Science.gov

Sample records for age grade level

  1. Health and Aging Curriculum Grade Level: Preschool-Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    This curriculum on aging is designed to help promote positive attitudes toward age and aging among young children. It focuses on developing the concepts of: (1) aging is a natural and lifelong process of growing and developing; (2) old and young are similar in many ways; (3) older people are valuable and contributing members of society; (4) old…

  2. West Virginia Adolescents' Health Risk Behaviors: Differences by Gender, Age, Grade Level, and Level of Rurality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; And Others

    In 1990, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed by a random sample of 1,448 West Virginia public-school students in grades 9-12. The sample was 51 percent male and 89 percent white. About 71 percent of subjects were aged 15-17; 39 percent were in the ninth grade. The YRBS covered behaviors producing vehicle-related or other injuries,…

  3. Mathematics Confidence, Grade-Level Choice, Gender, and Age in Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lesley Knoth

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of the study was to determine whether teachers' mathematics confidence influenced their choice of grade level. The study also examined whether there was a difference in teachers' mathematics confidence based on their age or gender. Method: A 6-item Mathematics Survey was distributed to 83 single-and multiple-subject…

  4. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VII. Topological rearrangement of hypothalamic aging networks.

    PubMed

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Wang, Yingchun; Han, Jing Dong J; Chen, Luonan; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Connectivity in a gene-gene network declines with age, typically within gene clusters. We explored the effect of short-term (3 months) graded calorie restriction (CR) (up to 40 %) on network structure of aging-associated genes in the murine hypothalamus by using conditional mutual information. The networks showed a topological rearrangement when exposed to graded CR with a higher relative within cluster connectivity at 40CR. We observed changes in gene centrality concordant with changes in CR level, with Ppargc1a, and Ppt1 having increased centrality and Etfdh, Traf3 and Abcc1 decreased centrality as CR increased. This change in gene centrality in a graded manner with CR, occurred in the absence of parallel changes in gene expression levels. This study emphasizes the importance of augmenting traditional differential gene expression analyses to better understand structural changes in the transcriptome. Overall our results suggested that CR induced changes in centrality of biological relevant genes that play an important role in preventing the age-associated loss of network integrity irrespective of their gene expression levels. PMID:27115072

  5. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VII. Topological rearrangement of hypothalamic aging networks

    PubMed Central

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Green, Cara L.; Wang, Yingchun; Han, Jing Dong J.; Chen, Luonan; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.; Douglas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity in a gene-gene network declines with age, typically within gene clusters. We explored the effect of short-term (3 months) graded calorie restriction (CR) (up to 40 %) on network structure of aging-associated genes in the murine hypothalamus by using conditional mutual information. The networks showed a topological rearrangement when exposed to graded CR with a higher relative within cluster connectivity at 40CR. We observed changes in gene centrality concordant with changes in CR level, with Ppargc1a, and Ppt1 having increased centrality and Etfdh, Traf3 and Abcc1 decreased centrality as CR increased. This change in gene centrality in a graded manner with CR, occurred in the absence of parallel changes in gene expression levels. This study emphasizes the importance of augmenting traditional differential gene expression analyses to better understand structural changes in the transcriptome. Overall our results suggested that CR induced changes in centrality of biological relevant genes that play an important role in preventing the age-associated loss of network integrity irrespective of their gene expression levels. PMID:27115072

  6. Under the Radar: The Impact of Relatively Young Age for Grade Level on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryken, Klazina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether age differences affect students' academic achievement, and whether age differences affect students in low-income areas differently than those in mixed or higher-income areas. Student achievement data for grades 3, 7, and 11 in language arts and math were obtained from a variety of schools…

  7. The impact of graded levels of daylength on turkey productivity to eighteen weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Vermette, C; Schwean-Lardner, K; Gomis, S; Crowe, T G; Classen, H L

    2016-05-01

    The impact of graded levels of day-length on the productivity of hens and toms was studied in two trials. Daylength treatments (trts) were 14 (14L), 17 (17L), 20 (20L), and 23 (23L) h and were started at 10 d of age. Turkeys (720 hens and 480 toms) were randomly allocated to 8 rooms (2 rooms per lighting trt) with six pens (3 hen--30 per pen and 3 tom--20 per pen) per room in each trial. Body weight (BW) was assessed at 0, 10, 21, 42, 63, 84, and 126 d of age; feed consumption (FC) was measured for the time periods between body weight determinations and feed efficiency (G:F; g of gain/g of feed) was calculated from BW and FC values. Birds were checked daily for mortality and culls, and affected birds were sent for necropsy. Data were analyzed according to a completely randomized block design with trial as the block and rooms nested within lighting trts. Regression analysis was used to study the relationship between dependent variables and daylength. Significance was declared at P≤ 0.05 and trends at P≤ 0.10. At both 21 and 42 d, body weight increased linearly with increasing daylength. At 84 d weights of toms decreased in a quadratic fashion and hen weights were unaffected. At 126 d, both tom and hen weights decreased linearly as daylength increased, with the magnitude of response gender dependent. Feed consumption corresponded with body weight changes, increasing for d 10 to 21, and 21 to 42 and decreasing for d 63 to 84, 84 to 105, and 105 to 126 with increasing daylength. Feed efficiency (G:F) was not affected by daylength for 10 to 84, 10 to 105 and 10 to 126 d periods. The incidence of mortality and culling was not affected by daylength for the 10 to 84 d period, but increased in a quadratic manner with increasing daylength for the 10 to 105 and 10 to 126 d periods. To conclude, daylength affects the growth and feed intake of turkeys in an age and gender-specific manner, and mortality and culling increase with longer daylength. PMID:26976908

  8. The Cross-Age Mentoring Program: A Developmental Intervention for Promoting Students' Connectedness across Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karcher, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    In cross-age peer mentoring programs, high school students mentor younger students. Prior research demonstrates the positive effects for mentees as well as for mentors. This context-based, strengths-promoting intervention is designed to help school counselors foster high school students' leadership and collaboration skills while simultaneously…

  9. Age-Grade Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, John W. C.

    1970-01-01

    Studies of generational phenomena have not paid sufficient attention to the distinction between cohort and kinship aspects of generations. Using empirical measures of class consciousness as a model, consciousness of kind based on age is measured and related to theoretically relevant determinants and consequences." (Author)

  10. The impact of graded levels of day length on turkey health and behavior to 18 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Vermette, C; Schwean-Lardner, K; Gomis, S; Grahn, B H; Crowe, T G; Classen, H L

    2016-06-01

    The impact of graded levels of day length on turkey health and behavior was determined in hens and toms raised to 18 wk of age. Birds were allocated to one of 4 lighting treatments (trt) providing 14 (14L), 17 (17L), 20 (20L), and 23 (23L) h of day length. Two time-replicated trials were completed with each, providing 2 rooms per lighting trt and each room having 3 hen (n = 720) and 3 tom (n = 480) pens. Data collection included gait score (GS), the incidence of footpad dermatitis (FPD), breast buttons and blisters, ocular size and pressure (males only), and behavioral observations (males only). Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3 based on a completely randomized design nested within 4 lighting trt. Regression analysis established relationships between response criteria and day length. Differences were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05 and trends noted at P ≤ 0.10. Gait score, FPD, and the incidence of breast buttons and blisters were assessed on 5 birds per pen at 11 and 17 wk of age. Average GS increased linearly with day length at 11 and 17 wk for both hens and toms, but the effect was larger in toms. Day length did not affect FPD, but more lesions and severe scores were found for hens than toms. The presence of breast buttons and blisters increased linearly with day length (11 wk) with the effect on blisters predominately seen in toms. Eye weight and size increased with increasing day length at 12 and 18 wk. Ocular pressure was not affected by day length. Infrared cameras recorded tom behavior over a 24 h period, and behaviors were classified over 10-min intervals using a scan sampling technique at 11 and 17 wk. Alterations in behavioral repertoire were observed with a linear increase in inactive resting and a linear decrease in standing, walking, preening, and environmental and feather pecking behaviors with increased day length. To conclude, day length affected bird mobility and incidence of breast blisters in an age- and gender-specific manner, and time

  11. Children's Images of Scientists: Does Grade Level Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess children's images of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) and to determine if differences in these images exist between grade levels. The DAST was administered to 243 children who were enrolled in kindergarten (aged 6) and grade 3 and 5 (aged 9 and 11). Findings obtained from the study…

  12. Graded Readers: Validating Reading Levels across Publishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Graded readers can be an optimal resource to help language students improve and personalize their learning experience. An extensive reading library with graded readers and well-defined levels of reading difficulty increases language students' chances of having a successful reading experience and become independent readers. However, when it comes…

  13. Arizona Mathematics Standard Articulated by Grade Level, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Every student should understand and use all concepts and skills from the previous grade levels. The standard is designed so that new learning builds on preceding skills. Communications, Problem-solving, Reasoning & Proof, Connections, and Representation are the process standards that are embedded throughout the teaching and learning of all…

  14. Arizona Mathematics Standard Articulated by Grade Level, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Every student should understand and use all concepts and skills from the previous grade levels. The standard is designed so that new learning builds on preceding skills. Communications, Problem-solving, Reasoning & Proof, Connections, and Representation are the process standards that are embedded throughout the teaching and learning of all…

  15. Gene expression-based biomarkers for Anopheles gambiae age grading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Hui; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Zhong, Daibin; James, Anthony A; Walker, Edward; Guda, Tom; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Githure, John; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    Information on population age structure of mosquitoes under natural conditions is fundamental to the understanding of vectorial capacity and crucial for assessing the impact of vector control measures on malaria transmission. Transcriptional profiling has been proposed as a method for predicting mosquito age for Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes, however, whether this new method is adequate for natural conditions is unknown. This study tests the applicability of transcriptional profiling for age-grading of Anopheles gambiae, the most important malaria vector in Africa. The transcript abundance of two An. gambiae genes, AGAP009551 and AGAP011615, was measured during aging under laboratory and field conditions in three mosquito strains. Age-dependent monotonic changes in transcript levels were observed in all strains evaluated. These genes were validated as age-grading biomarkers using the mark, release and recapture (MRR) method. The MRR method determined a good correspondence between actual and predicted age, and thus demonstrated the value of age classifications derived from the transcriptional profiling of these two genes. The technique was used to establish the age structure of mosquito populations from two malaria-endemic areas in western Kenya. The population age structure determined by the transcriptional profiling method was consistent with that based on mosquito parity. This study demonstrates that the transcription profiling method based on two genes is valuable for age determination of natural mosquitoes, providing a new approach for determining a key life history trait of malaria vectors. PMID:23936017

  16. Grade Level and Achievement of Immigrants' Children: Academic Redshirting in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Data from Hong Kong PISA 2003 show that 15-year-old Hong Kong students who have immigrant parents from mainland China are grossly overrepresented in grades below the modal grade attended by most native Hong Kong students. Same-age comparison, when grade level is not taken into account, puts immigrants' children at a disadvantaged position in the…

  17. Family LIfe Education Curriculum: Grade 7 through Grade 9 Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberland County Schools, Fayetteville, NC.

    This document presents a curriculum unit in family life education for students in grades 7 through 9 that encompasses learning about human sexuality, interpersonal relationships, and roles within the family. The unit is designed to attain the following goals: (1) to help students gain a detailed knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and uniqueness…

  18. The End of the Reading Age: Grade and Age Effects in Early Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, James R.M.; Martin, Frances

    2004-01-01

    During the school years, psychological test norms may be indexed by age or by grade. A number of studies have shown that using age-based norms appears to produce biases associated with grade assignment. Cahan and Cohen [Child Dev. 60 (1989) 1239-1249] showed that the effect of one grade was over twice the effect of 1 year of age for most verbal…

  19. Review of Michigan's Grade Level Content Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2003

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, the Michigan State Board of Education asked the Department of Education to develop grade-by-grade "content expectations" in reading/English language arts and mathematics to provide guidance to local educators and parents and serve as the basis for annual assessments required by the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001. In July…

  20. First Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for first grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, first grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  1. Third Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for third grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, third grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  2. Second Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for second grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, second grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  3. The Differential Effects of Age and First Grade Schooling on the Development of Infralogical and Logico-Mathematical Concrete Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Greenbaum, Charles; Artman, Lavee; Deluya, Nilly; Gappel-Gilon, Yael

    2008-01-01

    Using the ''between-grade levels'' regression discontinuity design, this study examined the hypothesized differential sensitivity of logico-mathematical (LM) and infralogical (IL) operational tasks to the effects of chronological age and first grade schooling in a sample of 580 1st and 2nd grade Israeli children. The results indicate that the…

  4. Social Studies and Grade Level Content Expectations in Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeChano-Cook, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Michigan Department of Education (MDOE) unveiled Social Studies Grade Level Content Expectations (GLCEs) that went into implementation during the 2008-2009 academic year. The purpose of this research was to examine social studies teaching in grades K-8 and what effects, if any, the GLCEs had on the curriculum in these grades.…

  5. Students' Attitudes toward Chemistry Lessons: The Interaction Effect between Grade Level and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the interaction effect between grade level and gender with respect to students' attitudes toward chemistry lessons taught in secondary schools. The sample consisted of 954 chemistry students in grades Secondary 4-7 (approximately 16-19 years of age) in Hong Kong. Students' attitudes were…

  6. Grade-Level Status Effects in Multiage Groupwork: The Lady Bountiful Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Allison J.; Boyle, Robert A.

    A study investigated whether grade-level status affects learning through cross-age activities. Data were collected through unstructured and open-ended audiotaped interviews with 11 pairs of students in a combined third- and fifth-grade class. Coding and analysis of data revealed seven themes related to students' perceptions of their interactions…

  7. Age and sex graded helminth infections in a Nigerian village.

    PubMed

    Arinola, O; Fawole, O

    1995-02-01

    Prevalence of helminth parasites was carried out in both male and female villagers graded into three age groups (5-14 years, 15-25 years, 26-55 years). Children between 5 and 14 years of age had the highest prevalence of Ascaris, Schistosoma haematobium and Trichuris while the villagers between 26-55 years of age had lowest prevalence of these parasites. However, hookworms were highly common among the villagers aged between 26 and 55 years and least common among the school children aged between 5 and 14 years. Female children between the ages of 5 and 14 years and males of the same age group were highly infested with Ascaris and Trichuris. This finding in a Nigerian village suggested that helminth infestation is age and sex dependent which is therefore a factor of the frequency in host-parasite contact determined by mode of life of the parasites and the hosts. PMID:7796748

  8. K Plus Education in Aging: A Literature Approach to the Teaching about Aging for Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoff, Eugene

    The purpose of this guide is to provide K-3 teachers with activities which will sensitize students to the needs and concerns of older adults and permit them to develop positive attitudes toward the entire aging process. There are four major sections to the guide, one for each grade level. Each activity revolves around a particular story book…

  9. Grade level and achievement of immigrants’ children: academic redshirting in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Data from Hong Kong PISA 2003 show that 15-year-old Hong Kong students who have immigrant parents from mainland China are grossly overrepresented in grades below the modal grade attended by most native Hong Kong students. Same-age comparison, when grade level is not taken into account, puts immigrants’ children at a disadvantaged position in the mathematics, reading, and science literacy tests. The academic advantage of immigrants’ children in Hong Kong is only revealed after grade is statistically controlled. Also, mainland immigrant students who are repeaters outperform native Hong Kong repeaters. Immigrant redshirting is a possible driving force behind these results. PMID:25214810

  10. Relationships between Grade Levels, Personal Factors, and Instructional Variation among 4th-12th Grade Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate relationships between grade levels, personal factors of teachers, and instructional variety used by 4th-12th grade teachers in Kern County, California. The population under investigation included 2,844 teachers. 235 elementary, middle school/junior high, and secondary teachers…

  11. Evaluations of mosquito age grading techniques based on morphological changes.

    PubMed

    Hugo, L E; Quick-Miles, S; Kay, B H; Ryan, P A

    2008-05-01

    Evaluations were made of the accuracy and practicality of mosquito age grading methods based on changes to mosquito morphology; including the Detinova ovarian tracheation, midgut meconium, Polovodova ovariole dilatation, ovarian injection, and daily growth line methods. Laboratory maintained Aedes vigilax (Skuse) and Culex annulirostris (Skuse) females of known chronological and physiological ages were used for these assessments. Application of the Detinova technique to laboratory reared Ae. vigilax females in a blinded trial enabled the successful identification of nulliparous and parous females in 83.7-89.8% of specimens. The success rate for identifying nulliparous females increased to 87.8-98.0% when observations of ovarian tracheation were combined with observations of the presence of midgut meconium. However, application of the Polovodova method only enabled 57.5% of nulliparous, 1-parous, 2-parous, and 3-parous Ae. vigilax females to be correctly classified, and ovarian injections were found to be unfeasible. Poor correlation was observed between the number of growth lines per phragma and the calendar age of laboratory reared Ae. vigilax females. In summary, morphological age grading methods that offer simple two-category predictions (ovarian tracheation and midgut meconium methods) were found to provide high-accuracy classifications, whereas methods that offer the separation of multiple age categories (ovariolar dilatation and growth line methods) were found to be extremely difficult and of low accuracy. The usefulness of the morphology-based methods is discussed in view of the availability of new mosquito age grading techniques based on cuticular hydrocarbon and gene transcription changes. PMID:18533427

  12. Grade Level Differences in Factors of Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokenes, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the construct validity of the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory, using approximately 1500 elementary school students. Also investigated grade level differences in preadolescent and adolescent children. (Author/ED)

  13. Grade Level Teams: Key to Equity and Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karns, Michelle; Aida Molina

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of the Academic Conference, a process-oriented grade-level team approach to accelerating student achievement at Oak Ridge Elementary School in Sacramento, California. (PKP)

  14. Mainstreaming ELLs into Grade-Level Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) placed a new focus and accountability on the achievement levels of English learners by requiring that they develop English proficiency and meet the same academic standards that all children are expected to meet by year 2014. Administrators and teachers are looking at ways English learners might progress more…

  15. The Relationship between Delivery Models and the Grade-Level Reading Development of Sixth-Grade English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Holly Weber

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between delivery models (the class size reduction model and the sheltered instruction model) and language development levels on the grade-level reading development of sixth-grade English learners (ELs) attending public middle schools in metro Atlanta, Georgia. The instrument used to measure grade-level mastery…

  16. Impact of Leveled Reading Books on the Fluency and Comprehension Levels of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Melissa Paige

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this nonequivalent, control group, pretest-posttest design study was to evaluate the effectiveness of leveled book programs on first-grade students' oral reading fluency rates and comprehension levels. This study was conducted over a 10-week time span with four first-grade classes. All of the students in each class were given a…

  17. Incidental Learning of Geospatial Concepts across Grade Levels: Map Overlay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, Sarah E.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Marsh, Meredith J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors evaluate map overlay, a concept central to geospatial thinking, to determine how it is naively and technically understood, as well as to identify when it is leaner innately. The evaluation is supported by results from studies at three grade levels to show the progression of incidentally learned geospatial knowledge as…

  18. Colorado Model Content Standards for Science: Suggested Grade Level Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document outlines the content standards for science in the state of Colorado. The document is organized into six standards, each of which is subdivided into a set of guiding questions exemplifying the standard and a series of lists defining what is expected of students at each grade level within the standard. The standards are that students…

  19. Reading Grade Levels of Air Force Civilian Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Randy H.; Mathews, John J.

    A study was conducted to examine the reading levels of United States Air Force civilian employees according to occupational groupings and grade structure. Approximately 1,050 Air Force civilian subjects were tested on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test or the California Reading Test. Subjects were selected from eight Air Force bases representing the…

  20. Building Assessment Tools Aligned with Grade-Level Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Caryl; Horton, Mel L.; Tarr, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of assessment tools to enhance the acquisition of the grade-level outcomes developed in the K-12 curriculum. Physical education is one of the few educational programs that does not have a multitude of available state and national tests to measure student progress. This distinction has been both a strength…

  1. Comprehension after Oral and Silent Reading: Does Grade Level Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Suzanne M.; Fenwick, Kimberley D.; Saunders, Katie S.; Ouellette, Rachel; O'Quinn, Chantell; Harvey, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    The study examines comprehension after oral and silent reading in elementary- and middle-school students. It investigates whether and when one mode is superior to the other for comprehension as children develop, independent of reading ability levels. One hundred and seventy three children in first through seventh grades orally and silently read…

  2. Learning Achievement and the Efficiency of Learning the Concept of Vector Addition at Three Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    1973-01-01

    Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)

  3. Grading and Reporting Student Progress in an Age of Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbull, Elise, Ed.; Farr, Beverly, Ed.

    The essays in this collection offer a comprehensive analysis of the challenges of communicating effectively about student achievement. Discussions of concepts related to grading and reporting progress are mixed with practical advice. The chapters are: (1) "Grading Practices; An Overview of the Issues" (Beverly P. Farr); (2) "Why Do We Grade--and…

  4. Grade Level and Gender Differences in a School-Based Reading Tutoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the grade level and gender differences in a school-based reading tutoring program. The treatment group included 10 first-grade and 12 second-grade struggling readers, and the control group included 41 first-grade and 63 second-grade nonstruggling readers. The tutors were teacher candidates in an…

  5. Effects of a rise in base level on graded streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dickfoss, P.V. . Geology Dept.)

    1994-04-01

    What changes take place in a longitudinal river profile due to a rise in base level would seem to be a fundamental question in geomorphology, however, little has been accomplished toward answering this question, and the prevailing views are contradictory. Most authors say that a river will adjust its entire profile in response to a rise in base level. This misconception appears to have started in Elmo G. Harris' 1901 article, Effects of Dams and Like Obstructions in Silt-bearing Streams. The hypothesis became popular after publication of J. Hoover Mackin's classic 1948 paper, Concept of the Graded River. In the section Rise of Base Level'' Mackin explained that ''...the only generalization that can be made is that the new profile will be everywhere adjusted to the new prevailing conditions.'' Although Mackin's idea was a conceptual one, the concept has subsequently been taken literally. Contrary to this perception, the small amount of work that has been completed shows rivers will adjust their profiles only a short distance upstream from reservoir level. This may be due to the adjustment becoming infinitesimally small upstream and grading into the original profile so that the adjustment upstream is negligible. Unfortunately the misconception of stream aggradation in response to a rise in base level has prevailed for over 90 years and is widespread in the literature. Many textbooks, both introductory and advanced, from 1971 to the present, and some of the leading names in geomorphology have accepted the misconception without question.

  6. O-Level Grades and Teachers' Estimates as Predictors of the A-Level Results of UCCA Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, R. J. L.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation studied the relationship between both GCE O-level examination grades and teachers' estimates of A-level examination grades, and actual A-level grades obtained by a sample of university applicants. Moderate levels of correlation were reported in both cases, although teachers' estimates appeared to be slightly better predictors.…

  7. Social Studies for Elementary Grade Levels. Curriculum Development Teaching Guide No. 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nova Scotia Dept. of Education, Halifax.

    A Canadian elementary level social studies curriculum combines the study of home, school, and community with the broader study of the nation and world through a multi-spiral approach. Described are the following units: the primary grade level (orientation, self, home, neighborhood, and school), grade 1 (families), grade 2 (communities), grade 3…

  8. Achievement Testing Program Provincial Report. June 1993 Administration. Grade Level 3 Language Learning, Grade 6 Social Studies, Grade 9 Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    The annual report on achievement testing in Alberta (Canada) includes test results for third-grade students in language learning (for the regular English program), sixth-grade students in social studies, and ninth-grade students in science. Results are regarded in terms of curriculum standards, assessment standards, and achievement standards.…

  9. Effect of rotation age on lumber grade, yield, and strength of unthinned loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; McAlister, R.H.; Saucier, J.R.; Reitter, K.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the effect of rotation age on the grade, yield, and strength of lumber produced from unthinned loblolly pine stands in the coastal plain of Georgia. Six stands representing 22-, 28-, and 40-year rotations were sampled. A stratified random sample of trees with diameters at breast height ranging from 8 to 16 inches was selected from each stand and processed into limber. The strength, yield, and grade of lumber produced increased with increasing rotation age. Based on study data, equations were developed to predict total lumber volume, lumber volume by lumber grade, sawlog stem weight, and cubic volume. Because the yeild of higher grade lumber increased in older trees, the value of lumber produced per cubic foot increased significantly with increasing age. A financial analysis of a simulated plantation harvested at ages ranging from 20 to 40 years illustrates the effects of increasing lumber value and rotation age on net present value of an unthinned loblolly pine stand.

  10. Graded safeguards: Determination of attractiveness levels for special nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, D.D.; Crawford, D.W.

    1994-08-01

    The DOE graded safeguards approach--as described in DOE Order 5633.3A, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials, and its guide--requires the determination of category levels of nuclear material locations to establish protection requirements for these locations. A critical parameter related to category determination is knowledge of the attractiveness level of the nuclear material with respect to use in a nuclear explosive device. DOE Order 5633.3A and its guide provide the policy basis for determining the attractiveness level of various forms and types of special nuclear material (SNM); however, these requirements and guidance are necessarily general and sometimes based on arbitrary criteria. Currently, there are large quantities of nuclear material on inventory within the DOE that need attractiveness determinations to ensure appropriate protection controls. Specific forms of these materials include materials in matrices requiring special processing, irradiated SNM that does not meet criteria for self-protecting, low concentration SNM, SNM as numerous small items, and bulk non-portable SNM items. This paper discusses the technical basis for applying material concentration limits for solids and liquids that can influence the various factors and criteria affecting the attractiveness level of SNM. Holdup and rollup considerations for determining category levels will be discussed as well.

  11. Above-Level Test Item Functioning across Examinee Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.; Doty, Kristine J.; Malbica, Anne Marie; Angeles, Victor R.; Innes, Scott; Hall, Jared; Masterson-Nixon, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    "Above-level testing" (also called "above-grade testing," "out-of-level testing," and "off-level testing") is the practice of administering to a child a test that is designed for an examinee population that is older or in a more advanced grade. Above-level testing is frequently used to help educators design…

  12. Grade Level and Science Achievement: US Performance in Cross-National Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how international differences in age-grade distributions and grade effects contribute to science scores among 27 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. As shown in the 2006 Program for International Student Assessment, countries vary substantially in the grade distribution of 15-year-olds. The costs…

  13. Relationship of Age for Grade and Pubertal Stage to Early Initiation of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Paul J.; Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan L.; Tortolero, Susan; Baumler, Elizabeth; Banspach, Stephen W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies suggest students who are substantially older than the average age for their grade engage in risky health behaviors, including substance use. However, most studies do not account for the distinct reasons why students are old for their grade (ie, grade retention vs delayed school entry) or for their pubertal stage. Thus, whether the association between age for grade and substance use is confounded by these factors is unknown. We sought to determine whether age, grade, or pubertal stage were associated with early substance use. Methods Cross-sectional Healthy Passages Wave I survey data from 5,147 fifth graders and their caregivers in Alabama, California, and Texas from 2004 through 2006 were analyzed in 2014. Logistic regressions examined whether older age for grade, grade retention, delayed school entry, or pubertal stage were associated with use of any substance, cigarettes, alcohol, or other drugs. Results Seventeen percent of fifth graders reported trying at least 1 substance. Among boys, advanced pubertal stage was associated with increased odds of cigarette, alcohol, or other drug use, whereas delayed school entry was associated with lower odds of any substance, alcohol, or other drug use. Among girls, advanced pubertal stage was associated only with higher odds of alcohol use, and delayed school entry was not associated with substance use. Neither older age for grade or grade retention was independently associated with substance use after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion Advanced pubertal stage may be a more important risk factor for substance use than age for grade. Pediatricians should consider initiating substance use screening earlier for patients with advanced pubertal stage. PMID:26583575

  14. Language Learning Strategies, Course Grades, and Age in EFL Secondary School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Victori, Mia

    2012-01-01

    In studies dealing with language learning strategies in the school context, the variables of proficiency and age are often difficult to isolate since students accumulate more hours of foreign language instruction as they move up from grade to grade. This study aimed to deal with these two variables independently by analysing learning strategy use…

  15. Teacher Views about the Starting Age of the First Grade Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ari, Asim

    2014-01-01

    This research critically investigated the implementation in Turkey of starting elementary-school first grade at age 5 (60 months) according to teacher feedback. While the study is designed as qualitative, a kind of single case study approach is used with a group of 50 volunteer first-grade teachers serving in 15 elementary schools in the Eskisehir…

  16. The Development of Writing Proficiency as a Function of Grade Level: A Linguistic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Weston, Jennifer L.; McLain Sullivan, Susan T.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a corpus of essays stratified by level (9th grade, 11th grade, and college freshman) are analyzed computationally to discriminate differences between the linguistic features produced in essays by adolescents and young adults. The automated tool Coh-Metrix is used to examine to what degree essays written at various grade levels can…

  17. The Age Grading of Physical Activity among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrow, Andrew C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Preschool children (N=102) viewed sex facial pictures of two fictitiously aged adults and then rated competence of the adults on six physical activities. Children's assessments of the competence of adult participation in physical activity were largely dictated by their perceptions of the adult's age. Adults perceived as older were rated as less…

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Multiple Intelligence Theory with Relationship to Gender and Grade Level in Selected Schools in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oteng, Ellen N.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the relationships between Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory and students' gender, age, grade level, and enrollment into a public or private school. The research determined students' dominant intelligences and investigated whether students' intelligences may be influenced by demographic…

  19. Middle Level School Grades and Program Development. Schools in the Middle: A Report on Trends and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toepfer, Conrad F., Jr.

    Given that the physical, emotional, and social metamorphosis of today's early adolescents differs chronologically from that of adolescents a century ago, school districts must identify the middle level school grade configuration that will best accommodate local student developmental needs. Educators must first identify the age at which local…

  20. A Study of Grade Level and Gender Differences in Divergent Thinking among 8th and 11th Graders in a Mid-Western School District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roue, Leah Christine

    This research study compared gender and grade level differences in divergent thinking among middle school and high school students in the Midwest, in an attempt to determine whether gender or grade level-based differences exist in divergent thinking. The instrument used was based on the Wallach and Kogan Creativity Test (WKCT). There were 166 public school students in the study from the 8th and 11th grades. The results were analyzed in an effort to answer two research questions: Are there gender differences in fluency, flexibility, or originality of a response? Are there grade level (age) differences in fluency, flexibility, or originality of a response? Quantitative and qualitative reporting is used.

  1. Relationship of Age, Marital Status, and Work Experience of Community College Nursing Students to Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerichs, Marian L.

    To investigate differences in academic success due to age (younger or older than age 23), marital status, and nursing experience, a three-way analysis of variance was performed on the grade point averages of 1,435 female nursing students enrolled in 22 Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs in Illinois. The sample, representing over 90 percent of…

  2. Influence of age, sex, and balance on mature skipping by children in grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the contributions of age, sex, and balance on maturity of skipping by children in Grades K-8. The subjects were 379 boys and 337 girls (ages 4-14 years) enrolled in a medium-size school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed on skipping as well as static and dynamic balance. To assess the independent statistical contributions of age, sex, static balance, and dynamic balance within each grade, data were subjected to multiple regression analysis. Development of mature form in skipping was related to balance in two isolated but unaccountable instances. PMID:10883788

  3. Physical activity levels and functional performance in the Osteoarthritis Initiative: a graded relationship

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Dorothy D.; Song, Jing; Semanik, Pamela A.; Sharma, Leena; Chang, Rowland W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Physical activity improves function for adults with arthritis, but it is unknown if there is a graded relationship with functional benefit. We examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between self-reported physical activity and observed functional performance in adults with knee osteoarthritis. Methods The Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort included 2589 persons with knee osteoarthritis (2301 having longitudinal follow-up) aged 45 to 79 years at baseline. Two years of prospective annual functional performance was assessed from timed 20 meter walk tests. We used linear regression to estimate differences across physical activity quartiles in subsequent function (baseline and 1-year activity predicts 1- and 2-year function, respectively) adjusted for demographics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, marital status) and health factors (osteoarthritis severity, knee symptoms, knee pain, knee injury, body mass index, comorbidity, depression, smoking, alcohol use, other joint pain). Results Increasing physical activity levels had a significant graded relationship with functional performance. Adults in physical activity quartile groups, from least to most active, had average gait speed of 4.0, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 feet/second respectively at baseline (p-value for trend <.001) and 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5 feet/second after one year (p-value for trend <.001); increasing trends remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Findings were similar within gender and age groups. Conclusion These prospective data showed a consistent graded relationship between physical activity level and better performance in adults with knee osteoarthritis. These findings support guidelines that encourage persons with arthritis who cannot attain minimum recommended physical activity to be as active as possible. PMID:20862681

  4. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    This paper presents a career developmental model covering the ages of 5 to 18. Career development education includes experiences which facilitate self-awareness, career-awareness and career decision-making. Before choosing a model for career development, it is necessary to decide on a model for child development. The model developed here borrows…

  5. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1974-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a framework by which educators interested in stimulating career development can choose the learning experiences most likely to have payoffs for different age youth. Eight stages of child development are described with career development themes suggested for each stage along with sample activities. (Author)

  6. Professor Age and Gender Affect Student Perceptions and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joye, Shauna W.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2015-01-01

    Student evaluations provide rich information about teaching performance, but a number of factors beyond teacher effectiveness influence student evaluations. In this study we examined the effects of professor gender and perceived age on ratings of effectiveness and rapport as well as academic performance. We also asked students to rate professor…

  7. Students' Attitudes Toward Chemistry Lessons: The Interaction Effect between Grade Level and Gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the interaction effect between grade level and gender with respect to students' attitudes toward chemistry lessons taught in secondary schools. The sample consisted of 954 chemistry students in grades Secondary 4-7 (approximately 16-19 years of age) in Hong Kong. Students' attitudes were surveyed using an attitude toward chemistry lessons scale (ATCLS), and subscale scores were produced on four dimensions: liking for chemistry theory lessons; liking for chemistry laboratory work; evaluative beliefs about school chemistry; and behavioral tendencies to learn chemistry. When the ATCLS data were subjected to two-way MANOVA, the interaction effect between grade level and gender on students' attitudes toward chemistry lessons was statistically significant. The interaction effect was attributable to scores on the theory lessons subscale and laboratory work subscale. Male students in Secondary 4 and 5 liked chemistry theory lessons more than their female counterparts. However, male students' liking for chemistry laboratory work declined when they progressed from Secondary 4 to Secondary 7; no such a significant decline in attitude toward chemistry laboratory work was found in females. Overall, both males and females were just marginally positive about chemistry lessons during the years of secondary schooling. Implications of these findings for curriculum design are discussed.

  8. A Comparative Analysis of the Bender-Gestalt and Beery/Buktenica Tests of Visual-Motor Integration as a Function of Grade Level for Regular Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Joanne; Breen, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Regular education students (N=125) in grades K-3 were administered the Bender-Gestalt and Beery/Buktenica tests of visual-motor integration. Found significant differences between the mean Bender and Beery age equivalent scores at each grade level. Discusses implications for their utilization in assessing fine motor readiness development.…

  9. People Through the Ages. Social Studies Interim Grade Guide for Grade Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Curriculum Development Branch.

    Supplementary units of study help eighth graders in Manitoba explore the ways people lived within selected societies of the past and realize that life today is closely related to developments which have occurred through the ages. Units and subtopics are: (1) Life during Prehistoric and Early Historic Times--prehistoric times, life in early river…

  10. The Impact of School Environment and Grade Level on Student Delinquency: A Multilevel Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Celia C.; Kim, Young S.; Allen, Thomas M.; Allen, Andrea N.; Minugh, P. Allison; Lomuto, Nicoletta

    2011-01-01

    Effects on delinquency made by grade level, school type (based on grade levels accommodated), and prosocial school climate were assessed, controlling for individual-level risk and protective factors. Data were obtained from the Substance Abuse Services Division of Alabama's state mental health agency and analyzed via hierarchical linear modeling,…

  11. Using Readability Formulas to Establish the Grade Level Difficulty of Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1993-01-01

    Compared the grade level difficulty obtained from seven readability formulas to student reading levels from two national standardized tests to determine which formulas best determined the readability of computer-based text. Found that the Flesch-Kincaid, FOG, and ARI formulas provided the best estimate of reading grade level of computer-based text…

  12. Asking the Right Questions: Developing Thinking Skills through Wisconsin's Grade Level Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratway, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to deal with the problem of generating the thinking skills needed for the 21st century, this article discusses how a statewide of 30 teachers developed Grade Level Foundations. The core component of the Grade Level Foundations for Social Studies consists of a set of questions that are designed to stimulate higher level thinking about…

  13. Handbook for Instruction on Aging in California Public Schools. Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This handbook is designed to assist teachers at the elementary and secondary level in the development of curricula on aging which can integrate the concepts of aging into ongoing lesson plans. The five content areas of instruction include chronological aging, physiological and biological aging, sociocultural aspects of aging, psychological aging,…

  14. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates with Low Grade Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Allison H.; Hintz, Susan R.; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Walsh, Michele C.; Vohr, Betty R.; Bann, Carla M.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age for extremely low gestational age infants with low grade (Grade 1 or 2) periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage to infants with either no hemorrhage or severe (Grade 3 or 4) hemorrhage on cranial ultrasound. Design Longitudinal observational study Setting Sixteen centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Participants 1472 infants born at <27 weeks gestational age between 2006–2008 with ultrasound results within the first 28 days of life and surviving to 18–22 months with complete follow-up assessments were eligible. Main Exposure Low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage Outcome Measures Outcomes included cerebral palsy, gross motor functional limitation, Bayley III cognitive and language scores, and composite measures of neurodevelopmental impairment. Regression modeling evaluated the association of hemorrhage severity with adverse outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding variables and center differences. Results Low grade hemorrhage was not associated with significant differences in unadjusted or adjusted risk of any adverse neurodevelopmental outcome compared to infants without hemorrhage. Compared with low grade hemorrhage, severe hemorrhage was associated with decrease in adjusted continuous cognitive (−3.91, [95% Confidence Interval [CI]: −6.41, −1.42]) and language (−3.19 [−6.19, −0.19]) scores as well as increased odds of each adjusted categorical outcome except severe cognitive impairment (OR: 1.46 [0.74, 2.88]) and mild language impairment (OR: 1.35 [0.88, 2.06]). Conclusion At 18–22 months, the neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low gestational age infants with low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage are not significantly different from those without hemorrhage. PMID:23460139

  15. No Time for Tea (Grade Level: Elementary Grades, 3-5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Designed for Grades 3-5, this lesson plan aims to let the students learn how the Constitution of the United States provided the framework for the country's democratic form of government. Students will learn how the Constitution provided for representation within the government. A short story about the Boston Tea Party gives the background related…

  16. Plains Indians of North America. Grade Level: Fourth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Beth

    This is a fourth-grade teaching unit on the Plains Indians of North America. It is composed of a content outline, statement of unit goals, unit behavioral objectives, initiating activities, developmental activities, closing activities, unit evaluation plan, and a bibliography. The content outline shows that the unit covers the Plains Indian's…

  17. Affective Education in the Primary Grade Levels: A Pilot Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stilwell, William E.; Barclay, James R.

    This report describes a 12-week pilot phase of an affective education program in the Stuttgart School District, Arkansas. Participating in the program were 218 children, grades 2-4, and a team of nineteen teachers who were given 12 weeks of in-service training designed to facilitate their use of the DUSO, Focus on Self-Development Human…

  18. Bicentennial Source Book, Level II, Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Nancy; And Others

    This study activities source book is one of a series of four developed by the Carroll County Public School System, Maryland, for celebration of the Bicentennial. It is specifically designed to generate ideas integrating the Bicentennial celebration into various disciplines, classroom activities, and school-wide events at the third grade through…

  19. Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…

  20. English Language Arts Curriculum Guide, Intermediate Elementary Level: Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saporito, Leo C., Ed.; And Others

    Prepared for use in grade four, this language arts curriculum guide bases its reading strand on "Roads to Everywhere" (Ginn 100), the English strand on "Roberts English Series" (Harcourt), the spelling strand on "Sound and Sense in Spelling" (Harcourt), and the handwriting strand on "Better Handwriting for You" (Noble and Noble). Some of the…

  1. The effects of early grade retention: Effect modification by prior achievement and age.

    PubMed

    Vandecandelaere, Machteld; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the effects of early grade retention and different effects according to prior achievement and age. Within a population of children at risk of early retention, we compared the development throughout primary school in mathematics achievement after kindergarten retention, first-grade retention, and continuous promotion. Analyzing data from a large-scale longitudinal study using covariate balancing propensity score weighting, the findings revealed that early grade repeaters would score higher in mathematics if they were promoted each year instead. However, the effects diminished or even disappeared in the long term. Compared to kindergarten retention, first-grade retention was found to be more harmful for the mathematics development of younger children specifically. PMID:26790704

  2. Leveled Books for Readers, Grades 3-6: A Companion Volume to "Guiding Readers and Writers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnell, Gay Su; Fountas, Irene C.

    This guidebook builds on a previous work, extending leveled books up through the elementary grades and covering all the different genres that are important to students. More than 6000 leveled titles for Grades 2-6 are featured in this guide, including both fiction and nonfiction--as well as popular series books and short story collections--and…

  3. An Investigation of Difference Scores for a Grade-Level Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Ping; Brennan, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Studied longitudinal changes in performance at both the student and school district level in major content areas of a widely used norm-referenced grade-level testing program. Used data from grades 3 to 4 and from 7 to 8 of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (in Iowa). Reports descriptive statistics and empirical norms and reliability estimates for…

  4. An Analysis of Grades, Class Level and Faculty Evaluation Scores in the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the results of a student evaluation of faculty against the grades awarded and the level of the course for a higher education institution in the United Arab Emirates. The purpose of the study was to determine if the grades awarded in the course and/or level of the course impacted the evaluation scores awarded to the faculty…

  5. Longitudinal Investigation of Elementary Students' Science Academic Achievement in 4-8th Grades: Grade Level and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursal, Murat

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the change of the science academic achievement by grade level and gender where 222 elementary students' science and technology course scores between the 4th and 8th grades and science success percentages in 6th and 8th grades Level Determination Exam were longitudinally analyzed. Based on the findings of this study,…

  6. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  7. Content Analysis of an Intergenerational Unit on Aging in a Sixth-Grade Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, David E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated seven-day program incorporating discussion, dance, and song to bring children and older adults from the community together in sixth-grade unit on aging. Survey of 21 students following the program suggests that students began to perceive older participants in active rather than passive terms and that nature of program became more…

  8. 42 CFR 21.28 - Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below. 21.28 Section 21.28 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... active service in the Commissioned Corps of the Public Health Service shall be increased by the period...

  9. 42 CFR 21.28 - Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below. 21.28 Section 21.28 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... active service in the Commissioned Corps of the Public Health Service shall be increased by the period...

  10. 42 CFR 21.28 - Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below. 21.28 Section 21.28 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... active service in the Commissioned Corps of the Public Health Service shall be increased by the period...

  11. 42 CFR 21.28 - Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below. 21.28 Section 21.28 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... active service in the Commissioned Corps of the Public Health Service shall be increased by the period...

