Meyer, Gregory J; Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Reese, Jennifer B; Mihura, Joni L
We examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice. PMID:25059682
Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.
Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…
Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher
This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…
There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…
Chakraborty, Sujata; Ghosh, Bhola Nath
This paper seeks to develop a clearer understanding of the role of education in the formation of ethnicity. The basic meaning of the term "ethnicity" is that it gives a distinct identity to a community and distinguishes one community or an individual from another. It has been found that ethnic consciousness or ethnic identity has been in increase…
Booker, Kimberly; Mitchell, Angela
This study examined the probability of (a) being placed in a disciplinary alternative education setting for mandatory versus discretionary reasons and (b) returning within the same year among an ethnically diverse sample (African American, Caucasian, Hispanic) of middle and high school students (N=270). Participants were compared based on…
Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.
Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013
Hart, Philip S., Ed.
This theme issue contains papers on race and ethnicity in public education: "Introduction" (Philip Hart); "Toward Democratic Education: The Importance of Culturally Responsive Leadership in 21st Century Schools" (Donna M. Davis); "Improving the Selection Process for Identifying Gifted Ethnic Minority Children" (John Dillard and Nettye R. Brazil);…
Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad
Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…
In "Educations in Ethnic Violence", Matthew Lange explores the effects education has on ethnic violence. Lange contradicts the widely-held belief that education promotes peace and tolerance. Rather, Lange finds that education commonly contributes to aggression, especially in environments with ethnic divisions, limited resources, and ineffective…
Jao, Jui-Chang; McKeever, Matthew
In this article, the authors examine educational stratification in Taiwan against the background of an ethnically based political economy. They investigate how educational attainment is related to ethnicity and other background factors, such as parental class and education, and if these relationships changed over time as Taiwan became a more…
Manly, Jennifer J; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth T; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther; Martin, Eileen M; Young, Mary
Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n?=?1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%), and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed. PMID:21950512
Ross, E. Wayne, Ed.; Pang, Valerie Ooka, Ed.
This book moves beyond traditional thinking and approaches to multicultural education to more accurately reflect the dramatically changing circumstances faced by North American schools in an age of globalization. The volumes address ways in which race and ethnicity affect learning across the life span, at all levels of formal education as well as…
In an attempt to investigate factors surrounding educational performance among different ethnic and racial groups, several areas are examined: (1) segregation; (2) performance levels and intelligence quotient variables among various ethnic groups; (3) intergroup differences among segregated and nonsegregated groups; (4) socioeconomic variables;…
Atkinson, Donald R.
Surveyed chairpersons of 476 counselor education programs to determine ethnic minority representation among students and faculty. Compared to population statistics, Asian Americans were found to be underrepresented as both students and faculty. (JAC)
Driessen, Geert W. J. M.
Bourdieu's cultural capital thesis is an attempt to explain how social class influences the transmission of educational inequality. In this article, the question of the extent to which various forms of capital also apply to ethnic minorities stands central. On the basis of Dutch and American research findings, a model is formulated and empirically tested with the aid of data from the Dutch Primary Education cohort study. Students from four ethnic groups are included: Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan. The main variables are language and math test scores, socio-economic milieu, and a number of capital indicators, including financial resources, linguistic resources, parental reading behavior, and educational resources within the family. The results show no mediating effect of resources within the various ethnic groups. The findings also suggest that in research and practice it is relevant to not treat ethnic groups as one homogenous group, but to differentiate between the various groups.
Femminella, Francis X.
This paper explores the overt and covert ways in which the American educational system destroys cognitive styles which are different from the predominant Anglo-German style. Cognitive styles are the ways in which people think: how they organize and remember knowledge. The author contends that ethnic groups, specifically those of European origin,…
1 SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND ETHNICITY William Simmons, Chair Berkeley Division's Special Committee on Education and Ethnicity, chaired by Professor William Simmons of the Department for their constant support. Sincerely, William S. Simmons, Chair Special Committee on Education and Ethnicity
Baker, Trish; Clark, Jill
Educational research in cooperative learning suggests that inequity based on perceived status may be an issue with heterogeneous cooperative learning groups. This paper explores issues of status based on race, ethnicity and cultural background in the New Zealand tertiary classroom where there is a diverse mix of domestic and international…
Bob Carroll; Graeme Hollinshead
There has been little research dealing with the issues of teaching ethnic minority groups in physical education (PE), in particular that which takes the perceptions of teachers and their pupils as the focal point to examine the issues and conflicts. This research takes a social action perspective by studying Muslim children in a northern comprehensive school. The areas of conflict
Grace Kao; Jennifer S. Thompson
? Abstract Understanding racial, ethnic, and immigrant variation in educational achievement,and attainment is more important than ever as the U.S. population becomes increasingly diverse. The Census Bureau estimates that in 2000, 34% of all youth aged 15?19 were from minority groups; it estimates that by 2025, this will increase to 46% (U.S. Census Bureau 2000). In addition, approximately one in
This article covers three primary topics within the broad heading of ethnically focused supplemental education. The first is a general overview of the topic of supplemental ethnic schools. The second is a specific case history of one such program, the Mount Zion Ethnic School. The third is a discussion, informed by that case history, of how and…
Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry; Scott, Jonathan M.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. Design/methodology/approach: A postal survey was used to investigate the financial needs of owner/managers in 64 ethnic minority SMEs and a control sample of 23 non-ethnic SMEs.…
Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael; Clancy, Margaret
Research has linked parents' educational expectations to children's educational attainment, but findings are inconsistent regarding differences in educational expectations by race and ethnicity. In addition, existing studies have focused on school-age children and their parents. In this study, we use a state representative sample to examine…
Evelyn Hello; Peer Scheepers; Mérove Gijsberts
Education is often found to be a strong determinant of ethnic pre judice. However, there is preliminary evidence that this educational effect varies across countries. Moreover, there are also theoretical arguments to expect cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic pre judice. From both a cultural and structural perspective, we set out to explain these cross-national variances in the
This paper reports an analysis of the educational attainment and progress between age 11 and age 14 of over 14,500 students from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. The mean attainment gap in national tests at age 14 between White British and several ethnic minority groups was large, more than three times…
Ridley, Anne M.
This study investigated age- and ethnicity-related effects on approaches to learning and the possible impact of such differences on assessment outcomes. This is important in the context of widening participation and the growing number of students from non-traditional educational backgrounds. Some 77 Level 1 psychology undergraduates completed an…
Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.
This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…
Twelker, J. Daniel; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Messer, Dawn H.; Bhakta, Rita; Jones, Lisa A.; Mutti, Donald O.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Zadnik, Karla
Purpose This cross-sectional report includes ocular component data as a function of age, gender, and ethnicity from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Methods The ocular components of 4881 school-aged children were examined using cycloplegic autorefraction (refractive error), keratometry (corneal curvature), ultrasonography (axial dimensions), and videophakometry (lens curvature). Results The average age (± SD) was 8.8 ± 2.3 years, and 2458 were girls (50.4%). Sixteen percent were African American, 14.8% were Asian, 22.9% were Hispanic, 11.6% were Native American, and 34.9% were White. More myopic/less hyperopic refractive error was associated with greater age, especially in Asians, less in Whites and African Americans. Corneal power varied slightly with age, with girls showing a greater mean corneal power. Native-American children had greater corneal toricity with a markedly flatter horizontal corneal power. Anterior chambers were deeper with age, and boys had deeper anterior chambers. Native-American children had the shallowest anterior chambers and Whites the deepest. Girls had higher Gullstrand and calculated lens powers than boys. Boys had longer vitreous chambers and axial lengths, and both were deeper with age. Native Americans had the longest vitreous chambers and Whites the shortest. Conclusions Most ocular components showed little clinically meaningful variation by ethnicity. The shallower anterior chambers and deeper vitreous chambers of Native-American children appeared to be offset by flatter corneas. The relatively deeper anterior chamber and shallower vitreous chambers of White children appeared to be offset by steeper corneas. Asian children had more myopic spherical equivalent refractive errors, but for a given refractive error the ocular parameters of Asian children were moderate in value compared to those of other ethnic groups. Asian children may develop longer, myopic eyes more often than other ethnic groups, but the eyes of Asian emmetropes do not appear to be innately longer. PMID:19650241
Delia Furtado; Nikolaos Theodoropoulos
This paper examines the effect of education on intermarriage and specifically, whether the mechanisms through which education affects intermarriage differ by immigrant generation and race. We consider three main paths through which education affects marriage choice. First, educated people may be better able to adapt to different customs and cultures making them more likely to marry outside of their ethnicity.
Basow, Susan A.
No significant relationship was found between ethnic Fijian 10th graders' scores on tests of Competitiveness, Mastery, Work Orientation, Personal Unconcern, and Self Esteem and educational achievement. It is concluded that factors relating to the meaning of achievement are more important in understanding ethnic group achievement differences in…
Bostean, Georgiana; Roberts, Christian K.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Prelip, Michael; Peters, Anne; Belin, Thomas R.; McCarthy, William J.
Purpose This study examined how race-ethnicity, nativity, and education interact to influence disparities in cardiovascular (CV) health, a new concept defined by the American Heart Association (AHA). We assessed whether race-ethnicity and nativity disparities in CV health vary by education, and whether the foreign-born differ in CV health from their US-born race-ethnic counterparts with comparable education. Methods We used data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to determine the prevalence of optimal CV health metrics (based on selected AHA guidelines) among adults ages 25 and over (n = 42,014). We examined the interaction between education and ethnicity-nativity, comparing predicted probabilities of each CV health measure between US-born and foreign-born Whites, Asians, and Latinos. Results All groups were at high risk of suboptimal physical activity levels, fruit and vegetable and fast food consumption, and overweight/obesity. Those with higher education were generally better-off, except among Asians. Ethnicity-nativity differences were more pronounced among those with less than a college degree. The foreign-born exhibited both advantages and disadvantages in CV health compared to their US-born counterparts that varied by ethnicity-nativity. Conclusions Education influences ethnicity-nativity disparities in CV health, with most race-ethnic and nativity differences occurring among the less educated. Studies of nativity differences in CV health should stratify by education in order to adequately address SES differences. PMID:23726820
Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender. However, little research has sought to compare the relative size of these gaps or to explore interactions between these factors. This paper analyses the educational achievement at age 11, 14…
Americans have long equated popular education with social cohesion and social mobility. After the American revolution, the school became a focus for patriotism and the institution where individuals learned how to become citizens. The testbooks of the mid-19th and early 20th century emphasized white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant values. While the values…
K. M. Kim; J. K. Brown; K. J. Kim; H. S. Choi; H. N. Kim; Y. Rhee; S.-K. Lim
Summary We studied femoral geometry in relation to age and ethnicity in a cross-sectional study. Age-associated cortical thinning\\u000a showed the most pronounced effect, and Koreans studied here had thicker cortices and lower buckling ratios than those reported\\u000a for other races. Cortical thickness may thus be a major determinant of hip fracture risk.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction The rate of hip fracture varies by age and
Stier, H; Shavit, Y
"This paper focuses on the effects of age at marriage and the sex-ratio on patterns of ethnic homogamy among Israeli women. We hypothesize that later marriages are more likely than early marriages to be heterogamous as the 'marriage market' shifts from school to the work-place. By the same token, when facing severe marriage squeezes women will be forced to out-marry. Employing data from the 1983 census, we model mate selection of women from Afro-Asian and Euro-American origin in various birth-cohorts. The results do not fully support our hypotheses: we find that in and of itself, age at marriage does not enhance ethnic heterogamy." PMID:12345857
Vierkötter, Andrea; Krutmann, Jean
Skin aging does not only occur by passing time alone but also by the exposure to different environmental factors. The skin aging process, which is induced by environmental factors, is named premature or extrinsic skin aging process and can be distinguished from the chronologically (intrinsic) skin aging process by characteristic skin aging signs. Well known environmental factors leading to extrinsic skin aging are sun exposure and smoking. Recently, an epidemiological study could further discover an association between air pollution and skin aging. First of all the skin aging inducing effect of sun exposure was discovered and an own term (photoaging) was given to this special field of extrinsic skin aging. Mechanistic studies have further increased our knowledge about the molecular pathways by which environmental factors contribute to extrinsic skin aging. In this regard, profound knowledge how sun exposure leads to extrinsic skin aging were gained in the last years, and additionally there are also indications how smoking and air pollution might contribute to this process. Moreover it was realized that extrinsic skin aging manifests differently between different populations. Thus, in this review we summarize the influence of the different environmental factors: sun exposure, smoking and air pollution on skin aging and further present ethnic-specific manifestations of extrinsic skin aging. PMID:23467702
Gopi K. R. Sirineni; Paolo Raggi; Leslee J. Shaw; Arthur E. Stillman
Coronary artery calcium (CAC) accumulation, a marker of atherosclerosis burden, differs significantly among patients of different\\u000a ethnicities. It has been proposed that CAC scores can be used to assess the number of life years lost or gained by an individual\\u000a with a given amount of coronary artery calcium. Therefore, we sought to develop a method to calculate the coronary age
Social relationships among cattle pastoralists of northern Kenya are often expressed in the style of their material culture. Most obviously, the size and shape of weapons carried by herding males mark ethnic distance among several groups. However, the stylistic traits of ethnicity also seem to differentiate social categories based on age within ethnic groups. This paper examines how the age
Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B
The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture. PMID:25045950
Schiffman, Carole B.
Growing populations of older adults, ethnic minorities, and the low-literate create unique concerns for the design of visual information. Those for whom text presents a barrier will respond most to legibility, use of familiar formats and symbols, and simplification. Guidelines for those processes are needed, and this paper, in particular,…
Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.
The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…
Shimahara, N. Ken, Ed.; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra, Ed.
This volume contains 12 papers originally presented at the 14th Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education in 1999. The symposium explored contemporary issues of ethnic, cultural, and national identities and their influence on the social construction of identity. Papers include: (1) "Reconceptualizing Ethnicity and Educational Achievement"…
This book, one in a five-volume series dealing with perspectives in American education, discusses the education of ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of the series is to create a better understanding of the education process and the relation of education to human welfare. Chapter one discusses multicultural education, examining the…
Banks, James A.
Since the 1990s, ethnic studies and other components of multicultural education have been criticized by neo-conservative and assimilationist scholars who maintain that school diversity initiatives weaken national identity and fail to help students attain the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function effectively in the national mainstream…
Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David
The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…
Crouchett, Lawrence P.
The objectives of minority studies programs are similar to those of general education. Aside from its cultural-transmission function, minority studies has two missions connected with learning: the development of cognitive and affective skills; and maintenance of the essence of ethnic content, even when it is offered in separated autonomous…
Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S E; Collinson, Simon Lowes
The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830 English-speaking ethnic Chinese. Neuropsychological measures such as Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, Token Motor Task, Semantic Fluency, Symbol Coding, Tower of London, Judgment of Line Orientation, and Matrix Reasoning of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were administered. Education was measured by total years of education and adjusted years of education, as well as ratios of both measures with age. Age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance. Adjusted years of education was associated with fluency and higher cognitive processes, while the ratio between adjusted years of education and age was associated with tasks implicating working memory. Changes in education modalities implicated tasks requiring language abilities. Education and age represent key neurodevelopmental milestones. In light of our findings, special consideration should to be given when neuropsychological assessments are carried out in cross-cultural contexts and in societies where educational systems and pedagogy tend to be complex. PMID:23148648
In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…
From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long-standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of 'failing' schools exacerbated school segregation…
Identity is central for research on education since, under certain conditions, it may influence school choice, career preferences and classroom behaviour. Identity also determines disposition toward schooling because it may have the capacity to shape and modify the values, beliefs and characteristics that distinguish one person from another, by…
Haug, Sarah Woodbury
Nationalism, as taught in Belize schools, is panethnic and multiethnic, but because the increasingly widespread practice of ethnic mixing is not acknowledged, there is a discrepancy between what is taught and the daily life of students. Research results from 161 elementary school children show that the ethnic self-identification of children is…
Delia Furtado; Nikolaos Theodoropoulos
This paper examines the effects of education on intermarriage, and specifically whether the mechanisms through which education affects intermarriage differ by immigrant generation, age at arrival, and race. We consider three main paths through which education affects marriage choice. First, educated people may be better able to adapt to different cultures making them more likely to marry outside of their
Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.
This issue of the IRCD Bulletin is devoted to commentaries on an article by Arthur R. Jensen on the nature-nurture controversy in a recent number of "Harvard Educational Review." Contents of the Bulletin are comprised of the following: "Education, Ethnicity, Genetics and Intelligence; Jensenism: Another Excuse for Failure to Educate" (Edmund W.…
Shields, Jennifer; Konold, Timothy R.; Glutting, Joseph J.
This study investigated the differential validity of the Wide Range Intelligence Test, which is a new, brief measure of ability. Participants (N = 744) ranged in age from 5 through 85 years (M = 26.7 years, SD = 21.4 years) and varied by the demographic variables of gender, race/ethnicity (Anglo, African American, Hispanic), and education level…
Tan, Ying Ying
This study seeks to answer two research questions. First, can listeners distinguish the ethnicity of the speakers on the basis of voice quality alone? Second, do demographic differences among the listeners affect discriminability? A simple but carefully designed and controlled ethnic identification test was carried out on 325 Singaporean…
Booth, B M; Blow, F C; Cook, C A; Bunn, J Y; Fortney, J C
Little is known about the broad-scale demographic characteristics of low income or indigent alcoholics in public hospital systems. The purpose of the study was to examine issues relative to age, race/ethnicity, and marital status for a large group (n = 62,829) of alcoholic men receiving inpatient care in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers nationally. Subjects were VA inpatients completing alcoholism treatment (n = 27,562), in brief alcohol detoxification or short intervention (n = 9,322), or hospitalized for primary diagnoses other than alcoholism but with a secondary diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome (n = 25,945). Minority alcoholics were significantly younger than Caucasian alcoholics. Hispanic and African-American men, as well as older alcoholics, were significantly less likely to complete treatment or attend detoxification and more likely to be hospitalized for other primary diagnoses. Native Americans, however, were most likely to complete alcoholism treatment. Results suggest that members of some minority groups and elderly alcoholics seek inpatient care for diagnoses other than alcoholism and that, as a result, such individuals may need targeted interventions to encourage them to seek alcohol-specific care. PMID:1335219
MADHAVI BAJEKAL; DAVID BLANE; INI GREWAL; SAFFRON KARLSEN; JAMES NAZROO
This article sets out to examine ethnic differences in the key influences on quality of life for older people in the context of the increasing health and wealth of British older people generally and the ageing of the post-1945 migrants. It is based on secondary multivariate analysis of the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities of England and Wales. Respondents
Nitardy, Charlotte M; Duke, Naomi N; Pettingell, Sandra L; Borowsky, Iris W
Educational achievement and attainment are associated with health outcomes across the entire life span. The objective of this study was to determine whether racial/ethnic disparities in academic achievement and educational aspirations have changed over time. The study used data from the Minnesota Student Survey (MSS) from 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010. The MSS is administered to adolescents in public secondary schools, charter schools, and tribal schools. Measures of academic achievement and educational aspirations were examined by race/ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure. Chi square tests evaluated differences in the above proportions. The analytic sample included 351,510 adolescents (1998, N = 67,239; 2001, N = 69,177; 2004, N = 71,084; 2007, N = 72,312; and 2010, N = 71,698). Study participants ranged in age from 13 to 19 years (mean = 15.9, SD = 1.6). Most were white (81.7 %), followed by 5.4 % Asian American/Pacific Islander, 4.3 % Black/African American, 2.7 % Hispanic/Latino, 1 % American Indian, and 4.9 % mixed race. Results showed that academic achievement fluctuated amongst all the racial/ethnic groups, but there were significant race/ethnic disparities at every time point. Overall, academic aspirations increased over time among the adolescents. Poverty was associated with poorer academic indicators for white youth, but not consistently for other racial/ethnic groups of youth. Family structure, however, was significantly associated with the educational indicators across all racial and ethnic groups. Despite many efforts to improve educational outcomes, there remain significant disparities in educational achievement and aspirations related to race-ethnicity and social status. Findings have implications for efforts to improve adolescent health at both individual and community levels. PMID:24748215
KewalRamani, Angelina; Gilbertson, Lauren; Fox, Mary Ann; Provasnik, Stephen
"Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" examines the educational progress and challenges that racial and ethnic minorities face in the United States. This report shows that over time larger numbers of minorities have completed high school and continued their education in college. Despite these gains, progress has…
Raman, Santhiram R.; Sua, Tan Yao
Ethnic segregation has become an emerging feature in Malaysia's education system even though the institutional role of education should have been a unifying force for the country's multi-ethnic society. The underlying problem is that, at all levels of education provision in Malaysia, alternative streams are allowed to coexist alongside mainstream…
Lam, Amy G; Barnhart, James E
To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women across four California universities indicated significant effects of partner ethnicity and age on condom negotiation strategies. Asian women with non-Asian partners were more likely to use nonverbal-direct strategies than those with Asian partners. Asian women with older partners were less likely to use verbal strategies (verbal-direct, verbal-indirect) than those with same-age partners. This study suggests that Asian women's safer sex communication varies by partner characteristics. Obtaining information such as partner ethnicity and age can help health educators provide more culturally appropriate sexual communication skills to clients. PMID:16539577
This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible…
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.
The primary purpose of this survey was to identify the numbers of students in the teacher education pipeline by race and ethnicity. It provides a means of assessing the need for teachers of color at the K-12 level; the potential pool of minority teachers in the postsecondary sector; and prospects for beginning teachers in schools, colleges, and…
Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)
Zvi Bekerman; Ayala Habib; Nader Shhadi
This paper reports on a second round of interviews conducted with students in an integrated bilingual (Arabic–Hebrew) Palestinian–Jewish school and with similar-age students in standard monolingual schools in Israel. Our research looks at the potential influence of integrated bilingual education on national and\\/or ethnic identities and perceptions of intergroup relations and conflict. The interviews demonstrate the children's perceptions of ethnic
Lee, MaryJo Benton
Eight percent of the population of the People's Republic of China is comprised of ethnic minority people, people with cultures (particularly languages and religions) that are distinct from the majority (or Han) Chinese. Ethnic students in China and elsewhere face considerable obstacles to getting a good education. A tiny percentage of Chinese…
Hussain, Javed G.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Matlay, Harry
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly competitive UK economy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a complex conceptual model of ethnic minority graduates' economic activities and outlines the possible…
Parks, Amy Noelle; Schmeichel, Mardi
This Research Commentary builds on a 2-stage literature review to argue that there are 4 obstacles to making a sociopolitical turn in mathematics education that would allow researchers to talk about race and ethnicity in ways that take both identity and power seriously: (a) the marginalization of discussions of race and ethnicity; (b) the…
Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas
This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has…
Torres, Luis R.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.; Woods, Carol; Unick, G. Jay
This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria based on gender, race/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital status. Compared to the reference groups (i.e., Male, Caucasian, and ages 25–59 years), women (OR = 0.62; P < .001) and Asian Americans (OR = 0.33; P < .001) were less likely to endorse preoccupation (Criterion 1). Women were more likely to endorse gambling to escape (Criterion 5) (OR = 2.22; P < .001) but young adults (OR = 0.62; P < .05) were less likely to endorse it. African Americans (OR = 2.50; P < .001) and Hispanics were more likely to endorse trying to cut back (Criterion 3) (OR = 2.01; P < .01). African Americans were more likely to endorse the suffering losses (OR = 2.27; P < .01) criterion. Young adults were more likely to endorse chasing losses (Criterion 9) (OR = 1.81; P < .01) while older adults were less likely to endorse this criterion (OR = 0.76; P < .05). Further research is needed to identify factors contributing to DIF, address criteria level bias, and examine differential test functioning. PMID:20623329
Lee, Simon; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Lum, Sooky; Stocks, Janet; Bonner, Rachel; Naik, Mitesh; Fothergill, Helen; Wells, Jonathan C. K.
Background Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) has the potential to be used widely as a method of assessing body fatness and composition, both in clinical and community settings. BIA provides bioelectrical properties, such as whole-body impedance which ideally needs to be calibrated against a gold-standard method in order to provide accurate estimates of fat-free mass. UK studies in older children and adolescents have shown that, when used in multi-ethnic populations, calibration equations need to include ethnic-specific terms, but whether this holds true for younger children remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to examine ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years, and to establish the extent to which such differences could influence BIA calibration. Methods In a multi-ethnic population of 2171 London primary school-children (47% boys; 34% White, 29% Black African/Caribbean, 25% South Asian, 12% Other) detailed anthropometric measurements were performed and ethnic differences in body size and proportion were assessed. Ethnic differences in fat-free mass, derived by deuterium dilution, were further evaluated in a subsample of the population (n?=?698). Multiple linear regression models were used to calibrate BIA against deuterium dilution. Results In children <11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities. They also had larger waist and limb girths and relatively longer legs. Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass?=?1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance)+0.18*weight). Conclusion Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required. PMID:25478928
Gray, Walter W.
Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…
Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan
The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.
Howard, Jeffrey T; Sparks, P Johnelle
This study expands on earlier findings of racial/ethnic and education-allostatic load associations by assessing whether racial/ethnic differences in allostatic load persist across all levels of educational attainment. This study used data from four recent waves of the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES). Results from this study suggest that allostatic load differs significantly by race/ethnicity and educational attainment overall, but that the race/ethnicity association is not consistent across education level. Analysis of interactions and education-stratified models suggest that allostatic load levels do not differ by race/ethnicity for individuals with low education; rather, the largest allostatic load differentials for Mexican Americans (p < .01) and non-Hispanic blacks (p < .001) are observed for individuals with a college degree or more. These findings add to the growing evidence that differences in socioeconomic opportunities by race/ethnicity are likely a consequence of differential returns to education, which contribute to higher stress burdens among minorities compared to non-Hispanic whites. PMID:25879260
Hanna, Mary T.
Methods for teaching college students studying public administration about the cultures, values, and politics of major ethnic groups were studied. Several activities were undertaken. In one, graduate students at the State University of New York at Binghamton participated in two courses specifically focusing on ethnic cultures, entitled American…
Stephen K. Van Den Eeden; Caroline M. Tanner; Allan L. Bernstein; Robin D. Fross; Amethyst Leimpeter; Daniel A. Bloch; Lorene M. Nelson
The goal of this study was to estimate the incidence of Parkinson's disease by age, gender, and ethnicity. Newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease cases in 1994-1995 were identified among members of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California, a large health maintenance organization. Each case met modified standardized criteria\\/Hughes diagnostic criteria as applied by a movement disorder specialist. Incidence
This study examines students' attitudes toward singing and choir participation related to gender, age, and ethnic background. It also looks at attitudes toward recordings from basal music series that are designed to provide an appropriate model and to encourage singing. Participants (N = 249) were third to fifth graders enrolled in two public…
Ke, Fengfeng; Kwak, Dean
This mixed-method study examined whether online learning interaction participation, perception, and learning satisfaction would be consistent across varied age and ethnicity groups. Data were collected from students enrolled in 28 online courses via content analysis with online interaction transcripts, structural equation modeling with the…
Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.
