Purpose: To evaluate pediatric nutrition and physical activity interventions a reliable and feasible way of tracking change in body status is needed. Historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used in adults. BMI percentiles or Z scores, which are theoretically age and gender adjusted, have been...
Faeghi, F; Abdkarimi, M H; Asghari JafarAbadi, M
Objective: The aim of this study is to use diffusion-weighted MRI to assess the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in head, body and tail sections of the pancreas in healthy subjects and the relationships between these values and age, gender and body mass index (BMI) of these cases. Methods: This study was conducted on 82 participants who were referred to the Tabesh Medical Imaging Center, Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran, during 2013. Echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging of the pancreas was carried out with b-values of 50, 400 and 800 s mm−2, and ADC values were assessed for the head, body and tail sections of the pancreas. Results: The ADC values for the head, body and tail sections of the pancreas in female participants were significantly greater than those in male subjects (p < 0.05). ADC values for these parts among subjects with different BMI differed significantly (p < 0.05). Regarding age, there were no statistically meaningful differences among the ADC values for the three parts (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Gender and BMI effect the ADC values of the three sections of the pancreas. Thus, knowledge of the basic values based on gender and BMI can improve diagnostics. Having looked at age factor, it seems that the ADC values were not significantly different. Advances in knowledge: According to the results pancreatic ADC values appear to be influenced by gender and BMI but not by age. PMID:25471056
Carter, Patrick M.; Flannagan, Carol A.C.; Reed, Matthew P.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.
Background The effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and gender on motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are not well understood and current prevention efforts do not effectively address variability in occupant characteristics. Objectives 1) Characterize the effects of age, BMI and gender on serious-to-fatal MVC injury 2) Identify the crash modes and body regions where the effects of occupant characteristics onthe numbers of occupants with injuryis largest, and thereby aid in prioritizing the need forhuman surrogates that the represent different types of occupant characteristics and adaptive restraint systems that consider these characteristics. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the effects of occupant characteristics (age, BMI, gender), vehicle and crash characteristics on serious-to-fatal injuries (AIS 3+) by body region and crash mode using the 2000-2010 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS) dataset. Logistic regression models were applied to weighted crash data to estimate the change in the number of annual injured occupants with AIS 3+ injury that would occur if occupant characteristics were limited to their 5th percentiles (age ≤ 17 years old, BMI ≤ 19 kg/m2) or male gender. Results Limiting age was associated with a decrease inthe total number of occupants with head [8,396, 95% CI 6,871-9,070] and thorax injuries [17,961, 95% CI 15,960 – 18,859] across all crash modes, decreased occupants with spine [3,843, 95% CI 3,065 – 4,242] and upper extremity [3,578, 95% CI 1,402 – 4,439] injuries in frontal and rollover crashes and decreased abdominal [1,368, 95% CI 1,062 – 1,417] and lower extremity [4,584, 95% CI 4,012 – 4,995] injuries in frontal impacts. The age effect was modulated by gender with older females morelikely to have thorax and upper extremity injuries than older males. Limiting BMI was associated with 2,069 [95% CI 1,107 – 2,775] fewer thorax injuries in nearside crashes, and 5,304 [95% CI 4,279 – 5
Dolan, Eimear; Crabtree, Nicola; McGoldrick, Adrian; Ashley, David T; McCaffrey, Noel; Warrington, Giles D
The aim of this study was to compare bone mass between two groups of jockeys (flat: n = 14; national hunt: n = 16); boxers (n = 14) and age, gender and BMI matched controls (n = 14). All subjects underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning for assessment of bone mass, with measurements made of the total body, vertebra L2-4 and femoral neck. Body composition and the relative contribution of fat and lean mass were extrapolated from the results. Data were analysed in accordance with differences in body composition, in particular, height, lean mass, fat mass and age. Both jockey groups were shown to display lower bone mass than either the boxers or control group at a number of sites including total body bone mineral density (BMD) (1.019 ± 0.06 and 1.17 ± 1.05 vs. 1.26 ± 0.01 and 1.26 ± 0.06 g cm(-2) for flat, national hunt, boxer and control, respectively), total body bone mineral content (BMC) less head, L2-4 BMD and femoral neck BMD and BMC (p < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed that lean mass and height were the primary predictors of total body BMC, although additional group-specific influences were present which reduced bone mass in the flat jockey group and enhanced it in the boxers (R (2) = 0.814). Reduced bone mass in jockeys may be a consequence of reduced energy availability in response to chronic weight restriction and could have particular implications for these athletes in light of the high risk nature of the sport. In contrast, the high intensity, high impact training associated with boxing may have conveyed an osteogenic stimulus on these athletes. PMID:21773703
Ulbrich, Erika J.; Fischer, Michael A.; Manoliu, Andrei; Marcon, Magda; Luechinger, Roger; Nanz, Daniel; Reiner, Caecilia S.
Objectives To establish age- and sex-dependent values of magnetic resonance (MR) liver fat-signal fraction (FSF) in healthy volunteers with normal body-mass index (BMI). Methods 2-point mDIXON sequences (repetition time/echo time, 4.2msec/1.2msec, 3.1msec) at 3.0 Tesla MR were acquired in 80 healthy volunteers with normal BMI (18.2 to 25.7 kg/m2) between 20 and 62 years (10 men/10 women per decade). FSF was measured in 5 liver segments (segment II, III, VI, VII, VIII) based on mean signal intensities in regions of interest placed on mDIXON-based water and fat images. Multivariate general linear models were used to test for significant differences between BMI-corrected FSF among age subgroups. Pearson and Spearman correlations between FSF and several body measures were calculated. Results Mean FSF (%) ± standard deviations significantly differed between women (3.91 ± 1.10) and men (4.69 ± 1.38) and varied with age for women/men (p-value: 0.002/0.027): 3.05 ± 0.49/3.74 ± 0.60 (age group 20–29), 3.75 ± 0.66/4.99 ± 1.30 (30–39), 4.76 ± 1.16/5.25 ± 1.97 (40–49) and 4.09 ± 1.26/4.79 ± 0.93 (50–62). FSF differences among age subgroups were significant for women only (p = 0.003). Conclusions MR-based liver fat content is higher in men and peaks in the fifth decade for both genders. PMID:26554709
A BMI of 30 kg/m2 is used to define obesity of men and women of all ages. Using variable samples, investigators have shown that age and gender account for percent fat (%Fat) variance independent of BMI. This age and gender bias can be traced to the inability of BMI to distinguish between the body's ...
Wang, Li Hui; Chen, Ying Chang; Ka Chung, Angela; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Tam, Chick F.
The objective was to determine if the WHO global BMI (kg/m[squared]) cutoffs for determining overweight and obesity in the general populations are appropriate for Asian populations and to consider whether population-specific cutoffs would be warranted. A nonrandomized biased sampling of 227 Asian Americans were composed of 149 college students,…
Freedman, Marjorie R.
Objectives: To examine relationships between gender, ethnicity, and residency, with factors influencing weight gain in 756 multiethnic college freshmen. Methods: An online survey obtained participants' height and weight; consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy, and meals; dieting and exercise patterns. Results: Ten percent of Asians were…
Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi
In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage. PMID:21483178
Wright, Kynna N.
Purpose This community-based participatory research study examined the association between overweight status and activity among Hispanic urban, school-age children. Design and Methods In a sample of 140 children, activities were assessed using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey’s questions about physical activity and team sports. Results Thirty-nine percent were overweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) > 85%). Normal-weight children had higher levels of physical activity and team sports. Females had lower levels of physical activity and team sports. Significant associations included BMI and sports team participation, and BMI and Hispanic ethnicity. Practice Implications Nurses should be aware that Hispanic urban children are at risk for lower activity. PMID:21438999
Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli
Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p < 0.001) and the agreement was weaker (κ = 0.76). The abdominal obesity prevalence estimates were significant different according to the two systems both in boys and girls, although the agreement reached to 0.88, which represented an
Background The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic status (SES) tends to change over time and across populations. In this study, we examined, separately in men and women, whether the association between BMI and SES changed over successive birth cohorts in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region). Methods We used data from all participants in three surveys conducted in 1989, 1994 and 2004 in independent random samples of the population aged 25-64 years in the Seychelles (N = 3'403). We used linear regression to model mean BMI according to age, cohort, SES and smoking status, allowing for a quadratic term for age to account for a curvilinear relation between BMI and age and interactions between SES and age and between SES and cohorts to test whether the relation between SES and BMI changed across subsequent cohorts. All analyses were performed separately in men and women. Results BMI increased with age in all birth cohorts. BMI was lower in men of low SES than high SES but was higher in women of low SES than high SES. In all SES categories, BMI increased over successive cohorts (1.24 kg/m2 in men and 1.51 kg/m2 for a 10-year increase in birth cohorts, p < 0.001). The difference in BMI between men or women of high vs. low SES did not change significantly across successive cohorts (the interaction between SES and year of birth of cohort was statistically not significant). Smoking was associated with lower BMI in men and women (respectively -1.55 kg/m2 and 2.46 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Conclusions Although large differences exist between men and women, social patterning of BMI did not change significantly over successive cohorts in this population of a middle-income country in the African region. PMID:22152035
Clarke, Philippa; O’Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Schulenberg, John E
Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is rapidly increasing in industrialized countries, with long-term health and social consequences. There is also a strong social patterning of obesity and overweight, with a higher prevalence among women, racial/ethnic minorities and those from a lower socio-economic position (SEP). Most of the existing work in this area, however, is based on cross-sectional data or single cohort studies. No national studies to date have examined how social disparities in obesity and overweight differ by age and historical period using longitudinal data with repeated measures. Methods We used panel data from the nationally representative Monitoring the Future Study (1986–2004) to examine social disparities in trajectories of body mass index (BMI) over adulthood (age 18–45). Self-reported height and weight were collected in this annual US survey of high-school seniors, followed biennially since 1976. Using growth curve models, we analysed BMI trajectories over adulthood by gender, race/ethnicity and lifetime SEP (measured by parents’ education and respondent's education). Results BMI trajectories exhibit a curvilinear rate of change from age 18 to 45, but there was a strong period effect, such that weight gain was more rapid for more recent cohorts. As a result, successive cohorts become overweight (BMI > 25) at increasingly earlier points in the life course. BMI scores were also consistently higher for women, racial/ethnic minority groups and those from a lower SEP. However, BMI scores for socially advantaged groups in recent cohorts were actually higher than those for their socially disadvantaged counterparts who were born 10 years earlier. Conclusions Results highlight the importance of social status and socio-economic resources for maintaining optimal weight. Yet, even those in advantaged social positions have experienced an increase in BMI in recent years. PMID:18835869
Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Jianliang; Lv, Xianhui; Tao, Jianguo; Wang, Rong; Miao, Dengshun
To determine whether transplanted amniotic membrane mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) ameliorated the premature senescent phenotype of Bmi-1-deficient mice, postnatal 2-day-old Bmi-1−/− mice were injected intraperitoneally with the second-passage AMSCs from amniotic membranes of β-galactosidase (β-gal) transgenic mice or wild-type (WT) mice labeled with DiI. Three reinjections were given, once every seven days. Phenotypes of 5-week-old β-gal+ AMSC-transplanted or 6-week-old DiI+ AMSC-transplanted Bmi-1−/− mice were compared with vehicle-transplanted Bmi-1−/− and WT mice. Vehicle-transplanted Bmi-1−/− mice displayed growth retardation and premature aging with decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis; a decreased ratio and dysmaturity of lymphocytic series; premature osteoporosis with reduced osteogenesis and increased adipogenesis; redox imbalance and DNA damage in multiple organs. Transplanted AMSCs carried Bmi-1 migrated into multiple organs, proliferated and differentiated into multiple tissue cells, promoted growth and delayed senescence in Bmi-1−/− transplant recipients. The dysmaturity of lymphocytic series were ameliorated, premature osteoporosis were rescued by promoting osteogenesis and inhibiting adipogenesis, the oxidative stress and DNA damage in multiple organs were inhibited by the AMSC transplantation in Bmi-1−/− mice. These findings indicate that AMSC transplantation ameliorated the premature senescent phenotype of Bmi-1-deficient mice and could be a novel therapy to delay aging and prevent aging-associated degenerative diseases. PMID:26370922
D’Souza, Malcolm J.; Walls, Karri-Jo E.; Rojas, Christine; Everett, Lynn M.; Wentzien, Derald E.
The 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report indicates that 63.4% of Delaware’s adult population is overweight and 28% is obese. Here, the authors reveal analyses acquired from detailed investigations about the importance of gender, and other lifestyle factors and behaviors on the Body Mass Index (BMI) trends amongst an indiscriminate sample of the Wesley College (Wesley) undergraduate population. A 25-question paper-format survey was distributed to 307 randomly chosen Wesley undergraduates. The accrued qualitative (or categorical) data were transferred to an Excel spreadsheet to construct and observe frequency distributions. A Chi-square test of independence (χ2) was performed between BMI status (normal, overweight, obese) and the following factors: gender, diet plan, adherence to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) MyPlate nutrition guide, use of the seasonal flu shot, weekly workout schedule, supplement usage, participation on athletic teams, questioning of label nutritional facts, and the use of added salt in food. A 2-sample proportion test was performed between students who were overweight or obese for the same factors. Also performed were t-tests for mean BMI for those who followed USDA MyPlate guidelines and for those who did not. An analysis of 278 completed surveys show that 29.5% of the Wesley respondents are overweight and 19.8% are obese. The mean BMI for males was statistically higher than the mean BMI for females. The mean BMI for students living on-campus was statistically higher than the mean BMI for students living off-campus. The results also demonstrate that adhering to the USDA dietary recommendations for fruit and dairy can be important factors in reducing the risk of obesity. PMID:26064779
Caleyachetty, Amrit; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqui; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D; Wills, Andrew K
This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (four categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant-feeding practices, socio-economic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis that accounted for potential confounders demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breastfeeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breastfeeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) [adjusted β = -0.12 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.19 to -0.05 per category change in breastfeeding duration, P = 0.001], and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.53-5.56, P < 0.001). In our sample, findings suggest that longer breastfeeding duration and later introduction of solids has a small reduction on later high BMI risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population level. PMID:21978208
Safarova, G L; Safarova, A A; Lisenenkov, A I
Demographic aspects of gender differences in aging characteristics for Russian Federation and Saint-Petersburg, the greatest non-metropolitan Russian megalopolis, for the period 1990-2009 have been considered. Differences in the number and proportions of the elderly in the male and female populations, gender gap in life expectancies, gender differences in aging indicators which take account of remaining years of life have been examined. Results of the study demonstrate significant gender differences in aging characteristics. Gender imbalance should be taken into account when elaboration effective demographic, social and economic policies. PMID:25306653
Hong, Se Ra; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Na Ri; Chung, Hwan Wook
This study was performed to investigate the association between hair mineral levels and nutrient intakes, age, and BMI in female adults who visited a woman's clinic located in Seoul. Dietary intakes were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and mineral levels were measured in collected hairs, and the relationship between these was examined. The average daily nutrient intakes of subjects were compared to those of the KDRIs, and the energy intake status was fair. The average intake of calcium in women of 50 years and over was 91.35% of KDRIs and the potassium intake was greatly below the recommended levels in all age groups. In the average hair mineral contents in subjects, calcium and copper exceeded far more than the reference range while selenium was very low with 85.19% of subjects being lower than the reference value. In addition, the concentrations of sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese in the hair were below the reference ranges in over 15% of subjects. The concentrations of sodium, chromium, sulfur, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with age, but the hair zinc level showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with age. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chromium, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with BMI. Some mineral levels in subjects of this study showed significant correlations with nutrient intakes, but it seems that the hair mineral content is not directly influenced by each mineral intake. As described above, some hair mineral levels in female adults deviated from the normal range, and it is considered that nutritional intervention to control the imbalance of mineral nutrition is required. Also, as some correlations were shown between hair mineral levels and age, BMI, and nutrient intakes, the possibility of utilizing hair mineral analysis for specific purposes in the future is suggested. PMID:20090887
As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…
Algars, Monica; Santtila, Pekka; Varjonen, Markus; Witting, Katarina; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth
OBJECTIVE. Body image and perceived attractiveness were examined, and the impact of age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) was analyzed and discussed from an evolutionary and a sociocultural perspective. METHOD. The population-based sample consisted of 11,468 Finnish men and women aged 18 to 49 years. RESULTS. Both age-related decrease and increase in body satisfaction was detected as well as interactions between age and gender. Some effects were nonlinear. Women were generally less satisfied with their bodies than men. BMI had a stronger influence on women's body image than men's. DISCUSSION. It was proposed that it is insufficient to merely study how age affects general body image because adults might become more satisfied with some aspects of their bodies as a function of age and less satisfied with other aspects. Body satisfaction might also fluctuate during different phases of the adult life, and the patterns possibly differ between men and women. PMID:19897779
Yang, Shu-Chu; Lin, Shu-Jung; Tsai, Chia-Yen
Purposive sampling was used to recruit 1,200 preschoolers between the ages of three and seven from 12 preschools throughout Taiwan in order to examine locomotor skills, object control skills, and fundamental motor skills with respect to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Fundamental motor skills were measured using the TGMD-2. Only age had a significant influence on locomotor skills, object control skills, and fundamental motor skills; sex had a small influence on object control skills, and BMI had a very limited influence on all three categories. The difference from previous studies related to BMI may be due to the different items included in the various tests, the number of trials conducted, and ways in which BMI was categorized. PMID:26682607
Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.
Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.
Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840
Connell, Lauren E.; Francis, Lori A.
Objective This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderated the effects of delay of gratification on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed on 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) was created from measures of mothers’ sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4 to 15 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4 to 15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting x delay group. Conclusions Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles. PMID:23977874
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in athletic self-concept, a hypothesized mediator of physical activity and sedentary behavior, by gender, racial/ethnic, and overweight status in elementary and middle school children. Children (Grades 4-5, n=936) and adolescents (Grades 7-8, n=1...
