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Sample records for age groups varied

  1. Equestrian trauma: injury patterns vary among age groups.

    PubMed

    Bilaniuk, Jaroslaw W; Adams, John M; DiFazio, Louis T; Siegel, Brian K; Allegra, John R; Luján, Juan J; Durling-Grover, Renay; Pawar, Joanne; Rolandelli, Rolando H; Németh, Zoltán H

    2014-04-01

    Patients with equestrian injuries were identified in the trauma registry from 2004 to 2007. We a priori divided patients into three groups: 0 to 18 years, 19 to 49 years, and 50 years old or older. There were 284 patients identified with equestrian-related trauma. Injury Severity Score for the three major age categories 0 to 18 years, 19 to 49 years, and 50 years or older, were 3.47, 5.09, and 6.27, respectively. The most common body region injured among all patients was the head (26.1%). The most common injuries by age group were: 0 to 18 years, upper extremity fractures; 19 to 49 year olds, concussions; and 50 years or older, rib fractures. Significant differences were observed among the three age groups in terms of percent of patients with rib fractures: percent of patients with rib fractures was 2, 8, and 22 per cent in age groups 0 to 18, 19 to 49, and 50 years or older, respectively. We found different patterns of injuries associated with equestrian accidents by age. Head injuries were commonly seen among participants in equestrian activities and helmet use should be promoted to minimize the severity of closed head injuries. Injury patterns also seem to vary among the various age groups that ride horses. This information could be used to better target injury prevention efforts among these patients. PMID:24887673

  2. Red blood cell complement receptor one level varies with Knops blood group, α+thalassaemia and age among Kenyan children

    PubMed Central

    Opi, D H; Uyoga, S; Orori, E N; Williams, T N; Rowe, J A

    2016-01-01

    Both the invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by Plasmodium falciparum parasites and the sequestration of parasite-infected RBCs in the microvasculature are mediated in part by complement receptor one (CR1). RBC surface CR1 level can vary between individuals by more than 20-fold and may be associated with the risk of severe malaria. The factors that influence RBC CR1 level variation are poorly understood, particularly in African populations. We studied 3535 child residents of a malaria-endemic region of coastal Kenya and report, for the first time, that the CR1 Knops blood group alleles Sl2 and McCb, and homozygous HbSS are positively associated with RBC CR1 level. Sickle cell trait and ABO blood group did not influence RBC CR1 level. We also confirm the previous observation that α+thalassaemia is associated with reduced RBC CR1 level, possibly due to small RBC volume, and that age-related changes in RBC CR1 expression occur throughout childhood. RBC CR1 level in malaria-endemic African populations is a complex phenotype influenced by multiple factors that should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future studies on CR1 and malaria susceptibility. PMID:26844958

  3. Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159342.html Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age Right amount leads to ... June 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A good night's sleep makes for perkier, better-behaved children. But how ...

  4. Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159342.html Childhood Sleep Guidelines Vary by Age Right amount leads to ... June 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A good night's sleep makes for perkier, better-behaved children. But how ...

  5. Benzodiazepines consumption: does dependence vary with age?

    PubMed

    Gérardin, Marie; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Guerlais, Marylène; Guillou-Landreat, Morgane; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Jolliet, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    We have compared two groups of chronic benzodiazepines (or zolpidem/zopiclone) users: "Seniors," aged 65 years or more, and "Adults," aged less than 65 years. The study took place in the Pays de Loire region. The questionnaire assesses dependence based on items from the DSM-IV. The analysis was based on 176 Senior questionnaires and 212 Adult questionnaires. Whereas Senior patients take benzodiazepines routinely with little negative consequences, Adults suffer from underlying psychological trouble, mention a higher consumption than planned, which causes negative consequences. 35.2% of Seniors are dependent on benzodiazepines versus 49.8% of Adults. PMID:24810390

  6. Art Preferences in Culturally Varying Groups. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Irvin L.; And Others

    This study undertaken by researchers at Yale University examined the similarities and differences among groups of people in their responses to works of art. Subjects were chosen from the United States, Japan, Puerto Rico, Ecuador, and Peru, and were grouped by age, art involvement, sex, and education. They were shown pairs of slides or prints of…

  7. Peer Group Homogeneity in Adolescents' School Adjustment Varies According to Peer Group Type and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Aunola, Kaisa; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in terms of their school adjustment and whether this homogeneity varies according to peer group type and gender. A total of 1262 peer group members who had recently moved to post-comprehensive education filled in questionnaires measuring their academic achievement,…

  8. Spatial distribution of intracortical porosity varies across age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Nirody, Jasmine A.; Cheng, Karen P.; Parrish, Robin M.; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.; Kazakia, Galateia J.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical bone porosity is a major determinant of strength, stiffness, and fracture toughness of cortical tissue. The goal of this work was to investigate changes in spatial distribution and microstructure of cortical porosity associated with aging in men and women. The specific aims were to: 1) develop an automated technique for spatial analysis of cortical microstructure based on HR-pQCT data, and; 2) apply this technique to explore sex- and age-specific spatial distribution and microstructure of porosity within the cortex. We evaluated HR-pQCT images of the distal tibia from a cross-sectional cohort of 145 individuals, characterizing detectable pores as being in the endosteal, midcortical, or periosteal layers of the cortex. Metrics describing porosity, pore number, and pore size were quantifiedwithin each layer and compared across sexes, age groups, and cortical layers. The elderly cohort (65–78 years, n=22) displayed higher values than the young cohort (20–29 years, n=29) for all parameters both globally and within each layer. While all three layers displayed significant age-related porosity increases, the greatest difference in porosity between the young and elderly cohort was in the midcortical layer (+344%, p < 0.001). Similarly, the midcortical layer reflected the greatest differences between young and elderly cohorts in both pore number (+243%, p < 0.001) and size (+28%, p < 0.001). Females displayed greater age-related changes in porosity and pore number than males. Females and males displayed comparable small to non-significant changes with age in pore size. In summary, considerable variability exists in the spatial distribution of detectable cortical porosity at the distal tibia, and this variability is dependent on age and sex. Intracortical pore distribution analysis may ultimately provide insight into both mechanisms of pore network expansion and biomechanical consequences of pore distribution. PMID:25701139

  9. Does Finnish hospital staff job satisfaction vary across occupational groups?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction of staff is an essential outcome variable in research when describing the work environment of successful hospitals. Numerous studies have evaluated the topic, but few previous studies have assessed the job satisfaction of all staff in hospital settings. It is important to discover if there are any unsatisfied groups of people working in hospitals, the aspects they are unsatisfied with and why. The aim of this study was to evaluate job satisfaction of all staff working at a Finnish university hospital, identify differences in job satisfaction between staff groups, and explore the relationship between their self-evaluated quality of work and job satisfaction. Methods Data were collected from 1424 employees of the hospital using the web-based Kuopio University Job Satisfaction Scale survey instrument in autumn 2010. The research data were analysed by using SPSS 19.0 for Windows. Frequency and percentage distributions, as well as mean values, were used to describe the data. A non-parametric test (Kruskal–Wallis test) was used to determine the significance of differences in scores between different groups of staff members and between quality evaluations. Results The overall job satisfaction of the employees was good. They rated both motivating factors of their work and work welfare as excellent. The areas causing most dissatisfaction were work demands and participation in decision making. Physicians formed the most satisfied group, nurses and maintenance staff were the least satisfied, and office and administrative staff were fairly satisfied. Staff who rated the quality of work in their units as high usually also considered their job satisfaction to be excellent. Conclusions Every staff member has an influence on job satisfaction in her/his unit. A culture of participation should be developed and maintained in the units and the whole hospital to ensure that all staff feel they play important roles in the hospital. A university hospital is

  10. Citrus tristeza virus: Evolution of Complex and Varied Genotypic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Harper, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the Closteroviridae, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is almost unique in possessing a number of distinct and characterized strains, isolates of which produce a wide range of phenotype combinations among its different hosts. There is little understanding to connect genotypes to phenotypes, and to complicate matters more, these genotypes are found throughout the world as members of mixed populations within a single host plant. There is essentially no understanding of how combinations of genotypes affect symptom expression and disease severity. We know little about the evolution of the genotypes that have been characterized to date, little about the biological role of their diversity and particularly, about the effects of recombination. Additionally, genotype grouping has not been standardized. In this study we utilized an extensive array of CTV genomic information to classify the major genotypes, and to determine the major evolutionary processes that led to their formation and subsequent retention. Our analyses suggest that three major processes act on these genotypes: (1) ancestral diversification of the major CTV lineages, followed by (2) conservation and co-evolution of the major functional domains within, though not between CTV genotypes, and (3) extensive recombination between lineages that have given rise to new genotypes that have subsequently been retained within the global population. The effects of genotype diversity and host-interaction are discussed, as is a proposal for standardizing the classification of existing and novel CTV genotypes. PMID:23630519

  11. Benzonidazole levels in blood vary with age in rats.

    PubMed

    Bulffer, Romina Fernanda; Castro, José Alberto; Fanelli, Silvia Laura

    2011-05-01

    Benznidazole (Bz) exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg). We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals. PMID:21655830

  12. Pain and self-assessed health: does the association vary by age?

    PubMed

    Rubin, Sara; Zimmer, Zachary

    2015-04-01

    The association between pain and self-assessed health among adults age 20 and older is examined with data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional nationally representative survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Models emphasize whether and how the association differs across age cohorts. 5032 respondents age 20 and older were asked about their experience with pain. Responses are used to create two different pain measures: general and site-specific. Self-assessed health is categorized into groups that are ordered from fair/poor to excellent. Bivariate analyses and ordered logistic regressions reveal pain, measured both ways, have robust inverse associations with self-assessed health. Associations remain robust after adjusting for a series of health conditions and indicators plus demographic, socioeconomic and social support characteristics. Models test the effect of age by pain interactions on self-assessed health and confirm substantial variation across cohorts. Those of middle-age, 40-59, display the strongest association while self-assessed health is virtually unassociated among older-old, those 80 and older. Findings suggest that the way pain impacts self-assessed health varies by age cohort. Conclusions discuss the importance of considering pain as a health condition and the implications of the findings for well-being across age cohorts. PMID:25734611

