading to women's limited participation in science-related careers.Received: 2 August 1993; Revised: 8 August 1994;

  5. Education for Sustainable Development in Ethnic Autonomous Areas of China: A Comparison of Two Curriculum Initiatives and Their Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Yishin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the educational implications of two curriculum initiatives in China that have produced curricular materials promoting education for sustainable development (ESD) in minority-populated ethnic autonomous areas in China. The two curriculum projects present distinctive discourses, conceptions, models, frameworks and scopes of ESD…

  6. Education for Sustainable Development in Ethnic Autonomous Areas of China: A Comparison of Two Curriculum Initiatives and Their Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Yishin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the educational implications of two curriculum initiatives in China that have produced curricular materials promoting education for sustainable development (ESD) in minority-populated ethnic autonomous areas in China. The two curriculum projects present distinctive discourses, conceptions, models, frameworks and scopes of ESD

  7. The Importance of Ethnic Cultural Competency in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cultural competency in physical education is unmistakable. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) has identified elements of cultural competency within both the National Standards for Physical Education and the National Standards and Guidelines for Physical Education Teacher Education. Although there…

  8. Variations in GP–patient communication by ethnicity, age, and gender: evidence from a national primary care patient survey

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Jenni; Lloyd, Cathy; Campbell, John; Roland, Martin; Abel, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background Doctor–patient communication is a key driver of overall satisfaction with primary care. Patients from minority ethnic backgrounds consistently report more negative experiences of doctor–patient communication. However, it is currently unknown whether these ethnic differences are concentrated in one gender or in particular age groups. Aim To determine how reported GP–patient communication varies between patients from different ethnic groups, stratified by age and gender. Design and setting Analysis of data from the English GP Patient Survey from 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, including 1 599 801 responders. Method A composite score was created for doctor–patient communication from five survey items concerned with interpersonal aspects of care. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to estimate age- and gender-specific differences between white British patients and patients of the same age and gender from each other ethnic group. Results There was strong evidence (P<0.001 for age by gender by ethnicity three-way interaction term) that the effect of ethnicity on reported GP–patient communication varied by both age and gender. The difference in scores between white British and other responders on doctor–patient communication items was largest for older, female Pakistani and Bangladeshi responders, and for younger responders who described their ethnicity as ‘Any other white’. Conclusion The identification of groups with particularly marked differences in experience of GP–patient communication — older, female, Asian patients and younger ‘Any other white’ patients — underlines the need for a renewed focus on quality of care for these groups. PMID:26541182

  9. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  10. The Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents as Related to Parent Education Level and Race/Ethnicity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This study explores associations between scores on the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA), parent education level, and race/ethnicity in a normative sample of 450 children. Small but significant associations were found between parent education level and the RSCA Sense of Relatedness Scale score. Race/ethnicity did not contribute…

  11. Racial/Ethnic Socialization and Parental Involvement in Education as Predictors of Cognitive Ability and Achievement in African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A. T.; Johnson, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of…

  12. Interaction Effects of Gender, SES, and Race-Ethnicity on Postsecondary Educational Choices of U.S. Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusty, Jerry; Ng, Kok-mun; Plata, Maximino

    2000-01-01

    Presents data from the National Education Longitudinal Study on participants who attended postsecondary institution within two years of high school and had chosen a field of study. Educational choices had a three-way Gender x SES x Race-Ethnicity interaction. Race-ethnicity effects were strongest for men at lower SES levels and weakest for women…

  13. The Impact of a National-Goal-Driven Higher Education Policy on an Ethnic Minority Serving Institution in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothey, Rebecca A.; Hu, Diya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Project 985 at Minzu University of China, an ethnic minority serving university in China. As a university established specifically for the education of ethnic minorities, the paper examines in what ways the implementation of a policy uniformly mandated to serve national higher education goals by China's…

  14. The Impact of a National-Goal-Driven Higher Education Policy on an Ethnic Minority Serving Institution in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothey, Rebecca A.; Hu, Diya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Project 985 at Minzu University of China, an ethnic minority serving university in China. As a university established specifically for the education of ethnic minorities, the paper examines in what ways the implementation of a policy uniformly mandated to serve national higher education goals by China's

  15. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance

  16. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices.

    PubMed

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-04-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  17. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N.; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  18. Education in Old Age: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various educational and…

  19. Moderation of age, sex, and ethnicity on psychosocial predictors of increased exercise and improved eating.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J

    2013-01-01

    Although research indicates that treatment-induced improvements in self-regulation, mood, and self-efficacy significantly predict increased exercise and improved eating, moderation by participants' personal characteristics is largely unknown. Severely obese adults (N = 414; 47% White, 53% African American) volunteered for a behavioral exercise and nutrition treatment and demonstrated significant within-group improvements in self-efficacy for exercise, self-regulation for exercise, mood, self-efficacy for controlled eating, self-regulation for controlled eating, exercise volume, and fruit and vegetable intake over 26 weeks. After testing age, sex, and race/ethnicity as possible moderators of the prediction of changes in exercise volume and fruit and vegetable consumption by changes in self-regulation, mood, and self-efficacy, only age significantly moderated change in volume of exercise. Implications for theory and treatment were discussed. PMID:24003590

  20. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  1. Ethnic Differences in Cardiometabolic Risk Profile at Age 5–6 Years: The ABCD Study

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Method Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample) fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5–6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n = 2,008; blood n = 1,300), African descent (n = 199; blood n = 105), Turkish (n = 108; blood n = 57) and Moroccan (n = 194; blood n = 94). Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP), fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. Results After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (β2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09–3.36) and HDL levels (β:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03–0.16) compared to Dutch children (reference group). Turkish children showed higher SBP (β:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25–3.54), DBP (β:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11–4.13), glucose (β:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00–0.25) and triglyceride levels (β:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02–0.25). Higher BMI values were found in all non–Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53–1.03 kg/m2) and higher WC in Turkish (β:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99–2.38) and Moroccan (β:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11–2.19) children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. Conclusion Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC. PMID:22916294

  2. A Comparison of Students' Choices of 9th Grade Physical Education Activities by Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant M.; Cleven, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine physical education activity preferences of 9th grade students in a southern California school district and to compare preferences by ethnicity. Results indicated that basketball, football, bowling, softball/baseball, swimming, and volleyball were the most preferred activities. These preferences may be…

  3. Preferential Policies and Ethnic Differences in Post-Secondary Education in Peninsular Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agadjanian, Victor; Peng Liew, Hui

    2005-01-01

    In this study we use the second wave of the Malaysian family life survey conducted in 1988-1989 to examine the effects of the national economic policy (NEP) instituted by the Malaysian government in 1971 to promote educational opportunities of hitherto disadvantaged ethnic Malays. The analysis focuses on the probability of entering post-secondary…

  4. Access to Higher Education of 25 Ethnic Minorities in Yunnan Province, South Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2010-01-01

    The level of development of higher education (HE) is an important indicator to measure the development of the social economy and the civilization of a region or country. In this article, we compare the distribution of the freshmen of ethnic minorities (EMs) with the distribution of EMs over the population, based on a sample of 1 464 freshmen from

  5. Our University: Ethnicity, Higher Education and the Quest for State Legitimacy in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munene, Ishmael I.

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, no other country has witnessed as great a surge in university institutions as Kenya. The intent of this paper is to explore the persistence of the ethnic configurations in the surge of higher education in Kenya, within the context of the country's history. Outlining the major flashpoints in the country's history will be

  6. Crossing Ethnic Barriers in the Southwest: Women's Agricultural Extension Education, 1914-1940. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Joan M.

    From its inception in 1914 until 1940, the New Mexico Agricultural Extension Service was quite successful in delivering educational programs to non-English speaking, Hispanic women in Santa Fe County and almost totally unsuccessful in Dona Ana County. Criteria for success were involvement of ethnic women in the program, ability to adapt national…

  7. Leaving Home State for College: Differences by Race/Ethnicity and Parental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Sunny X.

    2015-01-01

    Using the College Board SAT registration and questionnaire data of 2010 high school graduating seniors, we found clear patterns by race/ethnicity and parental education on two outcomes: out-of-state score-sending and out-of-state college attendance. White students had the highest rates and Hispanic students had the lowest rates, and there was a…

  8. Exploring the Educational Benefits of Attending an Ethnically Diverse Magnet High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather teacher and student perceptions of the educational benefits that emerge from providing diverse learning environments for students attending an inter-district magnet school. Research Questions were (1) In what ways do teachers and students report that the magnet school offers an ethnically diverse learning…

  9. The Benefits of Higher Education: Sex, Racial/Ethnic, and Socioeconomic Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes data from the NELS:92/00 to explore sex, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic group differences in the benefits that high school graduates realize from college. Sex differences in higher education benefits may be a source of observed differences between women and men in college enrollment and degree attainment rates. The findings…

  10. "We Raised It with the Head": The Educational Practices of Minority Ethnic, Middle-Class Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from a small-scale empirical exploration of the views, experiences and educational practices of middle-class minority ethnic families in the United Kingdom. It draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with 36 parents, pupils and "young professionals". Analyses consider to what extent generic class resources, as…

  11. Language and Ethnicity: Multiple Literacies in Context, Language Education in Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmberger, Janet L.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the research literature available in the United States on the evolution of language policy and planning issues involved in bilingual education programs in Mayan communities in Guatemala. I begin with general comments regarding language policy and planning for bilingual programs for ethnic groups within the borders of…

  12. Preferences towards Sex Education and Information from an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, L.; Testa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…

  13. Dynamics of Ethnic and Cultural Pluralism: Implications for Social Work Education and Curriculum Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Daniel S.

    1975-01-01

    Describing the contribution social workers could make to social change based on the emerging awareness of ethnic and cultural pluralism in American society, the author outlines necessary changes in social work education approaches, admission policies, curriculum organization, curriculum practices, and content to reflect a positive view toward…

  14. Leaving Home State for College: Differences by Race/Ethnicity and Parental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Sunny X.

    2015-01-01

    Using the College Board SAT registration and questionnaire data of 2010 high school graduating seniors, we found clear patterns by race/ethnicity and parental education on two outcomes: out-of-state score-sending and out-of-state college attendance. White students had the highest rates and Hispanic students had the lowest rates, and there was a

  15. Special Issue: Racial and Ethnic Minority Students' Success in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Palmer, Robert T.; Davis, Ryan J.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph provides educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners with an overview of existing knowledge regarding factors that influence success among racial and ethnic minority students in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) circuit. To accomplish this task, the authors reviewed more than four hundred…

  16. Gender Differences in Educational Achievement within Racial and Ethnic Groups. ERIC Digest Number 164.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY.

    Educational Testing Service (ETS) research highlights more similarities than variations in gender differences among student racial/groups, though variations exist in how the differences are manifested. This digest presents highlights from Richard Coley's findings in "Differences in the Gender Gap: Comparisons across Racial/Ethnic Groups in

  17. Ethnic Environment during Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygren, Magnus; Szulkin, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and

  18. A Comparison of Trilingual Education Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Bob; Feng, Anwei

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has instigated language policies in education ostensibly designed to foster trilingualism in ethnic minority groups. The policies, which, as this paper shows, vary from region to region, encompass the minority group's home language, Chinese, and English. Based on data arising from interviews,…

  19. Dutch Policies on Socio-Economic and Ethnic Inequality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Dekkers, Hetty

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1960s The Netherlands has produced policy to combat educational inequalities stemming from the social milieu and ethnicity of pupils. This policy has evolved from local to central policy and back again to a decentralised level. The initial focus on disadvantaged native Dutch pupils in big cities has shifted to immigrant groups and--at…

  20. Ethnic Environment during Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygren, Magnus; Szulkin, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and…

  1. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Equity Patterns in Illinois High School Career and Technical Education Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Asia Fuller; Malin, Joel; Hackmann, Donald

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed high school Career and Technical Education (CTE) enrollments in Illinois, with comparisons to national data when possible, by career cluster and pathway and with respect to gender and racial/ethnic makeup of students. Enrollment patterns in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) CTE programming were emphasized.…

  2. Exploring the Educational Benefits of Attending an Ethnically Diverse Magnet High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather teacher and student perceptions of the educational benefits that emerge from providing diverse learning environments for students attending an inter-district magnet school. Research Questions were (1) In what ways do teachers and students report that the magnet school offers an ethnically diverse learning

  3. From Higher Education to Employment: Inequalities among Ethnic Backgrounds in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frickey, Alan; Murdoch, Jake; Primon, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    In France, as in many European countries, youth from foreign ethnic backgrounds appear less integrated than those who are accepted as established French citizens into civil society through the educational system and the labor market. Until now, existing research on employment inequalities in France has, for good reasons, concentrated on the large…

  4. Evaluating Special Education Services for Learners from Ethnically Diverse Groups: Getting It Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the need for the right person to ask the right questions of the right people in the right place and time to evaluate special education services for ethnically diverse groups. These requirements are discussed in the context of research evaluating services for Maori children in New Zealand. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  5. Language and Ethnicity: Multiple Literacies in Context, Language Education in Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmberger, Janet L.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the research literature available in the United States on the evolution of language policy and planning issues involved in bilingual education programs in Mayan communities in Guatemala. I begin with general comments regarding language policy and planning for bilingual programs for ethnic groups within the borders of

  6. Education, Ethnic Homogenization and Cultural Hybridization (Brussels, Belgium, and Cape Town, South Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Johan, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The eight chapters of this theme issue examine the ways in which autochthonous communities regard the supply side of education. The supply side is segregational in nature, and immigrants themselves move toward ethnic homogenization. The focus is on urban minorities in Brussels (Belgium). Compares the situation in Cape Town (South Africa). (SLD)

  7. Racial/Ethnic Group Differences in the Realization of Educational Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura Walter

    This study examines racial/ethnic group differences in two- and four-year college enrollment rates of bachelor's degree aspirants, controlled for differences in expected costs and benefits, financial resources, academic characteristics, and social and cultural capital. The sample (n=7,832) is drawn from the National Educational Longitudinal Study…

  8. Access to Higher Education of 25 Ethnic Minorities in Yunnan Province, South Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2010-01-01

    The level of development of higher education (HE) is an important indicator to measure the development of the social economy and the civilization of a region or country. In this article, we compare the distribution of the freshmen of ethnic minorities (EMs) with the distribution of EMs over the population, based on a sample of 1 464 freshmen from…

  9. Our University: Ethnicity, Higher Education and the Quest for State Legitimacy in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munene, Ishmael I.

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, no other country has witnessed as great a surge in university institutions as Kenya. The intent of this paper is to explore the persistence of the ethnic configurations in the surge of higher education in Kenya, within the context of the country's history. Outlining the major flashpoints in the country's history will be…

  10. Gender by ethnic equity issues as they pertain to success in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Jan David

    Science is traditionally a white-male dominated field. This trend has foundations in beliefs and practices accepted before the Enlightenment period. Sixteenth and seventeenth century writers further promoted perceptions that women lacked intellectual capacity to indulge in science. A similar viewpoint was applied to non-white ethnic groups during the 19th and 20th centuries. Questions over Eurocentric and androcentric aspects of science were first raised publicly in 1869, yet significant change in the proportions of women and minorities in science-related fields remains disproportionately low. Public awareness of this situation extends to education where students demonstrate beliefs that opportunities in science are primarily for white males. This commonly shared belief typically produces negative effects on success rates in science education for females and minorities. The purpose of this study was to determine if gender-by-ethnic factors are culturally specific. Do members of one gender/ethnic subgroup experience deterrents to success in science education not common in other ethnic groups? Contrariwise, are negative factors shared across ethnic groups? An effort is made to identify potential gender/ethnic-related barriers that serve to reduce success rates and potentially generate negative attitudes for students about science. A 74-item Likert scale was developed to reveal students' perceptions of issues relative to science education. This instrument was administered to 30 female and 30 male high school students in each of four ethnic groups (African American, Mexican American, American Indian, and Euro American) from public or tribal schools in a large southwestern (United States) urban community. Randomly selected participants from each subgroup were then interviewed to expound upon relevant issues. A reoccurring pattern of reduced interest and experiences in science activities was noted among male American Indians. These participants most often differed with one or more of the other gender/ethnic subgroups in expectations and opportunities for academic success. Most students anticipated support from parents and educators if they were to choose a science related career; however, few expected like consideration from peers. Historical and current issues of cultural relevance are considered as potential sources for outcome patterns noted from the study. Possible areas for future studies are offered.