As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of mundane categorization into naturalized stratified groups. Current research shows that this approach allows explanation of gender differences, which appear in many reports but which usually go untheorized, as responses to social inequality. I illustrate applications to research and practice in relation to three areas of old age experiences: financial security, spousal care work, and health. Throughout, I discuss implications of focusing on inequality to enhance our abilities to engage in effective research, practice, and policy for older people, women and men alike. For instance, an understanding of the gender division of labor and workplace discrimination makes clear that financial status in later life cannot be reduced to individual choices concerning paid labor or retirement planning. And understanding that people orient their behaviors to gender ideals allows us to see that men and women perform spousal care in similar and different ways that require varied responses from practitioners; it also reveals contexts in which men engage in positive health behaviors. Finally, I argue that gerontologists interested in facilitating favorable outcomes for old people should consider research and practice that would disrupt, not reinforce, the bases of gender inequalities in later life. PMID:20956798
Rappoport, L; Peters, G R; Downey, R; McCann, T; Huff-Corzine, L
Results from three studies relevant to a model of food cognition based on the evaluative dimensions pleasure, health, and convenience are reported. In the first study, discriminant analyses of the evaluative ratings (n = 248) of 35 meals and snacks yielded significant gender and age differences on the pleasure and health dimensions. Separate factor analyses of the pleasure and health ratings revealed that males and females grouped foods differently on these criteria. The factor analysis of convenience ratings suggested that males and females perceive the meaning of convenience differently. In the second study, 336 college students rated 27 meals on the three evaluative dimensions and also indicated their preferences for each meal. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences could be significantly predicted, and other results showed that as compared to males, females give higher health, pleasure and convenience ratings to healthy meals. The third study employed a modified free association technique to investigate gender and age differences in the meanings of nine familiar foods. Data from 96 males and females aged 18 to 86 revealed a substantial variety of significant age and gender differences for specific foods. It is suggested that taken together, these results indicate important cognitive and affective sources for gender and age-related food attitudes. PMID:8452376
This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breast-feeding and later introduction of solid feeding was associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breast-feeding (6 categories from 1-4 to ≥21 months) and age of starting regular solid feeding (4 categories from ≤3 to ≥6 months). Data on infant feeding practices, socioeconomic and maternal factors were collected by questionnaire. Birthweight, maternal and child anthropometry were measured. Multiple regression analysis which accounted for potential confounders, demonstrated a small magnitude of effect for breast-feeding duration or introduction of solid feeds on the risk of high BMI but not for lower skinfold thickness. Breast-feeding duration was strongly negatively associated with weight gain (0-2 years) (adjusted β= −0.12 SD 95% CI: −0.19 to −0.05 per category change in breast-feeding duration, p=0.001) and weight gain (0-2 years) was strongly associated with high BMI at 5 years (adjusted OR = 3.8, 95 % CI: 2.53 to 5.56, p<0.001). In our sample, findings suggest that longer breast-feeding duration and later introduction of solids has a small reduction on later high BMI risk and a negligible effect on skinfold thickness. However, accounting for sampling variability, these findings cannot exclude the possibility of no effect at the population-level. PMID:21978208
Worldwide, the prevalence of moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness is 285 millions, with 65% of visually impaired and 82% of all blind people being 50 years and older. Meta-analyses have shown that two out of three blind people are women, a gender discrepancy that holds true for both developed and developing countries. Cataract accounts for more than half of all blindness globally and gender inequity in access to cataract surgery is the major cause of the higher prevalence of blindness in women. In addition to gender differences in cataract surgical coverage, population-based studies on the prevalence of lens opacities indicate that women have a higher risk of developing cataract. Laboratory as well as epidemiologic studies suggest that estrogen may confer antioxidative protection against cataractogenesis, but the withdrawal effect of estrogen in menopause leads to increased risk of cataract in women. For the other major age-related eye diseases; glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, data are inconclusive. Due to anatomic factors, angle closure glaucoma is more common in women, whereas the dominating glaucoma type; primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is more prevalent in men. Diabetic retinopathy also has a male predominance and vascular/circulatory factors have been implied both in diabetic retinopathy and in POAG. For AMD, data on gender differences are conflicting although some studies indicate increased prevalence of drusen and neovascular AMD in women. To conclude, both biologic and socioeconomic factors must be considered when investigating causes of gender differences in the prevalence of age-related eye disease. PMID:26508081
de Hernandez, Lilian; Marek, Edmund A.; Renner, John W.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development. Random samples of 70 females and 70 males were selected with each sex group equally divided into a low-age and a high-age group. The low-age group ranged in age from 16.25 years to 16.75 years and the high-age group from 16.76 years to 17.25 years. The Piaget tasks selected to measure cognitive development were: Conservation of Volume, Separation of Variables, and Equilibrium in the Balance and Combination of Colorless Chemical Liquids. Data from this research produced these findings: (1) males demonstrate a higher level of intellectual development than females, (2) males mature intellectually earlier than females, (3) the value of the conservation of volume task as a component of a battery of formal tasks depends upon whether the decisions are to be made on the basis of the total-task results or on individual task performance, and (4) there appear to be factors other than age and gender that are related to the development of formal operational reasoning. These investigators hypothesize that experiences is another important factor.
Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard
Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children's BMI or risk of overweight. PMID:22548089
Chen, Shu C.; Lo, Tsai C.; Chang, Jui H.; Kuo, Hsien W.
Aim. We assessed obesity, sex, menopause, and gender differences on hypertension in a Hakka-majority Taiwanese sample. Methods. 9621 subjects aged 20 and over participated in this community-based study. Trained nurses collected blood pressure (BP) measurements and anthropometric indices, including weight, height, hip circumference (HC), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Results. Levels of systolic and diastolic BP significantly increased at a dose-dependent relationship based on four anthropometric indices (BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR); the slopes for SBP and DBP differed. After controlling for other covariates using multivariate logistic regression, we found the adjusted odds ratios (OR) of hypertension to be significantly related to the four anthropometric indices. Notably, the effect of obesity on the ORs for hypertension was considerably higher in premenopausal women, but we found no such phenomenon among men. BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR had significant linear associations with BP. Conclusion. Obesity indices are significantly correlated with the risk of hypertension across gender and age, with BMI having the highest relative potency. The effect of obesity on the risk of hypertension is especially high in premenopausal women, implying a relationship between hormones and hypertension. PMID:25436143
Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert A.; O’Neill, Caitlin; Salmons, Joseph
The understanding of sociolinguistic variation is growing rapidly, but basic gaps still remain. Whether some languages or dialects are spoken faster or slower than others constitutes such a gap. Speech tempo is interconnected with social, physical and psychological markings of speech. This study examines regional variation in articulation rate and its manifestations across speaker age, gender and speaking situations (reading vs. free conversation). The results of an experimental investigation show that articulation rate differs significantly between two regional varieties of American English examined here. A group of Northern speakers (from Wisconsin) spoke significantly faster than a group of Southern speakers (from North Carolina). With regard to age and gender, young adults read faster than older adults in both regions; in free speech, only Northern young adults spoke faster than older adults. Effects of gender were smaller and less consistent; men generally spoke slightly faster than women. As the body of work on the sociophonetics of American English continues to grow in scope and depth, we argue that it is important to include fundamental phonetic information as part of our catalog of regional differences and patterns of change in American English. PMID:20161445
Harrison, Tracie; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Janiece; Scott, Tiffany; Choban, Robin
The purpose of this paper is to report the influence of gender on aging with childhood onset paralytic polio. The hermeneutic phenomenological exploration of gender was done using multiple qualitative interviews with 25 women, age 55 to 75 years of age, who had polio since before 14 years of age. We noted three themes: 1) The movement of her body, 2) Integrating body and gender, and 3) Gender discrepancies. Findings are discussed in the context of gendered expectations and the women’s bodies. PMID:21240713
Barrett, Anne E.; von Rohr, Carmen
Few studies examine how the gendered nature of aging impacts young adults--shaping their images of later life, attitudes toward elderly persons, aging anxieties, and conceptions of the start of "old age." We examine gender differences in young adults' views of elders and the aging process using a survey of college students and content analysis of…
Foley, Debra L.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Watts, Gerald F.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Castle, David J.; McGrath, John J.; Waterreus, Anna; Morgan, Vera A.; Galletly, Cherrie A.
Individuals with psychosis are more likely than the general community to develop obesity and to die prematurely from heart disease. Interventions to improve cardiovascular outcomes are best targeted at the earliest indicators of risk, at the age they first emerge. We investigated which cardiometabolic risk indicators distinguished those with psychosis from the general population, by age by gender, and whether obesity explained the pattern of observed differences. Data was analyzed from an epidemiologically representative sample of 1,642 Australians with psychosis aged 18–64 years and a national comparator sample of 8,866 controls aged 25–64 years from the general population. Cubic b-splines were used to compare cross sectional age trends by gender for mean waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in our psychosis and control samples. At age 25 individuals with psychosis had a significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose [women only], and diastolic blood pressure and significantly lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. With the exception of triglycerides at age 60+ in men, and glucose in women at various ages, these differences were present at every age. Differences in BMI and waist circumference between samples, although dramatic, could not explain all differences in diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides but did explain differences in glucose. Psychosis has the hallmarks of insulin resistance by at least age 25. The entire syndrome, not just weight, should be a focus of intervention to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease. PMID:24367528
Rosenberger, Patricia H.; Ning, Yuming; Brandt, Cynthia; Allore, Heather; Haskell, Sally
Objective The study sought to determine BMI trajectories in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans over 6 years and to examine sociodemographic factors associated with BMI trajectory membership. Methods Our study sample included 16,656 veterans post-deployment and entering the Veteran Healthcare Administration (VHA) healthcare system. We used national VHA administrative sociodemo-graphic data, tracked veteran BMI for 6 years, and used trajectory modeling to identify BMI trajectories and sociodemographic characteristics associated with trajectory membership. Results Five trajectory groups determined in the full sample were primarily differentiated by their post-deployment initial BMI: “healthy” (14.1%), “overweight” (36.3%), “borderline obese” (27.9%), “obese” (15.7%), and “severely obese” (6.0). Being female, younger, and white were associated with lower initial BMI trajectory group membership (p’s<.05). Greater observed BMI increase was associated with higher initial BMI across groups (0.6, 0.8, 1.5, 1.9, 2.7). Gender specific trajectory models found that male Veterans with higher education and white female Veterans were associated with the lowest initial BMI group (p’s<.05). Conclusions Higher post-deployment BMI was associated with greater BMI gain over time for both male and female veterans. Older age is associated with higher BMI regardless of gender. Education level and racial status are differentially related to BMI trajectory by gender. PMID:21771610
Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist
Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the social hierarchy. Analysis indicated that there were differences between male and female views on these dimensions of gender, and that age and educational levels were also influential. While younger respondents from both genders demonstrated flexibility in their definitions of gender and expressed strong support for gender equality, they were noticeably lacking in their knowledge of the historical context of gender relations and did not show the skills required to realise their ideals of gender equality, especially when compared to older respondents of both genders with higher levels of educational attainment.
Current cut points for overweight were derived statistically from BMI distribution. The study aimed at determining age-, gender-, and ethnic-specific BMI cut points based on excess body fat in US children and adolescents aged 8-17 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examinat...
Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan
We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…
Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist
Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the…
Considers gender equity in libraries and library education, particularly the identification of men with information science experience involving computers. Discusses the history of gender imbalance in library education; computers and gender; changes in library education; demographic implications of curriculum changes; the use of adjuncts; library…
Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka
The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II. PMID:26057102
Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A.; Taylor, Renee R.; Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Helgerson, Jena; Witter, Elizabeth
Investigated the relationship between fatigue, age, and gender among African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos. Survey results found significant age and gender interactions among African Americans and Caucasians. African American women and older African American men had the highest fatigue rates. There was no significant difference in levels of…
Turner, Barbara F.; And Others
The literature on social cognition and intergroup relations suggests that gender and age are social concepts which, because they are at the same level of abstraction, may produce interactive effects on person perception judgments. The purpose of this study was to explore gender stereotypes that therapists hold about people who differ in age;…
Martin, Andrew J.
This brief report presents on gender and age effects in academic motivation and engagement. The results are based on an updated and much expanded dataset (from prior research) of 33,778 students from 92 high schools in Australia. Findings show there are significant gender and age effects--a number of which are qualified by the interaction of…
Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John
To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…
Lee, Dain; Lee, Chaeyoung
Age-related effects are often included as covariates in the analytical model for genome-wide association analysis of quantitative traits reflecting human health. Nevertheless, previous studies have hardly examined the effects of age on the proportion of variation explained by single nucleotide polymorphisms (PVSNP) in these traits. In this study, the PVSNP estimates of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, pulse pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, triglyceride level (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and glucose level were obtained from Korean consortium metadata partitioned by gender or by age. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of the PVSNP were obtained in a mixed model framework. Previous studies using pedigree data suggested possible differential heritability of certain traits with regard to gender, which we observed in our current study (BMI and TG; P < 0.05). However, the PVSNP analysis based on age revealed that, with respect to every trait tested, individuals aged 40 to 49 exhibited significantly lower PVSNP estimates than individuals aged 50 to 59 or 60 to 69 (P < 0.05). The consistent heterogeneous PVSNP with respect to age may be due to degenerated genetic functions in individuals between the ages of 50 and 69. Our results suggest the genetic mechanism of age- and gender-dependent PVSNP of quantitative traits related to human health should be further examined. PMID:25701395
Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew
Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies. PMID:27068433
Youdas, James W; Hollman, John H; Krause, David A
Reference values for standing lumbar curvature (SLC) obtained via noninvasive methods are not well established in persons without current low back pain. The effect of gender is considered to have a significant effect on SLC with women having more lumbar lordosis than men. The effect of age and degree of obesity are not considered to have a statistically significant effect on SLC. The purpose of this study was to test the assumption that measurements of SLC in healthy adults obtained by a flexible curve will differ between genders, whereas the SLC will not differ across categories of age and body mass index (BMI). Two hundred thirty-five volunteers (119 men and 116 women) whose ages ranged between 20 and 79 years participated in the study. Subjects were almost exclusively White and from the Midwest. Measurements of the SLC were obtained by a flexible curve. The curve's shape was transferred to poster board, and the value of SLC was quantified by a previously described technique. A three-way analysis of variance (alpha = 0.05) was used to examine the main effects of gender, age, and BMI on SLC. The effect of gender (F1,199 = 21.4, p < 0.0001) and the effect of age (F5,199 = 2.8, p < 0.017) were statistically significant. The effect of BMI (F2,199 = 1.8, p = 0.176) was not significant. Women (mean, 49.5 degrees +/-10.7 degrees ) demonstrated about 6.5 degrees more SLC than their male (mean, 43.0 degrees +/-10.7 degrees ) counterparts. For age, the only significant difference was between the 20 to 29- and 50 to 59-year-old age categories. This study provides physical therapists with typical values of SLC in men and women without current low back pain. PMID:17118891
Kang, Huili; Chen, Yu-Ming; Han, Guiyuan; Huang, Hua; Chen, Wei-Qing; Wang, Xidan; Zhu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, Su-Mei
This study aimed to elucidate the associations of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with proximal femur strength in Chinese postmenopausal women, which may improve the prediction of hip fracture risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1322 Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from communities. DXA images were used to generate bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric parameters, including cross-sectional area (CSA), outer diameter (OD), cortical thickness (CT), section modulus (SM), buckling ratio (BR) at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanter (IT), and femoral shaft (FS). Relationships of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with bone phenotypes were analyzed with the adjustment of height, age at menarche, total daily physical activity, education, smoking status, calcium tablet intake, etc. Age was associated with lower BMD, CSA, CT, SM, and higher BR (p < 0.05), which indicated a weaker bone strength at the proximal femur. BMI and years of menstruation had the positive relationships with proximal femur strength (p < 0.05). Further analyses showed that the ranges of absolute value of change slope per year, per BMI or per year of menstruation were 0.14%–1.34%, 0.20%–2.70%, and 0.16%–0.98%, respectively. These results supported that bone strength deteriorated with aging and enhanced with higher BMI and longer time of years of menstruation in Chinese postmenopausal women. PMID:26805871
Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline
Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as <12 h. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. The mean sleep duration was 12 h 35 ± 56 min, with 91% of the children napping. Patterns of risk factors associated with SSD differed according to gender. In addition to parental presence when falling asleep, short sleep duration was associated strongly positively with high BMI Z-score and TV viewing duration among boys and with familial home child-minding and lower scores on the 'fruits and vegetables' dietary pattern among girls. These results suggest either a patterning of parental behaviours that differs according to gender, or a gender-specific sleep physiology, or both. PMID:26041449
Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.
In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…
Etter, Franziska; Knechtle, Beat; Bukowski, Arkadiusz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald
This study investigated the participation and performance trends as well as the age and gender interaction at the Olympic distance 'Zürich Triathlon' (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle and 10 km run) from 2000 to 2010 in 7,939 total finishers (1,666 females and 6,273 males). Female triathletes aged from 40 to 54 years significantly (P < 0.05) increased their participation while the participation of younger females and males remained stable. Males of 50-54 years of age and females of 45-49 years of age improved their total race time. For elite top five overall triathletes, mean gender differences in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time were 15.2 ± 4.6%, 13.4 ± 2.3%, 17.1 ± 2.5%, and 14.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. For both elite and age group athletes, the gender difference in cycling time was significantly (P <0.001) lower than for swimming and running. The gender difference in overall Olympic distance triathlon performance increased after the age of 35 years, which appeared earlier compared to long distance triathlon as suggested by previous studies. Future investigations should compare gender difference in performance for different endurance events across age to confirm a possible effect of exercise duration on gender difference with advancing age. PMID:23356412
Kac, Gilberto; Schlüssel, Michael M.; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Velásquez-Melendez, Gustavo; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura
We examined the association between Household Food Insecurity (HFI), weight for height z-score (WHZ) and Body Mass Index for age z-score (BMI-Z) in a representative sample of children 0–60 months of age (n = 3,433) in five Brazilian geographical regions. Data were derived from the 2006–07 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. HFI was measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Associations were estimated using multiple linear regression models (ß coefficients and 95% CI) taking into account the complex sampling design. Interaction terms between HFI and geographical region and HFI and child sex and child age were assessed. The weighted prevalence of any level of HFI was 48.6%. Severe food insecurity was more prevalent among children from the North region (16.8%), born from mothers with <4 years of schooling (15.9%) and those from families with ≥3 children (18.8%). The interaction between HFI and geographical region was non-significant for BMI-Z (P = 0.119) and WHZ (P = 0.198). Unadjusted results indicated that HFI was negatively associated with BMI-Z (moderate to severe HFI: ß = −0.19, 95% CI: −0.35 - −0.03, P = 0.047), and WHZ (moderate to severe HFI: ß = −0.26, 95% CI: −0.42 - −0.09, P = 0.009). Estimates lost significance after adjustments for key confounders such as mothers' skin color, mothers' years of schooling, place of household, household income quartiles, mothers' smoking habit, mothers' marital status, number of children 0–60 months in the household, and birth order. HFI is unrelated to weight outcomes among Brazilian children 0–60 months. PMID:23029220
The understanding of gender inequality for women entering work has not been subject to significant research or theorizing. This small study indicated that young women entering the workplace are subject to direct discrimination and by using an intersectionality approach this paper proposes that the intersection of gender and young age results in…
Rukh, G; Ahmad, S; Ericson, U; Hindy, G; Stocks, T; Renström, F; Almgren, P; Nilsson, P M; Melander, O; Franks, P W; Orho-Melander, M
Background/Objective: Genome-wide-association studies have identified numerous body mass index (BMI)-associated variants, but it is unclear how these relate to weight gain in adults at different ages. Methods: We examined the association of a genetic risk score (GRS), consisting of 31 BMI-associated variants, with an annual weight change (AWC) and a substantial weight gain (SWG) of 10% by comparing self-reported weight at 20 years (y) with baseline weight (mean: 58 y; s.d.: 8 y) in 21407 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), and comparing baseline weight to weight at follow-up (mean: 73 y; s.d.: 6 y) among 2673 participants. Association between GRS and AWG and SWG was replicated in 4327 GLACIER (Gene x Lifestyle interactions And Complex traits Involved in Elevated disease Risk) participants (mean: 45 y; s.d.: 7 y) with 10 y follow-up. Cohort-specific results were pooled by fixed-effect meta-analyses. Results: In MDCS, the GRS was associated with increased AWC (β: 0.003; s.e: 0.01; P: 7 × 10−8) and increased odds for SWG (odds ratio (OR) 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.02); P: 0.013) per risk-allele from age 20y, but unexpectedly with decreased AWC (β: −0.006; s.e: 0.002; P: 0.009) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.98); P: 0.001) between baseline and follow-up. Effect estimates from age 20 y to baseline differed significantly from those from baseline to follow-up (P: 0.0002 for AWC and P: 0.0001 for SWG). Similar to MDCS, the GRS was associated with decreased odds for SWG OR 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.00); P: 0.029) from baseline to follow-up in GLACIER. In meta-analyses (n=7000), the GRS was associated with decreased AWC (β: −0.005; s.e.m. 0.002; P: 0.002) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.99); P: 0.001) per risk-allele. Conclusions: Our results provide convincing evidence for a paradoxical inversed relationship between a high number of BMI-associated risk-alleles and less
Herbison, Carly E; Henley, David; Marsh, Julie; Atkinson, Helen; Newnham, John P; Matthews, Stephen G; Lye, Stephen J; Pennell, Craig E
Dysregulation of the biological stress response system has been implicated in the development of psychological, metabolic, and cardiovascular disease. Whilst changes in stress response are often quantified as an increase or decrease in cortisol levels, three different patterns of stress response have been reported in the literature for the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) (reactive-responders (RR), anticipatory-responders (AR) and non-responders (NR)). However, these have never been systematically analyzed in a large population-based cohort. The aims of this study were to examine factors that contribute to TSST variation (gender, oral contraceptive use, menstrual cycle phase, smoking, and BMI) using traditional methods and novel analyses of stress response patterns. We analyzed the acute stress response of 798, 18-year-old participants from a community-based cohort using the TSST. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone, plasma cortisol, and salivary cortisol levels were quantified. RR, AR, and NR patterns comprised 56.6%, 26.2%, and 17.2% of the cohort, respectively. Smokers were more likely to be NR than (RR or AR; adjusted, p < 0.05). Overweight and obese subjects were less likely to be NR than the other patterns (adjusted, p < 0.05). Males were more likely to be RR than NR (adjusted, p = 0.05). In addition, we present a novel AUC measure (AUCR), for use when the TSST baseline concentration is higher than later time points. These results show that in a young adult cohort, stress-response patterns, in addition to other parameters vary with gender, smoking, and BMI. The distribution of these patterns has the potential to vary with adult health and disease and may represent a biomarker for future investigation. PMID:26809721
Our purpose was to assess the effects of age and gender on physical performance using one-hour swimming performance and participation in 2,173 man and 2,098 women, aged 19 – 91 years from a long distance (one-hour) national competition. Decline in performance with aging was found to be quadratic rat...
Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik
The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P < 0.001), but not in lateral PCO, and medial/lateral tibial slopes. In the analysis of covariance analyses, significant interaction between gender and age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population. PMID:26253858
Limited early research suggests that children with a more difficult temperament (i.e., withdrawing, high intensity, predominate negative mood) by ages 4-5 are more likely to have excessive weight gain by ages 8-9 compared with children with opposite temperaments. We examined this relationship among ...
Hershey, Douglas A.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M.; Neukam, Kirstan A.
Having clear goals for retirement is a critical determinant of life satisfaction and adjustment during the post-employment transition period. The purpose of the present study was to explore individuals' goals for retirement and determine whether age and gender differences exist among those goals. A sample of 55 working adults (aged 20-67) were…
Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H.
Objective: Our goals were to examine clinical characteristics and age and gender correlates in pediatric trichotillomania. Method: A total of 62 children (8-17 years of age) were recruited for a pediatric trichotillomania treatment trial and characterized using structured rating scales of symptoms of hairpulling and common comorbid conditions. We…
Reasons for living have been identified as protective factors in relation to suicide, and much research has documented gender differences in reasons for living. In contrast, little research has investigated age differences in reasons for living. In the current study, the relationship of age to reasons for living was investigated, as was whether…
Bryan, William R.; Linke, Charles M.
Statistics prove that being middle-aged, well educated, white, and male enhances earnings. This paper uses data from the March 1991 Current Population Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census along with some common statistical techniques to chart the specific impact of age, education, race, and gender on earnings. It is shown that earnings…
Rukavina, Stefanie; Gruss, Sascha; Hoffmann, Holger; Tan, Jun-Wen; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.
Affective computing aims at the detection of users’ mental states, in particular, emotions and dispositions during human-computer interactions. Detection can be achieved by measuring multimodal signals, namely, speech, facial expressions and/or psychobiology. Over the past years, one major approach was to identify the best features for each signal using different classification methods. Although this is of high priority, other subject-specific variables should not be neglected. In our study, we analyzed the effect of gender, age, personality and gender roles on the extracted psychobiological features (derived from skin conductance level, facial electromyography and heart rate variability) as well as the influence on the classification results. In an experimental human-computer interaction, five different affective states with picture material from the International Affective Picture System and ULM pictures were induced. A total of 127 subjects participated in the study. Among all potentially influencing variables (gender has been reported to be influential), age was the only variable that correlated significantly with psychobiological responses. In summary, the conducted classification processes resulted in 20% classification accuracy differences according to age and gender, especially when comparing the neutral condition with four other affective states. We suggest taking age and gender specifically into account for future studies in affective computing, as these may lead to an improvement of emotion recognition accuracy. PMID:26939129
Shahid, Adeela; Rana, Sobia; Mahmood, Saqib; Saeed, Shahid
Leptin is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, and therefore, is central to adipositysensing pathway. We examined the relationship of the leptin G-2548A polymorphism with obesity and obesityrelated anthropometric and metabolic parameters in a total of 394 (239 obese and 155 non-obese) subjects between 5 and 45 years of age. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, leptin and leptin receptor were determined, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The LEP G-2548A polymorphism showed association with obesity in children and adolescents (less than or equal to 18 years of age) but not in adults. However, analysis by gender stratification revealed association with obesity in girls only. In addition, G-2548A polymorphism showed association with BMI, WC, HC, fasting blood glucose and serum leptin levels. This suggests that G-2548A polymorphism may influence the susceptibility to metabolic disturbances and obesity at an early life. Further investigation with a larger sample size is required to validate the effect of LEP G-2548A polymorphism in obese Pakistani girls. PMID:26333398
Cao-Lei, Lei; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Massart, Renaud; Szyf, Moshe; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne
Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13½ years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm. We assessed their objective exposure and subjective distress in June 1998. At age 13½ their children were weighed and measured (n = 66); a subsample provided blood samples for epigenetic studies (n = 31). Objective and subjective PNMS correlated with central adiposity (waist-to-height ratio); only objective PNMS predicted body mass index (BMI). Bootstrapping analyses showed that the methylation level of genes from established Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways showed significant mediation of the effect of objective PNMS on both central adiposity and BMI. However, the negative mediating effects indicate that, although greater objective PNMS predicts greater BMI and adiposity, this effect is dampened by the effects of objective PNMS on DNA methylation, suggesting a protective role of the selected genes from Type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus pathways. We provide data supporting that DNA methylation is a potential mechanism involved in the long-term adaptation and programming of the genome in response to early adverse environmental factors. PMID:26098974
Hokoda, Audrey; Martin del Campo, Miguel A.; Ulloa, Emilio C.
Research shows that abuse in adolescence can start early and current literature regarding gender differences in Teen Relationship Violence (TRV) is inconsistent. Age and Gender differences in TRV were examined. Measures assessing TRV and its correlates were completed by 231 teens from 7th, 9th, and 11th grade classes. A 2 (gender) by 3 (grade) multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant effects for grade and gender indicating that 7th graders have lower perpetration and victimization of TRV, less anger control, and fewer positive conflict resolution behaviors than 9th and 11th graders. Furthermore, girls perpetrate more physical and emotional abuse while boys perpetrate more sexual abuse. Results have implications for timing and content of prevention programs addressing dating violence in adolescence. PMID:26989341
Interactive and additive influences of Gender, BMI and Apolipoprotein 4 on cognition in children chronically exposed to high concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone. APOE 4 females are at highest risk in Mexico City.
Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Jewells, Valerie; Galaz-Montoya, Carolina; van Zundert, Brigitte; Pérez-Calatayud, Angel; Ascencio-Ferrel, Eric; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Sandoval-Cano, Marcela; Carlos, Esperanza; Solorio, Edelmira; Acuña-Ayala, Hilda; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo
Children's air pollution exposures are associated with systemic and brain inflammation and the early hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) 4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk for AD, with higher risk for women. We assessed whether gender, BMI, APOE and metabolic variables in healthy children with high exposures to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) influence cognition. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was administered to 105 Mexico City children (12.32±5.4 years, 69 APOE 3/3 and 36 APOE 3/4). APOE 4v 3 children showed decrements on attention and short-term memory subscales, and below-average scores in Verbal, Performance and Full Scale IQ. APOE 4 females had higher BMI and females with normal BMI between 75-94% percentiles had the highest deficits in Total IQ, Performance IQ, Digit Span, Picture Arrangement, Block Design and Object Assembly. Fasting glucose was significantly higher in APOE 4 children p=0.006, while Gender was the main variable accounting for the difference in insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin (p<.05). Gender, BMI and APOE influence children's cognitive responses to air pollution and glucose is likely a key player. APOE 4 heterozygous females with >75% to <94% BMI percentiles are at the highest risk of severe cognitive deficits (1.5-2SD from average IQ). Young female results highlight the urgent need for gender-targeted health programmes to improve cognitive responses. Multidisciplinary intervention strategies could provide paths for prevention or amelioration of female air pollution targeted cognitive deficits and possible long-term AD progression. PMID:27376929
Rediehs, M H; Reis, J S; Creason, N S
A meta-analysis was conducted on 27 studies addressing gender differences on 31 indices of sleeping behavior of persons 58 years of age and older. All pertinent, original research articles published in the United States in the last decade were included. New findings were compared with summaries from earlier studies to complete a picture of current knowledge. Effect sizes were calculated for 23 variables related to sleep continuity, architecture, and pathology; and effect sizes were averaged across studies. Gender difference effect sizes were small to moderate, with men tending to show more objective changes from the patterns of healthy youthful sleep. Results underscore the importance of health providers having an understanding of gender and age in relation to sleep. Findings suggest the need to protect the lighter, more fragile sleep of the elderly; to encourage regularity in sleep patterns; and to use sleep-inducing medications with caution. PMID:2287853
Dubois, Lise; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Girard, Manon; Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola; Pérusse, Daniel; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel; Rasmussen, Finn; Wright, Margaret J.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Martin, Nicholas G.
Objective To examine the genetic and environmental influences on variances in weight, height, and BMI, from birth through 19 years of age, in boys and girls from three continents. Design and Settings Cross-sectional twin study. Data obtained from a total of 23 twin birth-cohorts from four countries: Canada, Sweden, Denmark, and Australia. Participants were Monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) (same- and opposite-sex) twin pairs with data available for both height and weight at a given age, from birth through 19 years of age. Approximately 24,036 children were included in the analyses. Results Heritability for body weight, height, and BMI was low at birth (between 6.4 and 8.7% for boys, and between 4.8 and 7.9% for girls) but increased over time, accounting for close to half or more of the variance in body weight and BMI after 5 months of age in both sexes. Common environmental influences on all body measures were high at birth (between 74.1–85.9% in all measures for boys, and between 74.2 and 87.3% in all measures for girls) and markedly reduced over time. For body height, the effect of the common environment remained significant for a longer period during early childhood (up through 12 years of age). Sex-limitation of genetic and shared environmental effects was observed. Conclusion Genetics appear to play an increasingly important role in explaining the variation in weight, height, and BMI from early childhood to late adolescence, particularly in boys. Common environmental factors exert their strongest and most independent influence specifically in pre-adolescent years and more significantly in girls. These findings emphasize the need to target family and social environmental interventions in early childhood years, especially for females. As gene-environment correlation and interaction is likely, it is also necessary to identify the genetic variants that may predispose individuals to obesity. PMID:22347368
Deeks, Amanda; Lombard, Catherine; Michelmore, Janet; Teede, Helena
Background Lifestyle-related diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers represent the greatest global health threat. Greater insight into health needs and beliefs, using broad community samples, is vital to reduce the burden of chronic disease. This study aimed to investigate gender, age, screening practices, health beliefs, and perceived future health needs for healthy ageing. Methods Random probability sampling using self-completion surveys in 1456 adults residing in Australia. Results Screening behaviors were associated with gender and age. Men and women >51 years were more likely (27%) to have screening health checks than those <50 years (2%). Factors nominated to influence health were lifestyle (92%), relationships (82%), and environment (80%). Women were more likely to nominate preparedness to have an annual health check, willingness to seek advice from their medical practitioner and to attend education sessions. Numerous health fears were associated with ageing, however participants were more likely to have a financial (72%) rather than a health plan (42%). More women and participants >51 years wanted information regarding illness prevention than men or those aged <30 years. Conclusion Age and gender are associated with health related behaviors. Optimal health is perceived as a priority, yet often this perception is not translated into preventative action. These findings will inform future research and policy makers as we strive towards a healthier ageing society and the prevention of chronic disease. PMID:19563685
Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel
Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…
Joye, Shauna W.; Wilson, Janie H.
Student evaluations provide rich information about teaching performance, but a number of factors beyond teacher effectiveness influence student evaluations. In this study we examined the effects of professor gender and perceived age on ratings of effectiveness and rapport as well as academic performance. We also asked students to rate professor…
Shwalb, David W.; Shwalb, Barbara J.
Finds that (1) while females were significantly more cooperative and males more competitive than were subjects of the opposite sex, both sexes responded much more positively toward cooperative than competitive items and (2) cooperative and competitive orientation varies across activities. Age, gender, and situational factors were related to…
DESAI, SONALDE; ANDRIST, LESTER
Research on marriage in developing countries has been somewhat narrow in scope because of both conceptual and data limitations. While the feminist literature recognizes marriage as a key institutional site for the production and reproduction of gender hierarchies, little is known about the processes through which this relationship operates. This article uses data from the newly collected India Human Development Survey 2005 for 27,365 ever-married women aged 25–49 to explore ways in which different dimensions of gender in Indian society shape the decisions regarding age at marriage. We explore the impact of three dimensions of gender: (1) economic factors, such as availability of wage employment, dowry expectations, and wedding expenses; (2) indicators of familial empowerment, such as women’s role in household decision making and access to and control over resources; and (3) markers of gender performance, such as observance of purdah and male-female separation in the household. Results from hierarchical linear models confirm the importance of markers of gender performance but fail to demonstrate a large role for economic factors and familial empowerment. PMID:20879683
Liu, Irene; Levy, Richard M; Barton, Jason J S; Iaria, Giuseppe
Orientation in the environment can draw on a variety of cognitive strategies. We asked 634 healthy volunteers to perform a comprehensive battery administered through an internet website (www.gettinglost.ca), testing different orientation strategies in virtual environments to determine the effect of age and gender upon these skills. Older participants (46-67years of age) performed worse than younger participants (18-30 or 31-45years of age) in all orientation skills assessed, including landmark recognition, integration of body-centered information, forming association between landmarks and body turns, and the formation and use of a cognitive map. Among all tests, however, the ability to form cognitive maps resulted to be the significant factor best at predicting the individuals' age group. Gender effects were stable across age and dissociated for task, with males better than females for cognitive map formation and use as well as for path reversal, an orientation task that does not require the processing of visual landmarks during navigation. We conclude that age-related declines in navigation are common across all orientation strategies and confirm gender-specific effects in different spatial domains. PMID:21803342
Mogus, Mate; Fric, Vlasta Orsić; Atalić, Bruno
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the age, the body mass index (BMI), and the years of training on the average muscle power in male and female rowers. The analysis of the testing results of the members of the Rowing club Iktus from Osijek in Croatia was performed. Results were obtained during the regular yearly testing on the rowing ergometer for the rowing season of 2009. Members of the Rowing club Iktus were divided into two subgroups according to their sex. The obtained results were analysed in accordance with the age, the BMI, and the years of training independently for the each of the two subgroups. The results have showed that the average muscle power is independent of all the three parameters in the male rowers, while it is dependent on the age and the years of training in the female rowers. It seems that the BMI does not play any role at all in the average muscle power. As a conclusion, it could be stated that while one can suggest to female rowers to improve their performance with prolonged training, there is a need for a further research in order to formulate a suitable advice for male rowers. PMID:26987157
Swedler, David I; Bowman, Stephen M; Baker, Susan P
To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007-2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all χ(2) p<0.001). Conversely, crashes of female teenagers were more likely to involve right angle ("t-bone") crashes (23% vs. 17%). Some crash characteristics associated with males and known to play a major role in crash causation also are more common in the youngest teenagers; for example, crashes of drivers age 15 or 16 were more likely than crashes of older teens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training - for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly. PMID:23169121
This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…
Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée
Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336
Hittner, James B; Johnson, Cassandra; Tripicchio, Gina; Faith, Myles S
Infant temperament and parental feeding practices may be risk factors for childhood obesity, however most studies have relied upon parent-report assessments. We tested whether infant emotional distress and maternal restrictive feeding at 12-months of age, assessed observationally at a home feeding interaction, predicted child BMI through age 6years. We conducted a prospective observational study of 86 children (34 girls and 52 boys, from 55 adoptive and 31 non-adoptive families) enrolled in the Colorado Adoption Project. Mother-infant feeding interactions were video-recorded during a home snack or meal at year 1, and child anthropometrics (length or height, and weight) were assessed at years 1 through 6. The main outcome measures were child weight-for-length at year 1 and body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) at years 2-6. Results of generalized linear models indicated that greater infant emotional distress at 12-months predicted greater increases in child weight status through age 6years, B=0.62 and odds ratio (OR)=1.87. In separate analyses, restrictive feeding interacted with child sex in predicting weight status trajectories (p=.012). Male infants whose mothers displayed any compared to no restriction at year 1 showed a downward BMI trajectory from 2 to 6years; for female infants, exposure to any compared to no restriction prompts predicted increasing BMI from 4 to 6years. In sum, early obesity prevention strategies should pay greater attention to infant temperament, especially distress and negative affect, and how parents respond to such cues. Additionally, 'responsive feeding' strategies that provide an alternative to restriction warrant greater research during infancy. PMID:26872074
Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.
A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.
Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A
A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitations for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on (90)Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has a similar structure to the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly re-evaluated: gastrointestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0-80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general populations exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes. PMID:25574605
... Issue Past Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of ... healthy aging, it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based ...
... doctor will determine BMI at routine checkups and plot this measurement on a chart against those of ... what is normal changes with age, doctors must plot children's BMI measurements on standard growth charts rather ...