  12. 42 CFR 21.28 - Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below. 21.28 Section 21.28 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... active service in the Commissioned Corps of the Public Health Service shall be increased by the period...

  13. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VI. Impact of short-term graded calorie restriction on transcriptomic responses of the hypothalamic hunger and circadian signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Green, Cara L.; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing‐Dong J.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.; Douglas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Food intake and circadian rhythms are regulated by hypothalamic neuropeptides and circulating hormones, which could mediate the anti‐ageing effect of calorie restriction (CR). We tested whether these two signaling pathways mediate CR by quantifying hypothalamic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (10 % to 40 %) for 3 months. We found that the graded CR manipulation resulted in upregulation of core circadian rhythm genes, which correlated negatively with circulating levels of leptin, insulin‐like growth factor 1 (IGF‐1), insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF‐α). In addition, key components in the hunger signaling pathway were expressed in a manner reflecting elevated hunger at greater levels of restriction, and which also correlated negatively with circulating levels of insulin, TNF‐α, leptin and IGF‐1. Lastly, phenotypes, such as food anticipatory activity and body temperature, were associated with expression levels of both hunger genes and core clock genes. Our results suggest modulation of the hunger and circadian signaling pathways in response to altered levels of circulating hormones, that are themselves downstream of morphological changes resulting from CR treatment, may be important elements in the response to CR, driving some of the key phenotypic outcomes. PMID:26945906

  14. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VI. Impact of short-term graded calorie restriction on transcriptomic responses of the hypothalamic hunger and circadian signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Food intake and circadian rhythms are regulated by hypothalamic neuropeptides and circulating hormones, which could mediate the anti-ageing effect of calorie restriction (CR). We tested whether these two signaling pathways mediate CR by quantifying hypothalamic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (10 % to 40 %) for 3 months. We found that the graded CR manipulation resulted in upregulation of core circadian rhythm genes, which correlated negatively with circulating levels of leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, key components in the hunger signaling pathway were expressed in a manner reflecting elevated hunger at greater levels of restriction, and which also correlated negatively with circulating levels of insulin, TNF-α, leptin and IGF-1. Lastly, phenotypes, such as food anticipatory activity and body temperature, were associated with expression levels of both hunger genes and core clock genes. Our results suggest modulation of the hunger and circadian signaling pathways in response to altered levels of circulating hormones, that are themselves downstream of morphological changes resulting from CR treatment, may be important elements in the response to CR, driving some of the key phenotypic outcomes. PMID:26945906

  15. Grade-Level Retention in Texas Public Schools, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Research and Evaluation.

    This report provides annual information for the 2000-2001 school year on grade-level retention in the Texas public school system, based on the Public Education Information Management System. Data on retention are provided by grade, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, participation in special education, degree of English proficiency, and…

  16. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies: Effects on Vocabulary Recognition and Comprehension at the First Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peitz, Patricia; Vena, Patricia

    A study examined teaching methods for vocabulary at the first grade level. The study compared teaching vocabulary in context and teaching vocabulary in isolation. Subjects were 32 culturally diverse first-grade students from varying socio-economic backgrounds. The sample consisted of 14 boys and 18 girls, heterogeneously grouped. Two teacher-made…

  17. Variation in Strategy Use across Grade Level by Pattern Generalization Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2015-01-01

    This paper explored variation of strategy use in pattern generalization across different generalization types and across grade level. A test was designed to assess students' strategy use in pattern generalization tasks. The test was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. The findings of this study…

  18. Students' Attitudes toward School Chemistry: The Effect of Interaction between Gender and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belge Can, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of interaction between gender and grade level on secondary school students' attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The sample is composed of 197 students across Grades 9 to 11. The Attitude Scale Toward Chemistry, developed by Geban & Ertepinar (1994), is used to collect data.…

  19. An Investigation of Elementary School Grade Levels Appropriate for Teaching the Metric System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bargmann, Theodore John

    This study was concerned with identification of elementary school grade levels appropriate for teaching various phases of the metric system. The same unit was taught to 201 elementary school children in grades three through six. Pretests and posttests were used to assess progress made by students in developing skills and understandings related to…

  20. Effects of Classroom-Based Energizers on Primary Grade Students' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Catherine Goffreda; DiPerna, James Clyde

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of classroom-based exercise breaks (Energizers; Mahar, Kenny, Shields, Scales, & Collins, 2006) on students' physical activity levels during the school day. A multiple baseline design across first grade (N = 3) and second grade (N = 3) classrooms was used to examine the effects of the…

  1. Characterization of Aging Behavior in M250 Grade Maraging Steel Using Ultrasonic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, K. V.; Kumar, Anish; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev; Ray, K. K.

    2007-02-01

    Ultrasonic measurements have been carried out in M250 grade maraging steel specimens subjected to solution annealing at 1093 K for 1 hour followed by aging at 755 K for various durations in the range of 0.25 to 100 hours. The influence of aging on microstructure, room temperature hardness, and ultrasonic parameters (longitudinal and shear wave velocities and Poisson’s ratio) has been studied in order to derive correlations among these parameters in aged M250 maraging steel. Both hardness and ultrasonic velocities exhibit almost similar behaviors with aging time. They increase with the precipitation of intermetallic phases, Ni3Ti and Fe2Mo, and decrease with the reversion of martensite to austenite. Ultrasonic shear wave velocity is found to be more influenced by the precipitation of intermetallic phases, whereas longitudinal wave velocity is influenced more by the reversion of martensite to austenite. Unlike hardness and ultrasonic velocities, the Poisson’s ratio exhibits a monotonous decrease with aging time and, hence, can be used for unambiguous monitoring of the aging process in M250 maraging steel. Further, none of the parameters, i.e., hardness, ultrasonic velocity, or Poisson’s ratio, alone could identify the initiation of the reversion of austenite at early stage; however, the same could be identified from the correlation between ultrasonic velocity and Poisson’s ratio, indicating the advantage of using the multiparametric approach for comprehensive characterization of complex aging behavior in M250 grade maraging steel.

  2. Sequential Levels of Reading Skills, Prekindergarten--Grade 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This guide is designed to help teachers, staff members responsible for teacher training, and reading supervisors provide better reading instruction. The skills that lead to mature reading are arranged on eight levels of developmental sequence. Level A is concerned with developing prereading skills. Levels B to D treat initiating and developing…

  3. Music Handbook for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Doris; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: Primary grades (1, 2, and 3). SUBJECT MATTER: Music. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide contains a detailed outline of the basic music concepts for elementary grades with suggestions for activities which may develop understanding of the concepts. The pages of activities are color coded by grade level. There are three…

  4. Age as a Diversity Issue in Grades K-12 and in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wircenski, Michelle; Walker, Michelle; Allen, Jeff; West, Lynda

    1999-01-01

    Aging and ageism are diversity issues and should be addressed in diversity training. A balanced understanding of aging can be developed using appropriate techniques at all levels of education. Instructors should vary teaching approaches to accommodate older adult students. (SK)

  5. Asphalt pavement aging and temperature dependent properties using functionally graded viscoelastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Eshan V.

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional finite-element modeling (FEM) technique discretizes the problem domain into smaller elements, each with a unique constitutive property. However the assignment of unique material property description to an element in the FEM approach makes it an unattractive choice for simulation of problems with material non-homogeneities. Specialized elements such as "graded elements" allow for non-homogenous material property definitions within an element. This dissertation describes the development of graded viscoelastic finite element analysis method and its application for analysis of asphalt concrete pavements. Results show that the present research improves efficiency and accuracy of simulations for asphalt pavement systems. Some of the practical implications of this work include the new technique's capability for accurate analysis and design of asphalt pavements and overlay systems and for the determination of pavement performance with varying climatic conditions and amount of in-service age. Other application areas include simulation of functionally graded fiber-reinforced concrete, geotechnical materials, metal and metal composites at high temperatures, polymers, and several other naturally existing and engineered materials.

  6. Spatial Thinking Concepts in Early Grade-Level Geography Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Research in the cognition and learning sciences has demonstrated that the human brain contains basic structures whose functions are to perform a variety of specific spatial reasoning tasks and that children are capable of learning basic spatial concepts at an early age. There has been a call from within geography to recognize research on spatial…

  7. Does Relative Age Influence Motor Test Performance of Fourth Grade Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattie, Nick; Tietjens, Maike; Schorer, Jörg; Ghanbari, Marie-Christine; Strauss, Bernd; Seidel, Ilka; Baker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore relative age's influence on physical and motor tests among fourth grade children (9 to 10 years) from Germany. Data from 1218 children (49% female) who had performed the German Motor Ability Test (Bös et al., 2009) were analysed. The test battery, which was comprised of physical and motor tests,…

  8. The Impact of Birth Month, within Grade Levels, on Student Performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speziale, Kerry Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether chronological age differences among students in the same grade level affected their respective levels of academic performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics assessment. The study analyzed the additional independent variables of gender, socioeconomic status, and special education…

  9. The Effects of Grade Level and Other Factors on the Achievement in Project Physics among High School Physics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard Kenard, Jr.

    This study was designed to determine experimentally the relationship between achievement and grade level for 64 tenth-grade students, 48 eleventh-grade students, and 95 twelfth-grade physics students. All students were enrolled in the Project Physics course in their respective schools. The Physics Achievement Test (PAT) and the algebra I and II…

  10. Career Aspirations of Adolescent Girls: Effects of Achievement Level, Grade, and Single-Sex School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Cary M.; Quatman, Teri; Edler, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Compared high achieving adolescent girls' ideal and real career aspirations to adolescent boys' aspirations, examining the influence of grade level, achievement level, and an all-girls school environment. At all achievement levels, girls were commensurate with boys in ideal and realistic career aspirations. High achieving girls exceeded the…

  11. Bicentennial Source Book, Level IV, Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Margaret; And Others

    This student activities source book is one of a series of four developed by the Carroll County Public School System, Maryland, for celebration of the Bicentennial. It is specifically designed to generate ideas integrating the Bicentennial celebration into various disciplines, classroom activities, and school-wide events at the secondary level. For…

  12. Effects of graded taurine levels on juvenile cobia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taurine, which has multiple important physiological roles in teleost fish and mammals, is an amino acid not found in alternative protein sources not derived from animals. Although taurine is found in fish-meal-based feeds, its high water solubility leads to lower taurine levels in reduction-process-...

  13. The Minnesota Grading System Using Fundus Autofluorescence of Eye Bank Eyes: A Correlation To Age-Related Macular Degeneration (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Timothy W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To establish a grading system of eye bank eyes using fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and identify a methodology that correlates FAF to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with clinical correlation to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Methods Two hundred sixty-two eye bank eyes were evaluated using a standardized analysis of FAF. Measurements were taken with the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO). First, high-resolution, digital, stereoscopic, color images were obtained and graded according to AREDS criteria. With the neurosensory retina removed, mean FAF values were obtained from cSLO images using software analysis that excludes areas of atrophy and other artifact, generating an FAF value from a grading template. Age and AMD grade were compared to FAF values. An internal fluorescence reference standard was tested. Results Standardization of the cSLO machine demonstrated that reliable data could be acquired after a 1-hour warm-up. Images obtained prior to 1 hour had falsely elevated levels of FAF. In this initial analysis, there was no statistical correlation of age to mean FAF. There was a statistically significant decrease in FAF from AREDS grade 1, 2 to 3, 4 (P < .0001). An internal fluorescent standard may serve as a quantitative reference. Conclusions The Minnesota Grading System (MGS) of FAF (MGS-FAF) establishes a standardized methodology for grading eye bank tissue to quantify FAF compounds in the retinal pigment epithelium and correlate these findings to the AREDS. Future studies could then correlate specific FAF to the aging process, histopathology AMD phenotypes, and other maculopathies, as well as to analyze the biochemistry of autofluorescent fluorophores. PMID:19277247

  14. Comparison of Different Methods of Grading a Level Turn Task on a Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Bruce E.; Crier, tomyka

    2003-01-01

    With the advancements in the computing power of personal computers, pc-based flight simulators and trainers have opened new avenues in the training of airplane pilots. It may be desirable to have the flight simulator make a quantitative evaluation of the progress of a pilot's training thereby reducing the physical requirement of the flight instructor who must, in turn, watch every flight. In an experiment, University students conducted six different flights, each consisting of two level turns. The flights were three minutes in duration. By evaluating videotapes, two certified flight instructors provided separate letter grades for each turn. These level turns were also evaluated using two other computer based grading methods. One method determined automated grades based on prescribed tolerances in bank angle, airspeed and altitude. The other method used was deviations in altitude and bank angle for performance index and performance grades.

  15. The Perpetration of School Violence in Taiwan: An Analysis of Gender, Grade Level and School Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample in Taiwan, this study aims to describe the prevalence of perpetration of school violence in Taiwan. The study explores how gender, age and school type relate to students' perpetration of violence in an Asian culture context. The sample included 14,022 students from elementary to high schools in grades 4 to…

  16. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and grade on bilingual language performance.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D; Griffin, Zenzi M; Hixon, J Gregory

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information about English and Spanish language use. Short tests of semantic and morphosyntactic development in Spanish and English were used to quantify children's knowledge of each language. There were significant interactions between AoEE and Current Input/Output for children at third grade in English and in both grades for Spanish. In English, the relationship between AoEE and language scores were linear for first- and third-graders. In Spanish a nonlinear relationship was observed. We discuss how much of the variance was accounted for by AoEE and Current Input/Output. PMID:26916066

  17. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ho Sik; Lee, Seung Bum; Jee, Donghyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between blood lead levels and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study included 4,933 subjects aged over 40 years who participated in the 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and for whom fundus photographs were available. All participants underwent a standardized interview, evaluation of blood lead concentration, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Digital fundus photographs (45°) were taken of both eyes under physiological mydriasis. All fundus photographs were graded using an international classification and grading system. Results Mean blood lead levels were 3.15 μg/dL in men and 2.27 μg/dL in women (P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, heart problems and strokes, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in women for any AMD was 1.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03–3.36) and for early AMD was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.06–3.48), for those in the highest quintile of lead level compared with the lowest quintile. In men, however, blood lead level was not significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions Blood lead levels were higher in men, but were only associated with AMD in women. Increased levels of blood lead may be involved in the pathogenesis of AMD development in women. PMID:26252225

  18. Strategies to Achieve Congruence between Student Chronological Age and Grade Placement in the Compulsory Phase of Education in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Byron; Forcheh, Ntonghanwah

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries, researchers and policy makers have downplayed issues of age in grade intentionally. This is done partly to avoid the pedagogical issues that over-age or under-age children in schools raise. It is also done to avoid putting extra pressure on government especially in developing nations that is still working hard to…

  19. Effects of Off-Level Assignment on ITBS Grade Equivalent Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Wayne R.

    The Rasch model was used to compare the grade equivalent scores which students of equal ability would have obtained, had they taken different levels of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS). Raw scores on items common to levels 9-14 of the ITBS (vocabulary subtest) were obtained from 6,000 students in Dallas, Texas. Rasch scales were used to…

  20. Determining the Impact of Remediation on College Level Course Grades, Retention and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Thomas Kelvin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to determine whether varying levels of prior remediation affected grades, success, and retention in online college level courses. Traditional and online sections completed a demographics survey to identify background characteristics along with the amount and type of developmental class. Instructors…

  1. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  2. Professional Staffing Levels and Fourth-Grade Student Research in Rural Schools with High-Poverty Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Karla Steege; Donham, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Rural schools in high-poverty areas are often understaffed. This descriptive phenomenological study examined fourth-grade state research projects in high-poverty rural Iowa schools to reveal the influence of school librarians' staffing levels on student learning of research skills. To determine evidence of students' critical literacy, ethical use…

  3. The Relative Effects of Chronological Age on Hispanic Students' School Readiness and Grade 2 Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Michael; Quirk, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations of age, preschool experience, and gender with children's school readiness levels at kindergarten entry. The sample included 5,512 children of predominantly Hispanic heritage and from families experiencing low socioeconomic circumstances. A series of between-subjects ANOVAs indicated that age ("Eta"[superscript 2]…

  4. School-based exposure to hazardous air pollutants and grade point average: A multi-level study.

    PubMed

    Grineski, Sara E; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    The problem of environmental health hazards around schools is serious but it has been neglected by researchers and analysts. This is concerning because children are highly susceptible to the effects of chemical hazards. Some ecological studies have demonstrated that higher school-level pollution is associated with lower aggregate school-level standardized test scores likely, related to increased respiratory illnesses and/or impaired cognitive development. However, an important question remains unexamined: How do school-level exposures impact individual children's academic performance? To address this, we obtained socio-demographic and grades data from the parents of 1888 fourth and fifth grade children in the El Paso (Texas, USA) Independent School District in 2012. El Paso is located on the US-side of the Mexican border and has a majority Mexican-origin population. School-based hazardous air pollution (HAP) exposure was calculated using census block-level US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates for respiratory and diesel particulate matter (PM). School-level demographics were obtained from the school district. Multi-level models adjusting for individual-level covariates (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, English proficiency, and economic deprivation) and school-level covariates (e.g., percent of students economically disadvantaged and student-teacher ratio) showed that higher school-level HAPs were associated with lower individual-level grade point averages. An interquartile range increase in school-level HAP exposure was associated with an adjusted 0.11-0.40 point decrease in individual students' grade point averages (GPAs), depending on HAP type and emission source. Respiratory risk from HAPs had a larger effect on GPA than did diesel PM risk. Non-road mobile and total respiratory risk had the largest effects on children's GPA of all HAP variables studied and only mother's level of education had a larger effect than those

  5. Grade Inflation: Reality or Myth? Student Preparation Level vs. Grades at Brigham Young University, 1975-1994. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Danny R.

    This study was designed to investigate the extent to which grade inflation has existed at Brigham Young University (BYU) after accounting for increased preparation levels of entering students over time. Analyses were conducted for the university at large and individual colleges. The study first developed a model to forecast student grade point…

  6. Grade Level, Study Time, and Grade Retention and Their Effects on Motivation, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, and Mathematics Achievement: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Valle, António; González-Pienda, Julio; Lourenço, Abílio

    2013-01-01

    The present study complements previous research findings with new data to improve our understanding of the relationship between motivational variables and academic performance in math mediated by self-regulated learning (SRL). A structural equation model with predictor (i.e., grade retention, grade level, and study time), process (i.e., perceived…

  7. Using Read-Alouds of Grade-Level Biographies and Systematic Prompting to Promote Comprehension for Students with Moderate and Severe Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Pamela J.; Hudson, Melissa E.; Browder, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a modified system of least intrusive prompts on text-dependent listening comprehension for four middle-school-aged students with intellectual disability and autism during read-alouds of adapted grade-level biographies. A system of least intrusive prompts was modified by inserting a rule…

  8. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  9. Effects of subprimal type, quality grade, and aging time on display color of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Garner, C M; Unruh, J A; Hunt, M C; Boyle, E A E; Houser, T A

    2014-10-01

    A factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of two subprimal types (chuck roll and knuckle), two quality grades (Premium Choice and Select), and three vacuum-storage aging times before processing (7, 21, and 42d) ground beef patty display color attributes. Patties from chuck roll and Premium Choice subprimals had brighter red visual color scores, less discoloration, and higher L*, a*, b*, and chroma values than those from knuckle and Select subprimals, respectively. With an increased display time, patties became darker red, more discolored, and had decreased L*, a*, b*, and chroma values. Therefore, aging Premium Choice chuck rolls for less time (fewer than 21d) could maximize display color life. PMID:24880976

  10. Factors in seventh grade academics associated with performance levels on the tenth grade biology end of course test in selected middle and high schools in northwest Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jennifer Henry

    This study attempted to identify factors in seventh grade academics that are associated with overall success in tenth grade biology. The study addressed the following research questions: Are there significant differences in performance levels in seventh grade Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in science, math, reading, and language arts associated with performance categories in tenth grade biology End of Course Test (EOCT) and the following demographic variables : gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability category, and English language proficiency level? Is there a relationship among the categorical variables on the tenth grade biology EOCT and the same five demographic variables? Retrospective causal comparative research was used on a representative sample from the middle schools in three North Georgia counties who took the four CRCTs in the 2006-2007 school year, and took the biology EOCT in the 2009-2010 school year. Chi square was used to determine the relationships of the various demographic variables on three biology EOCT performance categories. Twoway ANOVA determined relationships between the seventh grade CRCT scores of students in the various demographic groups and their performance levels on the biology EOCT. Students' performance levels on the biology EOCT matched their performance levels on the seventh grade CRCTs consistently. Females performed better than males on all seventh grade CRCTs. Black and Hispanic students did worse than White and Asian/Asian Indian students on the math CRCT. Students living in poverty did worse on reading and language arts CRCTs than students who were better off. Special education students did worse on science, reading, and language arts CRCTs than students not receiving special education services. English language learners did worse than native English speakers on all seventh grade CRCTs. These findings suggest that remedial measures may be taken in the seventh grade that could impact

  11. Prediction of the Grade of Acute Cholecystitis by Plasma Level of C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kabul Gurbulak, Esin; Gurbulak, Bunyamin; Akgun, Ismail Ethem; Duzkoylu, Yigit; Battal, Muharrem; Fevzi Celayir, Mustafa; Demir, Uygar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute cholecystitis is the most common complication of gallbladder stones. Today, Tokyo guidelines criteria are recommended for diagnosis, grading, and management of acute cholecystitis. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) at different cut-off values to predict the severity of the disease and its possible role in grading the disease with regard to the guideline. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study, analyzing 682 cases out of consecutive 892 patients with acute cholecystitis admitted to two different general surgery clinics in Istanbul, Turkey. Records of patients diagnosed with acute cholecystitis were screened retrospectively from the hospital computer database between January 2011 and July 2014. A total of 210 patients with concomitant diseases causing high CRP levels were excluded from the study. The criteria of Tokyo guidelines were used in grading the severity of acute cholecystitis, and patients were divided into 3 groups. CRP values at the time of admission were analyzed and compared among the groups. Results: Mean CRP levels of groups were found to be significantly different, 18.96 mg/L in Group I, 133.51 mg/L in Group II, and 237.23 mg/L in Group III (P < 0.001). Having examined CRP values among the groups, they were found to be highly and significantly correlated with the disease grade (P < 0.0001). After evaluating CRP levels according to the grade of the disease, group 2 was distinguished from group 1 with a cut-off CRP level of 70.65 mg/L, and from group 3 with a value of 198.95 mg/L. Those results were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: CRP, a well-known acute phase reactant that increases rapidly in various inflammatory processes, can be accepted as a strong predictor in classifying different grades of the disease, and treatment can be reliably planned according to this classification. PMID:26023353

  12. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of sidearm striking by children grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of sidearm-striking by children in Grades K through 8. Each of 380 boys and 337 girls (ages 4-14 years), enrolled in a medium-size school system in southeastern Maine, was individually assessed on side-arm-striking and on static and dynamic balance. All subjects completed a survey relative to their participation in school or community-sponsored sports. To assess the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and sport participation within each grade, data were subjected to multiple-regression analysis. Development of mature striking was associated with sex; boys performed better at all grades except in Grade 5 where the percentage of girls showing a mature sidearm-striking pattern approximated that of boys. PMID:8570363

  13. Digital Mammography Screening: Does Age Influence the Detection Rates of Low-, Intermediate-, and High-Grade Ductal Carcinoma in Situ?

    PubMed

    Weigel, Stefanie; Hense, Hans W; Heidrich, Jan; Berkemeyer, Shoma; Heindel, Walter; Heidinger, Oliver

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between age at screening and detection rates for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) separately for different nuclear grades after introduction of a population-based digital mammography screening program. Materials and Methods The retrospective study was approved by the ethics board and did not require informed consent. In 733 905 women aged 50-69 years who participated in a screening program for the first time in 2005-2008 (baseline examinations were performed with digital mammography), DCIS detection rates were determined for 5-year age groups (detection rates per 1000 women screened) to distinguish high-, intermediate-, and low-grade DCIS. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare detection rates between age groups by adjusting for screening units (P < .05). Results There were 989 graded DCIS diagnoses among 733 905 women (detection rate, 1.35‰): 419 diagnoses of high-grade DCIS (detection rate, 0.57‰), 388 diagnoses of intermediate-grade DCIS (detection rate, 0.53‰), and 182 diagnoses of low-grade DCIS (detection rate, 0.25‰). Detection rate for types of DCIS combined increased significantly across age groups (50-54 years, detection rate of 1.15‰ [254 of 220 985 women]; 55-59 years, detection rate of 1.23‰ [218 of 177 782 women]; 60-64 years, detection rate of 1.34‰ [201 of 150 415 women]; and 65-69 years, detection rate of 1.71‰ [316 of 184 723 women]; P < .001). Of note, the detection rate for high-grade DCIS showed a significant increase with age (odds ratio, 1.18 per 5-year age group; P < .0001). The increase was lower for intermediate-grade DCIS (odds ratio, 1.11; P = .016) and not significant for low-grade DCIS (P = .10). Conclusion Total DCIS detection rates increase with age, mostly because of an increase in high- and intermediate-grade DCIS, which are precursor lesions that carry a higher risk for transition to more aggressive invasive breast cancer than low-grade DCIS. (©) RSNA, 2015

  14. [The role of age and tumor grade in the choice of fractionation regimen in patients with high-grade gliomas].

    PubMed

    Izmaĭlov, T R; Pan'shin, G A; Datsenko, P V

    2012-01-01

    There are currently no conventional guidelines for radiotherapy in gliomas. The treatment program is mainly formed in accordance with tumor morphology and the "golden standard" of irradiation is still the traditional mode of fractionation with a single focal dose of 2 Gy and total focal dose (TFD) of 60 Gy. In this report the treatment results of 396 patients with morphologically verified grade 3-4 malignant brain tumors receiving conventional irradiation regimen and irradiation by medium-sized fractions were analyzed to form institutional guidelines. The standard fractionation mode with a single focal dose of 2 Gy is preferable in patients with grade 3 glioma or elderly patients (over 60 years). TFD increase to 60-62 Gy in grade 4 gliomas and 54-56 Gy in grade 3 gliomas grants a significant improve in overall survival. An increase of a single irradiation fraction to 3 Gy may be used for patients younger than 60 years. In these cases it is advisable to use the TFD of 45 Gy or more (TFD of equivalent regimen with a dose greater than 54 Gy). The mentioned fractionation regimens could be recommended for the use in clinical practice to improve the results of high-grade gliomas treatment. PMID:22888654

  15. Enactment of Scientific Inquiry: Observation of Two Cases at Different Grade Levels in China Mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ronghui; Clarke, David; Wang, Weizhen

    2014-04-01

    Enactment of scientific inquiry in classroom has attracted a great attention of science educators around the world. In this study, we examined two competent teachers' (one Grade 9 chemistry teacher and one Grade 4 science teacher) enactment of scientific inquiry in selected teaching units to reveal the characteristics of enacted inquiry at different grade levels by analyzing lesson sequence videos. The coding schemes for enacted inquiry consist of ontological properties and instructional practices. Pre-topic and post-topic teacher interviews and the two teachers' responses to a questionnaire were adopted to identify the factors influencing teacher's enactment. The results indicate that the two case teachers' enactment involved a range of inquiry activities. The enacted inquiry at fourth-grade level covered all the inquiry elements, tending to engage students in the whole procedure of inquiry. The ninth-grade chemistry class placed emphasis on the elements "making plans" to solve problems in authentic context. Important factors influencing the enactment include teacher's understanding about scientific inquiry, textbooks, assessment, students and resource. Implications for inquiry enactment and instruction improvement have been provided.

  16. Resetting of RbSr ages of volcanic rocks by low-grade burial metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asmeroma, Y.; Damon, P.; Shafiqullah, M.; Dickinson, W.R.; Zartman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    We report a nine-point RbSr whole-rock isochron age of 70??3 Ma (MSWD 3.97) for Mid-Jurassic volcanic rocks. The same rocks have also been dated by the UThPb method on zircon, giving a crystallization age of 166 ?? 11 Ma, over twice as old as the RbSr age. The data demonstrate that whole-rock RbSr ages of volcanic rocks, even lava flows with SiO2 content as low as 57 wt.%, are susceptible to complete resetting. The rocks range in composition from rhyodacite tuffs to andesite lavas. The complete breakdown of all major minerals that contain Rb and Sr resulted in an alteration mineral assemblage consisting of phengite, albite, secondary quartz, and minor amounts of chlorite and epidote. Phengite is the K-bearing product of the breakdown of biotite and K-feldspar. Pressure during low-grade metamorphism of the volcanic rocks, estimated from phengite composition to have been in the range of 4 to 6 kbar, points to thrust-related burial as the main cause of resetting. Consequently, such reset isochrons may date large-scale events such as regional thrusting and metamorphism. The coherent resetting of the RbSr isochron suggests large-scale pervasive fluid movement during thrust-related burial metamorphism. ?? 1991.

  17. Older Adults' Level of Knowledge about Old Age Using the Facts of Aging Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Arleen J.

    The Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) has been used in different studies to assess the level of knowledge about old age. It contains 25 factual statements concerning basic physical, mental, and social facts and the most common misconceptions about aging. One purpose of this study was to identify the most frequent misconceptions in a group of older adults…

  18. Patterns of Victimization Locations in Elementary School Children: Effects of Grade Level and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Williford, Anne; Cooley, John L.; DePaolis, Kathryn; Rubens, Sonia L.; Vernberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little research has examined the locations in which youth are victimized, particularly outside the school context. Further, it is not clear if the locations in which youth are victimized vary as a function of grade level or gender. Objective: The goals of the current study were to: (1) Determine the locations inside and outside of the…

  19. Children's Singing Accuracy as a Function of Grade Level, Gender, and Individual versus Union Singing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Nancy A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between vocal pitch accuracy and gender, grade level, and the presence or absence of an accompanying unison voice. Reveals no significant differences between unison or individual singing or for gender. Fourth and fifth graders exhibited significant differences. (MJP)

  20. The Interaction Effects of Gender and Grade Level on Secondary School Students' Attitude towards Learning Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heng, Chua Kah; Karpudewan, Mageswary

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study reports the effects of gender and grade level on secondary students' attitude towards chemistry lessons. For this purpose, the Attitude towards Chemistry Lessons Scale (ATCLS) was administered to 446 secondary school students between 16-19 years old. The ATCLS consists of four different subscales: liking for chemistry…

  1. The Relationship Between Listening and Reading Comprehension of Different Types of Text at Increasing Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna; Stylianou, Polyxeni; Karefillidou, Christina; Papageorgiou, Panayiota

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the hypotheses that (a) the relationship between listening and reading comprehension becomes stronger after decoding mastery; (b) the difference between listening and reading decreases with increasing grade level; and (c) similar patterns of relationship and difference are obtained with narrative and expository texts. The…

  2. Teacher Competency: New Perspectives on Grade Level and Subject Area Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streifer, Philip A.

    Data from a 1984 study undertaken to validate 15 teacher competencies for Connecticut's Beginning Teacher Support Program were reanalyzed to determine whether the competencies were applicable to all teachers or were specific to grade levels or subject areas. The original study examined 1733 responses to a survey that asked teachers and…

  3. Teacher and Student Behaviors in the Contexts of Grade-Level and Instructional Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollo, Alexandra; Hirn, Regina G.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher behaviors such as providing frequent opportunities to respond and feedback are known to promote student engagement. In addition, contextual variables such as grade-level and instructional grouping may affect engagement. However, less is known about teacher behavior in these instructional contexts. This study aimed to examine active…

  4. A Comparative Study of Achievement in Project Physics by Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Reports the results of a study relating to the most appropriate secondary grade level to enroll in physics, the reliability of standardized achievement scores in algebra and physics as predictors of success in high school physics, and the similarities in background and achievement of college and secondary physics students. (JR)

  5. Helping Students with Moderate and Severe Intellectual Disability Access Grade-Level Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Melissa E.; Browder, Diane; Wakeman, Shawnee

    2013-01-01

    Teaching students with moderate and severe intellectual disability who are early readers or nonreaders to engage with grade-level text is challenging. For this reason, purposeful thought must be given to promoting text accessibility and teaching text comprehension. Whenever possible, text should be used as it is originally written without…

  6. Ninth Grade, Low Level, Fifth Period: A Kind of Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Becky; Liner, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Describes an experimental, team-taught, low level ninth grade English class which emphasized writing. Discusses students, their writing, the use of journal writing, ability grouping, and what the classroom environment was like. Notes that students improved in all their other classes during the semester they spent in this class. (SR)

  7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Cross Grade Level Collaboration to Improve Collegial Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Fidelia

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have connected student achievement to teacher collaboration; however, there is a paucity of studies conducted on how teachers use identified advantages and disadvantages of cross grade level collaboration to improve collegial interactions to achieve better student performance, professional development, teacher effectiveness, and job…

  8. A B+ Average in Engineering with a Second Grade Reading Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, C.; Steg, D. R.

    Three evaluations were conducted to try to pinpoint the cause of the difficulties of a 23-year-old black male, who was highly gifted in mathematics but hampered by a second grade reading level, displayed difficulty in focusing his eyes together, spoke as if trying to avoid stuttering, and did not maintain eye contact. A neurological evaluation…

  9. Punctuation Puzzlers. Level C, Book 1 [Grades 7-8]. Language Logic Twisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockett, M. A.

    Written for the seventh- and eighth-grade levels, this workbook gives students practice in using context clues and reading comprehension to apply punctuation rules, as well as in carefully reading and following directions. Noting that the activities are based on the idea that punctuation is necessary to make written communication clear, the…

  10. Punctuation Puzzlers. Level B, Book 1 [Grades 5-6]. Language Logic Twisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockett, M. A.

    Written for the fifth- and sixth-grade levels, this workbook gives students practice in using context clues and reading comprehension to apply punctuation rules, as well as in carefully reading and following directions. Noting that the activities are based on the idea that punctuation is necessary to make written communication clear, the…

  11. Punctuation Puzzlers. Level A, Book 1 [Grades 3-4]. Language Logic Twisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockett, M. A.

    Written for the third- and fourth-grade levels, this workbook gives students practice in using context clues and reading comprehension to apply punctuation rules, as well as in carefully reading and following directions. Noting that the activities are based on the idea that punctuation is necessary to make written communication clear, the…

  12. Spatial Skills as a Predictor of First Grade Girls' Use of Higher Level Arithmetic Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laski, Elida V.; Casey, Beth M.; Yu, Qingyi; Dulaney, Alana; Heyman, Miriam; Dearing, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Girls are more likely than boys to use counting strategies rather than higher-level mental strategies to solve arithmetic problems. Prior research suggests that dependence on counting strategies may have negative implications for girls' later math achievement. We investigated the relation between first-grade girls' verbal and spatial skills and…

  13. Predictors of Word-Level Literacy amongst Grade 3 Children in Five Diverse Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smythe, Ian; Everatt, John; Al-Menaye, Nasser; He, Xianyou; Capellini, Simone; Gyarmathy, Eva; Siegel, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Groups of Grade 3 children were tested on measures of word-level literacy and undertook tasks that required the ability to associate sounds with letter sequences and that involved visual, auditory and phonological-processing skills. These groups came from different language backgrounds in which the language of instruction was Arabic, Chinese,…

  14. Formative Assessment of Collaborative Teams (FACT): Development of a Grade-Level Instructional Team Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew J.; Hallam, Pamela R.; Charlton, Cade T.; Wall, D. Gary

    2014-01-01

    Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) have become increasingly popular in schools. PLCs are groups of teachers, administrators, parents, and students who collaborate to improve their practices and focus on results (DuFour, 2004). Grade-level and department teachers participate in regularly scheduled collaborative team meetings; however, many…

  15. Correlates of Achievement: Prediction and Cross-Validation for Intermediate Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jon C.; Powers, Jerry M.

    A study was conducted to: (1) determine the simple and multiple correlation coefficients between selected educational/personal variables and academic achievement at intermediate grade levels as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills; (2) determine the multiple linear regression equations for predicting individual student achievement as…

  16. Leveled Literacy Intervention Success Rate in the Third Grade General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Kerry A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Leveled Literacy Intervention were examined using a group of ten third grade students at Crosswell Elementary School. The students were selected to participate by using their Fall 2014 MAP score. Students that had a Fall 2014 MAP score of =189 were placed into the research group. The focus of the research was to determine if Leveled…

  17. Using Reading Grade Level to Assess Readability of Selected Plant and Soil Science Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graveel, John G.; Fribourg, Henry A.

    1987-01-01

    Reported is a study designed to determine whether reading grade level (RGL) assessment techniques used for elementary and secondary education textbooks would discriminate among plant and soil science textbooks. The study was to select the RGL indices suited to quantify the readability of these sources, and to identify the factors affecting…

  18. The Effect of Geometry Teaching with Cabri to Learning Levels of Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutak, Tayfun; Turkdogan, Ali; Birgin, Osman

    2009-01-01

    In the study Cabri was used for teaching geometry at 4th grade. To investigate students' geometry level, a semi-experimental method was used. In the test group, geometry subjects are taught using Cabri. A multiple choice test was used to collect data as pre and post test. Answers were assigned as 1 to correct, 0 to wrong answers. Data were…

  19. The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Sami

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

  20. The Impact of Grading Standards on Student Achievement, Educational Attainment, and Entry-Level Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Julian R.; Grogger, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the High School and Beyond survey, estimates the effects of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings. Finds that higher standards raise test scores throughout the distribution of achievement, but have no positive effect on educational attainment--in fact have negative effects on…

  1. Correlation between aging grade of T91 steel and spectral characteristics of the laser-induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Lu, Jidong; Dai, Yuan; Dong, Meirong; Zhong, Wanli; Yao, Shunchun

    2015-08-01

    T91 steel with favorable mechanical performance has become the representative heat-resistant steel used as heat exchange surfaces in supercritical and ultra-supercritical boilers. The organizational structure and mechanical properties change during the service period, called material aging, which affects the service life and the equipment safety. To develop a fast and easy aging predictive technique of heat exchange metal surfaces, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to investigate the plasma characteristics of T91 steel specimens with different aging grades. The metallographic structure, mechanical properties and spectral characteristics of the specimens were analyzed. Then, the correlations between the spectral characteristics and the aging grade were established. The analysis results show that the martensite substructure disappears, and the dimension of the carbide particles among the crystal lattices increases with aging. At the same time, the hardness of the samples gradually decreases. The peak intensities of both the matrix and the alloying element increases then decreases with aging, owing to the change of the metallography structure and mechanical properties. Furthermore, good unique value correlations between the intensity ratio of CrI/FeI, MoI/FeI and the aging grade are found. This demonstrates that LIBS is a possible new way to estimate the aging grade of metal materials.

  2. Evaluation of the Level of Food Safety Protection Provided by the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance and Its Associated Cooperative Grade "A" Milk Safety Program.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yinqing; Klontz, Karl C; DiNovi, Michael J; Edwards, Alison J; Hennes, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) Grade "A" Milk Safety Program through its implementation and enforcement of the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). The number of reported illnesses associated with Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was obtained from state and federal agencies and published articles. The consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was estimated from food consumption survey data for individuals. The level of food safety protection was measured quantitatively using the metric of annual illness attack rate. During a 15-year period (1999 through 2013), the estimated annual illness attack rate was 0.41 reported illnesses per 1 billion exposures (estimated using person-day intake data) or 0.52 reported illnesses per 1 billion lb (454 million kg) of Grade "A" milk and milk products consumed. Food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products by the NCIMS through its implementation and enforcement of the PMO is important given the common consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States. PMID:26219354

  3. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  4. High Interest - Low Vocabulary Science Books, Reading Level Grades 1-4 (Prepared for the Remedial Reading Teacher).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gott, Margaret E., Comp.; Wailes, James R., Comp.

    This booklist is intended for elementary school science students with high interest and low vocabulary skills. The Spache Readability Scale, Dale-Chall formula, sentence structure, paragraph flow, illustration, and diagram analysis or publishers stated grade level were used to determine grade level designations. The included interest level varies…

  5. Relationship Between Mental Maturity and Level of Understanding of Concepts of Relativity in Grades 4-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Wadi D.; Pella, Milton O.

    1972-01-01

    Results indicated that a) the understanding of the conceptual schemes of relativity depended on grade level and on ability level within a grade, b) achievement decreased with increase in taxonomic level, and c) achievement was better in classical relativity than in special or general relativity. (Authors)

  6. The Effects of a Peer Tutoring Intervention Program on the Reading Levels of Underachieving Fifth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Marie J.

    A practicum addressed the cognitive and affective needs of underachieving fifth grade students in a suburban school in southwest Florida. Twelve fifth grade students (the target group) were paired with same age tutors who provided supplemental reading instruction four times a week over a 12-week period. They also participated in weekly…

  7. Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the “agin...

  8. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

    PubMed

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain. PMID:26845616

  9. Comprehensive Reading Instruction across the Grade Levels: A Collection of Papers from the Reading Research 2001 Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Cathy M., Ed.

    This collection of 9 papers from the International Reading Association's Reading Research 2001 Conference (RR2001) addresses comprehensive reading instruction across the grade levels. The introduction, "How Will We Develop the Concept of Comprehensive Reading Instruction Across Grade Levels?," notes that five quandaries arose in the discussion of…

  10. Teacher-to-Teacher Consultation: Facilitating Consistent and Effective Intervention across Grade Levels for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Matthew J.; Dupaul, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher-to-teacher consultation (TTC) is an extension of standard behavioral consultation that seeks to transfer an established and effective intervention across a grade-level transition by including teachers from both grade levels as conjoint consultees at the beginning of the second school year. The purpose of the current study was to determine…

  11. Effect of Relative Age in the First Grade of Primary School on Long-Term Scholastic Results: International Comparative Evidence Using PISA 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprietsma, Maresa

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of pupil's relative age within the first grade of primary school on mathematics and reading test scores at age 15. The main objective is to evaluate the long-term causal effect of relative age in the first grades of primary school on pupil's test in 16 different countries. We use the national rule for…

  12. Adhesive capsulitis: An age related symptom of metabolic syndrome and chronic low-grade inflammation?

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Max

    2016-03-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (AC) is very poorly understood, particularly it's underlying etiology. Obesity and metabolic syndrome, which are strongly associated with chronic low grade inflammation, are becoming increasingly understood to underlie a raft of morbid states including upper limb pain syndromes, diabetes (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and central nervous system dysfunction and degeneration. Notwithstanding age, two of the strongest established risk factors for AC are DM and CVD. The hypothesis argues that similar to DM and CVD, the inflammation and capsular fibrosis seen in AC is precipitated by metabolic syndrome and chronic low grade inflammation. These pathophysiological mechanisms are highly likely to be perpetuated by upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, sympathetic dominance of autonomic balance, and neuro-immune activation. The hypothesis predicts and describes how these processes may etiologically underpin and induce each sub-classification of AC. An improved understanding of the etiology of AC may lead to more accurate diagnosis, improved management, treatment outcomes, and reduce or prevent pain, disability and suffering associated with the disease. The paper follows on with a discussion of similarities between the pathophysiology of AC to general systemic inflammatory control mechanisms whereby connective tissue (CT) fibrosis is induced as a storage depot for leukocytes and chronic inflammatory cells. The potential role of hyaluronic acid (HA), the primary component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and CT, in the pathophysiology of AC is also discussed with potential treatment implications. Lastly, a biochemical link between physical and mental health through the ECM is described and the concept of a periventricular-limbic central driver of CT dysfunction is introduced. PMID:26880627

  13. Predicting students' intention to smoke by theory of planned behaviour variables and parental influences across school grade levels.