The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…
"Brown v. Board of Education" was focused on eliminating racial stigma and creating greater racial equity in education. Unfortunately, racial and ethnic stigma is still a powerful force in educational institutions of all kind. In this manuscript, I review the ways that stigma impedes academic performance, shapes the classroom climate and…
National Academies Press, 2014
"Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education" is the summary of a workshop held in September 2013 to take a fresh look at the impediments to greater diversification in engineering education. The workshop brought together educators in engineering from two- and four-year colleges and staff members from the three…
Rai, Kul B.; Critzer, John W.
This book examines the impact of affirmative action on higher education hiring practices. Using data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics, the book summarizes, tracks, and evaluates changes in the gender and ethnic makeup of academic and nonacademic…
Heikkilä, Katriina; Kelly, Yvonne; Renfrew, Mary J; Sacker, Amanda; Quigley, Maria A
Our aim was to investigate whether the duration of breastfeeding, at all or exclusively, is associated with educational achievement at age 5. We used data from a prospective, population-based UK cohort study, the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). 5489 children from White ethnic background born at term in 2000-2001, attending school in England in 2006, were included in our analyses. Educational achievement was measured using the Foundation Stage Profile (FSP), a statutory assessment undertaken by teachers at the end of the child's first school year. Breastfeeding duration was ascertained from interviews with the mother when the child was 9 months old. We used modified Poisson's regression to model the association of breastfeeding duration with having reached a good level of achievement overall (?78 overall points and ?6 in 'personal, social and emotional development' and 'communication, language and literacy' points) and in specific areas (?6 points) of development. Children who had been breastfed for up to 2 months were more likely to have reached a good level of overall achievement [adjusted rate ratio (RR): 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.19] than never breastfed children. This association was more marked in children breastfed for 2-4 months (adjusted RR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.29) and in those breastfed for longer than 4 months (adjusted RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.26). The associations of exclusive breastfeeding with the educational achievement were similar. Our findings suggest that longer duration of breastfeeding, at all or exclusively, is associated with better educational achievement at age 5. PMID:22462489
Education is moving into the digital age. Pedagogies have changed to engage the latest digital technologies. The methods of distribution are now a blend between face-to-face and some other combination of virtual interfaces. The content is moving from traditional text-based learning to text-plus-multimedia. The community is now involved in the…
Krach, S. Kathleen; Ochoa, Salvador Hector; Palmer, Douglas J.
The authors of this study discuss past research, litigation, and legislation pertaining to the topic of parental involvement in special education. In particular, the study examined parental perceptions of their roles as communicators and decision makers in the special education process in terms of ethnicity and child's educational level. Very few…
Kayongo-Male, Diane; Lee, Maryjo Benton
This article develops a theoretical model for examining the interrelationship between ethnic identity and educational outcomes. The model is aimed at developing an understanding of why ethnicity may at times make a difference in academic performance and student empowerment. Ethnic identity is conceptualized as a product of multiple levels of…
Ebong, Imo A.; Watson, Karol E.; Goff, David C.; Bluemke, David A.; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G.
Objective To evaluate associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before 45 years of age) and age at menopause with incident heart failure (HF) in post-menopausal women. We also explored associations of early, and age at menopause with left ventricular (LV) measures of structure and function in post-menopausal women. Methods We included 2947 post-menopausal women, aged 45-84 years, without known cardiovascular disease (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic study of Atherosclerosis. Cox-Proportional hazards models were used to examine associations of early, and age at menopause with incident HF. In 2123 post-menopausal women in whom cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was obtained at baseline, we explored associations of early, and age at menopause with LV measures using multivariable linear regression. Results Over a median follow-up of 8.5 years, we observed 71 HF events. There were no significant interactions with ethnicity for incident HF (Pinteraction>0.05). In adjusted analysis, early menopause was associated with increased risk of incident HF [1.66 (1.01-2.73)], while each year increase in age at menopause was associated with decreased risk of incident HF [0.96 (0.94-0.99)]. We observed significant interactions between early menopause and ethnicity for LV mass to volume ratio (LVMVR), Pinteraction=0.02. In Chinese-American women, early menopause was associated with higher LVMVR (+0.11, p=0.0002), while each year increase in age at menopause was associated with lower LVMVR (?0.004, p=0.04) at baseline. Conclusion An older menopausal age is independently associated with decreased risk of incident HF. Concentric LV remodelling, indicated by a higher LVMVR was present in Chinese-American women with early menopause at baseline. PMID:24423934
Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Terracciano, Antonio; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Patriciu, Nicholas S.; Nestadt, Gerald; McCrae, Robert R.; Eaton, William W.; Costa, Paul T.
We examined the influence of age, gender, Black vs. White ethnicity, and education on five indices of personality stability and change across an average interval of 8 years in the East Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. In the full sample (n = 505, aged 30-88), examination of structural, rank-order, ipsative, and mean level stability, as well as indices of reliable change suggested that NEO-PI-R personality traits showed moderate to high levels of stability over time. There were few age and gender effects on temporal stability but rank-order, ipsative, and mean level stability were lower among Blacks and individuals with lower education. Future research should explore additional demographic predictors of temporal plasticity in a diverse range of samples, and employ observer ratings to assess personality. PMID:19122849
Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.
In this article we focus on answering the question "Is there equal access to different types of higher education institutions (HEIs) for ethnic minority (EM) students in Yunnan Province (China), and what explanation might be found for any differences?" In order to answer this question, we rely on the education attainment theory, and a sample of…
Cok, Lucija; Pertot, Susanna
The paper focuses on education language policy in Slovene Istria and of Slovenia in Italy. On both sides of the Slovene-Italian border there is an ethnically mixed population of Italians and Slovenes, an Italian minority in Slovenia, and a Slovene minority in Italy. On both sides of the border apparently similar systems of bilingual education have…
IC McManus; Katherine Woolf; Jane Dacre
BACKGROUND: UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W) and non-white (NW) students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011
Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino,…
Rojewski, Jay W.; Xing, Xue
This study examined how researchers of career-technical education have treated the construct of race/ethnicity in recent studies. Fifty-one of 71 articles published in the Career and Technical Education Research (CTER) over a 7-year span (2005-2011) were included. A content analysis found that only one quarter (n = 13, 25.49%) of eligible studies…
Brown, Graham K.
This paper examines the politics and practice of education in Malaysia within the context of ethnicity and nation building. Public education in Malaysia--particularly, but not exclusively, at the pre-university level--is promoted as a nation-building tool, seeking to inculcate a sense of Malaysian-ness and patriotism. Simultaneously, however,…
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006
Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008
Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino,…
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010
Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education". The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009
Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education". The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2005
Representative parity of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education. The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007
Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…
Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2004
Creation of a Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education was among the original statutory mandates assigned to the Board of Governors of Higher Education by its 1982 enabling legislation. The purpose of the plan is to "ensure that students, faculty, administrators and staff at each public…
Connecticut State Dept. of Higher Education, Hartford.
This report describes progress made on Connecticut's strategic plan to ensure racial and ethnic diversity in higher education. The public colleges and universities of Connecticut continue to make incremental, year-to-year progress toward achieving the diversity goals established by the state's Board of Governors for Higher Education in its…
In Canada, the traditional purpose of compulsory, free schooling was to mold ethnic immigrants, enlightening them about the dominant Anglo society. This philosophy continued through the mid-1960s when Canadian immigration was opened to developing nations. At the same time, a change in national perception emphasized the multicultural nature of…
Market reform, financial decentralization, and economic globalization in recent years have greatly accentuated China's social and regional inequalities. These inequalities stem from many factors, including the rise of an urban middle class, a change in the status of women, a resurgence of ethnic identities, an increase in rural-to-urban migration,…
Ciampa, Bartholomew J.
Many credible sources refer to the various immigrant groups in a derogatory manner. Negative citations can be categorized in numerous ways. They might arise as a result of the geographic origin of the ethnic group; attraction to a particular occupation class; peculiarity of custom; religious or political affiliation; rate of delinquency, crime, or…
Harry Anthony Patrinos
Most of the research on ethnicity in Central America looks at two groups: indigenous and nonindigenous populations. While indigenous people are disadvantaged relative to the nonindigenous group, the many groups that make up the indigenous population are often times not very similar in terms of personal and group characteristics. But the differences within these groups are important for public policy.
Meeta BanerjeeZaje; Zaje A. T. Harrell; Deborah J. Johnson
Racial\\/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement\\u000a in education and its relationship to children’s cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial\\/ethnic socialization\\u000a and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of African American youth. Two dimensions\\u000a of racial\\/ethnic socialization, cultural exposure (i.e.,
Bollmer, Julie; Bethel, James; Garrison-Mogren, Roberta; Brauen, Marsha
The issue of the disproportionate identification and placement of racial/ethnic minorities in special education has been investigated extensively. One of the most useful tools in this research is the risk ratio, which compares one racial/ethnic group's risk of receiving special education and related services to that of all other students. The risk…
This study explores associations between scores on the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA), parent education level, and race/ethnicity in a normative sample of 450 children. Small but significant associations were found between parent education level and the RSCA Sense of Relatedness Scale score. Race/ethnicity did not contribute…
Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)
This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.
Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.
The level of development of higher education (HE) is an important indicator to measure the development of the social economy and the civilization of a region or country. In this article, we compare the distribution of the freshmen of ethnic minorities (EMs) with the distribution of EMs over the population, based on a sample of 1 464 freshmen from…
Jensen, Joan M.
From its inception in 1914 until 1940, the New Mexico Agricultural Extension Service was quite successful in delivering educational programs to non-English speaking, Hispanic women in Santa Fe County and almost totally unsuccessful in Dona Ana County. Criteria for success were involvement of ethnic women in the program, ability to adapt national…
Strand, Steve; Lindsay, Geoff
Differences in the proportions of students identified as having special educational needs (SENs) across ethnic groups have historically been of concern in the United Kingdom and the United States. However, the absence of student-level data has hindered investigation of the reasons for such disproportionality. The authors present an analysis of the…
Museus, Samuel D.; Palmer, Robert T.; Davis, Ryan J.; Maramba, Dina C.
This monograph provides educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners with an overview of existing knowledge regarding factors that influence success among racial and ethnic minority students in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) circuit. To accomplish this task, the authors reviewed more than four hundred…
Argues that citizenship education in Laos' national curriculum is contradictory and problematic. Notes that this curriculum excludes the rights or practice of ethnic minority cultures and languages. Discusses implications for girls and minority groups participation in the wider society. Asks general questions about implications for gender and…
Glick, Jennifer E.; Ruf, Stacey D.; White, Michael J.; Goldscheider, Frances K.
This paper examines how school engagement influences the timing of family formation for youth. We pay particular attention to variation across four racial/ethnic groups and by generation status, variation that reflects the diversification of U.S. society through immigration. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), we…
Helmberger, Janet L.
This study focuses on the research literature available in the United States on the evolution of language policy and planning issues involved in bilingual education programs in Mayan communities in Guatemala. I begin with general comments regarding language policy and planning for bilingual programs for ethnic groups within the borders of…
Niu, Sunny X.
Using the College Board SAT registration and questionnaire data of 2010 high school graduating seniors, we found clear patterns by race/ethnicity and parental education on two outcomes: out-of-state score-sending and out-of-state college attendance. White students had the highest rates and Hispanic students had the lowest rates, and there was a…
Huff, Toby E.
While the Portuguese community, the largest ethnic group in southeastern Massachusetts, has contributed significantly to cultural life in New England, their participation in the region's educational and worklife has been minimal. This monograph examines the relationship between the socio-economic patterns that have emerged in southeastern…
Munene, Ishmael I.
In East Africa, no other country has witnessed as great a surge in university institutions as Kenya. The intent of this paper is to explore the persistence of the ethnic configurations in the surge of higher education in Kenya, within the context of the country's history. Outlining the major flashpoints in the country's history will be…
Coleman, L.; Testa, A.
This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…
We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and prospectively through 2003 to measure the number of years of
English Language Resource Center, Washington, DC.
The purpose of this guide is to provide background information on the ethnic Chinese refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos that will be of interest and use to educators working with these refugees. The guide consists of four sections: (1) a brief history of the Chinese communities in Southeast Asia; (2) a more detailed discussion of the…
The purpose of this study was to gather teacher and student perceptions of the educational benefits that emerge from providing diverse learning environments for students attending an inter-district magnet school. Research Questions were (1) In what ways do teachers and students report that the magnet school offers an ethnically diverse learning…
Agadjanian, Victor; Peng Liew, Hui
In this study we use the second wave of the Malaysian family life survey conducted in 1988-1989 to examine the effects of the national economic policy (NEP) instituted by the Malaysian government in 1971 to promote educational opportunities of hitherto disadvantaged ethnic Malays. The analysis focuses on the probability of entering post-secondary…
Snyder, Jan David
Science is traditionally a white-male dominated field. This trend has foundations in beliefs and practices accepted before the Enlightenment period. Sixteenth and seventeenth century writers further promoted perceptions that women lacked intellectual capacity to indulge in science. A similar viewpoint was applied to non-white ethnic groups during the 19th and 20th centuries. Questions over Eurocentric and androcentric aspects of science were first raised publicly in 1869, yet significant change in the proportions of women and minorities in science-related fields remains disproportionately low. Public awareness of this situation extends to education where students demonstrate beliefs that opportunities in science are primarily for white males. This commonly shared belief typically produces negative effects on success rates in science education for females and minorities. The purpose of this study was to determine if gender-by-ethnic factors are culturally specific. Do members of one gender/ethnic subgroup experience deterrents to success in science education not common in other ethnic groups? Contrariwise, are negative factors shared across ethnic groups? An effort is made to identify potential gender/ethnic-related barriers that serve to reduce success rates and potentially generate negative attitudes for students about science. A 74-item Likert scale was developed to reveal students' perceptions of issues relative to science education. This instrument was administered to 30 female and 30 male high school students in each of four ethnic groups (African American, Mexican American, American Indian, and Euro American) from public or tribal schools in a large southwestern (United States) urban community. Randomly selected participants from each subgroup were then interviewed to expound upon relevant issues. A reoccurring pattern of reduced interest and experiences in science activities was noted among male American Indians. These participants most often differed with one or more of the other gender/ethnic subgroups in expectations and opportunities for academic success. Most students anticipated support from parents and educators if they were to choose a science related career; however, few expected like consideration from peers. Historical and current issues of cultural relevance are considered as potential sources for outcome patterns noted from the study. Possible areas for future studies are offered.
Smith, Karla J.
Discusses minority language education in Malaysia, a multilingual and multicultural country. Looks at four language minority groups and what they have done to to provide beginning education programs for their children that use the children's native languages. (Author/VWL)
Wilson, Erin C.; Chen, Yea-Hung; Arayasirikul, Sean; Fisher, Marla; Pomart, W. Andres; Le, Victory; Raymond, H. Fisher; McFarland, Willi
Introduction One of the biggest threats to the health of trans*females is HIV, particularly for those who are part of racial/minority groups. Yet health disparities for racial/ethnic minority trans*female youth remain understudied. Methods We examined baseline data from 282 trans*female youth ages 16–24 years old in the San Francisco Bay Area. We conducted Chi-squared tests for distributional differences between racial/ethnic minority and white participants in socio-demographic factors, HIV-related risk behaviors and syndemic factors. Results A total of 4.8% of trans*female youth were HIV positive. Racial/ethnic minority and white trans*female youth differed significantly in their gender identities and sexual orientations. Racial/minority youth also had significantly lower educational attainment, were less likely to live with their parents of origin as a child, and were significantly more likely to engage in recent condomless anal intercourse compared to whites. Conclusions Important disparities in HIV-related sexual risk behavior, education, and residential stability exist between racial/ethnic minority and white trans*female youth. Efforts to assess the impact of multiple minority stress for racial/minority trans*female youth are imminently needed. Additionally, macro-level disparities must be addressed in prevention efforts for trans*female youth, especially for those from racial/ethnic minority groups, in order to prevent incident cases of HIV and reduce disparities. PMID:25905826
Wing, Deborah A.
Objective. To characterize trends in chorioamnionitis (CAM) by maternal race/ethnicity and gestational age. Study Design. We examined trends in CAM from 1995–2010 among singleton births in all Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals (n = 471,821). Data were extracted from Perinatal Service System and clinical utilization records. Gestational age- and race/ethnicity-specific biannual diagnosis rates were estimated using the Poisson regression after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results. Overall diagnosis rates of CAM increased from 2.7% in 1995-1996 to 6.0% in 2009-2010 with a relative increase of 126% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 113%–149%). From 1995-1996 to 2009-2010, CAM increased among the Whites (1.8% to 4.3%, P-value for trend <.001), Blacks (2.2% to 3.7%, P-value for trend <.001), Hispanics (2.4% to 5.8%, P-value for trend <.001), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (3.6% to 9.0%, P-value for trend <.001). The adjusted relative percentage change in CAM from 1995-1996 to 2009-2010 was for Whites [preterm 21% (9%–78%), term 138% (108%–173%)], for Blacks [preterm 24% (?9%–81%), term 62% (30%–101%)], for Hispanics [preterm 31% (3%–66%), term 135% (114%–159%)], and for Asian/Pacific Islanders [preterm 44% (9%–127%), term 145% (109%–188%)]. Conclusion. The findings suggest that CAM diagnosis rate has increased for all race/ethnic groups. This increase is primarily due to increased diagnosis at term gestation. PMID:25815375
Peguero, Anthony A
Without a doubt, exposure to violence and victimization can be profoundly detrimental to the overall well-being and development of all youth. Moreover, violence and victimization that occurs within a school context is particularly alarming because a successful educational process is essential toward establishing socioeconomic success later in life. The educational consequence of exposure to violence and victimization at school is uncertain for racial and ethnic minority students. This study utilizes data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 and incorporates multilevel modeling techniques to examine the impact of violence and victimization at school on dropping out. The results indicate Black/African Americans and Latino American students who are victimized at school are at higher risk of dropping out. The implications of the evident racial and ethnic disparities in the relationship between victimization and dropping out within the U.S. school system are discussed. PMID:22170457
Saluja, Gitanjali; Brenner, Ruth A.; Trumble, Ann C.; Smith, Gordon S.; Schroeder, Tom; Cox, Christopher
Objective. We examined circumstances surrounding swimming pool drownings among US residents aged 5 to 24 years to understand why Black males and other racial/ethnic groups have high drowning rates. Methods. We obtained data about drowning deaths in the United States (1995–1998) from death certificates, medical examiner reports, and newspaper clippings collected by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Results. During the study period, 678 US residents aged 5 to 24 years drowned in pools. Seventy-five percent were male, 47% were Black, 33% were White, and 12% were Hispanic. Drowning rates were highest among Black males, and this increased risk persisted after we controlled for income. The majority of Black victims (51%) drowned in public pools, the majority of White victims (55%) drowned in residential pools, and the majority of Hispanic victims (35%) drowned in neighborhood pools (e.g., an apartment complex pool). Foreign-born males also had an increased risk for drowning compared with American-born males. Conclusions. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce the incidence of swimming pool drownings across racial/ethnic groups, particularly adult supervision at public pools. PMID:16507730
Jackson, Michelle; Jonsson, Jan O.; Rudolphi, Frida
The authors ask whether choice-driven education systems, with comprehensive schools and mass education at the secondary and tertiary level, represented in this article by England and Sweden, provide educational opportunities for ethnic minorities. In studying educational attainment, the authors make a theoretical distinction between mechanisms…
Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent
Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Intergroup Relations.
This document discusses the ethnic imbalance and intergroup relations problems in a California school district with a high proportion of Spanish surname pupils and some Negro American Indian, and other nonwhite students. Prepared for the Colton districtBoard of Education, the report presents data on racial and ethnic distribution in the various…
de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.
Background To examine ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk profile in early age, and explore whether such differences can be explained by differences in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Method Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and (in a subsample) fasting blood were collected during a health check of 2,509 children aged 5–6 years. Four ethnic groups were distinguished: Dutch (n?=?2,008; blood n?=?1,300), African descent (n?=?199; blood n?=?105), Turkish (n?=?108; blood n?=?57) and Moroccan (n?=?194; blood n?=?94). Ethnic differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP/SBP), fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride levels were determined and the explanatory role of BMI and WC was examined with regression analysis. Results After adjustment for confounders, African descent children showed higher DBP (?2.22 mmHg; 95%CI:1.09–3.36) and HDL levels (?:0.09 mmol/l; 95%CI:0.03–0.16) compared to Dutch children (reference group). Turkish children showed higher SBP (?:1.89 mmHg; 95%CI:0.25–3.54), DBP (?:2.62 mmHg; 95%CI:1.11–4.13), glucose (?:0.12 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.00–0.25) and triglyceride levels (?:0.13 mmol/L; 95%CI:0.02–0.25). Higher BMI values were found in all non–Dutch groups (differences ranged from 0.53–1.03 kg/m2) and higher WC in Turkish (?:1.68 cm; 95%CI:0.99–2.38) and Moroccan (?:1.65 cm; 95%CI:1.11–2.19) children. BMI and WC partly explained the higher SBP/DBP and triglyceride levels in Turkish children. Conclusion Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic profile exist early in life and are partly explained by differences in BMI and WC. African children showed favourable HDL levels and Turkish children the most unfavourable overall profile, whereas their Moroccan peers have less increased cardiometabolic risk in spite of their high BMI and WC. PMID:22916294
Craig, Amaranta D.; Dehlendorf, Christine; Borrero, Sonya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rocca, Corinne H.
Background Half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, with the highest proportions occurring among Blacks, Hispanics, and teenagers. Understanding differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraception by race/ethnicity and age can improve efforts to reduce disparities in unintended pregnancy. Methods This analysis used data from the 897 female respondents in National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge, a survey exploring young adults' knowledge and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess racial/ethnic and age group differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraceptives. Findings Hispanics and teenagers (aged 18–19) had lower awareness of available contraceptive methods, and lower knowledge about individual methods compared with White women and young adults (age 20–29). For example, Hispanics (74%) and teenagers (77%) were less likely to have heard of the intrauterine device (IUD) than were White women (90%) and young adults (90%), and were less likely to know that a woman experiencing side effects could switch brands of oral contraceptive pills (72% of Hispanics vs. 86% of White women; 76% of teenagers vs. 90% of young adults). Hispanics born outside the United States had lower knowledge about contraceptives than U.S.-born Hispanics. For example, foreign-born Hispanics were less likely than U.S.-born Hispanics to have heard of the IUD (59% vs. 82%) or the vaginal ring (55% vs. 95%). Conclusions Lower contraceptive knowledge among teenagers and Hispanics, particularly immigrants, suggests the importance of disseminating family planning information to these women as one means to address disparities in unintended pregnancy. PMID:24725755
Esther S. Chang; Jutta Heckhausen; Ellen Greenberger; Chuansheng Chen
This study proposed and confirmed three ways in which college students can perceive shared agency and two ways in which they can perceive non-shared agency with parents when pursuing educational goals in college. Differences and similarities were examined among participants\\u000a from four ethnic backgrounds (N = 515; 67% female): East Asian American, Southeast Asian American, Filipino\\/Pacific Islander American, and European American.\\u000a Results
Christopher Spera; Kathryn R. Wentzel; Holly C. Matto
This study examined parental aspirations for their children’s educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American,\\u000a Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children’s academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality\\u000a and climate of their children’s school with a sample of 13,577 middle and high school parents. All parents had relatively\\u000a high educational aspirations for their children, and within each ethnic
Dong, Yunchuan; Zhang, Jianxin
Based on a survey of students from different social strata, different family backgrounds and different levels of access to higher education in 10 higher education institutions (HEIs) in Yunnan, an ethnic minority (EM) province, this essay tries to find out the discrepancy in the enrollment opportunity of higher education for children from…
Alva, Soumya; Murrugarra, Edmundo; Paci, Pierella
This paper examines the impact of ethnic segmentation in education on educational outcomes. Between 1991 and the late 1990s, the Albanian Kosovar population received education services in an informal system parallel to the official one. Using the 2000 Kosovo Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS) data, this paper exploits cohort differences in…
Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj
This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…
Lewis, Merrilee R.; And Others
A study was conducted in fall 1985 to determine how well students at San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC) were prepared in reading, writing, and mathematics, comparing students by ethnicity, high school status, and age. SJDC uses the Comparative Guidance Placement (CGP) Tests to to assess all new students who do not have an Associate of Arts degree or…
The purpose of this research study was to quantitatively examine South Carolina high school instrumental music students' self-efficacy as measured by the Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE) instrument (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1993). The independent variables of age, experience, gender, ethnicity, and type of instrument played) were correlated with the…
Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.
The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…
Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla
Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…
Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…
Most would agree that education is a social good and necessity, yet serious inequities and inequalities remain in our educational system. The largest sources of support for public schools are the local school district and the state. The revenues they contribute come from property and sales taxes, both of which are regressive and inequitable. Our…
Sothilingam, Selvalingam; Malek, Rohan; Sundram, Murali; Hisham Bahadzor, Badrul; Ong, Teng Aik; Ng, Keng Lim; Sivalingam, Sivaprakasam; Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul
Objectives To study the baseline PSA profile and determine the factors influencing the PSA levels within a multiethnic Asian setting. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1054 men with no clinical evidence of prostate cancer, prostate surgery or 5?-reductase inhibitor treatment of known prostate conditions. The serum PSA concentration of each subject was assayed. Potential factors associated with PSA level including age, ethnicity, height, weight, family history of prostate cancer, lower urinary tract voiding symptoms (LUTS), prostate volume and digital rectal examination (DRE) were evaluated using univariable and multivariable analysis. Results There were 38 men (3.6%) found to have a PSA level above 4 ng/ml and 1016 (96.4%) with a healthy PSA (?4 ng/ml). The median PSA level of Malay, Chinese and Indian men was 1.00 ng/ml, 1.16 ng/ml and 0.83 ng/ml, respectively. Indians had a relatively lower median PSA level and prostate volume than Malays and Chinese, who shared a comparable median PSA value across all 10-years age groups. The PSA density was fairly similar amongst all ethnicities. Further analysis showed that ethnicity, weight and prostate volume were independent factors associated with age specific PSA level in the multivariable analysis (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings support the concept that the baseline PSA level varies between different ethnicities across all age groups. In addition to age and prostate volume, ethnicity may also need to be taken into account when investigating serum PSA concentrations in the multiethnic Asian population. PMID:25111507
Dympna Gallagher; Marjolein Visser; Dennis Sepulveda; Richard N. Pierson; Tamara Harris; Steven B. Heymsfield
This study tested the hypothesis that body mass index (BMI) is representative of body fatness independent of age, sex, and ethnicity. Between 1986 and 1992, the authors studied a total of 202 black and 504 white men and women who resided in or near New York City, were ages 20-94 years, and had BMIs of 18-35 kg\\/m2. Total body fat,
Mijal, Renée S.; Holzman, Claudia B.