Russo, Luigi; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco P.; Vozzella, Letizia; Savino, Ivana G.; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Cuomo, Rosario
Background/Aims: Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) relieves symptoms in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and may have prebiotic properties. However, the correlation between the effectiveness of PHGG and patient characteristics has not been examined. We aimed to investigate the effect of PHGG in symptom relief on constipation-predominant IBS according to gender, age, and body mass index (BMI). Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with IBS entered a 2-week run-in period, followed by a 4-week study period with PHGG. Patients completed a daily questionnaire to assess the presence of abdominal pain/discomfort, swelling, and the sensation of incomplete evacuation. The number of evacuations/day, the daily need for laxatives/enemas and stool consistency-form were also evaluated. All patients also underwent a colonic transit time (CTT) evaluation. Results: PHGG administration was associated with a significant improvement in symptom scores, use of laxatives/enemas, stool form/consistency and CTT. At the end of the study period and compared with baseline, the number of evacuations improved in women, patients aged ≥ 45 years and those with BMI ≥ 25 (P < 0.05 for all comparisons); abdominal bloating improved in males (P < 0.05), patients < 45 years (P < 0.01) and those with BMI < 25 (P < 0.05). A decrease in the number of perceived incomplete evacuations/day was reported in patients with a BMI ≥ 25 (P < 0.05). Reductions in laxative/enema use were recorded in females (P < 0.05), patients < 45 years (P < 0.01), and patients with BMI < 25 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Gender, age, and BMI seem to influence the effect of PHGG supplementation in constipated IBS patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the interaction of such parameters with a fiber-enriched diet. PMID:25843197
There has been considerable work in bioethics addressing injustice and gender oppression in the provision of healthcare services, in the interaction between client and healthcare professional, and in allocation of healthcare services within a particular hospital or health service. There remain several sites of continued injustice that can only be addressed adequately from a broader analytical perspective, one that attends to the social and political contexts framing healthcare policy and practice. Feminist bioethicists have a strong track record in providing this kind of analysis. Using current Australian aged care and welfare policy this paper demonstrates some of the ways in which issues of gender, age, and social inequity shape bioethical debate, policy, and practice in the areas of aged care and welfare provision. The author develops an argument that demonstrates the gender injustice underlying health care and welfare policy. This argument recognises the inevitability of human dependency relations, and questions the adequacy of current political theories to address the requirements for full and equal citizenship. The author shows that an adequate analysis of the ethics of aged healthcare depends on sufficient consideration of the social and political context within which healthcare policy is framed and an adequate understanding of human dependency. PMID:15863691
Gooding, Holly C; Walls, Courtney E; Richmond, Tracy K
Food insecurity has been associated with weight status in children and adults although results have been mixed. We aimed to identify whether food insecurity was associated with BMI in young adults and whether this association differed by gender and was modified by food stamp use and the presence of children in the home. Cross-sectional data from Wave 4 (2007–2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association between food insecurity and BMI in gender stratified models of young adult women (n=7116) and men (n=6604) controlling for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, the presence of children in the home, and food stamp use in young adulthood and/or adolescence. Food insecurity was more common in young adult women (14%) than young adult men (9%). After controlling for a variety of individual variables, food insecure women had a BMI that was on average 0.9kg/m2 units higher than women who were food secure. This difference in BMI persisted after controlling for recent or past food stamp use and was not different among women with or without children in the household. No relationship was found between food insecurity and BMI in young adult men. Providers should inquire about food insecurity, especially when treating obesity, and policy initiatives should address the role of access to healthy food in those facing food insecurity. PMID:21779092
Lehmann, Regula; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Allemand, Mathias; Penke, Lars
The present cross-sectional study investigated age and gender differences in motivational manifestations of the Big Five in a large German-speaking Internet sample (N = 19,022). Participants ranging in age from 16 to 60 years completed the Five Individual Reaction Norms Inventory (FIRNI; Denissen & Penke, 2008a), and two traditional Big Five…
Király, András; Szabó, Nikoletta; Tóth, Eszter; Csete, Gergő; Faragó, Péter; Kocsis, Krisztián; Must, Anita; Vécsei, László; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás
Effects of gender on grey matter (GM) volume differences in subcortical structures of the human brain have consistently been reported. Recent research evidence suggests that both gender and brain size influences volume distribution in subcortical areas independently. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of the interplay between brain size, gender and age contributing to volume differences of subcortical GM in the human brain. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 53 healthy males and 50 age-matched healthy females. Total GM volume was determined using voxel-based morphometry. We used model-based subcortical segmentation analysis to measure the volume of subcortical nuclei. Main effects of gender, brain volume and aging on subcortical structures were examined using multivariate analysis of variance. No significant difference was found in total brain volume between the two genders after correcting for total intracranial volume. Our analysis revealed significantly larger hippocampus volume for females. Additionally, GM volumes of the caudate nucleus, putamen and thalamus displayed a significant age-related decrease in males as compared to females. In contrast to this only the thalamic volume loss proved significant for females. Strikingly, GM volume decreases faster in males than in females emphasizing the interplay between aging and gender on subcortical structures. These findings might have important implications for the interpretation of the effects of unalterable factors (i.e. gender and age) in cross-sectional structural MRI studies. Furthermore, the volume distribution and changes of subcortical structures have been consistently related to several neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, etc.). Understanding these changes might yield further insight in the course and prognosis of these disorders. PMID:26572143
Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel
Background Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. Methods A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. Results We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. Conclusion The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables. PMID:25657583
Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.
Hunter, Patrick G; Glenn Schellenberg, E; Stalinski, Stephanie M
Adults and children 5, 8, and 11 years of age listened to short excerpts of unfamiliar music that sounded happy, scary, peaceful, or sad. Listeners initially rated how much they liked each excerpt. They subsequently made a forced-choice judgment about the emotion that each excerpt conveyed. Identification accuracy was higher for young girls than for young boys, but both genders reached adult-like levels by age 11. High-arousal emotions (happiness and fear) were better identified than low-arousal emotions (peacefulness and sadness), and this advantage was exaggerated among younger children. Whereas children of all ages preferred excerpts depicting high-arousal emotions, adults favored excerpts depicting positive emotions (happiness and peacefulness). A preference for positive emotions over negative emotions was also evident among females of all ages. As identification accuracy improved, liking for positively valenced music increased among 5- and 8-year-olds but decreased among 11-year-olds. PMID:21530980
Background Body Mass Index (BMI) is used as a useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity. It is used as the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. The relationship between BMI and body fat percentage (BF %) has been studied in various ethnic groups to estimate the capacity of BMI to predict adiposity. We aimed to study the BMI–BF% relationship, in a group of South Asian adults who have a different body composition compared to presently studied ethnic groups. We examined the influence of age, gender in this relationship and assessed its’ linearity or curvilinearity. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted, where adults of 18–83 years were grouped into young (18–39 years) middle aged (40–59 years) and elderly (>60 years). BF% was estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pearsons’ correlation coefficient(r) was calculated to see the relationship between BMI-BF% in the different age groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and gender in the relationship and polynomial regression was carried out to see its’ linearity. The relationships between age-BMI, age-BF % were separately assessed. Results Out of 1114 participants, 49.1% were males. The study sample represented a wide range of BMI values (14.8-41.1 kg/m2,Mean 23.8 ± 4.2 kg/m2). A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI-BF%, in males (r =0.75, p < 0.01; SEE = 4.17) and in females (r = 0.82, p < 0.01; SEE = 3.54) of all ages. Effect of age and gender in the BMI-BF% relationship was significant (p < 0.001); with more effect from gender. Regression line found to be curvilinear in nature at higher BMI values where females (p < 0.000) having a better fit of the curve compared to males (p < 0.05). In both genders, with increase of age, BMI seemed to increase in curvilinear fashion, whereas BF% increased in a linear fashion. Conclusions BMI strongly correlate with BF
Machluf, Yossy; Fink, Daniel; Farkash, Rivka; Rotkopf, Ron; Pirogovsky, Avinoam; Tal, Orna; Shohat, Tamar; Weisz, Giora; Ringler, Erez; Dagan, David; Chaiter, Yoram
The increasing prevalence of abnormal body mass index (BMI), mainly obesity, is becoming a significant public health problem. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide a comprehensive view of secular trends of BMI, and the associated socio-demographic variables and comorbidities among adolescents with abnormal BMI. Individuals of the study population were born mainly between 1970 and 1993, and were examined at 16 to 19 years of age during the years 1987 to 2010, at 1 conscription center in the northern district of Israel.The study population included 113,694 adolescents. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between BMI categories, socio-demographic variables, and medical conditions.A downward trend in the prevalence of normal BMI among both male and female adolescents was obtained, while trends of overweight and obesity (in both genders) and underweight (only among females) rose. Socio-demographic variables such as religion, education, family-related parameters, residential environment, country of birth, and origin were all associated with different risks for abnormal BMI. Obesity was associated with higher risk for hyperlipidemia, endocrine disorders (only in males), knee disorders, and hypertension type I + II (in both genders). Overweight was associated with knee disorders (only in females). Underweight, exclusively in males, was associated with increased risk for endocrine disorders, proteinuria, and cardiac disorders. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the intricate relations between gender, BMI, and medical signatures. It brought to light novel clusters of diseases that were abundant among populations having above-normal BMI or underweight males. Furthermore, above-normal BMI was associated with a lower rate of cardiac anomalies and scoliosis/kyphosis, whereas being underweight was associated with a lower risk for hypertension and flat foot.This study provides a reliable and in-depth view
Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki
The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow
Oluwole, David Adebayo
This study investigated the patterns of spirituality, gender, and age in cybergossip practices among Nigerian adolescents. The study utilized a descriptive survey method. Five hundred thirty adolescent students, randomly selected from four major cities in Nigeria, participated in the study. Their age range was 16 to 21. General Spirituality and Gossip Purpose scales were used to collect data from the participants. Data collected were subjected to t test statistics. Findings showed that there is no significant difference in the cybergossiping practices of adolescents based on their levels of spirituality. This reveals that spirituality is not an inhibiting factor in cybergossiping practices among the adolescents. However, there is significant difference between male and female youths in their cybergossiping practices. The results showed that females are more likely than males to be involved in cybergossiping activities. There is also significant difference between early and late adolescents' cybergossiping activities. The implication is that gossip and cybergossip is a natural tendency that involves communicative expression with a pleasure-seeking purpose. It is a habit that excludes no one despite spiritual, gender, or age factors. Therefore, this behavior should be positively directed away from abusive computing and communication. This work is unique because of the need for parents, guardians, and psychologists to design measures to identify and manage various moderating variables in children's computing practices for optimal positive outcomes. PMID:19445634
Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus
This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…
Gochfeld, M. |; Belant, J.L.; Shukla, T.; Benson, T.; Burger, J. |
The authors examined concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury, manganese, selenium, and chromium in feathers, liver, kidney, heart, and muscle of known-aged laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) that hatched in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey and were collected at John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York 1 to 7 years later. Concentrations differed significantly among tissues, and tissue entered all the regression models explaining the greatest variation in metal levels. Age of bird contributed significantly to the models for lead, cadmium, selenium, and chromium. Although there were significant gender differences in all body measurements except wing length, there were few differences in metal levels. Males had significantly higher lead levels in feathers, and females had significantly higher selenium levels in heart and muscle tissue. For lead, 3-year olds had the highest levels in the heart, liver, and kidney, and levels were lower thereafter. Mercury levels in feathers and heart decreased significantly with age. Cadmium levels increased significantly with age for feathers, heart, liver, and muscle, although there was a slight decrease in the 7-year olds. Selenium levels decreased significantly with age for all tissues. Chromium levels increased with age for liver and heart.
Lloyd, Meghann; Temple, Viviene A.; Foley, John T.
The purpose of this study was to describe the BMI status of children and youth with intellectual disabilities by world region, gender and age. A total of 9678 children and youth records were available from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database after data cleaning (6084 boys and 3594 girls). Children were defined as 8-11 year…
Levenson, R W; Carstensen, L L; Gottman, J M
Long-term marriages (N = 156) varying in spouses' age (40-50 years or 60-70 years) and relative marital satisfaction (satisfied and dissatisfied) were studied. Spouses independently completed demographic, marital, and health questionnaires and then participated in a laboratory-based procedure focused on areas of conflict and sources of pleasure. Findings supported a positive view of older marriages. Compared with middle-aged marriages, older couples evidenced (a) reduced potential for conflict and greater potential for pleasure in several areas (including children), (b) equivalent levels of overall mental and physical health, and (c) lesser gender differences in sources of pleasure. The relation between marital satisfaction and health was stronger for women than for men. In satisfied marriages, wives' and husbands' health was equivalent; in dissatisfied marriages, wives reported more mental and physical health problems than did their husbands. PMID:8323733
Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Blood, Emily A.; Milliren, Carly E.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Richmond, Tracy K.; Gooding, Holly C.; Austin, S. Bryn
Obesity is a key public health issue for US youth. Previous research with primarily white samples of youth has indicated that sexual minority females have higher body mass index (BMI) and sexual minority males have lower BMI than their same-gender heterosexual counterparts, with sexual orientation differences in males increasing across adolescence. This research explored whether gender and sexual orientation differences in BMI exist in nonwhite racial/ethnic groups. Using data from Waves I–IV (1995–2009) of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,306, ages 11–34 years), we examined associations between sexual orientation and BMI (kg/m2) over time, using longitudinal linear regression models, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among males, heterosexual individuals showed greater one-year BMI gains than gay males across all race/ethnicity groups. Among females, white and Latina bisexual individuals had higher BMI than same-race/ethnicity heterosexual individuals regardless of age; there were no sexual orientation differences in black/African Americans. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI are a public health concern across race/ethnicity groups. Interventions addressing unhealthy weight gain in youth must be relevant for all sexual orientations and race/ethnicities. PMID:24872890
Twelker, J. Daniel; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Messer, Dawn H.; Bhakta, Rita; Jones, Lisa A.; Mutti, Donald O.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Zadnik, Karla
Purpose This cross-sectional report includes ocular component data as a function of age, gender, and ethnicity from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Methods The ocular components of 4881 school-aged children were examined using cycloplegic autorefraction (refractive error), keratometry (corneal curvature), ultrasonography (axial dimensions), and videophakometry (lens curvature). Results The average age (± SD) was 8.8 ± 2.3 years, and 2458 were girls (50.4%). Sixteen percent were African American, 14.8% were Asian, 22.9% were Hispanic, 11.6% were Native American, and 34.9% were White. More myopic/less hyperopic refractive error was associated with greater age, especially in Asians, less in Whites and African Americans. Corneal power varied slightly with age, with girls showing a greater mean corneal power. Native-American children had greater corneal toricity with a markedly flatter horizontal corneal power. Anterior chambers were deeper with age, and boys had deeper anterior chambers. Native-American children had the shallowest anterior chambers and Whites the deepest. Girls had higher Gullstrand and calculated lens powers than boys. Boys had longer vitreous chambers and axial lengths, and both were deeper with age. Native Americans had the longest vitreous chambers and Whites the shortest. Conclusions Most ocular components showed little clinically meaningful variation by ethnicity. The shallower anterior chambers and deeper vitreous chambers of Native-American children appeared to be offset by flatter corneas. The relatively deeper anterior chamber and shallower vitreous chambers of White children appeared to be offset by steeper corneas. Asian children had more myopic spherical equivalent refractive errors, but for a given refractive error the ocular parameters of Asian children were moderate in value compared to those of other ethnic groups. Asian children may develop longer, myopic eyes more often
An estimated 58 million persons aged 60-plus live in sub-Saharan Africa; by 2050 that number will rise sharply to 215 million. Older Africans traditionally get care in their old age from the middle generation. But in East and Southern Africa, HIV has hollowed out that generation, leaving many older persons to provide care for their children’s children without someone to care for him or herself in old age. Simultaneously, the burden of disease among older persons is changing in this region. The result is a growing care deficit. This article examines the existing literature on care for and by older persons in this region, highlighting understudied aspects of older persons’ experiences of ageing and care – including the positive impacts of carework, variation in the region, and the role of resilience and pensions. We advance a conceptual framework of gendered identities – for both men and women – and intergenerational social exchange to help focus and understand the complex interdependent relationships around carework, which are paramount in addressing the needs of older persons in the current care deficit in this region, and the Global South more generally. PMID:25947225
Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2–7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OH)D and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OH)D at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child’s current level); and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student’s t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort’s median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6–3368.6) and did not correlate with 25(OH)D, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively). Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001). Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child’s current 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively). This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OH)D values and warrants additional studies for further observation. PMID:27152524
Kes, Vanja Bašić; Jurašić, Miljenka-Jelena; Zavoreo, Iris; Lisak, Marijana; Jelec, Vjekoslav; Matovina, Lucija Zadro
Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the most important cause of adult disability worldwide and in Croatia. In the past, stroke was almost exclusively considered to be a disease of the elderly; however, today the age limit has considerably lowered towards younger age. The aim of this study was to determine age and gender impact on stroke patients in a Croatian urban area during one-year survey. The study included all acute stroke patients admitted to our Department in 2004. A compiled stroke questionnaire was fulfilled during hospitalization by medical personnel on the following items: stroke risk factors including lifestyle habits (smoking and alcohol), pre-stroke physical ability evaluation, stroke evolution data, laboratory and computed tomography findings, outcome data and post-stroke disability assessment. Appropriate statistical analysis of numerical and categorical data was performed at the level of p < 0.05. Analysis was performed on 396 patients, 24 of them from the younger adult stroke group. Older stroke patients had worse disability at hospital discharge and women had worse disabilities at both stroke onset and hospital discharge, probably due to older age at stroke onset. Younger patients recovered better, while older patients had to seek secondary medical facilities more often, as expected. The most important in-hospital laboratory findings in young stroke patients were elevated lipid levels, while older patients had elevated serum glucose and C-reactive protein. Stroke onset in younger patients most often presented with sudden onset headache; additionally, onset seizure was observed more frequently than expected. Stroke risk factor analysis showed that women were more prone to hypertension, chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation, whereas men had carotid disease more frequently, were more often smokers and had higher alcohol intake. Additionally, age analysis showed that heart conditions and smoking were more prevalent among older
Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.