    PubMed

    Hassandra, Mary; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Kosmidou, Evdoxia; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Goudas, Marios; Theodorakis, Yiannis

    2011-09-01

    Differences were examined in Theory of Planned Behaviour determinants of students' intention to smoke including parents' attitudes towards smoking and parents' current cigarette use among Greek students of different school grade levels. Students (N = 763) aged 10-18 years reported their attitudes towards smoking, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, self-identity and intention to smoke while their parents (N = 525) reported their attitudes towards smoking and their current cigarette use. All the TPB variables increased from lower to higher school grade level. Multi-sample path analyses showed that parent's attitudes towards smoking positively predicted students' intention to smoke only for elementary school children. Parents' current cigarette use did not contribute significantly. Students' attitudes, perceived behavioural control and self-identity predicted systematically intention to smoke in contrast to the subjective norm that did not contribute at all. Perceived behavioural control contributed to a higher degree in intention to smoke for senior high school students compared to the junior high school and elementary students. Self-identity contributed to a higher degree in intention to smoke for elementary compared to the junior high school students. The results of this study suggests that the determinants of smoking vary between early and late adolescence. PMID:21834644

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy as a complementary age grading and species identification tool for African malaria vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was recently applied to age-grade and differentiate laboratory reared Anopheles gambiae sensu strico and Anopheles arabiensis sibling species of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato. In this study, we report further on the accuracy of this tool in simultaneously estimating ...

  15. Age in Grade Congruence and Progression in Basic Education in Bangladesh. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 48

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Altaf

    2010-01-01

    In Bangladesh gross and net enrolment rates are used to measure overage and underage enrolment in the education system. However, due to the limits of these methods in exploring the issue of age in grade, the paper uses the CREATE Community and School Survey (COMSS) data from Bangladesh. COMSS was a longitudinal survey of 6,696 households with…

  16. Can Inhibition at Preschool Age Predict Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Social Difficulties in Third Grade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewirtz, Shawn; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Reeve, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether deficits in inhibitory control in preschool-aged children are predictive of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and certain social difficulties in middle childhood, specifically third grade. Although many studies have examined the concurrent relationships among disinhibition, ADHD and social…

  17. A Study on Developing a General Attitude Scale about Environmental Issues for Students in Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a general attitude scale about environmental issues (GASE) for students in different grade levels. The research was carried out with the total 1225 students; 409 (33.4%) were primary school students in grades 5, 6, 7 and 8; 408 (33.3%) of the students were in grades 9, 10, 11 and 12 at high schools and the…

  18. Effects of multisensory resources on the achievement and science attitudes of seventh-grade suburban students taught science concepts on and above grade level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Patrice Helen

    This research was designed to determine the relationships among students' achievement scores on grade-level science content, on science content that was three years above-grade level, on attitudes toward instructional approaches, and learning-styles perceptual preferences when instructional approaches were multisensory versus traditional. The dependent variables for this investigation were scores on achievement posttests and scores on the attitude survey. The independent variables were the instructional strategy and students' perceptual preferences. The sample consisted of 74 educationally oriented seventh-grade students. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1990) was administered to determine perceptual preferences. The control group was taught seventh-grade and tenth-grade science units using a traditional approach and the experimental group was instructed on the same units using multisensory instructional resources. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. The traditional unit included oral reading from the textbook, completing outlines, labeling diagrams, and correcting the outlines and diagrams as a class. The multisensory unit included five instructional stations established in different sections of the classroom to allow students to learn by: (a) manipulating Flip Chutes, (b) using Electroboards, (c) assembling Task Cards, (d) playing a kinesthetic Floor Game, and (e) reading an individual Programmed Learning Sequence. Audio tapes and scripts were provided at each location. Students circulated in groups of four from station to station. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of a multisensory, rather than a traditional approach, for teaching science content that is above-grade level. T-tests revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores (p < 0.0007). No significance was detected on grade-level achievement nor on the perceptual

  19. Expression of Telomeres in Astrocytoma WHO Grade 2 to 4: TERRA Level Correlates with Telomere Length, Telomerase Activity, and Advanced Clinical Grade12

    PubMed Central

    Sampl, Sandra; Pramhas, Sibylle; Stern, Christian; Preusser, Matthias; Marosi, Christine; Holzmann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells bypass replicative senescence, the major barrier to tumor progression, by using telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs). Correlation between ALT and patient survival was demonstrated for high-grade astrocytomas. Transcription from subtelomeres produces telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a natural inhibitor of telomerase activity (TA). This led us to evaluate correlations of TERRA and TMM with tumor grade and outcome in astrocytoma patients. SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for quantitation of total and chromosome 2p and 18p specific TERRA levels were developed. Tumor samples from 46 patients with astrocytoma grade 2 to 4, tissue controls, and cell lines were assessed. TMMs were evaluated by measuring TA and by detecting long telomeres due to ALT. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grade 4, total TERRA levels were similar to cell lines but 14-, 31-, and 313-fold lower compared with grade 3, grade 2, and nonmalignant tissue, respectively. Total TERRA levels differed from chromosomal levels. Low 2p TERRA levels correlated with dense promoter methylation of subtelomeric CpG islands, indicating that TERRA expression in gliomas may be chromosome specific and epigenetically regulated. Total TERRA levels correlated with diagnosis, with low or absent TA and the presence of ALT, and were tentatively associated with favorable patient prognosis in our cohort (P = .06). TA and short telomeres identified a subset of GBM with a median survival of only 14.8 months. TERRA and TA may be prognostic in astrocytic tumors. PMID:22348177

  20. ESCOLEX: a grade-level lexical database from European Portuguese elementary to middle school textbooks.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula; Medeiros, José Carlos; Simões, Alberto; Machado, João; Costa, Ana; Iriarte, Álvaro; de Almeida, José João; Pinheiro, Ana P; Comesaña, Montserrat

    2014-03-01

    In this article, we introduce ESCOLEX, the first European Portuguese children's lexical database with grade-level-adjusted word frequency statistics. Computed from a 3.2-million-word corpus, ESCOLEX provides 48,381 word forms extracted from 171 elementary and middle school textbooks for 6- to 11-year-old children attending the first six grades in the Portuguese educational system. Like other children's grade-level databases (e.g., Carroll, Davies, & Richman, 1971; Corral, Ferrero, & Goikoetxea, Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1009-1017, 2009; Lété, Sprenger-Charolles, & Colé, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 156-166, 2004; Zeno, Ivens, Millard, Duvvuri, 1995), ESCOLEX provides four frequency indices for each grade: overall word frequency (F), index of dispersion across the selected textbooks (D), estimated frequency per million words (U), and standard frequency index (SFI). It also provides a new measure, contextual diversity (CD). In addition, the number of letters in the word and its part(s) of speech, number of syllables, syllable structure, and adult frequencies taken from P-PAL (a European Portuguese corpus-based lexical database; Soares, Comesaña, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, …, Machado, 2010; Soares, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, França, …, Comesaña, in press) are provided. ESCOLEX will be a useful tool both for researchers interested in language processing and development and for professionals in need of verbal materials adjusted to children's developmental stages. ESCOLEX can be downloaded along with this article or from http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases . PMID:23709164

  1. Automatic Screening and Grading of Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Texture Analysis of Fundus Images.

    PubMed

    Phan, Thanh Vân; Seoud, Lama; Chakor, Hadi; Cheriet, Farida

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease which causes visual deficiency and irreversible blindness to the elderly. In this paper, an automatic classification method for AMD is proposed to perform robust and reproducible assessments in a telemedicine context. First, a study was carried out to highlight the most relevant features for AMD characterization based on texture, color, and visual context in fundus images. A support vector machine and a random forest were used to classify images according to the different AMD stages following the AREDS protocol and to evaluate the features' relevance. Experiments were conducted on a database of 279 fundus images coming from a telemedicine platform. The results demonstrate that local binary patterns in multiresolution are the most relevant for AMD classification, regardless of the classifier used. Depending on the classification task, our method achieves promising performances with areas under the ROC curve between 0.739 and 0.874 for screening and between 0.469 and 0.685 for grading. Moreover, the proposed automatic AMD classification system is robust with respect to image quality. PMID:27190636

  2. Automatic Screening and Grading of Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Texture Analysis of Fundus Images

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Thanh Vân; Seoud, Lama; Chakor, Hadi; Cheriet, Farida

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease which causes visual deficiency and irreversible blindness to the elderly. In this paper, an automatic classification method for AMD is proposed to perform robust and reproducible assessments in a telemedicine context. First, a study was carried out to highlight the most relevant features for AMD characterization based on texture, color, and visual context in fundus images. A support vector machine and a random forest were used to classify images according to the different AMD stages following the AREDS protocol and to evaluate the features' relevance. Experiments were conducted on a database of 279 fundus images coming from a telemedicine platform. The results demonstrate that local binary patterns in multiresolution are the most relevant for AMD classification, regardless of the classifier used. Depending on the classification task, our method achieves promising performances with areas under the ROC curve between 0.739 and 0.874 for screening and between 0.469 and 0.685 for grading. Moreover, the proposed automatic AMD classification system is robust with respect to image quality. PMID:27190636

  3. Increased kinin levels and decreased responsiveness to kinins during aging.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Viviana; Velarde, Victoria; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Gómez, Christian; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Sabaj, Valeria; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2005-08-01

    Kinins are vasoactive peptides released from precursors called kininogens, and serum levels of both T- and K-kininogens increase dramatically as rats age. Kinin release is tightly regulated, and here we show that serum kinin levels also increase with age, from 63 +/- 16 nmol/L in young Fisher 344 rats to 398 +/- 102 nmol/L in old animals. Both K- and T-kininogens contribute sequentially to this increase, with the increase in middle-aged animals being driven primarily by K-kininogen, whereas the further augmentation in older rats occurs by increasing T-kininogen. By measuring ERK activation, we show that aorta endothelial cells from old animals are hyporesponsive to exogenous bradykinin. However, if serum kinin levels are experimentally decreased by lipopolysaccharide treatment, then the endothelial response to bradykinin is re-established. These results indicate that serum levels of kinins increase with age, whereas the responsiveness of target cells to kinins is reduced in these same animals. PMID:16127100

  4. BIOSOCIAL CORRELATES OF AGE AT FIRST SEXUAL INTERCOURSE: THE CASE OF GRADE 9 AND GRADE 11 PUPILS IN THE NORTH WEST PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA.

    PubMed

    Amoateng, Acheampong Yaw; Kalule-Sabiti, Ishmael

    2016-01-01

    Survival analysis - specifically the actuarial life-table method and the Cox Proportional Hazards model - was used to assess Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological model with regards to the onset of sexual intercourse in a random sample of 1697 grade 9 and grade 11 pupils in the North West Province of South Africa. Data were collected in July and August 2007. Of the contextual factors examined, only academic performance and community disorganization were found to be statistically significantly associated with age at first sexual intercourse amongst girls. High academic performance by girls is positively associated with age at first sexual intercourse, while girls who live in disorganized communities initiate sexual intercourse earlier than their counterparts in other communities. Age is negatively associated with the timing of first sexual debut among both girls and boys. Males initiate sexual intercourse earlier than females, while youths with at least one sexual partner are much more likely to initiate sexual intercourse earlier than those without sexual partners. PMID:25488144

  5. Does Age of Entry Into First Grade Affect Students' Achievement in School? (Technical Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, B. Glen; Trimble, C. Scott

    This paper reports on research conducted to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the achievement test scores of students who enter first grade as 5-year-olds, and those who enter first grade as 6-year-olds. Ex post facto research was conducted on 3 samples of students (17,000 from 1st grades, 17,500 from 4th…

  6. The Role of the A* Grade at a Level as a Predictor of University Performance in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal Rodeiro, Carmen; Zanini, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    In summer 2010, the A* grade at A level was awarded for the first time. This grade was introduced to help higher education institutions to differentiate between the highest achieving candidates and to promote and reward greater stretch and challenge. Exploring data from the Higher Education Statistics Service and making use of multilevel…

  7. An Analysis of the Influence of Gender, Grade Level, and Teacher on the Selection of Mathematics Software by Intermediate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Pabst, Donna; Persichitte, Kay; Lohr, Linda; Pearman, Betsy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between gender, grade level, teachers, and the selection of mathematics software as measured by the type of mathematics software chosen, and time-on-task. Research data were collected from 202 third, fourth, and fifth grade students in a single elementary school located in northeastern…

  8. The Prediction of Reading Levels between Second and Third Grade Limited English Proficient Students in a Bilingual Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Britani Creel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict the third grade English reading TAKS scores while considering the same students' native language, Spanish, reading level as assessed by a state-approved reading assessment, the Evaluacion del desarrollo de la lectura (EDL), from the end of the second grade year. In addition, this study was been designed to…

  9. The Classification of the Probability Unit Ability Levels of the Eleventh Grade Turkish Students by Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozyurt, Ozcan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the probability unit ability levels of the eleventh grade Turkish students were classified through cluster analysis. The study was carried out in a high school located in Trabzon, Turkey during the fall semester of the 2011-2012 academic years. A total of 84 eleventh grade students participated. Students were taught about…

  10. The Impacts of the Voice Change, Grade Level, and Experience on the Singing Self-Efficacy of Emerging Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the study are to describe characteristics of the voice change in sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade choir students using Cooksey's voice-change classification system and to determine if the singing self-efficacy of adolescent males is affected by the voice change, grade level, and experience. Participants (N = 80) consisted of…

  11. Variation of Student Numerical and Figural Reasoning Approaches by Pattern Generalization Type, Strategy Use and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical…

  12. Relationship Between Mental Maturity and the Level of Understanding of Concepts of Relativity in Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Wadi Dahir

    This study was conducted to (1) identify certain concepts of relativity, and (2) determine the relationship between understanding of these relationships achieved by pupils in grades 4-8 (as indicated by objective test scores) and such variables as grade level and mental ability. Several related sub-problems were also identified. A conceptual…

  13. Benzonidazole levels in blood vary with age in rats.

    PubMed

    Bulffer, Romina Fernanda; Castro, José Alberto; Fanelli, Silvia Laura

    2011-05-01

    Benznidazole (Bz) exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg). We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals. PMID:21655830

  14. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention. PMID:26537543

  15. TMPRSS2-ERG fusions are strongly linked to young patient age in low-grade prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Steurer, Stefan; Mayer, Pascale Sophia; Adam, Meike; Krohn, Antje; Koop, Christina; Ospina-Klinck, Daniel; Tehrani, Ali Attarchi; Simon, Ronald; Tennstedt, Pierre; Graefen, Markus; Wittmer, Corinna; Brors, Benedikt; Plass, Christoph; Korbel, Jan; Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Sauter, Guido; Huland, Hartwig; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Minner, Sarah; Schlomm, Thorsten

    2014-12-01

    Based on next-generation sequencing of early-onset prostate cancer (PCa), we earlier demonstrated that PCa in young patients is prone to rearrangements involving androgen-regulated genes-such as transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG) fusion-and provided data suggesting that this situation might be caused by increased androgen signaling in younger men. In the same study, an accumulation of chromosomal deletions was found in cancers of elderly patients. To determine how age-dependent molecular features relate to cancer phenotype, an existing data set of 11,152 PCas was expanded by additional fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), 6q15 and 5q21. The results demonstrate that the decrease in TMPRSS2-ERG fusions with increasing patient age is limited to low-grade cancers (Gleason ≤3+4) and that the significant increase in the deletion frequency with age was strictly limited to ERG-negative cancers for 6q15 and 5q21 but to ERG-positive cancers for PTEN. These data suggest that the accumulation of non-androgen-linked genomic alterations with advanced patient age may require an appropriate microenvironment, such as a positive or negative ERG status. The strong link of ERG activation to young patient age and low-grade cancers may help to explain a slight predominance of low-grade cancers in young patients. PMID:25015038

  16. Reference Data for the Ruff Figural Fluency Test Stratified by Age and Educational Level

    PubMed Central

    Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Joosten, Hanneke; Koerts, Janneke; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Slaets, Joris P.

    2011-01-01

    The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) was developed to avoid the difficulties that were encountered in earlier tests of figural fluency. Although the test characteristics of the RFFT seem to be good and it is a valuable addition to neuropsychological assessments, reference data are still scarce. To this aim, we required 2,404 community dwelling persons in Groningen, the Netherlands to perform the RFFT. All 1,651 persons with a complete RFFT and known educational level formed the reference sample. Their age ranged from 35 to 82 years and their educational level from primary school to university grade. Ninety-six percent of the persons were of Western European descent. All tests were analyzed by two independent examiners and subsequently three measures were calculated: number of unique designs, number of perseverative errors and error ratio. The main finding was that performance on the RFFT was dependent on age and educational level. This was not only observed in older persons but also in young and middle-aged persons. Reference data for the three RFFT measures are presented in groups of five years of age ranging from 35–39 years to 75 years or older. PMID:21347325

  17. Melamine residues in tissues of broilers fed diets containing graded levels of melamine.

    PubMed

    Lü, M B; Yan, L; Guo, J Y; Li, Y; Li, G P; Ravindran, V

    2009-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine melamine residual levels in the tissues of broiler chickens fed diets containing graded levels of melamine. Ten experimental diets were developed to contain 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 mg of melamine/kg of diet. Each diet was offered in 4 replicate cages (12 birds per cage) from d 1 to 42, followed by a 7-d feeding of a withdrawal diet that contained no melamine. On d 28, 42, and 49, one bird per replicate was killed and tissue samples from the breast meat, liver, and kidney were collected for the determination of residual melamine levels. Throughout the 42-d feeding period, feeding diets containing graded levels of melamine had no effect (P>0.05) on the weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality of broiler chickens. Residue levels of melamine in broiler tissues at d 28 and 42 were below the detection limit when the diets containedlevels increased (P<0.05) with the increasing levels of melamine in birds fed diets containing higher than 100 mg/kg. At d 42, a similar trend was observed in the kidney, but melamine was detected in breast meat and liver only in birds fed diets containing 500 and 1,000 mg of melamine/kg of diet. Melamine distribution varied (P<0.05) in different tissues, with the highest concentration in the kidney. A withdrawal period of 7 d was found to clear the tissues of melamine. PMID:19762871

  18. Aging behavior of polymeric solar absorber materials: Aging on the component level

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlen, S.; Wallner, G.M.; Lang, R.W.; Meir, M.; Rekstad, J.

    2010-03-15

    Within this study, the aging behavior of a PPE + PS absorber material was investigated on the absorber component level. To indicate aging, characteristic mechanical values were determined by indentation tests of specimens taken from components and exposed to laboratory aging (140 C in air, 80 C in water) and service near outdoor aging conditions (stagnation in northern climate). In addition to the mechanical tests, the unaged and aged specimens were also characterized thermo-analytically via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that reductions in both characteristic mechanical values of the indentation tests, i.e., load of the first transition and ultimate indentation, reflect at least some physical aging although chemical aging may also be of importance based on previous analytical investigations of laboratory aged polymer films. While laboratory aging in air at 140 C and service exposure at a test facility in Oslo (N) under stagnation conditions led to a significant reduction in the mechanical indentation resistance, no influence of laboratory aging in water at 80 C on the mechanical behavior of the absorber sheet was found. Depending on the ultimate failure criterion applied (reduction of characteristic mechanical values to 80% and 50%, respectively), the technical service life found for hot air laboratory and stagnation service conditions was found to be less than 51 and 159 h, respectively. As these durations are significantly below the estimated stagnation conditions accumulated in the desired operation lifetime for such a collector, the PPE + PS type investigated does not seem to be a proper material candidate for solar thermal absorbers. Finally, based on the results obtained, a relation between laboratory aging time in air at 140 C and cumulated irradiation energy during exposure on the test facility in Oslo was established. (author)

  19. Advanced age and the mechanics of uphill walking: a joint-level, inverse dynamic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Jason R.; Kram, Rodger

    2013-01-01

    We sought to gain insight into age-related muscular limitations that may restrict the uphill walking ability of old adults. We hypothesized that: 1) old adults would exhibit smaller peak ankle joint kinetics and larger peak hip joint kinetics than young adults during both level and uphill walking and 2) these age-related differences in ankle and hip joint kinetics would be greatest during uphill vs. level walking. We quantified the sagittal plane ankle, knee, and hip joint kinetics of 10 old adults (mean ± SD, age: 72 ± 5 yrs) and 8 young adults (age: 27 ± 5 yrs) walking at 1.25 m/s on a dual-belt, force-measuring treadmill at four grades (0°, +3°, +6°, +9°). As hypothesized, old adults walked with smaller peak ankle joint kinetics (e.g., power generation: −18% at +9°) and larger peak hip joint kinetics (e.g., power generation: +119% at +9°) than young adults, most evident during the late stance phase of both level and uphill conditions. Old adults performed two to three times more single support positive work than young adults via muscles crossing the knee. In partial support of our second hypothesis, the age-related reduction in peak ankle joint moments was greater during uphill (−0.41 Nm/kg) vs. level (−0.30 Nm/kg) walking. However, old adults that exhibited reduced propulsive ankle function during level walking could perform 44% more trailing leg positive ankle joint work to walk uphill. Our findings indicate that maintaining ankle power generation and trailing leg propulsive function should be the primary focus of “prehabilitation” strategies for old adults to preserve their uphill walking ability. PMID:23850328

  20. Reading Grade Level and Completeness of Freely Available Materials on Thyroid Nodules: There Is Work to Be Done

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, J. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient education is one of the key components required for patients to participate in decision making for their care. Sources of information should be complete and understandable. The objective of this study was to assess the quality and reading grade level of freely available materials pertaining to the evaluation and treatment of thyroid nodules. Methods: All available materials were gathered through a comprehensive Internet search or direct contact with each identified organization associated with thyroid care. Materials meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for completeness of content and reading grade level using the SMOG readability formula. Then, the DISCERN instrument was utilized to assess the quality of the five materials which had the best (lowest) and the five materials that had the worst (highest) SMOG reading grade levels. Results: A total of 63 materials on thyroid nodule evaluation and management were identified. A minority of materials presented readers with a complete picture of the topic, describing both benefits and cautions of thyroid nodule evaluation, benefits and cautions of fine-needle thyroid nodule biopsy, or risks, benefits, and long-term effects of thyroidectomy. The SMOG reading grade level assessment was well above recommended levels. The range was eighth grade to college level; the mean and median reading grade level were 13. Lastly, the DISCERN instrument revealed that most of the materials with both the best and the worst reading grade levels assessed had “extensive or serious shortcomings” that would impede their usefulness as high-quality sources of information regarding management options. Conclusions: Existing thyroid nodule evaluation and management materials have serious shortcomings. Future work should focus on the development of patient materials that are both grade level appropriate and meet the DISCERN criteria for topic completeness and accuracy. PMID:25384093

  1. Growth, haematology, blood constituents and immunological status of lambs fed graded levels of animal feed grade damaged wheat as substitute of maize.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, M K; Mondal, D; Karim, S A

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore possibilities of utilization of animal feed grade damaged wheat (ADW) in lamb feeding, and assess the effect of ADW and its aflatoxin on intake, growth, haematology, blood biochemical constituents and immunological status. The ADW is a slightly mouldy feed resource, which is not suitable for human consumption. The experimental ADW contained dry matter (DM) 964, organic matter 974, crude protein 153, cellulose 205 and lignin 24, and starch 732 g/kg DM. ADW also contained aflatoxin B1 50 microg/kg due to mould infestation. Thirty-five weaner lambs (90 +/- 15 days of age and 16.1 +/- 0.82 kg body weight) in a randomized design were fed for 91 days on one of four composite feed mixtures (roughage to concentrate ratio of 25:75) containing 0, 118, 235, 353 or 470 g/kg ADW, which replaced equal amounts of maize and at these inclusion levels ADW replaced 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% maize in lamb diets respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was similar in different level of ADW fed lambs but ADW inclusion linearly (p = 0.016) reduced DMI. Average daily gain (g/day) was higher (p = 0.038) in lambs fed 353 g ADW diet. Haematological attributes viz. WBC, haemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular volume did not affect by ADW feeding whereas it increased haematocrit, mean cell Hb and decreased neutrophil, RBC counts and mean cell Hb concentration. Blood glucose and urea-N increased whereas albumin and protein level reduced by ADW feeding. ADW feeding of lambs did not affect serum IgG level. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphates and acid phosphates were not affected, whereas alanine aminotransferase increased linearly (p = 0.001) with increasing levels of ADW. It is concluded that ADW containing aflatoxin B1 50 microg/kg DM can safely be incorporated in growing lamb feeding up to 353 g/kg diet without affecting growth and cellular immunity, however ADW may induce a transient alteration of hepatic enzymatic

  2. No differences in grades or level of satisfaction in a flipped classroom for neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar Petter

    2015-01-01

    Objective The intensive nature of a 5- or 6-week teaching block poses unique problems for adequate delivery of content. This study was designed to compare the delivery of a unit of undergraduate neuroanatomy in a short summer school period, as a traditionally taught unit, with a rendition given in the form of the “Flipped Classroom.” The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the flipped classroom in the intensive mode classroom. Methods The flipped classroom encompassed the same learning outcomes, but students were responsible for covering the content at home in preparation for tutorials that applied their acquired knowledge to higher levels of thinking. The main outcome measures were the final course grades and the level of satisfaction with the course. Results There were no significant differences between the 2 cohorts in final grades (p = .259), self-rated knowledge (p = .182), or overall satisfaction with the course (p = .892). Conclusion This particular design of the flipped classroom did not add value to the intensive mode experience. It may be that this mode of delivery is ill suited to intensive classes for subjects that carry a lot of content. The use of the flipped classroom requires further research to fully evaluate its value. PMID:25902472

  3. Age dependent levels of plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Aruna; Ilango, K; Singh, Praveen K; Karmakar, Dipankar; Singh, G P I; Kumari, Rinki; Dubey, G P

    2015-04-15

    Elevated plasma homocysteine (hcy) levels, also known as hyperhomocysteinemia (hhcy), have been associated with cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative disorders. Hhcy has been attributed to deficiency of B vitamins which can adversely affect the brain and result in memory loss and poor attention power. Monitoring hcy levels and the use of vitamin supplementation to treat hhcy may therefore prove advantageous for the prevention and management of cognitive impairment. With this in consideration, we measured plasma hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels in 639 subjects from different age groups in two sub-regions of India. Cognitive function was also measured using attention span and immediate and delayed memory recall tests. Depression scores were obtained using the Beck Depression Inventory-II and functional impairment was assessed using the functional activities questionnaire (FAQ) score. As hhcy has also been linked to inflammation, plasma levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were also measured. The results demonstrated significant negative correlations between hcy levels and folic acid levels, vitamin B12 levels and cognitive performance (attention span and delayed but not immediate memory recall) along with significant positive correlations between hcy levels and depression scores and hsCRP (but not IL-6) levels. A positive correlation was also observed between hcy levels and FAQ scores, however this was not found to be significant. Based on these results, folic acid and vitamin B12 intervention in people with elevated hcy levels in India could prove to be effective in lowering hcy levels and help maintain or improve cognitive function. PMID:25601573

  4. Linguistic Resources Used in Grade 8 Students' Submicro Level Explanations—Science Items from TIMSS 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frändberg, Birgitta; Lincoln, Per; Wallin, Anita

    2013-12-01

    Explanations involving submicro levels of representation are central to science education, but known to be difficult for students in secondary school. This study examines students' written explanations of physical and chemical phenomena regarding matter and changes in matter, in a large-scale test. This is done in order to understand linguistic challenges in constructing submicro level explanations involving the particle model of matter. Drawing from systemic functional linguistics, the lexicogrammatics used in explanations for realising experiential meaning in student explanations were analysed. We used answers to two partly constructed response items from the Swedish part of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies 2007, grade 8, to sort out explanations referring to the particle model of matter. These answers (86 from 954) were analysed regarding choices of vocabulary and grammar to distinguish between macro and submicro level of representation. The results show that students use a wide variety of lexicogrammatical resources to realise what happens on both macro and submicro level of representation, with greater diversity of verbs on the submicro level of explanation. The results suggest an uncertainty about the distinction between macro and submicro level of explanation.

  5. The Level of Creative Abilities Dimensions According to Torrance Formal Test (B) and Their Relationship with Some Variables (Sex, Age, GPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awamleh, Habis; Al Farah, Yacoub; El-Zraigat, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the level of dimensions for creative abilities (originality, flexibility, originality, elaboration) among students in Al Rai Jordanian schools according to Torrance Formal test, and to investigate the differences in these levels attributable to the study variables (gender, age, grade point average "GPA"). The…

  6. An instructional package integrating science and social studies instruction at the fifth-grade level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, Kathy Louise Sullivan

    Integrative education is being implemented by classroom teachers who want to immerse students in an environment rich in problem-solving skills, critical analysis skills, ethics, valuing of knowledge, and communication of learning. Several subject areas in the curriculum have been integrated, such as literature with social studies and mathematics with science. The focus of this dissertation is on the integration of science and social studies at the fifth grade level using the Mississippi State Department of Education Curriculum Guidelines and Objectives (MSDE, 1995) and the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council (NRC), 1996). An instructional package of lesson plans that teachers can use as ideas to create their own plans for an integrated curriculum of science and social studies was devised. The Mississippi State Department of Education Curriculum Guidelines and Objectives for Social Studies (MSDE, 1995) at the fifth grade level contain fifteen competencies. Three standards from the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) were chosen. They include (a) science and technology, (b) science in personal and social perspectives, and (c) the history and nature of science. Each competency for social studies has three lesson plans written that integrate the three chosen standards from the National Science Education Standards. A total of forty-five lesson plans were written integrating science and social studies. Each lesson plan includes an objective, materials, procedures, and evaluation for teachers. Teachers are encouraged to use the lesson plans as a guide in creating their own lesson plans that would correspond to their school's particular curriculum guidelines. Consideration should be given to the learning levels and styles of their classroom. This qualitative study was done to create lesson plans that integrate science and social studies with the hope that teachers will expand upon them and implement them into their curricula.

  7. R26-WntVis reporter mice showing graded response to Wnt signal levels.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Tatsuya; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Nakao, Kazuki; Furuta, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Hitomi; Takada, Shinji; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Kondoh, Hisato

    2016-06-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays a major role in the regulation of embryogenesis and organogenesis, where signal strength-dependent cellular responses are of particular importance. To assess Wnt signal levels in individual cells, and to circumvent the integration site-dependent bias shown in previous Wnt reporter lines, we constructed a new Wnt signal reporter mouse line R26-WntVis. Heptameric TCF/LEF1 binding sequences were combined with a viral minimal promoter to confer a graded response to the reporter depending on Wnt signal strengths. The histone H2B-EGFP fusion protein was chosen as the fluorescent reporter to facilitate single-cell resolution analyses. This WntVis reporter gene was then inserted into the ROSA26 locus in an orientation opposite to that of the endogenous gene. The R26-WntVis allele was introduced into Wnt3a(-/-) and Wnt3a(vt/-) mutant mouse embryos and compared with wild-type embryos to assess its performance. The R26-WntVis reporter was activated in known Wnt-dependent tissues and responded in a graded fashion to signal intensity. This analysis also indicated that the major Wnt activity early in embryogenesis switched from Wnt3 to Wnt3a around E7.5. The R26-WntVis mouse line will be widely useful for the study of Wnt signal-dependent processes. PMID:27030109

  8. Comparison of Level and Graded Treadmill Tests to Evaluate Endurance Mountain Runners

    PubMed Central

    Balducci, Pascal; Clémençon, Michel; Morel, Baptiste; Quiniou, Géraud; Saboul, Damien; Hautier, Christophe A.

    2016-01-01

    Mountain endurance running has increased in popularity in recent years. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine if maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and energy cost of running (Cr) measured during level and uphill running are associated. Ten high level male endurance mountain runners performed three maximal oxygen uptake tests at three slope conditions (0, 12.5 and 25%). Metabolic data, step frequency (SF) and step length (SL) were recorded. No significant differences were found in VO2max (63.29 (±3.84), 63.97 (±3.54) and 63.70 (±3.58) mlO2/kg-1/min-1) or associated metabolic data at 0, 12.5 and 25% slope respectively. High intra-individual correlations were found between metabolic data measured in the three conditions. The energy cost of running was significantly different between slopes (0.192 (±0.01), 0.350 (±0.029) and 0.516 (±0.035) mlO2/kg-1/min-1, p < 0.01), 0, 12.5 and 25% respectively. However, Cr0% was not correlated with either Cr25% or Cr12.5% (rs = 0.09 and rs = 0.10), in contrast, Cr25% and Cr12.5% were correlated (rs = 0.78). Step length was positively correlated with speed under the three slope conditions. Step frequency was significantly lower at 25 compared to 12.5 and 0% slope. We found that the maximum aerobic power did not differ between level and graded treadmill tests. However, the increase in Cr on the inclined versus level conditions varied between subjects. None of the measured anthropometric or kinematic variables could explain the higher increase in Cr of some subjects when running uphill. Thus, a short graded (5min at 12.5%) running test should be performed at a submaximal velocity (around 40% of level vVO2max) to enhance understanding of an endurance runner’s uphill capability. Key points In elite endurance mountain runners, there is no difference in VO2max values between level and uphill running. In a homogeneous group of mountain runners, uphill Cr is not associated with level Cr. To assess performance potential of

  9. Comparison of Level and Graded Treadmill Tests to Evaluate Endurance Mountain Runners.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Pascal; Clémençon, Michel; Morel, Baptiste; Quiniou, Géraud; Saboul, Damien; Hautier, Christophe A

    2016-06-01

    Mountain endurance running has increased in popularity in recent years. Thus the aim of the present study was to determine if maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and energy cost of running (Cr) measured during level and uphill running are associated. Ten high level male endurance mountain runners performed three maximal oxygen uptake tests at three slope conditions (0, 12.5 and 25%). Metabolic data, step frequency (SF) and step length (SL) were recorded. No significant differences were found in VO2max (63.29 (±3.84), 63.97 (±3.54) and 63.70 (±3.58) mlO2/kg(-1)/min(-1)) or associated metabolic data at 0, 12.5 and 25% slope respectively. High intra-individual correlations were found between metabolic data measured in the three conditions. The energy cost of running was significantly different between slopes (0.192 (±0.01), 0.350 (±0.029) and 0.516 (±0.035) mlO2/kg(-1)/min(-1), p < 0.01), 0, 12.5 and 25% respectively. However, Cr0% was not correlated with either Cr25% or Cr12.5% (rs = 0.09 and rs = 0.10), in contrast, Cr25% and Cr12.5% were correlated (rs = 0.78). Step length was positively correlated with speed under the three slope conditions. Step frequency was significantly lower at 25 compared to 12.5 and 0% slope. We found that the maximum aerobic power did not differ between level and graded treadmill tests. However, the increase in Cr on the inclined versus level conditions varied between subjects. None of the measured anthropometric or kinematic variables could explain the higher increase in Cr of some subjects when running uphill. Thus, a short graded (5min at 12.5%) running test should be performed at a submaximal velocity (around 40% of level vVO2max) to enhance understanding of an endurance runner's uphill capability. Key pointsIn elite endurance mountain runners, there is no difference in VO2max values between level and uphill running.In a homogeneous group of mountain runners, uphill Cr is not associated with level Cr.To assess performance potential of

  10. Factors modifying valproate plasma level/dose ratio: age, sex, dose and plasma level.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A; Durán, J A; Abadín, J A

    1989-09-01

    Valproate plasma level/dose (L/D) ratios obtained from 155 outpatients under long-term monotherapeutic regimen have been studied. Analytical data were obtained by enzymatic immunoassay (EMIT) from paired samples taken before the morning drug dosage. L/D ratios were increased with age and plasma level and decreased with dose. There were no sex differences in L/D in the different age, dose and concentration groups. L/D ratios were higher than those found by other researchers in our country. PMID:2511386

  11. The Effects of a Second-Grade Social Studies Curriculum Infused with Positive Aging Concepts on Children's Attitudes towards Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembacher, Diane; Cruise, Mary J.

    2006-01-01

    As the number of elderly people in our society increases, it becomes especially important for children to develop positive attitudes towards elders and towards their own aging. The American Association for Health Education has recommended the infusion of positive aging concepts in the K-12 curriculum. This qualitative study investigated the…

  12. Testosterone levels in an aging population: screen, measure, and restore.

    PubMed

    Kells, John; Dollbaum, Charles M

    2011-01-01

    An insufficient level of testosterone in aging men and women is associated with a constellation of adverse conditions (cognitive decline, loss of muscle mass, osteopenia, decreased libido, changes in fat distribution, fragility, depression, a greater risk of fracture). Research has confirmed that supplementary testosterone can ameliorate those signs and symptoms in hypogonadic individuals, but the benefits and risks of that therapy remain controversial. The treatment of such patients should be based on knowledge of the physiologic effects of testosterone in the elderly, effective screening for testosterone deficiency accurate measurement of bioavailable levels of that hormone, and safe and effective treatment options, all of which are examined in this article. In designing hormone replacement regimens, the skill of a compounding pharmacist who can customize dose and dosage forms to answer individual medical needs and preferences can be instrumental in achieving the desired outcome. PMID:23696079

  13. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness against high-grade cervical lesions by age at vaccination: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Herweijer, Eva; Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Sparén, Pär; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen

    2016-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16/18, included in HPV vaccines, contribute to the majority of cervical cancer, and a substantial proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2/3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) including adenocarcinoma in situ or worse. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination on incidence of CIN2+ and CIN3+. A nationwide cohort of girls and young women resident in Sweden 2006-2013 and aged 13-29 (n = 1,333,691) was followed for vaccination and histologically confirmed high-grade cervical lesions. Data were collected using the Swedish nationwide healthcare registers. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and vaccine effectiveness [(1-IRR)x100%] comparing fully vaccinated with unvaccinated individuals. IRRs were adjusted for attained age and parental education, and stratified on vaccination initiation age. Effectiveness against CIN2+ was 75% (IRR = 0.25, 95%CI = 0.18-0.35) for those initiating vaccination before age 17, and 46% (IRR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.46-0.64) and 22% (IRR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.65-0.93) for those initiating vaccination at ages 17-19, and at ages 20-29, respectively. Vaccine effectiveness against CIN3+ was similar to vaccine effectiveness against CIN2+. Results were robust for both women participating to the organized screening program and for women at prescreening ages. We show high effectiveness of qHPV vaccination on CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions, with greater effectiveness observed in girls younger at vaccination initiation. Continued monitoring of impact of HPV vaccination in the population is needed in order to evaluate both long-term vaccine effectiveness and to evaluate whether the vaccination program achieves anticipated effects in prevention of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:26856527

  14. Variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches by pattern generalization type, strategy use and grade level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2016-02-01

    This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical reasoning approach seems to be more dominant than the figural reasoning approach for the near and far pattern generalization types but not for the immediate generalization type. The findings showed that for the recursive strategy, the numerical reasoning approach seems to be more dominant than the figural reasoning approach for each of the three pattern generalization types. However, the figural reasoning approach seems to be more dominant than the numerical reasoning approach for the functional strategy, for each generalization type. The findings also showed that the numerical reasoning was more dominant than the figural reasoning in lower grade levels (grades 4 and 5) for each generalization type. In contrast, the figural reasoning became more dominant than the numerical reasoning in the upper grade levels (grades 10 and 11).

  15. Using Simulations to Teach Middle Grades U.S. History in an Age of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCamillo, Lorrei; Gradwell, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    In this year-long qualitative study we explore the case of two eighth grade U.S. History teachers who use simulations on a regular basis to teach heterogeneously-grouped students in a high-stakes testing environment. We describe the purposes the teachers espoused for implementing simulations and provide detailed portraits of three types of…

  16. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01), and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001). Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001). Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children. PMID:26844162

  17. Effects of graded levels of montmorillonite on performance, hematological parameters and bone mineralization in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Duan, Q W; Li, J T; Gong, L M; Wu, H; Zhang, L Y

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of montmorillonite, a constituent of clay, on performance, hematological parameters and bone mineralization in weaned pigs. One hundred and twenty, 35-d-old crossbred pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace, 10.50±1.20 kg) were used in a 28-d experiment and fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0% montmorillonite added at the expense of wheat bran. Each treatment was replicated six times with four pigs (two barrows and two gilts) per replicate. Feed intake declined (linear and quadratic effect, p< 0.01) with increasing level of montmorillonite while feed conversion was improved (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01). Daily gain was unaffected by dietary treatment. Plasma myeloperoxidase declined linearly (p = 0.03) with increasing dietary level of montmorillonite. Plasma malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were quadratically affected (p<0.01) by montmorillonite with increases observed for pigs fed the 0.5 and 1.0% levels which then declined for pigs fed the 2.5 and 5.0% treatments. In bone, the content of potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese and magnesium were decreased (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01) in response to an increase of dietary montmorillonite. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of montmorillonite at levels as high as 5.0% does not result in overt toxicity but could induce potential oxidative damage and reduce bone mineralization in pigs. PMID:25049749

  18. Effects of Graded Levels of Montmorillonite on Performance, Hematological Parameters and Bone Mineralization in Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Q. W.; Li, J. T.; Gong, L. M.; Wu, H.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of montmorillonite, a constituent of clay, on performance, hematological parameters and bone mineralization in weaned pigs. One hundred and twenty, 35-d-old crossbred pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace, 10.50±1.20 kg) were used in a 28-d experiment and fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0% montmorillonite added at the expense of wheat bran. Each treatment was replicated six times with four pigs (two barrows and two gilts) per replicate. Feed intake declined (linear and quadratic effect, p< 0.01) with increasing level of montmorillonite while feed conversion was improved (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01). Daily gain was unaffected by dietary treatment. Plasma myeloperoxidase declined linearly (p = 0.03) with increasing dietary level of montmorillonite. Plasma malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were quadratically affected (p<0.01) by montmorillonite with increases observed for pigs fed the 0.5 and 1.0% levels which then declined for pigs fed the 2.5 and 5.0% treatments. In bone, the content of potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese and magnesium were decreased (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01) in response to an increase of dietary montmorillonite. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of montmorillonite at levels as high as 5.0% does not result in overt toxicity but could induce potential oxidative damage and reduce bone mineralization in pigs. PMID:25049749

  19. Teachers' Motivating Methods to Support Thai Ninth Grade Students' Levels of Motivation and Learning in Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nenthien, Sansanee; Loima, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this qualitative research were to investigate the level of motivation and learning of ninth grade students in mathematics classrooms in Thailand and to reveal how the teachers supported students' levels of motivation and learning. The participants were 333 students and 12 teachers in 12 mathematics classrooms from four regions of…

  20. Ice Age Sea Level Change on a Dynamic Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austermann, J.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Latychev, K.; Rovere, A.; Moucha, R.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in global mean sea level (GMSL) are a sensitive indicator of climate variability during the current ice age. Reconstructions are largely based on local sea level records, and the mapping to GMSL is computed from simulations of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) on 1-D Earth models. We argue, using two case studies, that resolving important, outstanding issues in ice age paleoclimate requires a more sophisticated consideration of mantle structure and dynamics. First, we consider the coral record from Barbados, which is widely used to constrain global ice volume changes since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~21 ka). Analyses of the record using 1-D viscoelastic Earth models have estimated a GMSL change since LGM of ~120 m, a value at odds with analyses of other far field records, which range from 130-135 m. We revisit the Barbados case using a GIA model that includes laterally varying Earth structure (Austermann et al., Nature Geo., 2013) and demonstrate that neglecting this structure, in particular the high-viscosity slab in the mantle linked to the subduction of the South American plate, has biased (low) previous estimates of GMSL change since LGM by ~10 m. Our analysis brings the Barbados estimate into accord with studies from other far-field sites. Second, we revisit estimates of GMSL during the mid-Pliocene warm period (MPWP, ~3 Ma), which was characterized by temperatures 2-3°C higher than present. The ice volume deficit during this period is a source of contention, with estimates ranging from 0-40 m GMSL equivalent. We argue that refining estimates of ice volume during MPWP requires a correction for mantle flow induced dynamic topography (DT; Rowley et al., Science, 2013), a signal neglected in previous studies of ice age sea level change. We present estimates of GIA- and DT-corrected elevations of MPWP shorelines from the U.S. east coast, Australia and South Africa in an attempt to reconcile these records with a single GMSL value.