  11. Minority Language Education in Malaysia: Four Ethnic Communities' Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karla J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses minority language education in Malaysia, a multilingual and multicultural country. Looks at four language minority groups and what they have done to to provide beginning education programs for their children that use the children's native languages. (Author/VWL)

  12. Adolescents’ Educational Outcomes: Racial and Ethnic Variations in Peer Network Importance

    PubMed Central

    Ryabov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents’ academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results reveal that, in addition to those factors typically associated with academic outcomes (e.g., school composition), two individual-level peer network measures, SES and heterogeneity, had significant effects. Although educational attainment was generally worse in low SES schools, for all ethnic groups higher attainment was associated with attending schools with higher concentrations of minority students. At the individual level, however, membership in integrated peer networks was negatively related to high school graduation for Asians, Latinos, and non-Hispanic whites, and to GPA for Asians and Latinos, as only African-American achievement increased in more racially/ethnically heterogeneous peer networks. Our results suggest that co-ethnic and co-racial peer friendship networks should not be viewed as obstacles to the educational accomplishments of today’s youth. In fact, in many cases the opposite was true, as results generally support the ethnic social capital hypothesis while providing little corroboration for oppositional culture theory. Results also suggest that co-racial and co-ethnic ties may mediate the negative effects of school choice, or more specifically of between-school socioeconomic segregation. Consequently, we conclude that school policies aimed at socioeconomic desegregation are likely to beneficially affect the academic outcomes of all race/ethnic groups. PMID:19669905

  13. Educational Provision for Ethnic Minority Groups in Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines effect of Nicaragua's 1979 revolution on education, especially for minority Miskito Indians. Summarizes history of Indian culture in region. Suggests Sandinista government began emphasizing bilingual, bicultural education in 1982-83, sparked by deteriorating economic situation. Concludes multicultural education program, while hindered by…

  14. Older and Wiser. A Study of Educational Provision for Black and Ethnic Minority Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadzie, Stella

    This publication is the outcome of the Older and Wiser Project that assessed projects' work with elderly black clients. The first part defines who the black elderly are and provides an overview of the black elderly in Britain using data from the 1991 Census. A chart breaks down ethnic minority groups by age. Population pyramids that provide an

  15. Illegitimate Participation? A Group of Young Minority Ethnic Children's Experiences of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north-west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried…

  16. Differential HIV risk for racial/ethnic minority trans*female youth and socio-economic disparities in housing, residential stability and education

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Erin C.; Chen, Yea-Hung; Arayasirikul, Sean; Fisher, Marla; Pomart, W. Andres; Le, Victory; Raymond, H. Fisher; McFarland, Willi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction One of the biggest threats to the health of trans*females is HIV, particularly for those who are part of racial/minority groups. Yet health disparities for racial/ethnic minority trans*female youth remain understudied. Methods We examined baseline data from 282 trans*female youth ages 16–24 years old in the San Francisco Bay Area. We conducted Chi-squared tests for distributional differences between racial/ethnic minority and white participants in socio-demographic factors, HIV-related risk behaviors and syndemic factors. Results A total of 4.8% of trans*female youth were HIV positive. Racial/ethnic minority and white trans*female youth differed significantly in their gender identities and sexual orientations. Racial/minority youth also had significantly lower educational attainment, were less likely to live with their parents of origin as a child, and were significantly more likely to engage in recent condomless anal intercourse compared to whites. Conclusions Important disparities in HIV-related sexual risk behavior, education, and residential stability exist between racial/ethnic minority and white trans*female youth. Efforts to assess the impact of multiple minority stress for racial/minority trans*female youth are imminently needed. Additionally, macro-level disparities must be addressed in prevention efforts for trans*female youth, especially for those from racial/ethnic minority groups, in order to prevent incident cases of HIV and reduce disparities. PMID:25905826

  17. Preparation of nurses to meet the needs of an ethnically diverse society: educational implications.

    PubMed

    Gerrish, K

    1997-10-01

    In recognizing the multiethnic composition of contemporary society in the UK, this paper considers the implications for nurse education in respect of preparing practitioners who are capable of meeting the needs of an ethnically diverse population. It begins by considering briefly some contextual issues relating to the health needs of ethnic minorities and how they impact upon nursing practice. The literature clearly indicates some of the complexities that nurses face in attempting to deliver care which is responsive to the individual needs of patients in a multicultural context. The question then arises as to how nurse education can most effectively prepare future practitioners. Consideration is given to the curriculum content, methods and approaches that may be utilized together with different teaching and learning strategies. The case is made for the need for nurse educators to also consider the recruitment and support of students from ethnic minority groups, if nursing is to make progress in responding more appropriately to the needs of ethnic minority groups in the UK. PMID:9370626

  18. Distribution of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol according to age, sex, and ethnic origin: cardiovascular disease study in Finnmark 1977.

    PubMed Central

    Thelle, D S; Førde, O H; Arnesen, E

    1982-01-01

    As a part of a survey for cardiovascular risk factors high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was determined in 15 942 men and women aged 20-53. Women had on average 0.24 mmol/l higher HDL-C concentration than men. The difference was of the same magnitude at all ages. For both sexes HDL-C increased with age. The increase was partly influenced by other variables affecting the HDL-C concentration. After adjusting for the effect of height, weight, cigarette-smoking, physical activity in leisure time, and ethnic origin the age-related change was more pronounced, 0.13 mmol/l and 0.16 mmol/l difference between the youngest and the oldest age group for men and women respectively. The population comprised three ethnic groups. HDL-C did not differ among the women of different ethnic origin, but among men those of Lappish origin had higher HDL-C concentrations than the other groups. This difference was reduced after adjusting for other variables and was probably due more to external factors influencing the HDL-C concentration than specific ethnic-genetic traits. PMID:7166677

  19. "Just Open Your Eyes a Bit More": The Methodological Challenges of Researching Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne; Webb, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss some of the challenges of centralising "race" and ethnicity in Physical Education (PE) research, through reflecting on the design and implementation of a study exploring Black and minority ethnic students' experiences of their teacher education. Our aim in the paper is to contribute to ongoing theoretical and…

  20. Educating Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam: Policies and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    Teacher education programs in Vietnam, like their counterparts in most multicultural societies, struggle to address the issues of access, equity, and excellence. The nation's minority groups, about 13 percent of the population, traditionally have not gained admission to educational opportunities on a par with members of the majority group,…

  1. Educational Opportunities. Tackling Ethnic, Class and Gender Inequality through Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert, Ed.; Jungbluth, Paul, Ed.

    This collection presents a cross section of research into the theme of equal opportunities in education in the Netherlands. The majority of articles are on the Dutch situation, which resembles that of other countries in many respects. Contributions include: (1) "Educational Inequality Research in the Netherlands. Conditions, Constraints and…

  2. The Impossibility of Minority Ethnic Educational "Success"? An Examination of the Discourses of Teachers and Pupils in British Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that in Britain dominant educational discourses of "the ideal pupil" exclude minority ethnic pupils and prevent them from inhabiting a position of authentic "success". It suggests that "the successful pupil" is a desired yet refused subject position for many minority ethnic young people--even for those who are (to some extent)…

  3. Improving the Success of Ethnically Diverse Education Majors in Preparation for Transfer and a Career in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deason, Maryellene; Gelsomini, Barbara

    In an effort to improve the long-term transfer and retention of ethnically diverse students in education, Southwestern College (SWC) embarked on a cooperative project with San Diego State University (SDSU) and the University of California, San Diego UCSD), to address the needs of ethnically diverse students who express the goal of becoming…

  4. The Culture Care Meaning of Comfort for Ethnically Diverse Pre-Licensure Baccalaureate Nursing Students in the Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, Lynne K.

    2010-01-01

    The nursing profession is calling for enhanced diversity within the ranks of registered nurses to meet the health care needs of an increasingly diverse society. Nursing education is faced with the challenge of retaining ethnically diverse nursing students. Students who are ethnically diverse face unique challenges in addition to the universal…

  5. Incidence, and Gender, Age and Ethnic Distribution of Sarcomas in the Republic of Suriname from 1980 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Mans, DRA; Lall, AE Budhu; Macnack, VL; van Tholl, JA; Zandveld, EB; Vrede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We report on the incidence and the gender, age and ethnic distribution of sarcomas diagnosed between 1980 and 2008 in the multi-ethnic Republic of Suriname. Methods: Total and average yearly number of cases, crude rates, as well as relevant population data were derived from the records of the Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory and the General Bureau of Statistics, respectively, and stratified according to gender, age groups 019, 2049 and 50+ years, and the largest ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese and Maroons). Results: Between 1980 and 2008, 258 sarcomas were diagnosed in Suriname, ie at a frequency of nine per year and an annual rate of two per 100 000. Overall, there was 0.9 male per female, two to four cases per year in each age group, and one to three patients in each ethnic group. Soft-tissue sarcomas comprised approximately 80% of overall cases, with a male/female ratio that was approximately 0.5; almost 90% of patients were older than 20 years; more than one-third was Creole. Leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma were most frequently encountered (90 cases), particularly above 20 years of age, while leiomyosarcomas seemed, additionally, more common in women and Creoles or Maroons. The most numerous bone tumours were primitive neuroectodermal tumour/Ewing tumour and osteosarcoma (37 cases). They were more common in males, the youngest age group, and Hindustanis and Creoles. Conclusions: The incidence of sarcomas in Suriname, and their gender, age and ethnic distribution in general, seemed comparable with international data. The main exception might be leiomyosarcoma which might have a predilection for Afro-Surinamese. PMID:25303244

  6. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  7. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  8. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health

  9. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  10. Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

  11. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal

  12. Development of Ethnic, Racial, and National Prejudice in Childhood and Adolescence: A Multinational Meta-Analysis of Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…

  13. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

  14. Investigation of Music Student Efficacy as Influenced by Age, Experience, Gender, Ethnicity, and Type of Instrument Played in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to quantitatively examine South Carolina high school instrumental music students' self-efficacy as measured by the Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE) instrument (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1993). The independent variables of age, experience, gender, ethnicity, and type of instrument played) were correlated with the…

  15. Ethnic Inequality in Choice-Driven Education Systems: A Longitudinal Study of Performance and Choice in England and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michelle; Jonsson, Jan O.; Rudolphi, Frida

    2012-01-01

    The authors ask whether choice-driven education systems, with comprehensive schools and mass education at the secondary and tertiary level, represented in this article by England and Sweden, provide educational opportunities for ethnic minorities. In studying educational attainment, the authors make a theoretical distinction between mechanisms…

  16. Short Sleep Duration across Income, Education and Race/Ethnic Groups: Population Prevalence and Growing Disparities over 34 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Kaplan, George A.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about population determinants of short sleep duration. The authors examined associations between short sleep duration and income, education and race/ethnicity, and assessed changes over time in relative disparities. Methods Questionnaire data from the Alameda County Health and Ways of Living Study (ACS) was obtained at five time-points (1965, 1974, 1983, 1994, and 1999) for short sleep duration (<7 hours sleep per night). Household income, education level and race/ethnicity were assessed at baseline (n=6928). Odds ratios were computed to examine short sleep duration across income, education and race/ethnicity, adjusting for age, sex and time-varying covariates, and to assess changes over time. Results Prevalence of short sleep at baseline was 15.2%.The (age-adjusted) odds of short sleep was increased for the lowest household income quintile (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.94), those with less than high school education (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.75), and among African Americans (odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68, 2.30). Relative disparities increased over time for African Americans and Hispanics compared to whites. Conclusions Socioeconomic position is a robust determinant of short sleep duration, even after adjusting for health-related characteristics linked to short sleep duration. PMID:17855122

  17. Ethnicity Is an Independent Determinant of Age-Specific PSA Level: Findings from a Multiethnic Asian Setting

    PubMed Central

    Sothilingam, Selvalingam; Malek, Rohan; Sundram, Murali; Hisham Bahadzor, Badrul; Ong, Teng Aik; Ng, Keng Lim; Sivalingam, Sivaprakasam; Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the baseline PSA profile and determine the factors influencing the PSA levels within a multiethnic Asian setting. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1054 men with no clinical evidence of prostate cancer, prostate surgery or 5α-reductase inhibitor treatment of known prostate conditions. The serum PSA concentration of each subject was assayed. Potential factors associated with PSA level including age, ethnicity, height, weight, family history of prostate cancer, lower urinary tract voiding symptoms (LUTS), prostate volume and digital rectal examination (DRE) were evaluated using univariable and multivariable analysis. Results There were 38 men (3.6%) found to have a PSA level above 4 ng/ml and 1016 (96.4%) with a healthy PSA (≤4 ng/ml). The median PSA level of Malay, Chinese and Indian men was 1.00 ng/ml, 1.16 ng/ml and 0.83 ng/ml, respectively. Indians had a relatively lower median PSA level and prostate volume than Malays and Chinese, who shared a comparable median PSA value across all 10-years age groups. The PSA density was fairly similar amongst all ethnicities. Further analysis showed that ethnicity, weight and prostate volume were independent factors associated with age specific PSA level in the multivariable analysis (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings support the concept that the baseline PSA level varies between different ethnicities across all age groups. In addition to age and prostate volume, ethnicity may also need to be taken into account when investigating serum PSA concentrations in the multiethnic Asian population. PMID:25111507

  18. Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

    Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain this differences. Therefore we propose that older Fars and Turkmen people may have elevated requirement for antioxidants. Supplementation with vitamin or dietary free radical scavengers such as vitamin E and C or foodstuff containing these such as tomatoes, oranges and similars have a potential role in boosting antioxidant related defenses and may be important for older people of two ethnic groups.

  19. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  20. Multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis arterial age versus framingham 10-year or lifetime cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Villines, Todd C; Taylor, Allen J

    2012-12-01

    Methods to improve coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction include incorporation of coronary artery calcium (CAC) within risk models and considering longer time horizons such as evaluation of lifetime cardiovascular risk (LTR). We compared the accuracy of 10-year Framingham risk score (FRS), LTR, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) arterial age-adjusted 10-year risk for prediction of incident CHD events in men in the Prospective Army Coronary Calcium Project. We studied 1,633 healthy men (mean age 43 years, range 40 to 50 years, mean FRS 4.6%) with electron-beam computed tomography for CAC. Events (CHD death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome with nonelective coronary revascularization) were prospectively assessed over 5.6 ± 1.5 years. Predicted risk using 10-year FRS for CHD and cardiovascular disease, LTR, and MESA arterial age were evaluated in relation with CAC and CHD events. CAC prevalence was strongly related to LTR, increasing in a graded fashion from 10.1% to 66.7% across 8 categories of increasing LTR. On receiver operating characteristic analysis, MESA arterial age (area under curve 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.93) had the largest area under the curve but similar areas under the curve were observed for 10-year risk (CHD 0.74, 0.61 to 0.86; cardiovascular disease 0.70, 0.59 to 0.82), LTR (0.68, 0.49 to 0.76), and LTR with CAC as a covariate (0.76, 0.63 to 0.89). Inclusion of family history of CHD or body mass index did not improve model accuracy. In conclusion, increasing LTR was associated with increasingly prevalent CAC in this low-risk cohort and inclusion of CAC improved the accuracy of LTR for short-term event prediction. PMID:22921999

  1. American Education: Implications from the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William E.

    This paper considers the needs of future educational systems in an age of information. Characteristics of such systems are described and analyzed. An information age educational system would stress the big picture, be experimental, emphasize skills and tools of thought and action and extend throughout life. It would have alternative delivery…

  2. American Education: Implications from the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William E.

    This paper considers the needs of future educational systems in an age of information. Characteristics of such systems are described and analyzed. An information age educational system would stress the big picture, be experimental, emphasize skills and tools of thought and action and extend throughout life. It would have alternative delivery

  3. Aging among Jewish Americans: Implications for Understanding Religion, Ethnicity, and Service Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…

  4. Economic Education Comes of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symmes, S. Stowell

    1972-01-01

    The programs instigated by the Council are outlined: The DEEP Cooperating Schools Program, the Centers for Economic Education, the World of Work Economic Education Program, and the various publication, workshops, and teacher training programs. (JB)

  5. Dark Age Education: Our Latest Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Joel

    1981-01-01

    Relates the history of ideas to the history of education during the middle ages. Topics discussed include cultural life, economic factors, the political economy of medieval education, and the difficulty of writing about educational trends during a time for which there are few authoritative sources. (DB)

  6. Educational Equity Issues in an Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayers, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    Equity in access to educational resources faces new challenges in the age of technology, with great disparity in access to educational technology. The article proposes an alternative direction for equity of access to global learning networks as a catalyst for genuine educational reform that upholds civil rights law. (Author/SM)

  7. The Hidden Costs of Ethnic Conflict: Decomposing Trends in Educational Outcomes of Young Kosovars. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alva, Soumya; Murrugarra, Edmundo; Paci, Pierella

    This paper examines the impact of ethnic segmentation in education on educational outcomes. Between 1991 and the late 1990s, the Albanian Kosovar population received education services in an informal system parallel to the official one. Using the 2000 Kosovo Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) data, this paper exploits cohort differences in…

  8. The Hidden Costs of Ethnic Conflict: Decomposing Trends in Educational Outcomes of Young Kosovars. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alva, Soumya; Murrugarra, Edmundo; Paci, Pierella

    This paper examines the impact of ethnic segmentation in education on educational outcomes. Between 1991 and the late 1990s, the Albanian Kosovar population received education services in an informal system parallel to the official one. Using the 2000 Kosovo Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) data, this paper exploits cohort differences in

  9. The Day-to-Day Impact of Urogenital Aging: Perspectives from Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Janis; Grady, Deborah; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Urogenital symptoms affect up to half of women after menopause, but their impact on women’s day-to-day functioning and wellbeing is poorly understood. METHODS Postmenopausal women aged 45 to 80 years reporting urogenital dryness, soreness, itching, or pain during sex were recruited to participate in in-depth focus groups to discuss the impact of their symptoms. Focus groups were homogenous with respect to race/ethnicity and stratified by age (for White or Black women) or language (for Latina women). Transcripts of sessions were analyzed according to grounded theory. RESULTS Six focus groups were conducted, involving 44 women (16 White, 14 Black, 14 Latina). Five domains of functioning and wellbeing affected by symptoms were identified: sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations. For some participants, symptoms primarily affected their ability to have and enjoy sex, as well as be responsive to their partners. For others, symptoms interfered with everyday activities, such as exercising, toileting, or sleeping. Participants regarded their symptoms as a sign that they were getting old or their body was deteriorating; women also associated symptoms with a loss of womanhood or sexuality. Additionally, participants reported feeling depressed, embarrassed, and frustrated about their symptoms, and expressed reluctance to discuss them with friends, family, or health care providers. CONCLUSIONS Urogenital symptoms can have a marked impact on sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations after menopause. Clinicians may need to question women actively about these symptoms, as many are reluctant to seek help for this problem. PMID:19908103

  10. Ethnic elders.

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, S.