The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…
Rönn, Tina; Volkov, Petr; Gillberg, Linn; Kokosar, Milana; Perfilyev, Alexander; Jacobsen, Anna Louisa; Jørgensen, Sine W; Brøns, Charlotte; Jansson, Per-Anders; Eriksson, Karl-Fredrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Groop, Leif; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Vaag, Allan; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte
Increased age, BMI and HbA1c levels are risk factors for several non-communicable diseases. However, the impact of these factors on the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue remains unknown. We analyzed the DNA methylation of ∼480 000 sites in human adipose tissue from 96 males and 94 females and related methylation to age, BMI and HbA1c. We also compared epigenetic signatures in adipose tissue and blood. Age was significantly associated with both altered DNA methylation and expression of 1050 genes (e.g. FHL2, NOX4 and PLG). Interestingly, many reported epigenetic biomarkers of aging in blood, including ELOVL2, FHL2, KLF14 and GLRA1, also showed significant correlations between adipose tissue DNA methylation and age in our study. The most significant association between age and adipose tissue DNA methylation was found upstream of ELOVL2. We identified 2825 genes (e.g. FTO, ITIH5, CCL18, MTCH2, IRS1 and SPP1) where both DNA methylation and expression correlated with BMI. Methylation at previously reported HIF3A sites correlated significantly with BMI in females only. HbA1c (range 28-46 mmol/mol) correlated significantly with the methylation of 711 sites, annotated to, for example, RAB37, TICAM1 and HLA-DPB1. Pathway analyses demonstrated that methylation levels associated with age and BMI are overrepresented among genes involved in cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our results highlight the impact of age, BMI and HbA1c on epigenetic variation of candidate genes for obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer in human adipose tissue. Importantly, we demonstrate that epigenetic biomarkers in blood can mirror age-related epigenetic signatures in target tissues for metabolic diseases such as adipose tissue. PMID:25861810
Colley, Ann; North, Adrian; Hargreaves, David J
Eminent composers in Western European art music continue to be predominantly male and eminence in contemporary pop music is similarly male dominated. One contributing factor may be the continuing under-valuation of women's music. Possible anti-female bias in a contemporary genre was investigated using the Goldberg paradigm to elicit judgments of New Age compositions. Since stronger stereotyping effects occur when information provided about individuals is sparse, fictitious male and female composers were presented either by name only or by name with a brief biography. Evidence for anti-female bias was found in the name-only condition and was stronger when liking for the music was controlled. Other findings were the tendency for females to give higher ratings, and the association of gender differences in liking of the music with ratings of quality in the name-only condition. These results are relevant to the design of formal assessment procedures for musical composition. PMID:12778980
Biro, Frank M; Huang, Bin; Morrison, John A; Horn, Paul S; Daniels, Steven R
Purpose This study examined longitudinal changes in waist-to-height ratio and components of BMI among black and white females. Methods Girls were recruited at age 9 through the NHLBI Growth and Health Study (NGHS), and followed annually over ten years. Girls were grouped into low (<20th %tile), middle, and high (>80th %tile) BMI on the basis of race-specific BMI percentile rankings at age 9, and low, middle, and high waist-to-height ratio, on the basis of waist-to-height ratio at age 11. BMI was partitioned into fat mass and fat-free mass index (FMI and FFMI). Results Girls accrued fat mass at a greater rate than fat-free mass, and the ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass increased from ages 9 through 18. There was a significant increase in this ratio after age at peak height velocity. Participants with elevated BMI and waist-to-height ratios at age 18 tended to have been elevated at ages 9 and 11, respectively. There were strong correlations between BMI at age 9 with several outcomes at age 18: BMI (0.76) and FMI (0.72), weaker but significant with FFMI (0.37), and ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass (0.53). Additionally, there was significant tracking of elevated BMI from ages 9 through 18. Conclusions In girls, higher BMI levels during childhood lead to greater waist-to-height ratios and greater than expected changes in BMI at age 18, with disproportionate increases in fat mass. These changes are especially evident in blacks and after the pubertal growth spurt. PMID:20159501
Secondary school enrolment in Uganda has historically favoured males over females. Recently, however, researchers have reported that the secondary enrolment gender gap has significantly diminished, and perhaps even disappeared in Uganda. Even if gender parity is being achieved for enrolment broadly, there may be a gender gap concerning…
Lee, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Myoung-Kyu; Kim, Hyunduk
Intelligent digital signage systems transmit customized advertising and information by analyzing users and customers, unlike existing system that presented advertising in the form of broadcast without regard to type of customers. Currently, development of intelligent digital signage system has been pushed forward vigorously. In this study, we designed a system capable of analyzing gender and age of customers based on image obtained from camera, although there are many different methods for analyzing customers. We conducted age and gender recognition experiments using public database. The age/gender recognition experiments were performed through histogram matching method by extracting Local binary patterns (LBP) features after facial area on input image was normalized. The results of experiment showed that gender recognition rate was as high as approximately 97% on average. Age recognition was conducted based on categorization into 5 age classes. Age recognition rates for women and men were about 67% and 68%, respectively when that conducted separately for different gender.
Wong, Martin C.S.; Ching, Jessica Y.L.; Chan, Victor C.W.; Lam, Thomas Y.T.; Luk, Arthur K.C.; Wong, Sunny H.; Ng, Siew C.; Ng, Simon S.M.; Wu, Justin C.Y.; Chan, Francis K.L.; Sung, Joseph J.Y.
Abstract We evaluated whether age- and gender-based colorectal cancer screening is cost-effective. Recent studies in the United States identified age and gender as 2 important variables predicting advanced proximal neoplasia, and that women aged <60 to 70 years were more suited for sigmoidoscopy screening due to their low risk of proximal neoplasia. Yet, quantitative assessment of the incremental benefits, risks, and cost remains to be performed. Primary care screening practice (2008–2015). A Markov modeling was constructed using data from a screening cohort. The following strategies were compared according to the Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) for 1 life-year saved: flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) 5 yearly; colonoscopy 10 yearly; FS for each woman at 50- and 55-year old followed by colonoscopy at 60- and 70-year old; FS for each woman at 50-, 55-, 60-, and 65-year old followed by colonoscopy at 70-year old; FS for each woman at 50-, 55-, 60-, 65-, and 70-year old. All male subjects received colonoscopy at 50-, 60-, and 70-year old under strategies 3 to 5. From a hypothetical population of 100,000 asymptomatic subjects, strategy 2 could save the largest number of life-years (4226 vs 2268 to 3841 by other strategies). When compared with no screening, strategy 5 had the lowest ICER (US$42,515), followed by strategy 3 (US$43,517), strategy 2 (US$43,739), strategy 4 (US$47,710), and strategy 1 (US$56,510). Strategy 2 leads to the highest number of bleeding and perforations, and required a prohibitive number of colonoscopy procedures. Strategy 5 remains the most cost-effective when assessed with a wide range of deterministic sensitivity analyses around the base case. From the cost effectiveness analysis, FS for women and colonoscopy for men represent an economically favorable screening strategy. These findings could inform physicians and policy-makers in triaging eligible subjects for risk-based screening, especially in countries with limited colonoscopic
Weiss, Maureen R.; Smith, Alan L.
Examined age and gender differences in the quality of sport friendship, noting relationships between friendship quality and motivation-related variables and reexamining the validity of the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS). Adolescent tennis players completed the SFQS and other measures. Age and gender differences in friendship emerged.…
Macan, Therese Hoff; And Others
Compares two ways of examining the gender and age stereotypes of jobs, using characteristics of incumbents and potential suitability. Seventy female and 66 male college students provided gender and age perceptions for 58 jobs. Results support conceptual and empirical distinctions between perceived incumbent job perceptions and suitability ratings…
Walsh, Jennifer L.; Ward, L. Monique; Caruthers, Allison; Merriwether, Ann
Although research continues to highlight significant gender differences in first coital experiences, developmental approaches suggest that some of these patterns may be age-related. Therefore, this study investigated both gender and age differences in first intercourse experiences. Open-ended responses regarding reasons for, and descriptions of,…
Leigh, J. Paul; Fries, James F.
Examined data from 1,864 Bank of America retirees to investigate correlations among healthy habits, age, gender, and education. Health habits were strongly and positively associated with each other and negatively associated with unhealthy habits. Age and gender differences were found. Education was significantly associated only with fiber in diet…
Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner
Gender differences in spatial ability in old age were examined and the effectiveness of cognitive training in reducing these differences was assessed. Age-related decline in the speed of problem solving, especially for men, was noted. Following training on mental rotation ability, there was no significant gender difference in spatial ability…
Bausch, Sonja; Michel, Alexandra; Sonntag, Karlheinz
Previous research has shown age and gender differences in training, but the results have been mixed and their combined influence is only rarely examined. We fill those gaps by analysing age and gender effects on self-efficacy and training success. Study participants were trainees in an e-learning time- and self-management behaviour modelling…
van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande
Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…
Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer S.
The age at which parents first developed concerns over their child's development was examined in 965 toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and atypical development to examine the potential role of gender. A two-way analysis of covariance was conducted with gender and diagnosis entered as independent variables, age at assessment entered as…
Chiang, Shang-Lin; Lin, Chia-Huei; Chang, Shin-Tsu; Lin, Chueh-Ho; Chen, Po-Yin; Sung, Wen-Hsu; Wei, Shun-Hwa
We developed a mobility detection system to analyze pressure changes over time during side-turns in 29 healthy volunteers (17 males and 12 females) with a mean age of 46.1 ± 19.64 years (ranging from 23 to 86 years) in order to determine the effect of gender, age, and BMI on performance during bed postural change. Center of gravity (COG) location, peak pressure of counteraction, and time to reach peak pressure were the main outcomes used to gauge the ability to make a spontaneous side-turn. Men exhibited significantly higher side-turning force (P = 0.002) and back-turning force (P = 0.002) compared with women. Subjects with BMI ≥27 kg/m2 had significantly higher side-turning force (P = 0.007) and back-turning force (P = 0.007) compared with those with BMI < 27 kg/m2. After adjusting for other covariates, age positively correlated with back-turning time (P = 0.033) and negatively correlated with side-turning speed (P = 0.005), back-turning speed (P = 0.014), side-turning force (P = 0.010), and back-turning force (P = 0.016), respectively. Turning times negatively correlated with time to reach peak pressure (P = 0.008). Our system was effective in detecting changes in turning swiftness in the bed-ridden subject. PMID:24877137
Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina
Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group – young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside “headmaster”) or feminine roles (badante “social care worker”), followed by a male (padre “father”) or female kinship term (madre “mother”). The task was to decide if the two words – the role noun and the kinship term – could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press ‘yes,’ when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763
Sahasrabuddhe, Anagh A.
BMI1 oncogene is a catalytic member of epigenetic repressor polycomb group proteins. It plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression pattern and consequently several cellular processes during development, including cell cycle progression, senescence, aging, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and importantly self-renewal of adult stem cells of several lineages. Preponderance of evidences indicates that deregulated expression of PcG protein BMI1 is associated with several human malignancies, cancer stem cell maintenance, and propagation. Importantly, overexpression of BMI1 correlates with therapy failure in cancer patients and tumor relapse. This review discusses the diverse mode of BMI1 regulation at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels as well as at various critical signaling pathways regulated by BMI1 activity. Furthermore, this review highlights the role of BMI1 as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several subtypes of hematologic malignancies and the importance to target this biomarker for therapeutic applications. PMID:27168727
Sabin, Janice A.; Marini, Maddalena; Nosek, Brian A.
Overweight patients report weight discrimination in health care settings and subsequent avoidance of routine preventive health care. The purpose of this study was to examine implicit and explicit attitudes about weight among a large group of medical doctors (MDs) to determine the pervasiveness of negative attitudes about weight among MDs. Test-takers voluntarily accessed a public Web site, known as Project Implicit®, and opted to complete the Weight Implicit Association Test (IAT) (N = 359,261). A sub-sample identified their highest level of education as MD (N = 2,284). Among the MDs, 55% were female, 78% reported their race as white, and 62% had a normal range BMI. This large sample of test-takers showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen’s d = 1.0). MDs, on average, also showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen’s d = 0.93). All test-takers and the MD sub-sample reported a strong preference for thin people rather than fat people or a strong explicit anti-fat bias. We conclude that strong implicit and explicit anti-fat bias is as pervasive among MDs as it is among the general public. An important area for future research is to investigate the association between providers’ implicit and explicit attitudes about weight, patient reports of weight discrimination in health care, and quality of care delivered to overweight patients. PMID:23144885
Sabin, Janice A; Marini, Maddalena; Nosek, Brian A
Overweight patients report weight discrimination in health care settings and subsequent avoidance of routine preventive health care. The purpose of this study was to examine implicit and explicit attitudes about weight among a large group of medical doctors (MDs) to determine the pervasiveness of negative attitudes about weight among MDs. Test-takers voluntarily accessed a public Web site, known as Project Implicit®, and opted to complete the Weight Implicit Association Test (IAT) (N = 359,261). A sub-sample identified their highest level of education as MD (N = 2,284). Among the MDs, 55% were female, 78% reported their race as white, and 62% had a normal range BMI. This large sample of test-takers showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen's d = 1.0). MDs, on average, also showed strong implicit anti-fat bias (Cohen's d = 0.93). All test-takers and the MD sub-sample reported a strong preference for thin people rather than fat people or a strong explicit anti-fat bias. We conclude that strong implicit and explicit anti-fat bias is as pervasive among MDs as it is among the general public. An important area for future research is to investigate the association between providers' implicit and explicit attitudes about weight, patient reports of weight discrimination in health care, and quality of care delivered to overweight patients. PMID:23144885
Ford, Dara W; Hartman, Terryl J; Still, Christopher; Wood, Craig; Mitchell, Diane; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Bailey, Regan; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Coffman, Donna L; Jensen, Gordon L
Objective To assess the association of diet-related practices and BMI with diet quality in rural adults aged ≥74 years. Design Cross-sectional. Dietary quality was assessed by the twenty-five-item Dietary Screening Tool (DST). Diet-related practices were self-reported. Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyse associations of DST scores with BMI and diet-related practices after controlling for gender, age, education, smoking and self- v. proxy reporting. Setting Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) in Pennsylvania, USA. Subjects A total of 4009 (1722 males, 2287 females; mean age 81·5 years) participants aged ≥74 years. Results Individuals with BMI < 18·5 kg/m2 had a significantly lower DST score (mean 55·8, 95 % CI 52·9, 58·7) than those individuals with BMI = 18·5–24·9 kg/m2 (mean 60·7, 95 % CI 60·1, 61·5; P = 0.001). Older adults with higher, more favourable DST scores were significantly more likely to be food sufficient, report eating breakfast, have no chewing difficulties and report no decline in intake in the previous 6 months. Conclusions The DST may identify potential targets for improving diet quality in older adults including promotion of healthy BMI, breakfast consumption, improving dentition and identifying strategies to decrease concern about food sufficiency. PMID:23816283
Speirs, Katherine E; Fiese, Barbara H
Objectives The literature exploring the relationship between food insecurity and obesity for preschool-aged children is inconclusive and suffers from inconsistent measurement. This paper explores the relationships between concurrent household and child food insecurity and child overweight as well as differences in these relationships by child gender using a sample of 2-5 year old children. Methods Using measured height and weight and responses to the Household Food Security Survey Module collected from a sample of 438 preschool-aged children (mean age 39 months) and their mothers, logistic regression models were fit to estimate the relationship between household and child food insecurity and child BMI. Separate models were fit for girls and boys. Results Twenty-seven percent of children from food insecure households and 25 % of child food insecure children were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85 %). There were no statistically significant associations between either household or child food insecurity and BMI for the full sample. For girls, but not boys, household food insecurity was associated with BMI z-scores (β = 0.23, p = 0.01). Conclusions Although food insecurity and overweight were not significantly associated, a noteworthy proportion of food insecure children were overweight or obese. Programs for young children should address food insecurity and obesity simultaneously by ensuring that young children have regular access to nutrient-dense foods. PMID:26662281
Verhoeven, Marjolein; Bogels, Susan M.; van der Bruggen, Corine C.
We examined the associations between the parenting dimensions autonomy granting, over control, and rejection and children's anxiety, in relation to parent and child gender and child age. Elementary school-aged children (n = 179, M[subscript age] = 10.27, SD = 1.30), adolescents (n = 127, M[subscript age] = 15.02, SD = 1.54) and both their parents…
Adams, Sally H.; Irwin, Charles E.; Ozer, Elizabeth
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between BMI status (normal, overweight, and obese) and preventive screening among adolescents at their last checkup. METHODS: We used population-based data from the 2003–2007 California Health Interview Surveys, telephone interviews of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with a checkup in the past 12 months (n = 9220). Respondents were asked whether they received screening for nutrition, physical activity, and emotional distress. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight: (1) normal weight or underweight (<85th percentile); (2) overweight (85th–94th percentile); and (3) obese (>95th percentile). Multivariate logistic regression models tested how screening by topic differed according to BMI status, adjusting for age, gender, income, race/ethnicity, and survey year. RESULTS: Screening percentages in the pooled sample (all 3 years) were higher for obese, but not overweight, adolescents for physical activity (odds ratio: 1.4; P < .01) and nutrition (odds ratio: 1.6; screening did not differ P < .01). Stratified analysis by year revealed higher screening for obese (versus normal-weight) adolescents for nutrition and physical activity in 2003 and for all 3 topics in 2005. However, by 2007, screening did not differ according to BMI status. Overall screening between 2003 and 2007 declined for nutrition (75%–59%; P < .01), physical activity (74%–60%; P < .01), and emotional distress (31%–24%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents receive more preventive screening versus their normal-weight peers. Overweight adolescents do not report more screening, but standards of care dictate increased attention for this group. These results are discouraging amid a rise in pediatric obesity and new guidelines that recommend screening by BMI status. PMID:21768313
Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Wu, Ping; Must, Aviva
OBJECTIVE To examine the association between maternal depression and child BMI from Kindergarten (K) to 5th grade. METHODS Analysis of four waves of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten (ECLS-K) spanning K to 5th grade. Maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) were measured by a brief version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses, adjusting for key covariates and potential confounders. The analytic sample was restricted to children of normal birth weight. RESULTS The relationship between MDS and child BMI varies by child gender and age. Among girls, severe MDS at K was related to lower BMI at 3rd grade (but not later at 5th grade) and to an increase in BMI from K to 3rd and K to 5th grades. Among boys, severe MDS at K was related to higher boys’ BMI at 5th grade. When severe MDS occurred at 3rd grade, it was related to higher BMI at 5th grade among girls whereas no statistically significant relationship was found for boys. Low levels of physical activity in comparison to peers at 5th grade and more screen time on weekends at 3rd grade are likely mediators of the relationship between MDS and child BMI among girls, whilst among boys the relationship appears to be mediated by unhealthy eating habits. CONCLUSIONS Our findings, indicating developmental and gender differences in the relationship between maternal depression and child BMI, if confirmed, suggest that interventions addressing maternal depression may have concomitant impact on childhood obesity. PMID:22434752
Yousefi, Mitra; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei; Ewart, Susan; Arshad, Hasan; Holloway, John W
To determine whether DNA methylation (DNA-M) of the leptin receptor genotype (LEPR/LEPROT) links gestational smoking and leptin serum levels and BMI later in life, we focused on female offspring, 18 years of age, from the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (IOWBC). Leptin binds to the leptin receptor encoded by the LEPR/LEPROT genotype. Using general linear models, we tested a two-stage model. First, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) acting as methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTLs) depending on gestational smoking were related to differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites. In stage 2, we tested whether the selected CpG sites, in interaction with other SNPs (modifiable genetic variants, modGV), are associated with serum leptin and BMI (stage 2). Children from the IOWBC were followed from birth to age 18. Information on gestational smoking was gathered upon delivery. SNPs tagging LEPR and LEPROT genes were genotyped. Data on LEPR/LEPROT DNA-M and leptin were obtained from blood samples drawn at age 18; to determine BMI, height and weight were ascertained. Blood samples were provided by 238 girls. Of the 21 CpG sites, interactions between gestational smoking and SNPs were detected for 16 CpGs. Methylation of seven of the 16 CpGs were, in interaction with modGVs, associated with leptin levels at age 18 years. Two CpGs survived a multiple testing penalty and were also associated with BMI. This two-stage model may explain why maternal smoking has a long-term effect on leptin levels and BMI in girls at age 18 years. PMID:23875062
Chaturvedi, Praneet; Neelamraju, Yaseswini; Arif, Waqar; Kalsotra, Auinash; Janga, Sarath Chandra
In the present study, we perform an association analysis focusing on the expression changes of 1344 RNA Binding proteins (RBPs) as a function of age and gender in human liver. We identify 88 and 45 RBPs to be significantly associated with age and gender respectively. Experimental verification of several of the predicted associations in mice confirmed our findings. Our results suggest that a small fraction of the gender-associated RBPs (~40%) are expressed higher in males than females. Altogether, these observations show that several of these RBPs are important and conserved regulators in maintaining liver function. Further analysis of the protein interaction network of RBPs associated with age and gender based on the centrality measures like degree, betweenness and closeness revealed that several of these RBPs might be prominent players in aging liver and impart gender specific alterations in gene expression via the formation of protein complexes. Indeed, both age and gender-associated RBPs in liver were found to show significantly higher clustering coefficients and network centrality measures compared to non-associated RBPs. The compendium of RBPs and this study will help us gain insight into the role of post-transcriptional regulatory molecules in aging and gender specific expression of genes. PMID:25824884
Wauchope, Barbara A.; Straus, Murray A.