  1. Age-aware solder performance models : level 2 milestone completion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-09-01

    Legislated requirements and industry standards are replacing eutectic lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders with lead-free (Pb-free) solders in future component designs and in replacements and retrofits. Since Pb-free solders have not yet seen service for long periods, their long-term behavior is poorly characterized. Because understanding the reliability of Pb-free solders is critical to supporting the next generation of circuit board designs, it is imperative that we develop, validate and exercise a solder lifetime model that can capture the thermomechanical response of Pb-free solder joints in stockpile components. To this end, an ASC Level 2 milestone was identified for fiscal year 2010: Milestone 3605: Utilize experimentally validated constitutive model for lead-free solder to simulate aging and reliability of solder joints in stockpile components. This report documents the completion of this milestone, including evidence that the milestone completion criteria were met and a summary of the milestone Program Review.

  2. Graded atmospheric oxygen level effects on performance and ascites incidence in broilers.

    PubMed

    Beker, A; Vanhooser, S L; Swartzlander, J H; Teeter, R G

    2003-10-01

    The effects of graded atmospheric O2 concentration (12, 14, 16, 18, and 20.6%) on chick performance and propensity to develop ascites were investigated using commercial male broilers. Chicks were housed in calorimetry chambers for 2 wk with incoming air diluted with N to provide the desired O2 concentration at thermoneutral (TN) ambient temperature. Day 14 body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, and gain-to-feed ratio increased (P < 0.01) as O2 concentration incrementally rose from 12 to 20.6%. Body weight was 138 g for the lowest atmospheric O2 level compared to 371 g for 20.6% O2. The greatest treatment difference occurred between the 12 and 14% O2 concentrations. Growth depression appeared related to feed consumption. Ascites heart ratio (AHR), ascites score (AS), right ventricular mass (RVM), and hematocrit (HCT) all increased (P < 0.01) as O2 concentration decreased. Blood HCT appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of physiological change attributable to atmospheric O2 than AHR, AS, or RVM. The data reported herein suggests that 19.6% atmospheric O2 is the minimal allowable level for housing birds within a relatively stress-free, TN environment to avoid cardiac and HCT changes related to ascites. PMID:14601731

  3. AB248. Expression of EphA2 protein is positively associated with age, tumor size and Fuhrman nuclear grade in clear cell renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Longxin; Zhou, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Background The receptor tyrosine kinase of EphA2 has been shown frequently overexpressed in various types of human carcinomas, but the relationship between the expression of EphA2 protein in clear cell renal cell carcinoma was not well documented. Methods In the present study, using specific anit-EphA2 polyclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated EphA2 protein expression levels in clear cell RCC specimens surgically resected from 90 patients. Results Our results shows that EphA2 protein was positively expressed in all normal renal tubes of 90 samples (100%, 3+), which was expressed at low levels in renal cortex but high levels in the collecting ducts of the renal medulla and papilla. EphA2 was negatively or weakly expressed in 30 out of 90 samples (33.3%, 0/1+), moderately expressed in 24 samples (26.7%, 2+) and strongly expressed in 36 samples (40%, 3+). Expression of EphA2 was positively associated with age (P=0.029), tumor diameters (P<0.001) and Fuhrman nuclear grade (P<0.001). Conclusions Our results indicate that EphA2 variably expressed in clear cell renal cell carci-nomas. High expression of EphA2 was more often found in big size and high nuclear grade tumors, which indicated EphA2 protein may be used as a new marker for the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  4. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aging Behavior in M250 Grade Maraging Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeheskel, Ori

    2009-03-01

    The increase in sound velocities during the aging of M250 maraging steel reported by Rajkumar et al. was analyzed. The present article provides a new perspective on why and to what extent the sound velocities change during aging. The main parameter that affects the elastic moduli and the sound velocities in the early and intermediate stages of aging in maraging steel is the depletion of Ni from the martensitic matrix due to Ni3Ti and Ni3Mo formation. The issue of sound velocity increase with aging time was addressed here in a few different ways to support the validity of Ni depletion.

  5. Enactment of Scientific Inquiry: Observation of Two Cases at Different Grade Levels in China Mainland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ronghui; Clarke, David; Wang, Weizhen

    2014-01-01

    Enactment of scientific inquiry in classroom has attracted a great attention of science educators around the world. In this study, we examined two competent teachers' (one Grade 9 chemistry teacher and one Grade 4 science teacher) enactment of scientific inquiry in selected teaching units to reveal the characteristics of enacted inquiry at…

  6. Activities for Studying Weather, Grade Level 4-6. Environmental Education Series, Bulletin No. 247-C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    This bulletin is one in a series of environmental education activity guides for grades K-12, developed and field-tested by teachers in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools. Primarily for use in the middle grades four through six, the guides are not intended to constitute complete units in themselves. They are, rather, a compilation of…

  7. Activities for Studying Megalopolis, Grade Level 4-8. Environmental Education Series, Bulletin No. 247-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    This bulletin is one in a series of environmental education activity guides for grades K-12, developed and field-tested by teachers in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools. Primarily for use in the middle grades four through six, the guides are not intended to constitute complete units in themselves. They are, rather, a compilation of…

  8. Activities for Studying Streams, Grade Level 5-6. Environmental Education Series, Bulletin No. 247-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    This bulletin is one in a series of environmental education activity guides for grades K-12, developed and field-tested by teachers in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools. Primarily for use in the middle grades four through six, the guides are not intended to constitute complete units in themselves. They are, rather, a compilation of…

  9. Activities for Studying Seasonal Change, Grade Level K-1. Environmental Education Series, Bulletin No. 247-F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    This bulletin is one in a series of environmental education activity guides for grades K-12, developed and field-tested by teachers in the Montgomery County(Maryland) Public Schools. Primarily for use in the middle grades four through six, the guides are not intended to constitute complete units in themselves. They are, rather, a compilation of…

  10. Elevated Serum MicroRNA Levels Associate with Absence of High-Grade Prostate Cancer in a Retrospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mihelich, Brittany L.; Maranville, Joseph C.; Nolley, Rosalie; Peehl, Donna M.; Nonn, Larisa

    2015-01-01

    To reduce treatment of indolent prostate cancer (PCa), biomarkers are needed to improve identification of patients with a low-risk of having aggressive disease. Over-treatment of these patients occurs because of uncertainty in the aggressiveness of the entire tumor based on the biopsies, which do not accurately sample multifocal tumors. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are stable serum markers and differential miRNA levels occur in men with PCa. The goal of this study was to identify circulating miRNAs that were associated with aggressive or indolent PCa. We measured circulating miRNAs in 150 patients prior to surgery and compared the miRNA levels to the pathology of the entire radical prostatectomy specimen. For this study we used an exceptionally well-characterized cohort of patients who had benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), low-grade or high-grade PCa. Low-grade was defined as patients with 100% Gleason grade 3 tumor as determined by step-wise sectioning. High-grade PCa patients had 30-90% Gleason grade 4+5 in the tumor. BPH patients had at least two biopsies negative for PCa. Twenty one miRNAs were selected for analysis. The miRNAs were quantified by RT-qPCR and analyzed by logistic regression. High levels of 14 miRNAs were exclusively present in the serum from patients with low-grade PCa or BPH, compared to men with high-grade PCa who had consistently low levels. The expression levels of the 14 miRNAs were combined into a “miR Score” which had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.939 to predict absence of high-grade PCa among PCa and BPH patients. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was known for the PCa patients and a combined “miR Risk Score” accurately classified a subset of patients with low risk of BCR (NPV 0.941). In summary, measurement of serum miRNAs may have pre-surgical utility in combination with clinical risk calculators to identify patients with low risk of harboring aggressive PCa. PMID:25874774

  11. Age-Graded Themes in White American Middle-Class Slang: A Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Thomas S.

    It is proposed that middle- and upper-middle-class slang used among white young people in modern America shows age-related themes. For youngsters between the ages of eight and early adolescence, the major theme in slang use is to establish in-group and out-group membership, with standards of judgment based on clothes, manners, and physical appeal.…

  12. Age-specific prevalence of HPV genotypes in cervical cytology samples with equivocal or low-grade lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brismar-Wendel, S; Froberg, M; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S; Johansson, B

    2009-01-01

    Background: To define the spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and establish an age limit for triage HPV testing in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and methods: 343 liquid-based cytological samples from the population-based screening programme with minor abnormalities were subjected to HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche, Basel, Switzerland). Results: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) was found in 71% of LSIL and 49% of ASCUS cases (P<0.001). High-risk human papillomavirus prevalence was age-dependent in LSIL (P=0.01), with decreasing prevalence until the age of 50 years, followed by a slight increase. Human papillomavirus type 16 was the most common HR-HPV, found in 23% of HPV-positive women. Human papillomavirus type 18 was the sixth most common, found in 9.9% (P<0.001). An age-dependent quadratic trend was observed for multiple infections (P=0.01) with a trough at about 42 years. The most common HR-HPV types to show a coinfection with HPV16 (clade 9) were HPV39 (28%), 45 (38%), and 59 (46%), belonging to HPV18 clade 7. The frequency of low-risk (LR) vs probable HR and HR-HPV also followed an age-dependent quadratic trend. Conclusions: After the age of 25 years, HR-HPV prevalence is similar in LSIL and ASCUS cases, motivating a low age limit for triage HPV testing. Multiple infections and LR/HR-HPV dominance are age-dependent. Genotyping in longitudinal design is needed to elucidate the importance of multiple infections in cancer progression and in cross-protection from vaccination. PMID:19623178

  13. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

  14. An Analysis of Undergraduate Grades by Course in Relation to Student Ability Levels, Programs of Study and Longitudinal Trends. Report No. 76-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, James E.; Smith, Glynton

    Investigated are final letter grades in undergraduate courses at Georgia State University from fall 1970 to fall 1975. Grades were examined course-by-course in relation to ability levels, programs of study and longitudinal trends. An analysis was undertaken to determine if "grade inflation" had taken place. The sample was based on records of 9,338…

  15. Nadir CA-125 level as prognosis indicator of high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The capacity of nadir CA-125 levels to predict the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer remains controversial. This study aimed to explore whether the nadir CA-125 serum levels could predict the durations of overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC) from the USA and PRC. Materials and methods A total of 616 HG-SOC patients from the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC, USA) between 1990 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The results of 262 cases from the Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research (JICR, PRC) between 1992 and 2011 were used to validate the MDACC data. The CA-125 immunohistochemistry assay was performed on 280 tissue specimens. The Cox proportional hazards model and the log-rank test were used to assess the associations between the clinicopathological characteristics and duration of survival. Results The nadir CA-125 level was an independent predictor of OS and PFS (p < 0.01 for both) in the MDACC patients. Lower nadir CA-125 levels (≤10 U/mL) were associated with longer OS and PFS (median: 61.2 and 16.8 months with 95% CI: 52.0–72.4 and 14.0–19.6 months, respectively) than their counterparts with shorter OS and PFS (median: 49.2 and 10.5 months with 95% CI: 41.7–56.7 and 6.9–14.1 months, respectively). The nadir CA-125 levels in JICR patients were similarly independent when predicting the OS and PFS (p < 0.01 for both). Nadir CA-125 levels less than or equal to 10 U/mL were associated with longer OS and PFS (median: 59.9 and 15.5 months with 95% CI: 49.7–70.1 and 10.6–20.4 months, respectively), as compared with those more than 10 U/mL (median: 42.0 and 9.0 months with 95% CI: 34.4–49.7 and 6.6–11.2 months, respectively). Baseline serum CA-125 levels, but not the CA-125 expression in tissues, were associated with the OS and PFS of HG-SOC patients in the MDACC and JICR groups. However, these values were not independent. Nadir CA-125

  16. Association of hypometabolism and amyloid levels in aging, normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Weigand, Stephen D.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jordan, Lennon; Kantarci, Kejal; Boeve, Bradley; Jack, Clifford R.; Knopman, David; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the relationship of amyloid, seen on Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET, and metabolism, seen on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, in normal subjects to better understand pathogenesis and biomarker selection in presymptomatic subjects. Methods: Normal participants (aged 70–95 years; 600 with PiB-PET, FDG-PET, and MRI) were included. We performed a cross-sectional evaluation and subcategorized participants into amyloid-negative (<1.4), high-normal (1.4–1.5), positive (1.5–2.0), and markedly positive (>2.0) PiB standardized uptake value ratio groups representing different levels of amyloid brain load. Associations with metabolism were assessed in each group. Relationships with APOE ε4 carriage were evaluated. Results: Hypometabolism in “Alzheimer disease (AD)-signature” regions was strongly associated with PiB load. Hypometabolism was greater with more positive PiB levels. Additional, more-diffuse cortical hypometabolism was also found to be associated with PiB, although less so. No hypermetabolism was seen in any subset. No significant incremental hypometabolism was seen in APOE-positive vs -negative subjects. Conclusions: Hypometabolism in PiB-positive, cognitively normal subjects in a population-based cohort occurs in AD-signature cortical regions and to a lesser extent in other cortical regions. It is more pronounced with higher amyloid load and supports a dose-dependent association. The effect of APOE ε4 carriage in this group of subjects does not appear to modify their hypometabolic “AD-like” neurodegeneration. Consideration of hypometabolism associated with amyloid load may aid trials of AD drug therapy. PMID:24793183

  17. Comorbid Development of Disruptive Behaviors from age 1½ to 5 Years in a Population Birth-Cohort and Association with School Adjustment in First Grade.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Rene; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Nagin, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Comorbidity is frequent among disruptive behaviors (DB) and leads to mental health problems during adolescence and adulthood. However, the early developmental origins of this comorbidity have so far received little attention. This study investigated the developmental comorbidity of three DB categories during early childhood: hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression. Joint developmental trajectories of DB were identified based on annual mother interviews from age 1½ to 5 years, in a population-representative birth-cohort (N = 2045). A significant proportion of children (13 % to 21 %, depending on the type of DB) consistently displayed high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, or physical aggression from age 1½ to 5 years. Developmental comorbidity was frequent, especially for boys: 10 % of boys and 3.7 % of girls were on a stable trajectory with high levels of symptoms for the three categories of DB. Significant associations were observed between preschool joint-trajectories of DB and indicators of DB and school adjustment assessed by teachers in first grade. Preschoolers who maintained high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression, displayed the highest number of DB symptoms in first grade for all categories according to their teacher. They were also among the most disadvantaged of their class for school adjustment indicators. Thus, DB manifestations and developmental comorbidity of DB are highly prevalent in infancy. Early childhood appears to be a critical period to prevent persistent and comorbid DB that leads to impairment at the very beginning of school attendance and to long-term serious health and social adjustment problems. PMID:26311619

  18. A Comparative Analysis of the Factors Associated with Career Aspirations of Brazilian Students by Sex and Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupidi, Helena R.

    Sex-related variations in the formation of educational and occupational aspirations of fifth and ninth grade Brazilian boys and girls were assessed via comparison of their academic performance, level of occupational and educational goals, and about the influence of family, peers, and teachers in shaping these goals. Data were collected on 1,950…

  19. Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

  20. Grade-Level Differences: Relations of Parental, Teacher and Peer Support to Academic Engagement and Achievement among Hong Kong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have long been interested in understanding factors affecting student achievement. To contribute new insights to the literature, this study investigated grade-level differences in the relationships of students' perceived academic support (from parents, teachers and peers) to academic achievement directly and also indirectly through…

  1. Degree of Student's Assimilation to the Meaning of the Term Citizenships in the Schools High Grade Basic Level in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zboon, Mohamed Saleem

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the degree of the Assimilation of the meaning of the term "CITIZENSHIP" by the high grade basic level school students in Jordan. The research sample was composed of (1,116) male and female students during the scholastic year 2012/2013. To collect data and then measure results, the standard measurement tool…

  2. The Relationship between Readability Level of Mississippi's Middle Schools' Websites and Seventh Grade Language Arts MCT2 Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Anna Marlene Graves

    2011-01-01

    Today's educators face the unprecedented challenge of increasing achievement for all students. One response has been to increase and improve parent involvement and school-to-home communication through the use of school websites. The quantitative section of this study analyzed the readability grade level of the website as it relates to state test…

  3. Analysis of Reading Comprehension Levels of Fifth Grade Students Who Learned to Read and Write with the Sentence Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagirli, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the determination of reading comprehension levels of fifth grade's students who learned to read and write with the sentence method. With the program of 2005, it has been amended in the first reading and writing method. In the teaching of first reading and writing, it was passed to the sentence method instead of sound…

  4. Increasing the Responsibility Levels of Fourth Grade Gifted Children by Promoting Positive Character Traits and Caring Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Marliese G.

    This paper describes a project to improve the responsibility levels of 16 gifted students in fourth grade attending a daily 2-hour language arts gifted education class. Students had become inconsistent about completing assignments, maintaining an orderly environment, and communicating necessary information to parents. A teacher-developed checklist…

  5. The Effects of Professional Learning Communities and School Leaders on Veteran Teachers Assigned to New Grade Levels or Subject Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Joy C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the effects of professional learning communities on veteran teachers with three or more years of experience assigned to new grade levels or subject areas and the implications for school leaders. The specific research questions that framed the study were: (1) What do veteran teachers assigned…

  6. A Comparison of Level of Understanding of Eighth-Grade Students and Science Student Teachers Related to Selected Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and compare level of understanding of eighth-grade students and student teachers in their final year in the science education department related to concepts of solution, gas, and chemical change. A qualitative and quantitative methodology was used for this investigation. Open-ended questions and group…

  7. Relationships among Students' Grade Level, Gender, Location and School Type and Abilities To Comprehend Four Integrated Science Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; McKenzie-Briscoe, B. O.

    This study examines the extent to which some students comprehend four integrated science textbooks and the relationships among their grade level, gender, school location and type, and ability to comprehend the texts. Jamaican high school students (N=160) were the subjects of the study which involved data sources such as cloze, comprehension,…

  8. A Report on the Feasibility of a Grade Level Reorganization for the Providence School System, Phase One. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Marcia Marker; And Others

    The policy implications of proposed K-8 grade level reorganization in Providence, Rhode Island are explored in this report. Included are the following: (1) a survey of the current status of elementary and middle school organization, facilities, composition, and curriculum in Providence; (2) an assessment of achievement and social-psychological…

  9. Grade 10 English Language Arts Released Test Items: Sample Student Work Illustrating GEE 21's Achievement Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    In the school year 2000-2001 students in Grade 10 took the Graduation Exit Examination for the 21st Century (GEE 21) Language Arts and Mathematics tests for the first time. For GEE 21, student scores are reported in terms of five achievement levels: Advanced, Proficient, Basic, Approaching Basic, and Unsatisfactory. This booklet is part of a…

  10. The Relationship of Reading Comprehension Success with Metacognitive Awareness, Motivation, and Reading Levels of Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memis, Aysel; Bozkurt, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationship between metacognitive awareness, reading motivations, reading levels and reading comprehension success of fifth grade students using comparative relative scan model. There were 577 students. In the result of the research, in which data were collected with four scales, it was concluded that reading…

  11. Assessment of Grade-Level Differences in Coping Behavior among Adolescents Using Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal-Point Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine grade-level differences in coping behaviors among adolescents using a probabilistic multidimensional scaling (MDS) single-ideal-point model. Using data from students in middle school and at college, this article illustrated the MDS single-ideal-point model as an alternative to examine students' typical…

  12. Self-Regulation, Motivation, and Math Achievement in Middle School: Variations across Grade Level and Math Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Chen, Peggy P.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined grade level, achievement group, and math-course-type differences in student self-regulation and motivation in a sample of 880 suburban middle-school students. Analysis of variance was utilized to assess group differences in student self-regulation and motivation, and linear regression analysis was used to identify…

  13. An Empirical Method for Deriving Grade Equivalence for University Entrance Qualifications: An Application to A Levels and the International Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis; Vignoles, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to compare different qualifications for entry to higher education by studying students' subsequent performance. Using this method for students holding either the International Baccalaureate (IB) or A-levels gaining their degrees in 2010, we estimate an "empirical" equivalence scale between IB grade points and UCAS points…

  14. Histologic changes in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, fed diets containing graded levels of gossypol-acetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was performed to evaluate the histologic changes among fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed purified diets containing graded levels of gossypol from gossypol–acetic acid. The catfish were maintained on diets with 0, 300, 600, 900, 1200 or 1500 mg gossypol kg-1 diet for 12 we...

  15. Exploring Differences between Gifted and Grade-Level Students' Use of Self-Regulatory Learning Processes with Hypermedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jeffrey A.; Moos, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Roger; Winters, Fielding I.

    2008-01-01

    Research involving gifted and grade-level students has shown that they display differences in their knowledge of self-regulatory strategies. However, little research exists regarding whether these students differ in their actual use of these strategies. This study aimed to address this question by examining think-aloud data collected from 98…

  16. Using GRADE to respond to health questions with different levels of urgency.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Kristina A; Schünemann, Holger J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing interest exists in applying the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to environmental health evidence. While ideally applied to evidence synthesized in systematic reviews and corresponding summary tables, such as evidence profiles, GRADE's correct application requires that "the evidence that was assessed and the methods that were used to identify and appraise that evidence should be clearly described." In this article, we suggest that GRADE could be applied to evidence assembled from narrative reviews, modelled (indirect) evidence, or evidence assembled as part of a rapid response, if the underlying judgments about the certainty in this evidence are based on the relevant GRADE domains and provided transparently. Health questions that require assessing the certainty in a body of evidence to provide trustworthy answers may range from hours, to days or weeks, to a few months to scenarios that allow assessing evidence without short-term time pressures. Time frames of emergent, urgent or rapid evidence assessments will often require relying on existing summaries or rapidly compiling the available evidence and making assessments. Even without available full systematic reviews, expressing the certainty in the evidence can provide useful guidance for users of the evidence and those who evaluate certainty in effects. The ratings also help clarifying disagreement between organizations tackling similar questions about the evidence. Using the structured GRADE domains, narrative or other summaries of the evidence can be presented transparently. PMID:27126781

  17. X-Ray Diffraction Profile Analysis for Characterizing Isothermal Aging Behavior of M250 Grade Maraging Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Rao, B. P. C.; Kumar, Anish; Rajkumar, K. V.; Raj, Baldev

    2008-08-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to characterize aging behavior of M250 grade maraging steel samples subjected to isothermal aging at 755 K for varying durations of 0.25, 1, 3, 10, 40, 70, and 100 hours. Earlier studies had shown typical features of precipitation hardening, wherein the hardness increased to a peak value due to precipitation of intermetallics and decreased upon further aging (overaging) due to reversion of martensite to austenite. Intermetallic precipitates, while coherent, are expected to increase the microstrain in the matrix. Hence, an attempt has been made in the present study to understand the microstructural changes in these samples using XRD line profile analysis. The anisotropic broadening with diffraction angle observed in the simple Williamson Hall (WH) plot has been addressed using the modified WH (mWH) approach, which takes into account the contrast caused by dislocations on line profiles, leading to new scaling factors in the WH plot. The normalized mean square strain and crystallite size estimated from mWH have been used to infer early precipitation and to characterize aging behavior. The normalized mean square strain has been used to determine the Avrami exponent in the Johnson Mehl Avrami (JMA) equation, which deals with the kinetics of precipitation. The Avrami exponent thus determined has matched well with values found by other methods, as reported in literature.

  18. Acute gastrointestinal effects of graded levels of copper in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, F; Olivares, M; Uauy, R; Contreras, P; Rebelo, A; Gidi, V

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the acute gastrointestinal effects caused by the consumption of drinking water containing graded levels of added copper. Sixty healthy, adult women were randomly assigned to receive copper [Cu(II)] at four concentrations in their drinking water following a Latin-square design. Each group (n = 15) received tap water with no added copper, 1, 3, and 5 mg Cu/l of added copper sulfate for a 2-week study period, followed by 1 week of standard tap water. The subjects recorded their water consumption and gastrointestinal symptoms daily on a special form. The average daily consumption of water was 1.64 liters per subject, regardless of the amount of copper added. Final serum copper, ceruloplasmin, and liver enzymes were measured in all subjects and were not different from baseline concentrations. Twenty-one subjects (35%) recorded gastrointestinal disturbances sometime during the study, 9 had diarrhea, some with abdominal pain and vomiting, and 12 subjects presented abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting. There was no association between copper levels in drinking water and diarrhea. However, nausea, abdominal pain, or vomiting were significantly related to copper concentrations in water. The recorded incidence rate of these symptoms was 5, 2, 17, and 15% while ingesting water with 0, 1, 3, and 5 mg Cu/l, respectively (overall [chi]2 = 11.3, p<0.01; Cu [less than/equal to]1 mg/l versus Cu [Greater than/equal to]3 mg/l, [chi]2, p<0.01). When subjects interrupted their consumption of drinking water with added copper, most symptoms disappeared. We conclude that under the conditions of the study, there was no association between aggregate copper in drinking water within the range of 0-5 mg/l and diarrhea, but a [Greater than/equal to]3 mg Cu/l level of ionized copper was associated with nausea, abdominal pain, or vomiting. Additional studies with sufficient numbers of subjects are needed to define thresholds for specific gastrointestinal

  19. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed Hibiscus Sabdariffa in Graded Level.

    PubMed

    Adenkola, A Y; Oluremi, O I A

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted for 10 weeks with the aim of investigating the erythrocyte membrane integrity as measured by erythrocyte osmotic fragility and excitability scores of rabbits fed graded level of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx (HSC). Twenty weaners' rabbit of both sexes were used for the study and were placed on four experimental diets which contain the following percentages of HSC 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, as feed additive and were added at 0 g, 62.5 g, 125 g, 187.5 g designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 experimental diets. Excitability scores were measured weekly as described by Voisnet et al. (1997). At the end of the experiment, the rabbits were slaughtered by severing the jugular vein. A Blood sample (2 ml) was collected from each rabbit into sampled bottles, containing the Na EDTA as anticoagulant for hematological analysis. Packed cell volume (PCV) Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Total red blood cell (RBC) count, Total leukocyte count as well as differential leukocyte was determined using standard method. The percentage haemolysis recorded at 0.3 % to 0.8 % was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rabbits in T1 compared to the remaining 3 diets. The result of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on diets 3 and 4 with a value of 65.5 ± 5.0 and 70.00 ± 5.50 % respectively. In conclusion this study demonstrated for the first time that chronic administration of HSC improves haematological parameters, brain mood and function as well as maintaining erythrocyte membrane integrity. PMID:26196576

  20. Nuclear Age Issues: A Teacher's Resource Guide for Kindergarten through Grade Twelve. Publication No. X-127.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Office of Instruction.

    This teacher's resource guide is designed to facilitate the planning of science and history/social science classroom instruction concerning nuclear age issues for elementary and secondary students. The materials introduce this topic with an interdisciplinary approach to a broad range of nuclear topics. The booklet is divided into five sections.…

  1. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…

  2. Jekyll and Hyde and Me: Age-Graded Differences in Conceptions of Self-Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Travis; Chandler, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This research details the changing ways in which young people of different ages differently warrant the conviction that, notwithstanding evidence of good and bad behaviours, selves can be understood as unified across the various roles and contexts that they occupy. Canadian adolescents and young adults were asked to explain the apparent disunity…

  3. A comparison of age level on baseball hitting kinematics.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; DeRenne, Coop; Taylor, Marcus K; Moorman, Claude T; Imamura, Rodney; Barakatt, Edward; Andrews, James R

    2009-08-01

    We propose that learning proper hitting kinematics should be encouraged at a young age during youth baseball because this may help reinforce proper hitting kinematics as a player progresses to higher levels of baseball in their adult years. To enhance our understanding between youth and adult baseball hitting, kinematic and temporal analyses of baseball hitting were evaluated with a high-speed motion analysis system between 12 skilled youth and 12 skilled adult baseball players. There were only a small number of temporal differences between youth and adult hitters, with adult hitters taking significantly greater time than youth hitters during the stride phase and during the swing. Compared with youth hitters, adult hitters a) had significantly greater (p < .01) lead knee flexion when the hands started to move forward; b) flexed the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the transition phase (31 degrees versus 13 degrees); c) extended the lead knee over a greater range of motion during the bat acceleration phase (59 degrees versus 32 degrees); d) maintained a more open pelvis position at lead foot off ground; and e) maintained a more open upper torso position when the hands started to move forward and a more closed upper torso position at bat-ball contact. Moreover, adult hitters had greater peak upper torso angular velocity (857 degrees/s versus 717 degrees/s), peak left elbow extension angular velocity (752 degrees/s versus 598 degrees/s), peak left knee extension angular velocity (386 degrees/s versus 303 degrees/s), and bat linear velocity at bat-ball contact (30 m/s versus 25 m/s). The numerous differences in kinematic and temporal parameters between youth and adult hitters suggest that hitting mechanics are different between these two groups. PMID:19827470

  4. P64QUANTITATIVE MGMT METHYLATION ANALYSIS BY PYROSEQUENCING REVEALS A STRONG CORRELATION BETWEEN 1P/19Q CO-DELETION AND HIGH LEVEL METHYLATION IN HIGH GRADE GLIOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Laxton, R.; Doey, L.; Aizpurua, M.; Bodi, I.; King, A.; Chandler, C.; Bhangoo, R.; Beaney, R.; Brazil, L.; Ashkan, K.; Al-Sarraj, S.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pyrosequencing is a method that allows MGMT methylation to be measured in a quantitative manner. MGMT methylation, along with 1p/19q co-deletion and IDH1 mutation, is an important biomarker in high grade gliomas. MGMT methylation indicates an improved response to temozolomide chemotherapy; patients with 1p/19q co-deleted anaplastic oligodendrogliomas benefit from the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy. Aim: To compare the average MGMT promoter methylation level of high grade gliomas and correlate it with other clinical parameters and markers including IDH1&2 mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. METHOD: For 171 high grade gliomas MGMT methylation analysis was performed by pyrosequencing, mutations to IDH1 and IDH2 genes were also detected by pyrosequencing, or immunohistochemistry (n = 166). Screening for 1p/19q deletion was by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (n = 46). Statistical analysis was performed using R-Stats v2.15.2. RESULTS: The results show that higher methylation was correlated with lower grade and mutation to either IDH1 or IDH2 (27.0% vs. 16.6% p = 0.008; and 27.5 vs. 16.1 p = 0.002 respectively). Interestingly 1p/19q co-deletion versus non co-deletion was associated with a particularly high level of methylation (42.2% vs. 17.7% p = 0.001). No significant differences were seen for age or gender. CONCLUSION: The results offer a potential explanation for the improved prognosis seen in glioma patients with 1p/19q co-deletion and when combined with IDH mutation status may provide an extra control to confirm true 1p/19q co-deletion.

  5. Effects of dry, vacuum, and special bag aging; USDA quality grade; and end-point temperature on yields and eating quality of beef Longissimus lumborum steaks.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, Michael E; Obuz, Ersel; Gök, Veli; Akkaya, Levent; Stroda, Sally

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three aging methods: (dry (D), wet (W), and special bag (SB)); two quality grades [USDA Choice((≥Small(50) marbling) and Select); and two cooked end-point temperatures (62.8 °C and 71.1 °C) on physico-chemical traits of instrumental tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum beef muscle. Dry-aged loins had higher (P<0.0001) weight loss than W or SB aged loins. However, D and SB aged loins had similar (P>0.05) combined losses. W aged loins had higher (P<0.01) L* values than D or SB aged loins. Warner-Bratzler shear force of steaks was not affected (P>0.05) by aging method or quality grade but increased (P<0.0001) as end-point temperature increased. Sensory panel evaluation also showed no effect (P>0.05) of aging method or quality grade on myofibrillar tenderness, juiciness, connective tissue amount, overall tenderness or off flavor intensity. Steaks cooked to 62.8 °C were juicier (P<0.05) than those cooked to 71.1 °C. Neither D nor SB aging had advantages over W aging. PMID:23501255

  6. Moderate level of HER2 expression and its prognostic significance in breast cancer with intermediate grade.

    PubMed

    Ignatov, Tanja; Eggemann, Holm; Burger, Elke; Fettke, Franziska; Costa, Serban Dan; Ignatov, Atanas

    2015-06-01

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an important prognostic and predictive marker of response to anti-HER2 therapy in breast cancer. Our goal was to analyze the prognostic significance of moderate expression of HER2 in breast cancer with intermediate differentiation grade. We performed a multicenter retrospective register study of 8494 patients with primary non-metastatic breast cancer admitted between 2000 and 2011 to eight Clinics in Saxony-Anhalt, federal state of Germany. Patients were divided into three groups according to their HER2 score: 4073 were classified as HER2 negative (HER2 0 and 1+), 822 HER2 moderate (HER2 2+/HER2), and 1238 HER2 positive (HER2 3+ or HER2 2+/HER2+). HER2-positive cases were excluded from analysis. Tumors with moderate HER2 (HER2 2+) expression demonstrated an aggressive behavior and worse patient survival compared with HER2 0 and 1+ status. HER2 2+ status was associated with shorter median overall survival (OS) (P < 0.0001) in breast cancer patients with an intermediate grade of differentiation. Comparing low-grade and high-grade tumors, HER2 moderate expression did not significantly influence patient survival. In multivariate analysis after adjustment for other prognostic factors HER2 2+ status remained an unfavorable prognostic factor for OS (HR 1.224, 95 % CI 1.059-1.415, P = 0.006) in breast cancer patients with an intermediate grade of differentiation. HER2 2+ status is an unfavorable prognostic factor regarding the OS of breast cancer patients with intermediate grade of differentiation and could be used to identify patients, who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. PMID:25926338

  7. Private v. Public Rights (Grade Level: High School, 9-12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieth, Stacie; Deason, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Designed for grades 9-12, this lesson plan aims to let students learn how the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution relates to private property and how the power of eminent domain was defined in a recent Supreme Court case. Students will review summaries from Kelo v. New London to gain a better understanding of the case, which dealt with the limits…

  8. Reliability and Stability of Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS) Scores Across Gender, Race, and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazelskis, Richard; Thames, Dana; Reeves, Carolyn; Flynn, Rachael; Taylor, Lorie; Beard, Leigh Ann; Turnbo, Dixie

    2005-01-01

    The reliability and stability of Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (ERAS) scores were examined for the recreational and academic subscales and for the total scale. The responses of 718 students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades were included in the analyses. A seven-day interval between testings was used. The recreational and academic subscale…

  9. Choose Life! Unborn Children and the Right to Life. Senior High Level: Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Catholic Educational Association, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum is designed to assist Catholic school teachers and parish catechists in their efforts to foster a pro-life attitude in students in grades 9-12. Following an introduction is the curriculum, which features six lessons. These are: (1) The miracle of human life; (2) Responsible parenthood versus abortion; (3) Abortion is no solution;…

  10. The Incredible Egg. 4-H Classroom Curriculum Guide for Grade Levels 4-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This curriculum guide integrates the concepts of chick embryology into mathematics, science, and language arts lesson plans for Grades 4 and 5. The four lessons comprising the unit can be utilized in sequence or as independent lessons within the classroom curriculum. Lesson 1 enables students to identify the parts of an egg. Lesson 2 examines the…

  11. Impact of School Violence on Youth Alcohol Abuse: Differences Based on Gender and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of school violence on recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among seventh- through 12th-grade students. A total of 54,631 students completed a survey assessing substance use and other risky behaviors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the research questions. Results…

  12. Communication Systems, Unit I: Language Curriculum, Level C [Grade Three]; Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    Developed by the Oregon Elementary English Project for grades three and four, this first of two units on communication systems examines some systems which function without the use of human language, i.e., highway signs, trail signs, railroad signals, and facial expressions and gestures. After having identified concepts about communication systems,…

  13. Stress Education Curriculum: Grades K-5, Elementary School Level. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Jennie C.

    Stress is an inevitable part of living, but too much stress can have damaging consequences. Ways in which children can respond positively to stress are covered in this curriculum guide. It was developed to help teachers teach students, grades K-5, ways to cope with stress. Its curriculum objectives include helping students understand stress and…

  14. Truth: Humanities Unit (Middle and Secondary Grade Levels). Programs for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Barbara; Kolman, Peter

    One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, this booklet describes a humanities unit for students in middle and secondary grades. The specific focus of the unit is on truth as it is perceived and expressed in philosophy, literature, art, music, drama, and the social sciences. The study of truth and its surrounding concepts…

  15. Academic Achievement of Ugandan Sixth Grade Students: Influence of Parents' Education Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Kizito, Omala Saint; Jjemba, Evans

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the influence of a father and mother's education on the academic achievement of their child. The investigation is based on data sourced from the 2009 Southern African Consortium for Monitoring Education Quality survey comprising 5,148 records of sixth grade students enrolled in Ugandan primary schools. Students' percentage…

  16. Road Signs to Writing: Language Curriculum, Levels C-D [Grades Three and Four]; Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    Developed by the Oregon Elementary English Project, this curriculum unit, intended for grades three and four, introduces students to some of the mechanics of writing and provides some practice in using these mechanics. The unit contains an introduction to writing and seven sections, covering beginning and end punctuation, commas, the apostrophe,…

  17. Conceptual Level of Understanding about Sound Concept: Sample of Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostan Sarioglan, Ayberk

    2016-01-01

    In this study, students' conceptual change processes related to the sound concept were examined. Study group was comprises of 325 fifth grade middle school students. Three multiple-choice questions were used as the data collection tool. At the data analysis process "scientific response", "scientifically unacceptable response"…

  18. Implementation of Standards-Based Grading at the Middle School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urich, Laura Jill

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn about the experiences of teachers as they transition from traditional grading practices to standards-based reporting (SBR). In order to achieve this overall objective, the following research questions framed this qualitative study: (1) What understandings related to practices do middle school teachers have as…

  19. The Language Mechanic: Tuning Up English with Logic. Level A, Book 1 [Grades 4-6].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockett, M. A.

    This workbook, for grades four through six, offers a humorous slant on the subject of grammar through comical examples of incorrect usage, in addition to exercises with a logic twist. The workbook teaches basic rules of language mechanics and reinforces the rules by showing the logic behind them. The book gives instruction, examples, and practice…

  20. The Applicability of Value Clarifying Strategies in Health Education at the Sixth Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Joyce W.; Abbey, David

    Teachers in three California public schools were educated in the use of values clarification. Their experimental class groups were matched with other sixth-grade groups in the same schools. The teachers used selected value clarifying strategies for three months in their regular classes, adapting them as necessary to the health education content…

  1. Diagnostic Care: Grade 9. Technology Learning Activity. Teacher Edition. Level 2. Technology Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This Technology Learning Activity (TLA) on exploring diagnostic care careers for Grade 9 is designed for use in eight class periods. It gives students experience in using standard health care equipment to perform basic diagnostic procedures. This teacher's edition begins with an overview of technology education. The second section describes…

  2. A Transformational Analysis of Low Achievers' Writing at the Ninth and Eleventh Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Mary Miles

    This study assesses an analytical process which seeks to describe the writing style of a student in terms of the four basic transformational operations: addition, deletion, combining, and reordering. Application of the process to writing skills of low achievers in English is evaluated. All ninth and eleventh grade students in the Falls Church,…

  3. Water: A Vital Resource. Environmental Education Supplementary Instructional Guide. Sixth Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald B.; And Others

    Water related activities for sixth-grade students are presented as one possible way to incorporate environmental education into the existing curriculum of Hawaii schools. Designed as an interdisciplinary approach, the activities integrate numerous thematic and subject areas to teach that fresh water is a limited but vital natural resource. Topics…

  4. The Concept of a Line: A Study of Its Development through the Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Judy; Stevens, Laura; Teegarden, Terrie

    2011-01-01

    This study originated from the realization that many community college students have significant difficulties with the concepts related to linear functions and their graphs even though these topics are included in the mathematics curriculum from about third grade onward. It is an attempt to identify possible gaps in the math standards in this…

  5. Games and Activities, Volume 1, Part A: Drama; Levels A-B (Grades 1 and 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    Developed by the Oregon Elementary English Project, this curriculum unit contains drama activities intended for grades one and two. The activities are not ordered in a definite sequence; rather they are meant to be used as the opportunity arises. The activities are divided into (1) exercises based on puppetry, including a puppet hunt, the making…

  6. Pre-Vocational Curriculum (Career Education) for 9th and 10th Grade Levels. (Teacher Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arman, Ruby L.; Arman, Mohammad R.

    This curriculum guide consists of 17 units of study for use in a prevocational career education course geared toward ninth and tenth grade students. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: assessing personal characteristics, completing a personal aptitude inventory, assessing personal interests, using the Dictionary of…

  7. Classroom Behavior of Participants with ADHD Compared with Peers: Influence of Teaching Format and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…

  8. An Approach to Teaching and Assessment: The Earth Concept at the Second Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, Joseph

    The research reported was associated with an early stage of developing a subunit of a curriculum within the framework of the Audio-Tutorial (A-T) Elementary Science Project at Cornell University. The research consisted of two parts: the development of an instructional unit for second-grade pupils and the formative evaluation associated with it.…

  9. Teachers Use Tools and Strategies to Engage Students in Grade-Level Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2013

    2013-01-01

    This newsletter of best practices in implementing the High Schools That Work (HSTW), Making Middle Grades Work (MMGW) and Technology Centers That Work (TCTW) school improvement models is based on presentations at the 27th Annual HSTW Staff Development Conference in Charlotte, North Carolina, in the summer of 2013. The newsletter is divided up into…

  10. The Role of Teacher Training on Student Computer Use in Illinois at the Third Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Annette

    In a national survey, teachers who had more computer technology training used computers with their students in more ways and to a greater extent than teachers with fewer hours. Using the same questions, responses from third grade public school teachers in Illinois were compared to the responses in the national survey. Also, in this study, the…

  11. Human Language, Unit II: Language Curriculum, Level C [Grade Three]; Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    Developed by the Oregon Elementary English Project, the lessons in this second of a two-part unit on the human language intended for grades three and four revolve around the character Sad Sam, who gets lost in the woods and happens to observe four animals (bears, raccoons, geese, and robins). Having been introduced to Sad Sam in lesson 1, the…

  12. INDIVIDUALIZED READING VERSUS A BASAL READER PROGRAM AT FIRST GRADE LEVEL, IN RURAL COMMUNITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOQUIN, L. DORIS; SPENCER, DORIS U.