The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long -lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half -life of the metal, reproductive age-exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20–44 who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n =1734–3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06–2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96–4.47) times those of non -Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non -Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. PMID:20400068
Ethnic identity has been commonly stereotyped in the gerontological literature as a disability for the elderly, placing them in so-called double jeopardy. However, new knowledge and changing attitudes in American society have resulted in a far more positive attitude toward the role of cultural pluralism. Ethnographic field research strongly suggests that ethnic affiliation can proffer the elderly a spectrum of psychological, social, and cultural resources not generally available to them in the larger society. For case managers with largely ethnic client populations, understanding the dynamics of ethnicity can enhance their ability to meet client needs successfully with resources from both within and outside the client's culture. PMID:8490556
Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Stapleton, Laura M.
This study investigated the contributions of maternal education and ethnicity to three dimensions of home-based parental involvement in young children's education and development: parental expectations about educational attainment, children's activities at home and outside the home, and family routines. Controlling for family background variables…
Welsh, Paul J.
Explored youth disaffection, focusing on K-12 schools in England and France. Data from student interviews, staff interviews, and classroom observations indicated that educational inclusion in the two countries was not meeting the educational needs of disaffected youth. Within the disaffected cohort, those from ethnic minorities were doubly…
Edwards, Patricia Thomas
The purpose of this research study was to investigate if there were differences in students' school climate perceptions based on the independent variables, which were measured on a nominal scale and included school diversity (highly, moderately, minimally), ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White, Other), educational category (general education, special…
Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.; Davis, Matthew J.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Vaquero, Juana; Thompson, Keisha V.; Saldivar, Isaac M.
This study investigated the influence of psychocultural variables (e.g., acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity) and personality characteristics in relation to educational expectations among 345 Latino middle school students in the U.S. Results from a path model indicate that 24.4% of the variance of educational expectations was accounted…
Gunsky, Frederic R.; And Others
As the result of field observation and a review of school data, this report presents the findings of a study of minority-group education and intergroup relations in the Vallejo Unified School District in California. It analyzes the racial and ethnic distribution o f students in the school district and describes the amount of equal educational…
Iliffe, Steve; Kessel, Anthony; Higginson, Irene J
Aim To examine fears about dying in an ethnically diverse population sample, and a more homogeneous population sample, aged 65 and over. Methods Personal interviews with people aged 65+ living at home responding to two Office for National Statistics Omnibus Surveys in Britain, and two Ethnibus Surveys of ethnically diverse populations in Britain. Results Ethnically diverse respondents were more likely than British population respondents to express fears about dying on all measures used. Respondents in both samples with better, compared with worse, quality of life had significantly reduced odds of having extreme fears of dying (ethnically diverse sample, OR 0.924 (95% CI 0.898 to 0.951); British population sample, OR 0.981 (95% CI 0.966 to 0.996); both p<0.001). In the latter sample only, older age was protective (OR 0.957; 95% CI 0.930 to 0.985; p<0.001), whereas in the Ethnibus sample, having a longstanding illness (OR 2.024; 95% CI 1.158 to 3.535; p<0.05) and having more relatives to help them (OR 1.134; 95% CI 1.010 to 1.274; p<0.05) increased fears about dying. Conclusions Enabling older people to express fears about dying is likely to be important when planning supportive end-of-life care. Practitioners should not assume that fears about dying are the same in different social groups, or that extensive family support is protective against such anxiety. Older people from ethnic minorities had more anxieties about dying than others, and were more likely to express fears the more extensive their family support. These findings have implications for commissioners and practitioners of primary and secondary care. PMID:20354041
Burdman, Geral Dene M.
This study of futurism is important to gerontology in order to bridge the gap between theory, policy statement, and actual practice in the field of aging. There is a need to prepare competent individuals for direct service, and to provide increased exposure to gerontology throughout the curriculum. (Author/LPG)
Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives are underrepresented in science and engineering fields. A comparison of race-ethnic differences at key transition points was undertaken to better inform education policy. National data on high school graduation, college enrollment, choice of major, college graduation, graduate school enrollment, and doctoral degrees were used to quantify the degree of underrepresentation at each level of education and the rate of transition to the next stage. Disparities are found at every level, and their impact is cumulative. For the most part, differences in graduation rates, rather than differential matriculation rates, make the largest contribution to the underrepresentation. The size, scope, and persistence of the disparities suggest that small-scale, narrowly targeted remediation will be insufficient. PMID:24006384
Patricia A. van den Berg; Jonathan Mond; Marla Eisenberg; Diann Ackard; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
PurposeThe present study examined whether the cross-sectional association between body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem varies across gender, age, body weight status, race\\/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). We also examined the association longitudinally.
Graney, Marshall J.; Hays, William C.
This paper reports on a survey of 424 persons aged 62 and over, who were interviewed in an area probability sample of Wichita, Kansas. A minority of interviewees expressed interest in pursuing higher education, particularly in a broad range of liberal arts courses. Implications for the future are presented. (Author)
Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Matto, Holly C.
This study examined parental aspirations for their children's educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children's academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality and climate of their children's school with a sample of 13,577 middle and high school parents. All…
Davis, Sheila P; Davis, Danyetta D
Current trends in higher education in the United States demand that nursing take stock of how it is prepared or being prepared to face challenges and issues impacting on its future. The intense effort made to attract students to pursue advanced training in science and engineering in the United States pales in comparison to the numbers of science and engineering majors produced yearly in international schools. As a result, more and more jobs are being outsourced to international markets. Could international outsourcing become a method of nursing education? Authors submit that to remain competitive, the nursing profession must attract a younger cohort of technologically savvy students and faculty reflective of the growing diverse population in the United States. Additionally, nursing programs in research universities face even more daunting challenges as it relates to mandates for funded research programs of educational units. This article offers suggestions and recommendations for nursing programs in higher education institutions on ways to attract and retain ethnic minorities and of how to harness the power of research to address burgeoning societal health challenges. PMID:22303646
Ethnic Heritage Studies Centers; Hearings Before the General Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-First Congress, Second Session on H.R. 14910.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.
This proposed amendment to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 would authorize the Commissioner of Education to make grants to public and private nonprofit educational agencies and organizations for establishment and operation of several Ethnic Heritage Studies Centers, reflecting readily identifiable ethnic groups represented in…
Byrd, W. Carson; Dika, Sandra L.; Ramlal, Letticia T.
As the United States becomes more racially and ethnically diverse and draws more students from across the globe, more representative data are needed to understand at-risk and underrepresented populations in higher education, particularly in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. The authors argue that the current…
Zhang, Donghui; Chen, Lipeng
In response to the recent heightened interethnic conflicts that were regarded as threatening national unity and stability, the Chinese government issued "ethnic solidarity education" as a top-down, centrally administered mandate to be implemented "correctly" and in a standardised way by schools throughout China. This paper…
The present essay discusses the value of citizenship as shared fate in sites of ethnic conflict and analyzes its implications for citizenship education in light of three issues: first, the requirements of affective relationality in the notion of citizenship-as-shared fate; second, the tensions between the values of human rights and shared fate in…
Volman, Monique; van Eck, Edith; Heemskerk, Irma; Kuiper, Els
This paper investigates the accessibility and attractiveness of different types of ICT applications in education for girls and boys and for pupils from families with an ethnic minority background and from the majority population in the Netherlands. A study was conducted in seven schools (primary and secondary). Data were collected on…
Mello, Zena R.
This longitudinal study examined the development of educational and occupational expectations from adolescence to adulthood in relation to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) group membership. Hierarchical linear modeling on national data (NELS:88) spanning 12 years yielded several findings: (a) African American participants reported the…
Meeuwisse, Marieke; Severiens, Sabine E.; Born, Marise Ph.
The present study explored possible differences in reasons for withdrawing from higher vocational education between ethnic minority and majority non-completers in the Netherlands. Tinto's model on the departure process was used as a theoretical framework. A total of 1017 non-completers filled in a questionnaire regarding their reasons for…
Demetrulias, Diana Mayer
Ethnic surnames were studied as a possible basis for stereotyped perceptions/expectations of 349 future teachers from the west and midwest. Subjects evaluated an excerpt from a book on multicultural education. Statistically significant differences were found for Asian and Hispanic surnames for subjects from the west but not from the midwest. (SLD)
Bush, Kenneth D., Ed.; Saltarelli, Diana, Ed.
This report challenges the widely held assumption that education is inevitably a force for good. While the provision of good quality education can be a stabilizing factor, the report shows how educational systems can be manipulated to drive a wedge between people. The report begins by describing the nature of today's armed conflicts, with…
Laura M. Stapleton
This study investigated the contributions of maternal education and ethnicity to three dimensions of home?based parental involvement in young children’s education and development: parental expectations about educational attainment, children’s activities at home and outside the home, and family routines. Controlling for family background variables such as family size and structure, household income, and neighbourhood safety, we examined these relations in
Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars
The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions. PMID:25037580
Brown, Elinor L., Ed.; Gibbons, Pamela E., Ed.
This volume of Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice takes a resource perspective toward culture, ethnicity, and race. Its purpose is to foster global dialog about race and ethnicity, with an emphasis on sharing strategies and solutions. While one might view problems stemming from racial and ethnic differences as intractable, the book's…
McManus, IC; Woolf, Katherine; Dacre, Jane
Background UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W) and non-white (NW) students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students. Methods Attainment at GCSE and A level, and selection for medical school in relation to ethnicity, were analysed in two separate databases. The 10th cohort of the Youth Cohort Study provided data on 13,698 students taking GCSEs in 1999 in England and Wales, and their subsequent progression to A level. UCAS provided data for 1,484,650 applicants applying for admission to UK universities and colleges in 2003, 2004 and 2005, of whom 52,557 applied to medical school, and 23,443 were accepted. Results NW students achieve lower grades at GCSE overall, although achievement at the highest grades was similar to that of W students. NW students have higher educational aspirations, being more likely to go on to take A levels, especially in science and particularly chemistry, despite relatively lower achievement at GCSE. As a result, NW students perform less well at A level than W students, and hence NW students applying to university also have lower A-level grades than W students, both generally, and for medical school applicants. NW medical school entrants have lower A level grades than W entrants, with an effect size of about -0.10. Conclusion The effect size for the difference between white and non-white medical school entrants is about B0.10, which would mean that for a typical medical school examination there might be about 5 NW failures for each 4 W failures. However, this effect can only explain a portion of the overall effect size found in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations of about -0.32. PMID:18416818
Briggs, Halaine-Sherin; And Others
The Academic Training in Aging for Florida Educators (ATAFE) Project is a federally-funded education program for beginning teachers, designed to promote more positive attitudes toward aging and older persons among youth through the inclusion of aging education in the preparation of elementary and secondary school teachers. ATAFE provides beginning…
Greenhalgh, Trisha; Collard, Anna; Begum, Noorjahan
Objective To develop and refine a complex intervention for diabetes support and education in minority ethnic groups, delivered through bilingual health advocates. Design Action research framework—a variety of methods used in an emergent and developmental manner, in partnership with clinicians, managers, and service users, drawing especially but not exclusively on narrative methods. Setting Deprived inner London district. Interventions Development and evaluation of three components of the complex intervention: a group based learning set for bilingual health advocates, in which stories about clients with diabetes formed the basis for action learning; advocate led support and education groups for people with diabetes, which used personal stories as the raw material for learning and action; organisational support to help to develop these new models and embed them within existing services. Results Both advocate groups and user groups were popular and well evaluated. Through storytelling, advocates identified and met their own educational needs in relation to diabetes and the unmet needs of service users. In the advocate led user groups, story fragments were exchanged in a seemingly chaotic way that the research team initially found difficult to facilitate or follow. Stories were not so much told as enacted and were often centred on discussion of “what to do.” Whereas some organisations welcomed, successfully implemented, and sustained the advocate led groups, others failed to do so. A key component of the complex intervention was organisational support. Conclusions An action research approach allowed engagement with an underserved group of health service staff and with hard to reach service users. The study produced subjective benefits to these groups locally as well as a worked-up complex intervention that will now be formally tested in a randomised controlled trial. PMID:15774990
de Jongh, B E; Mackley, A; Jain, N; Locke, R; Paul, D A
To study the association of advanced maternal age (AMA) and race/ethnicity on placental pathology in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. Retrospective analysis of placental pathology of inborn singleton VLBW infants from a regional level 3 NICU between July, 2002 and June, 2009. Subjects were stratified by age and race/ethnicity. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA, Chi Square and multivariable analyses. A total of 739 mother/infant dyads were included. AMA was associated with a decrease in placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers ?35 had a lower placental weight (p = 0.01) and lower placental weight/birth weight ratio (z-score, -0.45 ± 0.71 vs -0.04 ± 1.1, p = 0.01) compared to Black/Non-Hispanic mothers <35 years of age. After controlling for gestational age, race/ethnicity, maternal diabetes, maternal smoking, maternal hypertension and clinical chorioamnionitis, AMA, but not race/ethnicity, remained independently associated with placental weight/birthweight ratio z score (full model r(2) = 0.22, p < 0.01). In our study sample of VLBW infants, placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio were lower in mothers of advanced maternal age compared to mothers <35 years of age. Our data suggest that maternal age affects placentation in VLBW infants, which could influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25567078
John H. Stewart; Alain G. Bertoni; Jennifer L. Staten; Edward A. Levine; Cary P. Gross
Objective To characterize the representation of racial\\/ethnic minorities, women, and older persons among participants in surgical trials\\u000a sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The NCI Clinical Trial Cooperative Group surgical oncology trials database was queried for breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate\\u000a cancers treated during the period 2000–2002 (n=13,991). Data from the SEER program and the Census were used to estimate
Kiang, Lisa; Takeuchi, David T.
Objective Links between phenotypes (skin tone, physical features) and a range of outcomes (income, physical health, psychological distress) were examined. Ethnic identity was examined as a protective moderator of phenotypic bias. Method Data were from a community sample of 2,092 Filipino adults in San Francisco and Honolulu. Results After controlling for age, nativity, marital status, and education, darker skin was associated with lower income and lower physical health for females and males. For females, more ethnic features were associated with lower income. For males, darker skin was related to lower psychological distress. One interaction was found such that females with more ethnic features exhibited lower distress; however, ethnic identity moderated distress levels of those with less ethnic features. Conclusions Phenotypic bias appears prevalent in Filipino Americans though specific effects vary by gender and skin color versus physical features. Discussion centers on the social importance of appearance and potential strengths gained from ethnic identification. PMID:20107617
Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.
Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000 "Nikkeijin," or people of Japanese…
Malott, Krista M.
Using a qualitative approach, the author explored the process of ethnic label selection, change, and the meaning assigned to ethnic labels. Ten women of Mexican descent participated in semistructured, in-depth interviews. Phenomenological analysis of the data revealed several themes, including the importance of family, ancestral traditions, and…
This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…
Kucher, A N; Puzyrev, V P; Sanchat, N O; Erdynieva, L S
The ethnic, tribal, sex, and age composition was studied in populations of three districts of the Tuva Republic that were remote from one another. These were the Kyzylskii (the Shinaan population), Todzhinskii, and Bai-Taiginskii raions. The Todzhinskii population was characterized by a mixed ethnic composition dominated by Tuvinians and Russians (62.35 and 35.52%, respectively); the other two districts were only inhabited by Tuvinians. The studied populations differed from one another in the set and proportions of tribal groups--in the Todzhinskii raion, Turkic tribal groups were prevalent, whereas in the Shinaan and Bai-Taiginskii populations, many tribal groups of Mongolian origin were found. The estimations of relationship by isonymy indicated a considerable contribution of geographic isolation to the genetic differentiation of the populations: the estimated relationship between the highland Shinaan and Todzhinskii populations, which are difficult of access, was the minimum (Ri = 0.00262); the coefficients of the relationship by isonymy between the Shinaan and Bai-Taiginskii populations and between the Todzhinskii and Bai-Taiginskii populations were 0.00336 and 0.00483, respectively. All the studied populations were characterized by a "growing" age pyramid; however, the Bai-Taiginskii and Todzhinskii populations showed a tendency to narrowing its base. In addition, these two populations exhibited an unfavorable sex ratio at the reproductive age. The obtained results suggest that the Tuva population is genetically heterogeneous, which is accounted for by the tribal characteristics, the history of populations, and the geographic characteristics of the region. PMID:10495953
This article explores the challenge of education reform and presents an alternative to dominant approaches. In doing so, it draws on the work of three projects: first, the "Advancing Education Quality and Inclusion" initiative; second, the APREME (Advancing the Participation and Representation of Ethnic Minorities in Education) project which…
Ralph M. Reitan; Deborah Wolfson
Attribute variables of age and education were evaluated with relation to the General Neuropsychological Scale (GNDS), a comprehensive measure of neuropsychological functions. A brain-damaged group and a control group, each composed of 50 subjects, were studied. The GNDS clearly differentiated the two groups, and was significantly related to age and education among the controls. However, the effects of age and
Liang, Jersey; Plassman, Brenda L.; Remle, R. Corey; Luo, Xiao
Objectives This study examined edentulism trends among adults aged 50 and above in five ethnic groups in the United States: Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and non-Hispanic Caucasians. Methods Data came from the National Health Interview Surveys between 1999 and 2008. Respondents included 616 Native Americans, 2,666 Asians, 15,295 African Americans, 13,068 Hispanics, and 86,755 Caucasians. Results In 2008, Native Americans had the highest predicated rate of edentulism (23.98%), followed by African Americans (19.39%), Caucasians (16.90%), Asians (14.22%), and Hispanics (14.18%). Overall, there was a significant downward trend in edentulism rates between 1999 and 2008 (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.98). However, compared to Caucasians, Native Americans showed significantly less decline of edentulism during this period (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.19). Conclusions While there was a downward trend in edentulism between 1999 and 2008, significant variations existed across racial/ethnic groups. Innovative public health programs and services are essential to prevent oral health diseases and conditions for minority populations who are lack of access to adequate dental care. Additionally, given the increasing numbers of adults retaining their natural teeth, interventions designed to assist individuals maintaining healthy teeth becomes more critical. PMID:21974715
Troxel, Wendy M.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.
Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N=2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single-item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4-items from the Women’s Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women. PMID:19116797
Crawford, D C; Meadows, K L; Newman, J L; Taft, L F; Pettay, D L; Gold, L B; Hersey, S J; Hinkle, E F; Stanfield, M L; Holmgreen, P; Yeargin-Allsopp, M; Boyle, C; Sherman, S L
We conducted a large population-based survey of fragile X (FRAXA) syndrome in ethnically diverse metropolitan Atlanta. The eligible study population consisted of public school children, aged 7-10 years, in special education-needs (SEN) classes. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence among whites and, for the first time, African Americans, among a non-clinically referred population. At present, 5 males with FRAXA syndrome (4 whites and 1 African American), among 1,979 tested males, and no females, among 872 tested females, were identified. All males with FRAXA syndrome were mentally retarded and had been diagnosed previously. The prevalence for FRAXA syndrome was estimated to be 1/3,460 (confidence interval [CI] 1/7,143-1/1,742) for the general white male population and 1/4, 048 (CI 1/16,260-1/1,244) for the general African American male population. We also compared the frequency of intermediate and premutation FRAXA alleles (41-199 repeats) and fragile XE syndrome alleles (31-199 repeats) in the SEN population with that in a control population, to determine if there was a possible phenotype consequence of such high-repeat alleles, as has been reported previously. No difference was observed between our case and control populations, and no difference was observed between populations when the probands were grouped by a rough estimate of IQ based on class placement. These results suggest that there is no phenotype consequence of larger alleles that would cause carriers to be placed in an SEN class. PMID:9973286
Young adult participants are known to more accurately remember faces from both their own age- and ethnic groups. The present study examined combined effects of such own-age and own-race biases by asking young Caucasian participants to learn and remember elderly and young Caucasian as well as elderly and young Asian faces. Neural correlates were assessed by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral results indicated both an own-race bias for young but not elderly faces, and an own-age bias for Caucasian but not Asian faces. Importantly, no additional decrease in recognition memory for other-race/other-age faces was detected. An early parietal ERP old/new effect (300-500 ms) was most pronounced for young Caucasian "in-group" faces, while the old/new effect in a later time window (500-800 ms) was generally larger for own- as compared to other-race faces. In conclusion, these findings suggest at least partly different neural processes to accompany the own-race and own-age biases. PMID:22008365
Basit, Tehmina N.
This article examines the role of gender and ethnicity in young minority ethnic British citizens' transition to adulthood. As part of a larger study using a mixed methods approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young men and women aged 14-24 at different stages of education, employment and non-employment. By employing Bourdieu's…
Brown, Christia Spears
Latino and White/European American children (N = 99; 5-11 years of age) participated in a study designed to examine their perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in educational settings. Children heard scenarios involving two children of different races/ethnicities, one who received a more positive outcome from a teacher than the other.…
Discusses the overrepresentation of ethnic minority postsecondary students into the arts and humanities instead of science and technical coursework and its impact on employability. The factors that impact this trend are highlighted. (GR)
Wolf, Mary Louise; Whatley, Alice Elrod
Home economics teachers sensitive to aging can be effective agents in forming healthy attitudes toward the aged and aging; they will see the need for increased concern for the influence of housing on the aged. Housing will be seen as an arrangement promoting continuous education. (Author)
Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole
A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…
Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.
To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…
Dennis, Jeff A; Mollborn, Stefanie
This study considers how low birth weight (LBW) prevalence varies by race/ethnicity and maternal age and explores mechanisms that explain disparities. Results show that maternal age patterns in LBW risk for African Americans differ from whites and foreign- and U.S.-born Hispanics. Background socioeconomic disadvantage, together with current socioeconomic status and smoking during pregnancy, explain almost all of the LBW disparity between white teenage mothers and their older counterparts. These findings suggest that social disadvantage is a primary driver in unfavorable birth outcomes among white teenage mothers compared to older white mothers. Alternatively, background disadvantage and other social characteristics explain very little of the LBW disparities among African Americans and U.S.- and foreign-born Hispanics. Overall, these results indicate LBW disparities by maternal age are a complex product of socioeconomic disadvantage and current social and behavioral factors, such that LBW risk does not operate uniformly by race/ethnicity or maternal age. PMID:25328275
Katharine H. Hendrix; Jessica E. Riehle; Brent M. Egan
Conclusions: Demographic characteristics of hypertensive patients, especially younger age group, are associated with significant differenc- es in diagnostic testing, treatment, and control of hyperlipidemia in primary care. This pri- mary care information can be used to guide education and policy interventions to improve outcomes and reduce disparities. (Ethn Dis. 2005;15:11-16)
Tiffany Yip; Gilbert C. Gee; David T. Takeuchi
The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to
Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y; Milan, Stephanie
There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents' academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49 % Latino, 23 % White, 22 % Black, and 6 % other; 51 % female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in 5 years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844
Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y.; Milan, Stephanie
There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents’ academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49% Latino, 23% White, 22% Black, and 6% other; 51% female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in five years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844
In this study, a comparative–international approach is used to examine race–ethnic disparities in education–occupation mismatch status among immigrants. Using data from the USA and South Africa, this study finds that immigrants are most likely to be undereducated, or have less schooling for their jobs, when their racial characteristics are similar to those of the local racial majority. Black immigrants in South Africa and White immigrants in the USA are the most likely to be undereducated. Having racial characteristics similar to those of the local racial majority is associated with a lower likelihood of overeducation among immigrants. PMID:25018670
Social Science Education Consortium, Inc., Boulder, CO.
An instrument for analyzing ethnic studies curriculum materials for grades K-12 is presented. The Social Science Education Consortium (SSEC), Inc. staff designed the analysis instrument to check ethnic accuracy of materials as an aid to classroom teachers who are preparing ethnic studies curriculum. The booklet is divided into two main sections.…
Ross, C E; Wu, C L
The positive association between educational attainment and health is well established, but the way in which the education-based gap in health varies with age is not. Do the health advantages of high educational attainment and disadvantages of low educational attainment diverge or converge with age? The cumulative advantage perspective predicts a diverging SES gap in health with age, but past evidence does not allow us to accept or reject the hypothesis. We address this issue in two samples, cross-sectionally and over time, with three health measures. The first data set consists of a 1990 telephone interview of a national probability sample of U.S. households. There are 2,031 respondents, aged 18 to 90. The second is a national probability sample of U.S. households in which 2,436 respondents aged 20 to 64 were interviewed by telephone in 1979 and reinterviewed in 1980. We find that the gap in self-reported health, in physical functioning, and in physical well-being among people with high and low educational attainment increases with age. The health advantage of the well educated is larger in older age groups than in younger. Health advantages of high income and disadvantages of low income also diverge with age, but household income does not explain education's positive effect. PMID:8820314
Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.
This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…
White, C B
The role of age and education in adult moral reasoning was examined utilizing Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental stage theory of moral development and the most recent Standard Scoring System for assessing moral judgments. Individual interviews utilizing standard Kohlberg moral dilemmas were conducted with 195 adults ranging in age from nineteen to eight-two years and in years of education from three to twenty-five years. Results indicated no overall significant effect for age of reasoner, no significant effect for sex, and a significant effect for education (p less than .01). However, the effect of age was significant in the group with eighteen or more years of education, but not in the group with less than eighteen years of education. PMID:3246457
Ellison, Christopher G.; Burdette, Amy M.; Wilcox, W. Bradford
A substantial body of research has shown that relationship quality tends to be (a) lower among racial and ethnic minorities and (b) higher among more religious persons and among couples in which partners share common religious affiliations, practices, and beliefs. However, few studies have examined the interplay of race or ethnicity and religion…
Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.
Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…
By expanding Bourdieusian concepts of class ethos and "habitus" in the field of racial analysis, the article closely examines the shaping of a racial/ethnic ethos among a particular group of Chinese Americans. The findings suggest that the community ethos is affected both by a self-consciousness about the positioning of Chinese Americans in the…
Alrehaly, Essa D.