This study examined the relationship of the age and gender of the child, and the occupational status and gender of the parent, to the incidence and frequency of physical punishment and two levels of physical abuse of children, as measured by the minor, severe, and very severe violence indexes of the Conflict Tactics Scales. The subjects were…
Sahl, Daniel; Keene, Jennifer Reid
Using a sample of 2,838 students from a Southwestern university in the United States, the authors examine the effect of respondent's gender, the adult's gender, the age gap between the adult and teen, and the adult's authority, on students' perceptions of vignettes describing adult-teen sexual relationships. Specifically, the authors investigate…
Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen
In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…
Levinson, Daphna; Haklai, Ziona; Stein, Nechama; Gordon, Ethel-Sherry
An analysis of all emergency department admissions in Israel classified as an attempted suicide in the years 1996-2002 was done to examine attempted suicide rates by age and gender with particular attention to adolescents and young adults. Gender differences in attempted suicide rates were significant only during adolescence and young adulthood,…
This article investigates the effect of age of first exposure and the quantity and quality of input to which non-native acquirers (L2ers) are exposed in their acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch. Data from 103 English-speaking children, preteens and adults were analyzed for gender agreement on definite determiners. It was observed that…
Asci, F. Hulya
Evaluates age and gender differences in physical self-concept of Turkish university students. The Physical Self-Perception Profile was administered to participants for assessing physical self-concept. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect for gender, but no significant main effect for year in school. Univariate…
Marasco, Emanuela; Lugini, Luca; Cukic, Bojan
Age and gender of an individual, when available, can contribute to identification decisions provided by primary biometrics and help improve matching performance. In this paper, we propose a system which automatically infers age and gender from the fingerprint image. Current approaches for predicting age and gender generally exploit features such as ridge count, and white lines count that are manually extracted. Existing automated approaches have significant limitations in accuracy especially when dealing with data pertaining to elderly females. The model proposed in this paper exploits image quality features synthesized from 40 different frequency bands, and image texture properties captured using the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and the Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) operators. We evaluate the performance of the proposed approach using fingerprint images collected from 500 users with an optical sensor. The approach achieves prediction accuracy of 89.1% for age and 88.7% for gender.
Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah; St. Clair-Thompson, Helen
This study investigated gender- and age-related differences in academic motivation and classroom behaviour in adolescents. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (415 girls and 440 boys) aged 11-16 ("M" age = 13.96, "SD" = 1.47) filled in a questionnaire that examined student academic motivation and teachers completed a…
... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs About Adult BMI Language: ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...
Siwik, Violet; Kutob, Randa; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Cruz, Luis; Senf, Janet; Aickin, Mikel; Going, Scott; Shatte, Andrew
Background Childhood obesity is a growing epidemic in family medicine with few clinical treatment options. We implemented and evaluated a group office-visit intervention by family physicians emphasizing nutrition and physical activity within a resiliency psychosocial model, for overweight children and their parents. Methods The intervention lasted for 3 months, with half of the children crossing over to intervention after 6 months on study. Participants included 35 children who met eligibility criteria of being in third through fifth grades and having a body mass index above the 85th percentile. The 3-month twelve-session intervention, “Choices”, included topics on nutrition, physical activity, and resiliency. The sessions were developed for delivery by a family physician, and a nutritionist, who all received training in positive psychology and resilience skills. Main outcome measures were body mass index (BMI) z-scores for age-and-gender, and weight-for-age-and-gender z-scores, as well as qualitative interviews to understand individual and family processes. Results The intervention resulted in a significant effect on one primary outcome, BMI z-score (-0.138 per 9 months (p =0.017) and a trend toward significance on the other, weight for age z-score (-0.87 per 9 months (p=0.09). The net shift of activity from the low METS to the high METS had an intervention effect of 2.84 METS (p = 0.037). Families reported lasting changes in behaviors and attitudes. Discussion The innovative approach used in this study demonstrated modest efficacy in reducing BMI z-score, changing physical activity levels, and possibly shifting family dynamics. PMID:23471926
Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei
Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…
Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Minci–Bejtullahu, Ganimete; Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Karahoda–Gjurgjeala, Natyra; Berisha, Naser; Morina, Teuta
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases and atopy is affected by sex, age and lifestyle factors. Obesity and excess weight are reported to be potential risk factors for atopy and specifically for asthma symptoms in children and adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between body mass index (BMI) and allergic diseases in patients of both genders, as well as association of BMI with atopy in healthy subjects. METHODS: BMI (kg/m2), skin-prick test and total serum immunoglobulin E levels were assessed in 139 subjects: 109 were patients with allergic diseases (M to F ratio was 51:58) and 30 were healthy controls (M to F ratio was 6:24). RESULTS: The study population was grouped into asthma, asthmarhinitis, rhinitis, Urticaria oreczema and controls by BMI and sex. Females with the highest BMI were in asthma and urticaria/eczema group. Males with the highest BMI were in asthmarhinitis and urticariaeczema group. High BMI was associated with atopy in both genders of healthy controls. High levels of total IgE were in male allergic patients. CONCLUSION: High BMI was associated with asthma in females, urticaria/eczema in both genders and atopy in both genders of healthy controls. Higher levels of total IgE were concluded in male patients.
Wang, Qin; Chen, Decai; Nicholson, Patrick; Cheng, Shumei; Alen, Markku; Mao, Lijian; Cheng, Sulin
Context Serotonin plays a potential role in bone metabolism, but the nature and extent of this relationship is unclear and human studies directly addressing the skeletal effect of circulating serotonin are rare. Objective The study aimed to investigate the associations between serum serotonin and bone traits at multiple skeletal sites in women and men. Subjects and Methods Subjects were part of the CALEX-family study and comprised 235 young women, 121 premenopausal women, 124 postmenopausal women, and 168 men. Body composition was assessed using DXA, as was areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of spine, femur and whole body. In addition, pQCT was used to determine bone properties at tibial midshaft and distal radius. Fasting serum serotonin concentration was assessed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Serum serotonin declined with advancing age both in females and males (all p<0.01). Serotonin was negatively correlated with weight, BMI, lean and fat mass in women (r = −0.22 to −0.39, all p<0.001), but positively with height and lean mass in men (all p<0.01). In the premenopausal women, serotonin was negatively correlated with lumbar spine aBMD (r = −0.23, p<0.05) but the statistical significance disappeared after adjustment for weight. Conversely, in postmenopausal women, serotonin was positively correlated with whole body and femur aBMD, as well as with distal radius bone mineral content and volumetric BMD (r = 0.20 to 0.30, all p<0.05), and these associations remained significant after adjustment for weight. In men, no significant associations were found between serotonin and bone traits. Conclusion Serum serotonin is positively associated with bone traits in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women or men. This partially supports the idea of circulating serotonin playing a role in the regulation of bone metabolism, but also indicates the importance of gender and age specific factors. PMID:25279460
Colley, Ann; Comber, Chris
Presents a study that focused on the school subject preferences of 11-12 year old girls (n=144) and boys (n=218) and 15-16 year old girls (n=269) and boys (n=300). Reports that there are gender differences in subject preference, while more traditional subjects were favored. (CMK)
Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.
Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500
Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, Ruben C; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gebauer, Jochen E; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D
Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from which to draw conclusions and develop theory. To broaden the empirical base, the present research uses a large Internet sample (N = 985,937) to provide the first large-scale systematic cross-cultural examination of gender and age differences in self-esteem. Across 48 nations, and consistent with previous research, we found age-related increases in self-esteem from late adolescence to middle adulthood and significant gender gaps, with males consistently reporting higher self-esteem than females. Despite these broad cross-cultural similarities, the cultures differed significantly in the magnitude of gender, age, and Gender × Age effects on self-esteem. These differences were associated with cultural differences in socioeconomic, sociodemographic, gender-equality, and cultural value indicators. Discussion focuses on the theoretical implications of cross-cultural research on self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26692356
Objectives To determine the associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as assessed by the health and activity limitation index (HALex) in older adults. Design Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze associations between Di...
Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Lena; Gordh, Torsten; Lind, Anne-Li; Thulin, Måns; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood
Cytokines play important roles as regulators of cell functions, and over the last decades a number of cytokine assays have been developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokines. Plasma samples were collected from 33 healthy blood donors. The samples were analyzed using a multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) allowing simultaneous measurement of 92 cytokines and four technical controls. Biomarkers with less than 80% quantitative results were excluded leaving 63 cytokines that were analyzed for the effects of gender and age. The plasma level of three of the investigated biomarkers (DNER, MCP-4 and MMP-10) were found to be significantly different for the two genders (adjusted p-value<0.05), and 15 of the biomarkers (CCL11, CCL25, CDCP1, CSF-1, CXCL11, CXCL9, FGF-23, Flt3L, HGF, IL-10RB, MCP-3, MCP-4, MMP-10, OPG, VEGF-A) were significantly associated with age. This study reveals the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokine assays. CXCL5 and TNFB were significantly higher in females, while the other markers with significant gender-dependent differences were higher in males. For the markers that were significantly associated with age, only CXCL6 was found to decrease with age, while the other biomarkers increased with age. PMID:26080062
A lower sex ratio (male to female) of elderly suicide rates in several Asian countries have been attributed to gender inequality on several parameters. The association of two proxy measures of gender equality (value of the gender empowerment measure and the gender-related development index) and the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. was examined using multiple linear regression. The two proxy measures of gender equality did not account for significant variance in the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. Association of gender equality with the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates requires further clarification in both cross-sectional studies across different countries and longitudinal studies within individual countries for all age bands. Such studies should, in addition to the GEM and the GDI, include other measures of gender equality including sex differences in educational attainment, income, poverty, housing, employment, access to healthcare and social welfare services, and urbanisation. PMID:18763461
Linder, Nicolas; Schaudinn, Alexander; Garnov, Nikita; Blüher, Matthias; Dietrich, Arne; Schütz, Tatjana; Lehmann, Stefanie; Retschlag, Ulf; Karlas, Thomas; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald
Image-based quantifications of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes from segmented VAT areas are increasingly considered for risk assessment in obese patients. The goal of this study was to determine the power of partial VAT areas to predict total VAT volume in morbidly obese patients (BMI > 40 kg/m2) as a function of gender, age and anatomical landmarks. 130 morbidly obese patients (mean BMI 46.5 kg/m2; 94 females) underwent IRB-approved MRI. Total VAT volumes were predicted from segmented VAT areas (of single or five adjacent slices) at common axial landmark levels and compared with the measured ones (VVAT-T, about 40 slices between diaphragm and pelvic floor). Standard deviations σ1 and σ5 of the respective VAT volume differences served as measures of agreement. Mean VVAT-T was 4.9 L for females and 8.1 L for males. Best predictions were found at intervertebral spaces L3-L4 for females (σ5 = 688 ml, σ1 = 832 ml) and L1-L2 for males (σ5 = 846 ml, σ1 = 992 ml), irrespective of age. In conclusion, VAT volumes in morbidly obese patients can be reliably predicted by multiplying the segmented VAT area at a gender-specific lumbar reference level with a fixed scaling factor and effective slice thickness. PMID:27009353
Kamtsios, Spiridon; Digelidis, Nikolaos
This study examined elementary school pupils with different body mass index (BMI) as to attitudes towards exercise, self-perception, lesson satisfaction in physical education and participation in physical activity. Seven hundred and seventy-five pupils participated in this study, aged 11-12 years. The study was conducted through questionnaires. Students were divided according to their BMI: normal, overweight and obese. Two-way analysis of variance was used, with gender and BMI type as independent variables. The results revealed that when compared to students with a normal BMI, the obese and overweight students had lower scores in lesson satisfaction, negative views of their body and reduced levels of physical activity. Also, the results showed that the obese and overweight students adopted more sedentary daily habits, such as many hours of TV watching and PC usage. The results of this study imply the need for necessary school interventions in order to encourage healthier behaviours and habits. PMID:18678585
Must, A; Barish, EE; Bandini, LG
Considerable interest and resources are currently being directed to primary and secondary prevention of childhood obesity among school-aged children. Intervention studies in this age group have yielded mixed results, begging the question as to whether the correct targets for intervention have been identified. To evaluate the evidence base, we reviewed prospective observational studies published in English between 1990–2007 that reported weight or fatness changes in relation to diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption emerged as the most consistent dietary factor in association with subsequent increases in weight status or fatness. Other foods and eating patterns showed less consistent associations and when associations were present, magnitudes were generally small. This may reflect the known limitations of standard dietary methodology to assess meal patterns and dietary intake. Findings for physical activity showed more consistent inverse associations with fatness outcomes than for weight status, and as was found for dietary factors, magnitudes of association were modest. Sedentary behavior effects on weight status differ by gender in many studies, with many, but not all, showing greater positive associations among girls. The lack of consistency observed in the studies of sedentary behaviors may reflect the range of variable definitions, measurement challenges, and the changing nature of electronic media. The intrinsic interplay among eating patterns, activity and sedentary behavior adds further complexity to the interpretation of the results of these studies. More sophisticated approaches to the analysis of these complex data in future studies may maximize what is learned. Although the classic obesity risk factors seem to play a role in the development of excess weight and fatness, some more recently identified potential factors, such as sleep, warrant further investigation in prospective studies before they are ready
Newberry, Carolyn; Tierney, Ann; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and structural/functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. SIBO's association with clinical characteristics is unclear. This study investigates the association between clinical factors and SIBO according to lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) result. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a university-based gastroenterology practice was performed. Data was abstracted from the medical records of subjects undergoing LHBT from 6/1/2009 to 6/1/2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between predictor variables: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and positive LHBT, the outcome of interest. Results. LHBT was performed in 791 subjects. Fifty-four percent had a positive LHBT. There was no statistically significant difference between the LHBT results according to age or BMI. In females, the likelihood of a positive LHBT increased with age (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01–1.03). In males, the likelihood of a positive LHBT result decreased with age (OR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97–1.00). Conclusion. There was an association between age, with respect to sex, and a positive LHBT. With increased age in females, the odds of a positive LHBT increased, while, in men, the odds of a positive LHBT decreased with age. PMID:27073800
Newberry, Carolyn; Tierney, Ann; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and structural/functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. SIBO's association with clinical characteristics is unclear. This study investigates the association between clinical factors and SIBO according to lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) result. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a university-based gastroenterology practice was performed. Data was abstracted from the medical records of subjects undergoing LHBT from 6/1/2009 to 6/1/2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between predictor variables: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and positive LHBT, the outcome of interest. Results. LHBT was performed in 791 subjects. Fifty-four percent had a positive LHBT. There was no statistically significant difference between the LHBT results according to age or BMI. In females, the likelihood of a positive LHBT increased with age (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.03). In males, the likelihood of a positive LHBT result decreased with age (OR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-1.00). Conclusion. There was an association between age, with respect to sex, and a positive LHBT. With increased age in females, the odds of a positive LHBT increased, while, in men, the odds of a positive LHBT decreased with age. PMID:27073800
Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.
Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218
Berry, TR; Spence, JC; Blanchard, C; Cutumisu, N; Edwards, J; Nykiforuk, C
Objective To undertake a 6-year longitudinal investigation of the relationship between the built environment (perceived and objectively measured) and change in body mass index (BMI). Specifically, this research examined whether change in BMI was predicted by objectively measured neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived neighborhood characteristics (for example, crime, traffic and interesting things to look at) in addition to other factors such as age, gender, education, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoking. Design Longitudinal study Subjects 500 adults who provided complete data in 2002 and 2008 and who did not move over the course of the study (47.8% female; age in 2002: 18–90 years). Measurements Telephone surveys in 2002 and 2008 measuring perceptions of their neighborhood environment and demographic factors. Objective measures of neighborhood characteristics were calculated using census data and geographical information systems in 2006. Results Age, neighborhood SES and perceived traffic were significantly related to increased BMI over the 6 years. Younger participants and those in lower SES neighborhoods were more likely to have increased BMI. Agreement with the statement that traffic made it difficult to walk also predicted increased BMI. Conclusion This study adds to the literature to show that BMI increased in low SES neighborhoods. Although more research is needed to fully understand how neighborhood SES contributes to obesity, it is without question that individuals in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods face more barriers to health than their wealthier counterparts. This study also calls into question the relationship between walkability and changes in BMI and emphasizes the necessity of longitudinal data rather than relying on cross-sectional research. PMID:20157324
Tavano-Colaizzi, Lorena; Arroyo, Pedro; Loria, Alvar; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises
Aim: To evaluate the ability of five clinimetric instruments to discriminate between subjects >60 years of age living at home versus those living in a residency. Methods: Trained nutritionists applied five instruments (cognition/depression/functionality/nutrition/appetite) to 285 subjects with majorities of women (64%), aged <80 years (61%), and home residents (54%). Results: Multivariable regression models were generated for each instrument using age, gender, and residency as independent variables. Age was associated with worsening scores in the five instruments whereas residency showed association in three instruments, and gender in two. Score-age regressions by place of residency showed differences suggesting that Mundet residents had increasingly worse scores with increasing age than home dwellers for cognition, depression, and nutrition. Also, living at home prevented the worsening of depression with increasing age. In contrast, functionality and appetite deteriorated at a similar rate for home and Mundet residents suggesting an inability of these two instruments to discriminate between settings. Score-age regressions by gender suggested that males have less cognitive problems at 60 and 80 years of age but not at 100 years, and better appetite than women at all ages. Conclusion: Increasing age proved to be associated to worsening scores in the five instruments but only three were able to detect differences according to setting. An interesting observation was that living at home appeared to prevent the depression increase with increasing age seen in Mundet residents. PMID:25593910
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989
Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)
Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain
Meyer, Gregory J; Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Reese, Jennifer B; Mihura, Joni L
We examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice. PMID:25059682
Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise
The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…
Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina
This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…
There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…
Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein
Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…
Literature on children's singing development is largely skewed towards findings based on English-speaking children. The present study aims to fill the gap in research through an investigation of the effects of age, gender and language on the singing competency of Cantonese-speaking children. One hundred and twenty children aged 7 and 9 years…
Onyeizugbo, Eucharia U.