  13. Speech Differences of Factory Worker Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    This article, which focuses on speech differences of age groups, is part of a larger study of occupational jargon, its characteristics and underlying features and the part it plays in reflecting the workers' knowledge of their jobs and their attitudes toward jobs in general. The project incorporated a case method of research in a china factory.…

  14. Nitrogen dynamics in arctic tundra soils of varying age: differential responses to fertilization and warming.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yuriko; Shaver, Gaius R; Rastetter, Edward B; Giblin, Anne E; Laundre, James A

    2013-12-01

    In the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska, different glaciation histories have created landscapes with varying soil age. Productivity of most of these landscapes is generally N limited, but varies widely, as do plant species composition and soil properties (e.g., pH). We hypothesized that the projected changes in productivity and vegetation composition under a warmer climate might be mediated through differential changes in N availability across soil age. We compared readily available [water-soluble NH4 (+), NO3 (-), and amino acids (AA)], moderately available (soluble proteins), hydrolyzable, and total N pools across three tussock-tundra landscapes with soil ages ranging from 11.5k to 300k years. The effects of fertilization and warming on these N pools were also compared for the two younger sites. Readily available N was highest at the oldest site, and AA accounted for 80-89 % of this N. At the youngest site, inorganic N constituted the majority (80-97 %) of total readily available N. This variation reflected the large differences in plant functional group composition and soil chemical properties. Long-term (8-16 years) fertilization increased the soluble inorganic N by 20- to 100-fold at the intermediate-age site, but only by twofold to threefold at the youngest site. Warming caused small and inconsistent changes in the soil C:N ratio and AA, but only in soils beneath Eriophorum vaginatum, the dominant tussock-forming sedge. These differential responses suggest that the ecological consequences of warmer climates on these tundra ecosystems are more complex than simply elevated N-mineralization rates, and that the responses of landscapes might be impacted by soil age, or time since deglaciation. PMID:23928888

  15. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group. PMID:24907888

  16. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  17. Vitreous Hemorrhage in Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    AlHarkan, Dora H.; Kahtani, Eman S.; Gikandi, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To identify and study causes of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in pediatric age group and to investigate factors predicting visual and anatomical outcomes. Procedure. A retrospective review of patients aged 16 years or less with the diagnosis of vitreous hemorrhage from January 2005 until December 2010. Results. A total number of 230 patients (240 eyes) were identified. Traumatic vitreous hemorrhage accounted for 82.5%. In cases of accidental trauma, final visual acuity of 20/200 was significantly associated with visual acuity of ≥20/200 at presentation and the absence of retinal detachment at last follow-up. Patients with nontraumatic vitreous hemorrhage were significantly younger with higher rates of enucleation/evisceration/exenteration and retinal detachment at last follow-up compared to traumatic cases. Conclusion. Trauma is the most common cause of VH in pediatric age group. In this group, initial visual acuity was the most important predictor for visual outcome, and the presence of retinal detachment is a negative predictor for final good visual outcome. The outcome is significantly worse in nontraumatic cases compared to traumatic cases. PMID:25505975

  18. Group comparisons: imaging the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    D’Esposito, Mark

    2008-01-01

    With the recent growth of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), scientists across a range of disciplines are comparing neural activity between groups of interest, such as healthy controls and clinical patients, children and young adults and younger and older adults. In this edition of Tools of the Trade, we will discuss why great caution must be taken when making group comparisons in studies using fMRI. Although many methodological contributions have been made in recent years, the suggestions for overcoming common issues are too often overlooked. This review focuses primarily on neuroimaging studies of healthy aging, but many of the issues raised apply to other group designs as well. PMID:18846241

  19. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  20. Mixed Age Groups in Swedish Nursery School and Compulsory School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut

    Before 1970, no mixed-age groups existed in Swedish nursery schools. By 1991, 43 percent of children enrolled in nursery school were in mixed-age groups of ages 1 to 6 years, and 37 percent were in groups of children ages 3 to 6 years. Mixed-age groups are assumed to have advantages, including positive influences on learning and social…

  1. Maximal lactate values following competitive performance varying according to age, sex and swimming style.

    PubMed

    Avlonitou, E

    1996-03-01

    Peak blood lactate concentration for a given individual in a given event could be considered as indicator of exercise effort, especially if the race is fast as it occurs following competitive swimming events. The present study attempts to describe the postcompetition lactate profile across all the swimming distances and strokes according to the age and sex of the swimmer. Blood samples (100 micro lambda) were taken from an arterialized fingertip of a total of 337 swimmers (171 males and 166 females) at the end of 3rd and 6th minutes of competition over 50 to 1500 meter distances and for the following 3 age group divisions: AGE1 = > 18 years of age, AGE2 = 16-17 years of age and AGE3 = 14-15 years of age. For AGE1 group the subjects who were picked up for testing were all the first three who met the criteria for this age category in the OPEN winter and summer National and Provincial Championships. For AGE2 and AGE3 groups the subjects who were picked up for testing were ranked among the first three in their age group winter and summer National and Provincial Championships. Results showed that the highest mean peak lactate values for groups AGE2 and AGE3 were recorded in 200 medley event for both sexes while for group AGE1 the highest mean peak lactate value was recorded in 200 and 400 meter medley events for males and females respectively. On the other hand, the lowest mean lactate value was recorded in long distance events of 1500 and 800 meters for males and females respectively and for all the age group divisions. Furthermore, swimming performance was related to peak lactate values which subsequently was independent of sex but dependent on age with higher lactate values and older age documented by the subjects with faster times. PMID:8699834

  2. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained. PMID:24828752

  3. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  4. Feeding Practices of Mothers from Varied Income and Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worobey, John; Borrelli, Amanda; Espinosa, Carolina; Worobey, Harriet S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Relatively few investigators have explored the role of maternal control in describing the feeding behaviour of nonwhite parents of preschool-age children. The present study was conducted to examine if controlling feeding behaviours (i.e. restriction and pressuring) varied by income (middle vs. low) and race/ethnicity (white vs.…

  5. Cutaneous Resonance Running Time Varies with Age, Body Site and Gender in a Normal Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Shujun; Man, Wenyan; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Song, Shunpeng; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background/objectives One phenomenon of skin aging is loss of cutaneous elasticity. Measurement of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT) is a method to assess skin elasticity. Yet, information regarding directional changes of CRRT associated with age, body sites and gender is not yet available. In the present study, we assessed whether changes in CRRT vary with age, body sites and gender in a normal Chinese population. Methods A Reviscometer was used to measure CRRTs in various directions on the left dorsal hand, the forehead and the left canthus of 806 normal Chinese volunteers, aged 2.5-94 years. Results With aging, CRRTs decreased in all directions on the hand, the forehead, and the canthus. A more dramatic reduction of CRRTs on the forehead and the canthus were observed at both the 2–8 and 3–9 o’clock directions. CRRTs in males aged 11– 20 years old were longer than those in females at some directions on all three body sites. Females between 21 and 40 years old showed longer CRRTs than males in some directions of the hand. There were no gender differences in subjects aged 0–10 (except on the canthus) and over 81 years old. Conclusion CRRTs vary with age, body sites and gender. PMID:21039906

  6. Dietary intakes of age-group swimmers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, J A; Williams, M M

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to collect information regarding the dietary habits of male and female age-group swimmers and report the energy consumptions of these athletes in relation to their daily training demands. Twenty competitive swimmers, who were training 6000 m per day 6 days a week, recorded all fluid and food consumed during a 4-day period. Dietary analysis revealed that 11 swimmers (55%) had calcium intakes below recommended dietary allowances (RDA), while 13 (65%) had iron intakes lower than RDA. Despite identical training loads and body mass, male swimmers had significantly greater (P = 0.004) daily mean (s.d.) energy consumption (3072(732) kcal, 12.9(3.1) MJ) than females (2130(544) kcal, 8.9(2.3) MJ) and were maintaining energy balance. Although the contribution of carbohydrate to total daily energy intake was the same for male (55%) and female swimmers (56%), the females ingested significantly less (P = 0.011) carbohydrate (292(87) g) than the males (404(88) g) and could be considered deficient in dietary carbohydrate with respect to their daily training demands. PMID:1777785

  7. Emotional expressions preferentially elicit implicit evaluations of faces also varying in race or age.

    PubMed

    Craig, Belinda M; Lipp, Ottmar V; Mallan, Kimberley M

    2014-10-01

    Both facial cues of group membership (race, age, and sex) and emotional expressions can elicit implicit evaluations to guide subsequent social behavior. There is, however, little research addressing whether group membership cues or emotional expressions are more influential in the formation of implicit evaluations of faces when both cues are simultaneously present. The current study aimed to determine this. Emotional expressions but not race or age cues elicited implicit evaluations in a series of affective priming tasks with emotional Caucasian and African faces (Experiments 1 and 2) and young and old faces (Experiment 3). Spontaneous evaluations of group membership cues of race and age only occurred when those cues were task relevant, suggesting the preferential influence of emotional expressions in the formation of implicit evaluations of others when cues of race or age are not salient. Implications for implicit prejudice, face perception, and person construal are discussed. PMID:25046242

  8. Quality Care through Multi-Age Grouping of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Leo

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that multi-age grouping in early childhood settings can and does work. Addresses four main hurdles to successful implementation: (1) laws and regulations that act as barriers; (2) health concerns; (3) overcoming educational values that conflict with those of the age-grouped classroom; and (4) staff misunderstanding of multi-age grouping…

  9. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  10. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  11. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  12. [Construction of age group vegetation index and preliminary application].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang-hua; Li, Cong-hui; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-yong; Gong, Cong-hong; Tang, Meng-ya

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, one remote sensing index-age group vegetation index (AGVI) was put forward, and its feasibility was verified. Taking 518 groups of pine forest age group data collected in 13 counties (cities) of Sanming, Jiangle, Shaxian, Nanping, Huaan, Yunxiao, Nanping, Anxi, Putian, Changting, Jianyang, Ningde and Fuqing, Fujian Province and HJ-1 CCD multi-spectral image at the same time-phase as the basis, the spectrum differences of blue, green, red, near infrared and NDVI of each age group were analyzed, showing the characteristics of young forest>middle-aged forest>over-mature forest>mature forest>near mature forest at near infrared band and mature forest>near mature forest>over-mature forest>young forest>middle-aged forest at NDVI, thus the age group vegetation index (AGVI) was constructed; the index could increase the absolute and relative spectrum differences among age groups. For the pine forest AGVI, cluster analysis was conducted with K-mean method, showing that the division accuracy of pine forest age group was 80.45%, and the accurate rate was 90.41%. Therefore, the effectiveness of age group vegetation index constructed was confirmed. PMID:25358177

  13. Effect of in vivo loading on bone composition varies with animal age

    PubMed Central

    Aido, Marta; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Hoerth, Rebecca; Checa, Sara; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg N.; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Willie, Bettina M.