The purpose of this study was to explore the manner in which parents' attitudes toward science learning influences their children's attitudes and the effect of ethnicity on attitudes toward science learning. The results of this study show that parental attitudes toward science learning were influenced by both parents' early life experiences and…
Tim Lewis; John Lee; Prakash Ross; Jenny Dein; John Dawson; Sheffield LEA
An innovative interpretation of the Inequality Challenge for South Yorkshire Schools (ICSYS) project by Sheffield LEA has resulted in a partnership between the LEA, local schools and Sheffield Hallam University (SHU). The aim of the project is to provide black ethnic minority (BEM) pupils with a high quality Design and Technology (D&T) experience, which promotes career opportunities in the field
Inmaculada M. García-Sánchez
This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national\\/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the Arabic language to these younger generations of Moroccans, who have either already been born
Janmaat, Jan Germen; Mons, Nathalie
The literature on political socialization has overlooked the influence of system characteristics of schooling on civic values and youth political identities. This article addresses that gap by investigating the degree to which system differentiation relates to the values of ethnic tolerance and patriotism. We distinguish between pedagogical…
Connecticut State Board of Governors for Higher Education, Hartford.
This report describes progress made on Connecticut's strategic plan to ensure racial and ethnic diversity. Connecticut's public colleges and universities are becoming more diverse every year, and 2001 was no exception. The overall numbers of students, graduates, and professional employees from minority groups are higher than ever, although…
Connecticut State Board of Governors for Higher Education, Hartford.
This report describes progress made in the implementation of Connecticut's strategic plan to ensure racial and ethnic diversity. Connecticut's public colleges and universities are becoming more diverse each year, and 2002 continued that trend. Both the overall numbers and proportions of enrolled students, graduates, and professional employees from…
Carrier, Sarah J.; Thomson, Margareta M.; Tugurian, Linda P.; Stevenson, Kathryn Tate
In this article, we present a mixed-methods study of 2 schools' elementary science programs including outdoor instruction specific to each school's culture. We explore fifth-grade students in measures of science knowledge, environmental attitudes, and outdoor comfort levels including gender and ethnic differences. We further examine…
Ek, Lucila D.
Drawing from a multiyear ethnography and a longitudinal case study, this article examines how one Guatemalan American teenager negotiates the multiple socializations to ethnic and gender identities in her home, her Pentecostal church, and her high school. She must face processes of Americanization and Mexicanization. Americanization's thrust is to…
Martinez, Roger D.
This ethnic attitude test is designed to be a learning experience in which Colorado elementary and secondary teachers can share ideas, change attitudes if need be, clarify information, and/or reinforce what they knew to be true all along about the multicultural heritage of the state. Participants are asked to indicate the extent of their agreement…
Singer, Judith; Smith, Sally
To provide preservice teachers with opportunities for contact with people from racially and ethnically different backgrounds, one university initiated intercollegiate reader response groups using the WebCT format, which allowed students to converse with one another over distances, both within and across universities. Students from separate…
Recently released by the Worldwide Cultural Access Group, this 40-page report is based on a study of online attitudes and practices among African-Americans, Hispanics, and the general market. The study finds that African-Americans and Hispanics use the Internet for different purposes than the general market. The former are more likely to use the Web for career advancement and professional development, education, family and relationships, and entertainment, while the latter are more likely to use the Internet as a major source of news. Both African-Americans and Hispanics were less likely to search for financial or technological information online, but they were also more concerned than other users about the impact of the Internet on children and families. Readers can download the full text of the report at the above URL.
Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki
The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow recommendations. PMID:24513174
Kurth, Jennifer A.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.
The purpose of this study is to describe the educational programs for adolescents with autism (age 12—16 years) in inclusion and noninclusion settings as reflected in their Individual Education Plan (IEP) goals, services, and curricular adaptations...
This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…
Long, David E.
A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education…
Graubard, Barry I
Background: Children from ethnic minority and low-income families in the United States have higher rates of poor health and higher mortality rates. Diet, an acknowledged correlate of health, may mediate the known race-ethnic and socioeconomic differentials in the health of US children. Objective: The objective was to examine the independent association of race-ethnicity, family income, and education with nutritional and lipid biomarkers in US children. Design: We used data from the NHANES 2003–2006 to examine serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, E, C, B-6, and B-12; serum concentrations of folate, carotenoids, and lipids; and dietary intakes of corresponding nutrients for 2–19-y-old children (n = ?2700–7500). Multiple covariate–adjusted regression methods were used to examine the independent and joint associations of race-ethnicity, family income, and education with biomarker status. Results: Non-Hispanic blacks had lower mean serum concentrations of vitamins A, B-6, and E and ?-carotene than did non-Hispanic whites. Both non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans had higher mean serum vitamin C, ?-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin but lower folate and vitamin D concentrations compared with non-Hispanic whites. In comparison with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to have low serum HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides. Family income and education predicted few biomarker or dietary outcomes, and the observed associations were weak. Moreover, modification of race-ethnic differentials by income or education (or vice versa) was noted for very few biomarkers. Conclusion: Race-ethnicity, but not family income or education, was a strong independent predictor of serum nutrient concentrations and dietary micronutrient intakes in US children and adolescents. PMID:22836030
Youfa Wang; May A. Beydoun
This review of the obesity epidemic provides a comprehensive description of the current situation, time trends, and disparities across gender, age, socioeconomic status, racial\\/ethnic groups, and geographic regions in the United States based on national data. The authors searched studies published between 1990 and 2006. Adult overweight and obesity were defined by using body mass index (weight (kg)\\/height (m)2) cutpoints
Background To explore differences in personal and home environmental factors that are regarded as determinants of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) according to parental education and ethnic background among 10–12 year old schoolchildren across Europe. Methods A school-based survey among 10–12 year olds was conducted in eight countries across Europe. A range of personal and home environment variables relevant for soft drink consumption, daily breakfast, sport participation and TV time was assessed by means of child report. Personal factors included attitude, health beliefs, and preference/liking. Home environment factors included parental subjective norm, modeling, support, practices and home availability. Children were classified based on parental education (i.e., low vs. high) and ethnic background (i.e., native vs. non-native). Data from 6018 children originating from 83 schools were included in the analyses. Results Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that the majority of the factors tested –and especially home environment variables- were more favorable among children from higher educated parents and from native ethnicity. None of the personal and home environment factors was found to be more favorable among children from lower educated parents or non-native ethnicity. Conclusions The present study indicates that schoolchildren from lower educated and non-native parents across Europe have EBRB-related beliefs and are exposed to home environments that are less favorable for engagement in healthy EBRBs. PMID:24934085
Callis, Laura Kyser; Osborn, Daniel
This article presents profiles of and reflections by teachers with international experience, including the authors, who offer insights on education in a global age. The respondents who were colleagues of the authors were interviewed to learn about their K-12 education, insights into and analysis of their experiences teaching abroad, and thoughts…
McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry
Drug misuse in Northern Ireland, like many parts of the world, is becoming one of the major issues facing society today. A first stage to addressing this problem is effective drugs education and prevention strategies to school-aged young people. A survey of a range of education providers including mainstream and special needs schools, and school…
McGill, Mollie A., Ed.; Jonsen, Richard W., Ed.
Policy issues relating to the integration of information and communications technology into higher education are addressed, primarily for those with policy development responsibility at the state level. The following chapters are included: (1) "State Higher Education Policies in the Information Age: An Introduction to the Issues" (Robert G.…
Cheesman, Elaine A.; Winograd, Gaynelle R.; Wehrman, Joseph D.
This study investigated the perceptions of classroom response systems, or "clickers," by teacher-candidates of diverse ages and both genders. Participants (n = 63) included 53 females and 10 males aged 21 to 57 who attended small-enrollment reading methods courses in a special education licensure program. Responses to a 32-item survey suggested…
Sellers, Debra M.; Bolender, Benjamin C.; Crocker, Andrew B.
The specific aim of this research study was to gain knowledge regarding beliefs about aging, in order to develop future, priority, educational, and aging-related opportunities in Kansas. The study included six focus groups with a self-selected sample of Kansans born during the years 1946-1964 (N = 39). The main themes that surfaced included the…
Thorson, Playford V.; Sherman, William C.
In an attempt to ascertain the validity of the assumption that Norwegians supported education much more than did German-Russians in North Dakota in the early part of the twentieth century, select counties made up predominantly of the ethnic groups in question were examined, using data taken from the years 1910-12, 1922-23, and 1930. The two groups…
Dekkers, Hetty P. J. M.; Bosker, Roel J.; Driessen, Geert W. J. M.
Studied the relationships between gender, social class, ethnicity, and school success using data from a large-scale longitudinal database, the Dutch Secondary Education Students Cohort. Results show that school success is not always predicted by expected additive or multiplicative effects of the different background variables. Discusses…
Qureshi, Yasmeen F.; Janmaat, Jan Germen
This article focuses specifically on the incorporation of ethnic minority children within the education systems of England, France and Germany. The trends in policy development after World War II in these countries are examined through the prism of three ideal-typical incorporation strategies--integration, assimilation and separation. This is done…
As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.
Brien, Michael J.; Lillard, Lee A.
Among Malaysian females, changes in education and enrollment account for much of the trend toward later marriage. Increase in age at first conception across cohorts and ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese, Indian) is fully accounted for by cohort and ethnic differences in the age at marriage. (Author/SK)
Reviews the historical development of multicultural education in Toronto (Ontario), and considers the relevance of different models. Argues that present educational policy continues to preserve an Anglo-Saxon hegemony. (FMW)
Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities' rights have to be secured, but also majorities…
Aparicio Alonso, Concepción
Some years ago, the phenomenon of demographic aging started an intense debate about its supposed negatives effects on the economic progress of a population. Health advances and improved living conditions have gradually increased the health level the elderly have, embellishing the initial perspectives; the elderly live more years but, moreover, they have a better quality of life. For the WHO, to favor an active aging process presents a challenge, avoiding incapacities and dependencies, the real causes of the increase in social-health costs. Following the guidelines established by the II World Assembly on Aging, last year our country passed the Action Plan for Elderly People 2003-2007; this plan contemplates as one of its objectives "Promote the autonomy and the full and active participation by the elderly people in the community" and points out that the strategy to achieve this objective consists in "pushing the measures which Promote Health". PMID:15366454
Cathy van Tuijl; Paul P. M. Leseman
This paper reports the results of an intensive home-based educational intervention programme for 4- to 6-year-old children at risk of educational failure. The programme, Opstap Opnieuw (''Step-up Anew''), was developed in the Netherlands as an alternative to the well-known HIPPY-programme, of which a Dutch version was carried out in the early 1990s for ethnic minority groups, without apparent success. Building
This book examines one British university continuing education department's involvement with those adults who are most on the margins of formal education. The following are among the topics considered in Chapters 1-9: the wider political context of university continuing education and the emerging political agenda for widening participation in…
Jo, Heejoo; Schieve, Laura A; Rice, Catherine E; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Tian, Lin H; Blumberg, Stephen J; Kogan, Michael D; Boyle, Coleen A
We examined prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age at diagnosis according to child's race/ethnicity and primary household language. From the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, we identified 2729 3-17-year-old US children whose parent reported a current ASD diagnosis. We compared ASD prevalence, mean diagnosis age, and percentage with later diagnoses (?5 years) across racial/ethnic/primary household language groups: non-Hispanic-white, any language (NHW); non-Hispanic-black, any language (NHB); Hispanic-any-race, English (Hispanic-English); and Hispanic-any-race, other language (Hispanic-Other). We assessed findings by parent-reported ASD severity level and adjusted for family sociodemographics. ASD prevalence estimates were 15.3 (NHW), 10.4 (NHB), 14.1 (Hispanic-English), and 5.2 (Hispanic-Other) per 1000 children. Mean diagnosis age was comparable across racial/ethnic/language groups for 3-4-year-olds. For 5-17-year-olds, diagnosis age varied by race/ethnicity/language and also by ASD severity. In this group, NHW children with mild/moderate ASD had a significantly higher proportion (50.8 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (33.5 %) or Hispanic-Other children (18.0 %). However, NHW children with severe ASD had a comparable or lower (albeit non-significant) proportion (16.4 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (37.8 %), Hispanic-English (30.8 %), and Hispanic-Other children (12.0 %). While NHW children have comparable ASD prevalence and diagnosis age distributions as Hispanic-English children, they have both higher prevalence and proportion of later diagnoses than NHB and Hispanic-Other children. The diagnosis age findings were limited to mild/moderate cases only. Thus, the prevalence disparity might be primarily driven by under-representation (potentially under-identification) of older children with mild/moderate ASD in the two minority groups. PMID:25701197
Brownstein, Henry H.; And Others
This guide to teaching ethnicity from the ethnic individual's point of view is designed to accompany the student sourcebook, The Individual and Ethnic Identity (see SO 013 157). The sourcebook, suitable for secondary and higher education, contains quotations of 51 individuals from varying ethnic backgrounds and varying degrees of ethnicity. It…
Gahbauer, Alice M.; Gonzales, Marco L.; Guglielmo, B. Joseph
STUDY OBJECTIVES To describe patterns of outpatient antibacterial use among California Medicaid (Medi-Cal) fee-for-service system beneficiaries, and to investigate the influence of demographic factors—age, race-ethnicity, state county, and population density—on those patterns. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of administrative claims data. DATA SOURCE Medi-Cal fee-for-service system claims database. PATIENTS All outpatient Medi-Cal fee-for-service system beneficiaries enrolled between 2006 and 2011 who had at least one systemic antibacterial claim. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Rates of antibacterial prescribing and the proportion of broad-spectrum antibacterial use were measured over the study period and among age, racial-ethnic and geographic (county) groups. Of the 10,018,066 systemic antibacterial claims selected for analysis, antibacterial prescribing rates decreased from 542 claims/1000 beneficiaries in 2006 to 461 claims/1000 beneficiaries in 2011 (r = –0.971, p = 0.0012; ?-b = –1.00, p = 0.009). Among age groups, children had the highest rate of use (605 claims/1000 beneficiaries, ?2 (2) = 320,000, p < 0.001); among racial-ethnic groups, Alaskan Natives and Native Americans had the highest rate of use (1086/1000 beneficiaries, ?2 (5) = 197,000, p < 0.001). Broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing increased from 28.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.1–28.2%) to 32.7% (95% CI 32.6–32.8%) over the study period. Senior age groups and Caucasians received the highest proportions of broad-spectrum agents (53.4% [95% CI 52.5–54.3%] and 36.6% [95% CI 36.6–36.7%], respectively). Population density was inversely related to both overall antibacterial use (? = –0.432, p = 0.0018) and broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing (? = –0.359, p < 0.001). The rate of prescribing decreased over the study period for all antibacterial classes with the exception of macrolides and sulfonamides. Amoxicillin was the most frequently prescribed agent. CONCLUSION Overall and broad-spectrum antibacterial use in the Medi-Cal fee-for-service program are less than that observed nationally. Significant variations in prescribing exist between age and racial-ethnic groups, and heavily populated areas are associated with both less antibacterial use and less broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing. Studies are needed to determine the reasons for the observed differences in antibacterial use among demographic groups. PMID:24753176
This report analyzes and compares information on educational achievements of minorities in the USSR. It also reviews and assesses Soviet educational policy for nationalities and suggests some areas for further study. Data are based on the USSR 1970 All-Union Census and later evidence. National minorities in the USSR have historically been…
Cooper, Michelle Asha
This study uses data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 to test a conceptual model that integrates aspects of sociological and econometric frameworks into a traditional status attainment model for educational aspirations. Using descriptive and logistic analyses, this study advanced understanding of the patterns and stability of…
Ivonne Kleinfeld Mansbach; Charles W. Greenbaum
This study investigated expectations of maturity in children among 380 Israeli Jewish fathers and mothers of 6-month-old infants. Subjects were administered a questionnaire which included items reflecting three developmental domains: Cognitive Maturity, Biosocial Maturity, and Social Autonomy. Regarding Cognitive Maturity mothers had earlier expectations than fathers, intermediate and higher educated parents had earlier expectations than lower educated and nonreligious (Secular)
While the debate about education in general and science education in particular for every student continues world wide and in the United States of America, the debate points to an underrepresentation of and underachievement by African-Americans (Ferguson, 1981). Given the intent of access to scientific knowledge for every student, the value of scientific knowledge in our society and the fact
Franklin, Somer L.; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.
In this article, we analyzed research studies in the field of graduate education. In particular, we explored the issue of inequity in graduate education through three key lenses of social science analyses. Furthermore, we analyzed selected quantitative research studies that undertook a comparative examination of aggregate trends in enrollment and…
Beede, David; Julian, Tiffany; Khan, Beethika; Lehrman, Rebecca; McKittrick, George; Langdon, David; Doms, Mark
Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) workers are essential to American innovation and competitiveness in an increasingly dynamic and global marketplace. In this report, the authors examine demographic disparities in STEM education and find that educational attainment may affect equality of opportunity in these critical, high-quality…
Mandell, David S.; Davis, Jasmine K.; Bevans, Katherine; Guevara, James P.
The authors examined disparities in special education labeling among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by merging calendar year 2002 special education records and Medicaid mental health claims for 4,852 children who had been diagnosed with ADHD in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Thirty-eight percent were receiving…
Pastor, Patricia N.; Reuben, Cynthia A.
OBJECTIVES: Racial and ethnic disparities have been documented for many physical health outcomes in children. Less is known, however, about disparities in behavioral and learning disorders in children. This study uses data from a national health survey to examine racial and ethnic differences in identified attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD). METHODS: The 1997-2001 National Health Interview Surveys obtained information from parents about the health and sociodemographic characteristics of children. Using these data, prevalence rates of identified ADHD and/or LD were estimated for Hispanic, African American, and white children 6-11 years of age. Racial and ethnic differences in health conditions, income, and insurance coverage were examined as possible explanations for disparities in parental reports of ADHD and LD, as well as the use of any prescription medication among children with ADHD. RESULTS: Hispanic and African American children, compared to white children, had parental reports of identified ADHD without LD less often, and adjustments for the confounding variables-birthweight, income, and insurance coverage-did not eliminate these differences. Hispanic and African American children, compared to white children, also had parental reports of ADHD with LD less often after adjustments for the effects of confounding variables. By contrast, after adjustments for confounding variables, Hispanic and African American children were as likely as white children to have LD without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, use of any prescription medication was reported less often for Hispanic and African American children than white children. These disparities in medication use persisted after adjustments for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ADHD and the use of any prescription medication among children with ADHD differed among Hispanic, African American, and white children. These disparities could not be explained by racial and ethnic differences in other health conditions and sociodemographic variables. PMID:16025718
In order to characterize food group purchases from grocery receipts. Food shoppers (aged >/=19 years with at least one child aged =18 years in the home, the family's primary food purchaser) were recruited in front of grocery stores to participate in two interviews, separated by 6 weeks, and to sav...
Baker, Bruce D.; Keller-Wolff, Christine; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa E.
typically classified students according to a Black/White dichotomy (Sellars & Weis, 1997). In the early 1980's, education researchers began to identify Hispanic students as a separate group (Marin & Marin, 1991). Students of other national origins..., including Chinese, Filipino or Native Hawaiian students were typically combined with White students (Dawson, 1987) or excluded from analyses altogether. American Indian and Alaskan Native students were largely absent from the education literature before...
Brown, Mitzi C.
This practicum paper reports on a project undertaken to enhance the knowledge of age-appropriate learning for parents of 3-year-old preschoolers. The project implemented a variety of techniques and strategies to improve parent knowledge, including parent education classes, a monthly newsletter for parents that addressed current research on…
A review of the literature and personal interviews with mental health administrators and other informed persons revealed that multiple inservice and preservice educational needs exist among administrators serving the aged in hospitals, nursing homes and other care facilities, mental health centers, and mental health associations. Specific…
Tuckman, Bruce W.
This paper presents a career developmental model covering the ages of 5 to 18. Career development education includes experiences which facilitate self-awareness, career-awareness and career decision-making. Before choosing a model for career development, it is necessary to decide on a model for child development. The model developed here borrows…
Wedemeyer, Dan J.
This overview provides a technological context for the telecommunications age by describing existing and emerging systems--telephone, broadcasting, cable television, fiber optic, satellite, optical disk, and computer technology--and services available via these systems. It is suggested that educators need to become technologically literate and…
Peppler, Kylie A.
Background/Context: New technologies have been largely absent in arts education curriculum even though they offer opportunities to address arts integration, equity, and the technological prerequisites of an increasingly digital age. This paper draws upon the emerging professional field of "media arts" and the ways in which youth use new…
Jenny, Hans H.; And Others
Changes in higher education employee benefit plans brought about by the extension of the mandatory retirement age to 70 are the focus of the monograph. Chapter one summarizes the volume and presents some major recommendations that institutions may find helpful in benefit and personnel planning. Chapter two sketches the meaning of the new law (1978…
Textor, Martin R.
The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…
Bommier, Antoine; Lambert, Sylvie
Estimations of enrollment age and schooling duration for Tanzanian children revealed different patterns for boys and girls. Although girls have lower levels of education, they enroll earlier, either because of lower returns to preschool experience for girls or parental desire to prepare them for the marriage market as soon as possible. (SK)
Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
Gender differences in educational achievement were examined in a cohort of 1265 individuals studied from birth to age 25. There was a small but pervasive tendency for females to score better than males on standardised tests and to achieve more school and post-school qualifications. The differences could not be explained by differences in cognitive…
Collins, A.; Halverson, R.
This paper drew upon a recent book ("Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology") to summarize a number of prospects and challenges arising from the appropriation of digital technology into learning and educational practice. Tensions between traditional models of schooling and the affordances of digital media were noted, while the promise of…
Mukuria, Gathogo; Obiakor, Festus E.
Urban school building administrators are aware of sociocultural dynamics that affect today's urban schools, but they seem to lack the will to make the necessary changes that could buttress programmatic stability and integrity. For some, the debate focuses on the issue of equity in the pursuit of educational excellence for all children. For others,…
This paper discusses effects of home language usage on minority student educational attainment in western China. Using survey data, the author finds that non-Chinese-speaking minority students are at a disadvantage in the transition to senior secondary schools. However, their transition to junior secondary schools is even more complicated. Rural…
This paper studies the acquisition of language capital of immigrants to Germany. The analysis is based on a detailed survey data set. Speaking abilities and writing abilities are investigated for both male and female migrants. The study has three main objectives. Firstly, to investigate in detail the effect of education on language acquisition. For this purpose, extensive information on pre-
Goza, Franklin; Ryabov, Igor
Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents' academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results…
Wang, Bee-Lan Chan
This study of male and female Malay and Chinese students indicated that groups which perceive postsecondary education to lead to a greater certainty of university attendance and/or better job prospects are more likely to continue their schooling than groups which perceive the benefits to them to be less attractive. (Author/SJL)
Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly
BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945
Blanchette, Robert A.
GERIATRIC EDUCATION CENTER OldNews Center on Aging Summer Institute 2013 Dementia: The Disease of Our GERIATRIC EDUCATION CENTER The obvious motivation for and benefit of early diagnosis would be preventing
Background Hypovitaminosis D is a common condition among elderly individuals in temperate-climate countries, with a clear seasonal variation on 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels, increasing after summer and decreasing after winter, but there are few data from sunny countries such as Brazil. Many factors can interfere on vitamin D cutaneous synthesis. We aimed at studying the 25OHD variations during winter and summer in an outdoor physically active elderly population living in São Paulo city, and analysed their determining factors. Methods Ninety-nine individuals (52 women and 47 men, from 55 to 83 years old) from different ethnic groups were selected from an outdoor physical activity group. Data are reported as Mean ± SD, and we used Pearson Linear Correlation, Student's t-test for non-related samples, Chi-square (?²) test and One-way ANOVA for analysis. Results Mean 25OHD value for the whole group was 78.9 ± 30.9 nmol/L in the winter and 91.6 ± 31.7 nmol/L in the summer (p = 0.005). Mean winter serum 25OHD concentrations were not different between men and women (81.2 ± 30.1 nmol/L vs. 76.7 ± 31.8 nmol/L, respectively), and 19.2% of the individuals showed values < 50 nmol/L. In the summer, we noticed an increase only for men (107.6 ± 31.4 nmol/L) compared to women (76.7 ± 24.0 nmol/L), and 6.5% showed values < 50 nmol/L. A decrease in the mean PTH in the summer compared to the winter was noticed, with PTH levels showing a relationship with 25OHD concentrations only in the winter (r = -0.208, p = 0.041). White individuals showed an increase in mean serum 25OHD in the summer (p = 0.016) which was not noticed for other ethnic groups (Asians, native Brazilians and blacks). An increase in 25OHD values in the summer was observed in the age groups ranging from 51-60 and 61-70 years old (p < 0.05), but not in the age group from 71 years old on. Conclusions 25OHD values increased during the summer in elderly residents of São Paulo, but to different extents depending on ethnicity, gender and age. This season-dependent increase was noticed only among men, white and who were in the youngest group of individuals. PMID:20546572
Mowery, Paul; Delnevo, Cristine; Allen, Jane A.; Sokol, Natasha; Byron, M. Justin; Thornton-Bullock, Amber
Objectives. We examined patterns in cigar use among young adults, aged 18–25 years, focusing on race/ethnicity and brand. Methods. We conducted a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002–2008, using multivariate logistic regression to assess time trends in past 30 days cigar use, past 30 days use of a “top 5” cigar brand, cigar use intensity, and age at first cigar use. Results. Cigar use has increased among White non-Hispanic men aged 18 to 25 years, from 12.0% in 2002 to 12.7% in 2008. Common predictors of all outcomes included male gender and past 30 days use of cigarettes, marijuana, and blunts. Additional predictors of past 30 days cigar and “top 5” brand use included younger age, non-Hispanic Black or White race, lower income, and highest level of risk behavior. College enrollment predicted intensity of use and “top 5” brand use. Conclusions. Recent legislative initiatives have changed how cigars are marketed and may affect consumption. National surveys should include measures of cigar brand and little cigar and cigarillo use to improve cigar use estimates. PMID:21852638
Stamler, J; Elliott, P; Appel, L; Chan, Q; Buzzard, M; Dennis, B; Dyer, A R; Elmer, P; Greenland, P; Jones, D; Kesteloot, H; Kuller, L; Labarthe, D; Liu, K; Moag-Stahlberg, A; Nichaman, M; Okayama, A; Okuda, N; Robertson, C; Rodriguez, B; Stevens, M; Ueshima, H; Horn, L Van; Zhou, B
Extensive evidence exists that an inverse relation between education and blood pressure prevails in many adult populations, but little research has been carried out on reasons for this finding. A prior goal of the INTERMAP Study was to investigate this phenomenon further, and to assess the role of dietary factors in accounting for it. Of the 4680 men and women aged 40-59 years, from 17 diverse population samples in Japan, People's Republic of China, UK, and USA, a strong significant inverse education-BP relation was manifest particularly for the 2195 USA participants, independent of ethnicity. With participants stratified by years of education, and assessment of 100+ dietary variables from four 24-h dietary recalls and two 24-h urine collections/person, graded relationships were found between education and intake of many macro- and micronutrients, electrolytes, fibre, and body mass index (BMI). In multiple linear regression analyses with systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) of individuals the dependent variables (controlled for ethnicity, other possible nondietary confounders), BMI markedly reduced size of education-BP relations, more so for women than for men. Several nutrients considered singly further decreased size of this association by > or =10%: urinary 24-h Na and K excretion, Keys dietary lipid score, vegetable protein, fibre, vitamins C and B6, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, magnesium, and iron. Combinations of these dietary variables and BMI attenuated the education-SBP inverse coefficient by 54-58%, and the education-DBP inverse coefficient by 59-67%, with over half these effects attributable to specific nutrients (independent of BMI). As a result, the inverse education-BP coefficients ceased to be statistically significant. Multiple specific dietary factors together with body mass largely account for the more adverse BP levels of less educated than more educated Americans. Special efforts to improve eating patterns of less educated strata can contribute importantly to overcoming this and related health disparities in the population. PMID:13679955
Fite, Paula J.; Burke, Jeffrey D.