    THIS STUDY COMPARED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A STANDARD BASAL READING PROGRAM WITH AN INDIVIDUALIZED READING PROGRAM WHICH INCORPORATED (1) A PROGRAM OF PHONETIC SKILLS, (2) WORD RECOGNITION, (3) COMPREHENSION SKILLS, AND (4) A PROGRAM OF STORY READING. TWELVE COMBINATION FIRST- AND SECOND-GRADE INDIVIDUALIZED READING CLASSES WERE PAIRED WITH 12 BASAL…

  13. Learning to Read: A Guide to Federal Funding for Grade-Level Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Cheryl D.; Bhat, Soumya; Connors-Tadros, Lori; Martinez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The audience for this guide is state, local, and program leaders who want to learn more about federal funding sources that can support early literacy programs and systems reform. Funding available through federal programs can help address the underlying causes of children failing to learn to read by the end of third grade, such as limited access…

  14. The Relationship between Multiplication Fact Speed-Recall and Fluency and Higher Level Mathematics Learning with Eighth Grade Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Steven James

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated relationships between higher level mathematics learning and multiplication fact fluency, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency of eighth grade students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Higher level mathematics learning was indicated by an average score of 80% or higher on first and second…

  15. A Study of Grade Level and Gender Differences in Divergent Thinking among 8th and 11th Graders in a Mid-Western School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roue, Leah Christine

    2011-01-01

    This research study compared gender and grade level differences in divergent thinking among middle school and high school students in the Midwest, in an attempt to determine whether gender or grade level-based differences exist in divergent thinking. The instrument used was based on the Wallach and Kogan Creativity Test (WKCT). There were 166…

  16. The Math Master Level 2. Ages 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Barbara W.

    This booklet, designed for ages 6-8, is the second in a series designed to help teachers develop a more positive and creative approach to giving work on mathematics skills to children. It is based on objectives concerning creativity, fostering independent thinking, using experiences, using mastery, reinforcing previously learned skills,…

  17. The Math Master Level 1. Preschool-Age 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Barbara W.

    This booklet, designed for preschool through age 6, is the first in a series designed to help teachers develop a more positive and creative approach to giving work on mathematics skills to children. It is based on objectives concerning creativity, fostering independent thinking, using experiences, using mastery, reinforcing previously learned…

  18. The Math Master Level 3. Ages 8-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Barbara W.

    This booklet, designed for ages 8-10, is the third in a series designed to help teachers develop a more positive and creative approach to giving work on mathematics skills to children. It is based on objectives concerning creativity, fostering independent thinking, using experiences, using mastery, reinforcing previously learned skills,…

  19. The Math Master Level 4. Ages 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Barbara W.

    This booklet, designed for ages 10-12, is the fourth in a series designed to help teachers develop a more positive and creative approach to giving work on mathematics skills to children. It is based on objectives concerning creativity, fostering independent thinking, using experiences, using mastery, reinforcing previously learned skills,…

  20. Age and tectonic implications of some low-grade metamorphic rocks from the Yucatan Channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vedder, J.G.; MacLeod, N.S.; Lanphere, M.A.; Dillon, William P.

    1973-01-01

    Phyllite and marble dredged from the lower part of the continental slope between Cuba and the Yucatan Peninsula seem to support the contention that a pre-early Tertiary metamorphic belt extends from the western Greater Antilles into northern Central America. The minimum K-Ar ages derived from the samples suggest that the metamorphic event was pre-Late Cretaceous, and evaluation of the K-Ar data implies that this metamorphic event is not older than Late Jurassic. Greater antiquity, however, is inferred from structural and stratigraphic relations in British Honduras, where the latest regional metamorphic event was post-Early Permian and pre-Middle Jurassic.  Rifting and extension related to plate motions along the British Honduras Quintana Roo margin through Mesozoic and earliest Cenozoic time presumably would preclude extensive regional metamorphism, permitting only limited development of schistose rocks there during that interval. The timing of metamorphic events in western Cuba is uncertain, but a pre-Middle Jurassic episode possibly is reflected in the phyllite and marble terranes of Isla de Pinos and Sierra de Trinidad. Local incipient metamorphism of Early and Middle Jurassic strata in the Sierra de los Organos may have resulted from severe tectonism that began in Late Cretaceous time and diminished in the Eocene.

  1. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: V. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on physical activity in the C57BL/6 mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sharon E.; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara L.; Wang, Yingchun; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Douglas, Alex; Chen, Luonan; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) delays the onset of age-related disease and extends lifespan in a number of species. When faced with reduced energy supply animals need to lower energy demands, which may be achieved in part by reducing physical activity (PA). We monitored changes in PA using implanted transmitters in male C57BL/6 mice in response to graded levels of CR (10 to 40%) or matched levels of graded protein restriction (PR) for 3 months. Mice were fed at lights out and ad libitum controls were limited to dark-phase feeding (12AL) or 24hr/day. Total daily PA declined in a non-linear manner over the first 30 days of CR or PR, remaining stable thereafter. Total daily PA was not related to the level of CR or PR. Total daily PA over the last 20 days of restriction was related to circulating leptin, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels, measured after 3 months. Mice under restriction showed a high level of activity in the 2hrs before feeding (food anticipatory activity: FAA). FAA followed a complex pattern, peaking around day 20, falling on ∼day 37 then increasing again. FAA was also positively related to the level of restriction and inversely to leptin, insulin, TNF-α and IGF-1. Non-FAA, in contrast, declined over the period of restriction, generally more so in mice under greater restriction, thereby offsetting to some extent the increase in FAA. Mice under PR displayed no changes in PA over time or in comparison to 12AL, and showed no increase in FAA. PMID:27007156

  2. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

  3. [Food and nutrition knowledge of school-age children's mothers from elementary and high school from different socioeconomic levels].

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Castro, C G; Ivanovic, R

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition of school-age children's mothers from Chile's Metropolitan Region and to measure the impact of socioeconomic, sociocultural and demographic variables on knowledge. A representative and proportional sample of 4,509 school-age children was chosen from Chile's Metropolitan Region and the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition on mothers of 1,985 of them was determined. The sample was stratified according to grade (I, II, IV, VI, VIII elementary school grades and I and IV high school grades), sex, type of school and geographic area. Socioeconomic status (SES) was determined through Graffar's modified method. The degree of knowledge on food and nutrition was assessed by a test based on the specific objectives pursued by the elementary school curriculum programs of the Ministry of Education and submitted to adequate statistical proofs for its content validity and reliability. Mother's schooling level mean was 9.7 +/- 4.0 y. The field study was carried out on 1986-1987. Statistical procedures included analysis of variance, Student "t" test for comparison of the means, correlation and regression. Results revealed that mothers did not know food and nutrition matters in fundamental aspects related to the observance of a healthy lifestyle, both, for themselves and their family. The degree of knowledge of food and nutrition significantly and positively correlated with SES, mother's schooling and occupation level, housing conditions (quality and sanitation) and age, and significantly and inversely correlated with the number of sons and crowding, besides of being significantly higher in urban than rural mothers. Mother's schooling level and geographic area were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power in the food and nutrition knowledge variance (r2 = 0.1723), but mother's schooling level explains 93.2% of the explained variance. Results suggest the need to

  4. Differential Utilization of Syntactic and Semantic Information by Skilled and Less Skilled Readers in the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Willows, Dale M.

    To assess the extent to which syntactic and semantic information guides the reading performance of skilled and less-skilled readers in the intermediate grades, a study was conducted involving 96 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. The students were matched both within and across grade level on nonverbal IQ and within each grade level on age.…

  5. Tile-based Level of Detail for the Parallel Age

    SciTech Connect

    Niski, K; Cohen, J D

    2007-08-15

    Today's PCs incorporate multiple CPUs and GPUs and are easily arranged in clusters for high-performance, interactive graphics. We present an approach based on hierarchical, screen-space tiles to parallelizing rendering with level of detail. Adapt tiles, render tiles, and machine tiles are associated with CPUs, GPUs, and PCs, respectively, to efficiently parallelize the workload with good resource utilization. Adaptive tile sizes provide load balancing while our level of detail system allows total and independent management of the load on CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate our approach on parallel configurations consisting of both single PCs and a cluster of PCs.

  6. Differential Item Functioning by Gender on a Large-Scale Science Performance Assessment: A Comparison across Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holweger, Nancy; Taylor, Grace

    The fifth-grade and eighth-grade science items on a state performance assessment were compared for differential item functioning (DIF) due to gender. The grade 5 sample consisted of 8,539 females and 8,029 males and the grade 8 sample consisted of 7,477 females and 7,891 males. A total of 30 fifth grade items and 26 eighth grade items were…

  7. Movement Planning Reflects Skill Level and Age Changes in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-ping; Keen, Rachel; Rosander, Kerstin; Von Hofsten, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Kinematic measures of children's reaching were found to reflect stable differences in skill level for planning for future actions. Thirty-five toddlers (18-21 months) were engaged in building block towers (precise task) and in placing blocks into an open container (imprecise task). Sixteen children were retested on the same tasks a year later.…

  8. School and Child Level Predictors of Academic Success for African American Children in Third Grade: Implications for No Child Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of being at expected grade level in reading in the third grade. Participants for this study were a nationally representative sample of African American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K). Multilevel modeling was conducted to determine significant predictors of academic…

  9. Exploring How Second Grade Elementary Teachers Translate Their Nature of Science Views into Classroom Practice after a Graduate Level Nature of Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Adibelli, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the factors mediating the translation of second grade teachers' nature of science (NOS) views into classroom practice after completing a graduate level NOS course. Four second grade in-service elementary teachers comprised the sample of this study. Data were collected from several sources during the…

  10. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics. Primary Level (Grades 1-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

    This guide contains concept-based activities in economics for use with students in grades one through three. One component of a two-part publication, the guide demonstrates how the conceptual structure of the economics discipline presented in the first publication (ED 148 648) can be used to help students at the primary grade level make more…

  11. Attitudes and Stages of Concern of Elementary Teachers toward Agriculture as a Context for Teaching across Grade Level Content Area Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellah, Kimberly A.; Dyer, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe elementary teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward agriculture and its use as a context for teaching across the grade level content area standards. Further, this study sought to probe more deeply the stages of concern possessed by kindergarten through eighth grade teachers with respect to their use of…

  12. Content, Format, Gender and Grade Level Differences in Elementary Students' Ability to Read Science Materials as Measured by the Cloze Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    1985-01-01

    Examines readability of elementary science textbooks regarding visual supplements (color, visuals, and page layout). Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content. Also found significant interaction between grade and sex in favor of older males. Eight of nine texts were at or near readability…

  13. The Effect of the Van Hiele Model Based Instruction on the Creative Thinking Levels of 6th Grade Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Tolga; Akkaya, Recai; Celebi Akkaya, Sibel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the Van Hiele model based instruction process on the creative thinking levels of 6th grade primary school students. Pre test-post test matching control group quasi-experimental design was used in the study. Fifty five students enrolled in sixth grades during the 2005-2006 educational year formed…

  14. The Effect of Arabism of Romanic Alphabets on the Development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language Students' Writing Skills at Secondary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuhair, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the effect of Arabization of Romanic Alphabets on the development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language students' composition writing skills at secondary school level. This experimental study includes 25 secondary school students in their 9th Grade in which English is taught as a foreign language at…

  15. Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

  16. A Canonical Correlation Analysis of the Influence of Social Comparison, Gender, and Grade Level on the Multidimensional Self-Concepts of Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Anne N.; Jamieson, Kelly M.; Gross, Candace M.; McQueen, Kand S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of social comparison, gender, and grade level on gifted adolescents' multidimensional self-concept. Participants include 248 gifted adolescents who had completed the sixth through tenth grade during the previous academic year. Multidimensional self-concept was measured using the Self Description Questionnaire II…

  17. Influence of Grade Level on Perceptual Learning Style Preferences and Language Learning Strategies of Taiwanese English as a Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mei-Ling

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between grade level, perceptual learning style preferences, and language learning strategies among Taiwanese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students in grades 7 through 9. Three hundred and ninety junior high school students participated in this study. The instruments for data…

  18. Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

  19. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone treatment on hormone levels and antioxidant parameters in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, F J; Kang, J; Han, N N; Ma, H T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of chronic dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration on steroid hormones and antioxidant parameters in aged rats. To this end, three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were compared: young (3 months of age) untreated; aged (19 months old) untreated; and aged rats treated with 20 mg/kg DHEA for 8 weeks. Major organs of aged rats in the untreated group demonstrated physiological atrophy, compared to those of young rats; this effect appeared to have been partially reversed by DHEA treatment. Testosterone and estradiol contents were significantly decreased and aldosterone significantly increased in aged untreated, compared to young untreated rats. Steroid hormone levels were obviously reversed, however, in aged rats treated with DHEA. Additionally, superoxide dismutase activity in serum, brain, heart, and liver was decreased, and maleic dialdehyde content in heart was markedly increased in untreated aged, compared to young, rats. Importantly, these changes in brain and heart of aged rats were reversed by DHEA treatment. Heme oxygenase mRNA levels were increased and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA levels decreased in aged, compared to young, rats; DHEA treatment appeared to reverse these changes. These results indicate that chronic DHEA administration may have effects on steroid hormone levels and antioxidant parameters in aged rats and result in postponement of the aging process. PMID:26400361

  20. Beef cow prepartum supplement level and age at weaning: II. Effects of developmental programming on performance and carcass composition of steer progeny.

    PubMed

    Shoup, L M; Wilson, T B; González-Peña, D; Ireland, F A; Rodriguez-Zas, S; Felix, T L; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Objectives were to determine the interaction of prepartum dam supplement level and age at weaning on growth performance, glucose and insulin concentrations, and carcass characteristics of steers (134 steers in yr 1; 147 steers in yr 2). Mature, multiparous Angus × Simmental cows were used in a split-plot design that included 3 supplement levels (no supplement [NS], 2.16 kg·cow·d [LS], and 8.61 kg·cow·d [HS]) and 2 ages at weaning (78 ± 11 d of age [early weaned; EW] or 186 ± 11 d of age [normal weaned; NW]). Cows grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue/red clover pastures and were bunk fed supplement (70% dried distiller's grains plus solubles and 30% soybean hulls) 103 ± 11 d prepartum to 2 ± 11 d postpartum. Dam prepartum supplement level did not affect ( ≥ 0.29) finishing phase growth performance or morbidity. The percentage of steers grading Average Choice or greater was increased ( = 0.04) for steers from cows fed HS compared to the percentage of steers from cows fed NS. Early weaning increased ( < 0.01) finishing phase initial BW and final BW and reduced ( < 0.01) G:F compared to normal weaning. A year × wean interaction ( = 0.04) occurred for ADG; EW resulted in reduced ( < 0.01) ADG compared to NW in yr 2. At slaughter, EW steers had greater ( < 0.01) HCW, yield grade, and back fat than NW steers. A year × wean interaction ( ≤ 0.05) occurred for quality grade distribution; in yr 2, EW steers had a greater ( < 0.01) proportion of carcasses that graded Low Choice or greater and Average Choice or greater than carcasses from NW steers. The EW steers had greater ( ≤ 0.05) occurrence of single antibiotic treatments in yr 2 and mortality due to respiratory disease than NW steers. A trend for a year × wean interaction ( ≤ 0.07) occurred for plasma insulin concentration and insulin:glucose; EW steers had numerically greater plasma insulin concentrations and insulin:glucose than NW steers in yr 1. In conclusion, these data suggest that there is no

  1. Interpreting GRADE's levels of certainty or quality of the evidence: GRADE for statisticians, considering review information size or less emphasis on imprecision?

    PubMed

    Schünemann, Holger J

    2016-07-01

    This article responds to issues raised by Antilla et al. in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology about the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group's approach to rating imprecision and GRADE's use of statistics. They argue that GRADE confuses statistical terms and should provide a stepwise rating of imprecision for making decisions. Here, a clarification of those perceptions is provided. GRADE's ratings of imprecision and other quality of evidence domains is an iterative process that may or may not consider people important thresholds of effects when systematic review authors rate imprecision. Regardless of ratings in systematic reviews, those suggesting decisions such as guideline panels, should consider if they agree or need to revise these suggested thresholds to make informed ratings about imprecision. Decision relevant thresholds are the result of a complex interplay between critical outcomes for a decision-making. The certainty in the evidence of one critical outcome and the resulting possible certainty range, which I conceptualize in this article, may influence ratings of other outcomes. To relieve systematic review authors of the often challenging burden of defining worthwhile or important effects for judging precision based on the optimal information size (OIS), a modified OIS or review information size (RIS) could be used to rate imprecision at the systematic review stage. The RIS focuses only on plausible rather plausible and worthwhile effects. The advantages of using the RIS include avoiding the reliance on statistical significance alone and the varying thresholds resulting from the importance and the baseline risk of the outcome on which the OIS relies. Finally, I argue that GRADE's certainty in the evidence is related to the statistical definition of accuracy but given GRADE's broad application to other ratings of certainty such as qualitative evidence, statistical accuracy does not serve as a definition

  2. Protective Role of Educational Level on Episodic Memory Aging: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group.…

  3. Investigating Student Gender and Grade Level Differences in Digital Citizenship Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise of technology, which has become embedded in all facets of 21st century society during the past decade, has fostered a corresponding rise in its misuse. Digital citizenship abuse, a relatively new phenomenon of this electronic age, is a rapidly growing global problem. Parents, schools, and society play roles in supporting appropriate…

  4. Reading in the Social Studies and Natural Science Content Area: A Phenomenological Study of the Beliefs, Attitudes, and Strategies Sixth and Seventh Grade Content Area Teachers Use to Teach below Grade Level Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the attitudes and beliefs content teachers have concerning teaching reading in the content area to below level readers and to identify specific instructional strategies that are used to teach students who are below grade level the content area material. Twelve participants were selected, using maximum…

  5. Middle Level Grade Configuration: Impact on Hawai'i's Schools. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Valere

    2007-01-01

    This report highlights the importance of addressing the unique set of needs of middle-level students. The struggle over structuring and content of middle-level education--the K-8 versus middle-school/junior-high argument--mirrors to a considerable extent the broader recurring battle of traditionalism versus progressivism. There are few empirical…

  6. The Project MACULA Retinal Pigment Epithelium Grading System for Histology and Optical Coherence Tomography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zanzottera, Emma C.; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Ach, Thomas; Smith, R. Theodore; Freund, K. Bailey; Curcio, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To seek pathways of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fate in age-related macular degeneration via a morphology grading system; provide nomenclature, visualization targets, and metrics for clinical imaging and model systems. Methods. Donor eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and one GA eye with previous clinical spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) imaging were processed for histology, photodocumented, and annotated at predefined locations. Retinal pigment epithelial cells contained spindle-shaped melanosomes, apposed a basal lamina or basal laminar deposit (BLamD), and exhibited recognizable morphologies. Thicknesses and unbiased estimates of frequencies were obtained. Results. In 13 GA eyes (449 locations), ‘Shedding,’ ‘Sloughed,’ and ‘Dissociated’ morphologies were abundant; 22.2% of atrophic locations had ‘Dissociated’ RPE. In 39 CNV eyes (1363 locations), 37.3% of locations with fibrovascular/fibrocellular scar had ‘Entombed’ RPE; ‘Sloughed,’ ‘Dissociated,’ and ‘Bilaminar’ morphologies were abundant. Of abnormal RPE, CNV and GA both had ∼35% ‘Sloughed’/‘Intraretinal,’ with more Intraretinal in CNV (9.5% vs. 1.8%). ‘Shedding’ cells associated with granule aggregations in BLamD. The RPE layer did not thin, and BLamD remained thick, with progression. Granule-containing material consistent with three morphologies correlated to SDOCT hyperreflective foci in the previously examined GA patient. Conclusions. Retinal pigment epithelium morphology indicates multiple pathways in GA and CNV. Atrophic/scarred areas have numerous cells capable of transcribing genes and generating imaging signals. Shed granule aggregates, possibly apoptotic, are visible in SDOCT, as are ‘Dissociated’ and ‘Sloughed’ cells. The significance of RPE phenotypes is addressable in longitudinal, high-resolution imaging in clinic populations. Data can motivate future molecular phenotyping

  7. Decreased plasma cholesterol levels during aging in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wirths, Oliver; Thelen, Karin; Breyhan, Henning; Luzón-Toro, Berta; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Falkai, Peter; Lütjohann, Dieter; Bayer, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    A large number of studies deals with the association of cholesterol and Abeta levels, however, the results are so far controversial. Whereas some studies report on increased cholesterol levels, other authors refer to an association of decreased peripheral cholesterol and the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. It is also questionable whether plasma cholesterol levels could be used as a predictive biomarker for the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. In the present report, we studied the relationship between these two parameters during aging in different transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, expressing both mutant human amyloid precursor protein and mutant human presenilin-1. Measurements of plasma cholesterol levels revealed a significant reduction in aged APP/PS1 and APP/PS1ki mice, whereas plasma levels in young and aged control mice remained almost unchanged. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between plasma cholesterol and brain Abeta42 levels during aging in the mice expressing both APP and PS1. PMID:16307858

  8. Students' perceptions of being graded as a group in the college classroom: relations among students' age, employment, and perceived group satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Rufus L

    2002-12-01

    This investigation compared and measured for different age groups of students, hours of employment, and previous grading experiences of one student cohort in relation to their perceived overall satisfaction with being graded as a group. A cohort of 230 students from a large southern metropolitan university enrolled in sections of two undergraduate classes. Group Interaction and Decision Making and Conflict Management, participated. Analysis indicated that (a) older students (28-47 years) were more likely to be dissatisfied with a group grade experience than middle (23-27 years) and younger (18-22 years) students. (b) Older students working part time were significantly more dissatisfied with the overall group experience than the younger part-time working students. (c) Older part-time working students were significantly more dissatisfied with the overall experience of working and being graded as a group than the middle part-time and middle full-time working students. Differences were noted between the older and younger students, which supported older students' overall dissatisfaction with their experience of being graded as a group. Common complaints by older students were that younger students were immature, irresponsible, lacked "real-life" experience, and had misplaced priorities. Common complaints by younger students were that older students were too serious and rigid. It is recommended that this work be extended to include other comparison groups, graduate students, and other disciplines. PMID:12578270

  9. Nutritionally related blood metabolites and performance of finishing pigs fed on graded levels of dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Archibold Garikayi; Ndou, Saymore Petros; Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to determine effect of feeding fibrous diets on performance and biochemical profiles of finishing pigs. A total of 84 clinically healthy male pigs were used in the experiment. Body weight of the pigs at the beginning of the experiment was 85 ± 10.1 kg. Maize cob (MC), sunflower hulls (SH), lucerne hay (LH) and dried citrus pulp (PU) were incorporated in a basal diet for finishing pigs at different inclusion levels of 0, 80, 160, 240, 320 and 400 g/kg. Effects of week of feeding, fibre source and inclusion level of fibre were significant (P < 0.05). Pigs consumed more LH compared to MC, SH and PU. Average daily gain was high for pigs consuming diets with inclusion levels of 0, 80, 160 and 240 g/kg and low for pigs consuming 320 and 400 g/kg inclusion level of fibre in a diet. There was an increase in serum total concentration (TP) with an increase in PU, MC and LH in pig diets (P < 0.05). Creatine kinase (CK) concentrations decreased as levels of PU, LH and MC increased (P < 0.05). Increasing inclusion level of LH and SH in pig diets resulted in an increase in glycated haemoglobin concentration (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that level of PU, LH, MC and SH in diets of finishing pigs negatively influences average daily feed intake, average daily gain and biochemical profiles. PMID:26984596

  10. Optimal speech level for speech transmission in a noisy environment for young adults and aged persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hayato; Ota, Ryo; Morimoto, Masayuki; Sato, Hiroshi

    2005-04-01

    Assessing sound environment of classrooms for the aged is a very important issue, because classrooms can be used by the aged for their lifelong learning, especially in the aged society. Hence hearing loss due to aging is a considerable factor for classrooms. In this study, the optimal speech level in noisy fields for both young adults and aged persons was investigated. Listening difficulty ratings and word intelligibility scores for familiar words were used to evaluate speech transmission performance. The results of the tests demonstrated that the optimal speech level for moderate background noise (i.e., less than around 60 dBA) was fairly constant. Meanwhile, the optimal speech level depended on the speech-to-noise ratio when the background noise level exceeded around 60 dBA. The minimum required speech level to minimize difficulty ratings for the aged was higher than that for the young. However, the minimum difficulty ratings for both the young and the aged were given in the range of speech level of 70 to 80 dBA of speech level.

  11. Optics and Light Activities for Teachers of all Grade Levels from Easily Obtainable Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Richard; Hendricks, Curtis; Lucatorto, Lynn; McNeilus, Thomas; Thornton, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    Several hands-on activities in light and optics covering selected topics will be discussed in the context of home labs and how such activities can be incorporated into a distance-learning or online web-based course utilizing the latest communication technologies and the Internet. The presentation will focus on activities that can be constructed from easy to obtain supplies as well as a commercially available kit that we are having made available. Activities for teachers at the elementary level will focus on understanding light rays, shadows, and reflection from plane surfaces; at the middle school level will focus on curved mirrors and lenses, dispersion, and drawing ray diagrams; at the high school level will focus on Snell's law, the lens equation, wave interference, polarization, Young's experiment, and diffraction. A distance-learning, web-based course based on these home labs will be described. )

  12. Illinois Middle-Level School Assessment: A Look at the State-of-the-Art in Middle-Grade Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Findings of a study that examined middle-level school practices and the educational needs of Illinois youth aged 10-14 are presented in this report. A questionnaire mailed to all junior high/middle schools (576 schools) and K-8 schools in Illinois (705 schools) elicited response rates of 75 and 42 percent, respectively, or a total of 774 usable…

  13. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  14. The Relationship between Reading Level and Sixth Grade Students' Acquisition of Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruthers, Tarchell Peeples

    2013-01-01

    Current research shows that, despite standards-based mathematics reform, American students lag behind in mathematics achievement when compared to their counterparts in other countries. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine if reading level, as measured by the Scholastic Reading Inventory, is related to standards-based mathematics…

  15. Greek Mythology: Literature Curriculum, Levels C-D [Grades Three and Four]; Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    This curriculum guide is intended to introduce elementary school students to Greek mythology. The authors suggest that the selections be presented by the teacher as lively and imaginative stories; the more abstract aspects of the myths should be largely ignored until students reach the junior high school level. In addition to the myths themselves,…

  16. Learn to Think and Write: A Paradigm for Teaching Grades 4-8, Introductory Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarno, Una McGinley

    2011-01-01

    The EPILLAW Paradigm is a practical method for developing writing skills. It consists of an original nine-level taxonomy and sequential methodology of listening, speaking, writing and reading. In this method, the development of writing precedes the development of reading. The work consists of two books. In the introductory book, the author…

  17. How Non-Linearity and Grade-Level Differences Complicate the Validation of Observation Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, Valeriy; Newman, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Teacher evaluation is currently a major policy issue at all levels of the K-12 system driven in large part by current US Department of Education requirements. The main objective of this study is to explore the patterns of relationship between observational scores and value-added measures of teacher performance in math classrooms and the variation…

  18. Utilization of diets containing graded levels of ethanol production co-products by Nile Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was performed to investigate levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a supplemental nutrient source for juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Six isocaloric (4.43 ± 0.20 kcal/g), isonitrogenous (39.3 ± 0.4% protein) experimental diets were formulated to conta...

  19. Region-specific changes in presynaptic agmatine and glutamate levels in the aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y; Liu, P; Leitch, B

    2016-01-15

    During the normal aging process, the brain undergoes a range of biochemical and structural alterations, which may contribute to deterioration of sensory and cognitive functions. Age-related deficits are associated with altered efficacy of synaptic neurotransmission. Emerging evidence indicates that levels of agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, are altered in a region-specific manner during the aging process. The gross tissue content of agmatine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of aged rat brains is decreased whereas levels in the temporal cortex (TE) are increased. However, it is not known whether these changes in gross tissue levels are also mirrored by changes in agmatine levels at synapses and thus could potentially contribute to altered synaptic function with age. In the present study, agmatine levels in presynaptic terminals in the PFC and TE regions (300 terminals/region) of young (3month; n=3) and aged (24month; n=3) brains of male Sprague-Dawley rats were compared using quantitative post-embedding immunogold electron-microscopy. Presynaptic levels of agmatine were significantly increased in the TE region (60%; p<0.001) of aged rats compared to young rats, however no significant differences were detected in synaptic levels in the PFC region. Double immunogold labeling indicated that agmatine and glutamate were co-localized in the same synaptic terminals, and quantitative analyses revealed significantly reduced glutamate levels in agmatine-immunopositive synaptic terminals in both regions in aged rats compared to young animals. This study, for the first time, demonstrates differential effects of aging on agmatine and glutamate in the presynaptic terminals of PFC and TE. Future research is required to understand the functional significance of these changes and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26548412

  20. The Physical Activity Levels of Preschool-Aged Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…

  1. Age-related dynamics of constitutive cytokine transcription levels of feline monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Baptiste, K; Meli, M L; Barth, A; Knietsch, M; Reinacher, M; Lutz, H

    2005-03-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are central mediators of inflammation and immunity and therefore of major interest in the study of immunosenescence. In healthy adult cats, monocytes have been shown to constitutively transcribe pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, in order to characterize the effect of age, feline monocyte functions were examined for changes in cytokine transcription levels in early stages of immunosenescence. For this purpose, isolated, short-term cultured monocytes from barrier-maintained adult cats of different ages (15 mo to 10 yr) were examined for transcription of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40 and TNF-alpha by real-time PCR. Transcription levels of cytokines varied and were generally highest for IL-1 beta. For IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-12 p40, both young and old cats exhibited highest levels. The age association was significant. TNF-alpha appeared to be transcribed at similar levels over the examination period, whereas IL-10 tended to decline with age but without any statistical significant differences. The observed age association of the constitutive transcription of some cytokines indicates a drop in monocyte activities from youth to middle age, which is then followed by a (progressive) increase with increasing age. This provides evidence that monocytes are in part responsible for the pro-inflammatory status observed with ageing. PMID:15763402

  2. Determination of low levels of amorphous content in inhalation grade lactose by moisture sorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Vollenbroek, Jasper; Hebbink, Gerald A; Ziffels, Susanne; Steckel, Hartwig

    2010-08-16

    Alpha-lactose monohydrate is widely used as an excipient in dry powder inhalers, and plays a very important role in the efficiency of the drug delivery. Due to the processing, low levels of amorphous lactose could be present in the blends. Varying amounts could have a strong effect on the efficiency of drug delivery of the powder blends. Therefore, the accurate measurement of low levels of amorphous lactose content is very important. A new method was developed to measure the amorphous content, based on dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). In contrast to the traditional re-crystallization approach of amorphous lactose, the new method is based on moisture sorption isotherms. Moisture sorption isotherms of blends of crystalline alpha-lactose and freeze-dried or spray-dried amorphous lactose were measured. By fitting the data with a Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) isotherm, a linear correlation was found between measured and actual amorphous content for the whole range of 0.1-100%. Differences between freeze-dried and spray-dried lactose, due to different molecular arrangements, could be removed by a preconditioning the samples at 35% RH prior to the isotherm measurement. It was shown that accurate determination of very low concentrations of amorphous lactose content is possible using moisture sorption isotherm analyses. PMID:20493937

  3. Does Serum Bilirubin level on admission predict TIMI flow grade and in-hospital MACE in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Celik, Turgay; Kaya, Mehmet G; Akpek, Mahmut; Yarlioglues, Mikail; Sarli, Bahadir; Topsakal, Ramazan; Gibson, Charles Michael

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the association of total bilirubin with post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) coronary blood flow and in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI. A total of 536 consecutive patients with STEMI (male 79%, mean age = 59.9 ± 12.6 years) admitted within 6 hours from symptom onset were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (MI) flow grade. In-stent thrombosis, nonfatal MI, and in-hospital mortality were significantly higher in no-reflow group (P = .007, P = .002, and P < .001, respectively). On multivariate regression, the total bilirubin levels remained independent predictors of no-reflow (odds ratio [OR] 1.586, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.47; P = .042) and in-hospital MACE (OR 1.399, 95% CI 1.053-1.857; P = .020). Serum bilirubin levels were independently associated with no-reflow and in-hospital MACE in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. PMID:23378197

  4. Circulating Growth Differentiation Factor 11/8 Levels Decline With Age

    PubMed Central

    Poggioli, Tommaso; Vujic, Ana; Yang, Peiguo; Macias-Trevino, Claudio; Uygur, Aysu; Loffredo, Francesco S.; Pancoast, James R.; Cho, Miook; Goldstein, Jill; Tandias, Rachel M.; Gonzalez, Emilia; Walker, Ryan G.; Thompson, Thomas B.; Wagers, Amy J.; Fong, Yick W.; Lee, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and GDF8 are members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily sharing 89% protein sequence homology. We have previously shown that circulating GDF11 levels decrease with age in mice. However, a recent study by Egerman et al reported that GDF11/8 levels increase with age in mouse serum. Objective Here, we clarify the direction of change of circulating GDF11/8 levels with age and investigate the effects of GDF11 administration on the murine heart. Methods and Results We validated our previous finding that circulating levels of GDF11/8 decline with age in mice, rats, horses, and sheep. Furthermore, we showed by Western analysis that the apparent age-dependent increase in GDF11 levels, as reported by Egerman et al, is attributable to cross-reactivity of the anti-GDF11 antibody with immunoglobulin, which is known to increase with age. GDF11 administration in mice rapidly activated SMAD2 and SMAD3 signaling in myocardium in vivo and decreased cardiac mass in both young (2-month-old) and old (22-month-old) mice in a dose-dependent manner after only 9 days. Conclusions Our study confirms an age-dependent decline in serum GDF11/8 levels in multiple mammalian species and that exogenous GDF11 rapidly activates SMAD signaling and reduces cardiomyocyte size. Unraveling the molecular basis for the age-dependent decline in GDF11/8 could yield insight into age-dependent cardiac pathologies. PMID:26489925

  5. The optimum level of parent participation: A study of three intensity levels of parent involvement during three "Playtime is Science" units in three third-grade classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooden, Kelly Lynn

    The study describes the experience of introducing three intensity levels of parent participation in three third-grade classes for science instruction using Playtime is Science; an equity curriculum that utilizes parent participation. The study sought to determine the optimum level of participation by ascertaining the most influential aspect of involvement on proficiency scores and the most important aspect of involvement to participants. The levels of participation intensity were distinguished by: (1) the number of parents in the classroom; (2) the responsibilities of the parents; (3) the training received; and (4) the number of students with whom the parents worked. Involvement at each level would potentially manifest aspects of role modeling, lowered student-to-adult instructional ratio, and parent expertise to varying degrees. The three levels of participation were introduced during explorations in three Playtime is Science units following a rotation schedule. Student proficiency was assessed through scores on pre- and post-tests, journals, and discourse. ANCOVA was used to identify main and interaction effects of the independent variables (class, unit and level) on student proficiency taking into account existing differences in groups. Participant attitudes were assessed through journals and interviews. Observations of explorations triangulated findings and assessed participant interactions. Field notes, transcripts and photographs were coded according to the aspects of parent involvement. The results showed level of parent intensity of involvement had no affect on proficiency scores. Therefore, no aspect of parent involvement was determined to be the most influential. Participants felt that lowered instructional ratio and role modeling were the most important aspects of involvement. The level of involvement that utilized the lowest ratio and the most role modeling was level III, small group facilitators. Level III was recognized as the optimum level of

  6. Effects of age, signal level, and signal rate on the auditory middle latency response.

    PubMed

    Tucker, D A; Ruth, R A

    1996-04-01

    The effects of age, signal rate, and signal level on the maturing auditory middle latency response (AMLR) were evaluated in 50 normal-hearing subjects ranging in age from 2 days to 35 years. Ipsilateral and contralateral AMLR waveforms were recorded in newborns (n = 10), children (n = 10), preteens (n = 10), teens (n = 10), and adults (n = 10). The AMLR Pa waveform was obtained in 70 to 100 percent of all subjects. The variables of age, signal level, and site of recording significantly affected Pa peak amplitude and absolute latency. However, stimulus rate did not significantly affect the response. PMID:8652873

  7. Perceptions of Aging across 26 Cultures and their Culture-Level Associates

    PubMed Central

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Fruyt, Filip; Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Juri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana. V.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Benet-Martinez, Veronica; Blatný, Marek; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Lima, Margarida P.; Ficková, Emília; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Halberstadt, Jamin; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Martin, Thomas. A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Pramila, V.S.; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Rossier, Jerome; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Smith, Peter B.; Szmigielska, Barbara; Wang, Lei; Yamaguchi, Mami; Yik, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    College students (N = 3,435) in 26 cultures reported their perceptions of age-related changes in physical, cognitive, and socioemotional areas of functioning and rated societal views of aging within their culture. There was widespread cross-cultural consensus regarding the expected direction of aging trajectories with (1) perceived declines in societal views of aging, physical attractiveness, the ability to perform everyday tasks, and new learning, (2) perceived increases in wisdom, knowledge, and received respect, and (3) perceived stability in family authority and life satisfaction. Cross-cultural variations in aging perceptions were associated with culture-level indicators of population aging, education levels, values, and national character stereotypes. These associations were stronger for societal views on aging and perceptions of socioemotional changes than for perceptions of physical and cognitive changes. A consideration of culture-level variables also suggested that previously reported differences in aging perceptions between Asian and Western countries may be related to differences in population structure. PMID:20025408

  8. Perceptions of aging across 26 cultures and their culture-level associates.

    PubMed

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E; De Fruyt, Filip; Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Juri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Benet-Martinez, Veronica; Blatný, Marek; Bratko, Denis; Cain, Thomas R; Crawford, Jarret T; Lima, Margarida P; Ficková, Emília; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Halberstadt, Jamin; Hrebícková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knezević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Martin, Thomas A; Marusić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Miramontez, Daniel R; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Pramila, V S; Realo, Anu; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Rossier, Jerome; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Smith, Peter B; Szmigielska, Barbara; Wang, Lei; Yamaguchi, Mami; Yik, Michelle

    2009-12-01

    College students (N=3,435) in 26 cultures reported their perceptions of age-related changes in physical, cognitive, and socioemotional areas of functioning and rated societal views of aging within their culture. There was widespread cross-cultural consensus regarding the expected direction of aging trajectories with (a) perceived declines in societal views of aging, physical attractiveness, the ability to perform everyday tasks, and new learning; (b) perceived increases in wisdom, knowledge, and received respect; and (c) perceived stability in family authority and life satisfaction. Cross-cultural variations in aging perceptions were associated with culture-level indicators of population aging, education levels, values, and national character stereotypes. These associations were stronger for societal views on aging and perceptions of socioemotional changes than for perceptions of physical and cognitive changes. A consideration of culture-level variables also suggested that previously reported differences in aging perceptions between Asian and Western countries may be related to differences in population structure. PMID:20025408

  9. Teaching the Age of the City: The Gilded Age and After (1865-1914). A Guide for Seventh Grade Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Resource materials which lead to concept understandings of social change in New York City are presented in this seventh grade curriculum guide. By focusing on historical and social conditions, problems, and values in an objective manner, it is hoped that students learn through an inductive approach how to better deal with today's urbanization…

  10. Age-related changes in thyroid hormone levels of bonobos and chimpanzees indicate heterochrony in development.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Deschner, Tobias; Murtagh, Róisín; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2014-01-01

    We present information on age related changes of thyroid hormone levels in bonobos (N = 96) and chimpanzees (N = 100) ranging between one and 56 years of age. Fresh urine samples were used for hormone measurements with a commercial competitive total triiodothyronine (T3) ELISA. In both species, immature individuals had higher TT3 levels than adults and there was a marked decrease in TT3 levels between age classes. The two species differed in terms of the timing of TT3 level changes, with chimpanzees experiencing a significant decline in TT3 levels after 10 years of age and bonobos after 20 years of age. The decline of TT3 in chimpanzees appears to coincide with the time when somatic growth terminates while TT3 values in bonobos decrease much later. This temporal asymmetry in urinary thyroid hormone levels indicates heterochrony in the ontogenetic changes of the two sister species and developmental delay in bonobos. The prolongation of high TT3 levels in bonobos, which is characteristic of immatures of both Pan species may affect the behavior of bonobos; namely, the low intensity of aggression they display. Given that developmental studies are often based on post-mortem analyses of skeletons, measures of urinary thyroid hormones offer a non-invasive tool for exploring ontogenetic changes in living wild and captive hominoids. PMID:24275194

  11. Nitrogen metabolism, tissue carnosine concentration and blood chemistry of gravid swine fed graded levels of histidine.