    1996-01-01

    The numbers of elderly people from ethnic groups within Britain is rising rapidly as postwar immigrants age. Ethnic elders face problems owing to age-associated increased risks of common chronic diseases, racial discrimination, and poor access to many health services and social services. This disadvantage will be alleviated through increased understanding of health beliefs held by ethnic elders and ensuring better access to services through mechanisms such as employment of more staff from ethnic minority groups in senior positions, better training of staff, and more appropriate and sensitive environments. The myths that family care is sufficient, that no use of services implies no need, and that assimilation into the majority population will occur must be discounted. Images p610-a Fig 1 PMID:8806256

  11. Education for a New Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Leonard

    Most would agree that education is a social good and necessity, yet serious inequities and inequalities remain in our educational system. The largest sources of support for public schools are the local school district and the state. The revenues they contribute come from property and sales taxes, both of which are regressive and inequitable. Our…

  12. Status Report: Air Age Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cessna Aircraft Co., Wichita, KS.

    This publication offers information that may be of assistance in the development of programs or activities in aviation education. This report includes a listing of: the number of schools in each state offering high school aviation courses, state aerospace education advisory committees, high school teacher associations, full-time state personnel…

  13. Educational Outcomes and Functioning of Bi-Ethnic Dutch Children in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karssen, Merlijn; van der Veen, Ineke; Volman, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changing demographics in societies through international migration have led to an increasing number of bi-ethnic individuals. The focus of this study is on bi-ethnic students with one parent with an ethnic majority background and one parent with an ethnic minority background. Most studies worldwide have grouped these bi-ethnic students…

  14. The Human Age in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Aspy, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Describes emergence of Human Age, period of evolution when people, institutions, and organizations begin to focus on tremendous potential of human beings to create beneficial relationships in schools and other settings. Sees primary aim during Human Age to be cultivation of relationships and nurturance of environments in which emerge higher order…

  15. Shared Agency with Parents for Educational Goals: Ethnic Differences and Implications for College Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng

    2009-01-01

    This study proposed and confirmed three ways in which college students can perceive shared agency and two ways in which they can perceive non-shared agency with parents when pursuing educational goals in college. Differences and similarities were examined among participants from four ethnic backgrounds (N = 515; 67% female): East Asian American, Southeast Asian American, Filipino/Pacific Islander American, and European American. Results indicated that Asian American youth reported higher levels of non-shared agency with parents (i.e., parental directing and noninvolvement), lower levels of shared agency (i.e., parental accommodation, support, or collaboration), and poorer college adjustment compared to European Americans. However, ethnic similarities were found whereby perceived shared agency in education with parents was associated with college adjustment. Multiple mediation analyses also indicated that our model of shared and non-shared agency with parents explained differences in college adjustment between Asian and European Americans, though more strongly for comparisons between European and East Asian Americans. Our results suggest that parents continue to be important in the education of older youth but that continued directing of youth’s education in college can be maladaptive. PMID:19997969

  16. Objectively measured physical activity of USA adults by sex, age, and racial/ethnic groups: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Marquis S; Storti, Kristi L; Richardson, Caroline R; King, Wendy C; Strath, Scott J; Holleman, Robert G; Kriska, Andrea M

    2009-01-01

    Background Accelerometers were incorporated in the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) study cycle for objective assessment of physical activity. This is the first time that objective physical activity data are available on a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents. The use of accelerometers allows researchers to measure total physical activity, including light intensity and unstructured activities, which may be a better predictor of health outcomes than structured activity alone. The aim of this study was to examine objectively determined physical activity levels by sex, age and racial/ethnic groups in a national sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data were obtained from the 2003–2004 NHANES, a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the U.S. population. Physical activity was assessed with the Actigraph AM-7164 accelerometer for seven days following an examination. 2,688 U.S. adults with valid accelerometer data (i.e. at least four days with at least 10 hours of wear-time) were included in the analysis. Mean daily total physical activity counts, as well as counts accumulated in minutes of light, and moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity are presented by sex across age and racial/ethnic groups. Generalized linear modeling using the log link function was performed to compare physical activity in sex and racial/ethnic groups adjusting for age. Results Physical activity decreases with age for both men and women across all racial/ethnic groups with men being more active than women, with the exception of Hispanic women. Hispanic women are more active at middle age (40–59 years) compared to younger or older age and not significantly less active than men in middle or older age groups (i.e. age 40–59 or age 60 and older). Hispanic men accumulate more total and light intensity physical activity counts than their white and black counterparts for all age groups. Conclusion Physical activity levels measured objectively by accelerometer demonstrated that Hispanic men are, in general, more active than their white and black counterparts. This appears to be in contrast to self-reported physical activity previously reported in the literature and identifies the need to use objective measures in situations where the contribution of light intensity and/or unstructured physical activity cannot be assumed homogenous across the populations of interest. PMID:19493347

  17. Education, Aging and the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sihvola, Tapan

    1985-01-01

    Explores education as a creative force affecting all aspects of life. The main emphasis is on developmental possibilities and personal achievements as continuing through the entire lifespan and into the later stages of old age. (CT)

  18. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995–2010: a multiple cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40 113 children aged 11–18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. Conclusions A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. PMID:26911588

  19. Age patterns of racial/ethnic/nativity differences in disability and physical functioning in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Jennifer; Hummer, Robert; Elo, Irma; Mehta, Neil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Rapid population aging and increasing racial/ethnic and immigrant/native diversity make a broad documentation of U.S. health patterns during both mid- and late life particularly important. OBJECTIVE We aim to better understand age- and gender-specific racial/ethnic and nativity differences in physical functioning and disability among adults aged 50 and above. METHODS We aggregate 14 years of data from the National Health Interview Survey and calculate age- and gender-specific proportions of physical functioning and two types of disability for each population subgroup. RESULTS Middle-aged foreign-born individuals in nearly every subgroup exhibit lower proportions of functional limitations and disability than U.S.-born whites. This pattern of immigrant advantage is generally reversed in later life. Moreover, most U.S.-born minority groups have significantly higher levels of functional limitations and disability than U.S.-born whites in both mid- and late life. CONCLUSIONS Higher levels of functional limitations and disability among U.S.-born minority groups and immigrant populations in older adulthood pose serious challenges for health providers and policymakers in a rapidly diversifying and aging population. PMID:26893587

  20. Developing nutrition education resources for a multi-ethnic population in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Eyles, Helen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Wharemate, Laurie; Funaki-Tahifote, Mafi; Lanumata, Tolotea; Rodgers, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    In New Zealand, the burden of nutrition-related disease is greatest among vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, including Maori and Pacific peoples. However, little research is currently available on effective ways to improve nutrition in these communities. This paper describes the development of six paper-based nutrition education resources for multi-ethnic participants in a large supermarket intervention trial. Six focus groups involving 15 Maori, 13 Pacific and 16 non-Maori, non-Pacific participants were held. A general inductive approach was applied to identify common themes around participants' understanding and thoughts on relevance and usefulness of the draft resources. Feedback from focus groups was used to modify resources accordingly. Five themes emerged across all focus groups and guided modification of the resources: (i) perceived higher cost of healthy food, (ii) difficulty in changing food-purchasing habits, (iii) lack of knowledge, understanding and information about healthy food, (iv) desire for personally relevant information that uses ethnically appropriate language and (v) other barriers to healthy eating, including limited availability of healthy food. Many issues affect the likelihood of purchase and consumption of healthy food. These issues should be taken into account when developing nutritional materials for New Zealanders and possibly other multi-ethnic populations worldwide. PMID:18974069

  1. Age at Immigration and Education: Further Explorations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frank E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents evidence for a social structure explanation, instead of an age explanation, of variations in educational attainment among immigrants to Canada. Social status or class structure is the fundamental determinant of variation in the distribution of resources necessary to educational achievement for immigrants as well as for native-born…

  2. Students Call for Nuclear Age Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Educators and students, discussing the future of nuclear age education at a symposium, generally agreed that knowledge and values are separated in society. Sources of information and of the proceedings are listed along with the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development's (ASCD) resolution on nuclear freeze. (MLF)

  3. Ethnicity, Gender, and the Education of Cambodian American Students in an Urban High School

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kimmie; Kao, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role of gender and ethnicity in the education of Cambodian American high school students. Using a qualitative approach, we interviewed ninth-grade Cambodian American students (n=10), teachers (n=4), and administrators (n=2) at a Southern California high school. The data revealed that Cambodian students were often mistaken for other Asian groups and due to stereotypes, expected to excel academically. Fearing that they would disappoint their teachers or be ridiculed by other students, they often remained silent about their academic struggles. Traditional values regarding gender and familial expectations also played prominent roles for both Cambodian boys and girls and their academic progress. PMID:25485315

  4. The Over-Education of UK Immigrants and Minority Ethnic Groups: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the incidence of over and under education and the effect on earnings for immigrants and natives who hold UK qualifications, drawn from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey 1993-2003. The paper also compares earnings penalties associated with over and under education across immigrant and minority ethnic groups for men and women. The…

  5. Ethnicity and Comparative Youth Disaffection in Multicultural Contexts: Some Multiracial Experiences of Education in Thanet and Lille.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    Explored youth disaffection, focusing on K-12 schools in England and France. Data from student interviews, staff interviews, and classroom observations indicated that educational inclusion in the two countries was not meeting the educational needs of disaffected youth. Within the disaffected cohort, those from ethnic minorities were doubly…

  6. Dynamics of Acculturation, Enculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Influence of Psychocultural Constructs on Conscientiousness and Expectations of Higher Education among Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.; Davis, Matthew J.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Vaquero, Juana; Thompson, Keisha V.; Saldivar, Isaac M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of psychocultural variables (e.g., acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity) and personality characteristics in relation to educational expectations among 345 Latino middle school students in the U.S. Results from a path model indicate that 24.4% of the variance of educational expectations was accounted…

  7. Eighth-Grade Students' Perceptions of School Climate Based on School Diversity, Ethnicity, Educational Category, Socioeconomic Status, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate if there were differences in students' school climate perceptions based on the independent variables, which were measured on a nominal scale and included school diversity (highly, moderately, minimally), ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White, Other), educational category (general education, special…

  8. Futurism, Aging, and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdman, Geral Dene M.

    1979-01-01

    This study of futurism is important to gerontology in order to bridge the gap between theory, policy statement, and actual practice in the field of aging. There is a need to prepare competent individuals for direct service, and to provide increased exposure to gerontology throughout the curriculum. (Author/LPG)

  9. Home-Based Parental Involvement in Young Children's Education: Examining the Effects of Maternal Education across U.S. Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of maternal education and ethnicity to three dimensions of home-based parental involvement in young children's education and development: parental expectations about educational attainment, children's activities at home and outside the home, and family routines. Controlling for family background variables…

  10. Planning for Diversity: Education in Multi-Ethnic and Multicultural Societies. International Institute for Educational Planning Policy Forum (17th, Paris, France, June 19-20, 2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernes, Gudmund

    2004-01-01

    In June 2003, the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) organized its annual Policy Forum to discuss the impact of increasingly multi-ethnic and multicultural societies on education in general and the implications for educational planning in particular. The proceedings of this Policy Forum are presented in this volume. Part I,…

  11. Modification of the Effect of Glycemic Status on Aortic Distensibility by Age in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, R. Brandon; Bertoni, Alain G.; Eng, John; Bluemke, David A.; Hundley, W. Gregory; Herrington, David

    2012-01-01

    Elevated serum glucose from diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) shares many mechanisms with aging that decrease aortic distensibility (AD), such as glycation of the extra-cellular matrix. However, little data compares the simultaneous effects of elevated serum glucose and aging on AD. To study this, we examined the relationship between fasting glucose status, age, and AD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA): a multi-ethnic cohort of individuals aged 45-84 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. In MESA, participants with normal fasting glucose (NFG; n = 2270), IFG (n = 870), and DM (n = 412) underwent MRI assessment of proximal thoracic aortic distensibility. This sample was 46% male, 42% white, 30% AA, 11% Asian, and 17% Hispanic. The relationship between glucose status, age, and AD was analyzed with general linear models by adjusting for factors influential on AD. An interaction term was used to determine if age modified the effect of glucose status on AD. AD was lowest among those with DM. The interaction term was significant (p = 0.024). Comparing participants less than 65 years of age, AD was different between NFG and DM (p < 0.01), and between NFG and IFG (p = 0.02). In those older than 65, fasting glucose group was no longer a significant predictor of AD. Our data indicate that there are overall differences in AD between DM, IFG, and NFG. However, age modified the effect of glucose status such that differences between the groups diminished with advancing age. PMID:19933927

  12. Science education in a secular age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David E.

    2013-03-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.

  13. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood. PMID:22528370

  14. Why Ethnicity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan; Moynihan, Daniel P.

    1974-01-01

    Explores the rise of ethnicity as a societal organizing principle in which ethnic identity, ethnic self-assertion, and ethnic conflict have become more marked influences everywhere. Reasons for this increasing focus on ethnicity are discussed. (EH)

  15. Researching Race/Ethnicity and Educational Inequality in the Netherlands: A Critical Review of the Research Literature between 1980 and 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Peter A. J.; Clycq, Noel; Timmerman, Christianne; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and critically analyzes how educational sociologists in the Netherlands have studied the relationship between race/ethnicity and educational inequality between 1980 and 2008. Five major research traditions are identified: (1) political arithmetic; (2) racism and ethnic discrimination; (3) school characteristics; (4) school…

  16. Researching Race/Ethnicity and Educational Inequality in the Netherlands: A Critical Review of the Research Literature between 1980 and 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Peter A. J.; Clycq, Noel; Timmerman, Christianne; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and critically analyzes how educational sociologists in the Netherlands have studied the relationship between race/ethnicity and educational inequality between 1980 and 2008. Five major research traditions are identified: (1) political arithmetic; (2) racism and ethnic discrimination; (3) school characteristics; (4) school

  17. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE. PMID:26080417

  18. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Mitchell S

    2015-07-28

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE. PMID:26080417

  19. Racial/ethnic disparities in fatal unintentional drowning among persons aged ≤ 29 years - United States, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Julie; Parker, Erin M

    2014-05-16

    In the United States, almost 4,000 persons die from drowning each year. Drowning is responsible for more deaths among children aged 1-4 years than any other cause except congenital anomalies. For persons aged ≤29 years, drowning is one of the top three causes of unintentional injury death (2). Previous research has identified racial/ethnic disparities in drowning rates. To describe these differences by age of decedent and drowning setting, CDC analyzed 12 years of combined mortality data from 1999-2010 for those aged ≤29 years. Among non-Hispanics, the overall drowning rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) was twice the rate for whites, and the rate for blacks was 1.4 times the rate for whites. Disparities were greatest in swimming pools, with swimming pool drowning rates among blacks aged 5-19 years 5.5 times higher than those among whites in the same age group. This disparity was greatest at ages 11-12 years; at these ages, blacks drown in swimming pools at 10 times the rate of whites. Drowning prevention strategies include using barriers (e.g., fencing) and life jackets, actively supervising or lifeguarding, teaching basic swimming skills and performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The practicality and effectiveness of these strategies varies by setting; however, basic swimming skills can be beneficial across all settings. PMID:24827409

  20. Risk of developing multimorbidity across all ages in an historical cohort study: differences by sex and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    St Sauver, Jennifer L; Boyd, Cynthia M; Grossardt, Brandon R; Bobo, William V; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Roger, Véronique L; Ebbert, Jon O; Therneau, Terry M; Yawn, Barbara P; Rocca, Walter A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence of de novo multimorbidity across all ages in a geographically defined population with an emphasis on sex and ethnic differences. Design Historical cohort study. Setting All persons residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA on 1 January 2000 who had granted permission for their records to be used for research (n=123 716). Participants We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records-linkage system to identify all of the county residents. We identified and removed from the cohort all persons who had developed multimorbidity before 1 January 2000 (baseline date), and we followed the cohort over 14 years (1 January 2000 through 31 December 2013). Main outcome measures Incident multimorbidity was defined as the development of the second of 2 conditions (dyads) from among the 20 chronic conditions selected by the US Department of Health and Human Services. We also studied the incidence of the third of 3 conditions (triads) from among the 20 chronic conditions. Results The incidence of multimorbidity increased steeply with older age; however, the number of people with incident multimorbidity was substantially greater in people younger than 65 years compared to people age 65 years or older (28 378 vs 6214). The overall risk was similar in men and women; however, the combinations of conditions (dyads and triads) differed extensively by age and by sex. Compared to Whites, the incidence of multimorbidity was higher in Blacks and lower in Asians. Conclusions The risk of developing de novo multimorbidity increases steeply with older age, varies by ethnicity and is similar in men and women overall. However, as expected, the combinations of conditions vary extensively by age and sex. These data represent an important first step toward identifying the causes and the consequences of multimorbidity. PMID:25649210

  1. Crossing boundaries: nativity, ethnicity, and mate selection.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E; Batson, Christie D

    2012-05-01

    The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration has often focused on panethnic differences, and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican-, Mexican-, Chinese-, and Filipino-origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a lesser extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups. PMID:22350840

  2. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Distress: The Impact of Ethnic Identity and Age Among Immigrant and United States–Born Asian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tiffany; Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to 50, 51 to 75) and nativity status (i.e., immigrant vs. U.S.-born), ethnic identity was tested as either a protective or exacerbating factor. Analyses showed that ethnic identity buffered the association between discrimination and mental health for U.S.-born individuals 41 to 50 years of age. For U.S.-born individuals 31 to 40 years of age and 51 to 75 years of age, ethnic identity exacerbated the negative effects of discrimination on mental health. The importance of age and immigrant status for the association between ethnic identity, discrimination, and well-being among Asians in the United States is discussed. PMID:18473644

  3. Increased risk for colorectal cancer under age 50 in racial and ethnic minorities living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Rubayat; Schmaltz, Chester; Jackson, Christian S; Simoes, Eduardo J; Jackson-Thompson, Jeannette; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer death in USA. We analyzed CRC disparities in African Americans, Hispanics, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Current guidelines recommend screening for CRC beginning at age 50. Using SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database 1973-2009 and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) 1995-2009 dataset, we performed frequency and rate analysis on colorectal cancer demographics and incidence based on race/ethnicity. We also used the SEER database to analyze stage, grade, and survival based on race/ethnicity. Utilizing SEER database, the median age of CRC diagnosis is significantly less in Hispanics (66 years), Asians/Pacific Islanders (68 years), American Indians/Alaska Natives (64 years), and African Americans (64 years) compared to non-Hispanic whites (72 years). Twelve percent of Asians/Pacific Islanders, 15.4% Hispanics, 16.5% American Indians/Alaska Natives, and 11.9% African Americans with CRC are diagnosed at age <50 years compared to only 6.7% in non-Hispanic Whites (P < 0.0001). Minority groups have more advanced stages at diagnosis compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Trend analysis showed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC diagnosed under the age of 50 years have significantly increased in all racial and ethnic groups but are stable in African Americans. These results were confirmed through analysis of NAACCR 1995-2009 dataset covering nearly the entire USA. A significantly higher proportion of minority groups in USA with CRC are diagnosed before age 50 compared to non-Hispanic Whites, documenting that these minority groups are at higher risk for early CRC. Further studies are needed to identify the causes and risk factors responsible for young onset CRC among minority groups and to develop intervention strategies including earlier CRC screening, among others. PMID:26471963

  4. The Impact of Aging on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Angela

    The percentage of adults aged 65 years or older is expected to increase from 12 percent of the population in 1980 to more than 21 percent by the year 2030. Since many adults stay involved with learning activities well into their 80s and 90s, educational organizations have a great opportunity to supply learning activities to this population. To…

  5. Educational Communication in a Revolutionary Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, I. Keith, Comp.; Williams, Catharine M., Comp.