This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied across African-American and Caucasian families. Overall, the results supported a bidirectional relationship between conduct problems and all parenting practices examined from childhood to adolescence. The influence of conduct problems on changes in parenting behaviors was as strong as the influence of parenting behaviors on changes in conduct problems across development. Changes in the bidirectional relationship across development were found in some, but not all, models. While corporal punishment was more strongly related to changes in teacher-reported conduct problems for African-American boys compared to Caucasian boys, more similarities than differences were found between the ethnic groups in terms of the bidirectional associations examined. PMID:17899362
Pardini, Dustin A; Fite, Paula J; Burke, Jeffrey D
This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied across African-American and Caucasian families. Overall, the results supported a bidirectional relationship between conduct problems and all parenting practices examined from childhood to adolescence. The influence of conduct problems on changes in parenting behaviors was as strong as the influence of parenting behaviors on changes in conduct problems across development. Changes in the bidirectional relationship across development were found in some, but not all, models. While corporal punishment was more strongly related to changes in teacher-reported conduct problems for African-American boys compared to Caucasian boys, more similarities than differences were found between the ethnic groups in terms of the bidirectional associations examined. PMID:17899362
Imasiku, Eunice N S; Odimegwu, Clifford O; Adedini, Sunday A; Ononokpono, Dorothy N
Ethnicity has been found to be a significant indicator of social position, and many studies have also established that ethnicity is a significant determinant of contraceptive use. This study aims to examine whether ethnicity is an important predictor of unmet need for contraception. Analysis was based on data for 4343 ever-married women drawn from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive analysis indicates that in all ethnic groups except the Barotse and Tonga, women aged 15-49 years were married at an average age below 18. The highest mean number of children among the ethnic groups was 6.7, among the Bemba; the lowest was 5.9, among the Barotse. The highest proportion of women with an unmet need for contraception resided in the Eastern region. Multivariate logistic analyses reveal that children ever-born and region of residence were the most important predictors of unmet need for spacing, whereas for unmet need for limiting predictors were age at first marriage and partner's desire for children. Moreover, unmet need for spacing and limiting among women with secondary or higher education was significantly lower (47% and 50%, respectively) compared with those with no education. Ethnicity was not a significant predictor of unmet need for contraception. The findings stress the need for programmes aimed at enhancing the socioeconomic status of women. PMID:23866105
Latinos now constitute the largest minority group in the United States and the fastest growing segment of its school-age population. Yet they are the least educated of all major ethnic groups. Poverty, lack of access to high-quality preschool, low levels of parental education attainment, and hypersegregated schools all play a crucial role. The…
Cincotta-Segi, Angela Rose
The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse nations in Southeast Asia. The post-1975 government's policies regarding ethnic minority peoples are often considered to represent an ideological shift from earlier monocultural orientations to a discourse of interethnic equality and solidarity.…
University of Nebraska-Lincoln Children's Center It is the policy of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln not to discriminate based upon age, race, ethnicity, color, national origin, gender, sex, pregnancy, disability authorizes the University of Nebraska Lincoln Children's Center, hereinafter-called "UNL Children's Center
This study compared the treatment acceptability of four social skills interventions that are commonly used with children with autism, as rated by parents of children with autism spectrum disorders, general education teachers, ...
Fecht, Daniela; Fischer, Paul; Fortunato, Léa; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Marra, Marten; Kruize, Hanneke; Vienneau, Danielle; Beelen, Rob; Hansell, Anna
Air pollution levels are generally believed to be higher in deprived areas but associations are complex especially between sensitive population subgroups. We explore air pollution inequalities at national, regional and city level in England and the Netherlands comparing particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and publicly available population characteristics (deprivation, ethnicity, proportion of children and elderly). We saw higher concentrations in the most deprived 20% of neighbourhoods in England (1.5 ?g/m(3) higher PM10 and 4.4 ?g/m(3) NO2). Concentrations in both countries were higher in neighbourhoods with >20% non-White (England: 3.0 ?g/m(3) higher PM10 and 10.1 ?g/m(3) NO2; the Netherlands: 1.1 ?g/m(3) higher PM10 and 4.5 ?g/m(3) NO2) after adjustment for urbanisation and other variables. Associations for some areas differed from the national results. Air pollution inequalities were mainly an urban problem suggesting measures to reduce environmental air pollution inequality should include a focus on city transport. PMID:25622242
This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.
Thijs, Jochem; Westhof, Saskia; Koomen, Helma
Among 36 ethnic-Dutch school teachers in the Netherlands, the present study examined the role of ethnic incongruence in perceived student-teacher relationship quality. Teachers rated their relationships with 59 Turkish-Dutch, 62 Moroccan-Dutch, and 109 ethnic-Dutch students attending grades 4 through 6 (M[subscript age] = 10.81 years, SD = 1.05).…
Blanchette, Robert A.
1 fall 2013 Minnesota Chair in Long-terM Care and aging · Center on aging · Minnesota area geriatriC 11 Geriatric Education Modules 12 School of Nursing Going National 13 U of M/Va to Educate More Minnesota Chair in Long-terM Care and aging · Center on aging · Minnesota area geriatriC eduCation Center
Long, Tiffani; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.
Literature on age of entry into formal education is inconsistent at best in determining if early or late entry impacts the educational experience in positive or negative ways. The purpose of the current study was to add to the literature by examining the relationship between age of entry into formal education and participation in the Accelerated…
In the present study, I analyze ethnographic data from a year-long study of two Advanced Placement (AP) Biology classes that enrolled students with diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. Specifically, I consider participation, positioning, and learning of newcomer Korean students in the focal classes. Building on the notion of figured…
This study focuses on the issue of learning equity in colleges and universities where teaching and learning have come to depend heavily on computer technologies. The study uses the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) latent variable model to quantitatively investigate whether there is a gender /ethnicity difference in using computer based…
, color, marital status, veteran's status, national or ethnic origin, or sexual orientation. STUDENT. Participate as an active staff member in all Student Involvement training, orientation, and staff development
Oates, Flora B.
The practical aspects of ethnic hairdressing for the beginning student in the field of Cosmetology are presented in this manual. Lessons and review questions are provided to give the student a knowledge of the problems encountered in dealing with the many different variations in hair, as well as to serve as a foundation for more complex material.…
Ashaie, Sameer; Obler, Loraine
We investigated the effects of age as well as the linked factors of education and bilingualism on confrontation naming in rural Kashmir by creating a culturally appropriate naming test with pictures of 60 objects. We recruited 48 cognitively normal participants whose ages ranged from 18 to 28 and from 60 to 85. Participants in our study were illiterate monolinguals (N = 18) and educated Kashmiri-Urdu bilinguals (N = 30). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that younger adults performed better than older adults (P < 0.01) and the age effect was quadratic (age2). It also showed Age X Education and Age X L2 Speaking interactions predicted naming performance. The Age X Education interaction indicated that the advantages of greater education increased with advancing age. Since education is in the second language (L2) in our population, this finding is no doubt linked to the Age X L2 Speaking interaction. This suggests that L2 speaking proficiency contributed more to first language (L1) naming with advancing age. PMID:24825965
Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole
This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…
Malek, Rohan; Sundram, Murali; Tan, Guan Hee; Bahadzor, Badrulhisham; Ong, Teng Aik; Ng, Keng Lim; Abdul Razack, Azad Hassan
Objectives To determine the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) profile and factors affecting its degree of severity including cardiovascular risk profile, age, ethnicity, education level and prostate volume in a multiethnic Asian setting. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1021 men aged 40–79 years with no clinical evidence of prostate cancer, prostate surgery or 5?-reductase inhibitor treatment of known prostate conditions. The severity of LUTS was assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Potential factors associated with LUTS including age, ethnicity, education, history of hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, height, weight, and prostate volume were evaluated using univariable and multivariable analyses. Results There were 506 (50%) men found to have moderate-to-severe LUTS attaining an IPSS above 7. Overall, nocturia (45.5%) was the most frequently reported symptom. Multivariable analysis showed that age, ethnicity, prostate volume and history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were independent factors associated with severity of LUTS (p < 0.05). Considering individual lower urinary tract symptoms, we found a strong association of storage symptom with history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Malay men were significantly bothered by post micturition symptom compared to their Chinese and Indian counterparts. Stratified analyses of LUTS demonstrated a mutually exclusive cardiovascular risk factors profile defined by ethnicity. Conclusion Severity of LUTS varies between different ethnicities across all age groups. In addition to age and prostate volume, ethnicity and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia may also need to be taken into account in managing men with LUTS. PMID:26098884
... 10, 2012 Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity When pregnant women use alcohol, tobacco, ... among Pregnant Women Aged 15 to 44, by Race/Ethnicity and Substance: 2002 to 2010 Source: The ...
Faldik, Nancy Jean
student supports (motivation, accommodations/modifications, academic improvements, and social issues) for students with disabilities in the inclusive classroom. In addition, the goals of this study included public school educators' attitudes toward...
Janevic, T; Borrell, L N; Savitz, D A; Echeverria, S E; Rundle, A
Previous research has shown that immigrants living in their own ethnic enclave are at decreased risk of poor health outcomes, but this question has not been studied in relation to gestational diabetes, an important early marker of lifecourse cardiovascular health. We ascertained gestational diabetes, census tract of residence, and individual-level covariates for Sub-Saharan African, Chinese, South Central Asian, Non-Hispanic Caribbean, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Mexican, and Central and South American migrant women using linked birth-hospital discharge data for 89,703 singleton live births in New York City for the years 2001-2002. Using 2000 census data, for each immigrant group we defined a given census tract as part of an ethnic enclave based on the population distribution for the corresponding ethnic group. We estimated odds ratios for associations between living in an ethnic enclave and risk of gestational diabetes adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, percent commercial space, education, age, parity, and insurance status, using multilevel logistic regression. Overall, we found no effect of ethnic enclave residence on gestational diabetes in most immigrant groups. Among South Central Asian and Mexican women, living in a residential ethnic enclave was associated with an increased odds of gestational diabetes. Several explanations are proposed for these findings. Mechanisms explaining an increased risk of gestational diabetes in South Central Asian and Mexican ethnic enclaves should be examined. PMID:25259656
A cross-sectional study of the association of age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index with sex steroid hormone marker profiles among men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)
Ritchey, Jamie; Karmaus, Wilfried; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Steck, Susan E; Zhang, Hongmei
Objectives Since sex hormone markers are metabolically linked, examining sex steroid hormones singly may account for inconsistent findings by age, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) across studies. First, these markers were statistically combined into profiles to account for the metabolic relationship between markers. Then, the relationships between sex steroid hormone profiles and age, race/ethnicity and BMI were explored in multinomial logistic regression models. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting The US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Participants 1538 Men, >17?years. Primary outcome measure Sex hormone profiles. Results Cluster analysis was used to identify four statistically determined profiles with Blom-transformed T, E, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and 3-? diol G. We used these four profiles with multinomial logistic regression models to examine differences by race/ethnicity, age and BMI. Mexican American men >50?years were associated with the profile that had lowest T, E and 3-? diol G levels compared to other profiles (p<0.05). Non-Hispanic Black, overweight (25–29.9?kg/m2) and obese (>30?kg/m2) men were most likely to be associated with the cluster with the lowest SHBG (p<0.05). Conclusion The associations of sex steroid hormone profiles by race/ethnicity are novel, while the findings by age and BMI groups are largely consistent with observations from single hormone studies. Future studies should validate these hormone profile groups and investigate these profiles in relation to chronic diseases and certain cancers. PMID:23043125
The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Elementary and Secondary Education. A Briefing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights Held in Washington, D.C., July 28, 2006. Briefing Report
US Commission on Civil Rights, 2006
On July 28, 2006, a panel of experts briefed members of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on the putative benefits of racial and ethnic diversity in elementary and secondary education. Four experts presented written statements to the Commissioners that assessed the social science literature on this issue. They also addressed whether or not…
Banks, James A.
A major goal of this fifth edition is to help present and future teachers acquire the knowledge, concepts, strategies, and resources needed to integrate information about ethnic groups into the mainstream curriculum. This edition incorporates new terms and concepts that are emerging in the field of multicultural education. Information on ethnic…
Race Ethnicity Survey University of Florida The U.S. Department of Education has changed the questions the university must use to collect race and ethnicity information for students and employees, the changes mean that: If you are Hispanic or Latino, you should also select a race in the second question
Peters, Michael A.
Education plays an important role in challenging, combating and in understanding terrorism in its different forms, whether as counter-terrorism or as a form of human rights education. Just as education has played a significant role in the process of nation-building, so education also plays a strong role in the process of empire, globalization and…
Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel
The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group.…
Leigh, J. Paul; Fries, James F.
Examined data from 1,864 Bank of America retirees to investigate correlations among healthy habits, age, gender, and education. Health habits were strongly and positively associated with each other and negatively associated with unhealthy habits. Age and gender differences were found. Education was significantly associated only with fiber in diet…
Onyeizugbo, Eucharia U.
Two hundred fourteen (214) married persons, 101 men and 113 women aged 20-60, with at least high school education, participated in the study which investigated the effects of gender, age, and educational attainment on assertiveness among married persons in Nigeria. The Assertive Behavior Assessment scale (ABAS; Onyeizugbo, 1998) was used to…
Pollack, Craig Evan; Cubbin, Catherine; Sania, Ayesha; Hayward, Mark; Vallone, Donna; Flaherty, Brian; Braveman, Paula A.
Background Though wide disparities in wealth have been documented across racial/ethnic groups, it is largely unknown whether differences in wealth are associated with health disparities within racial/ethnic groups. Methods Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (2004, ages 25–64) and the Health and Retirement Survey (2004, ages 50+), containing a wide range of assets and debts variables, was used to calculate net worth (a standard measure of wealth). Among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white populations, we tested whether wealth was associated with self-reported poor/fair health status after accounting for income and education. Results Except among the younger Hispanic population, net worth was significantly associated with poor/fair health status within each racial/ethnic group in both datasets. Adding net worth attenuated the association between education and poor/fair health (in all racial/ethnic groups) and between income and poor/fair health (except among older Hispanics). Conclusions The results add to literature indicating the importance of including measures of wealth in health research for what they may reveal about disparities not only between but also within different racial/ethnic groups. PMID:23427209
Critical Issues in Mathematics Education, pages ixxvi Copyright © 2009 by Information Age Publishing All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. ix intRoDUction agEnCy In MathEMatICs EduCatIon to mathematics education. Few would question that the world is in a critical state; the connection
Data from the U.S. Census and Current Population Survey are used to examine trends in the propensity to marry or to cohabit\\u000a by the age and educational attainment of potential partners. Marriage rates declined sharply across all age and educational\\u000a combinations between 1970 and 1980 and declined more sharply for less-educated persons between 1980 and 1990. The rise in\\u000a cohabitation
Frederick W. Unverzagt; Kathleen S. Hall; Alexia M. Torke; Jeff D. Rediger; Nenette Mercado; Oye Gureje; Benjamin O. Osuntokun; Hugh C. Hendrie
Eighty-three normal, healthy, African American men and women aged 65 and older completed the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB). Regression analyses indicated powerful education and less marked age and gender influences on CERAD-NB test performance. Higher education was associated with better performance on nearly all CERAD-NB tests, age effects were noted only on the memory
The monograph emphasizes the need for university-sponsored programs for professionals serving ethnic communities. The programs could consist of undergraduate and inservice courses in teacher education. The courses should teach students and teachers to accept and understand cultural differences, to recognize the right of such differences to exist,…
Benjamin A. Shaw; Linda S. Spokane
Objective: This study examined the relationship between aging and regular physical activity. The moderating effects of education and the extent to which employment and health status influence physical activity were also examined. Method: Multilevel logistic regression was conducted using longitudinal data from a national sample of 7,595 adults aged 54 to 72. Results: An age-related decline in physical activity was
Morse, Timothy E.
As the quintessential right-to-education case, "Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka," (1954) addressed equality of educational opportunity for all students regardless of race. Recently, the term "digital divide" has been used primarily to highlight inequities between various social groups with respect to acquiring computers and accessing the…
Culbertson, Jack A.
Education is in transition between the ascendent microelectronic and descendent industrial revolutions, with purposes ambiguously linked to both. These purposes must be clarified before educational leaders can establish priorities for adapting education to the needs of a society transformed by microelectronic technology. Accordingly, the features…
Mary Meck Higgins; Mary Clarke Barkley
Literature citations of barriers to nutrition education found in those who teach and care for older adults, as well as within older adults themselves, are discussed. No attempt was made to compare educational barriers for learners of varying ages. These obstacles need to be addressed in order for nutrition to be taught or learned effectively so that nutrition practices and
Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.
The EDUsummIT 2011 aimed to develop (a) recommendations for policy, practice and research that will help educational systems move into the digital age and (b) strategies to build a global community of researchers, policymakers and teachers in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education. Thematic working groups…
Robbins, Natalie; Hawkes, Deborah
This document includes materials presented at a workshop on women and ethnicity. In the first paper the author discusses a study of Title IX Ethnic Heritage Study projects. All but one of 22 projects funded in New York State from 1974-77 were contacted in order to determine if an effort had been made to explore the role of women in the ethnic…
Niebergall, Shelby; Oas, Brenda
This guide is designed primarily for use by personnel involved in North Dakota public school programs for preschool-age handicapped children (ages 3-5). It is also intended to provide parents and personnel in health, human services, and other child service agencies with an understanding of the scope and purpose of educational services for young…
Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Oselin, Sharon
Education is weakly related to employment for some groups of U.S. women. As such, it may be less of a resource for reducing gender inequality than commonly believed. Drawing on ethnographic field notes and in-depth interviews with Arab Americans, we recast the motivations and consequences of female education in terms of cultural schemas and…
School administrators in many schools are steadily reducing physical education time in response to rising pressure to obtain higher test scores in core subjects. This reduction is occurring without a systematic investigation of the contribution of physical education to test scores. The purpose of this quantitative study was to evaluate the…
Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M; Radchenkova, Polina; Sutton, Bradley P; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F
Background Greater educational attainment is associated with better neurocognitive health in older adults and is thought to reflect a measure of cognitive reserve. In vivo neuroimaging tools have begun to identify the brain systems and networks potentially responsible for reserve. Methods We examined the relationship between education, a commonly used proxy for cognitive reserve, and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in neurologically healthy older adults (N = 135; mean age = 66 years). Using single voxel MR spectroscopy, we predicted that higher levels of education would moderate an age-related decline in NAA in the frontal cortex. Results After controlling for the variance associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, sex, annual income, and creatine levels, there were no significant main effects of education (B = 0.016, P = 0.787) or age (B = ?0.058, P = 0.204) on NAA levels. However, consistent with our predictions, there was a significant education X age interaction such that more years of education offset an age-related decline in NAA (B = 0.025, P = 0.031). When examining working memory via the backwards digit span task, longer span length was associated with greater education (P < 0.01) and showed a trend with greater NAA concentrations (P < 0.06); however, there was no age X education interaction on digit span performance nor a significant moderated mediation effect between age, education, and NAA on digit span performance. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that higher levels of education may attenuate an age-related reduction in neuronal viability in the frontal cortex. PMID:25798329
Johnson, Harold; And Others
This report by the Technical Committee on Education is designed to help readers understand the effects of education on an aging society and older Americans and the effects of an aging population on educational policies and programs. An introduction and a review of social trends precede the three major sections focusing on: (1) an examination of…
This study provides insight into equity issues in post-secondary education by exploring and assessing the history, the reality and the potential developments in higher education for minority students in China, in comparison to post-secondary education for aboriginal students in Canada. It highlights access to post-secondary education by these…
Age, location, and fertility, which are functions of historical and cultural processes, are seen to have major impact on the income, unemployment rates, and IQs of many American ethnic groups. However, if government policy and attitudes of discrimination could be changed, these groups could improve their socioeconomic status. (Author/AV)
Invatamantul cu Predarea in Limbile Minoritatilor Nationale din Romania. In Anul Scolar 1992/1993 = The Education System in Romania: Tuition in the Languages of Ethnic Minorities. The School Year 1992/1993 = L'enseignement dispense dans les langues des minorites nationales de Roumanie. L'annee scolaire 1992/1993.
Council for National Minorities, Bucharest (Romania).
Documentation of the Romanian system of language instruction in ethnic minority languages is presented in Romanian, French, and English. It consists of: relevant provisions from the national constitution concerning the rights of ethnic minority members; organization and functioning of the educational system at the elementary, middle, and secondary…
de Lima Amaral, Ernesto Friedrich; Potter, Joseph E.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves
BACKGROUND The impacts of shifts in the age distribution of the working-age population have been studied in relation to the effect of the baby boom generation on the earnings of different cohorts in the U.S. However, this topic has received little attention in the context of the countries of Asia and Latin America, which are now experiencing substantial shifts in their age-education distributions. OBJECTIVE In this analysis, we estimate the impact of the changing relative size of the adult male population, classified by age and education groups, on the earnings of employed men living in 502 Brazilian local labor markets during four time periods between 1970 and 2000. METHODS Taking advantage of the huge variation across Brazilian local labor markets and demographic census micro-data, we used fixed effects models to demonstrate that age education group size depresses earnings. RESULTS These effects are more detrimental among age-education groups with higher education, but they are becoming less negative over time. The decrease in the share of workers with the lowest level of education has not led to gains in the earnings of these workers in recent years. CONCLUSIONS These trends might be a consequence of technological shifts and increasing demand for labor with either education or experience. Compositional shifts are influential, which suggests that this approach could prove useful in studying this central problem in economic development.
Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.
Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…
Judith C. Forney; Nancy J. Rabolt
An ethnic identity is reflected through intrinsic and extrinsic traits which also may be associated with other ethnic behaviors. This study investigated ethnic identity as it relates to traditional ethnic dress patterns, and use of ethnic reference persons and ethnic market sources as information on contemporary dress. A sample of 117 students identifying with one of seven ethnic heritages was
Banks, James A.
Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…
Lencyk, John A.
The traditional sellers' market in higher education has become a buyers' market, with both the nature of the student body and the services offered being changed. Marketing, as a comprehensive tool for planning and delivery of educational services, offers an integrated method for meeting the disparate demands growing from the shift to a longer…
McCain, Ted; Jukes, Ian
This book is designed to help educators cope with changes created by technology and embrace a new mindset necessary to access the burgeoning technological advances, in order to keep schools and students relevant in the 21st century. The book looks through several "windows" on the future, and asks educators to consider their own paradigms and the…
Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole
Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…
Daniel F. MacKay; Gordon C. S. Smith; Richard Dobbie; Jill P. Pell
A retrospective cohort study of 407,503 schoolchildren by Jill Pell and colleagues finds that gestational age at delivery has a dose-dependent relationship with the risk of special educational needs that extends across the full gestational range.
Israels, Richard (Richard Steven)
In a society facing a significant increase in its aging population, older driver education/training is emerging as a potential solution to help seniors drive more safely, thus maintaining their mobility and quality of life. ...
Carroll, Judith E.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Adler, Nancy E.; Seeman, Teresa E.
Previous findings have linked lower socioeconomic status (SES) with elevated morbidity and mortality. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which also has been associated with age-related disease morbidity and mortality, is a marker of aging at the cellular level, making it a valuable early biomarker of risk and an indicator of biological age. It is hypothesized that SES will be associated with LTL, indicating that SES influences disease risk by accelerating biological aging. In the present sample we test for associations of childhood SES and adult SES (i.e. education, income, home ownership) with LTL, and examine whether these associations vary by racial/ethnic group. Analyses on 963 subjects (18.7% White, 53% Hispanics, and 28.5% African American) from the Stress ancillary study of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis revealed a significant difference in LTL between home owners and renters in Hispanic and White participants (p < .05), but not amongst African Americans (p = .98). There were no linear associations of adult education or family income with LTL, however, there was an inverse association between father’s education and LTL (p = .03). These findings suggest that for Whites and Hispanics renting vs. owning a home is associated with an older biological age; however we did not replicate previous findings linking education with LTL. PMID:23142704
Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara E.; Shelton, J. Nicole
This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age 14) attending 4 high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard for adolescents who were highly identified with their ethnic group and who attended predominantly White or ethnically heterogeneous schools. In addition, using time lag analyses, contact with same-ethnic others yesterday was positively related to ethnic private regard today, but ethnic private regard yesterday was unrelated to contact with same-ethnic others today, suggesting that adolescents' identity is responsive to their environments. The implications of these findings for the development of ethnic identity are discussed. PMID:23294295
Perez, Shireese Redmond
The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…
Age patterns of secondary certification and college entry differ in complex and surprising ways for traditional graduates and GED recipients. Although GED recipients are less likely to enter college in their late teens, they catch up to traditional graduates in their 20s. Results show that adjusting for differences in the age trajectories of…
Lever-Duffy, Judy C.
Distance education makes use of the technologies of the Information Age to address the needs of a broader and more complex educational market than traditional methods. Because distance delivery does not follow the rigid structure of the traditional course, it can provide instruction to individuals whose location, personal circumstances, or family…
Heisel, Marsel A.; And Others
Studied a national database employed to examine the educational participation behavior of adults 60 years and older. Participation rates, subjects studied, reasons for participation, and locations utilized for learning were found to vary significantly in relation to relative age, educational attainment, sex, race, income, and other participant…
DenBesten, Nicholas P.
This research involves an examination of the relationship between education and age on a wide array of neuropsychological test measures among patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of education as an attenuating factor to neurocognitive decline in dementia. Although numerous…
Evans, David; And Others
Two groups (experimental and control) totaling 239 low-income asthmatic children, aged 8 to 11 years, were studied. One group was exposed to an asthma health education program. Findings indicate asthma health education for children increases management skills, reduces symptoms, and improves school performance. (Author/CH)
Stoten, David William
In the "age of austerity", educational institutions in many countries are under pressure from a variety of sources to work more closely, reduce costs and raise educational performance. There are a number of possible outcomes that follow on from developing closer institutional ties: sharing of professional expertise through best practice networks,…
Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Effros, Rita
The University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) General Education "Clusters" are innovations in student-centered undergraduate education focused on complex phenomena that require an interdisciplinary perspective. UCLA gerontology and geriatric faculty recognized the opportunity to introduce freshmen to the field of aging through this new…
Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).