    PubMed

    Easter, R A; Baker, D H

    1977-01-01

    Three nitrogen metabolism experiments were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative histidine need of first-litter gilts during the last third of pregnancy. A completely purified, crystalline 8amino acid diet was formulated to meet all nutrient needs of the gravid gilt when 2 kg/day was fed. Experiments 1 and 2 were 9-day nitrogen balance studies, each consisting of three littermate gilts subjected to three levels of dietary L-histidine in a Latin square arrangement of treatments. Nitrogen retention was depresed, but not significantly, when less than 0.12% histidine was fed. Complete deletion of histidine, however, did not depress retention below that observed when 0.06% was fed. This suggested that either histidine biosynthesis or its release from endogenous reserves was confounding retention data. Therefore in a third experiment, two gilts were fed a histidine-free diet for 24 days in an attempt to deplete endogenous reserves. For comparison, two siblings were fed 0.12% histidine during this same period. Nitrogen retention tended to be lower for gilts fed the histidine-free diet during each of three consecutive collection periods. Blood hemoglobin, muscle and olfactory bulb carnosine concentration, plasma protein and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase activity, and blood urea nitrogen were all unaffected by treatment. Offspring from gilts fed the histidine-free diet had lower blood hemoglobin concentrations than their counterparts from gilts receiving histidine. A tentative recommendation of 0.12% dietary L-histidine would seem justified for gravid swine. PMID:833672

  12. Low-level arsenic exposure: Nutritional and dietary predictors in first-grade Uruguayan children.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Queirolo, Elena I; Mañay, Nelly; Peregalli, Fabiana; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic exposure in children is a public health concern but is understudied in relation to the predictors, and effects of low-level exposure. We examined the extent and dietary predictors of exposure to inorganic arsenic in 5-8 year old children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Children were recruited at school; 357 were enrolled, 328 collected morning urine samples, and 317 had two 24-h dietary recalls. Urinary arsenic metabolites, i.e. inorganic arsenic (iAs), methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-MS), and the sum concentration (U-As) used for exposure assessment. Proportions of arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA and %DMA) in urine were modelled in OLS regressions as functions of food groups, dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. Exposure to arsenic was low (median U-As: 9.9µg/L) and household water (water As: median 0.45µg/L) was not a major contributor to exposure. Children with higher consumption of rice had higher U-As but lower %iAs, %MMA, and higher %DMA. Children with higher meat consumption had lower %iAs and higher %DMA. Higher scores on "nutrient dense" dietary pattern were related to lower %iAs and %MMA, and higher %DMA. Higher intake of dietary folate was associated with lower %MMA and higher %DMA. Overweight children had lower %MMA and higher %DMA than normal-weight children. In summary, rice was an important predictor of exposure to inorganic arsenic and DMA. Higher meat and folate consumption, diet rich in green leafy and red-orange vegetables and eggs, and higher BMI contributed to higher arsenic methylation capacity. PMID:26828624

  13. A Review of the Literature: The Effectiveness of Leveled Reading Groups in Improving Oral Proficiency and Comprehension to First Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway-Bell, Sandra

    This literature review and study examines information on the effectiveness of leveled reading groups in first grade students with respect to oral proficiency and reading comprehension. It explores whether there is evidence that leveled reading groups increase or decrease student achievement, as well as whether there is evidence that leveled…

  14. SCC INITIATION AND GROWTH RATE STUDIES ON TITANIUM GRADE 7 AND BASE METAL, WELDED, AND AGED ALLOY 22 IN CONCENTRATED GROUNDWATER

    SciTech Connect

    J.H. Payer

    2005-08-01

    The stress corrosion crack initiation and growth rate response was evaluated on as-received, as-welded, cold worked and aged Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) and titanium Grades 7 (UNS R52400), 28 (UNS R55323) and 29 (UNS R56404) at 105-165 C in various aerated, concentrated groundwater environments. Time-to-failure experiments on actively-loaded tensile specimens at 105 C evaluated the effects of applied stress, welding, surface finish, shot peening, cold work, crevicing, and aging treatments in Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), and found these materials to be highly resistant to SCC (none observed). Long-term U-bend data at 165 C corroborated these findings. Titanium Grade 7 and stainless steels were also included in the 105 C test matrix. Long term crack growth rate data showed stable crack growth in titanium Grade 7. Recent creep tests in air confirm literature data that these alloys are quite susceptible to creep failure, even below the yield stress, and it is unclear whether cracking in SCC tests is only accelerated by the creep response, or whether creep is responsible for cracking. Alloy 22 exhibited stable growth rates under ''gentle'' cyclic loading, but was prone to crack arrest at fully static loading. No effect of Pb additions was observed.

  15. Reading in the social studies and natural science content area: A phenomenological study of the beliefs, attitudes, and strategies sixth and seventh grade content area teachers use to teach below grade level readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Lisa A.

    The purposes of this study were to identify the attitudes and beliefs content teachers have concerning teaching reading in the content area to below level readers and to identify specific instructional strategies that are used to teach students who are below grade level the content area material. Twelve participants were selected, using maximum variation sampling, based on the grade level and content area they taught. Data was collected from middle school content area teachers using interviews, surveys, observations, and document examination in an attempt to identify attitudes, beliefs, and specific challenges content teachers face instructing below grade level readers. The data was collected, coded and analyzed for specific commonalities. The constructivist's theory served as the framework for the study with emphasis on experiential learning. The experiences that the participants had as early learners, older students, and adult teachers mold their level of efficacy, the way they teach, and the way the view teaching and learning. Based on the data collected and analyzed, common attitudes and beliefs were present among the participants. Common instructional strategies used with below level learners were also identified. The challenges content area teachers face were also recognized. Recommendations were made to school districts, teacher prep programs administrators and to others for further research.

  16. Piaget: A Handbook for Parents and Teachers of Children in the Age of Discovery--Preschool Through Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Victoria; Peterson, Rosemary

    This handbook, primarily for parents and teachers of preschool through third grade children, provides some insights into Piaget's theories about how children think and learn and presents ideas for using Piagetian-type activities and games in the home or classroom. (The handbook does not attempt to give a comprehensive analysis of Piaget's theory…

  17. Physical Access to Schooling in South Africa: Mapping Dropout, Repetition and Age-Grade Progression in Two Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Shireen; Dieltiens, Veerle; Sayed, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    The Education for All and Millennium Development Goals commit national governments, international agencies and civil society to ensure that all children are provided with basic education. In South Africa this would mean full attendance in Grades (1-9). The achievement of universal primary education and gender equity across low-income countries are…

  18. Huntington's disease accelerates epigenetic aging of human brain and disrupts DNA methylation levels.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Steve; Langfelder, Peter; Kwak, Seung; Aaronson, Jeff; Rosinski, Jim; Vogt, Thomas F; Eszes, Marika; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A; Waldvogel, Henry J; Choi, Oi-Wa; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Coppola, Giovanni; Yang, X William

    2016-07-01

    Age of Huntington's disease (HD) motoric onset is strongly related to the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene, suggesting that biological tissue age plays an important role in disease etiology. Recently, a DNA methylation based biomarker of tissue age has been advanced as an epigenetic aging clock. We sought to inquire if HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age. DNA methylation data was generated for 475 brain samples from various brain regions of 26 HD cases and 39 controls. Overall, brain regions from HD cases exhibit a significant epigenetic age acceleration effect (p=0.0012). A multivariate model analysis suggests that HD status increases biological age by 3.2 years. Accelerated epigenetic age can be observed in specific brain regions (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus). After excluding controls, we observe a negative correlation (r=-0.41, p=5.5×10-8) between HD gene CAG repeat length and the epigenetic age of HD brain samples. Using correlation network analysis, we identify 11 co-methylation modules with a significant association with HD status across 3 broad cortical regions. In conclusion, HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age of specific brain regions and more broadly with substantial changes in brain methylation levels. PMID:27479945

  19. Huntington's disease accelerates epigenetic aging of human brain and disrupts DNA methylation levels

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Langfelder, Peter; Kwak, Seung; Aaronson, Jeff; Rosinski, Jim; Vogt, Thomas F.; Eszes, Marika; Faull, Richard L.M.; Curtis, Maurice A.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; Choi, Oi-Wa; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Coppola, Giovanni; Yang, X. William

    2016-01-01

    Age of Huntington's disease (HD) motoric onset is strongly related to the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene, suggesting that biological tissue age plays an important role in disease etiology. Recently, a DNA methylation based biomarker of tissue age has been advanced as an epigenetic aging clock. We sought to inquire if HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age. DNA methylation data was generated for 475 brain samples from various brain regions of 26 HD cases and 39 controls. Overall, brain regions from HD cases exhibit a significant epigenetic age acceleration effect (p=0.0012). A multivariate model analysis suggests that HD status increases biological age by 3.2 years. Accelerated epigenetic age can be observed in specific brain regions (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus). After excluding controls, we observe a negative correlation (r=−0.41, p=5.5×10−8) between HD gene CAG repeat length and the epigenetic age of HD brain samples. Using correlation network analysis, we identify 11 co-methylation modules with a significant association with HD status across 3 broad cortical regions. In conclusion, HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age of specific brain regions and more broadly with substantial changes in brain methylation levels. PMID:27479945

  20. TMEM45A, SERPINB5 and p16INK4A transcript levels are predictive for development of high-grade cervical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Manawapat-Klopfer, Anna; Thomsen, Louise T; Martus, Peter; Munk, Christian; Russ, Rainer; Gmuender, Hans; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Haedicke-Jarboui, Juliane; Stubenrauch, Frank; Kjaer, Susanne K; Iftner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Women persistently infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 are at high risk for development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN3+). We aimed to identify biomarkers for progression to CIN3+ in women with persistent HPV16 infection. In this prospective study, 11,088 women aged 20-29 years were enrolled during 1991-1993, and re-invited for a second visit two years later. Cervical cytology samples obtained at both visits were tested for HPV DNA by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), and HC2-positive samples were genotyped by INNO-LiPA. The cohort was followed for up to 19 years via a national pathology register. To identify markers for progression to CIN3+, we performed microarray analysis on RNA extracted from cervical swabs of 30 women with persistent HPV16-infection and 11 HPV-negative women. Six genes were selected and validated by quantitative PCR. Three genes were subsequently validated within a different and large group of women from the same cohort. Secondly, Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analyses were used to investigate whether expression levels of those three genes predict progression to CIN3+. We found that high transcript levels of TMEM45A, SERPINB5 and p16INK4a at baseline were associated with increased risk of CIN3+ during follow-up. The hazard ratios of CIN3+ per 10-fold increase in baseline expression level were 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.3) for TMEM45A, 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.5) for p16INK4a, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.2-2.7) for SERPINB5. In conclusion, high mRNA expression levels of TMEM45A, SERPINB5 and p16INK4a were associated with increased risk of CIN3+ in persistently HPV16-infected women. PMID:27508094

  1. Prognostic value of increase in transcript levels of Tp73 DeltaEx2-3 isoforms in low-grade glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Wager, M; Guilhot, J; Blanc, J-L; Ferrand, S; Milin, S; Bataille, B; Lapierre, F; Denis, S; Chantereau, T; Larsen, C-J; Karayan-Tapon, L

    2006-10-23

    Glial tumours are a devastating, poorly understood condition carrying a gloomy prognosis for which clinicians sorely lack reliable predictive parameters facilitating a sound treatment strategy. Tp73, a p53 family member, expresses two main classes of isoforms--transactivatory activity (TA)p73 and DeltaTAp73--exhibiting tumour suppressor gene and oncogene properties, respectively. The authors examined their expression status in high- and low-grade adult gliomas. Isoform-specific real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used for the analysis of Tp73 isoform transcript expression in a series of 51 adult patients harbouring glial tumours, in order to compare tumour grades with each other, and with non-tumoural samples obtained from epileptic patients as well. Our data demonstrate increase of TAp73 and DeltaTAp73 transcript levels at onset and early stage of the disease. We also show that DeltaEx2-3 isoform expression in low-grade tumours anticipates clinical and imaging progression to higher grades, and correlates to the patients' survival. Expression levels of P1 promoter generated Tp73 isoforms--and particularly DeltaEx2-3--indeed allow for prediction of the clinical progression of low-grade gliomas in adults. Our data are the first such molecular biology report regarding low-grade tumours and as such should be of help for sound decision-making. PMID:17047653

  2. U-Pb garnet, sphene, monazite, and rutile ages: Implications for the duration of high-grade metamorphism and cooling histories, Adirondack Mts. , New York

    SciTech Connect

    Mezger, K.; Rawnsley, C.M.; Hanson, G.N. ); Bohlen, S.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Garnet ages for the Lowlands range from 1,168-1,127 Ma, those from the central and southern Highlands from 1,154-1,013 Ma. Metamorphism in the Highlands may not have occurred as a single event but rather in several discrete thermal pulses. An age of 1,153 {plus minus} 3 Ma was determined for garnets in the syn-regional metamorphic contact aureole of the Diana syenite, consistent with that of the syenite intrusion, 1 155 {plus minus} 4 Ma. Garnets just outside the contact aureole give an age of 1,168 {plus minus} 6 Ma. In the Lowlands, monazite yielded an age of 1,161 {plus minus} 1 Ma, rutiles yielded ages of 1,005 {plus minus} 2 Ma and 953 {plus minus} 4 Ma, and sphene ages range from 1,156 to 1,103 Ma. In the Highlands, monazite yielded an age of 1,033 {plus minus} 1 Ma, rutiles yielded ages of 911 {plus minus} 2 Ma and 885 {plus minus} 2 and sphenes from 1,033 Ma to 991 Ma. The rutile and monazite ages indicate that both terranes cooled at time-integrated rates of ca. 1.5C/Ma for at least 150 Ma following the last phase of high-grade metamorphism. The Lowlands cooled to ca. 400C by ca. 1,000 Ma and the Highlands by ca. 900 Ma. The mineral ages indicate that metamorphic pressures and temperatures recorded by thermobarometry correspond to conditions attained polychronically over 150 Ma or more. Mineral ages combined with temperature estimates for peak metamorphism indicate that the closure temperature for the U-Pb system is >800C in garnet, 640-730C in monazite, and 500-670C in sphene.

  3. What Third-Grade Students of Differing Ability Levels Learn about Nature of Science after a Year of Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerson, Valarie; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri; Weiland, Ingrid; Pongsanon, Khemmawadee; Avsar, Banu

    2014-01-01

    This study explored third-grade elementary students' conceptions of nature of science (NOS) over the course of an entire school year as they participated in explicit-reflective science instruction. The Views of NOS-D (VNOS-D) was administered pre instruction, during mid-school year, and at the end of the school year to track growth in understanding over time. The Young Children's Views of Science was used to describe how students conversed about NOS among themselves. All science lessons were videotaped, student work collected, and a researcher log was maintained. Data were analyzed by a team of researchers who sorted the students into low-, medium-, and high-achieving levels of NOS understandings based on VNOS-D scores and classwork. Three representative students were selected as case studies to provide an in-depth picture of how instruction worked differentially and how understandings changed for the three levels of students. Three different learning trajectories were developed from the data describing the differences among understandings for the low-, medium-, and high-achieving students. The low-achieving student could discuss NOS ideas, the medium-achieving student discussed and wrote about NOS ideas, the high-achieving student discussed, wrote, and raised questions about NOS ideas.

  4. Influence of exercise adherence level on modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors and functional-fitness levels in middle-aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, E S; White, J A; Downie, A; Dalzell, G; Doran, D

    1993-01-01

    The study investigated the potential health benefits of two levels of short-term exercise intervention, compared with non-intervention, on selected modifiable coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and functional fitness states in middle-aged men. All subjects underwent medical screening and signed informed consent before carrying out a standardized graded treadmill walk which required exercise up to 85% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. The results of the test were used together with musculoskeletal fitness assessments, for the prescription of a personalized exercise programme lasting 14 weeks. In all, 55 subjects were classified by adherence into high (HA, n = 20), low (LA, n = 19), or non-adherence (NA, n = 16) groups according to the degree of documented participation in the programme based on standard criteria (American College of Sports Medicine 1978, 1990). In addition, the respective groups of subjects were classified according to other modifiable and non-modifiable CHD risk factors and compared by self-reported levels of activity and sport involvement as well as perceived body weight classification. The results indicated that there were more comprehensive improvements in functional fitness including significant gains in aerobic endurance capacity, muscular endurance and flexibility in the HA group compared with the LA and NA groups. However, there was little or no change in the modifiable CHD risk factors in any of the respective groups, although anthropometric indices of weight, body mass index (BMI), skinfolds and waist:hips ratio tended to decrease in the HA and LA groups but increased marginally in the NA group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8358578

  5. Grade Level and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alacapinar, Füsun G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Creativity has been addressed by many scientists and thinkers. Among them, Guilfort regards creativity as the ability to generate new ideas, and relates it to intelligence. According to Thurstone, creativity must develop and be implemented within a theoretical framework, and a solution must result. Torrance thinks of creativity…

  6. Activities for Studying Ponds (Limnology), Grade Level 5-6. Environmental Education Series, Bulletin No. 247-D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    This bulletin is one in a series of environmental education activity guides for grades K-12, developed and field-tested by teachers in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools. Primarily for use in the middle grades four through six, the guides are not intended to constitute complete units in themselves. They are, rather, a compilation of…

  7. Activities for Map and Compass Study, Grade Level 4-6. Environmental Education Series, Bulletin No. 247-I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    This bulletin is one in a series of environmental education activity guides for grades K-12, developed and field-tested by teachers in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools. Primarily for use in the middle grades four through six, the guides are not intended to constitute complete units in themselves. They are, rather, a compilation of…

  8. Activities for Studying Rocks and Soil, Grade Level 4-6. Environmental Education Series, Bulletin No. 247-E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    This bulletin is one in a series of environmental education activity guides for grades K-12, developed and field-tested by teachers in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools. Primarily for use in the middle grades four through six, the guides are not intended to constitute complete units in themselves. They are, rather, a compilation of…

  9. The Relationship Between the Retention Level of Orally and Visually Presented Science Material to Selected Fifth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Robert M.

    Two groups of fifth-grade pupils were equated on reading ability, I.Q., science ability, hearing, and eyesight. The groups selected were well above average in I.Q. and reading ability. Four selections, each of 400 to 500 words, from standard fifth-grade elementary science texts were presented by allowing students to read them or by reading them to…

  10. Beyond Minimum Technology Requirements: Course Characteristics for the Instructional Design of Virtual Programs at the Elementary Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vytlacil, Kerrie A.

    2013-01-01

    With virtual public school initiatives in each of the 50 states, there is an impetus to develop and implement online programs for the elementary grades (Cavanaugh, 2004, pp. 262-266; Oliver et al., p. 56). Yet, learner usability characteristics for successful online schooling for the elementary grades are unknown and/or unspecified. The purpose of…

  11. The Effect of Using a Mobile Literacy Game to Improve Literacy Levels of Grade One Students in Zambian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jere-Folotiya, Jacqueline; Chansa-Kabali, Tamara; Munachaka, Jonathan C.; Sampa, Francis; Yalukanda, Christopher; Westerholm, Jari; Richardson, Ulla; Serpell, Robert; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    This intervention study was conducted to document conditions under which a computer based literacy game (GraphoGame™) could enhance literacy skills of first grade students in an African city. The participants were first grade students from Government schools (N = 573). These students were randomly sampled into control (N = 314) and various…

  12. The effects of uphill vs. level-grade high-intensity interval training on VO2max, Vmax, V(LT), and Tmax in well-trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Ferley, Derek D; Osborn, Roy W; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2013-06-01

    Uphill running represents a frequently used and often prescribed training tactic in the development of competitive distance runners but remains largely uninvestigated and unsubstantiated as a training modality. The purpose of this investigation included documenting the effects of uphill interval training compared with level-grade interval training on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), the running speed associated with VO2max (Vmax), the running speed associated with lactate threshold (V(LT)), and the duration for which Vmax can be sustained (Tmax) in well-trained distance runners. Thirty-two well-trained distance runners (age, 27.4 ± 3.8 years; body mass, 64.8 ± 8.9 kg; height, 173.6 ± 6.4 cm; and VO2max, 60.9 ± 8.5 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) received assignment to an uphill interval training group (G(Hill) = 12), level-grade interval training group (G(Flat) = 12), or control group (G(Con) = 8). G(Hill) and G(Flat) completed 12 interval and 12 continuous running sessions over 6 weeks, whereas G(Con) maintained their normal training routine. Pre- and posttest measures of VO2max, Vmax, V(LT), and Tmax were used to assess performance. A 3 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance was performed for each dependent variable and revealed a significant difference in Tmax in both G(Hill) and G(Flat) (p < 0.05). With regard to running performance, the results indicate that both uphill and level-grade interval training can induce significant improvements in a run-to-exhaustion test in well-trained runners at the speed associated with VO2max but that traditional level-grade training produces greater gains. PMID:22996027

  13. Nutrients intake, performance and nitrogen balance of West African dwarf sheep fed graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplement to Panicum maximum.

    PubMed

    Idowu, O J; Arigbede, O M; Dele, P A; Olanite, J A; Adelusi, O O; Ojo, V O A; Sunmola, A S

    2013-12-01

    A study was conducted to assess the nutritive value of Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplementary feed for ruminant animals during the dry season when grasses are either not available or of low quality. Matured fruits of E. cyclocarpum were collected, toasted, peeled and then used for the trial. Thirty two West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep aged between 12 +/- 2 months with an average body weight of 10 +/- 2 kg were used in assessing the nutritive value of graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seed in a concentrate diets as supplement to Panicum maximum basal diet. The percent compositions of the experimental diets were toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds at various levels of inclusion (0, 10, 20 and 30%) for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4. respectively. The diets (1-4) were consecutively fed to each animal at 50 g kg(-1) b.wt. for 12 weeks in a completely randomized design. Parameters taken were weekly body weights, daily feed intake, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance status for each animal. Diet 2 had the highest significant (p < 0.05) nutrients intake being 871.88, 137.13, 147.59, 33.26 and 69.86 g day(-1) for DM, CP, CF, EE and ASH respectively. The Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD) coefficients decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased inclusion levels of toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds supplementation. Sheep fed diet 4 had the lowest feed conversion ratio (8.61) and the highest daily average gain of 58.93 g. However the animals fed Diet 2 had the highest nitrogen retension and converted their feed to flesh. PMID:24506053

  14. Structural architecture supports functional organization in the human aging brain at a regionwise and network level.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Joelle; Ritter, Petra; Shen, Kelly; Rothmeier, Simon; Schirner, Michael; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2016-07-01

    Functional interactions in the brain are constrained by the underlying anatomical architecture, and structural and functional networks share network features such as modularity. Accordingly, age-related changes of structural connectivity (SC) may be paralleled by changes in functional connectivity (FC). We provide a detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of the SC-FC coupling in human aging as inferred from resting-state blood oxygen-level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging in a sample of 47 adults with an age range of 18-82. We revealed that SC and FC decrease with age across most parts of the brain and there is a distinct age-dependency of regionwise SC-FC coupling and network-level SC-FC relations. A specific pattern of SC-FC coupling predicts age more reliably than does regionwise SC or FC alone (r = 0.73, 95% CI = [0.7093, 0.8522]). Hence, our data propose that regionwise SC-FC coupling can be used to characterize brain changes in aging. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2645-2661, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27041212

  15. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  16. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  17. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  18. [PHARMACOLOGICAL CORRECTION OF APOPTOSIS LEVEL OF CORTICAL NEURONS IN AGED HER2/NEU TRANSGENIC MICE].

    PubMed

    Bazhanova, E D; Kozlova, Yu O; Anisimov, V N; Sukhanov, D S; Teply, D L

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative changes and neuronal death are the basis for development of the nervous system aging. We investigated the mechanism of apoptosis of the sensorimotor cortex neurons of transgenic mice HER2/neu during aging, changes in the cortex function and the participation of exogenous neurometabolites (cytoflavin, piracetam) in regulation of neuronal death and locomotor and psycho-emotional status of mice. The level of apoptosis and expression of apoptosis markers (TUNEL, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting) in HER2/neu transgenic mice as compared to wild type mice (FBV line) were determined. In aging FBV mice the basal activity was shown to decrease and anxiety to increase correlating with the high level of neuronal apoptosis. We identified behavioral characteristics of transgenic HER2/neu mice and found that their low basal activity does not change with aging. Previously we have shown that in this strain of mice the apoptosis level is low, without any age-related changes, due to the suppression, first of all, of the p53-dependent pathway by HER2 (tyrosine kinase receptor) overexpression. Cytoflavin and piracetam were revealed to possess a marked neuroprotective effect, preserving and restoring functions of the nervous system (improving locomotion and psychological status) in both strains of mice. The effect of neurometabolites studied on neuronal apoptosis is ambiguous. In case of its low level it is a moderate stumulation of apoptosis via the external p53-dependent pathways with activation of caspase-3 in transgenic HER2/neu mice with high carcinogenesis level that can possibly prevent tumor development. On the contrary, in old wild-type animals we observed a significant decrease of age-dependent apoptosis level (by stimulating expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1), which prevents neurodegeneration. PMID:27220241

  19. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  20. The Effect of Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence and Personality when Controlling for Parental Trait Levels

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents’ intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  1. Eating Attitudes in Fourth-, Sixth-, and Eighth-Grade Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhyne-Winkler, Martha C.

    1994-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes of fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-grade girls (n=379) and relationship between those attitudes and achievement scores, school ability, absenteeism, family income, grade level, family size, age, height/weight ratio, diet history, weight satisfaction, appearance satisfaction, and school anxiety. Found that eating-disordered…

  2. The effects of incline and level-grade high-intensity interval treadmill training on running economy and muscle power in well-trained distance runners.

    PubMed

    Ferley, Derek D; Osborn, Roy W; Vukovich, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Despite a paucity of evidence, uphill running has been touted as a sport-specific resistance-to-movement training tactic capable of enhancing metabolic, muscular, and neuromuscular processes in distance runners in ways similar to previously established resistance-to-movement training methods, such as heavy and/or explosive strength training and plyometric training. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included documenting the effects of incline and level-grade interval treadmill training on indices of running economy (RE) (i.e., oxygen consumption [VO2] and blood lactate [BLa] responses of submaximal running) and muscle power. Thirty-two well-trained distance runners (age, 27.4 ± 3.8 years; body mass, 64.8 ± 8.9 kg; height, 173.6 ± 6.4 cm; and VO2max, 60.9 ± 8.5 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) received assignment to an uphill (GHill = 12), level-grade (GFlat = 12), or control (GCon = 8) group. GHill and GFlat completed 12 interval and 12 continuous run sessions over 6 weeks, whereas GCon maintained their normal training. Dependent variables measured before and after training were VO2 and BLa at 2 separate velocities associated with lactate threshold (VLT) (VO2-60% and VO2-80%; and BLa-60% and BLa-80%, respectively); percentage of VO2max at lactate threshold (%VO2max at VLT); muscle power as assessed through a horizontal 5-jump test (5Jmax); and isokinetic knee extension and flexion at 3 angular velocities (90, 180, and 300°·s(-1)). Statistical significance was set to p ≤ 0.05. All groups significantly improved 5Jmax, VO2-60%, VO2-80%, BLa-60%, and BLa-80%. Additionally, GHill and GFlat significantly improved %VO2max at VLT. Other indices of RE and muscle power did not improve. We conclude incline treadmill training effective for improving the components of RE, but insufficient as a resistance-to-movement exercise for enhancing muscle power output. PMID:24172721

  3. Alterations in nocturnal serum melatonin levels in humans with growth and aging.

    PubMed

    Waldhauser, F; Weiszenbacher, G; Tatzer, E; Gisinger, B; Waldhauser, M; Schemper, M; Frisch, H

    1988-03-01

    The available data on potential alterations in serum melatonin (MLT) levels during a human lifetime are fragmentary and inconsistent. We, therefore, measured day- and nighttime serum MLT concentrations in 367 subjects (210 males and 157 females), aged 3 days to 90 yr. Blood samples were collected between 0730 and 1000 h and between 2300 and 0100 h. Serum MLT levels were measured by RIA. The mean nighttime serum MLT concentration was low during the first 6 months of life, i.e. 27.3 +/- 5.4 (+/- SE) pg/mL (0.12 +/- 0.02 nmol/L). It then increased to a peak value at 1-3 yr of age [329.5 +/- 42.0 pg/mL; (1.43 +/- 0.18 nmol/L)], and it was considerably lower [62.5 +/- 9.0 pg/mL; (0.27 +/- 0.04 nmol/L)] in individuals aged 15-20 yr. During the following decades serum MLT declined moderately until old age (70-90 yr of age), i.e. 29.2 +/- 6.1 pg/mL (0.13 +/- 0.03 nmol/L). This biphasic MLT decline follows 2 exponential functions with different slopes (from age 1-20 yr: r = -0.56; P less than 0.001; y = 278.7 X e -0.09x; from age 20-90 yr: r = -0.44; P less than 0.001; y = 84.8 X e -0.017x). The decrease in nocturnal serum MLT in children and adolescents (1-20 yr) correlated with the increase in body weight (r = -0.54; P less than 0.001) and body surface area (r = -0.71; P less than 0.001). At a later age (20-90 yr) there was no correlation among these variables. Daytime serum MLT levels were low and no age-related alterations were found. This study revealed major age-related alterations in nocturnal serum MLT levels. The negative correlation between serum MLT and body weight in childhood and adolescence is evidence that expansion of body size is responsible for the huge MLT decrease during that period. The moderate decline at older ages must derive from other factors. PMID:3350912

  4. Integration of mRNA expression profile, copy number alterations, and microRNA expression levels in breast cancer to improve grade definition.

    PubMed

    Cava, Claudia; Bertoli, Gloria; Ripamonti, Marilena; Mauri, Giancarlo; Zoppis, Italo; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Defining the aggressiveness and growth rate of a malignant cell population is a key step in the clinical approach to treating tumor disease. The correct grading of breast cancer (BC) is a fundamental part in determining the appropriate treatment. Biological variables can make it difficult to elucidate the mechanisms underlying BC development. To identify potential markers that can be used for BC classification, we analyzed mRNAs expression profiles, gene copy numbers, microRNAs expression and their association with tumor grade in BC microarray-derived datasets. From mRNA expression results, we found that grade 2 BC is most likely a mixture of grade 1 and grade 3 that have been misclassified, being described by the gene signature of either grade 1 or grade 3. We assessed the potential of the new approach of integrating mRNA expression profile, copy number alterations, and microRNA expression levels to select a limited number of genomic BC biomarkers. The combination of mRNA profile analysis and copy number data with microRNA expression levels led to the identification of two gene signatures of 42 and 4 altered genes (FOXM1, KPNA4, H2AFV and DDX19A) respectively, the latter obtained through a meta-analytical procedure. The 42-based gene signature identifies 4 classes of up- or down-regulated microRNAs (17 microRNAs) and of their 17 target mRNA, and the 4-based genes signature identified 4 microRNAs (Hsa-miR-320d, Hsa-miR-139-5p, Hsa-miR-567 and Hsa-let-7c). These results are discussed from a biological point of view with respect to pathological features of BC. Our identified mRNAs and microRNAs were validated as prognostic factors of BC disease progression, and could potentially facilitate the implementation of assays for laboratory validation, due to their reduced number. PMID:24866763

  5. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.H.; Hackleman, S.M.; Braun, A.M.; Pennington, P.; Saphire, D.G.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J.C.; Cox, A.B.

    1994-06-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure of protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age. 48 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Multi-level femoral morphology and mechanical properties of rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Ma, Renshi; Fang, Juan; Fan, Yobo

    2015-07-01

    A macro-micro-nano-multi-level study was conducted to explore age-related structural and mechanical properties of bone, as well as the effects of aging on bone properties. A total of 70 male Wistar rats were used, ranging in the ages of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, and 17 months (n = 7/age group). After micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning, longitudinal cortical bone specimens with a length of 5mm were cut along the femoral shaft axis from left femur shafts for mechanical testing, and the cross-sectional areas were measured. The macro-mechanical properties obtained in mechanical testing and microarchitecture parameters measured by micro-CT were significantly correlated with the animal age (r(2) = 0.96, p < 0.001). Scanning electron microscopy was used for detecting the microarchitecture features of the fractured surfaces, which exhibited age-related plate-fibrous-mixed fibrous-plate texture, resulting in changes in macro-mechanical properties (r(2) > 0.90, p < 0.001). The mineral phase of the left femoral shaft and head was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Longitudinal and transverse trabecular bone tissues, as well as longitudinal cortical bone tissue, were used for nanoindentation test, and the chemical composition was evaluated by quantitative chemical analyses. The correlations between mineral content and bone material properties (i.e., elastic properties of the bone tissue and size and roughness of bone mineral grains) were highly significant (r > 0.95, p < 0.001). Multi-level femur morphology, mechanical property, and mineral content were significantly correlated with the animal age. The correlations between bone mineral content and bone material morphological and mechanical properties may partly explain the increase in bone fragility with aging, which will provide a theoretical basis for the investigation of age-related bone properties in clinics. PMID:25857690

  7. DNA methylation levels of α-synuclein intron 1 in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    de Boni, Laura; Riedel, Linda; Schmitt, Ina; Kraus, Theo F J; Kaut, Oliver; Piston, Dominik; Akbarian, Schahram; Wüllner, Ullrich

    2015-12-01

    DNA methylation patterns change with age, and aging itself is a major confounding risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Duplication and triplication, that is, increased expression of the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene, cause familial PD, and demethylation of SNCA intron 1 has been shown to result in increased expression of SNCA. We thus hypothesized that age-related alterations of SNCA methylation might underly the increased susceptibility toward PD in later life. The present study sought to determine (1) whether alterations of SNCA intron 1 methylation occurred during aging, (2) whether the methylation pattern differed between men and women, and (3) whether purified neurons compared with non-neuronal cells exhibited different methylation patterns. The analysis of DNA from brain tissue and fluorescence activated cell sorting-sorted purified neurons of 41 individuals revealed only a minor increase of SNCA intron 1 DNA methylation levels in presumably healthy individuals during aging but no significant difference between men and women. Interestingly enough, methylation of SNCA intron 1 was higher in neurons compared with non-neuronal cells, although non-neuronal cells express lower levels of SNCA. Therefore, the normal pattern of SNCA methylation during aging should not result in increased expression of α-synuclein protein. It is thus likely that additional, yet not identified, mechanisms contribute to the tissue specificity of SNCA expression and the presumed dysregulation in PD. PMID:26422361

  8. An Examination of the Quality of Literacy Skill Assessments across Levels of Second-Grade, Spanish-Speaking, English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the quality of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) across a sample of second-grade English Language (EL) learners with varying degrees of English proficiency (e.g., students with beginning, early intermediate, intermediate, early advanced, and advanced levels). DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency…

  9. The Effects of Contingent Praise Upon the Achievement of a Deficit Junior High School Student in Oral Reading Accuracy in Probes Above Her Functional Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proe, Susan; Wade, David

    Evaluated was the effectiveness of three training procedures (imitation training, imitation training with praise, and imitation training with points for an art supply contingency) in improving the oral reading accuracy and reading comprehension of a 13-year-old girl whose functional reading was at the second grade level. The procedures were…

  10. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) Educator's Guide to TEKS-Based Assessment. Elementary Level TAAS Grades 3-6, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Student Assessment.

    The goal of this series of guides is to show Texas educators what components of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) curriculum are eligible for testing on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) and end-of-course tests. This elementary level guide contains information for subjects tested in grades 3 through 6. The sections are:…

  11. A Comparison of Difficulty Levels of Vocabulary in First Grade Basal Readers for Preschool Dual Language Learners and Monolingual English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia B.; Silverman, Rebecca; Nandakumar, Ratna; Qian, Xiaoyu; Hines, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated preschoolers' knowledge of vocabulary that appears in first grade basal readers by applying Rasch modeling to data from a researcher-developed receptive picture vocabulary assessment administered to 238 children. Levels of word difficulty for dual language learners (DLLs) and monolingual English learners (MELs) were…

  12. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program. 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Second Grade, Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the second grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  13. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program, 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Third Grade, Level 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the third grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  14. Homemaking--Family Living. Curriculum Planning Guidelines. Level I-II. Middle School, Grades 5-8. Reprint 1978. Home Economics Education, [No. 1].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This curriculum guide for Levels I and II home economics teachers in New York State provides guidelines for developing instructional program content for grades 5-8. An introductory section describes the design of the homemaking-family living curriculum; presents procedures for utilizing modules in planning instruction with an example of plans for…

  15. A Project to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Pre-Phonic Training Between Kindergarten and First Grade Levels (Project PEEP). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marko, Kathleen Barrett

    The effectiveness of prephonic training between kindergarten and first grade levels as a tool for acquiring reading skills was explored throughout the public school system in the city of New Bedford, Massachusetts. A sample population of 260 kindergartners was identified as having potential learning difficulties by the results shown on the…

  16. Do Children Who Read More Books Know "What is Good Writing" Better Than Children Who Read Less? A Comparison Between Grade Levels and SES Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Schiff, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    We investigated how SES, grade level, and book reading experiences are related to children's writing self-efficacy as well as to their knowledge of "good writing" and "writing difficulties." The sample included 199 middle-high (HSES) and low (LSES) SES children (63 second graders, 67 fourth graders, and 69 sixth graders). Gender and SES (low and…

  17. The Relationship of Values in Elementary School 4th Grade Social Studies Textbook with the Attainments and Their Level of Being Included in Student Workbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…

  18. The Level of Diagnostic Tests' Preparation Skills among the Teachers of the First Three Elementary Grades' Teachers at the Directorate of Education of Bani Kinana District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaghmour, Kholoud Subhi; Obaidat, Luai Taleb; Hamadneh, Qaseem Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the level of Diagnostic Tests' Preparation Skills among the teachers of the first Three Elementary Grades at the Directorate of Education of Bani Kinana District, and its relationship to the variables of gender, academic qualification, and years of experience. The sample of the study consisted of (264) male and female…

  19. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics: Junior High School Level (Grades 7-9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaszak, Ronald A.; Clawson, Elmer U.

    This guide contains concept-based lessons and activities in economics for use with students in grades 7-9. One component of a two-part publication, the guide demonstrates how the conceptual structure of the economics discipline presented in the first publication (ED 148 648) can be used to help students at the junior high school level make more…

  20. The Social Interactions of Students with Disabilities in a 5th Grade Level Inclusive Classroom and the Effect on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall-Reed, Estella

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative, ethnographic case study of 3 students with disabilities. The purpose of this research study was to observe and collect descriptive accounts of the social interactions that exist between the cultures in a 5th grade level inclusive classroom, such as the interactions between the special education students, general…

  1. Effects of Graded Levels of Isomaltooligosaccharides on the Performance, Immune Function and Intestinal Status of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. X.; Song, P. X.; Wu, H.; Xue, J. X.; Zhong, X.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) on the performance, immune function and intestinal microflora and intestinal mucosal morphology of weaned pigs. In a 28-day experiment, one hundred eighty, twenty eight-day-old, crossbred (Duroc×Large White×Landrace), weaned pigs, with an initial body weight of 8.19±1.45 kg, were fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal based diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, or 0.8% IMO added at the expense of corn. Each treatment was replicated six times with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts) per pen. From day 0 to 14, weight gain was linearly increased (p<0.05), while gain:feed (p<0.05) was linearly improved and diarrhea rate (p = 0.05) linearly declined as the IMO level increased. On d 14, the level of the immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, and IgG in the serum of pigs were linearly increased (p<0.05) with increasing IMO supplementation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was linearly (p<0.05) and quadratically (p<0.05) decreased as IMO intake increased. From day 15 to 28, there was a trend for weight gain to be linearly increased, and IL-2 was linearly (p<0.05) increased as IMO supplementation increased on d 28. Over the entire experiment, weight gain was linearly increased (p<0.05), while gain:feed (p<0.05) was linearly improved and diarrhea rate (p<0.05) was linearly decreased as the IMO level increased. Supplementation with IMO had no effect on the intestinal microflora of pigs in the ileum and cecum of pigs, as well as the villus height and crypt depth in the ileum and jejunum (p>0.05). These results indicate that dietary inclusion of IMO increases weight gain, gain:feed and enhanced the immune status of pigs, and could be a valuable feed additive for use in weaned pigs, particularly during the period immediately after weaning. PMID:26732450

  2. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Trivedi, Malav S; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26799654

  3. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W.; Trivedi, Malav S.; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M.; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26799654

  4. Physical Activity Level and Physical Functionality in Nonagenarians Compared to Individuals Aged 60–74 Years

    PubMed Central

    Frisard, Madlyn I.; Fabre, Jennifer M.; Russell, Ryan D.; King, Christina M.; DeLany, James P.; Wood, Robert H.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional dependence and the risks of disability increase with age. The loss of independence is thought to be partially due to a decrease in physical activity. However, in populations, accurate measurement of physical activity is challenging and may not provide information on functional impairment. Methods This study therefore assessed physical functionality and physical activity level in a group of nonagenarians (11 men/11 women; 93 ± 1 years, 66.6 ± 2.4 kg, body mass index [BMI] = 24 ± 1 kg/m2) and a group of participants aged 60–74 years (17 men/15 women; 70 ± 1 years, 83.3 ± 3.0 kg, BMI = 29 ± 1 kg/m2) from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Physical activity level was calculated from total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Physical functionality was assessed using the Reduced Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP10). Results Nonagenarians had lower absolute ( p < .001) and adjusted ( p < .007) TEE compared to participants aged 60–74 years which was attributed to a reduction in both RMR and physical activity level. Nonagenarians also had reduced functional performance ( p < .001) which was correlated with activity level (r = 0.68, p < .001). Conclusions When compared to individuals aged 60–74 years, 73% of the reduction in TEE in nonagenarians can be attributed to a reduction in physical activity level, the remaining being accounted for by a reduction in RMR. The reduced physical activity in nonagenarians is associated with less physical functionality. This study provides the first objective comparison of physical functionality and actual levels of physical activity in older individuals. PMID:17634327

  5. Splenic Stromal Cells from Aged Mice Produce Higher Levels of IL-6 Compared to Young Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jihyun; Miyakawa, Takuya; Shiokawa, Aya; Nakajima-Adachi, Haruyo; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Inflamm-aging indicates the chronic inflammatory state resulting from increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators such as IL-6 in the elderly. Our principle objective was to identify cell types that were affected with aging concerning IL-6 secretion in the murine model. We compared IL-6 production in spleen cells from both young and aged mice and isolated several types of cells from spleen and investigated IL-6 mRNA expression and protein production. IL-6 protein productions in cultured stromal cells from aged mice spleen were significantly high compared to young mice upon LPS stimulation. IL-6 mRNA expression level of freshly isolated stromal cells from aged mice was high compared to young mice. Furthermore, stromal cells of aged mice highly expressed IL-6 mRNA after LPS injection in vivo. These results suggest that stromal cells play a role in producing IL-6 in aged mice and imply that they contribute to the chronic inflammatory condition in the elderly. PMID:24729663

  6. The effects of age and gender on plasma levels of 63 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Lena; Gordh, Torsten; Lind, Anne-Li; Thulin, Måns; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2015-10-01

    Cytokines play important roles as regulators of cell functions, and over the last decades a number of cytokine assays have been developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokines. Plasma samples were collected from 33 healthy blood donors. The samples were analyzed using a multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) allowing simultaneous measurement of 92 cytokines and four technical controls. Biomarkers with less than 80% quantitative results were excluded leaving 63 cytokines that were analyzed for the effects of gender and age. The plasma level of three of the investigated biomarkers (DNER, MCP-4 and MMP-10) were found to be significantly different for the two genders (adjusted p-value<0.05), and 15 of the biomarkers (CCL11, CCL25, CDCP1, CSF-1, CXCL11, CXCL9, FGF-23, Flt3L, HGF, IL-10RB, MCP-3, MCP-4, MMP-10, OPG, VEGF-A) were significantly associated with age. This study reveals the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokine assays. CXCL5 and TNFB were significantly higher in females, while the other markers with significant gender-dependent differences were higher in males. For the markers that were significantly associated with age, only CXCL6 was found to decrease with age, while the other biomarkers increased with age. PMID:26080062