    As a tribute to Dr. Edgar Dale on his retirement from Ohio State University, the papers in this book refer to "the failures of education,""the impotence of the school,""the need for sweeping change," the existence of a "systems break," and "incipient civil war," all of which are products of an age of revolution which continues today. Educational…

  6. Parental Aspirations for Their Children's Educational Attainment: Relations to Ethnicity, Parental Education, Children's Academic Performance, and Parental Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Matto, Holly C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parental aspirations for their children's educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children's academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality and climate of their children's school with a sample of 13,577 middle and high school parents. All…

  7. American Indian and White Students Talking about Ethnic Identity in Teacher Education Programs: Helping Teacher Education Students Know Themselves as Cultural Beings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pewewardy, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Describes a classroom assignment designed to help teacher educators contrast how American Indian and white European American students develop their ethnic identities in teacher education programs. The paper discusses the context and ideas that generated this self-study, offering student excerpts to illustrate the processes these students travel in…

  8. A community cohort study about childhood social and economic circumstances: racial/ethnic differences and associations with educational attainment and health of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Irene H; Gregorich, Steven; Cohen, Alison K; Stewart, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Typical measures of childhood socioeconomic status (SES), such as father's occupation, have limited the ability to elucidate mechanisms by which childhood SES affects adult health. Mechanisms could include schooling experiences or work opportunities. Having previously used qualitative methods for concept development, we developed new retrospective measures of multiple domains of childhood social and economic circumstances in ethnically diverse older adults. We administered the new measures in a large sample and explored their association with adult SES. Design We used a cross-sectional survey design with a community sample. Setting The San Francisco Bay Area in California. Participants 400 community-dwelling adults from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds (Whites, African Americans, Latinos and Asians/Pacific Islanders) aged 55 and older (mean=67 years); 61% were women. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured attitudes towards schooling, extracurricular activities and adult encouragement and discouragement during the childhood/teen years. Bivariate analysis tested racial/ethnic differences on the various measures. Multivariate regression models estimated the extent to which retrospective circumstances were independently associated with adult educational attainment and adult health. Results Most of the childhood circumstances measures differed across racial/ethnic groups. In general, Whites reported more positive circumstances than non-Whites. Family financial circumstances, respondent's perception of schooling as a means to get ahead, high school extracurricular activities, summer travel and summer reading were each statistically significantly associated with adult SES. Family composition, age began work, high school extracurricular activities, attitudes towards schooling and adult discouragement were associated with adult health. PMID:23562813

  9. Citizenship Education and Human Rights in Sites of Ethnic Conflict: Toward Critical Pedagogies of Compassion and Shared Fate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    The present essay discusses the value of citizenship as shared fate in sites of ethnic conflict and analyzes its implications for citizenship education in light of three issues: first, the requirements of affective relationality in the notion of citizenship-as-shared fate; second, the tensions between the values of human rights and shared fate in…

  10. A Fair Go: Factors Impacting on Vocational Education and Training Participation and Completion in Selected Ethnic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miralles, Judith

    2004-01-01

    There are differences between, and among, people in ethnic communities. This study seeks to provide a more nuanced snapshot of vocational education and training (VET) participation and completion rates among Arabic, Bosnian, Cantonese, Spanish, Turkish, and Vietnamese communities. It investigates the effectiveness of English as a second language…

  11. A Community Needs Assessment for Post-Secondary Education on the Multi-Ethnic Island of Lana'i.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzoli, J. A.; McOmber, Phyllis

    To gather information for Maui Community College's (MCC's), on the Multi-Ethnic Island of Lana'i. fall 1992 of students and residents of the island of Lana'i to assess community interests and educational needs. Responses were received from 232 Lana'i residents, of whom 49% were current or former students, 31% were male, and 84% were employed.…

  12. Perceived Causes of Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education: Consideration of Factors for the Purpose of Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Anita Moore

    2010-01-01

    The issue of ethnic disproportionality in special education has been a focus of much research. The purpose of the present study is to add to the current dialogue regarding the perceived causes of the disproportionate numbers of African-American students in both the mild to moderate intellectual disability and behavioral/emotional disability…

  13. Special Issue: Ethnic and Racial Administrative Diversity--Understanding Work Life Realities and Experiences in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; O'Callaghan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    This monograph provides policymakers, administrators, faculty, researchers, and governing board members with information about diversifying the administrative ranks of colleges and universities in terms of race or ethnicity. It focuses primarily on relevant literature on administrators of color in higher and post-secondary education, with an…

  14. Who's in STEM? An Exploration of Race, Ethnicity, and Citizenship Reporting in a Federal Education Dataset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, W. Carson; Dika, Sandra L.; Ramlal, Letticia T.

    2013-01-01

    As the United States becomes more racially and ethnically diverse and draws more students from across the globe, more representative data are needed to understand at-risk and underrepresented populations in higher education, particularly in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. The authors argue that the current…

  15. Ethnic Division in Cyprus and a Policy Initiative on Promoting Peaceful Coexistence: Toward an Agonistic Democracy for Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2011-01-01

    This article uses as a point of departure for its analysis a recent educational policy initiative to promote peaceful coexistence in the context of ongoing ethnic division in Cyprus. It is argued that, although it seems as if the teaching of peaceful coexistence is a laudable initiative that can contribute toward unity and democratic…

  16. African American Adolescents' Future Education Orientation: Associations with Self-Efficacy, Ethnic Identity, and Perceived Parental Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Eryigit, Suna; Stephens, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study, using data from 374 African American students (59.4% female) in grades 7-12 attending a rural, southern county public school, addressed associations of self-efficacy, ethnic identity and parental support with "future education orientation." Both gender and current level of achievement distinguished adolescents with differing…

  17. The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

  18. Social Class, Ethnicity and Access to Higher Education in the Four Countries of the UK: 1996-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croxford, Linda; Raffe, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares access to full-time undergraduate higher education (HE) by members of less advantaged social classes and ethnic minorities across the four "home countries" of the UK. It uses data on applicants to HE in selected years from 1996 to 2010. In all home countries students from intermediate and working-class backgrounds…

  19. Racial/Ethnic Group and Socioeconomic Status Variation in Educational and Occupational Expectations from Adolescence to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of educational and occupational expectations from adolescence to adulthood in relation to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) group membership. Hierarchical linear modeling on national data (NELS:88) spanning 12 years yielded several findings: (a) African American participants reported the…

  20. Citizenship Education and Human Rights in Sites of Ethnic Conflict: Toward Critical Pedagogies of Compassion and Shared Fate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    The present essay discusses the value of citizenship as shared fate in sites of ethnic conflict and analyzes its implications for citizenship education in light of three issues: first, the requirements of affective relationality in the notion of citizenship-as-shared fate; second, the tensions between the values of human rights and shared fate in

  1. Creating a Multicultural Curriculum in Han-Dominant Schools: The Policy and Practice of Ethnic Solidarity Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui; Chen, Lipeng

    2014-01-01

    In response to the recent heightened interethnic conflicts that were regarded as threatening national unity and stability, the Chinese government issued "ethnic solidarity education" as a top-down, centrally administered mandate to be implemented "correctly" and in a standardised way by schools throughout China. This paper…

  2. Motivation, Ethnic Identity, and Post-Secondary Education Language Choices of Graduates of Intensive French Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Erin; Noels, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the motivation for learning French, the ethnic identities, and the decision to pursue post-secondary education in French of anglophone graduates of intensive French language programs in high school. Sixty-two graduates of either French immersion, Advanced Placement French, or the International Baccalaureate French program…

  3. Stages of Ethnic Identity Development: Implications for Educational Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1983

    This paper reviews the research and theories on ethnic identity development, and draws some implications from these ideas for improving curriculum design for, and instructional effectiveness with, ethnically different students, especially Black Americans. The paradigm of "the developmental stages of ethnic identity transformation" presented relies…

  4. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Educational Achievement and Implications for School Improvement Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa

    2001-01-01

    A study of British students of various ethnic backgrounds (4,607 elementary, 1,225 secondary) showed that those with early stages of English fluency perform at low levels; bilingual students with English proficiency perform better than English-only speakers; and some ethnic groups perform better than others. Regardless of ethnicity, girls tend to…

  5. Enhance Ideological Political Education Work for Ethnic Minority Students and Build up Harmonious Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    To accelerate the development of the ethnic minority regions and cultivate ethnic minority talent, the state has successively implemented policies of setting up the Tibet Class and the Xinjiang Class in institutions of higher learning in China's interior regions ("neidi"), enabling some of the finest young students among the ethnic minorities to…

  6. Binge Drinking, Cannabis and Tobacco Use Among Ethnic Norwegian and Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions. PMID:25037580

  7. The relation of age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors to self-esteem among students in nonmainstream schools.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jennifer M; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two nonmainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a modified version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and the National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Grunbaum et al., 1999), respectively. Results indicated that nonmainstream students with high self-esteem were more likely to engage in their first sexual experience and to begin marijuana use later in life. African American students reported having their first sexual experience at an older age, but having more sexual partners than did Latino students. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:15673223

  8. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Distress: The Impact of Ethnic Identity and Age among Immigrant and United States-Born Asian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to…

  9. Differences among Preferred Methods for Furthering Aging Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods…

  10. Differences among Preferred Methods for Furthering Aging Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods

  11. The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict: Towards a Peacebuilding Education for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Kenneth D., Ed.; Saltarelli, Diana, Ed.

    This report challenges the widely held assumption that education is inevitably a force for good. While the provision of good quality education can be a stabilizing factor, the report shows how educational systems can be manipulated to drive a wedge between people. The report begins by describing the nature of today's armed conflicts, with…

  12. Chronic Exposure to Everyday Discrimination and Sleep in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Tené T.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have suggested that poor sleep may play a role in the association between discrimination and health, but studies linking experiences of discrimination to sleep are limited. The authors examined associations between reports of everyday discrimination over four years (chronic everyday discrimination) and subjective and objective indicators of poor sleep. Methods Participants were 368 African-American, Caucasian, and Chinese women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Everyday discrimination was assessed each year from baseline through the third follow-up exam via questionnaire with the Everyday Discrimination Scale (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient over four years=.90). Subjective sleep complaints were measured beginning in year 5 with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Objective indices of sleep continuity, duration, and architecture were assessed via in-home polysomnography (PSG), beginning in year 5. Results In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, race/ethnicity and financial strain, chronic everyday discrimination was associated with more subjective sleep complaints (Estimate =1.52, p<.001) and PSG-assessed wakefulness after sleep onset (Estimate=.19, p<.02), a marker of sleep continuity. Findings did not differ by race/ethnicity and remained significant after adjusting for menopausal status, body mass index, medication use and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Experiences of chronic everyday discrimination are independently associated with both subjective and objective indices of poor sleep. Findings add to the growing literature linking discrimination to key markers of biobehavioral health. PMID:23088174

  13. Increasing the involvement of national and regional racial and ethnic minority organizations in HIV information and education.

    PubMed Central

    Holman, P B; Jenkins, W C; Gayle, J A; Duncan, C; Lindsey, B K

    1991-01-01

    Responding to the facts that (a) the AIDS epidemic is occurring among black and Hispanic populations disproportionately to their percentage of the U.S. population and (b) effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs are racially, ethnically, and culturally relevant and sensitive, CDC in 1988 initiated a 5-year grant program for HIV prevention efforts by national racial and ethnic minority organizations and regional consortia of racial and ethnic minority organizations. A total of 33 organizations received first-year funds. Of the 32 grants that are ongoing, 15 primarily target blacks, 12 Hispanics, 4 Native Americans and Alaskan Natives, and 1 Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Some grants are for more than one racial or ethnic population. Programs may be categorized as (a) education programs within national non-AIDS organizations and their respective affiliate networks to increase their understanding, support, and community out-reach for HIV prevention; for example, National Urban League, Inc.; (b) programs providing specific HIV prevention expertise and technical assistance to community-based and other organizations; for example, National Minority AIDS Council; (c) HIV prevention programs emphasizing communications and media; for example, Hispanic Designers, Inc; and (d) prevention programs targeted to a specific racial or ethnic group within a geographic area; for example, Midwest Hispanic AIDS Coalition. As a result of these grants, substantial resources are being invested in prevention programs developed by and for racial and ethnic minorities. Other overall benefits include an expanded foundation of organizations to address AIDS and other health problems affecting these populations, strengthened interrelationships among HIV-focused and broader-based minority organizations, and extensive collaboration of private sector organizations with Federal and State public health and education agencies. PMID:1659717

  14. Marital happiness and sleep disturbances in a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Wendy M; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N = 2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4 items from the Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women. PMID:19116797

  15. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y.; Zambrana, Ruth E.; Doamekpor, Lauren A.; Lopez, Lenny

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES “gets under the skin” to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education) associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs) in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years) and post high school (i.e., associates degree) educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001) compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001). These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond examining income as a better predictor in the SES-inflammation pathway. PMID:26703686

  16. From professional lives to inclusive practice: Science teachers and scientists' views of gender and ethnicity in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Julie A.; Cavazos, Lynnette M.; Helms, Jenifer V.

    2000-08-01

    To provide insight into issues of gender and ethnicity in science education, we examine the views of approximately 60 secondary science teachers and university scientists from three different research projects. In each project, participants and researcher explored the intersection of professional and personal identities; views of the nature of science; beliefs related to students' experiences in science education; and kinds of curricular and instructional strategies used to promote access and equity for all students. Participants' interviews were analyzed qualitatively for patterns across these four dimensions of inclusive science education. Analysis of data revealed a wide range of beliefs and experiences along each dimension. From our findings, we argue for careful examination of the ways identities shape instructors' professional experiences and educational practices; critical, constructive conversations about feminist science studies scholarship between professional developers and science teachers or scientists; and reasoned reflection on how views of students can inform recommendations for inclusive content and instruction. We conclude with the call for increased sophistication in the conceptualization and implementation of solutions to the problem of women and ethnic minorities in science education, for balancing recognition of systematic gender and ethnic bias with sensitivity to instructors and students' diverse interests and experiences.