    2015-01-01

    Loading can increase bone mass and size and this response is reduced with aging. It is unclear, however how loading affects bone mineral and matrix properties. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and high resolution synchrotron scanning small angle X-ray scattering were used to study how bone’s microscale and nanoscale compositional properties were altered in the tibial midshaft of young, adult, and elderly female C57Bl/6J mice after two weeks of controlled in vivo compressive loading in comparison to physiological loading. The effect of controlled loading on bone composition varied with animal age, since it predominantly influenced the bone composition of elderly mice. Interestingly, controlled loading led to enhanced collagen maturity in elderly mice. In addition, although the rate of bone formation was increased by controlled loading based on histomorphometry, the newly formed tissue had similar material quality to new bone tissue formed during physiological loading. Similar to previous studies, our data showed that bone composition was animal and tissue age dependent during physiological loading. The findings that the new tissue formed in response to controlled loading and physiological loading had similar bone composition and that controlled loading enhanced bone composition in elderly mice further supports the use of physical activity as a noninvasive treatment to enhance bone quality as well as maintain bone mass in individuals suffering from age-related bone loss. PMID:25639943

  14. Frequency, intensity, species, and strains of oral Candida vary as a function of host age.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinegger, C L; Lockhart, S R; Vargas, K; Soll, D R

    1996-01-01

    While the age of the host has been suggested as a determining factor in yeast carriage, no studies in which the genetic relatedness of isolates has been assessed in combination with the frequency and intensity of carriage as a function of host age have been performed in a single geographical locale and over a short time window. Therefore, by using a simple plating protocol to determine the frequency and intensity of carriage, sugar assimilation patterns to determine species, and Southern blot hybridization with the DNA fingerprinting probe Ca3 combined with computer-assisted analysis to determine the genetic relatedness of strains of Candida albicans, yeast carriage was analyzed as a function of age. All test individuals lived in the Iowa City, Iowa, locale and, except for some of the 0.5- to 1.5-year-olds, were dentate. The results demonstrate that for this test population, the frequency, average intensity, predominant species, and genetic relatedness of C. albicans strains varied as a function of host age. In addition, comparison with oral commensal organisms from the Ann Arbor, Mich., locale confirms the geographical specificity of C. albicans strains and the existence of an Iowa City-enriched strain which is most prevalent in elderly individuals. PMID:8862593

  15. Expression of SIRT1 and SIRT3 varies according to age in mice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youngho; Kim, Jongsik; Lee, Chae-Yeong; Kim, Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Sirtuins (SIRTs) are involved in multiple cellular processes including those related to aging, cancer, and a variety of cellular functions including cell cycle progression, DNA repair, and cellular proliferation. SIRTs have been shown to extend the yeast life span, although there is presently little known about SIRT expression in the organs of mice. In the present study, we were especially interested in identifying differences in SIRT expression between young mice and aged mice. Specifically, we investigated the expression of SIRT1 and SIRT3 in the kidney, lung, skin, adipose tissue, and spleens of 6-month-old and 24-month-old mice using immunohistochemical staining. Compared with that in younger mice, the expression of SIRT1 in 24-month-old rats was increased in kidney, lung, and spleen tissue, while that of SIRT3 was decreased in adipose, kidney, and lung tissue. The results of our study suggest that aging is associated with altered patterns of expression of SIRT1 and SIRT3. In addition, we noted that the expression patterns of SIRT1 and SIRT3 varied by organ. Taken together, the results of this study suggest the possibility that SIRTs may be involved in diseases associated with aging. PMID:25806122

  16. Expression of SIRT1 and SIRT3 varies according to age in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Youngho; Kim, Jongsik; Lee, Chae-Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuins (SIRTs) are involved in multiple cellular processes including those related to aging, cancer, and a variety of cellular functions including cell cycle progression, DNA repair, and cellular proliferation. SIRTs have been shown to extend the yeast life span, although there is presently little known about SIRT expression in the organs of mice. In the present study, we were especially interested in identifying differences in SIRT expression between young mice and aged mice. Specifically, we investigated the expression of SIRT1 and SIRT3 in the kidney, lung, skin, adipose tissue, and spleens of 6-month-old and 24-month-old mice using immunohistochemical staining. Compared with that in younger mice, the expression of SIRT1 in 24-month-old rats was increased in kidney, lung, and spleen tissue, while that of SIRT3 was decreased in adipose, kidney, and lung tissue. The results of our study suggest that aging is associated with altered patterns of expression of SIRT1 and SIRT3. In addition, we noted that the expression patterns of SIRT1 and SIRT3 varied by organ. Taken together, the results of this study suggest the possibility that SIRTs may be involved in diseases associated with aging. PMID:25806122

  17. Cognitive outcome varies in adolescents born preterm, depending on gestational age, intrauterine growth and neonatal complications

    PubMed Central

    Lundequist, Aiko; Böhm, Birgitta; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Forssberg, Hans; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate long-term cognitive outcome in a cohort of 18-year-olds born preterm and previously assessed at the age of 5.5. Methods We tested 134 adolescents born preterm with a very low birthweight of <1500 g and 94 term-born controls with a comprehensive cognitive battery at 18 years of age. The cohort was subdivided into 73 extremely preterm, 42 very preterm and 19 moderately preterm infants with gestational ages of 23–27, 28–31 and 32–36 weeks, respectively. The moderately preterm group was dominated by adolescents born small for gestational age. Results Very preterm adolescents performed on a par with term-born controls. In contrast, extremely preterm adolescents displayed inferior results on all cognitive tests, more so if they had suffered neonatal complications. Moderately preterm adolescents scored lower than very preterm and full-term born adolescents, particularly on complex cognitive tasks. Conclusion Adolescents born at 28 weeks of gestation or later, with appropriate birthweight and no perinatal complications, functioned like term-born peers at 18 years of age. Extremely preterm birth per se posed a risk for long-term cognitive deficits, particularly executive deficits. Adolescents born moderately preterm but small for gestational age were at risk of general cognitive deficits. PMID:25394225

  18. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  19. Maximum group velocity in a one-dimensional model with a sinusoidally varying staggered potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Tanay; Sen, Diptiman; Dutta, Amit

    2015-06-01

    We use Floquet theory to study the maximum value of the stroboscopic group velocity in a one-dimensional tight-binding model subjected to an on-site staggered potential varying sinusoidally in time. The results obtained by numerically diagonalizing the Floquet operator are analyzed using a variety of analytical schemes. In the low-frequency limit we use adiabatic theory, while in the high-frequency limit the Magnus expansion of the Floquet Hamiltonian turns out to be appropriate. When the magnitude of the staggered potential is much greater or much less than the hopping, we use degenerate Floquet perturbation theory; we find that dynamical localization occurs in the former case when the maximum group velocity vanishes. Finally, starting from an "engineered" initial state where the particles (taken to be hard-core bosons) are localized in one part of the chain, we demonstrate that the existence of a maximum stroboscopic group velocity manifests in a light-cone-like spreading of the particles in real space.

  20. Procedure-specific Surgical Site Infection Incidence Varies Widely within Certain National Healthcare Safety Network Surgery Groups

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Mohammed J; Dubberke, Erik R; Fraser, Victoria J; Olsen, Margaret A

    2015-01-01

    Background The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) classifies surgical procedures into 40 categories. The objective of this study was to determine surgical site infection (SSI) incidence for clinically defined subgroups within 5 heterogeneous NHSN surgery categories. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study using the longitudinal State Inpatient Database. We identified 5 groups of surgical procedures (amputation; biliary, liver and pancreas [BILI]; breast; colon and hernia) using ICD-9-CM procedure codes in community hospitals in California, Florida and New York from January 2009 through September 2011 in persons aged ≥18 years. Each of these 5 categories was classified to more specific surgical procedures within the group. 90-day SSI rates were calculated using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. Results There were 62,901 amputation, 33,358 BILI, 72,058 breast, 125,689 colon and 85,745 hernia surgeries in 349,298 people. 90-day SSI rates varied significantly within each of the 5 subgroups. Within the BILI category, bile duct, pancreas and laparoscopic liver procedures had SSI rates of 7.2%, 17.2%, and 2.2%, respectively (p<0.0001 for each) compared to open liver procedures (11.1% SSI). Conclusion 90-day SSI rates varied widely within certain NHSN categories. Risk adjustment for specific surgery type is needed in order to make valid comparisons between hospitals. PMID:25818024

  1. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  2. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  3. Oxytocin's effect on resting-state functional connectivity varies by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Natalie C; Chen, Huaihou; Porges, Eric; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Feifel, David; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a role in social cognition and affective processing. The neural processes underlying these effects are not well understood. Modulation of connectivity strength between subcortical and cortical regions has been suggested as one possible mechanism. The current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on resting-state functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as two regions involved in social-cognitive and affective processing. Going beyond previous work that largely examined young male participants, our study comprised young and older men and women to identify age and sex variations in oxytocin's central processes. This approach was based on known hormonal differences among these groups and emerging evidence of sex differences in oxytocin's effects on amygdala reactivity and age-by-sex-modulated effects of oxytocin in affective processing. In a double-blind design, 79 participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or placebo before undergoing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a targeted region-to-region approach, resting-state functional connectivity strength between bilateral amygdala and mPFC was examined. Participants in the oxytocin compared to the placebo group and men compared to women had overall greater amygdala-mPFC connectivity strength at rest. These main effects were qualified by a significant three-way interaction: while oxytocin compared to placebo administration increased resting-state amygdala-mPFC connectivity for young women, oxytocin did not significantly influence connectivity in the other age-by-sex subgroups. This study provides novel evidence of age-by-sex differences in how oxytocin modulates resting-state brain connectivity, furthering our understanding of how oxytocin affects brain networks at rest. PMID:27032063