  7. Age-dependent dichotomous effect of superoxide dismutase Ala16Val polymorphism on oxidized LDL levels

    PubMed Central

    Kanoni, Stavroula; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Louizou, Eirini; Grigoriou, Efi; Chrysohoou, Christina; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the association between superoxide dismutase (SOD) Ala16Val polymorphism and the levels of oxidized LDL lipoprotein-C (ox-LDL-C) in two age-different Greek cohorts. Four hundred fifteen middle-aged (n = 147 females: 43.2 ± 13 years, n = 268 males: 43.3 ± 14 years) Caucasian Greek subjects consisted the middle aged cohort. One hundred seventy five elderly (n = 88 females: 79.9 ± 4 years; n = 87 males: 80.6 ± 4 years) were selected from the elderly cohort. Genotype data were obtained for all of them. Multiple linear regression analysis, stratified by gender and adjusted for age, smoking habits and body mass index as covariates, showed higher ox-LDL-C levels for the middle aged men with the Val/Val genotype, compared to the other allele (Ala/Ala and Ala/Val) carriers (65.9 ± 25.7 vs. 55.7 ± 20.5 mg/dl; standardized β coefficient = 0.192, P = 0.012). On the contrary, elderly women with the Val/Val genotype occurred with lower ox-LDL-C levels compared to the Ala/Ala or Ala/Val genotype (74.2 ± 22.1 vs. 86.5 ± 26.6 mg/dl; standardized β coefficient = -0.269, P = 0.015). The same trend was also recorded in elderly men, however without reaching statistical significance (standardized β coefficient = -0.187, P = 0.077). Moreover, elderly men and women with the Ala/Ala or Ala/Val genotype presented higher triglycerides levels compared to Val/Val (women: 145.2 ± 68.7 vs. 114.3 ± 34.3 mg/dl, P = 0.027; men: 147.8 ± 72.4 vs. 103.7 ± 38.0 mg/dl, P = 0.002). Additionally, middle aged men with the Val/Val genotype had higher HDL-C levels compared to the Ala allele carriers. The results suggest that SOD Ala16Val polymorphism is an age-dependent modulator of ox-LDL-C levels in middle-aged men and elderly women. PMID:18305395

  8. Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Aspect of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation (Pathophysiological ParaInflammation)

    PubMed Central

    Nita, Małgorzata; Ascaso, Francisco J.; Huerva, Valentín

    2014-01-01

    The products of oxidative stress trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (pathophysiological parainflammation) process in AMD patients. In early AMD, soft drusen contain many mediators of chronic low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein, adducts of the carboxyethylpyrrole protein, immunoglobulins, and acute phase molecules, as well as the complement-related proteins C3a, C5a, C5, C5b-9, CFH, CD35, and CD46. The complement system, mainly alternative pathway, mediates chronic autologous pathophysiological parainflammation in dry and exudative AMD, especially in the Y402H gene polymorphism, which causes hypofunction/lack of the protective complement factor H (CFH) and facilitates chronic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP). Microglial activation induces photoreceptor cells injury and leads to the development of dry AMD. Many autoantibodies (antibodies against alpha beta crystallin, alpha-actinin, amyloid, C1q, chondroitin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, elastin, fibronectin, heparan sulfate, histone H2A, histone H2B, hyaluronic acid, laminin, proteoglycan, vimentin, vitronectin, and aldolase C and pyruvate kinase M2) and overexpression of Fcc receptors play role in immune-mediated inflammation in AMD patients and in animal model. Macrophages infiltration of retinal/choroidal interface acts as protective factor in early AMD (M2 phenotype macrophages); however it acts as proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor in advanced AMD (M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages). PMID:25214719

  9. Age-specific profiles of tissue-level composition and mechanical properties in murine cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that bone composition and tissue-level mechanical properties are significant determinants of skeletal integrity. In the current study, Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation testing were co-localized to analyze tissue-level compositional and mechanical properties in skeletally mature young (4 or 5 months) and old (19 months) murine femora at similar spatial scales. Standard multivariate linear regression analysis revealed age-dependent patterns in the relationships between mechanical and compositional properties at the tissue scale. However, changes in bone material properties with age are often complex and nonlinear, and can be missed with linear regression and correlation-based methods. A retrospective data mining approach was implemented using non-linear multidimensional visualization and classification to identify spectroscopic and nanoindentation metrics that best discriminated bone specimens of different age-classes. The ability to classify the specimens into the correct age group increased by using combinations of Raman and nanoindentation variables (86–96% accuracy) as compared to using individual measures (59–79% accuracy). Metrics that best classified 4 or 5 month and 19 month specimens (2-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus and plasticity index. Metrics that best distinguished between 4, 5 and 19 month specimens (3-age classes) were mineral to matrix ratio, crystallinity, modulus, hardness, cross-linking, carbonate to phosphate ratio, creep displacement and creep viscosity. These findings attest to the complexity of mechanisms underlying bone tissue properties and draw attention to the importance of considering non-linear interactions between tissue-level composition and mechanics that may work together to influence material properties with age. The results demonstrate that a few non-linearly combined compositional and mechanical metrics provide better discriminatory information than a single

  10. Coordination pattern of baseball pitching among young pitchers of various ages and velocity levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the whole-body movement coordination of pitching among 72 baseball players of various ages and velocity levels. Participants were classified as senior, junior, and little according to their age, with each group comprising 24 players. The velocity levels of the high-velocity (the top eight) and low-velocity (the lowest eight) groups were classified according to their pitching velocity. During pitching, the coordinates of 15 markers attached to the major joints of the whole-body movement system were collected for analysis. Sixteen kinematic parameters were calculated to compare the groups and velocity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to quantify the coordination pattern of pitching movement. The results were as follows: (1) five position and two velocity parameters significantly differed among the age groups, and two position and one velocity parameters significantly differed between the high- and low-velocity groups. (2) The coordination patterns of pitching movement could be described using three components, of which the eigenvalues and contents varied according to age and velocity level. In conclusion, the senior and junior players showed greater elbow angular velocity, whereas the little players exhibited a wider shoulder angle only at the beginning of pitching. The players with high velocity exhibited higher trunk and shoulder rotation velocity. The variations among groups found using PCA and kinematics parameter analyses were consistent. PMID:26757065

  11. Comparisons of Levels and Predictors of Mothers' and Fathers' Engagement with Their Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kotila, Letitia E.; Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-report data from 112 two-parent families were used to compare levels and predictors of four types of mothers' and fathers' engagement with their preschool-aged children: socialisation, didactic, caregiving, and physical play. Mothers were more involved than fathers in socialisation, didactic, and caregiving, whereas fathers were more involved…

  12. Motor Performance of Women as a Function of Age and Physical Activity Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta; Busch, Sharman

    Two studies compared motor skills of women in terms of the influence of age and activity level. In the first study, simple and choice reaction time, balance, flexibility, and grip strength of older active women were compared with that of older inactive women, and active and inactive younger women. Except for grip strength, scores of older active…

  13. Effects of Child Age and Level of Developmental Delay on Family Practice Physicians' Diagnostic Impressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epps, Susan; Kroeker, Rose

    1995-01-01

    This study of the effects of child age (20 and 40 months) and level of developmental delay (mild and severe) on identification of developmental disorders by 155 family practice physicians provided evidence that identification of developmental delay was generally high across conditions, with mild delay being less likely to be detected. (Author/JDD)

  14. Probiotic Microbes Sustain Youthful Serum Testosterone Levels and Testicular Size in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Levkovich, Tatiana; Qi, Peimin; Varian, Bernard J.; Lakritz, Jessica R.; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Alm, Eric J.; Erdman, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals. PMID:24392159

  15. Paired-Associate Learning at Three Imagery Levels in Level I and Level II Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prawat, Richard S.

    Two views of paired-associate learning were examined by assessing the paired-associate learning efficiency of eighth grade samples identified by digit span and IQ test performance as Jensen-type Level I and Level II learners. Eighty eighth grade students ranging in age from 13 years 3 months to 14 years 10 months were selected as subjects. Three…

  16. Influence of feeding graded levels of canned sardines on the inflammatory markers and tissue fatty acid composition of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro O; Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Ramos, Cristina; Miguéis, Samuel; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinto, Rui M A; Rolo, Eva A; Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Prates, José A M

    2014-08-14

    Canned sardines are a ready-to-use fish product with excellent nutritional properties owing to its high n-3 long-chain PUFA content, mainly EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3). The present study aimed to assess the effect of two dosages of canned sardines, recommended for the primary and secondary prevention of human CVD, on the inflammatory marker concentrations and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and key metabolic tissues (liver, muscle, adipose tissue and brain) in the rat model. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 11 % (w/w) of canned sardines (low-sardine (LS) diet) and a diet containing 22 % (w/w) of canned sardines (high-sardine (HS) diet) for 10 weeks. Daily food intake, weight gain, and organ and final body weights were not affected by the dietary treatments. The concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased in both the LS and HS groups, while those of alanine aminotransferase and adiponectin increased. The concentrations of IL-1β increased only with the highest dosage of sardine. The dose-dependent influence of the graded levels of EPA+DHA was tissue specific. Compared with that of other tissues and erythrocytes, the fatty acid composition of the brain was less affected by the canned sardine-supplemented diets. In contrast, the retroperitoneal adipose tissue was highly responsive. The deposition ratios of EPA and DHA indicated that the LS diet was optimal for DHA deposition across the tissues, except in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Taken together, our findings indicate that a LS diet positively affects plasma lipid profiles and inflammatory mediators, whereas a HS diet has contradictory effects on IL-1β, which, in turn, is not associated with variations in the concentrations of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. This finding requires further investigation and pathophysiological understanding. PMID:24775714

  17. Phenobarbital plasma level/dose ratio in monotherapy. Influence of age, sex and dose.

    PubMed

    Durán, J A; Sánchez, A; Serrano, M I; Serrano, J S

    1988-05-01

    Phenobarbital plasma level/dose ratio (L/D) has been studied in 536 outpatients distributed in groups according to age, sex and drug dosage. Samples were obtained prior to the first morning dose. Plasma levels that correspond to the steady-state phase were determined by homogeneous enzymatic immunoassay (EMITR). From the results it must be pointed out: 1) An increase of L/D as the age increases within each group; 2) A decrease of L/D as the dose of phenobarbital increases in the overall sample; 3) Sex does not affect L/D in any of the subgroups studied; 4) For a given dose higher blood levels are reached in children 7 to 15 years old in our sample than in other comparable studies in Spain. PMID:3398650

  18. An event-level investigation of hangovers' relationship to age and drinking.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Geoffrey; Treloar, Hayley; Blanchard, Alexander; Monti, Peter M; Carey, Kate B; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Miranda, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Animal and human data suggest that adolescents experience hangover effects that are distinct from adults. The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods to examine the temporal relationships between drinking and hangovers, and how this varied by age and sex. We hypothesized that alcohol's dose-dependent effects on hangover severity are more pronounced among adolescents and young adults than older drinkers. We also explored whether greater hangover severity would lead to a lower likelihood and volume of alcohol use later the same day. Data were pooled from 4 studies of drinkers (N = 274; ages 15 to 66 years) who completed a 4- to 14-day (M = 7.46, SD = 1.13) EMA monitoring period. Each morning, participants recorded how much alcohol they consumed the day before and rated their hangover severity. Participants who consumed a greater quantity of alcohol the prior day reported more severe hangover symptoms; however, there was an interaction between drinking volume and age, such that hangover was more severe among younger drinkers, especially at higher drinking levels. More severe hangover symptoms did not predict the likelihood of drinking later that day; however, on drinking days, more severe hangover symptoms predicted lower quantities of alcohol use later that day. This event-level effect did not vary as a function of age. Study outcomes did not vary by sex. Our findings suggest that younger drinkers experience more severe hangovers, and that greater hangover results in lighter drinking later that same day regardless of age. PMID:26280593

  19. A study of student attitudes toward physics and classroom environment based on gender and grade level among senior secondary education students in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaerul, Andrie

    The main purposes of the present study are to investigate the differences on student's attitudes toward physics and their perceptions regarding classroom climate during physics classes based on gender and grade level. In addition, the study also explores female students' opinions about physics, and examines to what extent this factor might influence their decision to choose or not to choose physics or physics-related fields for their career choices in the future. A group of approximately 864 male and female students, equally proportioned by gender, were assigned to take part in this study. Two standardized instruments, namely the Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ) and the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), have been employed to collect data. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to analyze the collected data resulting from the questionnaires as well as from the interviews. The study found, first, regardless of their gender and grade level differences, students expected a more positive classroom climate during learning physics. Also, it has been found that male students experience a more positive classroom environment than female students. Second, the study found that male students do show more positive attitudes toward physics than their female counterparts. Meanwhile, twelfth-grade students show a more positive attitude toward physics than eleventh-graders. Third, the study found that most female students do not like physics based on several reasons such as physics is a hard, monotonous and boring subject. Although eleventh-grade female students do not like physics, most of them intended to choose science as their major in the next grade. Surprisingly, a majority of twelfth-grade female students who are majoring in science have no intention to choose physics or physics-related subjects either for their prospective major at the university or for their career choices in the future.

  20. Serum transthyretin levels in senile systemic amyloidosis: effects of age, gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Joel; Koziol, James; Connors, Lawreen H

    2008-12-01

    Serum transthyretin (TTR) levels are reduced in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). A single study of patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) in Sweden found that those individuals also had a significantly lower mean serum TTR concentration than age- and gender-matched controls. To determine if the same phenomenon prevailed in an ethnically more heterogeneous population, we compared the serum TTR levels, as determined by ELISA, in 45 documented SSA patients with congestive heart failure, 20 AL patients with congestive heart failure and population controls. Serum TTR concentrations in the controls were influenced in a statistically significant manner by age, gender and ethnicity. Although it is unlikely that such differences are clinically relevant, they must be considered when assessing the meaning of serum TTR concentrations in any clinically defined population. The serum concentrations in patients with SSA did not differ from age, gender and ethnically matched controls or from a group of AL patients with significant clinical cardiac involvement. We also compared TTR concentrations in 12 African-Americans carrying the TTR V122I allele with those in 826 African-Americans who were homozygous wild type at the TTR locus. The TTR V122I carriers had significantly lower serum TTR concentrations than appropriate controls even though the majority of such individuals had not reached the age of clinical or anatomic risk, i.e. over 60. Thus, as in carriers of other TTR mutations the serum TTR level is lower than normal, despite having a much later appearance of clinical disease. PMID:19065297

  1. Alpha-Synuclein Levels in Blood Plasma Decline with Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Niklas K. U.; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S.; Jovin, Thomas M.; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001), possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens. PMID:25844871

  2. Age-related differences in plasma BDNF levels after prolonged bed rest.

    PubMed

    Soavi, Cecilia; Marušič, Uroš; Sanz, Juana Maria; Morieri, Mario Luca; Dalla Nora, Edoardo; Šimunič, Bostjan; Pišot, Rado; Zuliani, Giovanni; Passaro, Angelina

    2016-05-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the family of neurotrophins and has been implicated in brain resistance to insults. Murine studies have demonstrated increased hippocampal concentration after acute immobilization and decreased concentration after chronic immobilization. In humans, chronic stress and sedentary lifestyle result in decreased plasma BDNF levels, but there no data exist regarding acute immobilization. The aim of our study was to evaluate age-related responses [comparing 7 younger subjects (age 23 ± 3 yr) and 8 older subjects (age 60 ± 4 yr)] of plasma BDNF before (baseline data collection, BDC) and after 14 days (BR14) of horizontal bed rest (BR). At BDC, BDNF levels were not different between the two groups (P = 0.101), although at BR14, BDNF levels were higher in older subjects (62.02 ± 18.31) than in younger subjects (34.36 ± 15.24 pg/ml) (P = 0.002). A general linear model for repeated measures showed a significant effect of BR on BDNF (P = 0.002). The BDC BDNF levels correlated with fat-free mass in both populations (ALL) (R = 0.628, P = 0.012), (older, R = 0.753, P = 0.031; younger, R = 0.772, P = 0.042), and with total cholesterol in ALL (R = 0.647, P = 0.009) and older study subjects (R = 0.805, P = 0.016). At BR14, BDNF correlated with total cholesterol (R = 0.579, P = 0.024) and age (R = 0.647, P = 0.009) in ALL. With an increase in age, the brain could become naturally less resistant to acute stressors, including the detrimental effects of prolonged bed rest, and thus the increase in BDNF in the older study group might reflect a protective overshooting of the brain to counteract the negative effects in such conditions. PMID:26940658

  3. GIT2 Acts as a Systems-Level Coordinator of Neurometabolic Activity and Pathophysiological Aging.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bronwen; Chadwick, Wayne; Janssens, Jonathan; Premont, Richard T; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Becker, Kevin G; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Siddiqui, Sana; Park, Sung-Soo; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Maudsley, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Aging represents one of the most complicated and highly integrated somatic processes. Healthy aging is suggested to rely upon the coherent regulation of hormonal and neuronal communication between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus is one of the main structures in the body responsible for sustaining an efficient interaction between energy balance and neurological activity and therefore likely coordinates multiple systems in the aging process. We previously identified, in hypothalamic and peripheral tissues, the G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) as a stress response and aging regulator. As metabolic status profoundly affects aging trajectories, we investigated the role of GIT2 in regulating metabolic activity. We found that genomic deletion of GIT2 alters hypothalamic transcriptomic signatures related to diabetes and metabolic pathways. Deletion of GIT2 reduced whole animal respiratory exchange ratios away from those related to primary glucose usage for energy homeostasis. GIT2 knockout (GIT2KO) mice demonstrated lower insulin secretion levels, disruption of pancreatic islet beta cell mass, elevated plasma glucose, and insulin resistance. High-dimensionality transcriptomic signatures from islets isolated from GIT2KO mice indicated a disruption of beta cell development. Additionally, GIT2 expression was prematurely elevated in pancreatic and hypothalamic tissues from diabetic-state mice (db/db), compared to age-matched wild type (WT) controls, further supporting the role of GIT2 in metabolic regulation and aging. We also found that the physical interaction of pancreatic GIT2 with the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2 was diminished in db/db mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, GIT2 appears to exert a multidimensional "keystone" role in regulating the aging process by coordinating somatic responses to energy deficits. PMID:26834700

  4. GIT2 Acts as a Systems-Level Coordinator of Neurometabolic Activity and Pathophysiological Aging

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Chadwick, Wayne; Janssens, Jonathan; Premont, Richard T.; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Becker, Kevin G.; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H.; Zhang, Yongqing; Siddiqui, Sana; Park, Sung-Soo; Cong, Wei-na; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Aging represents one of the most complicated and highly integrated somatic processes. Healthy aging is suggested to rely upon the coherent regulation of hormonal and neuronal communication between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus is one of the main structures in the body responsible for sustaining an efficient interaction between energy balance and neurological activity and therefore likely coordinates multiple systems in the aging process. We previously identified, in hypothalamic and peripheral tissues, the G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) as a stress response and aging regulator. As metabolic status profoundly affects aging trajectories, we investigated the role of GIT2 in regulating metabolic activity. We found that genomic deletion of GIT2 alters hypothalamic transcriptomic signatures related to diabetes and metabolic pathways. Deletion of GIT2 reduced whole animal respiratory exchange ratios away from those related to primary glucose usage for energy homeostasis. GIT2 knockout (GIT2KO) mice demonstrated lower insulin secretion levels, disruption of pancreatic islet beta cell mass, elevated plasma glucose, and insulin resistance. High-dimensionality transcriptomic signatures from islets isolated from GIT2KO mice indicated a disruption of beta cell development. Additionally, GIT2 expression was prematurely elevated in pancreatic and hypothalamic tissues from diabetic-state mice (db/db), compared to age-matched wild type (WT) controls, further supporting the role of GIT2 in metabolic regulation and aging. We also found that the physical interaction of pancreatic GIT2 with the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2 was diminished in db/db mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, GIT2 appears to exert a multidimensional “keystone” role in regulating the aging process by coordinating somatic responses to energy deficits. PMID:26834700

  5. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  6. Sea-level responses to sediment transport over the last ice age cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, K.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    Sea-level changes over the last ice age cycle were instrumental in steering Earth's topographic evolution. These sea-level variations were driven by changes in surface mass loads, including not only ice and ocean mass variations but also the transfer of rock from eroding mountains to sedimentary deposits. Here we use an extended numerical model of ice age sea level (Dalca et al., 2013) to explore how sediment erosion and deposition affected global sea-level variations over the last ice age cycle. The model takes histories of ice and sediment loads as inputs, and it computes gravitationally self-consistent sea level responses by accounting for the deformational, gravitational, and rotational perturbations in the Earth's viscoelastic form. In these model simulations, we use published estimates of erosion rates, sedimentation rates, and ice sheet variations to constrain sediment and ice loading since the Last Interglacial. We explore sea-level responses to several erosional and depositional scenarios, and in each we quantify the relative contributions of crustal deformation and gravitational perturbation to the computed sea-level change. We also present a case study to illustrate the effects that sediment transfer can have on sea level at the regional scale. In particular, we focus on the region surrounding the Indus River, where fluvial sediment fluxes are among the highest on Earth. Preliminary model results suggest that sediment fluxes from Asia to the ocean are large enough to produce a significant response in sea level along the northeastern coast of the Arabian Sea. Moreover, they suggest that modeled sea-level histories are sensitive to the timing and spatial distribution of sediment erosion and deposition. For instance, sediment deposition along the continental shelf - which may have been the primary site of Indus River sediment deposition during the Holocene - produces a different sea-level response than sediment deposition on the deep-sea Indus Fan, where

  7. The USDA quality grades may mislead consumers.

    PubMed

    DeVuyst, E A; Lusk, J L; DeVuyst, M A

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to explore consumers' perceptions about and knowledge of USDA beef quality grades. Data were collected from over 1,000 consumers in online surveys in November and December 2013, and estimates were weighted to force the sample to mirror the U.S. population in terms of age, gender, education, and region of residence. When asked to rank Prime, Choice, and Select grades in terms of leanness, only 14.4% provided the correct ranking with 57.1% of respondents incorrectly indicating steaks grading Prime were the leanest. Despite perceptions that the Prime name indicated the leanest product, in a subsequent question, 55.6% of respondents thought Prime grade to be the juiciest of the 3 grades. In addition to inquiring about perceptions of the grade names, respondents also indicated perceptions of pictures of steaks. Only 14.5% of respondents correctly matched the steak pictures with their corresponding USDA quality grade name, an outcome that is statistically worse than would have occurred through pure random matching (P = 0.03). When asked to match pictures of steaks with expected prices, 54.8% of respondents incorrectly matched the picture of the Prime steak with the lowest price level. More highly educated consumers with greater preferences for steak consumption were more likely to provide correct answers. Results reveal substantial confusion over quality grading nomenclature and suggest the need for more education or for a transition toward more descriptive terminology at the retail level. PMID:24802037

  8. Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Age-Grade and Identify Siblings of Anopheles Gambiae Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly and non-destructively determine species and age of Anopheles gambiae ss (G3, Mali-NIH, Kisumu, ZANU, and Ifakara strains) and An. arabiensis (Dongola, KGB, and Ifakara strains). We developed NIR calibrations using mosquitoes reared and scanned at ...

  9. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status at Age One, Opportunities to Learn and Achievement in Mathematics in Fourth Grade in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cueto, Santiago; Guerrero, Gabriela; Leon, Juan; Zapata, Mayli; Freire, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Using Young Lives longitudinal data from Peru, this paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) measured at the age of one, opportunities to learn (OTL) and achievement in mathematics ten years later. Four variables of OTL were measured: hours of class per year, curriculum coverage, quality of teachers' feedback, and…

  10. Influence of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on testosterone level in rats of different ages

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Mi Mi; Kim, Jin Wook; Jin, Myeong Heon; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess serum testosterone alterations induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and to verify their attenuation during sleep recovery (SR) based on different durations and ages. Wistar male rats aged 12 weeks for the younger group and 20 weeks for the elder group were randomly distributed into one of the following groups: a control group (cage and platform), 3-day SD, 5-day SD, 7-day SD, 1-day SR, 3-day SR and 5-day SR groups. For PSD, the modified multiple platform method was used to specifically limit rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Differences in the testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels between the younger group and the elder group according to duration of PSD and SR recovery were analysed. Testosterone continued to fall during the sleep deprivation period in a time-dependent manner in both the younger (P=0.001, correlation coefficient r=−0.651) and elder groups (P=0.001, correlation coefficient r=−0.840). The elder group showed a significantly lower level of testosterone compared with the younger group after PSD. Upon SR after 3 days of PSD, the testosterone level continued to rise for 5 days after sleep recovery in the younger group (P=0.013), whereas testosterone concentrations failed to recover until day 5 in the elder group. PSD caused a more detrimental effect on serum testosterone in the elder group compared to the younger group with respect to decreases in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The replenishment of serum testosterone level was prohibited in the elder group suggesting that the effects of SD/SR may be age-dependent. The mechanism by which SD affects serum testosterone and how age may modify the process are still unclear. PMID:22157981

  11. Plasma vitamin D levels and cognitive function in aging women: the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bartali, Benedetta; Devore, Elizabeth; Grodstein, Francine; Kang, Jae H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D may play a role in preserving cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of prospective studies on the relationship between vitamin D and cognition with aging. The aim of this study was to examine the association between plasma levels of vitamin D and subsequent cognitive function. Methods This is a prospective study including 1,185 women aged 60–70 years from the Nurses’ Health Study, who had plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels measured in 1989–1990 and completed an initial Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status approximately 9 years later. Subsequently, three follow-up cognitive assessments were conducted at 1.5–2.0 years intervals. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression to model initial cognitive function, and mixed linear regression to model change in cognitive function over time. Results Lower vitamin D levels were associated with significantly worse cognitive function 9 years later. For example, the mean global composite score averaging all the cognitive tests was 0.20 lower (95% Confidence Interval (CI):−0.33,−0.08; p-trend=0.009) in women in the lowest quintile (median=14.1 ng/mL) compared with women in the highest quintile of vitamin D (median=38.4 ng/mL). The observed differences were equivalent to the effect estimates we found for women who were approximately 4–6 years apart in age. However, vitamin D levels were not significantly associated with subsequent cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. Conclusions Higher levels of plasma vitamin D in women aged 60–70 years were associated with better cognitive function about a decade later but were not associated with cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. PMID:24676321

  12. Partial reversal of skeletal muscle aging by restoration of normal NAD⁺ levels.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Andrew R; Larrick, James W

    2014-02-01

    That some aging-associated phenotypes may be reversible is an emerging theme in contemporary aging research. Gomes et al. report that age-associated oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects in murine skeletal muscle are biphasic. In the first phase, OXPHOS is decreased because of reduced expression of mitochondrially encoded genes. Treatment of moderately old mice (first-phase OXPHOS defects) with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺) precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) for 1 week restores oxidative phosphorylation activity and other markers of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. However, muscle strength is not restored. In very old animals (second-phase OXPHOS defects), expression of OXPHOS genes from both the nucleus and mitochondria is reduced and mitochondrial DNA integrity is diminished. Gomes et al. propose a model linking decreased NAD⁺ to loss of nuclear SIRT1 activity to stabilization of the hypoxia-associated transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1a). HIF-1a promotes an hypoxic-like (Warburg effect) state in the cell. The HIF-1a protein interacts with c-Myc, decreasing c-Myc-regulated transcription of the key mitochondrial regulator mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Low levels of TFAM lead to first-phase OXPHOS dysfunction. The transition to irreversible phase 2 dysfunction remains to be characterized, but may be related to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This model suggests that intervention in mitochondrial aging may be possible using appropriate NAD⁺ precursors such as nicotinamide riboside. Restoring NAD⁺ levels may be beneficial throughout the organism. For example, aging-associated disturbances in circadian rhythm are linked to diminished SIRT1 activity, and loss of hematopoietic stem cell function to reduced SIRT3. Work to elucidate other biphasic aging mechanisms is strongly encouraged. PMID:24410488

  13. Age-related changes in human oestrogen receptor alpha function and levels in osteoblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Ankrom, M A; Patterson, J A; d'Avis, P Y; Vetter, U K; Blackman, M R; Sponseller, P D; Tayback, M; Robey, P G; Shapiro, J R; Fedarko, N S

    1998-01-01

    Oestrogen receptors (ERs) are present in human osteoblasts and mediate anti-resorptive effects on bone. Human osteoblast-like cells derived from different aged healthy female donors not on hormone replacement therapy were utilized under well-defined conditions in vitro to investigate ER function and levels. Treatment with 0.1 nM oestradiol-17beta of cell strains derived from eight young women (less than 50 years of age) increased hydroxyproline levels significantly [an average (2.2+/-0.1 S.E.M.)-fold increase], whereas cells derived from nine older women (more than 50 years of age) were not significantly affected. Similarly, cell strains, derived from younger women, transfected with a consensus oestrogen-responsive element linked to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase exhibited a greater response to oestrogen than strains derived from older women. When basal ERalpha levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay and normalized on a per cell basis, osteoblast-like strains derived from younger women (n=24) had a mean value of 2.54+/-0.16 fmol of ERalpha per 10(6) cells. In contrast, strains derived from older women (n=20) had a mean value of 5.44+/-0.48 fmol of ERalpha per 10(6) cells. An age-related increase in ERalpha number was also observed in human skin-derived fibroblasts and directly in dermal biopsies from women not on hormone replacement therapy. The results demonstrate ligand concentration-dependent ERalpha induction and indicate a loss of receptor regulation and diminution of ligand-receptor signal transduction with increasing donor age. PMID:9677341

  14. Serum Antioxidative Enzymes Levels and Oxidative Stress Products in Age-Related Cataract Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Dong; Zhang, Xuefei; Rong, Shengzhong; Sha, Qian; Liu, Peipei; Han, Tao; Pan, Hongzhi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the products of oxidative stress in patients with age-related cataracts and compare the findings with those in healthy control subjects. Method. Sixty patients with age-related cataract and sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were included in this study. Serum samples were obtained to detect the antioxidative enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and oxidation degradation products of malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), conjugated diene (CD), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyl (PC), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Results. Serum SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in cataract group were significantly decreased as compared to the control subjects (P < 0.05). The levels of MDA, 4-HNE, and CD in cataract patients were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Cataract patients had higher levels of 8-OHdG, AOPP, and PC with respect to the comparative group of normal subjects (P < 0.01). And there was no statistical significance in concentration of antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products in patients with different subtype cataract. Conclusions. Oxidative stress is an important risk factor in the development of age-related cataract, and augmentation of the antioxidant defence systems may be of benefit to prevent or delay cataractogenesis. PMID:23781296

  15. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    PubMed

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed. PMID:18462745

  16. Fitness level moderates executive control disruption during exercise regardless of age.

    PubMed

    Labelle, Veronique; Bosquet, Laurent; Mekary, Said; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Smilovitch, Mark; Bherer, Louis

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise intensity, age, and fitness levels on executive and nonexecutive cognitive tasks during exercise. Participants completed a computerized modified-Stroop task (including denomination, inhibition, and switching conditions) while pedaling on a cycle ergometer at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak power output (PPO). We showed that a bout of moderate-intensity (60% PPO) to high-intensity (80% PPO) exercise was associated with deleterious performance in the executive component of the computerized modified-Stroop task (i.e., switching condition), especially in lower-fit individuals (p < .01). Age did not have an effect on the relationship between acute cardiovascular exercise and cognition. Acute exercise can momentarily impair executive control equivalently in younger and older adults, but individual's fitness level moderates this relation. PMID:24918309

  17. Ursolic acid regulates aging process through enhancing of metabolic sensor proteins level.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Soroush Alaghehband; Bakhtiari, Nuredin

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that Ursolic Acid (UA) ameliorates skeletal muscle performance through satellite cells proliferation and cellular energy status. In studying the potential role of the hypothalamus in aging, we developed a strategy to pursue UA effects on the hypothalamus anti-aging proteins such as; SIRT1, SIRT6, PGC-1β and α-Klotho. In this study, we used a model of aging animals (C57BL/6). UA dissolved in Corn oil (20mg/ml) and then administrated (200mg/Kg i.p injection) to mice, twice daily for 7days. After treatment times, the mice perfused and the hypothalamus isolated for preparing of tissue to Immunofluorescence microscopy. The data illustrated that UA significantly increased SIRT1 (∼3.5±0.3 folds) and SIRT-6 (∼1.5±0.2 folds) proteins overexpression (P<0.001). In addition, our results showed that UA enhanced α-Klotho (∼3.3±0.3) and PGC-1β (∼2.6±0.2 folds) proteins levels (P<0. 01). In this study, data were analyzed using SPSS 16 (ANOVA test). To the best of our knowledge, it seems that UA through enhancing of anti-aging biomarkers (SIRT1 and SIRT6) and PGC-1β in hypothalamus regulates aging-process and attenuates mitochondrial-related diseases. In regard to the key role of α-Klotho in aging, our data indicate that UA may be on the horizon to forestall diseases of aging. PMID:27470332

  18. Tear Lacritin Levels by Age, Sex, and Time of Day in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Kyle; Gandia, Natasha C.; Wilburn, Jennifer K.; Bower, Kraig S.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Deaton, Michael L.; Still, Katherine M.; Vassilev, Veronica C.; Laurie, Gordon W.; McKown, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Several small proteomic studies suggest that the prosecretory tear protein lacritin may be selectively downregulated in dry eye syndrome and in blepharitis, yet little information is available about normal baseline levels. This study assessed lacritin levels in tears from healthy individuals and addressed whether they differ according to sex, age, or time of day. Methods. Rabbit antibodies against lacritin N-terminal peptide EDASSDSTGADPAQEAGTS (Pep Lac N-Term) were generated and characterized against human recombinant lacritin and N-65 truncation mutant. Basal tears were collected from 66 healthy individuals ranging in age from 18 to 52 years, and at four times during one 24-hour period from 34 other individuals. Lacritin levels were then analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting. Results. Anti-Pep Lac N-Term bound lacritin, but not truncation mutant N-65 that lacks the N-terminal antigenic site. Tear lacritin levels followed a normal distribution with a mean of 4.2 ± 1.17 ng/100 ng total tear protein. Levels differed little by age or sex, and decreased slightly between 4 and 8 hours in a 24-hour cycle. Tear-blocking effects were minimal, as suggested by spiking of tears with recombinant lacritin. Conclusions. Anti-Pep Lac N-Term–detectable lacritin comprises ∼4.2 ng/100 ng total tear protein in healthy individuals, with no significant differences between males and females or among individuals between 18 and 52 years old. Levels decrease slightly in the late afternoon. These findings provide a baseline for future immunodiagnostic studies of lacritin in dry eye and other ocular diseases. PMID:22918641

  19. Age-adjusted plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Heul; Ko, Kyung Ok; Lim, Jae Woo; Yoon, Jung Min; Lee, Gyung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent reports showed that plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could be a useful biomarker of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesion (CAL) development in Kawasaki disease (KD). The levels of these peptides are critically influenced by age; hence, the normal range and upper limits for infants and children are different. We performed an age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level to validate its clinical use in the diagnosis of KD. Methods The data of 131 patients with KD were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into 2 groups—group I (high NT-proBNP group) and group II (normal NT-proBNP group)—comprising patients with NT-proBNP concentrations higher and lower than the 95th percentile of the reference value, respectively. We compared the laboratory data, responsiveness to IVIG, and the risk of CAL in both groups. Results Group I showed significantly higher white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, aspartate aminotransferase level, and troponin-I level than group II (P<0.05). The risk of CAL was also significantly higher in group I (odds ratio, 5.78; P=0.012). IVIG unresponsiveness in group I was three times that in group II (odds ratio, 3.35; P= 0.005). Conclusion Age-adjusted analysis of plasma NT-proBNP level could be helpful in predicting IVIG unresponsiveness and risk of CAL development in patients with KD. PMID:27588030

  20. The influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing strategy during a 100-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Andrew; Crivoi do Carmo, Everton; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing during a 100-km ultramarathon. Results of a 100-km race incorporating the World Masters Championships were used to identify differences in relative speeds in each 10-km segment between participants finishing in the first, second, third and fourth quartiles of overall positions (Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Similar analyses were performed between the top and bottom 50% of finishers in each age category, as well as within male and female categories. Pacing varied between athletes achieving different absolute performance levels. Group 1 ran at significantly lower relative speeds than all other groups in the first three 10-km segments (all P < 0.01), and significantly higher relative speeds than Group 4 in the 6th and 10th (both P < 0.01), and Group 2 in the 8th (P = 0.04). Group 4 displayed significantly higher relative speeds than Group 2 and 3 in the first three segments (all P < 0.01). Overall strategies remained consistent across age categories, although a similar phenomenon was observed within each category whereby 'top' competitors displayed lower relative speeds than 'bottom' competitors in the early stages, but higher relative speeds in the later stages. Females showed lower relative starting speeds and higher finishing speeds than males. 'Top' and 'bottom' finishing males displayed differing strategies, but this was not the case within females. Although pacing remained consistent across age categories, it differed with level of performance within each, possibly suggesting strategies are anchored on direct competitors. Strategy differs between genders and differs depending on performance level achieved in males but not females. PMID:26034882

  1. How Does It Look? Level 2 Perspective-Taking at 36 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that children engage in Level 2 visual perspective-taking, that is, the understanding that others may see things in a different way, between 4 and 5 years of age (e.g., J. H. Flavell, B. A. Everett, K. Croft, & E. R. Flavell, 1981). This ability was reexamined in 36-month-olds using color filters. In Experiment 1 (N =…

  2. Telomere protein RAP1 levels are affected by cellular aging and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Mark J.; Baribault, Michelle E.; Israel, Joanna N.; Bae, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are important for maintaining the integrity of the genome through the action of the shelterin complex. Previous studies indicted that the length of the telomere did not have an effect on the amount of the shelterin subunits; however, those experiments were performed using immortalized cells with stable telomere lengths. The interest of the present study was to observe how decreasing telomere lengths over successive generations would affect the shelterin subunits. As neonatal human dermal fibroblasts aged and their telomeres became shorter, the levels of the telomere-binding protein telomeric repeat factor 2 (TRF2) decreased significantly. By contrast, the levels of one of its binding partners, repressor/activator protein 1 (RAP1), decreased to a lesser extent than would be expected from the decrease in TRF2. Other subunits, TERF1-interacting nuclear factor 2 and protection of telomeres protein 1, remained stable. The decrease in RAP1 in the older cells occurred in the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress was used as an artificial means of aging in the cells, and this resulted in RAP1 levels decreasing, but the effect was only observed in the nuclear portion. Similar results were obtained using U251 glioblastoma cells treated with H2O2 or grown in serum-depleted medium. The present findings indicate that TRF2 and RAP1 levels decrease as fibroblasts naturally age. RAP1 remains more stable compared to TRF2. RAP1 also responds to oxidative stress, but the response is different to that observed in aging. PMID:27446538

  3. The Effects of Grade Level, Context, and Family Type on Male and Female Adolescents' Distributive Justice Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V.; De Lisi, Richard; Van Gulik, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated ninth and twelfth grade students' (N=640) distributive justice reasoning. Participants read stories presenting characters that varied in personal characteristics (popularity, productivity, need, and appearance), family type (biologically related/stepsiblings), and context (work/education). Adolescents allocated rewards to…

  4. Math Trivial Pursuit, Junior High Level. A Good Apple Math Activity Book for Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Pat

    The purpose of this game, intended for grades 7-9, is to enable students to have fun and enjoy mathematics while learning and reinforcing: (1) mathematical concepts and applications; (2) mathematical computations; (3) geometry; and (4) mathematics for daily living. A gameboard and 232 question/answer cards are provided. Rules for play are…

  5. Fun with Words, Unit IV: Language Curriculum, Levels C-D [Grades Three and Four]; Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    Intended for use with grades three and four, this curriculum unit developed by the Oregon Elementary English Project attempts to (1) develop an interest in, respect for, and curiosity about words; (2) expose students to the concept that when we know a word we know its meaning, pronunciation, and relationship to other words; (3) build language…

  6. Water. An Environmental Learning Experience for Use at the Second Grade Primary Level. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchorage School District, AK.

    This resource book introduces second-grade children to the importance of water and the environment. The lessons and concepts covered in this unit are designed to develop an awareness of the importance of water in our lives, an awareness of some of the things water can do, and an awareness of our responsibility to help protect and conserve our…

  7. You Already Know It, Unit III: Language Curriculum, Levels C-D [Grades Three and Four]; Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    Developed by the Oregon Elementary English Project, the eighteen lessons in this unit aim to interest third and fourth grade students in thinking about how sentences are made, to introduce some grammatical concepts, and to build on the instinctive knowledge students already have about the English language. The first three lessons are devoted to…

  8. Pre-Vocational Curriculum (Career Education) for 9th and 10th Grade Levels. (Student Study Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arman, Ruby L.; Arman, Mohammad R.

    This student guide consists of 17 units of study for use in a prevocational career education course geared toward ninth and tenth grade students. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: assessing personal interests, using the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, identifying occupational choices, identifying vocational and…

  9. Relationship of Reading Fluency Assessment Data with State Accountability Test Scores: A Longitudinal Comparison of Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberglitt, Benjamin; Burns, Matthew K.; Madyun, Na'im H.; Lail, Kathryn E.

    2006-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 mandated statewide accountability testing and focused the accountability conversation on reading. Therefore, the current study examined the relationship between curriculum-based measurement for reading (R-CBM) and state accountability test scores, potential grade differences in relationship magnitude, and…

  10. An Examination of the Levels of Cognitive Demand Required by Probability Tasks in Middle Grades Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.; Tarr, James E.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze probability content within middle grades (6, 7, and 8) mathematics textbooks from a historical perspective. Two series, one popular and the other alternative, from four recent eras of mathematics education (New Math, Back to Basics, Problem Solving, and Standards) were analyzed using the Mathematical Tasks Framework (Stein, Smith,…

  11. How is Science Learning Assessed at the Postsecondary Level? Assessment and Grading Practices in College Biology, Chemistry and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubeaud, Karleen

    2010-06-01

    The role of assessment in higher education is gaining importance as accountability requirements intensify and as assessments are increasingly recognized as having potential to improve teaching and learning. During the last two decades, educators have begun implementing a wider variety of assessment types including alternative and student-centered assessment practices. However, few research studies have examined the extent that college science faculty use such practices. This large-scale descriptive study utilized a nationally representative sample of higher education faculty from the US Department of Education to examine the assessment and grading practices of college science faculty from 2 and 4-year higher education institutions. When data was disaggregated by science discipline, statistically significant differences were found among physics, chemistry and biology faculty's assessment and grading practices. Biology faculty used a larger repertoire of assessment types overall, and used assessments that have potential to enhance the learning process more than chemistry and physics faculty. Physics and chemistry faculty graded on a curve more often and used competency-grading practices less often than biology faculty. Assessment practices that could be considered formative with potential to promote student learning appear to be underutilized by all science faculty.