An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years…
Bell-Scriber, Marietta J
For nurse educators to facilitate student learning and the achievement of desired cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes, they need to be competent in recognizing the influence of gender, experience, and other factors on teaching and learning. A study was conducted in one academic institution to describe how traditional-age male learners' perceptions of the nursing education climate compare to perceptions of female learners. Interviews were conducted with a sample of four male and four female learners. Additional data from interviews with nurse educators, classroom observations, and a review of textbooks provided breadth and depth to their perceptions. Findings support a nursing education climate that is cooler to traditional-age male learners and warmer to traditional-age female learners. The main cooling factor for men was caused by nurse educators' characteristics and unsupportive behaviors. Additional factors inside and outside the education environment contributed to a cooler climate for the male learners. Based on these findings, strategies for nurse educators to warm the education climate for traditional-age male learners are presented. PMID:18575237
The debate about the performance of US students on international assessments of educational achievement routinely fails to account for one consistently stark result: US achievement is bifurcated between a group of high-performing Asian and white students and an exceptionally low-performing group of black and Hispanic students. By summarizing…
Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; And Others
This paper reviews the literature on the support systems of aging widows from an ecological perspective which includes personal resources, current assets as resources, and personal and group relationships. In the section on personal resources, research in the areas of the self, education, age, and race is reviewed. In the section on current…
Branberg, Kenny; And Others
Effects of sex, education, and age on total test score on the Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test, a college entrance examination, are studied using applicants aged over 25 with 1 to 4 years' work experience. About 10,000 applicants have taken the test annually since 1977. Genuine differences appear in each variable studied. (SLD)
Broome, Jeffrey L.
Multi-age classrooms feature the purposeful grouping of students from two or more grade levels in order to form communities of learners. During the past 40 years, multi-age education has been examined in literature and research in many different ways and contexts. In the subject area of visual art, however, little literature can be found that…
Van Gerven, Pascal W.M.; Meijer, Willemien A.; Jolles, Jelle
In this experimental study, effects of age and education on switching focal attention in working memory were investigated among 44 young (20-30 years) and 40 middle-aged individuals (50-60 years). To this end, a numeric n-back task comprising two lag conditions (1- and 2-back) was administered within groups. The results revealed a comparable…
THE NEW YORK CITY BOARD OF EDUCATION HAS INSTITUTED A NUMBER OF PROGRAMS TO ACHIEVE ETHNIC BALANCE IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. HOWEVER, THE PROBLEMS OF RACIAL INTEGRATION, WHICH RESULT FROM HOUSING, MOVEMENT OF WHITE POPULATION, GROWTH OF NONPUBLIC EDUCATION, AND THE DIFFERENTIAL RATE OF ETHNIC CHANGE IN THE VARIOUS BOROUGHS, REFLECT A CONDITION OF THE…
Manny, Ruth E.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Cotter, Susan A.; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Mutti, Donald O.; Twelker, J. Daniel; Zadnik, Karla
Purpose The ethnically-diverse Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study cohort provides a unique opportunity to explore associations among intraocular pressure (IOP), ethnicity, and refractive error while adjusting for potential confounding variables. Methods Mixed linear models were used to examine the effect of age, refractive error (cycloplegic autorefraction), ethnicity, sex, and measurement protocol on IOP (Tono-pen) in 3,777 children, aged 6-14 years at their first CLEERE visit (1995-2009). Children who became myopic during follow-up were used to examine the relationship between time since myopia onset and IOP. Clinically meaningful differences in IOP were preset at > 2 mm Hg. Results IOP differed among refractive error categories with higher IOP in children with low/moderate myopia than those with high hyperopia (differences < 1 mm Hg). There was a statistically significant relationship between age and IOP that depended on ethnicity (interaction p<0.0001) and measurement protocol (interaction p<0.0001). The relationship between sex and IOP depended on measurement protocol (interaction p=0.0004). For children who became myopic during follow-up, the adjusted mean IOP showed a significant decline for only Asian (p=0.024) and White children (p=0.004). As with other statistically significant results, these changes in mean adjusted IOPs from two years before to two years after myopia onset were < 2 mm Hg. Conclusions Small but significant differences in IOP by refractive error category were found in this ethnically diverse cohort of children. Relationships between IOP and age, ethnicity, sex, and measurement protocol were complicated by significant interactions between these parameters. Longitudinal analysis of children before and after myopia onset showed changes in IOP over time that varied by ethnicity. Higher IOPs before and at myopia onset were not present in all ethnic groups, with differences before and after onset too small to suggest a role for IOP in the onset of myopia. PMID:21946783
Ogawa, Dennis M.
This is the report of a project designed to train secondary school teachers and other ethnic studies personnel in Hawaii in the area of Asian American literature so as to enhance their understanding of ethnic identity, interethnic relations, and the process of American multiculturalism. The project performance report includes a description of a…
DE LIMA AMARAL, ERNESTO FRIEDRICH; RIOS-NETO, EDUARDO LUIZ GONÇALVES; POTTER, JOSEPH E.
The objective of this study is to estimate the long term mean earnings of the male Brazilian population, taking into account the ageing process of the population and the increase in educational attainment. Using census data, household sample surveys, as well as population and education projections, estimates indicate that an ageing population and an increase in education will have a 2 percent impact on the annual growth of an average income in Brazil by 2050. The challenge for the future is to improve the proportion of the Brazilian population with completed college degrees.
Dana L. Charles McCoy; C. Cybele Raver; Amy E. Lowenstein; Nicole Tirado-Strayer
Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report composite of 2 clinical measures of self-regulation—the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (version 11; BIS-11) and the
Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng
Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health. PMID:22763460
Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti
This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%). PMID:19749611
Educational services are now, and will be in the future, delivered via many alternative technologies. In Wisconsin, a variety of video-based alternative delivery systems are being used, such as broadcast television, instructional television fixed service, cable television, interactive computer video, and satellite earth stations. The primary need…
Rebecca H. Rutherfoord
Learning takes place as an act, process or experiences of gaining knowledge or skills about a topic. Androgagy has become the study of how adults learn in our modern society. This knowledge can only help the information technology educator understand their students and help assist in preparing both faculty and students for a better classroom experience. Knowles has taken some
Cross, Christopher T.
Political insider Christopher Cross has updated his critically acclaimed book to reflect recent education policy developments, including the impact of the Obama administration and "Race to the Top" as well as the controversy over NCLB's reauthorization. Featuring a new introduction and the addition of postscripts for key chapters, this important…
Grantham, J. O.
New values, economic necessity, computers, and telecommunications interacting on each other are transforming our personal lives and our institutions. These changes can be for the good if we transform ourselves to handle them properly as a new dimension in society. Higher education, by its very nature, should be affected profoundly as we move into…
Harney, John O.
Innovators and entrepreneurs are using technologies to make freely available the things for which universities charge significant money. MOOCs (massive open online courses), free online courses, lecture podcasts, low-cost off-the-shelf general education courses, online tutorials, digital collections of open learning resources, open badges--all are…
Waks, Leonard J.
In this paper, Leonard J. Waks re-imagines the social foundations of education (SFE) as a project within the information society. He begins with what he believes to be a reasonably non-controversial definition: SFE is a field of scholarship and teaching aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding, through description, interpretation, and…
The continuing challenge of engaging adult learners in the process of positive social change has summoned adult educators to a new understanding of their role as change agents in an increasingly complex world. Despite all obstacles presented by our contemporary culture, the nature of adult development continues to offer opportunities for adult…
This paper contends that powerful techniques to manipulate data, enabled by technological and economic developments, can be easily co-opted to serve the restrictive frameworks of hyper-controlling, managerial accountability that characterise current cultures of summative assessment in education. In response to these challenges, research is…
Russian Education and Society, 2012
The latest scheduled Sorokin Readings on "Global Social Turbulence and Russia," a topic whose relevance has been confirmed by events of the past 10 years, were held on 6-7 December at Moscow State University. One key factor that keeps such turbulence in check is the education level as a factor of a high standard of living. The array of problems in…
Age patterns of secondary certification and college entry differ in complex and surprising ways for traditional graduates and GED recipients. Although GED recipients are less likely to enter college in their late teens, they catch up to traditional graduates in their 20s. Results show that adjusting for differences in the age trajectories of school continuation accounts for a substantial portion of the differences observed between the two groups. Important differences remain, however, in the type of college attended and the likelihood of college entry before age 21. Nonetheless, more GED recipients enroll in college than previous studies have suggested, and this interest in college identifies a useful place for policy to intervene to encourage school continuation for this group.
Wishon, Phillip M.
Each year in the United States, thousands of school-aged children become involved in sexual activities arranged by adults for purposes of pleasure and profit. Nationwide, annual profits from the child pornography industry and from female and male child prostitution are in the tens of millions of dollars. Heretofore, the majority of…
With the advent of an aging society, the older population is gradually increasing and people are living longer than ever before. However, older people are often portrayed in school textbooks as insignificant, unhealthy, sad, passive, and dependent. That is, ageism emerges in school textbooks in subtle ways. Under this circumstance, children may…
Hendrickson, Daniel Scott
The philosopher Charles Taylor argues in "A Secular Age" (2007) that people who live in secular cultures are losing the capacity to experience genuine "fullness." Described by Taylor as a philosophical-anthropological conception of human flourishing that corresponds with existential senses of meaning and purpose, fullness is…
Gergokova, Zh. Kh.
It was acknowledged by the Second United Nations World Assembly on Aging that this process is a global social and demographic reality that has had its impact on the entire world in all aspects of its existence--the traditional national, financial economic, political, and moral-ethical aspects. At the present time every state is confronted by the…
Laney, James D.; And Others
Describes an interdisciplinary curriculum on aging that incorporates intergenerational activities, inquiry-oriented research, narrative histories, and field trips. Includes separate questionnaires for older adults and primary grade students, an annotated bibliography, and a chart of activities emphasizing knowledge, comprehension, analysis,…
McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan C.; Piccinin, Andrea; Rhea, Sally Ann; Stallings, Michael C.
This study examined relations between children’s attention span-persistence in preschool and later school achievement and college completion. Children were drawn from the Colorado Adoption Project using adopted and non-adopted children (N = 430). Results of structural equation modeling indicated that children’s age 4 attention span-persistence significantly predicted math and reading achievement at age 21 after controlling for achievement levels at age 7, adopted status, child vocabulary skills, gender, and maternal education level. Relations between attention span-persistence and later achievement were not fully mediated by age 7 achievement levels. Logistic regressions also revealed that age 4 attention span-persistence skills significantly predicted the odds of completing college by age 25. The majority of this relationship was direct and was not significantly mediated by math or reading skills at age 7 or age 21. Specifically, children who were rated one standard deviation higher on attention span-persistence at age 4 had 48.7% greater odds of completing college by age 25. Discussion focuses on the importance of children’s early attention span-persistence for later school achievement and educational attainment. PMID:23543916
Mennerick, Lewis A.
statuses have an ethnic counterpart. Chemists, engineers, and skilled laborers, for example, usually do not seek to possess and display auxiliary ethnic traits. While Italian- ~Americans may occupy the status of chemist, they are not usually thought...IS ethnic occupational status primarily because his qualifications are not strong enough to enable him to compete outside of the ethnic community or because his participation in the larger system is restricted by out-group persons who are in positions...
Grandner, Michael A.; Petrov, Megan E. Ruiter; Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Jackson, Nicholas; Platt, Alec; Patel, Nirav P.
Study Objectives: Growing evidence indicates sleep is a major public health issue. Race/ethnicity and socioeconomics may contribute to sleep problems. This study assessed whether sleep symptoms were more prevalent among minorities and/or the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Epidemiologic survey. Patients or Participants: 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 4,081). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Sociodemographics included age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and immigration. Socioeconomics included poverty, education, private insurance, and food insecurity. Sleep symptoms assessed were sleep latency > 30 min, difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, early morning awakenings, non-restorative sleep, daytime sleepiness, snorting/gasping, and snoring. Decreased reported problems for most symptoms were found among minorities, immigrants, and lower education levels. In general, in fully adjusted models, long sleep latency was associated with female gender, being black/African American, lower education attainment, no private insurance, and food insecurity. Difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, early morning awakenings, and non-restorative sleep were also associated with female gender and food insecurity. Daytime sleepiness was seen in female and divorced respondents. Snorting/gasping was more prevalent among male, other-Hispanic/Latino, and 9th- to 11th-grade-level respondents. Snoring was prevalent among male, other-Hispanic/Latino, less-educated, and food-insecure respondents. Conclusions: Sleep symptoms were associated with multiple sociodemographic and economic factors, though these relationships differed by predictor and sleep outcome. Also, reports depended on question wording. Citation: Grandner MA; Petrov MER; Rattanaumpawan P; Jackson N; Platt A; Patel NP. Sleep symptoms, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic position. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):897-905. PMID:23997702
Winker, Margaret A
Race and ethnicity are commonly reported variables in biomedical research, but how they were determined is often not described and the rationale for analyzing them is often not provided. JAMA improved the reporting of these factors by implementing a policy and procedure. However, still lacking are careful consideration of what is actually being measured when race/ethnicity is described, consistent terminology, hypothesis-driven justification for analyzing race/ethnicity, and a consistent and generalizable measurement of socioeconomic status. Furthermore, some studies continue to use race/ethnicity as a proxy for genetics. Research into appropriate measures of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factors, as well as education of researchers regarding issues of race/ethnicity, is necessary to clarify the meaning of race/ethnicity in the biomedical literature. PMID:17144175
Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire
The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064
O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Romero, Andrea J.
Arizona Senate Bill 1108, the "anti-ethnic studies bill," proposed to eliminate ethnic studies programs and ethnic-based organizations from state-funded education. Along with other anti-immigrant legislation, this bill is creating an oppressive climate of discrimination against individuals of Mexican descent in Arizona. This study investigates the…
Duncan, Greg J.; Leak, James A.; Li, Weilin; Magnuson, Katherine; Schindler, Holly; Yoshikawa, Hiro
The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to…
Lai, Daniel W L
In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada. PMID:22198551
The profound influence of globalization seems helping outshine the concept of "education" with the more flexible notion of "learning" in the education policies of major transnational organizations. With considerable differences in concepts, all of them are promoting "learning", more specifically LLL (lifelong learning) through their policies.…
Zajacova, Anna; Hummer, Robert A; Rogers, Richard G
This article presents detailed estimates of relative and absolute health inequalities among U.S. working-age adults by educational attainment, including six postsecondary schooling levels. We also estimate the impact of several sets of mediating variables on the education-health gradient. Data from the 1997-2009 National Health Interview Survey (N = 178,103) show remarkable health differentials. For example, high school graduates have 3.5 times the odds of reporting "worse" health than do adults with professional or doctoral degrees. The probability of fair or poor health in mid-adulthood is less than 5 percent for adults with the highest levels of education but over 20 percent for adults without a high school diploma. The probability of reporting excellent health in the mid-forties is below 25 percent among high school graduates but over 50 percent for those adults who have professional degrees. These health differences characterize all the demographic subgroups examined in this study. Our results show that economic indicators and health behaviors explain about 40 percent of the education-health relationship. In the United States, adults with the highest educational degrees enjoy a wide array of benefits, including much more favorable self-rated health, compared to their less-educated counterparts. PMID:22582892
Vameghi, R; Mohammad, K; Karimloo, M; Soleimani, F; Sajedi, F
Background: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of ‘face-to-face education’ and ‘educational movies’ on ‘knowledge’ and ‘practice’ of women of child-bearing-age, in terms of health-care during pregnancy and during infancy in a suburban region near Tehran City, Iran. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, the sample included 873 married women. Questionnaires for knowledge and practice assessment were designed. The women were assigned to three groups: control (group I), face-to-face education (group II), and educational movie (group III). Knowledge questionnaires were completed before and immediately after intervention. Practice questionnaires were completed before and three months after intervention. Both questionnaires consisted of two types of questions: type A (concerning infant care issues) and type B (concerning prenatal health care). Results: There was a significant difference in post-test knowledge between groups I and II and between groups I and III, but not between groups II and III. In terms of post-test practice, the changes were determined for every individual question, and significantly, better results were seen in group II, especially concerning type B questions. Conclusion: Face to face education lead to better practice than educational movies. In addition, significantly better practice occurred regarding child health care issues rather than prenatal issues in both groups. Realistic and tangible issues, those easy to practice, and with little or no economical burden imposed on the family, progressed from the knowledge state to the practice state more successfully in both groups. PMID:23113010
American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.
This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff facilitator…
This article offers a five-level variable that highlights the level and the consistency of a student's educational "anticipations," and tests the explanatory power of this approach to the histories of traditional age community college students using the postsecondary transcript files of the NELS:88\\2000 longitudinal study. In logistic models of…
Karcher, Barbara C.; Whittlesey, Valerie
Colleges and universities have failed to meet the long-recognized, growing need for nonacademic-credit gerontology education. With the explosive growth of the aging network, other organizations have readily responded to the fast-growing market. Results of two needs assessments over a 5-year period demonstrate employers' higher support for…
As part of a symposium on challenges and problems of adult education researchers in different settings, recent research activities at one private independent research organization were examined. Three projects of the American Instituties for Research (AIR) were reviewed, all relating to adult development and aging. The first examined career…
Leafy Tu; Michel Plaisent; Prosper Bernard; Lassana Maguiraga
Purpose – The study aims to examine the age differences of job satisfaction between Taiwanese and Chinese higher education faculty. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data on job satisfaction were obtained from 194 Taiwanese faculty and 211 Chinese faculty at college levels in one city. Findings – No statistically significant differences were found for full-time Taiwanese and Chinese faculty in the overall
Feleta Louise Andrews Wilson
This study explored the effects among age, gender, level of education and moral reasoning using Kohlberg's and Gilligan's theories as conceptual framework. In the past several years, there has been a resurgence of interest in this topic, fueled by the debate on the multi-dimensional elements of moral reasoning.^ Much of the research in the area of moral reasoning has used
Abrams, Laura S.; Franke, Todd M.
In this study, the authors explore correlates of engagement in postsecondary educational programs (including technical/trade schools, 2-year colleges, and 4-year colleges) among young men who served mandatory probation camp sentences as juveniles. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with a sample of 75 men (average age of 20.5) who…
Peters, Michael A.; Besley, A.C.
This book develops the notion of "knowledge cultures" as a basis for understanding the possibilities of education and development in the age of knowledge Capitalism. "Knowledge cultures" point to the significance of cultural preconditions in the new production of knowledge and how they are based on shared practices, embodying culturally preferred…
for shorter time periods. Person 2 Live alone, no children MSc in Management of Innovation and BusinessFamily (spouse, possibly children's age) Education Who would we like to meet: Person 1 Live with my girlfriend (Master of Science in Engineering - Urban Design), no children Master of Science in Engineering
differences in the temporal stability of marriages (Lehrer and Chiswick, 1993). Our method should be usefulTwo-Sided Estimation of Mate Preferences for Similarities in Age, Education, and Religion John not been recorded. Besides marriage and cohabitation, data on employment, college attendence
Brinker, Jay K.; Roberts, Pamela; Radnidge, Belinda
This article describes the development and evaluation of The Game of Late Life--a novel education activity for the psychology of ageing. The game was designed to provide transformational learning where students imagine themselves as older adults and move through late life via a game board, encountering various life events along the way. One of the…
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…
Abdulkader, Zeyad Mohannad; ur Rahman, Sajjad; Nimeri, Nuha
Objective: To analyze the association between maternal ethnicity and gestational age with the incidence of low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: Prospective, analytic study Methods: The study was conducted between March 14th and April 4th 2011 in Women's Hospital HMC. The data was ascertained from the delivery register of labor ward on daily basis using predesigned, structured questionnaire. Data was stratified according to the maternal ethnicity groups and gestational age at birth (term and preterm). Results: The total deliveries during the study period were 890; 35.5% Qatari (n 316) and 64.5% non-Qatari (n 574). The incidence of LBW was 12.36% (n 110). The difference of LBW incidence between Qatari (13.6% n 43) and non-Qatari (11.67% n 67) groups was non significant (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.82-1.67, p = 0.401). The same was between non-Qatari sub groups (p < 0.05). The incidence of IUGR was 6% (n 54; 49.09% of LBW). The incidence of IUGR between Qatari (5.7% n 18) and non-Qatari (6.27% n 36) groups was significant (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.3-0.6 p>0.05). The incidence of LBW was 7.85% (n 60) in term babies and 39.68% (n 50) in preterm babies. The incidence if IUGR was 3.79% (n 29) in term babies and 19.84% (n 25) in preterm babies. Preterm babies had a five times higher risk of both being LBW (RR 5.05; 95%CI 3.65-6.99; p < 0.001) and IUGR (RR 5.23; 95% CI 3.17-8.62; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of low birth weight is independent of maternal ethnicity in Qatar. However, the incidence of IUGR is significantly higher among the non-Qatari population. The relative risk of being LBW or IUGR is five times higher in preterm babies. Further in depth studies are indicated. PMID:25003038
... Specific Prevalence Rates for AMD by Age and Race/Ethnicity The risk of AMD increases with age. ... Race/Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of AMD by Race White Americans have the greatest likelihood of developing ...
Eva, Kevin W
As demographic drift among health care providers mimics that of the larger population, it becomes increasingly clear that theory pertaining to the impact of aging on cognitive processing should inform the continuing education efforts designed for health care professionals. The purpose of this article is to offer a critical review of the major theories in this area and outline a sample of the implications that can be derived from these views. Research articles examining the relationship between age and physician performance were identified using MEDLINE, PsychLit, and ERIC. In addition, the psychology literature on age-related changes in cognitive processing was reviewed. Evidence from the medical education literature and psychological theory suggest the importance of increased environmental supports, decreased time demands, and peer review programs as barriers against the impact of aging. The implications of these findings include the potential to tailor continuing education (and physician remediation) efforts toward the age-related abilities/deficiencies of individual physicians. PMID:14528783
Cesur, Sevim; Topcu, Mustafa Sami
The aim of the study is twofold: First and main aim was to develop a valid and reliable Turkish version of the DIT which is one of the most important instruments in the psychology and education research; second is to explore the relationships between moral development and age, gender, education, and parental education. The study group consists of…
Borrell, Luisa N.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Jacobs, David R.; Shea, Steven; Jackson, Sharon A.; Shrager, Sandi; Blumenthal, Roger S.
Objective To examine the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking and alcohol consumption in adults participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods Data on 6,680 black, Chinese, Hispanic and white adults aged 45 to 84 years of age recruited from Illinois, New York, Maryland, North Carolina, Minnesota and California during 2000 and 2002 were used for this analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking status and alcohol consumption for each racial/ethnic group separately. Results Blacks were more likely to experience racial/ethnic discrimination (43%) than Hispanics (19%), Chinese participants (10%) or whites (4%, P<0.0001). In the fully-adjusted model, blacks reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 34% and 51% greater odds of reporting smoking and drinking, respectively, than blacks who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Hispanics reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 62% greater odds of heavy drinking. Whites reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 88% greater odds of reporting being current smokers than whites who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the experience of discrimination is associated with greater prevalence of unhealthy behaviors. Specifically, the use of smoking and alcohol may be patterned by experience of discrimination. PMID:20609433
Butler, Johnnella E., Ed.; Walter, John C., Ed.
This book provides a collection of 19 essays that discuss curricular change in higher education regarding ethnic and women's studies, and presents the theoretical and practical bases for accomplishing this restyling. The papers and authors are as follows: "The Difficult Dialogue of Curriculum Transformation: Ethnic Studies and Women's Studies"…
Cline, Tony; de Abreu, Guida; Fihosy, Cornelius; Gray, Hilary; Lambert, Hannah; Neale, Jo
This study investigated the situation of ethnic minority students in predominantly white British schools, highlighting factors affecting their educational achievement and examining the perspectives of ethnic minority students and their parents and teachers. Surveys of the performance of over 34,000 students in predominantly white schools in 35…
Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.; Davison, Mark L.; Kuang, Haijiang; Ding, Shuai; Kim, Se-Kang; Kwak, Nohoon
Data from the 1990 National Assessment of Educational Progress were used to study the number of Carnegie units earned by students in mathematics. Overall, gender and ethnic differences in total mathematics courses were small but ethnic differences relative to the type of course were large. Gender differences are discussed in light of college…
Stephens, Thomas M.
Examines the scope of Portuguese language maintenance and ethnicity in and around Newark, New Jersey, and analyzes social and linguistic situations that demonstrate how the relatively homogeneous immigrant group responded to external stimuli (educational, media, religious, and social) regarding language, culture, and ethnicity. (CB)
Nielsen, Keith E.
The BLBC (bilingual-bicultural) model of inter-ethnic communication is an effective method for bridging the instructional "gap" between classroom education and field experiences. These two learning experiences are distinct; yet each should complement the other. The BLBC model of inter-ethnic communication attempts to interface the student's…
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Helfand, Mark
We integrated findings from 35 recent, longitudinal studies of the onset of heterosexual intercourse. Correlates of adolescent sexual intercourse onset, whether in early (before age 16) or middle (ages 16-18) adolescence, included living with other than two biological parents, being less monitored by parents, having more advanced physical maturity…
Cheung, C. K.
In this age of new media, children are exposed to media messages at an early age. What can we do when the mass media exert such a great influence on children? One proposal has been for the introduction of a new school subject: media education. Though media education has not been part of the official curriculum in Hong Kong, some schools, both…
Johnson, Branden B
A globalizing world increases immigration between nations, raising the question of how acculturation (or its lack) of immigrants and their descendants to host societies affects risk perceptions. A survey of Paterson, New Jersey, residents tested acculturation's associations with attitudes to air pollution and its management, and knowledge of and self-reported behaviors concerning air pollution. Linguistic and temporal proxy measures for acculturation were independent variables along with ethnicity, plus controls for gender, age, education, and income in multivariate analyses. About one-fifth of contrasts between non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics were statistically significant (Bonferroni-corrected) and of medium or higher affect size, with most featuring the Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. Knowledge variables featured the most significant differences. Specifically, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics reported less concern, familiarity with pollution, recognition of high pollution, and vigorous outdoor activity, and greater belief that government overregulates pollution than English-interviewed Hispanics (and than the other two groups on most of these variables too). English-interviewed Hispanics did not differ from non-Hispanic whites, but did on several variables from non-Hispanic blacks. Temporal proxies of acculturation among the foreign-born were far less significant, but concern and familiarity with air pollution increased with time spent in the United States, while belief in overregulation and a positive trend in New Jersey pollution increased with time in the nation of origin. Implications of these acculturation and ethnicity findings for risk perception/communication research and practice are discussed. PMID:21231941
Both demographic developments and the need for highly skilled workers have led to renewed efforts to widen access to higher education in Europe. This means looking beyond the traditional clientele of university education in terms of routes into higher education, age, and centrality of studies. Attracting and catering to this more comprehensive…
Ahmad, Emily; Grimes, Deanna E.