  4. The effects of varying contextual demands on age-related positive gaze preferences.

    PubMed

    Noh, Soo Rim; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2015-06-01

    Despite many studies on the age-related positivity effect and its role in visual attention, discrepancies remain regarding whether full attention is required for age-related differences to emerge. The present study took a new approach to this question by varying the contextual demands of emotion processing. This was done by adding perceptual distractions, such as visual and auditory noise, that could disrupt attentional control. Younger and older participants viewed pairs of happy-neutral and fearful-neutral faces while their eye movements were recorded. Facial stimuli were shown either without noise, embedded in a background of visual noise (low, medium, or high), or with simultaneous auditory babble. Older adults showed positive gaze preferences, looking toward happy faces and away from fearful faces; however, their gaze preferences tended to be influenced by the level of visual noise. Specifically, the tendency to look away from fearful faces was not present in conditions with low and medium levels of visual noise but was present when there were high levels of visual noise. It is important to note, however, that in the high-visual-noise condition, external cues were present to facilitate the processing of emotional information. In addition, older adults' positive gaze preferences disappeared or were reduced when they first viewed emotional faces within a distracting context. The current results indicate that positive gaze preferences may be less likely to occur in distracting contexts that disrupt control of visual attention. PMID:26030774

  5. The Effects of Varying Contextual Demands on Age-related Positive Gaze Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Soo Rim; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on the age-related positivity effect and its role in visual attention, discrepancies remain regarding whether one’s full attention is required for age-related differences to emerge. The present study took a new approach to this question by varying the contextual demands of emotion processing. This was done by adding perceptual distractions, such as visual and auditory noise, that could disrupt attentional control. Younger and older participants viewed pairs of happy–neutral and fearful–neutral faces while their eye movements were recorded. Facial stimuli were shown either without noise, embedded in a background of visual noise (low, medium, or high), or with simultaneous auditory babble. Older adults showed positive gaze preferences, looking toward happy faces and away from fearful faces; however, their gaze preferences tended to be influenced by the level of visual noise. Specifically, the tendency to look away from fearful faces was not present in conditions with low and medium levels of visual noise, but was present where there were high levels of visual noise. It is important to note, however, that in the high-visual-noise condition, external cues were present to facilitate the processing of emotional information. In addition, older adults’ positive gaze preferences disappeared or were reduced when they first viewed emotional faces within a distracting context. The current results indicate that positive gaze preferences may be less likely to occur in distracting contexts that disrupt control of visual attention. PMID:26030774

  6. The metabolic response to postnatal leptin in rats varies with age and may be litter dependent.

    PubMed

    Granado, M; Diaz, F; Fuente-Martín, E; García-Cáceres, C; Argente, J; Chowen, J A

    2014-06-01

    Hyperleptinemia during postnatal life induces long-term effects on metabolism. However, these effects are controversial as both increased and decreased propensity towards obesity has been reported. To further analyze the effects of chronic neonatal hyperleptinemia on the subsequent metabolic profile, male Wistar rats proceeding from 18 different litters (8 pups/litter) received a daily subcutaneous injection of either saline (10 ml/kg, n=36) or leptin (3 μg/g, n=36) from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND9. Rats were sacrificed at 10, 40, or 150 days of age. At 10 days of age, leptin treated rats had decreased body weight (p<0.001) and body fat (p<0.05). Leptin levels and glycemia were increased (p<0.01), whereas insulin, total lipids, triglycerides and glycerol levels were decreased (p<0.05). At PND40 rats receiving leptin had increased glycemia (p<0.01) and plasma HDL and LDL levels, but decreased total lipids (p<0.05). At PND150 neonatal leptin treatment induced different effects in rats raised in different litters. Rats from litter 1 had increased body weight (p<0.05), body fat (p<0.01), and plasma leptin (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.001), triglyceride (p<0.001), total lipid (p<0.001), LDL (p<0.05), and glycerol (p<0.001) levels. In rats from litter 2 these parameters did not differ from controls. Rats from litter 3 had decreased body weight (p<0.05), visceral fat (p<0.01) and plasma leptin (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.001), triglyceride (p<0.001), glycerol (p<0.001), and HDL (p<0.001) levels. In conclusion, the metabolic response to postnatal leptin varies with age, with the response in adulthood being variable and most likely influenced by other factors, including the genetic make-up. PMID:24446159

  7. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  8. Modelling antecedents of blood donation motivation among non-donors of varying age and education.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, K P H; Abraham, C; Ruiter, R A C; Veldhuizen, I J T; Dehing, C J G; Bos, A E R; Schaalma, H P

    2009-02-01

    Understanding blood donation motivation among non-donors is prerequisite to effective recruitment. Two studies explored the psychological antecedents of blood donation motivation and the generalisability of a model of donation motivation across groups differing in age and educational level. An older well-educated population and a younger less well-educated population were sampled. The studies assessed the role of altruism, fear of blood/needles and donation-specific cognitions including attitudes and normative beliefs derived from an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Across both samples, results showed that affective attitude, subjective norm, descriptive norm, and moral norm were the most important correlates of blood donation intentions. Self-efficacy was more important among the younger less well-educated group. Altruism was related to donation motivation but only indirectly through moral norm. Similarly, fear of blood/needles only had an indirect effect on motivation through affective attitude and self-efficacy. Additional analyses with the combined data set found no age or education moderation effects, suggesting that this core model of donation-specific cognitions can be used to inform future practical interventions recruiting new blood donors in the general population. PMID:18547458

  9. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  10. Age Bias in the Workplace: Cultural Stereotypes and In-Group Favoritism.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Tay K; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Sarkisian, Natasha; Besen, Elyssa; Kidahashi, Miwako

    2016-07-01

    Two key theoretical frameworks that explain why people might hold biases for or against a specific age group-cultural stereotypes and in-group favoritism-yield distinct and sometimes contradictory predictions. This study proposes a combined framework drawing on these two theories and then tests hypotheses based on this framework in the workplace context. Using survey data from U.S. employees of two pharmaceutical companies, we evaluated the extent to which respondents attributed characteristics related to innovation or change and reliable performance to other workers based on perceived relative age (the age of the target relative to the age of the respondent). The hypotheses that our combined framework generated were supported, but the results varied by type of characteristic as well as by age of the respondent. We conclude that the combined framework is more predictive of age bias in the workplace than either individual framework alone. PMID:27199491

  11. Expression of UCP2 in Wistar rats varies according to age and the severity of obesity.

    PubMed

    Pheiffer, Carmen; Jacobs, Carvern; Patel, Oelfah; Ghoor, Samira; Muller, Christo; Louw, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Obesity, a complex metabolic disorder, is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) during obesity is an adaptive response to suppress the production of reactive oxygen species. The aims of this study were to compare the expression of UCP2 in diet-induced obese Wistar rats that differed according to age and their severity of obesity, and to compare UCP2 expression in the liver and muscle of these rats. UCP2 messenger RNA and protein expression was increased 4.6-fold (p < 0.0001) and 3.0-fold (p < 0.05), respectively, in the liver of the older and heavier rats. In contrast, UCP2 expression was decreased twofold (p < 0.005) in the muscle of these rats, while UCP3 messenger RNA (mRNA) was increased twofold (p < 0.01). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) was similarly increased (3.0-fold, p < 0.05) in the liver of the older and more severe obese rats. Total protein content was increased (2.3-fold, p < 0.0001), while 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity was decreased (1.3-fold, p = 0.05) in the liver of the older, heavier rats. No difference in total protein content and AMPK expression was observed in the muscle of these rats. This study showed that the expression of UCP2 varies according to age and the severity of obesity and supports the widely held notion that increased UCP2 expression is an adaptive response to increased fatty acid β-oxidation and reactive oxygen species production that occurs during obesity. An understanding of metabolic adaptation is imperative to gain insight into the underlying causes of disease, thus facilitating intervention strategies to combat disease progression. PMID:26621256

  12. Health expenditures by age group, 1977 and 1987

    PubMed Central

    Waldo, Daniel R.; Sonnefeld, Sally T.; McKusick, David R.; Arnett, Ross H.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, concern has increased over the rapid growth of health care spending, especially spending on behalf of the aged. In 1987, those 65 years or over comprised 12 percent of the population but consumed 36 percent of total personal health care. This article is an examination of the current and future composition of the population and effects on health care spending. National health accounts aggregates for 1977 and 1987 are split into three age groups, and the consumption patterns of each group are discussed. The variations in spending within the aged cohort are also examined. PMID:10313274

  13. In vitro cytokine induction by TLR-activating vaccine adjuvants in human blood varies by age and adjuvant.

    PubMed

    van Haren, Simon D; Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Bergelson, Ilana; Dowling, David J; Banks, Michaela; Samuels, Ronald C; Reed, Steven G; Marshall, Jason D; Levy, Ofer