  12. What Third-Grade Students of Differing Ability Levels Learn about Nature of Science after a Year of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri; Weiland, Ingrid; Pongsanon, Khemmawadee; Avsar, Banu

    2014-01-01

    This study explored third-grade elementary students' conceptions of nature of science (NOS) over the course of an entire school year as they participated in explicit-reflective science instruction. The "Views of" NOS-D (VNOS-D) was administered pre instruction, during mid-school year, and at the end of the school year to track…

  13. Open-system coral ages reveal persistent suborbital sea-level cycles.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William G; Goldstein, Steven L

    2005-04-15

    Sea level is a sensitive index of global climate that has been linked to Earth's orbital variations, with a minimum periodicity of about 21,000 years. Although there is ample evidence for climate oscillations that are too frequent to be explained by orbital forcing, suborbital-frequency sea-level change has been difficult to resolve, primarily because of problems with uranium/thorium coral dating. Here we use a new approach that corrects coral ages for the frequently observed open-system behavior of uranium-series nuclides, substantially improving the resolution of sea-level reconstruction. This curve reveals persistent sea-level oscillations that are too frequent to be explained exclusively by orbital forcing. PMID:15831756

  14. Open-System Coral Ages Reveal Persistent Suborbital Sea-Level Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, William G.; Goldstein, Steven L.

    2005-04-01

    Sea level is a sensitive index of global climate that has been linked to Earth's orbital variations, with a minimum periodicity of about 21,000 years. Although there is ample evidence for climate oscillations that are too frequent to be explained by orbital forcing, suborbital-frequency sea-level change has been difficult to resolve, primarily because of problems with uranium/thorium coral dating. Here we use a new approach that corrects coral ages for the frequently observed open-system behavior of uranium-series nuclides, substantially improving the resolution of sea-level reconstruction. This curve reveals persistent sea-level oscillations that are too frequent to be explained exclusively by orbital forcing.

  15. Blood glucose levels and cortical thinning in cognitively normal, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Spira, Adam P; Pettigrew, Corinne; Soldan, Anja; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Rebok, George W; Roses, Allen D; Lutz, Michael W; Miller, Michael M; Thambisetty, Madhav; Albert, Marilyn S

    2016-06-15

    Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk for cognitive decline and is associated with brain atrophy in older demented and non-demented individuals. We investigated (1) the cross-sectional association between fasting blood glucose level and cortical thickness in a sample of largely middle-aged, cognitively normal adults, and (2) whether these associations were modified by genes associated with both lipid processing and dementia. To explore possible modifications by genetic status, we investigated the interaction between blood glucose levels and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOMM) 40 '523 genotype on cortical thickness. Cortical thickness measures were based on mean thickness in a subset of a priori-selected brain regions hypothesized to be vulnerable to atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., 'AD vulnerable regions'). Participants included 233 cognitively normal subjects in the BIOCARD study who had a measure of fasting blood glucose and cortical thickness measures, quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, depression, and medical conditions, higher blood glucose was associated with thinner parahippocampal gyri (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0004) and temporal pole (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0001), as well as reduced average thickness over AD vulnerable regions (B=-0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). There was no evidence for greater cortical thinning in ε4 carriers of the APOE gene or in APOE ε3/3 individuals carrying the TOMM40 VL/VL genotypes. When individuals with glucose levels in the diabetic range (≥126mg/dL), were excluded from the analysis, the associations between glucose levels and cortical thickness were no longer significant. These findings suggest that glucose levels in the diabetic range are associated with reduced cortical thickness in AD vulnerable regions as early as middle age. PMID:27206882

  16. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  17. The Effect of Three Noise Levels on Task Attention and Performance in Reading and Math with Fifth and Sixth Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jo Ann; Wurster, Stanley R.

    For this study, a 5th and 6th grade team taught classroom of 66 children was chosen. Three equivalent groups of 22 children each were matched on the basis of a pretest in math. Each group was given a different noise level treatment: quiet (45-55 decibels), average (55-70 decibels), and noisy (75-90 decibels). A tape recording of actual classroom…

  18. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  19. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation

    PubMed Central

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Clark, Simon J.; Bishop, Paul N.; Day, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation. PMID:26794210

  20. Serum cholesterol levels in middle-aged euthyroid subjects with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dongmei; Yin, Quhua; Yan, Xiaoli; Song, Huaidong; Gao, Guanqi; Liang, Jun; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate serum cholesterol levels in middle-aged euthyroid subjects with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs). Methods: We screened 1607 euthyroid subjects aged 35-65 years old. All the subjects were divided into 2 groups (i.e., TPOAb-positive group, n=205; TPOAb-negative group, n=1402) according to the level of TPOAb. The subjects were then subgrouped according to serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels; those with a TSH level of 0.3-0.99 mIU/L, 1.0-1.89 mIU/L, and 1.9-4.80 mIU/L were classified into the low-normal, mid-range, and high-normal TSH subgroups, respectively). Each TSH group further subdivided into TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative subgroup. Data regarding the subjects’ height, body weight, blood pressure, and levels of serum TSH, TPOAb, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were collected. Results: Compared with TPOAb-negative subjects, TPOAb-positive patients had higher levels of TSH, TC, and HDL-C (P=0.001, P=0.012, and P=0.049 respectively) with a tendency for increased LDL-C levels (P=0.053). In the low-normal TSH subgroup, subjects with and without TPOAb had similar levels of TSH, TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C (P>0.05). In mid-range TSH subgroup, TPOAb-positive patients had higher HDL-C levels compared to TPOAb-negative subjects (P=0.008) and a tendency for increased TC levels (P=0.121). In the high-normal TSH subgroup, TPOAb-positive patients had higher TSH and TC levels compared to TPOAb-negative subjects (P<0.001 and P=0.046 respectively). Conclusions: High TPOAb levels above the normal range appears in euthyroid population, dyslipidemia have begun. PMID:26885115

  1. Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in babies of different gestational ages

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sitao; Hao, Hu; Zhou, Ping; Gao, Ping Ming; Xiao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We measured cord blood and urine 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels in babies of different gestational ages to determine lipid peroxidation status. Methods: Babies at gestational ages of 28-43 weeks were divided into group A (28-32 weeks), group B (33-36 weeks), group C (37-41 weeks), and group D (42-43 weeks). 8-iso-PGF2α in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth and urine at 6 hours after birth was and tested by ELISA. Results: UCB and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group C were 130.09 ± 31.73 pg/ml and 27.14 ± 6.73 pg/ml, respectively. UCB 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group A and B were 188.42 ± 59.34 pg/ml and 189.37 ± 68.46 pg/ml, and urine 8-iso-PGF2α were 32.14 ± 7.32 pg/ml and 30.46 ± 8.83 pg/ml, respectively. Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels in group D (post-term) were 252.01 ± 46.42 pg/ml and 44.00 ± 8.50 pg/ml. For all babies, UCB and urine iso-PGF2α levels were significantly correlated (r = 0.65, P < 0.01). Conclusions: We established blood and urine iso-PGF2α levels in normal full-term babies. Urine 8-iso-PGF2α levels may reflect the extent of lipid peroxidation in babies. In pre-term and post-term babies, there was evidence for increased lipid peroxidation. PMID:25664058

  2. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and adropin levels in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Örnek, Nurgül; Örnek, Kemal; Aydin, Süleyman; Yilmaz, Musa; Ölmez, Yaşar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and adropin in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. METHODS Ninety-eight AMD patients were included in the study. Seventy-eight age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited as the control group. Fundus florescein angiography and optical coherence tomography were performed to assess the posterior segment details. Serum VEGFR-2 and adropin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and compared between the study groups. RESULTS AMD group had significantly increased foveal retinal thickness, serum LDL and HDL levels and significantly decreased subfoveal choroidal thickness (P =0.01, 0.047, 0.025 and <0.001, respectively). Serum VEGFR-2 level revealed a significant decrease in AMD patients compared to controls (26.48±6.44 vs 30.42±7.92 ng/mL, P<0.001). There was an insignificant increase in serum adropin level in AMD patients (6.17±3.19 vs 5.79±2.71 ng/mL, P=0.4). Serum level of VEGFR-2 in AMD patients had a significant negative correlation with foveal retinal thickness (r=-0.226, P=0.025) and a significant positive correlation with subfoveal choroidal thickness (r=0.2, P=0.048). CONCLUSION The current study demonstrated that the decreased serum VEGFR-2 level may be considered in the development of AMD. Adropin does not seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:27162728

  3. Serum levels of lipid metabolites in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Orban, Tivadar; Johnson, William M; Dong, Zhiqian; Maeda, Tadao; Maeda, Akiko; Sakai, Tsutomu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Mieyal, John J; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes adult-onset blindness. There are 2 forms of this progressive disease: wet and dry. Currently there is no cure for AMD, but several treatment options have started to emerge making early detection critical for therapeutic success. Analysis of the eyes of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice that display light-induced retinal degeneration indicates that 11-cis-retinal and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were significantly decreased as compared with the eyes of control dark-adapted C57BL/6J mice. In addition, exposure to intense light correlated with higher levels of prostaglandin G2 in the eyes of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice. Intense light exposure also lowered DHA levels in the eyes of wild-type C57BL/6J mice without discernible retinal degeneration. Analysis of human serum from patients with AMD recapitulated these dysregulated DHA levels and revealed dysregulation of arachidonic acid (AA) levels as well (∼32% increase in patients with AMD compared with average levels in healthy individuals). From these observations, we then built a statistical model that included levels of DHA and AA from human serum. This model had a 74% probability of correctly identifying patients with AMD from controls. Addition of a genetic analysis for one of the most prevalent amino acid substitutions in the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene linked to AMD, Ala(69)→Ser, did not improve the statistical model. Thus, we have characterized a reliable method with the potential to detect AMD without a genetic component, paving the way for a larger-scale clinical evaluation. Our studies on mouse models along with the analysis of human serum suggest that our small molecule-based model may serve as an effective tool to estimate the risk of developing AMD. PMID:26187344

  4. Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Emily R.; Chang, Lilly; Head, Elizabeth H.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Pike, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were lower in AD cases aged 80 years and older but not significantly different in the 60–79 year age range. In male brains, we observed that normal aging was associated with significant decreases in androgens but not estrogens. Further, in men aged 60–79 years, brain levels of testosterone but not estrogens were lower in cases with mild neuropathological changes as well as those with advanced AD neuropathology. In male cases over age 80, brain levels hormones did not significantly vary by neuropathological status. To begin investigating the relationships between hormone levels and indices of AD neuropathology, we measured brain levels of soluble β-amyloid (Aβ). In male cases with mild neuropathological changes, we found an inverse relationship between brain levels of testosterone and soluble Aβ. Collectively, these findings demonstrate sex-specific relationships between normal, age-related depletion of androgens and estrogens in men and women, which may be relevant to development of AD. PMID:19428144

  5. Perceptual information for the age level of faces as a higher order invariant of growth.

    PubMed

    Pittenger, J B; Shaw, R E; Mark, L S

    1979-08-01

    Previous work supports the hypothesis that cardioidal strain, a nonlinear topological transformation, offers a plausible mathematical model for the perceived global changes in human craniofacial morphology due to growth. Experiment 1 examined the generality of the effect of this growth transformation on relative age judgments by applying it to profiles of a dog, bird, and monkey. Experiment 2 investigated the abstractness of this transformation by looking at its effect on perceived age level of a Volkswagen "Beetle." In both experiments, cardioidal strain resulted in changes in the perceived age of the nonhuman profiles that were similar to those produced on human faces in earlier work. A second transformation, affine shear, failed to produce as significant an effect on perceived age as cardioidal strain when applied to the same structures. Because cardioidal strain produces changes in structures that do not share an isomorphism of rigid (Euclidian) local features or rigid feature configurations, this transformation seems both sufficiently general and abstract to specify what J.J. Gibson has called a "higher-order invariant of perceptual information. PMID:528953

  6. A Systems Level Analysis of Transcriptional Changes in Alzheimer's Disease and Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jeremy A.; Oldham, Michael C.; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of elderly individuals worldwide. Advances in the genetics of AD have led to new levels of understanding and treatment opportunities. Here, we used a systems biology approach based on weighted gene coexpression network analysis to determine transcriptional networks in AD. This method permits a higher order depiction of gene expression relationships and identifies modules of coexpressed genes that are functionally related, rather than producing massive gene lists. Using this framework, we characterized the transcriptional network in AD, identifying 12 distinct modules related to synaptic and metabolic processes, immune response, and white matter, nine of which were related to disease progression. We further examined the association of gene expression changes with progression of AD and normal aging, and were able to compare functional modules of genes defined in both conditions. Two biologically relevant modules were conserved between AD and aging, one related to mitochondrial processes such as energy metabolism, and the other related to synaptic plasticity. We also identified several genes that were central, or hub, genes in both aging and AD, including the highly abundant signaling molecule 14.3.3 ζ (YWHAZ), whose role in AD and aging is uncharacterized. Finally, we found that presenilin 1 (PSEN1) is highly coexpressed with canonical myelin proteins, suggesting a role for PSEN1 in aspects of glial-neuronal interactions related to neurodegenerative processes. PMID:18256261

  7. Social Structural Influences on Healthy Aging: Community-Level Socioeconomic Conditions and Survival Probability of Becoming a Centenarian for Those Aged 65 to 69 in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2015-10-01

    This study estimated the associations between community-level socioeconomic conditions and survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea to determine the social structural influences on healthy aging. The indicators of socioeconomic and data of centenarians were obtained from Statistics Korea database 2014: population census and social survey. Significant positive correlations were found between SPBC and community-level socioeconomic conditions (minimum cost of living and economically active population, water supply and sewerage, pave a road with asphalt, and urbanization). SPBC male and female predictors had higher economic level and base facilities (R2)=0.578, p<.001). The study provides evidence that community-level socioeconomic conditions are important correlates of SPBC for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea. These strategies should include social structural influences on successful aging in the overall socioeconomic conditions. PMID:26769915

  8. Prospective Study of Plasma Homocysteine Level and Risk of Age-related Macular Degeneration in Women

    PubMed Central

    Christen, William G.; Cook, Nancy R.; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prospective data to examine the association of homocysteine and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are limited. We examined the prospective relation of plasma homocysteine level and AMD in a large cohort of apparently healthy women. Methods We evaluated the relationship between baseline levels of plasma homocysteine and incident AMD among 27,479 female health professionals aged 40 years or older. Main outcome measures were total AMD, defined as a self-report documented by medical record evidence of an initial diagnosis after randomization, and visually significant AMD, defined as confirmed incident AMD with visual acuity of 20/30 or worse attributable to this condition. Results During an average of 10 years of follow-up, a total of 452 cases of AMD, including 182 cases of visually-significant AMD, were documented. Women in the highest versus lowest quartile of plasma homocysteine had modestly, but statistically non-significant, increased risks of total (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95–1.63; p for trend, 0.07) and visually-significant AMD (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.92–2.17; p for trend, 0.052) in age- and treatment-adjusted analyses. Conclusions These prospective data from a large cohort of apparently-healthy women do not support a strong role for homocysteine in AMD occurrence. PMID:25777307

  9. Long-term high-level exercise promotes muscle reinnervation with age.

    PubMed

    Mosole, Simone; Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut; Loefler, Stefan; Fruhmann, Hannah; Vogelauer, Michael; Burggraf, Samantha; Mayr, Winfried; Krenn, Matthias; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Hamar, Dusan; Cvecka, Jan; Sedliak, Milan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sarabon, Nejc; Musarò, Antonio; Sandri, Marco; Protasi, Feliciano; Nori, Alessandra; Pond, Amber; Zampieri, Sandra

    2014-04-01

    The histologic features of aging muscle suggest that denervation contributes to atrophy, that immobility accelerates the process, and that routine exercise may protect against loss of motor units and muscle tissue. Here, we compared muscle biopsies from sedentary and physically active seniors and found that seniors with a long history of high-level recreational activity up to the time of muscle biopsy had 1) lower loss of muscle strength versus young men (32% loss in physically active vs 51% loss in sedentary seniors); 2) fewer small angulated (denervated) myofibers; 3) a higher percentage of fiber-type groups (reinnervated muscle fibers) that were almost exclusive of the slow type; and 4) sparse normal-size muscle fibers coexpressing fast and slow myosin heavy chains, which is not compatible with exercise-driven muscle-type transformation. The biopsies from the old physically active seniors varied from sparse fiber-type groupings to almost fully transformed muscle, suggesting that coexpressing fibers appear to fill gaps. Altogether, the data show that long-term physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers and suggest that decades of high-level exercise allow the body to adapt to age-related denervation by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through selective recruitment to slow motor units. These effects on size and structure of myofibers may delay functional decline in late aging. PMID:24607961

  10. Estimating Risks of Heat Strain by Age and Sex: A Population-Level Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Kathryn; Tait, Peter W.; Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Dear, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Individuals living in hot climates face health risks from hyperthermia due to excessive heat. Heat strain is influenced by weather exposure and by individual characteristics such as age, sex, body size, and occupation. To explore the population-level drivers of heat strain, we developed a simulation model that scales up individual risks of heat storage (estimated using Myrup and Morgan’s man model “MANMO”) to a large population. Using Australian weather data, we identify high-risk weather conditions together with individual characteristics that increase the risk of heat stress under these conditions. The model identifies elevated risks in children and the elderly, with females aged 75 and older those most likely to experience heat strain. Risk of heat strain in males does not increase as rapidly with age, but is greatest on hot days with high solar radiation. Although cloudy days are less dangerous for the wider population, older women still have an elevated risk of heat strain on hot cloudy days or when indoors during high temperatures. Simulation models provide a valuable method for exploring population level risks of heat strain, and a tool for evaluating public health and other government policy interventions. PMID:25993102

  11. Age and hypertension strongly induce aortic stiffening in rats at basal and matched blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Lindesay, George; Ragonnet, Christophe; Chimenti, Stefano; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vayssettes-Courchay, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Age and hypertension are major causes of large artery remodeling and stiffening, a cardiovascular risk factor for heart and kidney damage. The aged spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model is recognized for human cardiovascular pathology, but discrepancies appeared in studies of arterial stiffness. We performed experiments using a robust analysis via echo tracking in 20-week adult (n = 8) and 80-week-old SHR (n = 7), with age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY, n = 6;6) at basal and matched levels of blood pressure (BP). After anesthesia with pentobarbital, abdominal aortic diameter and pressure were recorded and BP was decreased by clonidine i.v. At basal BP, aortic pulse distension, compliance, and distensibility (AD) were reduced and stiffness index increased with age and hypertension and further altered with age + hypertension. When BP was adjusted in SHR to that of normotensive rats (130 mmHg), there was no difference between 20-week-old SHR and WKY Importantly, the age effect was maintained in both WKY and SHR and accentuated by hypertension in old rats. At 130 mmHg, with similar pulse pressure in the four groups, AD (kPa(-3)) = 24.2 ± 1 in 20 weeks WKY, 19.7 ± 1.4 in 20 weeks SHR, 12.4 ± 1.3 in 80 weeks WKY and 6.6 ± 0.6 in 80 weeks SHR; distension = 7.6 ± 0.4%, 6.7 ± 0.6%, 3.7 ± 0.3%, and 1.8 ± 0.2% in the same groups. In conclusion, reduced distensibility, that is, stiffening due to age is clearly shown here in both WKY and SHR as well as a synergistic effect of age and hypertension. This technique will allow new studies on the mechanisms responsible and drug intervention. PMID:27233301

  12. Comparison between the Strength Levels of Baseline Nuclear-Grade Graphite and Graphite Irradiated in AGC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Mark Christopher

    2015-07-01

    This report details the initial comparison of mechanical strength properties between the cylindrical nuclear-grade graphite specimens irradiated in the second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC-2) experiment with the established baseline, or unirradiated, mechanical properties compiled in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. The overall comparative analysis will describe the development of an appropriate test protocol for irradiated specimens, the execution of the mechanical tests on the AGC-2 sample population, and will further discuss the data in terms of developing an accurate irradiated property distribution in the limited amount of irradiated data by leveraging the considerably larger property datasets being captured in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. Integrating information on the inherent variability in nuclear-grade graphite with more complete datasets is one of the goals of the VHTR Graphite Materials program. Between “sister” specimens, or specimens with the same geometry machined from the same sub-block of graphite from which the irradiated AGC specimens were extracted, and the Baseline datasets, a comprehensive body of data will exist that can provide both a direct and indirect indication of the full irradiated property distributions that can be expected of irradiated nuclear-grade graphite while in service in a VHTR system. While the most critical data will remain the actual irradiated property measurements, expansion of this data into accurate distributions based on the inherent variability in graphite properties will be a crucial step in qualifying graphite for nuclear use as a structural material in a VHTR environment.

  13. Associations between psychiatric symptoms and cortisol levels in Nicaraguan young school-age children.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Johan; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-06-30

    The regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with its end product cortisol seems to be affected in several psychiatric disorders. Although findings are not conclusive, internalizing symptoms have primarily been associated with higher diurnal cortisol levels and externalizing symptoms with lower cortisol levels. In this study on nine-year-olds in Nicaragua (n=111), we investigated associations between child psychiatric symptoms, using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), and saliva cortisol levels collected in the morning and afternoon, also adjusting for potential confounders. In line with previous findings, internalizing symptoms were significantly associated with higher morning, but not afternoon cortisol levels. Surprisingly, externalizing symptoms were also significantly associated with higher morning cortisol levels. Possibly, this association between externalizing symptoms and cortisol levels may be characteristic of early ages, representing a higher exposure to external stressors. The study highlights the need for prospective studies, following the development of the HPA-axis and its association with psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27138834

  14. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  15. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  16. DNA methylation levels at individual age-associated CpG sites can be indicative for life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiong; Weidner, Carola I.; Costa, Ivan G.; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Ferreira, Marcelo R. P.; Deary, Ian J.; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    DNA-methylation (DNAm) levels at age-associated CpG sites can be combined into epigenetic aging signatures to estimate donor age. It has been demonstrated that the difference between such epigenetic age-predictions and chronological age is indicative for of all-cause mortality in later life. In this study, we tested alternative epigenetic signatures and followed the hypothesis that even individual age-associated CpG sites might be indicative for life-expectancy. Using a 99-CpG aging model, a five-year higher age-prediction was associated with 11% greater mortality risk in DNAm profiles of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 study. However, models based on three CpGs, or even individual CpGs, generally revealed very high offsets in age-predictions if applied to independent microarray datasets. On the other hand, we demonstrate that DNAm levels at several individual age-associated CpGs seem to be associated with life expectancy – e.g., at CpGs associated with the genes PDE4C and CLCN6. Our results support the notion that small aging signatures should rather be analysed by more quantitative methods, such as site-specific pyrosequencing, as the precision of age-predictions is rather low on independent microarray datasets. Nevertheless, the results hold the perspective that simple epigenetic biomarkers, based on few or individual age-associated CpGs, could assist the estimation of biological age. PMID:26928272

  17. Physical Performance of Brazilian Rugby Players From Different Age Categories and Competitive Levels.

    PubMed

    Kobal, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Moraes, José E; Coelho, Maurício; Kitamura, Katia; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Pereira, Lucas A; Loturco, Irineu

    2016-09-01

    Kobal, R, Nakamura, FY, Moraes, JE, Coelho, M, Kitamura, K, Cal Abad, CC, Pereira, LA, and Loturco, I. Physical performance of Brazilian rugby players from different age categories and competitive levels. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2433-2439, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometric characteristics and physical capacities (vertical jumping, speed, agility, and endurance abilities) among different age categories of Brazilian rugby players from the same high-level club and to compare their respective data with those obtained from the national team players. Eighty-eight men Brazilian rugby players from 4 different age categories were divided into 4 different groups (i.e., under-15 [U-15], under-17 [U-17], under-19 [U-19], and professional senior team [PRO]) and a group composed of players from the Brazilian national team (NAT). Anthropometric measures (i.e., height and body mass), squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests , 2 agility tests (change of direction [COD] and proagility), 40-m sprinting, and the Yo-Yo endurance test (level 1) were compared among the groups using an analysis of covariance (multivariable multivariate analysis of covariance) with the body mass as a covariate. The NAT group demonstrated significantly greater performances in all variables compared with the U-15, U-17, U-19, and PRO groups (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the PRO group demonstrated better performances in vertical jumping assessments (i.e., SJs and CMJs) and agility tests (i.e., COD and proagility) than the younger categories (p ≤ 0.05). Finally, except for the U-15 group, no significant differences were found between the young age-categories in sprint and endurance capacities. These findings show that, throughout the maturation process, rugby players improve their muscle power and agility abilities without presenting significant increases in endurance and sprinting capacities. Importantly, this does not hold true for players from the NAT group, who

  18. Grading of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Comparison between Color Fundus Photography, Fluorescein Angiography, and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mokwa, Nils F.; Keane, Pearse A.; Kirchhof, Bernd; Sadda, Srinivas R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To compare color fundus photography (FP), fluorescein angiography (FA), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) for the detection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), and CNV activity. Methods. FPs, FAs, and SDOCT volume scans from 120 eyes of 66 AMD and control patients were randomly collected. Control eyes were required to show no AMD, but other retinal pathology was allowed. The presence of drusen, pigmentary changes, CNV, and signs for CNV activity was independently analyzed for all imaging modalities. Results. AMD was diagnosed based on FP in 75 eyes. SDOCT and FA showed sensitivity (specificity) of 89% (76%) and 92% (82%), respectively. CNV was present on FA in 68 eyes. Sensitivity (specificity) was 78% (100%) for FP and 94% (98%) for SDOCT. CNV activity was detected by SDOCT or FA in 60 eyes with an agreement in 46 eyes. Sensitivity was 88% for SDOCT and 88% for FA. FP showed sensitivity of 38% and specificity of 98%. Conclusions. CNV lesions and activity may be missed by FP alone, but FP may help identifying drusen and pigmentary changes. SDOCT is highly sensitive for the detection of AMD, CNV, and CNV activity; however, it cannot fully replace FA. PMID:23762528

  19. Effect of aging on impact properties of ASTM A890 Grade 1C super duplex stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, Marcelo Forti, Leonardo Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-02-15

    Super duplex stainless steels in the solution annealed condition are thermodynamically metastable systems which, when exposed to heat, present a strong tendency to 'seek' the most favorable thermodynamic condition. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the microstructure of a super duplex stainless steel in the as cast and solution annealed conditions, and to determine the influence of aging heat treatments on its impact strength, based on Charpy impact tests applied to V-notched test specimens. The sigma phase was found to begin precipitating at heat treatment temperatures above 760 deg. C and to dissolve completely only above 1040 deg. C, with the highest peak concentration of this phase appearing at close to 850 deg. C. Heat treatments conducted at temperatures of 580 deg. C to 740 deg. C led to a reduction of the energy absorbed in the Charpy impact test in response to the precipitation of a particulate phase with particle sizes ranging from 0.5 {mu}m to 1.0 {mu}m, with a chromium and iron-rich chemical composition.

  20. Relative sea-level change in the central Cyclades (Greece) since the Early Bronze Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganits, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Aegean is a focus of important cultural achievements in Europe since the Neolithic period. The resulting abundance of archaeological remains, many of them below sea-level represent an advantageous area for the study of local relative sea-level change. We have carried out detailed mapping of Despotiko Island (SW of Antiparos) and its surrounding. Despotiko is situated almost exactly in the center of the Cyclades (as defined nowadays), more so than Delos, and therefore is very well suited for sea-level studies of the Cyclades. This beneficial location, combined with a spacious and protected bay, additionally may explain its former importance as stepping-stone in the Aegean Sea. The island is uninhabited at present, but Early Bronze Age settlement sites and graveyards as well as a large Archaic sanctuary proof its former importance. The sanctuary is situated on a gently northeast dipping slope in the northeast part of Despotiko, in range of sight of the Órmos Despotiko. Since 1997 large parts of this important sanctuary have been excavated during several excavation campaigns. Tectonically, Despotiko, Antiparos and Paros, belong to the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline of the Central Hellenides, a stack of metamorphic tectonic nappes, mainly comprising variable types of gneiss, schist, marble and amphibolite, and tectonic slices of unmetamorphosed sediments on top, separated by low-angle normal faults from the metamorphic units below. Submerged archaeological structures at the sea bottom of the Órmos Despotiko, a Classical marble inscription from the sanctuary and partly submerged agriculture trenches at the east coast Despotiko, indicate that the relative sea-level in this area was some 3 m lower during the Early Bronze Age and still more than 1 m lower during Classical time. These values of relative sea-level rise indicate a subsidence component additional to the global sea-level rise in the investigated time period. Neglecting possible vertical tectonic movements and

  1. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels among U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels Among U.S. Youth Aged 12–15 Years: United ... of girls aged 12–15 years had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Overall, 42.2% of youth ...

  2. Fish consumption and hair mercury levels in women of childbearing age, Martin County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anil; Jordan, Melissa; Watkins, Sharon; Washam, Robert; DuClos, Chris; Jones, Serena; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek; Blackmore, Carina

    2014-12-01

    The health effects of mercury in humans are mostly on the developing nervous system. Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding must be targeted in order to decrease mercury exposure to the populations at highest risk-infants, unborn fetuses, and young children. This purpose of this study is to understand the demographics of fish-consumption patterns among women of childbearing age (including pregnant women) in Martin County, Florida, and to analyze the associations of mercury levels in participants' hair with socio-demographic variables in order to better design prevention messages and campaigns. Mercury concentrations in hair samples of 408 women ages 18-49 were assessed. Data on demographic factors, pregnancy status, fish consumption, and awareness of fish advisories were collected during personal interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. The geometric and arithmetic means of hair mercury concentration were 0.371 and 0.676 µg/g of hair. One-fourth of the respondents had a concentration ≥1 µg/g of hair. Consuming a higher number of fish meals per month, consumption of commercially purchased or locally caught fish higher in mercury, White race and income ≥$75,000 were positively associated with the likelihood of having higher hair mercury levels. This study confirms the existence of a higher overall mean hair mercury level and a higher percentage of women with ≥1 µg/g hair mercury level than those reported at the national level and in other regional studies. This suggests the need for region-specific fish consumption advisories to minimize mercury exposure in humans. PMID:24807406

  3. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated. PMID:20413888

  4. Education Level Predicts Retrospective Metamemory Accuracy in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064

  5. Mechanical properties of human lumbar spine motion segments. Influence of age, sex, disc level, and degeneration.

    PubMed

    Nachemson, A L; Schultz, A B; Berkson, M H

    1979-01-01

    The influences of age, sex, disc level, and degree of degenration on the mechanical behavior of 42 fresh cadaver lumbar motion segments are reported. The motions and intradiscal pressure changes that result from the application of flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsional moments; compression; and anterior, posterior, and lateral shears are described. The authors find that the mean behaviors of the different segment classes sometimes differ, but these differences are seldom pronounced. Scatter in the behavior of individual motion segments is pronounced, and very often overshadows any class differences. PMID:432710

  6. Low Level Light Therapy with Light-Emitting Diodes for the Aging Face.

    PubMed

    Calderhead, R Glen; Vasily, David B

    2016-07-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is emerging from the mists of black magic as a solid medico-scientific modality, with a substantial buildup of corroborative bodies of evidence for its efficacy and elucidation of the modes of action. Reports are appearing from many different specialties; however, of particular interest to plastic surgeons treating the aging face is the proven action of LED-LLLT on skin cells in both the epidermis and dermis and enhanced blood flow. Thus, LED-LLLT is a safe and effective stand-alone therapy for patients who are prepared to wait until the final effect is perceived. PMID:27363768

  7. Flavonoid Chrysin prevents age-related cognitive decline via attenuation of oxidative stress and modulation of BDNF levels in aged mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Souza, Leandro Cattelan; Antunes, Michelle Silva; Filho, Carlos Borges; Del Fabbro, Lucian; de Gomes, Marcelo Gomes; Goes, André Tiago Rossito; Donato, Franciele; Prigol, Marina; Boeira, Silvana Peterini; Jesse, Cristiano R

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effect of Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), an important member of the flavonoid family, on memory impairment, oxidative stress and BDNF reduction generated by aging in mice were investigated. Young and aged mice were treated daily per 60days with Chrysin (1 and 10mg/kg; per oral, p.o.) or veichle (10ml/kg; p.o.). Mice were trained and tested in Morris Water Maze task. After the behavioural test, the levels of reactive species (RS), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as the activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC) of mice. Results demonstrated that the age-related memory decline was partially protected by Chrysin at a dose of 1mg/kg, and normalized at the dose of 10mg/kg (p<0.001). Treatment with Chrysin significantly attenuated the increase of RS levels and the inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activities of aged mice. Inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in PFC and HP of aged mice was also attenuated by Chrysin treatment. Moreover, Chrysin marked mitigated the decrease of BDNF levels in the PFC and HC of aged mice. These results demonstrated that flavonoid Chrysin, an antioxidant compound, was able to prevent age-associated memory probably by their free radical scavenger action and modulation of BDNF production. Thus, this study indicates that Chrysin may represent a new pharmacological approach to alleviate the age-related declines during normal age, acting as an anti-aging agent. PMID:25931267

  8. Age-dependent changes in the protein expression levels of Redd1 and mTOR in the gerbil hippocampus during normal aging

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, HEE-SOO; AHN, JI HYEON; PARK, JOON HA; WON, MOO-HO; LEE, CHOONG-HYUN

    2016-01-01

    Redd1, also known as RTP801/Dig2/DDIT4, is a stress-induced protein and a negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Redd1 is also closely associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage. In the present study, age-related changes in the protein expression levels of mTOR and Redd1 were investigated using immunohistochemistry and western blot in the gerbil hippocampus at postnatal month (PM) 3, 6, 12 and 24. No significant differences were identified in the levels of mTOR among the experimental groups, whereas, the levels of phosphorylated mTOR decreased with age. The protein expression levels of Redd1 were observed to gradually increase with age; in the PM 24 group, the level was significantly increased (~189.2%), compared with the PM 3 group. In addition, Redd1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the hippocampal principal neurons of the PM 24 group, including the pyramidal cells in the hippocampus proper and granule cells in the dentate gyrus, compared with the other experimental groups. These results demonstrated that the protein expression of Redd1 in the hippocampus was markedly increased during normal aging, indicating that the age-related increase in the expression of Redd1 may be closely associated with age-related hippocampal change. PMID:26846432

  9. Vitamin B12 levels of subjects aged 0-24 year(s) in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akin, Fatih; Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-12-01

    Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  10. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  11. Zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotope data, and tectonic implications of Early-Middle Triassic granitoids in the Ailaoshan high-grade metamorphic belt of Southeast Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenbin; Liu, Junlai; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lisheng

    2016-05-01

    The Ailaoshan tectonic belt, where the effects of the Paleo-Tethyan ocean evolution and Indian-Eurasian plate collision are superimposed, is one of the most significant geological discontinuities in western Yunnan province of southeast Tibet. An Ailaoshan micro-block within the belt is bounded by the Ailaoshan suture zone to the west and the Red River Fault to the east, and consists of low- and high-grade metamorphic belts. Late Permian-Middle Triassic granitoids that are widely distributed to the west of the Ailaoshan suture zone and within the Ailaoshan micro-block may yield significant information on the Tethyan tectonic evolution of the Ailaoshan tectonic belt. This study reports new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope data of four granitoids from the Ailaoshan high-grade metamorphic belt. Zircon grains from the Yinjie granitoid do not have inherited cores and yield a weighted mean U-Pb age of 247.1 ± 2.0 Ma. The zircon ɛ Hf(t) values range from 7.8 to 12.1, and Hf model ages from 775 to 546 Ma, indicating that the granitoid was derived from juvenile crust. The rims of zircons from the Majie and Yuanjiang granitoids yield weighted mean U-Pb ages of 239.5 ± 1.8 and 237.9 ± 2.6 Ma, respectively, whereas the cores yield ages of 1608-352 Ma. The ɛ Hf(t) values of zircon rims range from -20.4 to -5.3, yielding Hf model ages from 2557 to 1606 Ma and suggesting that the source magma of the Majie and Yuanjiang granitoids was derived from ancient crust. An additional granitoid located near the Majie Village yields a zircon U-Pb age of 241.2 ± 1.0 Ma. Based on our geochronological and geochemical data, combined with geological observations, we propose that the Ailaoshan micro-block was derived from the western margin of the Yangtze block, and is comparable to the Zhongzan and Nam Co micro-blocks. The presence of late Permian mafic rocks with rift-related geochemical characteristics within the Ailaoshan micro-block, together with granitoids derived

  12. Column bioleaching of low-grade mining ore containing high level of smithsonite, talc, sphaerocobaltite and azurite.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Sadia; Chi, Ruan; Bhatti, H N; Bhatti, I A; Ghauri, M A

    2012-03-01

    Present work describes the bioleaching potential of metals from low-grade mining ore containing smithsonite, sphaerocobaltite, azurite and talc as main gangue minerals with adapted consortium of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans strain-RDB and Thermoplasma acidophilum. Bioleaching potential improved markedly by added energy source, acid preleaching and adaptation of microbial consortium with mixed metal ions. During whole leaching period including acid preleaching stage of 960 h and bioleaching stage of 212 days about 76% Co, 70% Zn, 84% Cu, 72% Ni and 63% Fe leached out. PMID:21947702

  13. Triiodothyronine Levels Are Independently Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Euthyroid Middle-Aged Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Min, Yong-Ki; Kim, Sun Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an association between thyroid hormone levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among euthyroid individuals; however, there have been some inconsistencies between studies. Here, we evaluated the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and MetS in euthyroid middle-aged subjects in a large cohort. Methods A retrospective analysis of 13,496 euthyroid middle-aged subjects who participated in comprehensive health examinations was performed. Subjects were grouped according to thyroid stimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), and T3-to-T4 ratio quartile categories. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) for MetS according to thyroid hormone quartiles using logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Of the study patients, 12% (n=1,664) had MetS. A higher T3 level and T3-to-T4 ratio were associated with unfavourable metabolic profiles, such as higher body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin, and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The proportion of participants with MetS increased across the T3 quartile categories (P for trend <0.001) and the T3-to-T4 ratio quartile categories (P for trend <0.001). The multi-variate-adjusted OR (95% confidence interval) for MetS in the highest T3 quartile group was 1.249 (1.020 to 1.529) compared to the lowest T3 quartile group, and that in the highest T3-to-T4 ratio quartile group was 1.458 (1.141 to 1.863) compared to the lowest T3-to-T4 ratio quartile group, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion Serum T3 levels and T3-to-T4 ratio are independently associated with MetS in euthyroid middle-aged subjects. Longitudinal studies are needed to define this association and its potential health implications. PMID:27184017

  14. Ergothioneine levels in an elderly population decrease with age and incidence of cognitive decline; a risk factor for neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Cheah, Irwin K; Feng, Lei; Tang, Richard M Y; Lim, Keith H C; Halliwell, Barry

    2016-09-01

    Ergothioneine (ET), a naturally occurring thione, can accumulate in the human body at high concentrations from diet. Following absorption via a specific transporter, OCTN1, ET may accumulate preferentially in tissues predisposed to higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. Given its potential cytoprotective effects, we examined how ET levels change with age. We found that whole blood ET levels in elderly individuals decline significantly beyond 60 years of age. Additionally, a subset of these subjects with mild cognitive impairment had significantly lower plasma ET levels compared with age-matched subjects. This decline suggests that deficiency in ET may be a risk factor, predisposing individuals to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27444382

  15. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  16. Characteristics of youth soccer players aged 13–15 years classified by skill level

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Robert M; Ribeiro, Basil; Aroso, João; Cumming, Sean P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the growth, maturity status and functional capacity of youth soccer players grouped by level of skill. Subjects The sample included 69 male players aged 13.2–15.1 years from clubs that competed in the highest division for their age group. Methods Height and body mass of players were measured and stage of pubic hair (PH) was assessed at clinical examination. Years of experience in football were obtained at interview. Three tests of functional capacity were administered: dash, vertical jump and endurance shuttle run. Performances on six soccer‐specific tests were converted to a composite score which was used to classify players into quintiles of skill. Multiple analysis of covariance, controlling for age, was used to test differences among skill groups in experience, growth status and functional capacity, whereas multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative contributions of age, years of training in soccer, stage of PH, height, body mass, the height×weight interaction and functional capacities to the composite skill score. Results The skill groups differed significantly in the intermittent endurance run (p<0.05) but not in the other variables. Only the difference between the highest and lowest skill groups in the endurance shuttle run was significant. Most players in the highest (12 of 14) and high (11 of 14) skill groups were in stages PH 4 and PH 5. Pubertal status and height accounted for 21% of the variance in the skill score; adding aerobic resistance to the regression increased the variance in skill accounted for to 29%. In both regressions, the coefficient for height was negative. Conclusion Adolescent soccer players aged 13–15 years classified by skill do not differ in age, experience, body size, speed and power, but differ in aerobic endurance, specifically at the extremes of skill. Stage of puberty and aerobic resistance (positive coefficients) and height (negative coefficient) are significant

  17. Age-related deficits in low-level inhibitory motor control.

    PubMed

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Birak, Kulbir S; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2011-12-01

    Inhibitory control functions in old age were investigated with the "masked prime" paradigm in which participants executed speeded manual choice responses to simple visual targets. These were preceded--either immediately or at some earlier time--by a backward-masked prime. Young adults produced positive compatibility effects (PCEs)--faster and more accurate responses for matching than for nonmatching prime-target pairs--when prime and target immediately followed each other, and the reverse effect (negative compatibility effect, NCE) for targets that followed the prime after a short interval. Older adults produced similar PCEs to young adults, indicating intact low-level motor activation, but failed to produce normal NCEs even with longer delays (Experiment 1), increased opportunity for prime processing (Experiment 2), and prolonged learning (Experiment 3). However, a fine-grained analysis of each individual's time course of masked priming effects revealed NCEs in the majority of older adults, of the same magnitude as those of young adults. These were significantly delayed (even more than expected on the basis of general slowing), indicating a disproportionate impairment of low-level inhibitory motor control in old age. PMID:21604886

  18. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  19. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. PMID:23168270

  20. Peripheral Levels of AGEs and Astrocyte Alterations in the Hippocampus of STZ-Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Nardin, Patrícia; Zanotto, Caroline; Hansen, Fernanda; Batassini, Cristiane; Gasparin, Manuela Sangalli; Sesterheim, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic patients and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) models exhibit signals of brain dysfunction, evidenced by neuronal damage and memory impairment. Astrocytes surrounding capillaries and synapses modulate many brain activities that are connected to neuronal function, such as nutrient flux and glutamatergic neurotransmission. As such, cognitive changes observed in diabetic patients and experimental models could be related to astroglial alterations. Herein, we investigate specific astrocyte changes in the rat hippocampus in a model of DM induced by STZ, particularly looking at glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100B protein and glutamate uptake, as well as the content of advanced glycated end products (AGEs) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a consequence of elevated hyperglycemia and the content of receptor for AGEs in the hippocampus. We found clear peripheral alterations, including hyperglycemia, low levels of proinsulin C-peptide, elevated levels of AGEs in serum and CSF, as well as an increase in RAGE in hippocampal tissue. We found specific astroglial abnormalities in this brain region, such as reduced S100B content, reduced glutamate uptake and increased S100B secretion, which were not accompanied by changes in GFAP. We also observed an increase in the glucose transporter, GLUT-1. All these changes may result from RAGE-induced inflammation; these astroglial alterations together with the reduced content of GluN1, a subunit of the NMDA receptor, in the hippocampus may be associated with the impairment of glutamatergic communication in diabetic rats. These findings contribute to understanding the cognitive deficits in diabetic patients and experimental models. PMID:27084774