The effects of asthma self-management education for school-age children on number of school days missed, emergency department visits and hospital admissions were evaluated through a systematic review of the published research. A total of 9 studies on asthma education programs that were conducted in schools by school nurses and health educators and…
Scherr, Rachel E.; Reed, Heather; Briggs, Marilyn; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate nutrition education competencies and a competency-based resource guide, Connecting the Dots...Healthy Foods, Healthy Choices, Healthy Kids (CTD), for preschool-aged children in California. Methods: Nutrition education experts and California Department of Education staff…
Saab, Hana; Klinger, Don A.
Research exploring the relationship between education and health suggests that people with higher levels of schooling report better health. To emphasize health as a determinant of educational achievement, this article establishes a gradient in education by health among Canadian students. Using data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged…
Rodrigues Cavalcante, Karla; Caramelli, Paulo
Limb praxis can be influenced by age, gender, and education. The present study investigated the influence of these variables on gesture production by healthy elderly subjects. We evaluated 96 individuals divided into two age groups (60-74 and 75-88 years). Each group contained 48 men and 48 women and was subdivided into four groups according to education: illiterates and 1-3, 4-7, and 8 or more years of education. Individuals were requested to carry out tasks on verbal command and imitation. There were no differences between the performance of men and women, while older individuals performed worse than their younger counterparts. Regarding educational level, three major groups emerged: illiterates, individuals with 1-7 years of education, and those with 8 or more years of education. In conclusion, age and education significantly influenced the performance of individuals in limb praxis tests. PMID:19573281
McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John
Two hundred regular users of illegal drugs, aged 16-20, were recruited by peers in ten further education colleges across inner London. Data collected by self-completion questionnaire are presented on patterns of cigarette, alcohol, cannabis, stimulant and other drug use among White, Black and Asian ethnic groups. Multiple and logistic regression…
Schnell, James A.
The U.S. Air Force attempts to minimize racial and sexual discrimination by incorporating federal laws into its infrastructure and by exercising consistent enforcement of these laws. This leads to a development of cross-cultural communication among various subcultures within a multi-ethnic environment. The Social Actions Office at each Air Force…
Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle
The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…
Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.
This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…
Bradunas, Elena; Topping, Brett, Ed.
This book reports the findings of the Ethnic Heritage and Language Schools Project undertaken by the American Folklife Center in 1982. Twenty-one researchers used participant observation to study ethnic schools in different parts of the United States. The project studied schools that correspond to Fishman's classification of ethnic education…
Frumkin, Lara A.; Koutsoubou, Maria
There is evidence that ethnic minority learners in further education in England either under-achieve or are under-represented because they face various inhibitors connected to their ethnicity. Motivators may be in place, however, which increase attainment specifically for some ethnic groups. This exploratory study intends to examine what works and…
Shmueli, A; Cullen, M R
It has been well established that increased maternal education, income, and social status contribute to increased birth weight, as well as reduced risk for low or very low birth weight offspring. However, there remains controversy about the mechanism(s) for this effect, as well as the interactions between these factors, maternal age, and race. Presented here is the analysis of a large, recent sample of over 20,000 consecutive live births in 12 hospitals, about half in Connecticut and half in Virginia, including a maternal population that is educationally and racially diverse. Although information on potentially relevant details such as prenatal care, smoking, occupation, and neighborhood is lacking the data set, there is sufficient information to explore the previously noted strong effect of maternal education on birth weight, as well as the large racial difference in outcome at every educational level after adjustment for the effects of age, marital status, state of residence, and gender of the offspring. However, this relationship was not monotonic, and there were differences in the effect between the white and black families, with black women showing a linear and consistent benefit from education across the range, while whites show a sharp benefit from completion of primary education, less from subsequent schooling. A surprising result was the apparent negative impact of very advanced education (>16 years), with lowered birth weights and higher risk of low birth weight offspring in the women with post-college training. The data also shed some addition light on the effect of age and birth weight. Whites show established improvement in birth outcome to about age 30, with slight decline thereafter, whereas in blacks there was progressive decline in birth weight with rising age starting in adolescence, as previously demonstrated by Geronimus. An additional unexpected observation was a sizable difference between births in Connecticut (larger, fewer low birth weight) than Virginia, correcting for all other covariates. It is hypothesized that this may reflect differences in services used, prenatal care in particular given similarities in smoking rates and other predictors. Because of the non-representativeness of and the limited information available in the present study, the conclusions should be taken as hypotheses for further research rather than definitive. PMID:10907775
Martelli, Joseph; Abels, Patricia
The authors identified and described the CEOs of Fortune 500 companies in terms of several education-related and other demographic variables. Specifically, they identified the type and level of degrees earned, including specific majors, and additionally explored several demographic variables, including age, gender and ethnicity. They also…
Chicago Consortium for Inter-Ethnic Curriculum Development, IL.
The teacher's manual accompanies the Ethnic Heritage in America curriculum materials for elementary-level social studies. First, the manual presents a background discussion of the materials. The materials resulted from an ethnic education project based on a course for teachers on Community Policies in Ethnic Education at the University of Illinois…
Knox H. Todd; Christi Deaton; Anne P. D’Adamo; Leon Goe
Study Objective: We previously reported that Hispanic ethnicity was an independent risk factor for inadequate analgesic administration among patients presenting to a single emergency department. We then attempted to generalize these findings to other ethnic groups and EDs. Our current study objective is to determine whether black patients with extremity fractures are less likely to receive ED analgesics than similarly
Collins, Gary S.
: Foundations of Comparative Ethnic Studies CES 209: Hip Hop Around the Globe CES 260: Race and Racism in US and Sexuality CES 301: Race and Global Inequality CES 446: Racism and Anti-Racism in Global Context CES 491: Theories of Racism and Ethnic Conflicts W ST 201: Critical Frameworks in Gender Studies Math Requirement
Breivik, Patricia Senn
This book discusses resource-based learning in higher education. One premise of resource-based learning is that as students become able to select their own learning materials from information resources, they become active, independent learners, while professors become learning facilitators in cooperation with librarians and other information…
Barry A. Friedman; Paula E. Bobrowski; John Geraci
Purpose – Parent satisfaction with their children's school is an important issue in today's competitive educational environment characterized by school choice and government standards; however, few empirical studies address school satisfaction similarities and differences among parents from different ethnic groups. The purpose of this paper is to determine empirically similarities as well as differences in the factors important to parents
Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA. Tamburitzans Inst. of Folk Arts.
This ethnic heritage teaching guide is based on the folk arts of the Bulgarian people. Folk arts are defined as expressions of creative impulses which arise spontaneously within a culture without resort to formal educative processes and which become characteristic of that culture. Folk Arts were selected as a good indicator of Bulgarian culture…
Introduction Little is known about the relationship between discrimination and distress among multiple racial groups because previous studies have focused primarily on either blacks or Asian Americans. The objective of this study was to assess the association between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and symptoms of psychological distress among 5 racial/ethnic groups in California. Methods I used data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey describing an adult sample of 27,511 non-Hispanic whites, 8,020 Hispanics, 1,813 non-Hispanic blacks, 3,875 non-Hispanic Asians, and 1,660 people of other races/ethnicities. The Kessler 6-item Psychological Distress Scale determined symptoms of psychological distress. I used a single-item, self-reported measure to ascertain experiences of racial discrimination. Results Reports of racial discrimination differed significantly among racial groups. Self-reported discrimination was independently associated with psychological distress after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, sex, education level, employment status, general health status, nativity and citizenship status, English use and proficiency, ability to understand the doctor at last visit, and geographic location. The relationship between discrimination and psychological distress was modified by the interaction between discrimination and race/ethnicity; the effect of discrimination on distress was weaker for minority groups (ie, blacks and people of other races/ethnicities) than for whites. Conclusion Self-reported discrimination may be a key predictor of high levels of psychological distress among racial/ethnic groups in California, and race appears to modify this association. Public health practitioners should consider the adverse effects of racial discrimination on minority health. PMID:23078667
Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.
Objective To determine whether the prevalence of obesity in ethnic admixture adults varies systematically from the average of the prevalence estimates for the ethnic groups with whom they share a common ethnicity. Methods and Procedures The sample included 215,000 adults who reported one or more ethnicities, height, weight, and other characteristics through a mailed survey. Results The highest age-adjusted prevalence of overweight (BMI ? 25) was in Hawaiian/Latino men (88%; n = 41) and black/Latina women (74.5%; n = 79), and highest obesity (BMI ? 30) rates were in Hawaiian/Latino men (53.7%; n = 41) and Hawaiian women (39.2%, n = 1,247). The prevalence estimates for most admixed groups were similar to or higher than the average of the prevalences for the ethnic groups with whom they shared common ethnicities. For instance, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in five ethnic admixtures—Asian/white, Hawaiian/white, Hawaiian/Asian, Latina/white, and Hawaiian/Asian/white ethnic admixtures—was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than the average of the prevalence estimates for their component ethnic groups. Discussion The identification of individuals who have a high-risk ethnic admixture is important not only to the personal health and well-being of such individuals, but could also be important to future efforts in order to control the epidemic of obesity in the United States. PMID:18356848
Kurt Schweigman; Claradina Soto; Serena Wright; Jennifer Unger
This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 – 19 across California. Respondents who participated
Graham, Sandra; Munniksma, Anke; Juvonen, Jaana
To examine the unique functions of same- and cross-ethnic friendships, Latino (n = 536) and African American (n = 396) sixth-grade students (M[subscript age] = 11.5 years) were recruited from 66 classrooms in 10 middle schools that varied in ethnic diversity. Participants reported on the number of same- and cross-ethnic friends, perceived…
Borrell, C; Plasencia, A; Huisman, M; Costa, G; Kunst, A; Andersen, O; Bopp, M; Borgan, J; Deboosere, P; Glickman, M; Gadeyne, S; Minder, C; Regidor, E; Spadea, T; Valkonen, T; Mackenbach, J
Objective: To study the differential distribution of transportation injury mortality by educational level in nine European settings, among people older than 30 years, during the 1990s. Methods: Deaths of men and women older than 30 years from transportation injuries were studied. Rate differences and rate ratios (RR) between high and low educational level rates were obtained. Results: Among men, those of low educational level had higher death rates in all settings, a pattern that was maintained in the different settings; no inequalities were found among women. Among men, in all the settings, the RR was higher in the 30–49 age group (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.61) than in the age groups 50–69 and ?70 years, a pattern that was maintained in the different settings. For women for all the settings together, no differences were found among educational levels in the three age groups. In the different settings, only three had a high RR in the youngest age group, Finland (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.74), Belgium (RR 1.38; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.67), and Austria (RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.75 to 2.96). Conclusion: This study provides new evidence on the importance of socioeconomic inequalities in transportation injury mortality across Europe. This applies to men, but not to women. Greater attention should be placed on opportunities to select intervention strategies tailored to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in transportation injuries. PMID:15933403
Antonia Calvo-Salguero; José Miguel Ángel García-Martínez; Adelaida Monteoliva
This study analyses the masculinity and femininity in a Spanish sample made up of 164 adult workers (88 men and 76 women).\\u000a To be specific, the objective was to demonstrate whether age and level of education were related to differences in masculinity\\u000a and femininity, both when comparing between the two genders and when the comparisons are made within the same
Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. veteran. Inquirie
, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, sex, marital status, ethnicity, religion, national origin, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information
Pardini, Dustin A.; Fite, Paula J.; Burke, Jeffrey D.
This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied…
Arroyo-Ávila, Mariangelí; Santiago-Casas, Yesenia; McGwin, Gerald; Cantor, Ryan S; Petri, Michelle; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Reveille, John D; Kimberly, Robert P; Alarcón, Graciela S; Vilá, Luis M; Brown, Elizabeth E
The aim of this study was to determine the association of anti-Sm antibodies with clinical manifestations, comorbidities, and disease damage in a large multi-ethnic SLE cohort. SLE patients (per American College of Rheumatology criteria), age ?16 years, disease duration ?10 years at enrollment, and defined ethnicity (African American, Hispanic or Caucasian), from a longitudinal US cohort were studied. Socioeconomic-demographic features, cumulative clinical manifestations, comorbidities, and disease damage (as per the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index [SDI]) were determined. The association of anti-Sm antibodies with clinical features was examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, disease duration, level of education, health insurance, and smoking. A total of 2322 SLE patients were studied. The mean (standard deviation, SD) age at diagnosis was 34.4 (12.8) years and the mean (SD) disease duration was 9.0?(7.9)?years; 2127 (91.6 %) were women. Anti-Sm antibodies were present in 579 (24.9 %) patients. In the multivariable analysis, anti-Sm antibodies were significantly associated with serositis, renal involvement, psychosis, vasculitis, Raynaud's phenomenon, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and arterial hypertension. No significant association was found for damage accrual. In this cohort of SLE patients, anti-Sm antibodies were associated with several clinical features including serious manifestations such as renal, neurologic, and hematologic disorders as well as vasculitis. PMID:25896533
Werner, Julie M.; Carlson, Mike; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Clark, Florence
Objective In this study we analyzed self-reported computer use, demographic variables, psychosocial variables, and health and well-being variables collected from 460 ethnically diverse, community-dwelling elders in order to investigate the relationship computer use has with demographics, well-being and other key psychosocial variables in older adults. Background Although younger elders with more education, those who employ active coping strategies, or those who are low in anxiety levels are thought to use computers at higher rates than others, previous research has produced mixed or inconclusive results regarding ethnic, gender, and psychological factors, or has concentrated on computer-specific psychological factors only (e.g., computer anxiety). Few such studies have employed large sample sizes or have focused on ethnically diverse populations of community-dwelling elders. Method With a large number of overlapping predictors, zero-order analysis alone is poorly equipped to identify variables that are independently associated with computer use. Accordingly, both zero-order and stepwise logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the correlates of two types of computer use: email and general computer use. Results Results indicate that younger age, greater level of education, non-Hispanic ethnicity, behaviorally active coping style, general physical health, and role-related emotional health each independently predicted computer usage. Conclusion Study findings highlight differences in computer usage, especially in regard to Hispanic ethnicity and specific health and well-being factors. Application Potential applications of this research include future intervention studies, individualized computer-based activity programming, or customizable software and user interface design for older adults responsive to a variety of personal characteristics and capabilities. PMID:22046718
Lee, Hedwig; Mehta, Neil K.
Objectives. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, yet HPV vaccination rates remain relatively low. We examined racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of health care provider recommendations for HPV vaccination and the association between recommendation and vaccination. Methods. We used the 2009 National Immunization Survey–Teen, a nationally representative cross-section of female adolescents aged 13 to 17 years, to assess provider-verified HPV vaccination (??1 dose) and participant-reported health care provider recommendation for the HPV vaccine. Results. More than half (56.9%) of female adolescents received a recommendation for the HPV vaccine, and adolescents with a recommendation were almost 5 times as likely to receive a vaccine (odds ratio?=?4.81; 95% confidence interval?=?4.01, 5.77) as those without a recommendation. Racial/ethnic minorities were less likely to receive a recommendation, but the association between recommendation and vaccination appeared strong for all racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions. Provider recommendations were strongly associated with HPV vaccination. Racial/ethnic minorities and non-Hispanic Whites were equally likely to obtain an HPV vaccine after receiving a recommendation. Vaccine education efforts should target health care providers to increase recommendations, particularly among racial/ethnic minority populations. PMID:22698055
Janevic, T; Loftfield, E; Savitz, D A; Bradley, E; Illuzzi, J; Lipkind, H
Our objective was to examine differences in risk of cesarean delivery among diverse ethnic groups in New York City. Using cross-sectional New York City birth and hospitalization data from 1995 to 2003 (n = 961,381) we estimated risk ratios for ethnic groups relative to non-Hispanic whites and immigrant women relative to US-born women. Adjusting for insurance, pre-pregnancy weight, maternal age, education, parity, birthweight, gestational age, year, medical complications, and pregnancy complications, all ethnic groups except East Asian women were at an increased risk of cesarean delivery, with the highest risk among Hispanic Caribbean women [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.27, 95 % CI (confidence interval) = 1.24, 1.30] and African American women (aRR = 1.20, 95 % CI = 1.17, 1.23). Among Hispanic groups, immigrant status further increased adjusted risk of cesarean delivery; adjusted risk ratios for foreign-born women compared to US-born women of the same ethnic group were 1.27 for Mexican women (95 % CI = 1.05, 1.53), 1.23 for Hispanic Caribbean women (95 % CI = 1.20, 1.27), and 1.12 for Central/South American women (95 % CI = 1.04, 1.21). Similar patterns were found in subgroup analyses of low-risk women (term delivery and no pregnancy or medical complications) and primiparous women. We found evidence of disparities by ethnicity and nativity in cesarean delivery rates after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Efforts to reduce rates of cesarean delivery should address these disparities. Future research should explore potential explanations including hospital environment, provider bias, and patient preference. PMID:23504133
Erickson, Sarah J; Montague, Erica Q; Maclean, Peggy C; Bancroft, Mary E; Lowe, Jean R
Children born very low birth weight (<1500 g, VLBW) are at increased risk for developmental delays. Play is an important developmental outcome to the extent that child's play and social communication are related to later development of self-regulation and effective functional skills, and play serves as an important avenue of early intervention. The current study investigated associations between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication in Caucasian, Spanish speaking Hispanic, English speaking Hispanic, and Native American toddlers (18-22 months adjusted age) in a cross-sectional cohort of 73 toddlers born VLBW and their mothers. We found that the association between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication differed by ethnicity (F(3,65) = 3.34, p = .02). In particular, Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads evidenced a significant positive association between maternal flexibility and play sophistication of medium effect size. Results for Native Americans were parallel to those of Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads: the relationship between flexibility and play sophistication was positive and of small-medium effect size. Findings indicate that for Caucasians and English speaking Hispanics, flexibility evidenced a non-significant (negative and small effect size) association with toddler play sophistication. Significant follow-up contrasts revealed that the associations for Caucasian and English speaking Hispanic dyads were significantly different from those of the other two ethnic groups. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for the amount of maternal language, an index of maternal engagement and stimulation; and after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, test age, cognitive ability, as well maternal age, education, and income. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ethnicity and acculturation may mediate the association between maternal interactive behavior such as flexibility and toddler developmental outcomes, as indexed by play sophistication. Addressing these association differences is particularly important in children born VLBW because interventions targeting parent interaction strategies such as maternal flexibility must account for ethnic-cultural differences in order to promote toddler developmental outcomes through play paradigms. PMID:22982287
Kupprat, Sandra Anne; Halkitis, Perry N; Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael; Solomon, Todd M; Ashman, Teresa; Kingdon, Molly J; Levy, Michael David
Little is known about the impact of HIV and aging on cognitive functioning. This New York City cross-sectional study of aging HIV-positive gay and bisexual men assessed their neuropsychological state. Working memory and verbal abstract reasoning were relatively intact. After 55 years of age, attention abilities were impaired. Executive function impairment was present regardless of age and education. Results suggest the need for HIV-specific norms, and the use of neuropsychological assessments (i.e. baseline and over time) as a cost-effective way to assess HIV-related cognitive decline in developed and under-developed countries. PMID:24265296
Binder-Fritz, C; Rieder, A
This article deals with the significance of gender as a social determinant of health and questions the influence of gender roles in health-care services. In the context of worldwide migration, women and men of different ethnicity or social class meet with health-care providers in cross-cultural medical settings. This setting is a challenge for the European Region and in order to allow for diversity and gender sensitivity in health-care practice, interventions should address a range of factors. The concept of intersectionality goes beyond gender sensitivity and includes the consideration of other dimensions of difference, such as age, social class, education, and ethnicity. The interaction between these social dimensions of health shapes the health needs of patients and also influences doctor-patient communiation and social interaction. PMID:25085241
Michelle Neiss; David C. Rowe
This study compared adoptive children and matched, biological children to estimate the genetic and environmental effect of years of mothers' and fathers' education on children's verbal intelligence (VIQ), as assessed by knowledge of vocabulary words. Adoptive and biological adolescent children in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were matched for sex, age, parental education, and ethnicity. The
Reviews two new books that argue for the political implementation of cultural pluralism in the United States: Peter Schrag's The Decline of the Wasp," and Michael Novak's The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnics." (Author/JM)
John Stillwell; Maarten van Ham
\\u000a This introductory chapter of the book contains an examination of the concepts of race,ethnicity, immigration and integration,\\u000a together with a brief consideration of selected measures of ethnic evenness, isolation, diversity and density that are used\\u000a in subsequent chapters. This discussion sets the scence for the chapters that follow, explains the structure of the book and\\u000a introduces the contents of each
Timm, Joan S.
This study addresses concern about bias in educational materials for elementary school pupils. Children's storybooks were examined for the appearance of biases across the cultural categories of race, ethnicity, gender, age, socioeconomic level, religion, and environmental background. These biases included stereotyping, invisibility (omission of…
John Knight; Shi Li
A national household income survey and census data are used to examine the determinants of educational attainment in China. Rural and Urban areas are analyzed separately, and contrasted, owing to the sharp economic and institutional divide between them. The roles of income, age, gender, ethnicity, region and family background are explored. An attempt is made to distinguish between demand-and supply-constraints.
Vernez, Georges; Krop, Richard
This report, commissioned by the College Board's National Task Force on Minority High Achievement, contains an analysis of possible changes in the racial and ethnic composition of the student-age population in the United States between 1990 and 2015. The data are presented disaggregated by social class, as measured by parent education and family…
LeBrón, Alana M. W.; Schulz, Amy Jo; Mentz, Graciela; Perkins, Denise White
Objectives The John Henryism (JH) hypothesis suggests that, under adverse social and economic conditions, high-effort coping styles that reflect hard work and determination may contribute to elevated blood pressure. Results from tests of this hypothesis have been mixed, with variations by region, urban versus rural areas, race, gender, and age. The majority of studies reporting that socioeconomic position modifies associations between JH and blood pressure have been for non-Latino Blacks in rural communities. In contrast, most studies conducted in urban areas report little support for the JH hypothesis. Few studies have been conducted in samples that include Latinos. We extend previous research by testing the JH hypothesis in a multi-ethnic, low-to-moderate income urban community. Design We used multivariate linear regression to test the hypothesis that associations between JH and blood pressure were modified by income, education, or labor force status in a multi-ethnic (non-Latino Black, Latino, non-Latino White) sample (N=703) in Detroit, Michigan. The outcome measures were systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Results John Henryism was associated with higher SBP (?=3.92, P=.05), but not DBP (?=1.85, P=.13). These associations did not differ by income, education, or labor force status. Results did not differ by race or ethnicity. Conclusions John Henryism is positively associated with SBP in this multi-ethnic, low-to-moderate income sample. This association did not differ by income, education, or labor force status. Results are consistent with studies conducted in urban communities, finding limited evidence that associations between JH and blood pressure vary by socioeconomic position. PMID:25812248
Cohen, Catherine Crawford
Purpose. To determine if significant differences exist in consent rates for biospecimen storage and continuing studies between non-Hispanic Whites and minority ethnic groups in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods. Using logistic regression, we analyzed 2011-2012 NHANES data to determine whether race/ethnicity, age, gender, and education level influence consent to specimen storage or future testing. Results. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, some minorities were less willing to donate a specimen for storage and continuing studies, including other Hispanics (non-Mexican) (OR 0.236, 95% CI: 0.079, 0.706), non-Hispanic Asians (OR 0.212, 95% CI: 0.074, 0.602), and other/multiracial ethnic groups (OR 0.189, 95% CI: 0.037, 0.957). Within race and ethnic groups, those aged 20–39 years (OR 2.215, 95% CI: 1.006–4.879) and 40–59 years (OR 9.375, 95% CI: 2.163–40.637) are more willing than those over 60 years to provide consent. Conclusion. Lower consent rates by other Hispanics, non-Hispanic Asians, and other/multiracial individuals in this study represent the first published comparison of consent rates among these groups to our knowledge. To best meet the health care needs of this segment of the population and to aid in designing future genetic studies, reassessment of ethnic minority groups concerning these issues is important. PMID:25485292
Agbaria, Ayman K.
The scholarship nexus between education and globalization provides limited insights into how global education has been framed and rendered. The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it seeks a better understanding of the nature of the mission of preparing citizens for the global age and what it entails in the context of learning and teaching…
Fitch, Pamela; Racine, Andrew
To characterize the knowledge and attitudes of an ethnically diverse group of inner-city parents regarding childhood immunizations, we conducted structured telephone interviews with 102 primary caretakers at an academic ambulatory pediatric practice during the winter of 2001-2002. The sample was ethnically diverse, with 36% African-American, 41% Hispanic, and 15% white. Half the households had infants or toddlers in the home, and 36% had children with conditions placing them at high risk for influenza. Almost all parents felt that their children should be immunized against diseases in general (98%), but significant proportions also believed that children received more immunizations than necessary (23%), that immunizations could weaken a child's immune system (36%), or that the influenza vaccine could itself make a child ill (48%). Younger parents, those with infants, and parents of children at risk for complications of influenza were less likely to hold these beliefs while race/ethnicity, marital status, parent's education, or socioeconomic status could not be shown to have any effect. We conclude that many inner-city parents question the effects of childhood immunizations and hold erroneous beliefs about them irrespective of age, race, socioeconomic status, or educational background. Practitioners should address these beliefs in efforts to diminish disparities in immunization levels associated with inner-city multiethnic populations. PMID:15303409
Jimenez, Monik; Dietrich, Thomas; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Li, Yi; Joshipura, Kaumudi J.