    2016-07-01

    Most infections occur in early life, prompting development of novel adjuvanted vaccines to protect newborns and infants. Several Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (TLRAs) are components of licensed vaccine formulations or are in development as candidate adjuvants. However, the type and magnitude of immune responses to TLRAs may vary with the TLR activated as well as age and geographic location. Most notably, in newborns, as compared to adults, the immune response to TLRAs is polarized with lower Th1 cytokine production and robust Th2 and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. The ontogeny of TLR-mediated cytokine responses in international cohorts has been reported, but no study has compared cytokine responses to TLRAs between U.S. neonates and infants at the age of 6months. Both are critical age groups for the currently pediatric vaccine schedule. In this study, we report quantitative differences in the production of a panel of 14 cytokines and chemokines after in vitro stimulation of newborn cord blood and infant and adult peripheral blood with agonists of TLR4, including monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and glucopyranosyl lipid Adjuvant aqueous formulation (GLA-AF), as well as agonists of TLR7/8 (R848) and TLR9 (CpG). Both TLR4 agonists, MPLA and GLA-AF, induced greater concentrations of Th1 cytokines CXCL10, TNF and Interleukin (IL)-12p70 in infant and adult blood compared to newborn blood. All the tested TLRAs induced greater infant IFN-α2 production compared to newborn and adult blood. In contrast, CpG induced greater IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-12p40, IL-10 and CXCL8 in newborn than in infant and adult blood. Overall, to the extent that these in vitro studies mirror responses in vivo, our study demonstrates distinct age-specific effects of TLRAs that may inform their development as candidate adjuvants for early life vaccines. PMID:27081760

  14. Distribution and titres of rotavirus antibodies in different age groups.

    PubMed Central

    Elias, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty-seven sera selected at random from hospital patients of all ages were examined for rotavirus antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence (FA) and complement fixation levels (CFT). Three hundred and fourteen of these were also tested for neutralizing antibodies to human rotavirus. Sera from patients admitted with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis were excluded from this survey. FA antibodies were found in newborn infants but fell to undetectable titres at 3 months. The highest titres were found in children between the ages of one and three years. In older age groups, the model titre fell gradually with increasing age until, in sera from those above 70 years of age, FA antibodies were almost undetectable. The same pattern was observed with neutralizing antibodies. A high model titre of CF antibodies was only found in sera from those aged one to three years. PMID:200676

  15. Ageing and the group-reference effect in memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon-Nyeon; Rosa, Nicole M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines age differences in the memory benefits from group-referncing. While prior work establishes that the memory performance of younger and older adults similarly benefits from relating information to the self, this study assessed whether those benefits extend to referencing a meaningful group membership. Young and older adult participants encoded trait words by judging whether each word describes themselves, describes their group membership (selected for each age group), or is familiar. After a retention interval, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. The results indicate that group-referencing increased recognition memory performance compared to the familiarity judgements for both young and older groups. However, the group-reference benefit is limited, emerging as smaller than the benefit from self-referencing. These results challenge previous findings of equivalent benefits for group-referencing and self-referencing, suggesting that such effects may not prevail under all conditions, including for older adults. The findings also highlight the need to examine the mechanisms of group-referencing that can lead to variability in the group-reference effect. PMID:26252870

  16. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention. PMID:26537543

  17. BCG vaccination at three different age groups: response and effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Briassoulis, George; Karabatsou, Irene; Gogoglou, Vasilis; Tsorva, Athina

    2005-01-01

    Background The protection, which some BCG vaccines could confer against the development of tuberculosis (TB) in childhood, might be indirectly reflected by the subsequent development of BCG immune response. The objectives of the study were to examine effectiveness and possible differences of post-vaccination reaction to a lyophilized BCG at different age groups and to evaluate its protection against TB in a decade's period. Methods We studied the post-vaccination PPD-skin reaction and scar formation at three different school levels, corresponding to ages of 6, 12 and 15 years old, vaccinated by a lyophilized BCG vaccine (Pasteur Institute), currently used in our country. During a 10-year follow up the reported TB cases in vaccinated and non-vaccinated adolescences up to 24-years old were analyzed and compared to the number of cumulative cases observed in the adult population of two neighboring territories (vaccinated and non-vaccinated). Results and Discussion There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.87, p < 0.0001) between tuberculin induration and scar formation. There was no statistically significant difference between the three age groups (6, 12, and 15 year-old, respectively) in regard to the diameter of tuberculin induration or scar formation. Although 34% of 10-year later indurations were unpredictably related to the initial ones (increased or decreased), they were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.45, p = 0.009). The relative percentage of TB for the 14–24 years-age group to the adult studied population was significantly lower among the immunized children compared to the non-immunized population of the same age group (17/77, 22% vs. 71/101, 70%, p < .0001). Conclusion Our data suggest that the lyophilized BCG vaccine used for BCG programs at different age groups is equally effective and may confer satisfactory protection against tuberculosis in puberty. PMID:15804351

  18. On the age of the β Pictoris moving group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamajek, Eric E.; Bell, Cameron P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Binks & Jeffries and Malo et al. have recently reported Li depletion boundary (LDB) ages for the β Pictoris moving group (BPMG) which are twice as old as the oft-cited kinematic age of ˜12 Myr. In this study, we present (1) a new evaluation of the internal kinematics of the BPMG using the revised Hipparcos astrometry and best available published radial velocities, and assess whether a useful kinematic age can be derived, and (2) derive an isochronal age based on the placement of the A-, F-, and G-type stars in the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD). We explore the kinematics of the BPMG looking at velocity trends along Galactic axes, and conducting traceback analyses assuming linear trajectories, epicyclic orbit approximation, and orbit integration using a realistic gravitational potential. None of the methodologies yield a kinematic age with small uncertainties using modern velocity data. Expansion in the Galactic X and Y directions is significant only at the 1.7σ and 2.7σ levels, and together yields an overall kinematic age with a wide range (13-58 Myr; 95 per cent CL). The A-type members are all on the zero-age main sequence, suggestive of an age of >20 Myr, and the loci of the CMD positions for the late-F- and G-type pre-main-sequence BPMG members have a median isochronal age of 22 Myr (± 3 Myr statistical, ±1 Myr systematic) when considering four sets of modern theoretical isochrones. The results from recent LDB and isochronal age analyses are now in agreement with a median BPMG age of 23 ± 3 Myr (overall 1σ uncertainty, including ±2 Myr statistical and ±2 Myr systematic uncertainties).

  19. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624..., respectively, during the calendar year; and (2) They have been previously ordered to report for induction...

  20. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  1. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  2. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  3. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment

    PubMed Central

    Remold, Susanna K.; Purdy-Gibson, Megan E.; France, Michael T.; Hundley, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms’ distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively). Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found. PMID:26023929

  4. Old People's Attitudes Toward Other Age Groups' Beliefs and Opinions About the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Helen Brown

    The need for research which will provide old people's evaluation of what is positive or negative about beliefs and opinions of other age groups about the aged forms the basis for the research proposed in this report. Six sections are included. The introduction, section 1, covers statement of the problem, and the purpose, need, assumptions,…

  5. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  6. Do Sources of Cigarettes among Adolescents Vary by Age over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Shi, Qun; Erickson, Darin J.; Forster, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Trends in sources of cigarettes among adolescents were assessed using data from a teen cohort (2000-2006). Five sources--bought from store, got from other teen, stole from others, bought from others, and got from an adult--were measured over time by age. The most common source among all ages was other teens. Fewer teens bought cigarettes from…

  7. Social Perception of Middle-Aged Persons Varying in Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gerald R.; Huston, Ted L.

    1975-01-01

    This study indicates that more socially desirable characteristics are attributed to physically attractive than unattractive middle-aged persons. It is suggested that this difference in social desirability is greater for female than male stimuli and that elderly persons stereotype middle-aged persons more favorably than young adults do. (JMB)

  8. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  9. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  10. Age of first arrest varies by gambling status in a cohort of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Lee, Grace P.; Santaella, Julian; Liu, Weiwei; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Storr, Carla L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives To describe the association between social and problem gambling and first criminal arrest by age 23 in a cohort of urban, mainly African-American youth. Methods: Data for this study was derived from several annual interviews being completed on a community sample of 617 participants during late adolescence until age 23. Information on gambling status, engagement in deviant behaviors, illegal drug use, and arrest history were collected through yearly interviews. Analysis was carried out using Nelson-Aalen cumulative hazard models and simple and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results More problem gamblers had been arrested before age 23 than social gamblers and non-gamblers, i.e. 65% of problem gamblers were arrested before age 23, compared to 38% of social gamblers and 24% non-gamblers. Social gambling was only significantly associated with the hazard of first arrest by age 23 in the unadjusted model (HR: 1.6, p<.001), but not after adjustment for covariates (HR: 1.1, p=0.47). Problem gambling was significantly associated with the hazard of first arrest by age 23 years in the unadjusted (HR: 3.6,p<.001) and adjusted models (HR:1.6, p=0.05). Conclusions and Scientific Significance Problem gambling was significantly associated with earlier age of being arrested. Dilution effects after adjustment for several deviant behaviors and illegal drug use by age 17 suggest that youth exposed to certain common factors may result in engagement in multiple risky behaviors, including problem gambling. Studies are needed to investigate the developmental pathways that lead to these combined behaviors among youth. PMID:24628694

  11. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year. PMID:20462134

  12. Does socioeconomic disparity in cancer incidence vary across racial/ethnic groups?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Cyllene; Allen, Mark; Cress, Rosemary; Bates, Janet; Liu, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    Objective Very few studies have simultaneously examined incidence of the leading cancers in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity in populations including Hispanics and Asians. This study aims to describe SES disparity in cancer incidence within each of four major racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander) for five major cancer sites, including female breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cervical cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Methods Invasive cancers of the five major sites diagnosed from 1998 to 2002 (n = 376,158) in California were included in the study. Composite area-based SES measures were used to quantify SES level and to calculate cancer incidence rates stratified by SES. Relative index of inequality (RII) was generated to measure SES gradient of cancer incidence within each racial/ethnic group. Results Significant variations were detected in SES disparities across the racial/ethnic groups for all five major cancer sites. Female breast cancer and prostate cancer incidence increased with increased SES in all groups, with the trend strongest among Hispanics. Incidence of cervical cancer increased with decreased SES, with the largest gradient among non-Hispanic white women. Lung cancer incidence increased with decreased SES with the exception of Hispanic men and women, for whom SES gradient was in the opposite direction. For colorectal cancer, higher incidence was associated with lower SES in non-Hispanic whites but with higher SES in Hispanics and Asian/Pacific Islander women. Conclusions Examining SES disparity stratified by race/ethnicity enhances our understanding of the complex relationships between cancer incidence, SES, and race/ethnicity. PMID:20567897