Two hundred fourteen (214) married persons, 101 men and 113 women aged 20-60, with at least high school education, participated in the study which investigated the effects of gender, age, and educational attainment on assertiveness among married persons in Nigeria. The Assertive Behavior Assessment scale (ABAS; Onyeizugbo, 1998) was used to…
Xin, Shujun; Man, Wenyan; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Song, Shunpeng; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang
Background/objectives One phenomenon of skin aging is loss of cutaneous elasticity. Measurement of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT) is a method to assess skin elasticity. Yet, information regarding directional changes of CRRT associated with age, body sites and gender is not yet available. In the present study, we assessed whether changes in CRRT vary with age, body sites and gender in a normal Chinese population. Methods A Reviscometer was used to measure CRRTs in various directions on the left dorsal hand, the forehead and the left canthus of 806 normal Chinese volunteers, aged 2.5-94 years. Results With aging, CRRTs decreased in all directions on the hand, the forehead, and the canthus. A more dramatic reduction of CRRTs on the forehead and the canthus were observed at both the 2–8 and 3–9 o’clock directions. CRRTs in males aged 11– 20 years old were longer than those in females at some directions on all three body sites. Females between 21 and 40 years old showed longer CRRTs than males in some directions of the hand. There were no gender differences in subjects aged 0–10 (except on the canthus) and over 81 years old. Conclusion CRRTs vary with age, body sites and gender. PMID:21039906
Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi
This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…
Panek, Paul E.; Jungers, Melissa K.
The present study examined the effects of age, gender, and causality on the perceptions of persons with mental retardation. Participants rated individuals with mental retardation using a semantic differential scale with three factors: activity, evaluation, and potency. Target individuals in each scenario varied on the variables of age (8, 20, 45),…
Wiese, Holger; Kloth, Nadine; Gullmar, Daniel; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.
Efficient processing of unfamiliar faces typically involves their categorization (e.g., into old vs. young or male vs. female). However, age and gender categorization may pose different perceptual demands. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the activity evoked during age vs. gender…
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.
The purpose of our study was to determine differences in autism severity and symptoms as a function of IQ, age, SES, gender, and race while simultaneously controlling these variables in 777 children with autism using a comprehensive measure evaluating 30 core and associated symptoms of autism. The children were 1-17 years of age with IQs from 9 to…
Kinai, Theresia Kavuli
The purpose of the study was: (1) assess creativity of postgraduate student-teacher counselors whose age range was 25-54 years old, and teaching experience of 4-25 years; and (2) to find out whether age, gender, and teaching experience influence creativity. Seventy-two participants (43 females and 29 males) responded to the ICAS (Ibadan Creativity…
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose
The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…
Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Heitmann, Andreas; Peters, Annette; Perz, Siegfried
In the recent years, short-term heart rate variability (HRV) describing complex variations of beat-to-beat interval series that are mainly controlled by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been increasingly analyzed to assess the ANS activity in different diseases and under various conditions. In contrast to long-term HRV analysis, short-term investigations (<30 min) provide a test result almost immediately. Thus, short-term HRV analysis is suitable for ambulatory care, patient monitoring and all those applications where the result is urgently needed. In a previous study, we could show significant variations of 5-min HRV indices according to age in almost all domains (linear and nonlinear) in 1906 healthy subjects from the KORA S4 cohort. Based on the same group of subjects, general gender-related influences on HRV indices are to be determined in this study. Short-term 5-min HRV indices from linear time and frequency domain and from nonlinear methods (compression entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis, traditional and segmented Poincaré plot analysis, irreversibility analysis, symbolic dynamics, correlation and mutual information analysis) were determined from 782 females and 1124 males. First, we examined the gender differences in two age clusters (25–49 years and 50–74 years). Secondly, we investigated the gender-specific development of HRV indices in five age decade categories, namely for ages 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64 and 65–74 years. In this study, significant modifications of the indices according to gender could be obtained, especially in the frequency domain and correlation analyses. Furthermore, there were significant modifications according to age in nearly all of the domains. The gender differences disappeared within the last two age decades and the age dependencies disappeared in the last decade. To summarize gender and age influences need to be considered when performing HRV studies even if these influences only partly differ. PMID
Stoner, Sue B.; Spencer, W. Boyd
The Anger Expression Scale (AX) was administered to 150 volunteers ranging in age from 21 to 83 years. The AX yields three scores, anger-in, anger-out, and total AX. Results indicated that both the young adult and middle age groups had higher total AX than the older group. (Author/BS)
Mutombo, P.B.; Shiwaku, Kuninori
Aim: Polymorphisms in uncoupling protein (UCP) genes have been strongly associated with energy expenditure and obesity. This study aimed at investigating the effects of UCP gene polymorphisms (UCP1 −3826A/G, UCP2A/V, UCP2 I/D, and UCP3 −55C/T) on change in body mass index (BMI) during a lifestyle modification program in Japanese subjects. Results: Intervention induced a significant decrease in energy intake (−8.6%±17.0%) and a significant increase in energy expenditure (7.7%±7.4%). As a result, participants experienced a significant decrease in their BMI of −1.8%±2.7%. In a multivariate regression analysis, only UCP2 D/I among the selected UCP gene polymorphisms was associated with a change in BMI independent of the effects of gender, age, baseline BMI, changes in energy intake, and expenditure. Further regression analysis revealed that, in contrast to the DD genotype group, the DI+II genotype group showed no significant association between weight loss and change in energy expenditure suggesting this polymorphism altered the effects of this parameter on change in BMI. Conclusion: The study found UCP2 D/I to be associated with change in BMI by altering the effect of change in energy expenditure on change in BMI. PMID:23101559
Ricarte Trives, Jorge Javier; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre Postigo, José Miguel; Ros Segura, Laura; Watkins, Ed
Our study tested the hypothesis that older adults and men use more adaptive emotion regulatory strategies but fewer negative emotion regulatory strategies than younger adults and women. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that rumination acts as a mediator variable for the effect of age and gender on depression scores. Differences in rumination, problem solving, distraction, autobiographical recall and depression were assessed in a group of young adults (18-29 years) compared to a group of older adults (50-76 years). The older group used more problem solving and distraction strategies when in a depressed state than their younger counterparts (ps .06). Ordinary least squares regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that rumination mediated the association between age, gender and depression scores. These results suggest that older adults and men select more adaptive strategies to regulate emotions than young adults and women with rumination acting as a significant mediator variable in the association between age, gender, and depression. PMID:27425806
Park, Sang-Mi; Jang, Soong-Nang; Kim, Dong-Hyun
Over the past century, the population of Korea has aged rapidly as a result of decreasing fertility and mortality. Furthermore, the percentage of the population aged 65 and older is expected to double from 7% to 14% within 18 years, a much shorter doubling period than in most other developed countries. As Korean society ages, interest in healthy and successful ageing has increased. However, although previous studies have examined various determinants of successful ageing, such as socioeconomic status, gender differences have been neglected. This study investigated gender differences as factors in successful ageing among elderly men and women. Successful ageing has been defined as having high levels of physical and social functioning. Physical functioning includes having no difficulties with activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Social functioning is defined as participation in at least one of the following social activities: paid work, religious gatherings or volunteer service. Data for this study were obtained from a representative sample of 761 community-living individuals aged 65-84 years (340 males, 421 females); the respondents were interviewed face-to-face as part of the third wave of the Hallym Ageing Study (2007). Socioeconomic status appears to have a greater gender-specific effect on physical functioning than on social functioning. Especially for elderly men, a higher monthly individual income was significantly related to a higher level of physical functioning. Among elderly women, a higher level of education was associated with a higher level of physical functioning. In a major metropolis, elderly men had low social functioning and elderly women had low physical functioning. As Korea's population ages, successful ageing has received much attention. This study shows that policies promoting successful ageing must consider gender differences and associated socioeconomic factors. PMID:19703332
Panek, Paul E.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Pruett, Jessica H.
In order to evaluate the gender differences on the experience of aging, 142 individuals 50 years of age and older completed an interview regarding experiences with another individual conveying the message that they were "old." Interviewees were asked about the type of situation, the age and gender of the response person, and the…
Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Marzo, Juan C.; Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Estevez, Estefania
This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version across gender and age groups for 2,367 Spanish students, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. Configural and measurement invariance were found across gender and age samples for all dimensions of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short…
Poongodi, V.; Kanmani, R.; Anandi, M. S.; Krithika, C. L.; Kannan, A.; Raghuram, P. H.
Aim and Objective: To investigate age, sex based on gonial angle, width and breadth of the ramus of the mandible by digital orthopantomograph. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 panoramic radiographic images were selected. The age of the individuals ranged between 4 and 75 years of both the gender - males (113) and females (87) and selected radiographic images were measured using KLONK image measurement software tool with linear, angular measurement. The investigated radiographs were collected from the records of SRM Dental College, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Radiographs with any pathology, facial deformities, if no observation of mental foramen, congenital deformities, magnification, and distortion were excluded. Results: Mean, median, standard deviation, derived to check the first and third quartile, linear regression is used to check age and gender correlation with angle of mandible, height and width of the ramus of mandible. Conclusion: The radiographic method is a simpler and cost-effective method of age identification compared with histological and biochemical methods. Mandible is strongest facial bone after the skull, pelvic bone. It is validatory to predict age and gender by many previous studies. Radiographic and tomographic images have become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry forensic dentists can choose the most appropriate one since the validity of age and gender estimation crucially depends on the method used and its proper application. PMID:26538907
Fabbre, Vanessa D.
Purpose of the Study: Most understandings of successful aging are developed within a heteronormative cultural framework, leading to a dearth of theoretical and empirical scholarship relevant to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) older adults. This study explores the experiences of transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition in later life in order to develop culturally diverse conceptualizations of health and wellness in older age. Design and Methods: Using the extended case method, in-depth interviews were conducted with male-to-female-identified persons (N = 22) who have seriously contemplated or pursued a gender transition past the age of 50. In addition, 170hr of participant observation was carried out at 3 national transgender conferences generating ethnographic field notes on the topics of aging and gender transitions in later life. Results: Interpretive analyses suggest that many transgender older adults experience challenges to their gender identities that put their emotional and physical well-being at risk. Contemporary queer theory is used to understand these experiences and argue that greater attention to experiences of queer “failure” and negotiating “success on new terms” may be integral aspects of growth and development for transgender older adults. Implications: The Baby Boom generation is aging in a post-Stonewall, LGBTQ civil rights era, yet gerontology’s approach to gender and sexual identity has largely been formulated from a heteronormative perspective. A framework for understanding older transgender persons’ experiences informed by queer theory offers a new orientation for conceptualizing successful aging in the lives of marginalized gender and sexual minorities. PMID:25161264
Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B
While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people. PMID:26610722
Nakajima, Motohiro; Dokam, Anisa; Alsameai, Abed; AlSoofi, Mohammed; Khalil, Najat; al'Absi, Mustafa
The escalating use of khat (Catha edulis) in East Africa and Arabia is a major concern for public health. Yet little is known about the impact of khat on behaviour. To that end, there has been no study in the region to assess the extent to which dependence syndrome is associated with khat use in this population. We examined in this study was psychometric properties of the Severity of Dependence Scale-Khat (SDS-khat), gender differences in patterns of khat use and dependence, and the extent to which age moderated the link between gender and khat dependence. Two-hundred and ninety-two khat chewers recruited in two Yemeni cities completed face-to-face interviews asking about demographics and patterns of khat use. Validity of SDS-khat was examined by the principle component analysis and reliability of the scale was tested by the Cronbach's alpha. A series of chi-square tests and analysis of variances (ANOVAs) were conducted to examine gender differences in khat use variables. The results indicated that the mean age of khat chewers was 30.52 years (95% CI: 29.34, 31.70) years, and 52% of them were males. The SDS-khat was found to have two factors with moderate reliability. This pattern was consistent when the analysis was conducted in the entire sample and in each gender. Male khat chewers reported more symptoms related to khat dependence than female chewers. A significant gender by age interaction in SDS-khat levels (p =0.013) revealed a positive association between age and khat dependence in women only. These results provide initial support for the use of SDS-khat in the assessment of khat dependence in Yemen. Gender differences in khat use patterns and dependence observed in this study call the need for more studies carefully examining the role of gender in khat research. PMID:25064835
Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle
This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an "other," and consequently their input was neglected. These views were thus materialized in design and reinforce such views in powerful yet unobtrusive ways. PMID:26918623
Desantis Klinich, Kathleen; Ebert, Sheila M; Van Ee, Chris A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Prasad, Monica; Reed, Matthew P; Schneider, Lawrence W
In the mid 1970s, UMTRI investigated the biomechanical properties of the head and neck using 180 "normal" adult subjects selected to fill eighteen subject groups based on age (young, mid-aged, older), gender, and stature (short, medium, and tall by gender). Lateral-view radiographs of the subjects' cervical spines and heads were taken with the subjects seated in a simulated automotive neutral posture, as well as with their necks in full-voluntary flexion and full-voluntary extension. Although the cervical spine and lower head geometry were previously measured manually and documented, new technologies have enabled computer digitization of the scanned x-ray images and a more comprehensive and detailed analysis of the variation in cervical spine and lower head geometry with subject age, stature, and gender. After scanning the radiographic images, 108 skeletal landmarks on the cervical vertebrae and 10 head landmarks were digitized. The resulting database of cervical spine and head geometry was used to study cervical spine curvature, vertebral dimensions, and head/neck orientation as functions of age, gender, and stature. The data were used to characterize neutral posture cervical spine curvatures using two methods: a curvature index and Bézier spline functions. Lateral-view vertebral dimensions were also calculated for each subject, and a cascading series of equations was developed to estimate vertebral size and shape for a selected age, stature, and gender. The orientation of the cervical spine was defined using a neck chord angle, where the neck chord was varied to use different anatomical landmarks and estimates of joint centers for the top and bottom of the neck chord. Results from the study have been incorporated into a MS-Access based software package that allows researchers and modelers to generate cervical spine geometries for occupants of a specified age, gender, and stature. The program allows selection of individual occupants from the database that meet
Angrisani, Rosanna M. Giaffredo; Bautzer, Ana Paula D.; Matas, Carla Gentile; de Azevedo, Marisa Frasson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio on the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) in preterm (PT) and term (T) newborns. METHODS: 176 newborns were evaluated by ABR; 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). All newborns had bilateral presence of transient otoacoustic emissions and type A tympanometry. RESULTS: No interaural differences were found. ABR response did not differentiate newborns regarding weight/gestational age in males and females. Term newborn females showed statistically shorter absolute latencies (except on wave I) than males. This finding did not occur in preterm infants, who had longer latencies than term newborns, regardless of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and gestational age influence term infants' ABR, with lower responses in females. The weight/gestational age ratio did not influence ABR response in either groups. PMID:24473955
Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M; Alencar, João C; Fichman, Helenice C; Marques, Priscila D N; de Mello, Claudia Berlim
Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7-10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598
Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M.; Alencar, João C.; Fichman, Helenice C.; Marques, Priscila d. N.; de Mello, Claudia Berlim
Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7–10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598
Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P
This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age. PMID:23551758
Hunter, Patrick G.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M.
Adults and children 5, 8, and 11 years of age listened to short excerpts of unfamiliar music that sounded happy, scary, peaceful, or sad. Listeners initially rated how much they liked each excerpt. They subsequently made a forced-choice judgment about the emotion that each excerpt conveyed. Identification accuracy was higher for young girls than…
Tajnia, Armin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nilsson, Thomas; Råstam, Maria
Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) and body mass index (BMI). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children. Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1) to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high) BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2) to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3) to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12. Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496) were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between extremes in BMI and NDPs. Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high extreme BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high extremes of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high extreme BMI group and double as much in the low extreme BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high extreme BMIs. Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high extreme BMIs than children
Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.
Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034
Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L
Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034
Ostan, Rita; Monti, Daniela; Gueresi, Paola; Bussolotto, Mauro; Franceschi, Claudio
Data showing a remarkable gender difference in life expectancy and mortality, including survival to extreme age, are reviewed starting from clinical and demographic data and stressing the importance of a comprehensive historical perspective and a gene–environment/lifestyle interaction. Gender difference regarding prevalence and incidence of the most important age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, Type 2 diabetes, disability, autoimmunity and infections, are reviewed and updated with particular attention to the role of the immune system and immunosenescence. On the whole, gender differences appear to be pervasive and still poorly considered and investigated despite their biomedical relevance. The basic biological mechanisms responsible for gender differences in aging and longevity are quite complex and still poorly understood. The present review focuses on centenarians and their offspring as a model of healthy aging and summarizes available knowledge on three basic biological phenomena, i.e. age-related X chromosome inactivation skewing, gut microbiome changes and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA genetic variants. In conclusion, an appropriate gender-specific medicine approach is urgently needed and should be systematically pursued in studies on healthy aging, longevity and age-related diseases, in a globalized world characterized by great gender differences which have a high impact on health and diseases. PMID:27555614
Ostan, Rita; Monti, Daniela; Gueresi, Paola; Bussolotto, Mauro; Franceschi, Claudio; Baggio, Giovannella
Data showing a remarkable gender difference in life expectancy and mortality, including survival to extreme age, are reviewed starting from clinical and demographic data and stressing the importance of a comprehensive historical perspective and a gene-environment/lifestyle interaction. Gender difference regarding prevalence and incidence of the most important age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, Type 2 diabetes, disability, autoimmunity and infections, are reviewed and updated with particular attention to the role of the immune system and immunosenescence. On the whole, gender differences appear to be pervasive and still poorly considered and investigated despite their biomedical relevance. The basic biological mechanisms responsible for gender differences in aging and longevity are quite complex and still poorly understood. The present review focuses on centenarians and their offspring as a model of healthy aging and summarizes available knowledge on three basic biological phenomena, i.e. age-related X chromosome inactivation skewing, gut microbiome changes and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA genetic variants. In conclusion, an appropriate gender-specific medicine approach is urgently needed and should be systematically pursued in studies on healthy aging, longevity and age-related diseases, in a globalized world characterized by great gender differences which have a high impact on health and diseases. PMID:27555614
Xue, Joel; Farrell, Robert M
It is well known that there are gender differences in 12 lead ECG measurements, some of which can be statistically significant. It is also an accepted practice that we should consider those differences when we interpret ECGs, by either a human overreader or a computerized algorithm. There are some major gender differences in 12 lead ECG measurements based on automatic algorithms, including global measurements such as heart rate, QRS duration, QT interval, and lead-by-lead measurements like QRS amplitude, ST level, etc. The interpretation criteria used in the automatic algorithms can be adapted to the gender differences in the measurements. The analysis of a group of 1339 patients with acute inferior MI showed that for patients under age 60, women had lower ST elevations at the J point in lead II than men (57±91μV vs. 86±117μV, p<0.02). This trend was reversed for patients over age 60 (lead aVF: 102±126μV vs. 84±117μV, p<0.04; lead III: 130±146μV vs. 103±131μV, p<0.007). Therefore, the ST elevation thresholds were set based on available gender and age information, which resulted in 25% relative sensitivity improvement for women under age 60, while maintaining a high specificity of 98%. Similar analyses were done for prolonged QT interval and LVH cases. The paper uses several design examples to demonstrate (1) how to design a gender-specific algorithm, and (2) how to design a robust ECG interpretation algorithm which relies less on absolute threshold-based criteria and is instead more reliant on overall morphology features, which are especially important when gender information is unavailable for automatic analysis. PMID:25175175
Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara
Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…
Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Lepper, Mark R.