  17. The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities

    PubMed Central

    McManus, IC; Woolf, Katherine; Dacre, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Background UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W) and non-white (NW) students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students. Methods Attainment at GCSE and A level, and selection for medical school in relation to ethnicity, were analysed in two separate databases. The 10th cohort of the Youth Cohort Study provided data on 13,698 students taking GCSEs in 1999 in England and Wales, and their subsequent progression to A level. UCAS provided data for 1,484,650 applicants applying for admission to UK universities and colleges in 2003, 2004 and 2005, of whom 52,557 applied to medical school, and 23,443 were accepted. Results NW students achieve lower grades at GCSE overall, although achievement at the highest grades was similar to that of W students. NW students have higher educational aspirations, being more likely to go on to take A levels, especially in science and particularly chemistry, despite relatively lower achievement at GCSE. As a result, NW students perform less well at A level than W students, and hence NW students applying to university also have lower A-level grades than W students, both generally, and for medical school applicants. NW medical school entrants have lower A level grades than W entrants, with an effect size of about -0.10. Conclusion The effect size for the difference between white and non-white medical school entrants is about B0.10, which would mean that for a typical medical school examination there might be about 5 NW failures for each 4 W failures. However, this effect can only explain a portion of the overall effect size found in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations of about -0.32. PMID:18416818

  18. Immigration Policies and Ethnic Relations in Australia and Australian Multicultural Education in a Comparative Perspective. Occasional Papers, New Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Laksiri

    This publication contains two papers that describe Australian immigration policies, ethnic relations, and multicultural educational practices. Australia contains people from over 100 countries who speak approximately 50 different languages. The first paper, "Immigration Policies and Ethnic Relations in Australia," presents a historical overview of…

  19. Education in Multi-Ethnic Societies of Central and Eastern Europe. A Skills Exchange Workshop (Bulgaria, November 7-10, 1997). Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    To address problems in public education for majority and minority ethnic groups in Central and Eastern Europe, Minority Rights Group International and the Inter Ethnic Initiative for Human Rights Foundation organized a skills exchange workshop in Sofia, Bulgaria in November 1997. Representatives from Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovkia…

  20. The Under-Attainment of Ethnic Minority Students in UK Higher Education: What We Know and What We Don't Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2015-01-01

    In UK higher education, ethnic differences in academic attainment are ubiquitous and have persisted for many years. They are only partly explained by ethnic differences in entry qualifications. They vary from one institution to another and from one subject area to another. This suggests that they result in part from teaching and assessment…

  1. Ethnicity and Race: Creating Educational Opportunities around the Globe. International Advances in Education: Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elinor L., Ed.; Gibbons, Pamela E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume of Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice takes a resource perspective toward culture, ethnicity, and race. Its purpose is to foster global dialog about race and ethnicity, with an emphasis on sharing strategies and solutions. While one might view problems stemming from racial and ethnic differences as intractable, the book's

  2. Ethnicity and Race: Creating Educational Opportunities around the Globe. International Advances in Education: Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elinor L., Ed.; Gibbons, Pamela E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume of Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice takes a resource perspective toward culture, ethnicity, and race. Its purpose is to foster global dialog about race and ethnicity, with an emphasis on sharing strategies and solutions. While one might view problems stemming from racial and ethnic differences as intractable, the book's…

  3. Overweight at age two years in a multi-ethnic cohort (ABCD study): the role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight/obesity is a major public health problem worldwide which disproportionally affects specific ethnic groups. Little is known about whether such differences already exist at an early age and which factors contribute to these ethnic differences. Therefore, the present study assessed possible ethnic differences in overweight at age 2 years, and the potential explanatory role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors. Methods Data were derived from a multi-ethnic cohort in the Netherlands (the ABCD study). Weight and height data of 3,156 singleton infants at age 2 years were used. Five ethnic populations were distinguished: Dutch native (n = 1,718), African descent (n = 238), Turkish (n = 162), Moroccan (n = 245) and other non-Dutch (n = 793). Overweight status was defined by the International Obesity Task Force guidelines. The explanatory role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors in ethnic disparities in overweight (including obesity) was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to the native Dutch (7.1%), prevalence of overweight was higher in the Turkish (19.8%) and Moroccan (16.7%) group, whereas the prevalence was not increased in the African descent (9.2%) and other non-Dutch (8.8%) group. Although maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index partly explained the ethnic differences, the odds ratio (OR) of being overweight remained higher in the Turkish (OR: 2.66; 95%CI: 1.56-4.53) and Moroccan (OR: 2.11; 95%CI: 1.31-3.38) groups after adjusting for prenatal factors. The remaining differences were largely accounted for by weight gain during the first 6 months of life (postnatal factor). Maternal height, birth weight and gender were independent predictors for overweight at age 2 years, but did not explain the ethnic differences. Conclusion Turkish and Moroccan children in the Netherlands have 2- to 3-fold higher odds for being overweight at age 2 years, which is largely attributed to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and weight gain during the first 6 months of life. Further study on the underlying factors of this early weight gain is required to tackle ethnic differences in overweight among these children. PMID:21806791

  4. The role of age and ethnic group in face recognition memory: ERP evidence from a combined own-age and own-race bias study.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Young adult participants are known to more accurately remember faces from both their own age- and ethnic groups. The present study examined combined effects of such own-age and own-race biases by asking young Caucasian participants to learn and remember elderly and young Caucasian as well as elderly and young Asian faces. Neural correlates were assessed by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral results indicated both an own-race bias for young but not elderly faces, and an own-age bias for Caucasian but not Asian faces. Importantly, no additional decrease in recognition memory for other-race/other-age faces was detected. An early parietal ERP old/new effect (300-500 ms) was most pronounced for young Caucasian "in-group" faces, while the old/new effect in a later time window (500-800 ms) was generally larger for own- as compared to other-race faces. In conclusion, these findings suggest at least partly different neural processes to accompany the own-race and own-age biases. PMID:22008365

  5. Education as Anti-Structure: Non-Formal Education in Social and Ethnic Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    The article describes how folk educational programs in the United States and in the Scandinavian countries work toward behavioral and social change efforts. The conditions under which collective change efforts create their own educational programs, the most effective pedagogical processes, and the variables associated with successful attempts to…

  6. Marketing Cooperative Education Programs to Multi-Ethnic Students. Cooperative Education Marketing Digest Series No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Linda Bates; Keeling, Ann E.

    Cooperative education and career development practitioners must use marketing to demonstrate to multiethnic students that cooperative education is a viable option for them. A department must be willing to invest time necessary to establish links with multiethnic faculty, staff, and student leaders if it is to create an environment attractive to…

  7. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989–2005

    PubMed Central

    EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  8. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989-2005.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bethany G; Rogers, Richard G; Hummer, Robert A; Krueger, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals' life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  9. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the

  10. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  11. Phenotypic Bias and Ethnic Identity in Filipino Americans*

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Lisa; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Links between phenotypes (skin tone, physical features) and a range of outcomes (income, physical health, psychological distress) were examined. Ethnic identity was examined as a protective moderator of phenotypic bias. Method Data were from a community sample of 2,092 Filipino adults in San Francisco and Honolulu. Results After controlling for age, nativity, marital status, and education, darker skin was associated with lower income and lower physical health for females and males. For females, more ethnic features were associated with lower income. For males, darker skin was related to lower psychological distress. One interaction was found such that females with more ethnic features exhibited lower distress; however, ethnic identity moderated distress levels of those with less ethnic features. Conclusions Phenotypic bias appears prevalent in Filipino Americans though specific effects vary by gender and skin color versus physical features. Discussion centers on the social importance of appearance and potential strengths gained from ethnic identification. PMID:20107617

  12. Sharing stories: complex intervention for diabetes education in minority ethnic groups who do not speak English

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Collard, Anna; Begum, Noorjahan

    2005-01-01

    Objective To develop and refine a complex intervention for diabetes support and education in minority ethnic groups, delivered through bilingual health advocates. Design Action research frameworka variety of methods used in an emergent and developmental manner, in partnership with clinicians, managers, and service users, drawing especially but not exclusively on narrative methods. Setting Deprived inner London district. Interventions Development and evaluation of three components of the complex intervention: a group based learning set for bilingual health advocates, in which stories about clients with diabetes formed the basis for action learning; advocate led support and education groups for people with diabetes, which used personal stories as the raw material for learning and action; organisational support to help to develop these new models and embed them within existing services. Results Both advocate groups and user groups were popular and well evaluated. Through storytelling, advocates identified and met their own educational needs in relation to diabetes and the unmet needs of service users. In the advocate led user groups, story fragments were exchanged in a seemingly chaotic way that the research team initially found difficult to facilitate or follow. Stories were not so much told as enacted and were often centred on discussion of what to do. Whereas some organisations welcomed, successfully implemented, and sustained the advocate led groups, others failed to do so. A key component of the complex intervention was organisational support. Conclusions An action research approach allowed engagement with an underserved group of health service staff and with hard to reach service users. The study produced subjective benefits to these groups locally as well as a worked-up complex intervention that will now be formally tested in a randomised controlled trial. PMID:15774990

  13. Enacting Diverse Learning Environments: Improving the Climate for Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, Vol. 26, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Sylvia; Milem, Jeffrey; Clayton-Pedersen, Alma; Allen, Walter

    This document is intended to provide the higher education community with information from recent and classic research studies that can serve as a guide to improving the climate for diversity on campus. The first section of the report examines the literature on campus climate for diversity, the experiences of various racial/ethnic groups, and the…

  14. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  15. Enhancing Campus Climates for Racial/Ethnic Diversity: Educational Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Sylvia; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Clayton-Pedersen, Alma R.; Allen, Walter R.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes research findings on campus racial climate according to a four-dimensional model: (1) an institutions' historical legacy of inclusion/exclusion of various racial/ethnic groups; (2) structural diversity, or numerical representations of various racial/ethnic groups; (3) psychological climate (perceptions, attitudes among groups); and (4)…

  16. Blood Relatives: Language, Immigration, and Education of Ethnic Returnees in Germany and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000 "Nikkeijin," or people of Japanese…

  17. Investigation of Ethnic Self-Labeling in the Latina Population: Implications for Counselors and Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Krista M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a qualitative approach, the author explored the process of ethnic label selection, change, and the meaning assigned to ethnic labels. Ten women of Mexican descent participated in semistructured, in-depth interviews. Phenomenological analysis of the data revealed several themes, including the importance of family, ancestral traditions, and…

  18. Ethnic Isolation of Mexican Americans in the Public Schools of the Southwest. Mexican American Education Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    Demographic characteristics and ethnic isolation of Mexican American students and staff in the Southwest are examined in terms of size and distribution of Mexican American enrollment, ethnic isolation of Mexican American pupils (by school and district), size and assignment of school staff, and school district administrators and school board…

  19. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…

  20. The Impact of Developmental Mathematics Courses and Age, Gender, and Race and Ethnicity on Persistence and Academic Performance in Virginia Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, James D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined the 2006 cohort of First-Time-in-College students from all 23 community colleges in Virginia. The goal was to examine fall-to-fall persistence and success in the first college-level mathematics course. Predictor variables used were developmental status, age, gender, and race and ethnicity of the student. Interaction…

  1. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical

  2. Outcasts of Echo Park, Heroes of Brentwood: "Quinceanera, Keeping Up with the Steins" and Coming of Age in Ethnic L.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of maintaining a national identity as a subculture in America is most evident in connection with special occasions, like transition rites. Coming of age is such an event. The continuity and transformation of the subculture is at stake. In American cities, as exemplified by Los Angeles, the ethnic neighborhood becomes a New Old…

  3. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  4. The Impact of Developmental Mathematics Courses and Age, Gender, and Race and Ethnicity on Persistence and Academic Performance in Virginia Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, James D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined the 2006 cohort of First-Time-in-College students from all 23 community colleges in Virginia. The goal was to examine fall-to-fall persistence and success in the first college-level mathematics course. Predictor variables used were developmental status, age, gender, and race and ethnicity of the student. Interaction

  5. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  6. Trajectories of Externalizing Behavior from Age 2 to Age 9: Relations with Gender, Temperament, Ethnicity, Parenting, and Rater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jennifer L.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of children's externalizing behavior were examined using multilevel growth curve modeling of data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. According to ratings by both mothers and caregivers/teachers when children were 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 years old, externalizing behavior declined with age. However, mothers rated…

  7. MULTI-ETHNIC REFERENCE VALUES FOR SPIROMETRY FOR THE 3–95 YEAR AGE RANGE: THE GLOBAL LUNG FUNCTION 2012 EQUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Quanjer, Philip H.; Stanojevic, Sanja; Cole, Tim J.; Baur, Xaver; Hall, Graham L.; Culver, Bruce H.; Enright, Paul L.; Hankinson, John L.; Ip, Mary S.M.; Zheng, Jinping; Stocks, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Objective Derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Material Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5–95 years. Methods Lung function data were collated, and prediction equations derived using the LMS (λ, µ, σ) method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. Results After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals from 3–95 years for Caucasians (N=57,395), African Americans (N=3,545), and North (N=4,992) and South East Asians (N=8,255). FEV1 and FVC between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV1/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Conclusion Spirometric prediction equations for the 3–95 age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent, Arab, Polynesian, Latin American countries, and Africa will further improve these equations in the future. PMID:22743675

  8. Education biographies from the science pipeline: An analysis of Latino/a student perspectives on ethnic and gender identity in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lujan, Vanessa Beth

    This study is a qualitative narrative analysis on the importance and relevance of the ethnic and gender identities of 17 Latino/a (Hispanic) college students in the biological sciences. This research study asks the question of how one's higher education experience within the science pipeline shapes an individual's direction of study, attitudes toward science, and cultural/ethnic and gender identity development. By understanding the ideologies of these students, we are able to better comprehend the world-makings that these students bring with them to the learning process in the sciences. Informed by life history narrative analysis, this study examines Latino/as and their persisting involvement within the science pipeline in higher education and is based on qualitative observations and interviews of student perspectives on the importance of the college science experience on their ethnic identity and gender identity. The findings in this study show the multiple interrelationships from both Latino male and Latina female narratives, separate and intersecting, to reveal the complexities of the Latino/a group experience in college science. By understanding from a student perspective how the science pipeline affects one's cultural, ethnic, or gender identity, we can create a thought-provoking discussion on why and how underrepresented student populations persist in the science pipeline in higher education. The conditions created in the science pipeline and how they affect Latino/a undergraduate pathways may further be used to understand and improve the quality of the undergraduate learning experience.

  9. Effect of Ethnicity on the Age of Onset of the Male Voice Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the age of onset of the voice change in African American, White, and Hispanic male students, as well as to describe characteristics of the changing male voice in fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students, using Cooksey's maturation stages. Participants included volunteers from two urban elementary…

  10. Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye where they are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Current dietary databases make it difficult to ascertain their individual roles in eye health because their concentrations ...

  11. A Case of Educational Reform from the Ground up: Involving Ethnic Minority Parents in the Life of the School in South East Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, David

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the challenge of education reform and presents an alternative to dominant approaches. In doing so, it draws on the work of three projects: first, the "Advancing Education Quality and Inclusion" initiative; second, the APREME (Advancing the Participation and Representation of Ethnic Minorities in Education) project which…

  12. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels. PMID:26896114

  13. Issues Affecting Gerontology Education and Manpower Needs in Population Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, James E.

    1983-01-01

    This article discusses major issues that will affect the development of gerontology education in response to manpower needs in aging in Canada: definitions of aging for educational and manpower policy, manpower forecasting, knowledge base in gerontology, gerontology as an academic field or professional field, development of education programs,…

  14. New Attitudes toward the Aging: A Role for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogovin, Marion

    As the American population ages, adult educators with their knowledge and experience of adult education should be in the forefront of helping the nation define its goals and reshape its attitudes toward the aging. Existing exemplary models of educational programs represent a fragmented approach to a problem of national magnitude. The Adult…

  15. Higher Education and Happiness in the Age of Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…

  16. Influence of Body Weight, Ethnicity, Oral Contraceptives, and Pregnancy on the Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Mitra; Kilpatrick, Sarah J.; Tuomala, Ruth E.; Shier, Janice M.; Wollett, Lori; Fischer, Patricia A.; Khorana, Kinnari S.; Rodvold, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Women of childbearing age commonly receive azithromycin for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including during pregnancy. This study determined azithromycin pharmacokinetics in pregnant and nonpregnant women and identified covariates contributing to pharmacokinetic variability. Plasma samples were collected by using a sparse-sampling strategy from pregnant women at a gestational age of 12 to 40 weeks and from nonpregnant women of childbearing age receiving oral azithromycin for the treatment of an infection. Pharmacokinetic data from extensive sampling conducted on 12 healthy women were also included. Plasma samples were assayed for azithromycin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The population analysis included 53 pregnant and 25 nonpregnant women. A three-compartment model with first-order absorption and a lag time provided the best fit of the data. Lean body weight, pregnancy, ethnicity, and the coadministration of oral contraceptives were covariates identified as significantly influencing the oral clearance of azithromycin and, except for oral contraceptive use, intercompartmental clearance between the central and second peripheral compartments. No other covariate relationships were identified. Compared to nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives, a 21% to 42% higher dose-adjusted azithromycin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) occurred in non-African American women who were pregnant or receiving oral contraceptives. Conversely, azithromycin AUCs were similar between pregnant African American women and nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives. Although higher levels of maternal and fetal azithromycin exposure suggest that lower doses be administered to non-African American women during pregnancy, the consideration of azithromycin pharmacodynamics during pregnancy should guide any dose adjustments. PMID:22106226

  17. Prevalence of HLA-B27 in the New Zealand population: effect of age and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HLA-B27 genotyping is commonly used to support a diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A recent study has suggested that HLA-B27 may adversely affect longevity. The objectives of this study were to determine, for the first time, the prevalence of HLA-B27 in the New Zealand population, and to test whether HLA-B27 prevalence declines with age. Methods 117 Caucasian controls, 111 New Zealand Māori controls, and 176 AS patients were directly genotyped for HLA-B27 using PCR-SSP. These participants and a further 1103 Caucasian controls were genotyped for the HLA-B27 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4349859 and rs116488202. All AS patients testing positive for HLA-B27 of New Zealand Māori ancestry underwent high resolution typing to determine sub-allele status. Results HLA-B27 prevalence was 9.2% in New Zealand Caucasian controls and 6.5% in Māori controls. No decline in HLA-B27 prevalence with age was detected in Caucasian controls (p = 0.92). Concordance between HLA-B27 and SNP genotypes was 98.7-99.3% in Caucasians and 76.9-86% in Māori. Of the 14 AS patients of Māori ancestry, 1 was negative for HLA-B27, 10 were positive for HLAB*2705, and 3 positive for HLAB*2704. All cases of genotype discordance were explained by the presence of HLAB*2704. Conclusions HLA-B27 prevalence in New Zealand Caucasians is consistent with that of Northern European populations and did not decline with increasing age. In Māori with AS who were HLA-B27 positive, 76.9% were positive for HLA-B*2705, suggesting that genetic susceptibility to AS in Māori is primarily due to admixture with Caucasians. PMID:24286455

  18. Ethnic Minorities and Achievements: The Black Hole in Science Ranks. Part 2: Post-16 Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasekoala, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the overrepresentation of ethnic minority postsecondary students into the arts and humanities instead of science and technical coursework and its impact on employability. The factors that impact this trend are highlighted. (GR)