  13. Optimizing the electrochemical performance of imidazolium-based polymeric ionic liquids by varying tethering groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhe

    Increasing efforts have been made in the area of sustainable alternative energy devices in the past few decades in order to develop high efficiency, low-cost electrochemical devices with sufficient long-term stability. Due to the drawbacks of conventional organic liquid electrolytes, such as leakage, volatility, flammability, and toxicity, the synthesis of solvent-free electrolyte materials has been studied world-wide. Among all the alternatives, polymer electrolytes are of great interest and have attracted many research groups. Solid-state polymer electrolytes and in particular, polymer ionic liquids (PILs), considered to be promising candidates, have been under studied widely. Ionic Liquids (ILs), defined as organic/inorganic salts with m.p. lower than 100 °C, offer good chemical stability, low flammability, negligible vapor pressure and high ionic conductivity. PILs, as the polymerized state of ILs, not only present some of the unique properties of ILs, but also benefit from the intrinsic properties of polymers, such as better thermal and chemical stability, enhanced mechanical properties, and tunable solution properties. The constrained structure of PILs may help to overcome fabrication and leakage problems associated with simple liquid electrolytes, but typically also leads to lower ionic conductivity. Once polymerized, the ionic conductivity of PILs drops substantially, usually by several orders of magnitude compared to the corresponding monomers. Therefore, to improve PILs chain mobilitiy is crucial. Previous studies suggest that a flexible tethering group should make the polymer backbone less rigid and increase electrolyte ion mobility. To investigate how tethering groups affect both electrochemical performance and physical properties of free ILs and PILs, we first report the synthesis and characterization of a novel class of imidazolium (Im) based IL model compounds and their corresponding PILs. Poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEOs), considered to be promising

  14. Age-Varying Association Between Statin Use and Incident Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ge; Shofer, Jane B.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Kukull, Walter A.; Peskind, Elaine R.; McCormick, Wayne; Bowen, James D.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Crane, Paul K.; Breitner, John C.S.; Larson, Eric B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Our earlier post hoc analysis suggested possible benefits of statins in reducing risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in younger participants (< age 80 years) with the APOE ε4 allele. We further investigated these findings with more follow-up time and more recently enrolled participants. Design A cohort of cognitively intact elderly was assessed biennially for dementia and AD. Setting Community based. Participants 3,392 non-demented member of a health maintenance organization (HMO) aged ≥ 65 years. Measurements We identified statin use from the HMO pharmacy database and applied proportional hazards models with statin use as a time-dependent covariate to assess the statin-AD association and the modifying effects of age and the APOE ε4 allele. Results Over an average of 6.1 years of follow-up of 3099 participants, 263 participants developed probable AD. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for statin use was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 – 0.97) for AD in models including demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors as covariates. The strength of the statin-AD association diminished with age (statin × age-at-entry interaction p = 0.04); the aHR in those younger than 80 was 0.44 (CI 0.25 – 0.78) vs. 1.22 (CI 0.61 – 2.42) for those older than 80. The interaction term for statin use × APOE ε4 was not significant (p = 0.65). Conclusion This enlarged study confirms earlier findings that statin therapy in early old age, but not in late age, may be associated with reduced risk of AD. The relationship between statin use and AD was consistent across APOE genotypes. PMID:20533968

  15. Population-Based Age Group Specific Annual Incidence Rates of Symptomatic Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Jukka M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the population-based annual incidence rates of exudative, dry and all cases of symptomatic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in different age and sex groups. Methods. This is a one year, prospective, population-based study on all consecutive new patients with AMD in the hospital district of Central Finland. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients with slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a Spectralis HRA + OCT device, and the Heidelberg Eye Explorer 1.6.2.0 program. Fluorescein angiograms were taken when needed. Results. The population-based annual incidence rates of all cases of symptomatic AMD increased from 0.03% (95% CI, 0.01-0.05%) in the age group 50-59 years to 0.82% (95% CI, 0.55-1.09%) in the age group 85-89 years and were 0.2% (95% CI, 0.17-0.24%) in exudative, 0.11% (95% CI, 0.09-0.14%) in dry, and 0.32% (95% CI, 0.28-0.36%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. During the next 20 years in Central Finland the population-based annual incidence rates can be estimated to increase to 0.27% (95% CI, 0.24-0.30%) in exudative, to 0.13% (95% CI, 0.11-0.15%) in dry, and to 0.41% (95% CI, 0.37-0.45%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. The population-based annual incidence of AMD did not show statistically significant differences between males and females (p>0.1). Conclusion: The population-based age-group specific annual incidence rates of symptomatic AMD of this study may help to plan health care provision for patients of AMD. PMID:25674187

  16. Should cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects vary with ethnic group?

    PubMed Central

    Gooren, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people have been developed, but no attention has been paid to the specifics of ethnic groups. South East (SE) Asian male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual people may be able to transition to the female sex with lower doses of estrogens/progestins than Caucasians thus reducing health risks. Female-to-male (FtoM) may virilize less profoundly with standard doses of androgens, but this is probably sufficient to pass acceptably as men in view of the less pronounced sex differences in physique in Asians compared with Caucasians. It is timely that studies in Asians are conducted to get a better insight into their specific needs and risks of cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25038187

  17. Association Between Shigella Infection and Diarrhea Varies Based on Location and Age of Children.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Brianna; Saha, Debasish; Sanogo, Doh; Das, Sumon Kumar; Omore, Richard; Farag, Tamer H; Nasrin, Dilruba; Li, Shan; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen; Nataro, James P; Magder, Laurence; Hungerford, Laura; Faruque, A S G; Oundo, Joseph; Hossain, M Anowar; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Stine, Oscar Colin

    2015-11-01

    Molecular identification of the invasion plasmid antigen-H (ipaH) gene has been established as a useful detection mechanism for Shigella spp. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) identified the etiology and burden of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia using a case-control study and traditional culture techniques. Here, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to identify Shigella spp. in 2,611 stool specimens from GEMS and compared these results to those using culture. Demographic and nutritional characteristics were assessed as possible risk factors. The qPCR identified more cases of shigellosis than culture; however, the distribution of demographic characteristics was similar by both methods. In regression models adjusting for Shigella quantity, age, and site, children who were exclusively breast-fed had significantly lower odds of MSD compared with children who were not breast-fed (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28-0.81). The association between Shigella quantity and MSD increased with age, with a peak in children of 24-35 months of age (OR = 8.2, 95% CI = 4.3-15.7) and the relationship between Shigella quantity and disease was greatest in Bangladesh (OR = 13.2, 95% CI = 7.3-23.8). This study found that qPCR identified more cases of Shigella and age, site, and breast-feeding status were significant risk factors for MSD. PMID:26324734

  18. Does the Relation between Volunteering and Well-Being Vary with Health and Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okun, Morris A.; Rios, Rebeca; Crawford, Aaron V.; Levy, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have established a positive association between organizational volunteering and well-being. In the current study, we examined whether the relations between organizational volunteering and positive affect, negative affect, and resilience are modified by respondents' age and number of chronic health conditions. This study used…

  19. Age-related Effects of Varying Ammonia Concentrations on Hematophysiological Variables in Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the response of different aged birds of the same genetic strain exposed to ammonia (NH3) at set concentrations on blood gases, electrolytes, and acid-base balance under environmentally controlled conditions. The experiment consisted of a 4 × 4 factorial with a randomized design. ...

  20. Leaf wax composition and carbon isotopes vary among major conifer groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, Aaron F.; Leslie, Andrew B.; Wing, Scott L.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf waxes (e.g. n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) and their carbon isotopes (δ13C) are commonly used to track past changes in the carbon cycle, water availability, and plant ecophysiology. Previous studies indicated that conifers have lower n-alkane concentrations than angiosperms and that 13C fractionation during n-alkane synthesis (εn-alkane) is smaller than in angiosperms. These prior studies, however, sampled a limited phylogenetic and geographic subset of conifers, leaving out many important subtropical and Southern Hemisphere groups that were once widespread and common components of fossil assemblages. To expand on previous work, we collected 43 conifer species (and Ginkgo biloba) from the University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley, sampling all extant conifer families and almost two-thirds of extant genera. We find that Pinaceae, including many North American species used in previous studies, have very low or no n-alkanes. However, other conifer groups have significant concentrations of n-alkanes, especially Southern Hemisphere Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae (monkey puzzles, Norfolk Island pines, and yellowwoods), and many species of Cupressaceae (junipers and relatives). Within the Cupressaceae, we find total n-alkane concentrations are high in subfamilies Cupressoideae and Callitroideae, but significantly lower in the early diverging taxodioid lineages (including bald cypress and redwood). Individual n-alkane chain lengths have a weak phylogenetic signal, except for n-C29 alkane, but when combined using average chain length (ACL), a strong phylogenetic signal emerges. The strong phylogenetic signal in ACL, observed in the context of a common growth environment for all plants we sampled, suggests that ACL is strongly influenced by factors other than climate. An analysis of εn-alkane indicates a strong phylogenetic signal in which the smallest biosynthetic fractionation occurs in Pinaceae and the largest in Taxaceae (yews and relatives). The

  1. Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Studies of Nitropyrazoles: The Effect of Varying Nitro Groups.