Objectives To compare the associations between socio-economic factors and tooth loss among Whites, Blacks and Mexican-Americans. Methods Analyses were conducted on 16,821 adults, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III. Age and multivariate adjusted negative binomial regression were used to explore the relation of socio-economic factors, region of residence, gender, and foreign-born with number of missing teeth. Effect modification by race/ethnicity was assessed by the inclusion of interaction terms. Results In multivariate adjusted analyses, non-Hispanic Whites with 9–12 years of education exhibited 71% higher mean number of missing teeth than those with >12 years (IRR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.52–1.92). Education was unrelated to number of teeth among non-Hispanic Blacks (IRR=1.16; 95% CI: 1.00–1.35) or Mexican-Americans (IRR=1.10, 95% CI: 0.93–1.31). The poorest Whites were missing 39% more teeth, on average, than the most affluent Whites, but no association between poverty and number of teeth was observed among Blacks or Mexican-Americans. Conclusions The associations between socio-economic factors and tooth loss vary across race/ethnicity. This suggests the health benefits associated with high SES are not equally shared across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:19302573
Huang, Wei; Zhou, Yi
This paper explores whether educational attainment has a cognitive reserve capacity in elder life. Using pilot data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), we examined the impact of education on cognitive abilities at old ages. OLS results showed that respondents who completed primary school obtained 18.2 percent higher scores on cognitive tests than those who did not. We then constructed an instrumental variable (IV) by leveraging China's Great Famine of 1959-1961 as a natural experiment to estimate the causal effect of education on cognition. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) results provided sound evidence that completing primary school significantly increases cognition scores, especially in episode memory, by almost 20 percent on average. Moreover, Regression Discontinuity (RD) analysis provides further evidence for the causal interpretation, and shows that the effects are different for the different measures of cognition we explored. Our results also show that the Great Famine can result in long-term health consequences through the pathway of losing educational opportunities other than through the pathway of nutrition deprivation. PMID:24331882
Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A.; Kuller, Lewis H.
Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools…
Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Griffith, Derek M.
Though gender, racial, and ethnic disparities in health in the United States are well documented, it is less clear how these factors intersect to produce patterns of mental health outcomes among men. This study examined the presence of father figures in the lives of African American, Caribbean black and non-Hispanic white American males until the age of 16; assessed the current socio-demographic factors of these men as adults; and explored whether these factors lead to variations in mental health outcomes. Regression models were used to examine the correlates of socio-demographic, psychosocial, and retrospective father figure measures for depressive symptoms and non-specific psychological distress among African American (n = 999), Caribbean black (n = 506), and non-Hispanic white men (n = 193) from the National Survey of American Life. Findings revealed racial and ethnic group differences by age, employment status, education, and household income on depressive symptoms (measured using the CES-D scale) and non-specific psychological distress (using the Kessler-6 scale). Findings suggested that being raised by a grandfather placed both African American and Caribbean black men at greater risk for depressive symptoms and non-specific psychological distress under certain socio-demographic conditions. This study is unique in that it considers the influence of father figures on the mental health outcomes of adult males across three racial and ethnic groups. We conclude with a discussion of the implications for future mental health research and practice with men of color. PMID:25057330
Oxman-Martinez, Jacqueline; Rummens, Anneke J; Moreau, Jacques; Choi, Ye Ri; Beiser, Morton; Ogilvie, Linda; Armstrong, Robert
This article examines relationships between perceived ethnic discrimination, social exclusion, psychosocial functioning, and academic performance among newcomer immigrant children from the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, and the Philippines using a subsample from the New Canadian Children and Youth Study of children aged 11-13?years (1,053) living in Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, and the Prairies. Bivariate analysis showed that 25% of children reported being treated unfairly by peers and 14% by teachers because of who they are. Regression analyses revealed that perceived ethnic discrimination by peers and teachers was negatively related to children's sense of social competence in peer relationships. Children's self-esteem and sense of academic competence were negatively related to perceived discrimination by teachers. One in 5 children reported feeling like an outsider, with boys revealing higher levels of psychological isolation than girls. More than 1 in 10 were socially isolated and reported never participating in organized activities. This may reflect economic exclusion, as over one third of respondents belonged to families living below the Canadian Income Adequacy Measure. Psychological isolation, social isolation, and economic exclusion were significant predictors of children's sense of academic competence and actual academic grades. Variations exist across age, sex, ethnicity, family structure, parental education, region of settlement, and length of time since arrival in Canada. PMID:22880976
von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz
The study discussed herein assessed the prevalence of bullying and analysed possible predictors for bullying in a sample of urban primary school-age children. Factors considered were students' gender and age differences as well as parents' educational level and migration backgrounds. Using a cross-informant approach (self- and teacher-reports),…
Wilson, Travis M; Rodkin, Philip C; Ryan, Allison M
This study examined whether social goal orientation (i.e., demonstration-approach, demonstration-avoid, and social development goals) predicts changes in ethnic segregation among 4th and 5th grade African American and European American children (n = 713, ages 9-11 years) from fall to spring. Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in friendships, (b) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer group affiliations, and (c) cross-ethnicity dislike. Social goal orientation was asymmetrically associated with ethnic segregation for the 2 groups. Among African Americans, aspiring to achieve high social status predicted increases in same-ethnicity favoritism and cross-ethnicity dislike. Among European Americans, aspiring to achieve high social status predicted decreases in same-ethnicity favoritism. PMID:24294876
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
THIS CENSUS OF THE RACIAL AND ETHNIC DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA WAS PREPARED IN ORDER TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT OF COMPLIANCE WITH THE LAWS, POLICIES, AND REGULATIONS OF THE GOVERNING RACIAL AND ETHNIC BALANCE. IT IS ALSO TO BE USED AS A FRAME OF REFERENCE FOR COMPENSATORY EDUCATION, EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES, AND…
Sontoredjo, Timothy A A; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H
Individuals originating from different ethnic groups can respond differently to certain medicines. In this article, we differentiated persons with a European, African and Asian origin into three main groups. The combination of a fixed dose of isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine (known as BiDil) was marketed specifically in the US for Afro-Americans with heart failure, as patients from this group respond less well to ACE inhibitors. Ethnic differences in the effects of medications are partly linked to genetic variations. These ethnicity-related differences in the effects of medicines could be caused by variations in the enzymes that metabolise medications, e.g. cytochrome P450 (CYP) or, genetic variations in the receptors to which these substances bind. These differences could have consequences for dosing. Besides the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences, there are also ethnic differences related to undesirable effects: HLA-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, for example. Ethnicity is not a suitable basis for adjusting the dosages of medicines. Genotyping can prove helpful at times. PMID:23614867
Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Tanaka, Miho
Our study identifies the prevalence of HBV virus (HBV) screening and vaccination among Asian Americans, and ethnic differences for factors associated with screening and vaccination behaviors. In 2009–2010 we recruited 877 Korean, Chinese, and Vietnamese Americans 18 years of age and above through several community organizations, churches and local ethnic businesses in Maryland for a health education intervention and a self-administered survey. Prevalence of HBV screening, screening result and vaccinations were compared by each ethnic group. We used logistic regression analysis to understand how sociodemographics, familial factors, patient-, provider-, and resource-related barriers are associated with screening and vaccination behaviors, using the total sample and separate analysis for each ethnic group. Forty-seven percent of participants reported that they had received HBV screening and 38% had received vaccinations. Among the three groups, the Chinese participants had the highest screening prevalence, but lowest self-reported infection rate; Vietnamese has the lowest screening and vaccination prevalence. In multivariate analysis, having better knowledge of HBV, and family and physician recommendations was significantly associated with screening and vaccination behaviors. Immigrants who had lived in the US for more than a quarter of their lifetime were less likely to report ever having been screened (OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.28–0.55) or vaccinated (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.44–0.88). In ethnic-specific analysis, having a regular physician (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.62–12.25) and doctor's recommendation (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.05–4.22) are significantly associated with Korean's vaccination behaviors. Health insurance was associated with vaccination behaviors only among Vietnamese (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.21–5.83), but not among others. PMID:22302652
Gisselquist, Rachel M
Group identifications - in particular, those based on ethnicity and class - are central to political mobilization during elections. This dissertation asks: when and why does the salience of ethnic and class categories vary ...
Finlayson, Marcia; Garcia, Jennifer Dahl; Preissner, Katharine
This article describes a three-phase project to identify and develop an occupational therapy response to the challenges experienced by caregivers of middle-aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). In Phase 1 302 caregivers of middle-aged and older adults with MS were interviewed by telephone to identify the care-giving challenges they experienced. A total of eight challenges were identified, with the four most prevalent ones including finding and using formal support services, managing the emotional aspects of caregiving, doing the physical aspects of care-giving and dealing with informal supports. In Phase 2 a comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify existing caregiver education programmes that could be used to address these challenges. None of the 21 programmes that were located addressed all of the challenges identified through the Phase 1 interviews. In response, a new five-session psycho-educational group programme entitled 'Meeting the Challenges of MS' was developed in Phase 3. The programme was empirically grounded in Phase 1 findings, and drew on theory to guide group process and sequencing. The findings from Phases 1 and 2 and the resulting programme cannot be generalized to caregivers of younger adults with MS, although the steps taken to develop this programme have the potential for replication with other populations served by occupational therapists. PMID:18203107
Matty A. S. de Wit; Wilco C. Tuinebreijer; Jack Dekker; Aart-Jan T. F. Beekman; Wim H. M. Gorissen; Agnes C. Schrier; Brenda W. J. H. Penninx; Ivan H. Komproe; Arnoud P. Verhoeff
Introduction To explore ethnic differences in psychopathology, this study examined the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among\\u000a different ethnic groups in Amsterdam and determined whether ethnic differences can be explained by socio-demographic differences.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A population-based sample of 321 Dutch, 231 Turkish, 191 Moroccan, 87 Surinamese\\/Antilleans was interviewed by well-trained\\u000a bilingual interviewers, using the CIDI 2.1. Educational level and income were
Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira
In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the ‘racial climate’. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in attempts to better address the impacts of racism on health. PMID:25706560
Sehee Hong; Hsiu-Zu Ho
The present study on the influence of parental involvement on students' academic achievement overcame limitations in current research by including simultaneous considerations of multidimensional, longitudinal, mediational, and ethnic factors. Results indicated (a) significant ethnic differences in the direct effects of parental involvement on academic achievement; (b) consistent indirect effects, mediated by student educational aspiration, across all 4 ethnic groups for
Famighetti, Robert A.
A number of professionals in the family life field have examined the changing American values toward the family and responsibility to aging parents. Research shows that the provision of social services to the aged have in many ways eased the traditional norms of family members responsibility toward aging parents. In response, the social service…
Smith, Gary R.
Two secondary social studies units, parts three and four of a series of four, contain classroom activities that help students recognize the role of superordinate goals in ethnic conflict. Objectives are to help students understand ethnic conflict within a nation in a political context and become aware of the common problems faced by ethnic groups…
Chan, A; Davanzo, J
This study examines how benefits, costs, opportunities, and preferences affect ethnic differences in parent-child coresidence in Malaysia. The conceptual model is described in greater detail in a companion paper. Data were obtained from the senior sample of the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey of 1988-89. The nationally representative sample includes 1229 persons aged over 50 years living in private households. Retirement age in Malaysia is 45 years for women and 55 years for men. Ethnicity includes Malay, Chinese, and Indians. Adult children are aged 20 years and older. The analysis pertains to 802 married and 427 unmarried seniors. Chinese tended to live in the most expensive areas and urban areas. Malays tended to live in the least expensive areas and rural areas. Health perception ranged from good to fair to poor. About 20% of married seniors had wives aged under 50 years. Income refers to average monthly unearned income, excluding transfers from other households or public sources. The relative roles of ethnic differences in each explanatory variable are estimated. Findings indicate that the higher incidence of remarriage and lower housing costs for married Malays explain their lower coresidence rates. The poorer health of Indians and better health of Malays also explain coresidence differences for the married. The higher incidence of daughter-only families among Malays explains coresidence differences. The explanatory variables of remarriage, housing costs, health, and daughter-only families explain little for the unmarried. Among the unmarried and the married, older age was associated with greater coresidence for the Chinese only. Chinese and Malay coresidence declined with increased educational levels. Coresidence rates were lower for Malays and higher for Indians. PMID:12320793
Crawford, P B; Story, M; Wang, M C; Ritchie, L D; Sabry, Z I
Childhood obesity may be seen as a marker for high-risk dietary and physical inactivity practices. Recent increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among American children are not limited to one age, gender, or ethnic group, which suggests that unique behaviors of the members of various racial or ethnic subgroups of the population are unlikely to be the major contributing factors. Rather, it seems that environmental changes promoting increased energy intake and decreased energy output are occurring and have widespread impact on children from various backgrounds. Although no ethnic group is immune from the current shift in energy balance, differential rates of overweight seem to exist among ethnic groups. National probability samples of African-American, Hispanic, and white children in the United States provide clear evidence that white children are at lower risk for childhood overweight than are African-American or Hispanic children. Of concern is the lack of national data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity for Native-American and Asian-American groups. Also of concern is the aggregation of racial and ethnic subgroups, which may render prevalence rates meaningless. This possibility is clearly true with some surveys of weight status that combine diverse populations, such as Asians and Pacific Islanders, into one group. The high rates of obesity in African-American, Hispanic, and Native-American children are of concern. Although parental SES is associated inversely with childhood obesity among whites, higher SES does not seem to protect African-American and Hispanic children against obesity. In these groups, childhood obesity does not seem to be associated significantly with parental income and education. Health consequences of childhood obesity include a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and an increased risk for adverse levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and blood pressure. The effects of recently reported unprecedented levels of childhood overweight on subsequent risk for obesity in middle age are not known until future longitudinal data can be collected. It seems likely, however, that future health consequences of current early and severe childhood obesity will be staggering. Funding for adult follow-up of longitudinal studies of high-risk African American, Hispanic, and Native-American children is needed urgently to provide information on the long-term effects of childhood obesity. Halting the obesity epidemic is a formidable task, but the success in recent decades of drastically reducing childhood undernutrition offers hope and should spur similar action and leadership efforts. Promotion of efforts to reduce excess caloric intake with efforts to increase energy expenditure should receive paramount attention in the design of health programs. Given the relatively few published obesity-prevention and treatment studies that are designed to address specific cultural issues, it is important to promote the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that are shown to be effective among youth of diverse backgrounds. Although the dietary and activity goals will be similar, parental, family, and community messages and techniques grounded in cultural traditions and norms will be different for each ethnic group. This approach is crucial in the United States, a country with an increasingly diverse population. PMID:11494640
Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily
Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development. PMID:25181324
Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia
We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…
Burger, Henry G., Ed.
In May 1968, 10 leaders of Southwestern minority groups--Amerindians, Blacks, and Spanish-speaking--gathered to share their educational problems and discuss collective solutions. From their thoughts on assimilation and integration, on living conditions, curriculum, local school board control, and teacher education, two ambivalences emerged: (1)…
Wang, H H
The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of health promotion lifestyle (HPL) and examine the similarities and differences among three ethnic groups of elderly rural women in Taiwan. Pender's Health Promotion Model was used as the conceptual framework of this study. A convenience sample of 599 elderly rural women was recruited from three rural areas: Kao-Shu, San-Di-Men, and Ma-Chia. Ho-Lo, Hakka, and aboriginal people are the three main ethnic groups in these areas. Of the 599 elderly women, 391 completed all of the interview questions. Subjects ranged from 65 to 91 years old. All instruments used in this study have been evaluated for their content validity. The interrater reliability and alpha coefficient reliability of all instruments were greater than 0.70. A survey-interview method was used to collect data. Findings showed that the predictors of HPL have differences and similarities among elderly rural women from different ethnicities. In the group of elderly Ho-Lo women, age, education, living arrangements, and perceived barriers to health promotion lifestyle (PBaHPL) were significant predictors and they explained 41.9% of total variance in HPL. In the group of elderly Hakka women, education, number of chronic health problems, PBaHPL, and perceived benefits of health promotion lifestyle (PBeHPL) were significant predictors in explaining 53.9% of total variance in HPL. Finally, in the group of elderly aboriginal women, living arrangements, PBaHPL, and PBeHPL were significant predictors in explaining 70.0% of total variance in HPL. Community nurses can use their understanding of different ethnic groups to assess, identify, and use effective health promotion interventions for elderly rural women. PMID:10528502
Bonilla, Carlos A., Ed.; Goss, Joyce, Ed.
This book contains seven chapters, written by graduate students in teacher education, on educational strategies to promote multiculturalism and combat racial, ethnic, and gender bias in the classroom. Chapters are: (1) "Diversity and Multiculturalism: Quo Vadis? What Is Multiculturalism?" (Deborah Bradford Basey, Michelle Danner, Stacy Graham,…
Giordano, Michael Joseph
This study compared the attitudes towards ethnic groups of high school students enrolled in a standard U.S. history course with the attitudes of students enrolled in a revised U.S. history course which emphasized ethnic awareness. A review of the literature indicated a need for ethnic awareness. The experimental group consisted of 16 students; the…
Howe, Laura D; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen; Jeffreys, Mona; Firestone, Ridvan
Background In New Zealand, the burden of childhood obesity is greatest in M?ori and Pacific children. Methods In 687 infants from an internet-based birth cohort in New Zealand, we investigated ethnic differences in early life risk factors for later obesity, the degree to which these were explained by sociodemographic factors, and the extent to which ethnic differences in weight at age 3?months were explained by measured risk factors. Results The risk of having an obese mother was double in M?ori and Pacific infants compared with NZ European infants (prevalence 24% and 14%, respectively; OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.23 to 4.04). M?ori and Pacific infants had higher weights in the first week of life and at 3?months (mean difference 0.19?kg, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.38), and their mothers had higher scores on a ‘snacks’ dietary pattern and lower scores on ‘healthy’ and ‘sweet’ dietary patterns. These inequalities were not explained by maternal education, maternal age or area-based deprivation. No ethnic differences were observed for maternal pre-pregnancy physical activity, hypertension or diabetes in pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding or early introduction of solid foods. Ethnic inequalities in infant weight at 3?months were not explained by sociodemographic variables, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index or dietary pattern scores or by other measured risk factors. Conclusions This study shows excess prevalence of early life risk factors for obesity in M?ori and Pacific infants in New Zealand and suggests an urgent need for early interventions for these groups. PMID:25795734
Fowler, Sharon PG; Williams, Ken; Hazuda, Helen P
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet soda (DS) intake (DSI) has been associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, but its specific impact in older adults has not been addressed. Because central obesity increases cardiovascular risk, we examined the relationship between DSI and long-term waist circumference (WC) change (?WC) in the bi-ethnic San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA). DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING San Antonio, Texas, neighborhoods PARTICIPANTS SALSA examined 749 Mexican-American and European-American individuals ? 65 years old at baseline (BL: 1992-1996); 79.1% of survivors completed follow-up 1 (FU1) (2000-2001, n=474); 73.4%, FU2 (2001-2003, n=413); and 71.0%, FU3 (2003-2004, n=375). Participants completed a mean of 2.64 follow-up intervals, for 9.41 total follow-up years. MEASUREMENTS DSI, WC, height and weight were measured at outset and conclusion of each interval: BL-FU1, FU1-FU2, and FU2-FU3. RESULTS Adjusted for initial WC, demographics, physical activity, diabetes, and smoking, mean interval ?WC (95% confidence interval) for all DS users was almost triple that among non-users: 2.11 (1.45-2.76) vs. 0.77 (0.29-1.23) cm, respectively (p < 0.001). For non-, occasional, and daily DS users, adjusted interval ?WCs were 0.77 (0.29-1.23), 1.76 (0.96-2.57), and 3.04 (1.82-4.26) cm, respectively (p=0.002 for trend). This translates to ?WCs of 0.80, 1.83, and 3.16 inches, respectively, for these groups, over the total SALSA follow-up. In sub-analyses stratified separately by key covariates, ?WC point estimates were consistently higher among DS users. CONCLUSION In a striking dose-response relationship, increasing diet soda intake was associated with escalating abdominal obesity, a potential pathway for heightened cardiometabolic risk in this aging population. PMID:25780952
This research examined the relationship between ethnicity and the psychological status and behavior of Jewish and non-Jewish caregivers in relation to the impaired elderly. It was hypothesized that Jewish caregivers would make significantly more use of formal services than non-Jewish (usually Christian) caregivers. Two separate data sets were…
Sowell, Thomas, Ed.; Collins, Lynn D., Ed.
The essays in this volume focus on the historical and social evolution of six American ethnic groups. Thomas Sowell discusses similarities and differences in the experiences of antebellum "free persons of color," emancipated slaves and their descendants, and West Indian immigrants, and examines trends in the socioeconomic status of black…
Rebat M. Halder; Pavan K. Nootheti
With the changing demographics of the US population, there is a need to understand the variety of dermatologic disorders that manifest in ethnic groups of non-Caucasian skin types. This article provides a review of presentations and current treatments of several common dermatologic diagnoses in black, Hispanic, and Asian racial groups and compares them with the presentations in Caucasian skin. The
Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…
Walsemann, Katrina M.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Geronimus, Arline T.
Although research investigating ethnic differences in mental health has increased in recent years, we know relatively little about how mental health trajectories vary across ethnic groups. Do these differences occur at certain ages but not others? We investigate ethnic variation in trajectories of depressive symptoms, and we examine the extent to…
Using tract-level data from the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census, this study addresses four questions: (1. Has the proportion of neighborhoods with high ethnic concentration changed in from 1990 to 2000? (2. What are the socio-demographic profiles of ethnic neighborhoods? (3. Are new ethnic neighborhoods forming in Americaâ€™s suburbs? (4. How common are ethnoburbs â€“ that is, affluent, suburban, ethnic
van Rosse, Floor; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Stronks, Karien; de Bruijne, Martine; Wagner, Cordula
Objectives We analysed potential differences in incidence, type, nature, impact and preventability of adverse events (AEs) during hospitalisation between ethnic Dutch and ethnic minority patients, and the role of patient-related determinants. We hypothesised an increased AE incidence for ethnic minority patients. Setting We conducted a prospective cohort study in four urban hospitals. Participants 763 Dutch patients and 576 ethnic minority patients aged between 45 and 75, admitted for at least one night, were included in the study. All patients completed a questionnaire on patient-related determinants (eg, language proficiency). Outcome measures Incidence, type (eg, diagnostic AEs), impact and nature of AEs were assessed with a two-stage medical record review. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for patient and admission characteristics, and to investigate the contribution of patient-related determinants to AE risk. Results There was no significant difference in the incidence of AEs: 11% (95% CI 9% to 14%) in Dutch patients and 10% (95% CI 7% to 12%) in ethnic minority patients. Also, there was no significant difference in the incidence of preventable AEs: 3% (95% CI 1% to 4%) in Dutch patients and 1% (95% CI 0% to 2%) in ethnic minority patients. Low language proficiency, inadequate health literacy and low educational level did not increase the risk of an AE. Conclusions Compared with Dutch patients, ethnic minority patients were not at increased risk of AEs while receiving care in Dutch hospitals. Healthcare providers seem to have responded effectively to specific patient care needs, but we do not know whether this occurred in an ad hoc or in a systematic way. PMID:25550290
Ann M. Pobutsky; Robert Hirokawa; Florentina Reyes-Salvail
Objective: To estimate and describe the current prevalence of disability among Hawaii's population. Design, Setting, and Participants: Random-digit telephone survey of 6,000 adults aged 18 and older residing in Hawaii and participating in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2002 and the 2000 US Census. Main Outcome Measures: Any disability, indicators of disability severity by ethnicity, age, and gender.
Recent data show that as populations age, the number of people affected by neurodegenerative dementia is growing at an epidemic pace in various regions of the world. This cross-cultural study examined the relationships among age, gender, ethnicity, religion, and education as well as the attitudes and perceptions related to ageing and dementia. A random sample of 980 participants was selected to represent the multicultural population of Singapore. Data were collected using standardised questionnaires through online portals and by conducting interviews. These data were ultimately analysed by comparing percentage responses and correlation coefficients and by conducting a multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that the perceptions and attitudes of individuals toward ageing and dementia differ among different age groups. Moreover, the level of education attained was significantly correlated with understanding dementia; regardless of education level, Christians had the most positive mindset toward dementia, although most religious individuals did not believe in divine healing. In this study, it was determined that attitudes and perceptions about ageing and dementia are influenced by multiple factors, such as education, age, and religion, and that it is imperative that younger generations develop coping strategies, including healthy lifestyles and social and/or religious communities to provide quality care to the elderly, in general, and to dementia patients, in particular. PMID:26069868
Sara J. Czaja; Neil Charness; Arthur D. Fisk; Christopher Hertzog; Sankaran N. Nair; Wendy A. Rogers; Joseph Sharit
The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18–91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics,
Melville, D. Scott; Hammermeister, Jon
A nationwide survey of pre-service physical education majors/minors was completed during the 2003-2004 academic year (N = 755). Demographic information collected included age, gender, athletic background, Body Mass Index (BMI) and racial/ethnic background. Wellness practices were surveyed (physical activity, nutrition, and tobacco/alcohol use).…
Garcia, Eugene; Jensen, Bryant
This paper argues that young Hispanic (or Latina/o) children (ages 3 to 8 years) should be of particular interest to policymakers, practitioners, and researchers in education. Young Hispanic children constitute an urgent demographic imperative. Young Hispanic children are not only the largest racial/ethnic group in the U.S., but also the youngest…
Pfiffner, Linda J.; Villodas, Miguel; Kaiser, Nina; Rooney, Mary; McBurnett, Keith
This study evaluated educationally relevant outcomes from a newly developed collaborative school-home intervention (Collaborative Life Skills Program [CLS]) for youth with attention and/or behavior problems. Participants included 17 girls and 40 boys in second through fifth grades (mean age = 8.1 years) from diverse ethnic backgrounds. CLS was…
Newby, Katie; Wallace, Louise M.; Dunn, Orla; Brown, Katherine E.
Rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancy amongst the under-16s are causing increasing concern. There is limited evidence about the sexual behaviour and sex education preferences of this age group, especially of those from Black and minority ethnic groups. This study aimed to provide data on early heterosexual risk behaviour,…
Takayanagi, Taeko; Shimomura, Takayuki
This paper addresses the life and educational experiences of Ainu women, using the framework of postcolonial feminist theory. It explores the extent to which two factors--gender and ethnic minority status--affect young Ainu women as they attempt to enter mainstream society. The authors analyse life history interviews from three Ainu women aged 25.…
Afshari, Reza; Bhopal, Raj
Ethnicity and race are among the most commonly used epidemiological variables, closely following age, sex and social class. Relative increase in the use of the term ‘ethnicity’ rather than ‘race’ in the health ...
Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Guimond, Amy B.
The current longitudinal study of 323 Latino adolescents (50.5% male; M age = 15.31 years) examined whether ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation demonstrated significant growth over a 4-year period and whether growth in ethnic identity predicted growth in self-esteem. Findings from multiple-group latent growth curve models…
Bucx, Freek; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge
We investigated romantic relationships in a sample of 380 adolescents who formed 190 heterosexual couples (mean age: females 17 years; males 18 years): 173 intra-ethnic (German) couples and 17 inter-ethnic couples. Factor analyses revealed two types of love experiences: (a) experiences of attraction and a passionate focus on the partner…
American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Commission on Legal Problems of the Elderly.
The purposes of the project that developed this education package for business were as follows: (1) enhance employer knowledge and understanding of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), especially in its application to corporate downsizing and the use of early retirement incentives; (2) discourage employer practices that violate the act…