  19. A systematic review of age, sex, ethnicity, and race as predictors of violent recidivism.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Diamond, Brie; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Recidivism of released prisoners, especially violent recidivism, is an important policy issue. Equally important is an understanding of how demographic risk factors may act as moderators of recidivism. Knowledge of such relationships is important in developing a deeper theoretical understanding of the risk of recidivism as well as identifying points of intervention that may need to be re-oriented to reduce recidivism. The present study conducts a meta-analytic review of the violent recidivism literature focusing on the role of several demographic risk factors. Findings show that age, sex, and race (Whites) were significantly related to violent recidivism. Implications and directions for future research are identified. PMID:24335783

  20. Re-Seeing Race in a Post-Obama Age: Asian American Studies, Comparative Ethnic Studies, and Intersectional Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…

  1. Minority Rights and Majority Rule: Ethnic Tolerance in Romania and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Mary E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of data from national surveys of majority ethnic groups in Romania and Bulgaria examined the effects on tolerance toward minority groups of education, community ethnic composition, urbanism, age, gender, perceived threat to national security from the minority group's homeland, democratic values, and prevailing political ideology. Contains…

  2. Bias at School: Perceptions of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination among Latino and European American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears

    2006-01-01

    Latino and White/European American children (N = 99; 5-11 years of age) participated in a study designed to examine their perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in educational settings. Children heard scenarios involving two children of different races/ethnicities, one who received a more positive outcome from a teacher than the other.…

  3. "...But that's Just the Stereotype": Gender and Ethnicity in Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basit, Tehmina N.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of gender and ethnicity in young minority ethnic British citizens' transition to adulthood. As part of a larger study using a mixed methods approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young men and women aged 14-24 at different stages of education, employment and non-employment. By employing Bourdieu's…

  4. Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project--Ethnicity Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjervold, Christian K.; And Others

    The student booklet presents short case studies illustrating the ethnicity unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. Twelve brief chapters describe various aspects of the life, values, behavior, education, culture, and religious ceremonies and feelings of different ethnic groups in the United States. They…

  5. Axone, an ethnic probiotic containing food, reduces age of sexual maturity and increases poultry production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Singh, R K

    2014-06-01

    Axone (Akhuni) is a homemade synbiotic (Nagamese fermented soybean product) served as side dish in North Eastern India. In this study, effects of Axone feeding on growth, weight gain, sexual maturity and egg production on Vanaraja birds (a strain of poultry bird developed at PDP Hyderabad for villages and backyard poultry) were evaluated. Axone incorporation in commercial poultry feed at the rate of 5% (W/W) significantly improved growth rate (weight gain) both in male (p 0.001) and female (p 0.05) chicks, reduced age by 13 days at first egg laying (p 0.01), increased egg production (p ≤ 0.001) and improved egg weight (p ≤ 0.01). Microbiological analysis of Axone sample revealed that the major bacteria in Axone samples were Bacillus coagulans, well known for their probiotic value. PMID:24801640

  6. Ethnic differences in the association of SERPING1 with age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lai, Timothy Y. Y.; Ma, Li; Lai, Frank H. P.; Young, Alvin L.; Brelen, Marten E.; Tam, Pancy O. S.; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia

    2015-01-01

    Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) are leading causes of irreversible blindness in developed countries. In this study, we investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G, member 1 (SERPING1) gene with neovascular AMD and PCV. Two haplotype-tagging SNPs, rs1005510 and rs11603020, of SERPING1 were genotyped in 708 unrelated Chinese individuals: 200 neovascular AMD, 233 PCV and 275 controls. A meta-analysis was also performed for all reported associations of SERPING1 SNPs with AMD and PCV. None of the tagging SNPs had a significant association with neovascular AMD or PCV (P > 0.05) in our study cohort. The meta-analyses showed that the most-studied SNP rs2511989 was not significantly associated with all forms of AMD, neovascular AMD, or PCV in East Asians (P = 0.98, 0.93 and 0.30, respectively) but was associated with AMD in Caucasians (P = 0.04 for all AMD and 0.004 for neovascular AMD). Therefore, the results of our study and meta-analysis suggest that SERPING1 is not a major genetic component of AMD or PCV in East Asians but is a genetic risk factor for AMD in Caucasians, providing evidence for an ethnic diversity in the genetic etiology of AMD. PMID:25800435

  7. The changes of bone mineral density in relation to body mass index and aging among Polish and different ethnic women in the United States: cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Wiacek, Magdalena; Skrzek, Anna; Ignasiak, Zofia; Zubrzycki, Igor Z

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the changes of bone mineral density (BMD) among Polish women age 40-79, as a function of biological aging and body mass index (BMI) class, and compared them with the US sample (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III). The null hypothesis of this study was that the rate of BMD change is femoral region, age, ethnicity, and BMI dependent. The studied group was divided into 4 age decades: 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 and 2 BMI classes (normal: 18.524.99). Analysis of covariance technique, using a generalized linear model with age and BMI as covariates, was used for data analysis. The influence of weight, height, and BMI on BMD loss was analyzed using multivariate regression analysis. The changes in BMD of femoral neck and trochanter are congruent. BMD decrease is not only age dependent but also, for specific ethnic groups, weight, height, and BMI dependent. The obtained results indicate that the analysis of age-dependent BMD changes should be performed by means of regression analysis using a broad age range rather than an age-decade approach. PMID:20554234

  8. Perceived risk of regular cannabis use in the United States from 2002 to 2012: differences by sex, age, and race/ethnicity*

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Pia M.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cannabis is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States (U.S.). Perceived risk of use is associated with substance use; the recent debate surrounding medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the U.S. has the potential to impact perceived risk of use. Recent estimates are needed to assess temporal changes in, and identify correlates of, perceived risk of cannabis use. Methods Utilizing data from the 2002–2012 survey years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, chi-squared statistics and logistic regression were used to describe temporal changes in perceived risk of regular cannabis use (i.e., once or twice a week), to explore correlates of perceived risk, and to report frequency of cannabis use. Results Between 2002–2012, perceived great risk of regular cannabis use varied significantly overall (p<0.001). The prevalence of past year non-daily (p<0.001) and daily use varied significantly during this time (p<0.001). Controlling for survey year and other confounders, characteristics associated with increased odds of perceived great risk of regular cannabis use included: female sex; Non-White race/ethnicity; age 50+; and family income of $20,000–49,999. Characteristics associated with decreased odds of perceived great risk included: ages 12–17 and 18–25; high school education or greater; total family income of $75,000+; past year non-daily and daily cannabis use; and survey years 2008–2012. Conclusions Findings characterize trends of perceived risk of regular cannabis use, and past year non-daily and daily cannabis use. Longitudinal studies of the influence of legal status of cannabis at the state-level are needed. PMID:25735467

  9. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow recommendations. PMID:24513174

  10. Adverse Left Ventricular Remodeling and Age Assessed with Cardiac MR Imaging: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Eng, John; McClelland, Robyn L; Gomes, Antoinette S; Hundley, W Gregory; Cheng, Susan; Wu, Colin O; Carr, J Jeffrey; Shea, Steven; Bluemke, David A; Lima, Joao A C

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To evaluate age-related left ventricular (LV) remodeling during longitudinal observation of a large cohort of asymptomatic individuals who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. Materials and Methods The applicable institutional review boards approved this study, and all participants gave informed consent. Cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to identify longitudinal changes in LV structure and function in 2935 participants who underwent baseline and follow-up cardiac MR imaging in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants were free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. Participants who experienced an incident coronary heart disease event were excluded. Data were analyzed with multivariable mixed-effects regression models in which the outcome was cardiac MR imaging measurement, and the covariates included follow-up time and cardiac risk factors. Results Participants were aged 54-94 years at follow-up, and 53% of the participants were women. Median time between baseline and follow-up cardiac MR imaging was 9.4 years. Over this period, LV mass increased in men and decreased slightly in women (8.0 and -1.6 g per decade, respectively; P < .001). In both men and women, LV end-diastolic volume decreased (-9.8 and -13.3 mL per decade, respectively; P < .001), stroke volume decreased (-8.8 and -8.6 mL per decade, respectively; P < .001), and mass-to-volume ratio increased (0.14 and 0.11 g/mL per decade, respectively; P < .001). Change in LV mass was positively associated with systolic blood pressure and body mass index and negatively associated with treated hypertension and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. In men, the longitudinal LV mass increase was in contrast to a cross-sectional pattern of LV mass decrease. Conclusion As patients age, the LV responds differently in its mass and volume between men and women, although both men and women experience increased concentric LV remodeling with age. In men, the opposition of longitudinal and cross-sectional changes in LV mass highlights the importance of longitudinal study. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26485617

  11. Effects of aging and education on false memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the recall and recognition of the studied word and nonstudied lures. A low education level had a negative effect on memory performance for both young and middle-aged adults. Older adults with a high level of education had a higher level of false memory than those with a lower education level. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the importance of education on false memory and mechanisms that create false memory of words in older adults. PMID:22950349

  12. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Educational Expectations of Adolescents: Does Pursuing Higher Education Mean Something Different to Latino Students Compared to White and Black Students?

    PubMed Central

    Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y.; Milan, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents’ academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49% Latino, 23% White, 22% Black, and 6% other; 51% female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in five years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844

  13. Educational Credentialing of an Aging Workforce: Uneasy Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the educational attainment of an aging workforce from the perspective of educational credentialing. The research questions are defined as follows: Why are workers over age 50 attaining university degrees? How do they narratively construct the rational for pursuing well-recognized credentials in midlife? The specific focus…

  14. Imagined Identity of Ethnic Koreans and Its Implication for Bilingual Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Imagined identity is the way of positioning individuals or being positioned by others in an imagined world, where individuals' cultural identifications interplay with cultural and language practices. This lays the basis for the current research on the construction of imagined memberships by two young ethnic Korean students in China. An analysis of…

  15. Imagined Identity of Ethnic Koreans and Its Implication for Bilingual Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Imagined identity is the way of positioning individuals or being positioned by others in an imagined world, where individuals' cultural identifications interplay with cultural and language practices. This lays the basis for the current research on the construction of imagined memberships by two young ethnic Korean students in China. An analysis of

  16. Jewish Ethnicity and Educational Opportunities in Israel: Evidence from a Curricular Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feniger, Yariv

    2015-01-01

    Based on a 20% representative sample of all high school students in Israel in the mid-1990s, this study explores a reform implemented in low socio-economic status (SES) state religious high schools. Most of their students were from the disadvantaged Jewish ethnic group in Israel, Mizrachim. Perceived as unable to meet the requirements of academic…

  17. African Immigrants in Higher Education: Racial and Ethnic Identity Development, Maintenance, and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offoh, Chidimma

    This study, part of a larger investigation of African immigrants to the United States, focused on the issues of the African immigrants racial and ethnic identity in relation to African American counterparts and the struggle against Americanization for some of these immigrant students. Also studied were African immigrants perceptions of themselves…

  18. The Politics of Arabic Language Education: Moroccan Immigrant Children's Language Socialization into Ethnic and Religious Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Sanchez, Inmaculada M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the…

  19. Jewish Ethnicity and Educational Opportunities in Israel: Evidence from a Curricular Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feniger, Yariv

    2015-01-01

    Based on a 20% representative sample of all high school students in Israel in the mid-1990s, this study explores a reform implemented in low socio-economic status (SES) state religious high schools. Most of their students were from the disadvantaged Jewish ethnic group in Israel, Mizrachim. Perceived as unable to meet the requirements of academic

  20. Promoting Ethnic Tolerance and Patriotism: The Role of Education System Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mons, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    The literature on political socialization has overlooked the influence of system characteristics of schooling on civic values and youth political identities. This article addresses that gap by investigating the degree to which system differentiation relates to the values of ethnic tolerance and patriotism. We distinguish between pedagogical…

  1. Ethnic Identification, Racial Climate and African American Undergraduate Educational Outcomes in a Predominantly White University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, S. Yvette

    This study addressed the quality of the racial environment, the "racial climate," that students of color face on predominantly white campuses and the impact this has on student satisfaction and successful academic performance. The second question is that of the role of ethnic or racial identification in students' adjustment to the campus…

  2. Elementary Science Education in Classrooms and Outdoors: Stakeholder Views, Gender, Ethnicity, and Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.; Thomson, Margareta M.; Tugurian, Linda P.; Stevenson, Kathryn Tate

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a mixed-methods study of 2 schools' elementary science programs including outdoor instruction specific to each school's culture. We explore fifth-grade students in measures of science knowledge, environmental attitudes, and outdoor comfort levels including gender and ethnic differences. We further examine…

  3. Health and the Education of Children from Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Building on a conceptual model of the transition to elementary school, this study explored the role of health in the early cognitive achievement of children from various racial/ethnic minority and immigrant families by applying multilevel modeling to data from a nationally representative sample of American kindergarteners. Whites tended to have…

  4. The Politics of Arabic Language Education: Moroccan Immigrant Children's Language Socialization into Ethnic and Religious Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Sanchez, Inmaculada M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the

  5. "That Box Doesn't Belong to You": Racial Ethos and Community-Based Ethnic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Liang

    2011-01-01

    By expanding Bourdieusian concepts of class ethos and "habitus" in the field of racial analysis, the article closely examines the shaping of a racial/ethnic ethos among a particular group of Chinese Americans. The findings suggest that the community ethos is affected both by a self-consciousness about the positioning of Chinese Americans in the…

  6. "It's Different Lives": A Guatemalan American Adolescent's Construction of Ethnic and Gender Identities across Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ek, Lucila D.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from a multiyear ethnography and a longitudinal case study, this article examines how one Guatemalan American teenager negotiates the multiple socializations to ethnic and gender identities in her home, her Pentecostal church, and her high school. She must face processes of Americanization and Mexicanization. Americanization's thrust is to…

  7. Using Intercollegiate Response Groups To Help Teacher Education Students Bridge Differences of Race, Class, Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Judith; Smith, Sally

    To provide preservice teachers with opportunities for contact with people from racially and ethnically different backgrounds, one university initiated intercollegiate reader response groups using the WebCT format, which allowed students to converse with one another over distances, both within and across universities. Students from separate…

  8. The Role of Ethnicity in the Attainment and Experiences of Graduates in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the attainment of White graduates (as measured by the class of honours that they have been awarded) tends to be higher than that of graduates from other ethnic groups. This is apparent, in particular, in graduates who have taken courses by distance learning with the Open University. Analysis of data from Open University graduates over…

  9. The Role of Ethnicity in the Attainment and Experiences of Graduates in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the attainment of White graduates (as measured by the class of honours that they have been awarded) tends to be higher than that of graduates from other ethnic groups. This is apparent, in particular, in graduates who have taken courses by distance learning with the Open University. Analysis of data from Open University graduates over

  10. Parental Attitudes and the Effects of Ethnicity: How They Influence Children's Attitudes toward Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the manner in which parents' attitudes toward science learning influences their children's attitudes and the effect of ethnicity on attitudes toward science learning. The results of this study show that parental attitudes toward science learning were influenced by both parents' early life experiences and…

  11. Assessing the Influence of Age and Ethnicity on the Association Between Iron Status and Lead Concentration in Blood: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Ngueta, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Inverse association has been reported between iron intake and blood lead concentration (PbB) in epidemiological studies. Data on this association at a low dose of lead exposure are scarce, and the potential influence of ethnicity and age has not been previously reported. This study aimed to estimate the relation between serum ferritin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume and PbB among 6-18-year-old individuals. Data from Canadian Health and Measures Survey (CHMS), cycle 1 (2007-2009) and cycle 2 (2009-2011), were accessed. A household interview followed by a physical examination (including collection of blood) was performed. The quantification of lead and trace elements in blood was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean PbB was 0.79 μg/dL (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.75-0.82). Except for haemoglobin levels, no association was found between PbB and any of the parameters of iron status, independently of age. A significant interaction was observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to PbB (p = 0.07). We found a little evidence of an association between iron status and PbB in the whole sample of subjects aged 6-18 years exposed to low levels of environmental lead. The significant interaction observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to BPb suggests that the influence of ferritin levels on lead uptake may change by ethnicity, even at low exposure. PMID:26519423

  12. A New Age for Education and Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert Edward

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between American business and higher education is examined. Corporate gifts and corporate programs including guest lecture programs and cooperative education programs are discussed. The most controversial program, "chairs of free enterprise," which promotes capitalism, is highlighted. (JMD)

  13. Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…

  14. The Age of Information and the Future of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eugene A.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that the function of futurism is essentially one of stimulating thinking. Discusses changes in the age of information; compulsory education; how the future looks for schools, administrators, and teachers; the role of the school; how teachers look at education; and the role of technology within education. (CT)

  15. Moral Education of Youths in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Leslie N. K; Wang, Fang

    2006-01-01

    In Chinese societies, moral education has always been considered the most essential component of education because the nurturing of moral persons is the prime function of schooling. The implementation of moral education has relied on the inculcation of values that reflect moral ideals. The emergence of the Information Age, with a plethora of…

  16. "Healthy Aging at Older Ages: Are Income and Education Important?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Neil J.; Denton, Frank T.; Robb, A. Leslie; Spencer, Byron G.

    2004-01-01

    Being higher on the socio-economic scale is correlated with being in better health, but is there is a causal relationship? Using 3 years of longitudinal data for individuals aged 50 and older from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we study the health transitions for those who were in good health in the first year, focusing…

  17. Federal Funding for Aging Education and Research: A Decade Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerin, Pamela B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Analyzed support for gerontological education and research (1976-1986) for Administration on Aging, Bureau of Health Professions, National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Mental Health, and Veterans Administration. Determined that total federal allocations varied greatly between social/behavioral and biomedical components of aging field,…

  18. Exercise and Aging: New Perspectives and Educational Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Darrell; Rosato, Frank D.