    PubMed

    Rao, Epuru Nageswara; Sunku, Sreedhar; Rao, Soma Venugopal

    2015-11-01

    The technique of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (FLIBS) was employed to investigate seven explosive molecules of nitropyrazole in three different atmospheres: ambient air, nitrogen, and argon. The FLIBS data illustrated the presence of molecular emissions of cyanide (CN) violet bands, diatomic carbon (C2) Swan bands, and atomic emission lines of C, H, O, and N. To understand the plasma dynamics, the decay times of molecular and atomic emissions were determined from time-resolved spectral data obtained in three atmospheres: air, argon, and nitrogen. The CN decay time was observed to be longest in air, compared to nitrogen and argon atmospheres, for the molecules pyrazole (PY) and 4-nitropyrazole (4-NPY). In the case of C2 emission, the decay time was observed to be the longest in argon, compared to the air and nitrogen environments, for the molecules PY, 4-NPY, and 1-methyl-3,4,5-trinitropyrazole. The intensities of the CN, C2, C, H, O, and N emission lines and various molecular/atomic intensity ratios such as CN/C2, CN(sum)/C2(sum), CN/C, CN(sum)/C, C2/C, C2(sum)/C, (C2 + C) / CN, (C2(sum) + C)/CN(sum), O/H, O/N, and N/H were also deduced from the LIBS spectra obtained in argon atmosphere. A correlation between the observed decay times and molecular emission intensities with respect to the number of nitro groups, the atmospheric nitrogen content, and the oxygen balance of the molecules was investigated. The relationship among the LIBS signal intensity, the molecular/atomic intensity ratios, and the oxygen balance of these organic explosives was also explored. PMID:26647058

  2. Microbial diversity in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis rhizomes of varying ages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Yang, S C; Zhao, J; Udikeri, S; Liu, T

    2015-01-01

    Endophyte microorganisms live inside plants without causing them any apparent damage. Recently, endophytic microorganisms have attracted attention because they can produce bioactive compounds of biotechnological interest. The endophytic microorganisms in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Liliaceae) - a species used since antiquity in traditional Chinese medicine - are under scrutiny because they may be responsible for producing the bioactive metabolites associated with the plant. The levels of bioactive metabolites in the rhizomes of P. polyphylla increase with rhizome age. To elucidate the roles played by endophytes in the accumulation of bioactive metabolites, we investigated the community structure and diversity of the endophytic microorganisms in P. polyphylla rhizomes of different ages (4, 6, and 8 years) using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing revealed that the number of operational taxonomic units was lower in the 8-year-old samples than in the other samples. A total of 28 phyla were observed in the P. polyphylla samples and the predominant bacteria were of the Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria phyla. Moreover, the percentage of Cyanobacteria increased with rhizome age. Similarly, ITS1 amplicon pyrosequencing identified developmental changes in the most abundant fungal classes; some classes were more prevalent in the 8-year-old rhizomes than in younger rhizomes, indicating the importance in secondary metabolism in older rhizomes. Our study showed that endophyte microorganism diversity and prevalence depend on P. polyphylla rhizome age. There was also an indication that some endophyte microorganisms contribute to the higher saponin content in older P. polyphylla specimens. PMID:26782406

  3. Head-Eye Coordination Increases with Age and Varies across Countries

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Frédéric J.A.M.; Giraudet, Guillaume; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Head movements in older people may contribute to their dizziness and equilibrium problems. Head gain is the ratio of head movement to total movement (head + eye) when executing a saccade to an eccentric target. Two studies have investigated the relationship between head gain and age but have provided conflicting results. Methods We report head gain data collected from research laboratories and optician stores. Our sample sizes are much larger (n = 657 for laboratory, n = 64,458 for optician stores), permitting more detailed analyses. Results The head-eye coefficient, expressed as 100 times the square root of head gain, was bimodal with one mode of primarily eye movers and one mode of eye-and-head movers. Head-eye coefficient increased with age and was invariant with eye correction and gender. We also found an effect of nation that seemed associated with gross domestic product or by latitude (in the northern hemisphere) and log population density. Discussion Assuming that head movements and visual distortions contribute to dizziness and equilibrium problems, our study suggests that customizing eyewear based on age and country may help in reducing the prevalence of problems associated with head and/or eye movements. PMID:26421683

  4. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  5. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  6. "They" are old but "I" feel younger: age-group dissociation as a self-protective strategy in old age.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Lang, Frieder R

    2012-03-01

    Age becomes an important self-defining aspect particularly during advanced age. With increasing age, negative attributes related to age and aging become salient. Aging-related declines, losses, as well as the finitude of life seem to threaten older adults' sense of self. We hypothesize that older adults will try to avoid the negative consequences of their age group membership by distancing themselves from their age group. Study 1 (N = 544, 65% women; 18-85 years of age) examined the role of age-group identification for self-conception and self-image (subjective age and future time perspective) across the life span. Results show that weakly identified older adults feel younger than their chronological age and report a more expanded future time perspective relative to their same-age counterparts. A second experiment (N = 68, 69% women; 65-85 years of age) tested the impact of age stereotypes on older adults' level of age-group identification. Results suggest that older adults are more likely to psychologically dissociate themselves from their age group when negative age stereotypes are salient. Discussion focuses on (mal)adaptive consequences of age-group dissociation in later adulthood. PMID:21988154

  7. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  8. Patterns of DNA methylation in the normal colon vary by anatomical location, gender, and age

    PubMed Central

    Kaz, Andrew M; Wong, Chao-Jen; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Luo, Yanxin; Schoen, Robert E; Grady, William M

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in DNA methylation have been proposed to create a field cancerization state in the colon, where molecular alterations that predispose cells to transformation occur in histologically normal tissue. However, our understanding of the role of DNA methylation in field cancerization is limited by an incomplete characterization of the methylation state of the normal colon. In order to determine the colon’s normal methylation state, we extracted DNA from normal colon biopsies from the rectum, sigmoid, transverse, and ascending colon and assessed the methylation status of the DNA by pyrosequencing candidate loci as well as with HumanMethylation450 arrays. We found that methylation levels of repetitive elements LINE-1 and SAT-α showed minimal variability throughout the colon in contrast to other loci. Promoter methylation of EVL was highest in the rectum and progressively lower in the proximal segments, whereas ESR1 methylation was higher in older individuals. Genome-wide methylation analysis of normal DNA revealed 8388, 82, and 93 differentially methylated loci that distinguished right from left colon, males from females, and older vs. younger individuals, respectively. Although variability in methylation between biopsies and among different colon segments was minimal for repetitive elements, analyses of specific cancer-related genes as well as a genome-wide methylation analysis demonstrated differential methylation based on colon location, individual age, and gender. These studies advance our knowledge regarding the variation of DNA methylation in the normal colon, a prerequisite for future studies aimed at understanding methylation differences indicative of a colon field effect. PMID:24413027

  9. The impact of cattle and goats grazing on vegetation in oak stands of varying coppicing age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papachristou, Thomas G.; Platis, Panayiotis D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of cattle and goats grazing on oak shoot growth and herbaceous vegetation in three oak forest stands with different coppicing age (1, 4 and 7 yrs after the clear cutting) were investigated. In April 1997, an experimental area was chosen with three forest stands, which were clear cut in 1996 (CL1996), 1993 (CL1993), and 1990 (CL1990). All stands were grazed by cattle and goats after they were clear cut. In each forest stand, five 10 m × 10 m paired plots were located, which represented grazed and protected patches. Herbage biomass within protected and grazed plots was measured four times each year (spring: May-June, summer: July-August, autumn: September-October, and winter: November-December). Behavioural observations on grazing animals were conducted in the same periods. In both protected and open plots the height and basal diameter of all oak shoots on 5 preselected stumps were measured at the end of five growing periods from 1997 to 2001. All forest stands carried a similar amount of available herbage (averaged over forest stands and growing season, 2614 kg/ha). Grazing animals removed on average 1057 kg/ha throughout the growing period. Cattle mainly consumed herbage (97% of bites) while goats consumed a mixture of oak browse (41% bites), herbaceous species (34% bites), and other woody species browse (25% bites). The height, diameter and volume of oak shoots were affected by grazing. The three forest stands had similar shoot heights in the protected plots in 2001 after 5 years of grazing protection. The volume of oak shoots of the grazed plots were 146.7 cm3 for CL1996, 232.9 cm3 for CL1993, and 239.1 cm3 for CL1990 in 2001 (i.e. 5, 8, and 11 years grazing after the clear cuttings, respectively). The protected plots carried greater volumes of oak shoots, CL1996: 496.0 cm3 (few months grazing before protection), CL1993: 690.0 cm3 (4 years grazing before protection), and CL1990: 344.0 cm3 (7 years grazing before protection). In conclusion, almost

  10. Tuning the adsorption behaviors of water, methanol, and ethanol in a porous material by varying the flexibility of substituted groups.

    PubMed

    Sha, Yunfei; Bai, Shizhe; Lou, Jiaying; Wu, Da; Liu, Baizhan; Ling, Yun

    2016-05-01

    Exploring the adsorption and separation of water, methanol, and ethanol is important concerning the use of a sustainable energy source from biofuel. In this paper, the effects of the flexibility of substituted groups have been studied based on three iso-reticular metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), in which the pore surface is decorated with propargyl (-CH2-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH), allyl (-CH2-CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2), and propyl (-CH2-CH2-CH3) groups respectively. These substituted groups stretch into the channel, acting as gates, and the gate-opening for guests is controlled by the flexibility as well as host-guest interactions. Our study results indicate that (i) the adsorption capacity of water, methanol and ethanol enhances accordingly with the increase of the flexibility of substituted groups; (ii) the adsorptive discrimination of water, methanol, and ethanol on this porous sorbent could be tuned by varying the substituted groups. PMID:27074997

  11. The allometric exponent for scaling clearance varies with age: a study on seven propofol datasets ranging from preterm neonates to adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenguang; Allegaert, Karel; Peeters, Mariska Y M; Tibboel, Dick; Danhof, Meindert; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2014-01-01

    Aim For scaling clearance between adults and children, allometric scaling with a fixed exponent of 0.75 is often applied. In this analysis, we performed a systematic study on the allometric exponent for scaling propofol clearance between two subpopulations selected from neonates, infants, toddlers, children, adolescents and adults. Methods Seven propofol studies were included in the analysis (neonates, infants, toddlers, children, adolescents, adults1 and adults2). In a systematic manner, two out of the six study populations were selected resulting in 15 combined datasets. In addition, the data of the seven studies were regrouped into five age groups (FDA Guidance 1998), from which four combined datasets were prepared consisting of one paediatric age group and the adult group. In each of these 19 combined datasets, the allometric scaling exponent for clearance was estimated using population pharmacokinetic modelling (nonmem 7.2). Results The allometric exponent for propofol clearance varied between 1.11 and 2.01 in cases where the neonate dataset was included. When two paediatric datasets were analyzed, the exponent varied between 0.2 and 2.01, while it varied between 0.56 and 0.81 when the adult population and a paediatric dataset except for neonates were selected. Scaling from adults to adolescents, children, infants and neonates resulted in exponents of 0.74, 0.70, 0.60 and 1.11 respectively. Conclusions For scaling clearance, ¾ allometric scaling may be of value for scaling between adults and adolescents or children, while it can neither be used for neonates nor for two paediatric populations. For scaling to neonates an exponent between 1 and 2 was identified. PMID:23772816