Two studies were conducted to determine how gender and age moderate the long-term and post-failure motivational consequences of person versus performance praise. In Study 1, fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 93) engaged in a puzzle task while receiving either no praise, person praise, product praise, or process praise. Following a subsequent…
Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Maringe, Felix
The purpose of this study was to explore general job satisfaction of elementary school head teachers in Pakistan with respect to their age and gender. One hundred and eighty head teachers were sampled from government elementary schools of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan, to collect the relevant data using a modified version of the Minnesota…
Management of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, in cotton usually relies on population estimates obtained using the sweepnet. Recent studies indicated adult L. hesperus gender and physiological age influence feeding behavior, within-plant distribution, and injury to cotton. W...
Talalaj, Izabela Anna Walery, Maria
Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior.
Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper
This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…
The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…
Shaw, Linda R.; Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T.
A possible interaction among the characteristics of disability, race, gender, and age was examined with respect to formal allegations of disability harassment. Using data from the National Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project, the authors examined whether there was an interaction…
Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy
Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)
Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie
Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…
Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Sethi, Ricky J.; Bry, Lynn; Yarden, Anat
Nearly 79,000 questions sent to an Internet-based Ask-A-Scientist site during the last decade were analyzed according to the surfer's age, gender, country of origin, and the year the question was sent. The sample demonstrated a surprising dominance of female contributions among K-12 students (although this dominance did not carry over to the full…
Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Riccio, Cynthia A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.
The present study examined differences across gender, ethnicity, and age with regard to the nature of participants' self-reported attitudes toward school and teachers, based on previous research suggesting that students' school- and teacher-related attitudes appear to have an influence on academic achievement. This study employed an archival…
Aro, A. R.; Hakonen, A.; Hietala, M.; Lonnqvist, J.; Niemela, P.; Peltonen, L; Aula, P.
Effects of age, education, and gender on acceptance of genetic testing were studied. Finnish participants responded to a questionnaire presenting reasons for and against genetic testing (N=1,967). Intentions to take genetic tests, worries, and experience of genetic test or hereditary disease were also assessed. Results are presented and discussed.…
Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Meister, Denise G.; Forthun, Larry; Coatsworth, J. Doug; Grahame, Kamini Maraj
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore associations between academic achievement, employment, gender, and age in relation to students' sense of school membership and perception of adults in school. The sample consisted of 102 secondary, alternative school students. Results indicated that students with a more positive perception…
Pearson, Lesley Knoth
Problem: The purpose of the study was to determine whether teachers' mathematics confidence influenced their choice of grade level. The study also examined whether there was a difference in teachers' mathematics confidence based on their age or gender. Method: A 6-item Mathematics Survey was distributed to 83 single-and multiple-subject…
Wadsworth, Martha E.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen R.; Raviv, Tali; Ahlkvist, Jarl A.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Kline, Galena H.; Rea, Jacqueline; Burwell, Rebecca A.
This study examined age and gender differences and similarities in stress responses to September 11th. Adolescents, young adults, and adults reported using a variety of strategies to cope with the terrorist attacks including acceptance, positive thinking, and emotional expression. In addition, involuntary stress responses such as physiological…
This article reports two studies that aim at further distinguishing intellectual styles from abilities by taking into account the confounding effects of age and gender on the relationship between these two constructs. Two independent groups of secondary school students responded to the "Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised" and took the "Sternberg…
Assan, Evelyn Ama; Sarfo, Jacob Owusu
The study investigated the influence of geographical location, gender and age on the performance of Piagetian Conservation tasks. Four conservation tasks; conservation of liquid, length, substance amount and number respectively were administered to children [4-6 years] from rural and urban Ghana and their performance on each task were recorded.…
Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.
This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming…
Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi
Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…
Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon
Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, age and…
Bulcroft, Richard A.; And Others
Examines the differences among Anglo, African American, and Hispanic parents in granting independence to adolescents. Using data from a national families survey found distinct patterns of independence giving across racial groups by gender and by age of the adolescent. Differences are attributed to values of modified patriarchy, communalism, and…
Song, Hairong; Thompson, Ross A.; Ferrer, Emilio
This study investigated age and gender differences in the quality of attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers, and the association of attachment with measures of self-evaluation in 584 Chinese adolescents in junior high, high school, and university. Their responses to the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment indexed attachment quality, and…
Maiano, Christophe; Ninot, Gregory; Bilard, Jean
This study measured the effects of gender, age and their interaction on global self-esteem and physical self-perceptions (physical self-worth, PSW; physical condition, PC; physical strength, PS; attractive body, AB; sport competence, SC) of French adolescents. Global self-esteem (GSE) and physical self-perceptions were measured by the Physical…
Koohang, Alex A.
This investigation of the effects of age, gender, college status, and computer experience on students' attitudes toward an online catalog measured student attitudes on three subscales--computer anxiety, computer confidence, and computer liking. Results of analysis of variance showed that computer experience was significantly related to computer…
Tisak, Marie S.; Tisak, John; Laurene, Kimberly R.
Participants (138 children; 7-12 years of age) rated how often nice and not nice behaviors occurred when (a) participants (boys/girls) were the actor and peers (males/females) were the target and (b) when participants were the target of peers' actions in a school setting. Children indicated they were nicer to their same-gender peers than to their…
Morales Rodriguez, Francisco Manuel; Trianes Torres, Maria Victoria; Miranda Paez, Jesus
Introduction: The study of coping among students accounts for an interesting subject, as having coping skills guarantees a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The present study aims to analyze the role played by age and gender on the coping strategies used by Andalusian school students to cope with situations of daily stress. These situations…
Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…
Paul, Christine; Tzelepis, Flora; Parfitt, Nicholas; Girgis, Afaf
Objective: To explore adolescents' self-reported reasons for sun protection, as adolescents as a group continue to have poor sun protection practices. Methods: Seventeen age- and gender-segregated focus groups were conducted in Australian high schools. Results: Reasons for using sun protection included personal comfort, appearance, policies, fear…
Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.
Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…
Sack, Ingolf; Beierbach, Bernd; Wuerfel, Jens; Klatt, Dieter; Hamhaber, Uwe; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Martus, Peter; Braun, Jürgen
Viscoelasticity is a sensitive measure of the microstructural constitution of soft biological tissue and is increasingly used as a diagnostic marker, e.g. in staging liver fibrosis or characterizing breast tumors. In this study, multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography was used to investigate the in vivo viscoelasticity of healthy human brain in 55 volunteers (23 females) ranging in age from 18 to 88 years. The application of four vibration frequencies in an acoustic range from 25 to 62.5 Hz revealed for the first time how physiological aging changes the global viscosity and elasticity of the brain. Using the rheological springpot model, viscosity and elasticity are combined in a parameter mu that describes the solid-fluid behavior of the tissue and a parameter alpha related to the tissue's microstructure. It is shown that the healthy adult brain undergoes steady parenchymal 'liquefaction' characterized by a continuous decline in mu of 0.8% per year (P<0.001), whereas alpha remains unchanged. Furthermore, significant sex differences were found with female brains being on average 9% more solid-like than their male counterparts rendering women more than a decade 'younger' than men with respect to brain mechanics (P=0.016). These results set the background for using cerebral multifrequency elastography in diagnosing subtle neurodegenerative processes not detectable by other diagnostic methods. PMID:19281851
Schlebusch, Lourens; Govender, Romona Devi
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation in patients who were tested for HIV-infection and whether along with their HIV status, age and gender influenced their risk for suicidal ideation. The sample consisted of 189 patients who attended a voluntary HIV counseling and testing clinic (VCT) at a general state hospital in Durban, South Africa. Their mean age at baseline was 34.2 years, with an age range of between 16-79 years. Seropositivity, age and gender were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. The majority of these patients were in the younger age group, and young males had a 1.8 times higher risk for suicidal ideation than females. Although risk factors for seropositive-related suicidal ideation can be complex and multi-factorial, this study identified a young age and male gender as important high risk factors in the sample studied. It is recommended that all, but especially young male HIV-infected patients seen at a VCT clinic be screened for suicidal ideation and that early intervention to prevent subsequent suicides or suicidal attempts be included in pre- and post-test HIV counseling. PMID:22470307
León, Irene; Tascón, Laura; Cimadevilla, José Manuel
Cognitive skills decline with age. Our ability to keep oriented in our surrounding environment was demonstrated to be influenced by factors like age and gender. Introduction of virtual reality based tasks improved assessment of spatial memory in humans. In this study, spatial orientation was assessed in a virtual memory task in order to determine the effect of aging and gender on navigational skills. Subjects from 45 to 74 years of age were organized in three groups (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years old). Two levels of difficulty were considered. Results showed that males outperformed females in 65-74 years-old group. In addition to this, females showed a more noticeable poor performance in spatial memory than males, since memory differences appeared between all age groups. On the other hand, 65-74 year-old males showed an impaired performance in comparison with 45-54 year-old group. These results support that spatial memory becomes less accurate as we age and gender is an important factor influencing spatial orientation skills. PMID:26965569
Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570984
Parks, Janet B.; Roberton, Mary Ann
Examined the influence of age and gender on attitudes toward sexist and nonsexist language in sport and nonsport contexts. College students, university personnel, and business people (n=272) completed an attitude measure. Sport was not a special case of resistance to nonsexist language. Age and gender explained 23% of the variance in attitude…
The aim of this study is to find out and analyze the role of gender and age on the perceptions of students to the distant online program offered by Vocational High School in Sakarya University. The research is based on a questionnaire as a mean of data collection method to find out the role of age and gender on the student's perceptions toward…
The aim of this study is to find out and analyze the role of gender and age on the perceptions of students to the distant online program offered by Vocational High School in Sakarya University. The research is based on a questionnaire as a mean of data collection method to find out the role of age and gender on the student's perceptions toward…
Magliano, Enrico; Grazioli, Vittorio; Deflorio, Loredana; Leuci, Antonia Isabella; Mattina, Roberto; Romano, Paolo; Cocuzza, Clementina Elvezia
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most frequent community-acquired infections worldwide. Escherichia coli is the most common UTI pathogen although underlying host factors such as patients' age and gender may influence prevalence of causative agents. In this study, 61 273 consecutive urine samples received over a 22-month period from outpatients clinics of an urban area of north Italy underwent microbiological culture with subsequent bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive samples. A total of 13 820 uropathogens were isolated and their prevalence analyzed according to patient's gender and age group. Overall Escherichia coli accounted for 67.6% of all isolates, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.8%), Enterococcus faecalis (6.3%), Proteus mirabilis (5.2%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.5%). Data stratification according to both age and gender showed E. coli isolation rates to be lower in both males aged ≥60 years (52.2%), E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa being more prevalent in this group (11.6% and 7.8%, resp.), as well as in those aged ≤14 years (51.3%) in whom P. mirabilis prevalence was found to be as high as 21.2%. Streptococcus agalactiae overall prevalence was found to be 2.3% although it was shown to occur most frequently in women aged between 15 and 59 years (4.1%). Susceptibility of E. coli to oral antimicrobial agents was demonstrated to be as follows: fosfomycin (72.9%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (72.9%), ciprofloxacin (76.8%), ampicillin (48.0%), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (77.5%). In conclusion, both patients' age and gender are significant factors in determining UTIs etiology; they can increase accuracy in defining the causative uropathogen as well as providing useful guidance to empiric treatment. PMID:22629135
Huey, Raymond B; Salisbury, Richard; Wang, Jane-Ling; Mao, Meng
Increasing numbers of climbers are attempting Mount Everest, the highest mountain on Earth. We compiled interview data and computed the probabilities of summiting and of dying as a function of climber age and gender (2211 climbers, spring season) for the period of 1990-2005. Men and women had similar odds of summiting and of dying. However, climbers older than 40 years have reduced odds of summiting, and those older than 60 years have increased odds of dying, especially when descending from the summit. On Mount Everest, phenotypic selection appears blind to gender but favours young mountaineers. PMID:17698450
Devdhar, Madhuri; Drooger, Rebecca; Pehlivanova, Marieta; Singh, Gurdeep
Background Body weight (BW) and age have been shown to affect the dose of levothyroxine (LT4) that results in normalization of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in hypothyroid patients. Our objective was to determine whether gender, menstrual status, and ideal BW (IBW) also affect the LT4 dose required to achieve a serum TSH within the normal range. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients being treated for primary hypothyroidism who had TSH values within a normal range. We selected patients aged 18–85 years who were taking LT4 without any confounding medications, and who had no serious chronic conditions. Their LT4 doses, referred to here as LT4 dose requirements, based on both BW and IBW were documented. The relationship between gender, menstrual status, age, serum TSH concentrations, and the degree of overweight on LT4 dose requirements were determined using multivariate analyses. Results Women were significantly more overweight than men (ratio of BW/IBW was 1.35 for women vs. 1.17 for men, p < 0.0001). LT4 requirements based on BW did not differ by gender when age was included in the model. However, when degree of overweight was also included, men required lower LT4 doses than both premenopausal women (1.34 μg/kg vs. 1.51 μg/kg, p = 0.038) and menopausal women (1.34 μg/kg vs. 1.49 μg/kg, p = 0.023). When examining IBW using a model incorporating age, men also required lower LT4 doses than both premenopausal women (1.64 μg/kg vs. 1.92 μg/kg, p = 0.0033) and menopausal women (1.64 μg/kg vs. 1.90 μg/kg, p = 0.0024). Serum TSH concentrations were not significantly different in any of the gender groups. There was no relationship between serum TSH and either age or BW. The initial serum TSH concentration was by design with the normal range, but the concentration within that range was not a significant predictor of the LT4 replacement dose in any of the models. Conclusion In contrast to previous
Sneed, Joel R; Johnson, Jeffrey G; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N; Kasen, Stephanie
Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women. Both finance and romance instrumentality increased for men and women across emerging adulthood. The growth rate did not differ between men and women in either domain, although men tended to be characterized by higher levels of instrumentality than women. There were noteworthy gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of instrumentality. At age 17, family contact was negatively associated with instrumentality for both men and women; at age 27, the impact of family contact on instrumentality was less negative for women and was positive for men. PMID:16953686
Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Travlos, Antonios K; Rodafinos, Angelos
The purpose of the study was to (a) investigate gender and age differences in physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility, and (b) examine the discriminatory power of the Greek version of the Aggression Questionnaire (GAQ) with high school students. The sample of the study consisted of 658 high school students (321 boys and 337 girls), with an age range from 13 to 17 years (M = 15.3, SD = 1.5). The students completed the Aggression Questionnaire adapted to Greek. Regarding gender, the overall correct identification rate in the discriminant analysis showed that 73.3% of the cases were correctly classified. In addition, the results indicated that physical aggression declined with age and that, compared to boys, girls of higher grades apply more indirect forms of aggression, such as anger and hostility. The findings of the study provide important information regarding the expression of aggressive behavior during adolescence. PMID:23262821
Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.
This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648
This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors. PMID:26745456
McLaren, Lindsay; Godley, Jenny
The objective was to examine BMI of working-age Canadian adults in relation to occupational prestige, adjusting for other aspects of social class including household income and respondent's education. We analyzed data from 49,252 adults (age 25-64) from Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional self-report survey conducted in 2003. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the relation between BMI and occupational prestige, adjusting for other sociodemographic variables. For women, higher ranking occupations showed lower average BMI relative to the lowest ranking occupations, but this effect was largely eliminated when adjusting for education. For men, occupation effects endured in adjusted models and we detected some evidence of a pattern whereby men in occupations characterized by management/supervisory responsibilities were heavier than those in the lowest ranking occupations (i.e., elemental sales and service). Results are interpreted in light of the symbolic value of body size in western culture, which differs for men and women. Men in positions of management/supervision may benefit from the physical dominance conveyed by a larger body size, and thus occupational prestige rankings may help us to understand the gender differences in the patterning of BMI by different indicators of social class. PMID:19039314
New, Peter W; Epi, M Clin
Study Design: Retrospective, 3-year case series. Objective: To investigate the relationship between gender and age and a range variables in patients with nontraumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: Tertiary medical unit specializing in rehabilitation of patients with nontraumatic SCI. Method: Participants were a consecutive series of 70 adult inpatients with nontraumatic SCI undergoing initial rehabilitation. The variables of interest were demographic characteristics, clinical features, complications, mortality, length of stay (LOS), mobility, bladder and bowel continence, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores. Results: Men were younger than women, but the difference was not statistically significant (median 64 years vs 72.5 years, P =0.2). There was no statistically significant relationship between age or gender and the following: American Spinal Injury Association grade, level of injury, many SCI complications, mortality, LOS, walking ability, bladder management, and fecal continence. The only SCI complication that was related to age was pressure ulcers (<65 years = 20% vs ≥65 years = 50%, P = 0.04). Patients discharged home were more likely to be younger (P = 0.01) and male (P = 0.03). There was a significant negative correlation between patients' age and the discharge Rasch-transformed FIM motor (Spearman's ρ =−0.30, P = 0.015) and cognitive (Spearman's ρ =−0.25, P = 0.04) subscores. There were no significant relationships between gender and FIM subscale scores. Conclusions: Gender and age do not significantly influence most aspects of rehabilitation in patients with nontraumatic SCI. Age alone should not be used as a discriminator of ability to benefit from nontraumatic SCI rehabilitation. PMID:17684888
Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga
We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume – in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work. PMID:26110107
Fabbre, Vanessa D.
Concepts of time are ubiquitous in studies of aging. This article integrates an existential perspective on time with a notion of queer time based on the experiences of older transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition in later life. Interviews were conducted with male-to-female identified persons aged 50 years or older (N=22), along with participant observation at three national transgender conferences (N=170 hours). Interpretive analyses suggest that an awareness of “time left to live” and a feeling of “time served” play a significant role in later life development and help expand gerontological perspectives on time and queer aging. PMID:24798691