    1979-01-01

    Several factors have focused new attention on aging and the aged. A major concern emanating from these has been the role of physical fitness upon the health status of the aging. Benefits of exercise and educational and curricular modifications are identified to promote health and well-being among the elderly. (Author/BEF)

  19. Will the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Improve Racial/Ethnic Disparity of Eye Examination Among US Working-Age Population with Diabetes?

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Fonseca, Vivian; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Zhao, Yingnan; Nellans, Frank P; Luo, Qingyang; Shi, Lizheng

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the racial/ethnic disparity of eye examination rates among US adults with diabetes before and after the ACA. Working-age adults (18-64 years) with diabetes for years 2014-2017 were simulated by bootstrapping from the working-age diabetes patient sample of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component 2011. Insurance coverage rates were separately predicted for each racial/ethnic group based on the Congressional Budgeting Office (CBO) report in 2014 and the proportions of Medicaid eligibility. Eye examination rates were weighted to national estimates and compared between racial/ethnic groups. Confidence intervals were estimated using the bootstrap percentile method. Health insurance coverage after the ACA is projected to increase from 90.23 % in 2011 to 98.33 % in 2014 among non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), reaching 98.96 % in 2017. Minorities are forecasted to have about 15 % expansion of insurance coverage from 2011 (80.65 %) to 2014 (96.00 %), reaching 97.25 % in 2017. In 2011, 63.01 % of NHW had eye examinations with forecasted increase to 65.83 % in 2014 and 66.05 % in 2017, while the eye examination rate in the minorities will increase from 55.75 % in 2011 to 59.23 % in 2014 and remain at 59.48 % in 2017. Therefore, racial disparity in eye examination rates is forecasted to persist (ranging from 6.57 % in 2017 to 6.69 % in 2016). The ACA is projected to improve the eye examination rate along with the expansion in insurance coverage. Although predicted racial/ethnic disparities will improve, some differences will persist. Comprehensive strategies need to be developed to eliminate the disparity. PMID:27155608

  20. Differences in CYP2C9 Genotype and Enzyme Activity Between Swedes and Koreans of Relevance for Personalized Medicine: Role of Ethnicity, Genotype, Smoking, Age, and Sex.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Lundblad, Mia; Ramsjo, Margareta; Kang, Ju-Hee; Roh, Hyung-Keun; Bertilsson, Leif; Eliasson, Erik; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-06-01

    Global personalized medicine demands the characterization of person-to-person and between-population differences in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. CYP2C9 pharmacokinetic pathway is subject to modulation by both genetic and environmental factors. CYP2C9 genotype-based dose recommendations (e.g., for warfarin) is advocated. However, the overall contribution of genotype for variation in enzyme activity may differ between populations. We evaluated the importance of ethnicity, genotype, smoking, body weight, age, and sex for CYP2C9 enzyme activity. CYP2C9 genotype and phenotype was determined in 148 Swedes and 146 Koreans using losartan as a probe. CYP2C9 enzyme activity was assessed using urinary losartan/metabolite E-3174 ratio. The frequency of CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (*2 and *3) was significantly higher in Swedes (10.8% and 12.5%) than in Koreans (0% and 5.8%). In matched genotypes, CYP2C9 enzyme activity was significantly lower in Swedes compared to Koreans (p<0.0001). In a univariate analysis, age, weight, ethnicity, genotype, and smoking were significant predictors of CYP2C9 phenotype. A stepwise multivariate analysis indicated ethnicity, genotype, and smoking remained as significant predictors of CYP2C9 enzyme activity, accounting for 50% of the total variance. In both study populations, CYP2C9 genotype was a significant predictor of CYP2C9 enzyme activity, but its contribution in explaining the total variance was lower in Koreans (26.6%) than Swedes (40%). In conclusion, we report significantly lower CYP2C9 enzyme activity in Swedes compared to Koreans, partly but not exclusively due to CYP2C9 pharmacogenetic variations. Ethnicity and environment factors need to be considered together with genotype for population-specific dose optimization and global personalized medicine. PMID:25977991

  1. Ethnic differences in adolescent smoking prevalence in California: are multi-ethnic youth at higher risk?

    PubMed Central

    Unger, J.; Palmer, P.; Dent, C.; Rohrbach, L. A.; Johnson, C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Although ethnic differences in adolescent smoking have been well documented, smoking among multi-ethnic adolescents has received little research attention. This study examined smoking prevalence and tobacco related psychosocial risk factors among multi-ethnic adolescents in California, as compared with white, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic adolescents.
DESIGN—This study used a cross sectional design. Data were obtained from the independent evaluation of the California Tobacco Control, Prevention, and Education Program.
SETTING—Students completed a paper-and-pencil survey in their classrooms.
SUBJECTS—Data were collected from a stratified random sample of 5072 eighth grade students (age 13-14 years) in California during the 1996-97 school year. The data were weighted by school enrollment in analyses to make the estimates representative of the population of California students attending public schools.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Outcome variables included self reported smoking prevalence, susceptibility to smoking, access to tobacco, and related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours. Ethnicity was assessed with a self reported, "check all that apply" question.
RESULTS—Results indicated that multi-ethnic adolescents were at higher risk than single-ethnic adolescents on several variables, including 30 day cigarette smoking prevalence, lifetime smokeless tobacco use, buying cigarettes, receiving cigarette offers, and expected friends' reaction if the respondent smoked. For several other variables (lifetime cigarette smoking prevalence, susceptibility to smoking, and number of friends who smoked), Hispanic adolescents were at higher risk than all other ethnic groups including multi-ethnic adolescents. Although susceptibility to smoking was highest among Hispanics, multi-ethnic adolescents scored significantly higher on susceptibility than the three other single-ethnic groups.
CONCLUSIONS—Multi-ethnic adolescents may be at increased risk for smoking and may have easier access to cigarettes. Culturally targeted smoking prevention interventions for adolescents should address the unique social challenges faced by multi-ethnic adolescents that may increase their risk for smoking.


Keywords: multi-ethnic adolescents; risk for smoking PMID:10841586

  2. Age at Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Diagnosis by Race, Ethnicity, and Primary Household Language Among Children with Special Health Care Needs, United States, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Jo, Heejoo; Schieve, Laura A; Rice, Catherine E; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Tian, Lin H; Blumberg, Stephen J; Kogan, Michael D; Boyle, Coleen A

    2015-08-01

    We examined prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age at diagnosis according to child's race/ethnicity and primary household language. From the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, we identified 2729 3-17-year-old US children whose parent reported a current ASD diagnosis. We compared ASD prevalence, mean diagnosis age, and percentage with later diagnoses (≥5 years) across racial/ethnic/primary household language groups: non-Hispanic-white, any language (NHW); non-Hispanic-black, any language (NHB); Hispanic-any-race, English (Hispanic-English); and Hispanic-any-race, other language (Hispanic-Other). We assessed findings by parent-reported ASD severity level and adjusted for family sociodemographics. ASD prevalence estimates were 15.3 (NHW), 10.4 (NHB), 14.1 (Hispanic-English), and 5.2 (Hispanic-Other) per 1000 children. Mean diagnosis age was comparable across racial/ethnic/language groups for 3-4-year-olds. For 5-17-year-olds, diagnosis age varied by race/ethnicity/language and also by ASD severity. In this group, NHW children with mild/moderate ASD had a significantly higher proportion (50.8 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (33.5 %) or Hispanic-Other children (18.0 %). However, NHW children with severe ASD had a comparable or lower (albeit non-significant) proportion (16.4 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (37.8 %), Hispanic-English (30.8 %), and Hispanic-Other children (12.0 %). While NHW children have comparable ASD prevalence and diagnosis age distributions as Hispanic-English children, they have both higher prevalence and proportion of later diagnoses than NHB and Hispanic-Other children. The diagnosis age findings were limited to mild/moderate cases only. Thus, the prevalence disparity might be primarily driven by under-representation (potentially under-identification) of older children with mild/moderate ASD in the two minority groups. PMID:25701197

  3. Early Childhood Education in a Technological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne

    This keynote address discusses far-reaching effects of technology on the education of young children. The speech contains a brief description of the course technological advancements have taken, the way technology has been integrated into daily life, and prevalent education-related uses of the Internet. New technologies are important for early…

  4. Science Education in a Secular Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education

  5. Moral Education in an Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.

  6. Experiential Environmental Education for Primary Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heather

    Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.

  7. The mortality risk of expectant management compared with delivery stratified by gestational age and race and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    ROSENSTEIN, Melissa G.; SNOWDEN, Jonathan M.; CHENG, Yvonne W.; CAUGHEY, Aaron B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the mortality risk of expectant management with the risk of delivery at each week of term pregnancy in four racial/ethnic groups. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of all non-anomalous, term deliveries in California from 1997-2006 among white, black, Hispanic, and Asian women. In each racial/ethnic group, we compared the risk of infant death at each week with a composite risk representing the mortality risk of one week of expectant management. Results The risk of stillbirth and infant death is highest in black women (stillbirth risk: 18.0/10,000, infant death: 24.4/10,000, compared with 9.4/10,000 and 10.8/10,000 in white women, respectively; p<0.001). Although absolute risks differ by race/ethnicity, the composite risk of expectant management does not surpass the risk of delivery until 39 weeks in any group. At 39 weeks these absolute risk differences are low, however, with a number needed to deliver to prevent one death ranging from 751 (among black women) to 2587 (among Asian women). Conclusion The mortality risk of expectant management exceeds the risk of delivery at 39 weeks in all racial/ethnic groups, despite variation in absolute risks. PMID:24909340

  8. A Comparison of Ethnic, Sex and Age Bias in the Predictive Validity of English Language Aptitude Tests: Some Israeli Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidner, Moshe

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of the English language aptitude test scores of 824 full-time Jewish students studying at a major Israeli university evidenced both slope and intercept bias by ethnicity (Western or Oriental), and by gender, tending significantly to overpredict or underpredict students' first-year cumulative grade point averages. (31 references)…

  9. Maternal education and excessive gestational weight gain in New York city, 1999-2001: the effect of race/ethnicity and neighborhood socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Mary; Borrell, Luisa N; Chambers, Earle C

    2014-01-01

    To examine the association between maternal education and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) and whether this association differs by maternal race/ethnicity and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES). A sample of 56,911 New York City births between 1999 and 2001 was used. Self-reported EGWG was defined as gaining >40 pounds. Maternal education and race/ethnicity were obtained from birth record data. Neighborhood SES was determined from 2000 US Census data. Women with a high school [prevalence ratio (PR)=1.21; 95% CI 1.10-1.32] and some college (PR=1.33; 95% CI 1.21-1.47) education were more likely to gain excessive weight during pregnancy than their counterparts with less than a high school education. Having a college or more education was associated with a decreased EGWG for non-Hispanic white women (PR=0.81; 95% CI 0.67-0.96) but an increased EGWG for Hispanic women (PR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12-1.44). EGWG increased for women with a college or more education in medium and low SES neighborhoods (1.26; 95% CI 1.04-1.53 and 1.20; 95% CI 1.10-1.30, respectively); whereas a college or more education was not significant in the high SES neighborhoods. Our findings suggest that maternal education is associated with EGWG. However, this association depends on race/ethnicity and SES of the neighborhood of residence. PMID:23456346

  10. Ethnic and Culture Diversity in Rural Deaf Education Programs in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Kathleen M.

    The state of New Mexico has a generalist special education licensure that allows anyone with a special education degree to teach any child in special education regardless of disability. Although this works well to supply the demand for special education teachers in rural areas, it may not meet the unique needs of children who are deaf or hard of…

  11. The Role of Ethnicity in the Higher Education Institution Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordaan, Y.; Wiese, M.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the higher education landscape have led to many higher education institutions reassessing their recruitment and marketing strategies. A proper understanding of the relative importance of the choice factors that prospective students consider when selecting a higher education institution will enable higher education administrators and

  12. The Role of Ethnicity in the Higher Education Institution Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordaan, Y.; Wiese, M.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the higher education landscape have led to many higher education institutions reassessing their recruitment and marketing strategies. A proper understanding of the relative importance of the choice factors that prospective students consider when selecting a higher education institution will enable higher education administrators and…

  13. The Golden Age of Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The state of education in Saudi Arabia is reviewed in this brief analysis of the country's growth. Considered are the single-sex institutions, enrollment trends at the university level, faculty shortages, campus expansion, and religious influences. (LBH)

  14. Race, Rurality and Representation: Black and Minority Ethnic Mothers' Experiences of Their Children's Education in Rural Primary Schools in England, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2014-01-01

    There is little research that has examined the role of mothers in their children's education in the rural space of the school, particularly in relation to the experiences of Black and minority ethnic (BME) families who are newcomers to the rural space. This article attempts to redress the balance and examine how BME mothers are positioned in…

  15. Ethnic Background and the Transition from Vocational Education to Work: A Multi-Level Analysis of the Differences in Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Idunn

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of ethnic background on employment and earnings among people with a vocational education in Norway. I differentiate between three different groups: majority, first-generation non-Westerners and second-generation non-Westerners. Panel data from several public register databases of the entire population of

  16. Researching Race/Ethnicity and Educational Inequality in English Secondary Schools: A Critical Review of the Research Literature between 1980 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes and critically analyzes how sociologists in England have studied racial/ethnic inequalities in secondary education between 1980 and 2005. This study is different from earlier literature reviews conducted in this particular area in that it adopts a more systematic approach and includes the most recent studies in this field.

  17. "You've Got to Be Tough and I'm Trying": Black and Minority Ethnic Student Teachers' Experiences of Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Chris; Lall, Rajinder

    2011-01-01

    Whilst Black and minority ethnic (BME) recruitment to initial teacher education (ITE) in the UK is increasing, completion rates are lower than for White students, and this study reports the experiences of BME student teachers on a primary postgraduate programme that had been particularly successful in increasing recruitment of BME students.

  18. Native Mascots and Ethnic Fraud in Higher Education: Using Tribal Critical Race Theory and the Interest Convergence Principle as an Analytic Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagno, Angelina E.; Lee, Stacey J.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines one university's policies regarding Native mascots and ethnic fraud through a Tribal Critical Race Theory analytic lens. Using the principle of interest convergence, we argue that institutions of higher education allow and even work actively towards a particular form or level of diversity, but they do not extend it far

  19. "You've Got to Be Tough and I'm Trying": Black and Minority Ethnic Student Teachers' Experiences of Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Chris; Lall, Rajinder

    2011-01-01

    Whilst Black and minority ethnic (BME) recruitment to initial teacher education (ITE) in the UK is increasing, completion rates are lower than for White students, and this study reports the experiences of BME student teachers on a primary postgraduate programme that had been particularly successful in increasing recruitment of BME students.…

  20. Diverging or Converging Trends: An Investigation of Education Policies Concerning the Incorporation of Ethnic Minority Children in England, France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qureshi, Yasmeen F.; Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses specifically on the incorporation of ethnic minority children within the education systems of England, France and Germany. The trends in policy development after World War II in these countries are examined through the prism of three ideal-typical incorporation strategies--integration, assimilation and separation. This is done…

  1. Ethnic Background and the Transition from Vocational Education to Work: A Multi-Level Analysis of the Differences in Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Idunn

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of ethnic background on employment and earnings among people with a vocational education in Norway. I differentiate between three different groups: majority, first-generation non-Westerners and second-generation non-Westerners. Panel data from several public register databases of the entire population of…

  2. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed. PMID:24771083

  3. The Individual and Ethnic Identity: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Henry H.; And Others

    This guide to teaching ethnicity from the ethnic individual's point of view is designed to accompany the student sourcebook, The Individual and Ethnic Identity (see SO 013 157). The sourcebook, suitable for secondary and higher education, contains quotations of 51 individuals from varying ethnic backgrounds and varying degrees of ethnicity. It…

  4. Early community contexts, race/ethnicity and young adult CVD risk factors: the protective role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lott, Ryan E

    2012-08-01

    Using a sample of 13,500 adolescents (53% female and 47% male) who participated in all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study used multilevel regression to examine the influence of early structural community adversity (as measured by rates of community poverty, single-parent headed families, and two indicators of employment) and racial/ethnic status on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors of young adults (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure). The moderating role of youth's socioeconomic attainment was also examined. Results indicate that early community adversity and African American racial status place young adults at risk for CVD. Youth's socioeconomic attainment does not erase the persistent influences of early community adversity and African American racial status on CVD risk. However, the level of education attained can protect African American young adults and those experiencing early community adversity from CVD risk factors. PMID:22101680

  5. Behavioural problems in Sri Lankan schoolchildren: associations with socio-economic status, age, gender, academic progress, ethnicity and religion.

    PubMed

    Prior, Margot; Virasinghe, Shanya; Smart, Diana

    2005-08-01

    Little is known about behavioural and emotional adjustment in children in Sri Lanka, and this study is the first attempt to assess mental health problems in this population. Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman R (1994) A modified version of the Rutter parent questionnaire including items on children's strengths: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 35:1483-1494) with parent, teacher and child informants, in a large sample of 10- to 13-year-old school children from Colombo, we found rates and types of problems consistent with other international studies of child mental health. Problem rates were higher in boys and were associated with lower SES and poorer academic performance. Relationships between behavioural adjustment and Tamil ethnicity and Hindu religion emerged in this sample and could possibly be associated with the experience of longstanding ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. The study confirms the need for development of child and adolescent health services in Sri Lanka. PMID:16091856

  6. Ethnic Identity and Power: Cultural Contexts of Political Action in School and Society. SUNY Series, Power, Social Identity, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Yali, Ed.; Trueba, Enrique T., Ed.

    The essays in this collection provide insights into the dilemmas faced by immigrants and ethnic minorities and by school personnel and policy makers. The first part of the book consists of comparative studies of ethnic identity, and the second part focuses on some lessons learned from studies of ethnic identification and equity, with implications…

  7. Nursing education and the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.

    1989-05-01

    As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.

  8. Teachers' Reflections on Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, Laura Kyser; Osborn, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents profiles of and reflections by teachers with international experience, including the authors, who offer insights on education in a global age. The respondents who were colleagues of the authors were interviewed to learn about their K-12 education, insights into and analysis of their experiences teaching abroad, and thoughts

  9. Teachers' Reflections on Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, Laura Kyser; Osborn, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents profiles of and reflections by teachers with international experience, including the authors, who offer insights on education in a global age. The respondents who were colleagues of the authors were interviewed to learn about their K-12 education, insights into and analysis of their experiences teaching abroad, and thoughts…

  10. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are both proactive and aggressive. Taking this approach will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age

  11. The Age and Qualifications of Special Education Staff in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tony

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a survey distributed in April 2007 to government special education schools and settings throughout Australia. The survey collected information about the age and special education qualifications of teaching staff. It followed a similar survey that was distributed in May 2006 to Victorian special schools that…

  12. Drugs Education and Prevention for School-Aged Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Drug misuse in Northern Ireland, like many parts of the world, is becoming one of the major issues facing society today. A first stage to addressing this problem is effective drugs education and prevention strategies to school-aged young people. A survey of a range of education providers including mainstream and special needs schools, and school…

  13. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

  14. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of

  15. Dealing with Unseen Obstacles to Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Valerie J. H.; Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zomp, Christopher; Johnson, Randall S.; Miller, Phillip; Powell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper updates the efforts to educate blind students in higher education in the digital age and describes how to support the development of mental models in learning through tactile learning and 3D-printing technology. It cites research documenting a drop in Braille literacy along with the growth in use of digital technologies by blind…

  16. Race, Ethnicity, and Higher Education Policy: The Use of Critical Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teranishi, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Cross-sectional frameworks, or between-group approaches, in quantitative research in higher education have limitations that hinder what we know about the intersection of race and educational opportunities and outcomes. (Contains 5 figures.)

  17. Flourishing Creativity: Education in an Age of Wonder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2015-01-01

    The twenty-first century is often described as an age of uncertainty and ambiguity with unprecedented challenges. Those with a creative mind-set however might call this millennium an age of wonder. New technologies and digital media are facilitating imagination and inventiveness. How are we innovating education? Are schools and classroom fostering…

  18. Flourishing Creativity: Education in an Age of Wonder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2015-01-01

    The twenty-first century is often described as an age of uncertainty and ambiguity with unprecedented challenges. Those with a creative mind-set however might call this millennium an age of wonder. New technologies and digital media are facilitating imagination and inventiveness. How are we innovating education? Are schools and classroom fostering

  19. Clickers in Teacher Education: Student Perceptions by Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheesman, Elaine A.; Winograd, Gaynelle R.; Wehrman, Joseph D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of classroom response systems, or "clickers," by teacher-candidates of diverse ages and both genders. Participants (n = 63) included 53 females and 10 males aged 21 to 57 who attended small-enrollment reading methods courses in a special education licensure program. Responses to a 32-item survey suggested…

  20. Increasing the Number of Ethnically Diverse Faculty in Special Education Programs: Issues and Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    Many universities are grappling with the issue of diversifying the faculty lines in higher education. While this appears to be a global issue across disciplines, those of us who are in special education may find it to be of greater concern because special education legislation, the Individuals with disabilities Act (IDEA) strongly supports

  1. Art Education in the Age of Guantanamo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistolesi, Edie

    2007-01-01

    Censorship exists in institutions where art exists, and also where art education exists. In fall 2005, a group of instructors and the author taught a group project with a political theme--peace. In this article, she examines institutionalized censorship within schools, and the ramifications of teaching the subject of peace in a time of war.…

  2. Science Education in a Secular Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education…

  3. Higher Education in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Everette E., Ed.; LaMay, Craig L., Ed.

    This book of 16 author-contributed chapters examines issues of the media and public institutions of higher education including: the media ranking of universities and their contribution to low expectations of universities; the disjunction between massive support for college and university sports events and the intellectual and presumed academic…

  4. Drama Education in the Age of AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This article arose out of my involvement in an undergraduate drama module at the School of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, where I made use of workshop theatre methodologies to explore how second-year drama students construct knowledge and develop sociocultural understandings of critical issues in society. The workshop theatre project…

  5. Gender and Age in Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajek, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities' rights have to be secured, but also majorities…

  6. Rethinking Education: The Coming Age of Enlightenment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roger J.

    The world's most serious problems involve people's inability to peacefully coexist with other people. The only antidote to prejudice, injustice, murder, and terrorism is to develop an understanding of the many different patterns of human life. However, western civilization and its educational systems have developed into fragmented forms, resulting…

  7. Psychological Skills Education for School Aged Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the potential for teaching psychological skills to student athletes in school sport programs, outlining a conceptual approach to psychological skills training for athletic coaches. The paper details how to develop a psychological skills education curriculum, explaining issues of curriculum sequence and implementation strategies in the…

  8. Aging 2000: Consumer Empowerment through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filinson, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Aging 2000 is a Rhode Island organization of community-based networks working to improve geriatric health care through consumer empowerment. Evaluation of workshops on health behavior and the health-care system shows the viability of using older adult volunteers as peer teachers. (SK)

  9. The Prevalence of Spirituality, Optimism, Depression, and Fatalism in a Bi-ethnic Stroke Population

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Smith, Melinda A.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Risser, Jan M. H.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2011-01-01

    To provide insight into the reduced post-stroke all-cause mortality among Mexican Americans, we explored ethnic differences in the pre-stroke prevalence of (1) spirituality, (2) optimism, (3) depression, and (4) fatalism in a Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke population. The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project is a population-based stroke surveillance study in Nueces County, Texas. Seven hundred ten stroke patients were queried. For fatalism, optimism, and depression scales, unadjusted ethnic comparisons were made using linear regression models. Regression models were also used to explore how age and gender modify the ethnic associations after adjustment for education. For the categorical spirituality variables, ethnic comparisons were made using Fisher's exact tests. Mexican Americans reported significantly more spirituality than non-Hispanic whites. Among women, age modified the ethnic associations with pre-stroke depression and fatalism but not optimism. Mexican American women had more optimism than non-Hispanic white women. With age, Mexican American women had less depression and fatalism, while non-Hispanic white women had more fatalism and similar depression. Among men, after adjustment for education and age, there was no ethnic association with fatalism, depression, and optimism. Spirituality requires further study as a potential mediator of increased survival following stroke among Mexican Americans. Among women, evaluation of the role of optimism, depression, and fatalism as they relate to ethnic differences in post-stroke mortality should be explored. PMID:21184281

  10. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  11. The Role of Racial Discrimination in the Economic Value of Education Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth: Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators.

    PubMed

    Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed. PMID:25908637

  12. Multicultural Contacts in Education: A Case Study of an Exchange Project between Different Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuitema, Jaap; Veugelers, Wiel

    2011-01-01

    One important aim of citizenship education is learning to deal with cultural diversity. To this end, schools organise exchange projects to bring students into contact with different social and cultural groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intergroup contact in educational settings and to understand what the most…

  13. Access to Education in Peninsular Malaysia: Ethnicity, Social Class, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-ling

    1995-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive examination of the development of postindependent Malaysia's education policies. Compulsory education combined with sustained economic growth has produced a literate and upwardly mobile Malay population. Preferential policies for the Malays, however, have resulted in increased stratification and inequality among the

  14. Effects of Motivation on Educational Attainment: Ethnic and Developmental Differences among First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propero, Moises; Russell, Amy Catherine; Vohra-Gupta, Shetal

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in educational motivation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-generation students (FGS). Participants were 315 high school and college students who completed a revised academic motivation survey that measured participants' educational motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation).…

  15. Education Supports Racial and Ethnic Equality in STEM. ESA Issue Brief #05-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beede, David; Julian, Tiffany; Khan, Beethika; Lehrman, Rebecca; McKittrick, George; Langdon, David; Doms, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) workers are essential to American innovation and competitiveness in an increasingly dynamic and global marketplace. In this report, the authors examine demographic disparities in STEM education and find that educational attainment may affect equality of opportunity in these critical, high-quality…

  16. The Ethnic and the Intercultural in Conceptual and Pedagogical Discourses within Higher Education in Oaxaca, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez Apodaca, Erika

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents some reflections about pedagogical and conceptual approaches to intercultural education (in middle high and high schools) in Mexico. The propositions under discussion are expressions of an emerging educational discourse between the highest levels of government and the self-management initiatives of the indigenous pueblos and…

  17. Dreams Deferred? The Relationship between Early and Later Postsecondary Educational Aspirations among Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michelle Asha

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 to test a conceptual model that integrates aspects of sociological and econometric frameworks into a traditional status attainment model for educational aspirations. Using descriptive and logistic analyses, this study advanced understanding of the patterns and stability of…

  18. Ethnic Disparities in Special Education Labeling among Children with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Davis, Jasmine K.; Bevans, Katherine; Guevara, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined disparities in special education labeling among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by merging calendar year 2002 special education records and Medicaid mental health claims for 4,852 children who had been diagnosed with ADHD in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Thirty-eight percent were receiving…

  19. Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education: Case Studies of Suburban School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahram, Roey; Fergus, Edward; Noguera, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: The last two reauthorizations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act established a policy mandate for districts to take action to reduce high rates of minority overrepresentation in special education. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: The overrepresentation of Black and Latino students in special…

  20. Access to Education in Peninsular Malaysia: Ethnicity, Social Class, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-ling

    1995-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive examination of the development of postindependent Malaysia's education policies. Compulsory education combined with sustained economic growth has produced a literate and upwardly mobile Malay population. Preferential policies for the Malays, however, have resulted in increased stratification and inequality among the…

  1. Students' Perception of the "Others" in Ethnic Separated School Systems: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedelcu, Anca; Iucu, Romita; Ciolan, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes qualitative data obtained from focus groups with students learning in schools with a majority and minority language of instruction from Estonia, Latvia, Romania, and Slovakia. The focus groups were developed within the framework of the project "Divided Education, Divided Citizens?" conducted by the Network of Education Policy…

  2. Education of Ethnic and National Minorities in the USSR: A Report on Current Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravetz, Nathan

    This report analyzes and compares information on educational achievements of minorities in the USSR. It also reviews and assesses Soviet educational policy for nationalities and suggests some areas for further study. Data are based on the USSR 1970 All-Union Census and later evidence. National minorities in the USSR have historically been…

  3. Migration and Ethnic Group Disproportionality in Special Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Susan L.; Curcic, Svjetlana; Powell, Justin J. W.; Khader, Khaled; Albee, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Issues of educational equity and opportunity cannot be understood without regard to special education, as a key response to disabilities, disadvantages, and difficulties. Likewise, globalization cannot be understood without regard to cross-border migration and minority group status in society. Illuminating the nexus of these, research into…

  4. Effects of Motivation on Educational Attainment: Ethnic and Developmental Differences among First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propero, Moises; Russell, Amy Catherine; Vohra-Gupta, Shetal

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in educational motivation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-generation students (FGS). Participants were 315 high school and college students who completed a revised academic motivation survey that measured participants' educational motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation).

  5. Ethnic Disparities in Graduate Education: A Selective Review of Quantitative Research, Social Theory, and Quality Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Somer L.; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we analyzed research studies in the field of graduate education. In particular, we explored the issue of inequity in graduate education through three key lenses of social science analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed selected quantitative research studies that undertook a comparative examination of aggregate trends in enrollment and…

  6. Education, Marriage, and First Conception in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brien, Michael J.; Lillard, Lee A.

    1994-01-01

    Among Malaysian females, changes in education and enrollment account for much of the trend toward later marriage. Increase in age at first conception across cohorts and ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese, Indian) is fully accounted for by cohort and ethnic differences in the age at marriage. (Author/SK)

  7. Food Category Purchases Vary by Household Education and Race/Ethnicity: Results from Grocery Receipts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to characterize food group purchases from grocery receipts. Food shoppers (aged >/=19 years with at least one child aged

  8. An exploratory examination of the relationships among emotional intelligence, elementary school science teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, race/ethnicity, gender, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okech, Allan P.

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in Texas public schools are discussed.

  9. Consumer Education in an Age of Adaptation. Educator Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sally R.

    Designed to serve as a reference and resource, this publication contains ideas and information to help teachers modify content and teaching methods to assist students in coping with the changing marketplace. Part 1 of the guide lists educational objectives for these major content areas: (1) The Consumer and the Economy, (2) Values and Goals, (3)…

  10. Increases in summer serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in elderly subjects in São Paulo, Brazil vary with age, gender and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypovitaminosis D is a common condition among elderly individuals in temperate-climate countries, with a clear seasonal variation on 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels, increasing after summer and decreasing after winter, but there are few data from sunny countries such as Brazil. Many factors can interfere on vitamin D cutaneous synthesis. We aimed at studying the 25OHD variations during winter and summer in an outdoor physically active elderly population living in São Paulo city, and analysed their determining factors. Methods Ninety-nine individuals (52 women and 47 men, from 55 to 83 years old) from different ethnic groups were selected from an outdoor physical activity group. Data are reported as Mean ± SD, and we used Pearson Linear Correlation, Student's t-test for non-related samples, Chi-square (χ²) test and One-way ANOVA for analysis. Results Mean 25OHD value for the whole group was 78.9 ± 30.9 nmol/L in the winter and 91.6 ± 31.7 nmol/L in the summer (p = 0.005). Mean winter serum 25OHD concentrations were not different between men and women (81.2 ± 30.1 nmol/L vs. 76.7 ± 31.8 nmol/L, respectively), and 19.2% of the individuals showed values < 50 nmol/L. In the summer, we noticed an increase only for men (107.6 ± 31.4 nmol/L) compared to women (76.7 ± 24.0 nmol/L), and 6.5% showed values < 50 nmol/L. A decrease in the mean PTH in the summer compared to the winter was noticed, with PTH levels showing a relationship with 25OHD concentrations only in the winter (r = -0.208, p = 0.041). White individuals showed an increase in mean serum 25OHD in the summer (p = 0.016) which was not noticed for other ethnic groups (Asians, native Brazilians and blacks). An increase in 25OHD values in the summer was observed in the age groups ranging from 51-60 and 61-70 years old (p < 0.05), but not in the age group from 71 years old on. Conclusions 25OHD values increased during the summer in elderly residents of São Paulo, but to different extents depending on ethnicity, gender and age. This season-dependent increase was noticed only among men, white and who were in the youngest group of individuals. PMID:20546572

  11. Violence, Schools, and Dropping out: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Educational Consequence of Student Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Without a doubt, exposure to violence and victimization can be profoundly detrimental to the overall well-being and development of all youth. Moreover, violence and victimization that occurs within a school context is particularly alarming because a successful educational process is essential toward establishing socioeconomic success later in…

  12. Rafting with Hegel on the Rio Grande: Politics, Education, and Ethnic Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Robert Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The Hegelian model of society as an organism is used to analyze what makes multicultural societies healthy or unhealthy, how to make the transition from one to the other, and potential roles for educational and political systems in that process. Discussion focuses on the American southwest. (Author/MSE)

  13. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes: Racial and Ethnic Variations in Peer Network Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goza, Franklin; Ryabov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents' academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results…

  14. Educational Needs of Alaska. A Summary by Region and Ethnic Group, 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World-Wide Education and Research Inst., Salt Lake City, UT.

    During 1972 Worldwide Education and Research Institute conducted a statewide needs assessment in Alaska. Initially more than 2,000 Alaskans responded to an extensive questionnaire or interview about the State's schools. After gathering the data, 9 groups of representative Alaskans were convened for documenting and validating critical educational…

  15. Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language of

  16. The Effects of Poverty, Ethnicity, and Special Education Status on Louisiana School Performance Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Sara J.; Fillippino, Tonja M.

    The Louisiana high stakes testing program has raised questions about equity issues. Students from lower socioeconomic groups are less likely to have access to quality penetration tools, and, like minority students, are less likely to have knowledge and skills of their more affluent peers. Students in special education have needs that place them at…

  17. Who Goes to School? Educational Stratification by Gender, Caste, and Ethnicity in Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stash, Sharon; Hannum, Emily

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of household survey data in Nepal showed that despite rapid educational expansion during 1965-79, enrollment gaps between boys and girls and among castes did not narrow. The likelihood that girls would enter school was not increased by either high socioeconomic status or urban residence, but once enrolled, girls were as likely as boys to…

  18. Ethnicity at School: "Non-Russian" Education in the Soviet Union during the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, the decade of the 1930s saw a remarkable rate of educational expansion, as state schools enrolled millions of pupils in higher proportions and for longer periods of time than ever before. Much of this expansion occurred in the "non-Russian" regions, where the native language of children and thus the primary language of…

  19. The Effects of Poverty, Ethnicity, and Special Education Status on Louisiana School Performance Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Sara J.; Fillippino, Tonja M.

    The Louisiana high stakes testing program has raised questions about equity issues. Students from lower socioeconomic groups are less likely to have access to quality penetration tools, and, like minority students, are less likely to have knowledge and skills of their more affluent peers. Students in special education have needs that place them at

  20. What Difference Does "Difference" Make? A Discussion with Ethnic Minority Students about Their Learning Experience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housee, Shirin

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the everyday experiences of minority ethnic students at a university in the West Midlands. Based on interviews with 23 second-level students taking Sociology modules, it seeks to highlight the key social, personal and pedagogic issues for this group of minority ethnic students and to deepen understandings of cultural identity…