  12. Abundance of phosphorylated Apis mellifera CREB in the honeybee's mushroom body inner compact cells varies with age.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Katrin B; Heufelder, Karin; Kersting, Isabella; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-04-15

    Hymenopteran eusociality has been proposed to be associated with the activity of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein). The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a eusocial insect displaying a pronounced age-dependent division of labor. In honeybee brains, CREB-dependent genes are regulated in an age-dependent manner, indicating that there might be a role for neuronal honeybee CREB (Apis mellifera CREB, or AmCREB) in the bee's division of labor. In this study, we further explore this hypothesis by asking where in the honeybee brain AmCREB-dependent processes might take place and whether they vary with age in these brain regions. CREB is activated following phosphorylation at a conserved serine residue. An increase of phosphorylated CREB is therefore regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. Thus, we here examine the localization of phosphorylated AmCREB (pAmCREB) in the brain and its age-dependent variability. We report prominent pAmCREB staining in a subpopulation of intrinsic neurons of the mushroom bodies. In these neurons, the inner compact cells (IC), pAmCREB is located in the nuclei, axons, and dendrites. In the central bee brain, the IC somata and their dendritic region, we observed an age-dependent increase of pAmCREB. Our results demonstrate the IC to be candidate neurons involved in age-dependent division of labor. We hypothesize that the IC display a high level of CREB-dependent transcription that might be related to neuronal and behavioral plasticity underlying a bee's foraging behavior. PMID:26355639

  13. Response of tumour-related and normal lymphocytes to antigens on fibroblasts from embryos of varying age.

    PubMed Central

    Gorczynski, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The in vitro cytotoxic immune response of spleen lymphocytes from primiparous and tumour-related mice to embryonic cells from embryos of varying age and tumour cells has been investigated. The results indicate that lymphocytes from both primiparous and tumour-related (i.e., tumour-bearing or tumour-excised) animals give a response which is greater than that from cells from control mice ("virgin cells"). Moreover, in this putative anamnestic response the immune cells detect antigenic differences in the cell populations of embryos of varying age, which are not as readily demonstrable when cytotoxicity is derived from virgin cells. As a further indication of the in vivo priming to embryo-assoicated antigens, the data show that the precursors of cytotoxic cells apparently undergo a blastogenic response in the presence of embryo antigen, and revert to small quiescent cells when antigen is removed, in a way entirely analogous to that described for reactivity of mixed leucocyte cultures to antigens of the major histocompatibility complex. Finally, it seems that in animals immediately after removal of embryonic antigen (and to a lesser degree in virgin or late-embryo-immune mice) there exists a suppressor cell population which inhibits an anti-embryo cytotoxic response far more than an antiallograft response. PMID:656306

  14. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  15. Diplopia of pediatric orbital blowout fractures: a retrospective study of 83 patients classified by age groups.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun; Shen, Qin; Lin, Ming; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-01-01

    Orbital blowout fractures are relatively rare in patients under 18 years of age, but may lead to serious complications. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate diplopia, clinical characteristics, and postoperative results in cases of orbital blowout fractures in the pediatric population. Eighty-three patients, all less than 18 years old, with orbital blowout fractures, were divided into 3 groups by age: 0 to 6 years old, 7 to 12 years old, and 13 to 18 years old. The cause of injury, fracture locations, diplopia grades, ocular motility restrictions, enophthalmos, and postoperative results were reviewed from their records. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact analyses, analyses of variance, and logistic regressions were performed to determine characteristics associated with diplopia, and to identify factors related to residual diplopia in pediatric patients. The most common causes of injuries were traffic accidents in the 0 to 6 years old group, normal daily activities in the 7 to 12 years old group, and assaults in the 13 to 18 years old group. Floor fractures were the most common location in both the 0 to 6- and 7 to 12 years old groups, and medial-floor fractures were the most common location in the 13 to 18 years old group. The occurrence of preoperative diplopia was related to ocular motility restriction and enophthalmos, but not with the age group, the gender, the cause of injury, or the fracture locations. The time interval from injury to surgery was significant in the outcome of postoperative diplopia (P < 0.01). A statistical difference was also found in the recovery time from diplopia among the 3 age groups (P < 0.01). The characteristics of orbital blowout fracture varied among the different age groups. It was related to 2 factors, the cause of injury and fracture locations, which probably resulted from structural growth changes and differences in daily habits. Children had a slower recovery from orbital fractures, and the younger the

  16. Diplopia of Pediatric Orbital Blowout Fractures: A Retrospective Study of 83 Patients Classified by Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun; Shen, Qin; Lin, Ming; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Orbital blowout fractures are relatively rare in patients under 18 years of age, but may lead to serious complications. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate diplopia, clinical characteristics, and postoperative results in cases of orbital blowout fractures in the pediatric population. Eighty-three patients, all less than 18 years old, with orbital blowout fractures, were divided into 3 groups by age: 0 to 6 years old, 7 to 12 years old, and 13 to 18 years old. The cause of injury, fracture locations, diplopia grades, ocular motility restrictions, enophthalmos, and postoperative results were reviewed from their records. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact analyses, analyses of variance, and logistic regressions were performed to determine characteristics associated with diplopia, and to identify factors related to residual diplopia in pediatric patients. The most common causes of injuries were traffic accidents in the 0 to 6 years old group, normal daily activities in the 7 to 12 years old group, and assaults in the 13 to 18 years old group. Floor fractures were the most common location in both the 0 to 6- and 7 to 12 years old groups, and medial-floor fractures were the most common location in the 13 to 18 years old group. The occurrence of preoperative diplopia was related to ocular motility restriction and enophthalmos, but not with the age group, the gender, the cause of injury, or the fracture locations. The time interval from injury to surgery was significant in the outcome of postoperative diplopia (P < 0.01). A statistical difference was also found in the recovery time from diplopia among the 3 age groups (P < 0.01). The characteristics of orbital blowout fracture varied among the different age groups. It was related to 2 factors, the cause of injury and fracture locations, which probably resulted from structural growth changes and differences in daily habits. Children had a slower recovery from orbital fractures, and the younger

  17. Socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices among USA ethnic and age groups.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P L; Rams, T E; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    In this study, socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices were examined across several dentate ethnic and age groups. Oral hygiene scale scores were constructed from toothbrushing and dental floss frequencies self-reported by population-based samples of middle-aged (35-44 years) and older (65-74 years) dentate adults representing Baltimore African-American and White, San Antonio Hispanic and non-Hispanic White, and Navajo and Lakota Native American persons participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) survey. Female gender, education, certain oral health beliefs, household income, and the presence of a usual source of care were revealed with multivariate analysis to show a significant positive relationship with higher oral hygiene scale scores (indicating better personal oral hygiene practices). Other socio-behavioral variables exhibited a more varied, ethnic-specific pattern of association with oral hygiene scale scores. PMID:9549990

  18. Timing the second birth: fecundability models for selected race and age groups in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Swanson, D A

    1986-12-01

    This article tests exponential models for fecundability for use in predicting the timing of the second birth in a non-contracepting population, using data from Hawaii for reference. The paper begins with an extensive review of the literature on mathematical models for birth intervals. The most common problem with prior studies is that the reference data are often biased with uncontrolled parameters such as maternal age, abortion history, lactation practice and pregnancy planning. Pertinent bias in the present data is evaluated. The principal tool used here is an exponential distribution, maximum-likelihood method, involving partial differential equations. The model was constructed by subjecting it to 3 steps: 1) it was tested for exponentiality with a Gail-Gastwirth test that does not depend upon an unknown parameter; 2) the reciprocal of the mean second birth interval was calculated for each group that passed the first test; 3) the estimated frequencies were tested against observed by the chi-squared goodness of fit test. The results are tabulated as separate racial groups, combined races, and age groups. Fecundabilities varied widely by age within all races. For all races, rates were .07045, .03423 and .02777 for ages 20-24, 25-29, and 30-34. Thus the results suggest that fecundability rates are largely determined by age related factors associated with coital frequency, rather than by racial or physiological variations. Other factors potentially influencing fecundability in actual data or models are discussed, such as period effects, the "intendedness" of pregnancy, types of non-live birth intervals, lactation, induced and spontaneous abortion, and differences in pre- and post-demographic transition populations. Finally appendices are added discussing cohort size bias, presenting data set documentation and evaluating the length of pregnancy term and post-partum sterility in the data used here. PMID:12268733

  19. Microglial P2 Purinergic Receptor and Immunomodulatory Gene Transcripts Vary By Region, Sex, and Age in the Healthy Mouse CNS

    PubMed Central

    Crain, Jessica M.; Watters, Jyoti J.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory damage in many neurodegenerative diseases is restricted to certain regions of the CNS, and while microglia have long been implicated in the pathology of many of these disorders, information comparing their gene expression in different CNS regions is lacking. Here we tested the hypothesis that the expression of purinergic receptors, estrogen receptors and other neuroprotective and pro-inflammatory genes differed among CNS regions in healthy mice. Because neurodegenerative diseases vary in incidence by sex and age, we also examined the regional distribution of these genes in male and female mice of four different ages between 21 days and 12 months. We postulated that pro-inflammatory gene expression would be higher in older animals, and lower in young adult females. We found that microglial gene expression differed across the CNS. Estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1) mRNA levels were often lower in microglia from the brainstem/spinal cord than from the cortex, whereas tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfα) expression was several times higher. In addition, the regional pattern of gene expression often changed with animal age; for example, no regional differences in P2X7 mRNA levels were detected in 21 day-old animals, but at 7 weeks and older, expression was highest in cerebellar microglia. Lastly, the expression of some genes was sexually dimorphic. In microglia from 12 month-old animals, mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, but not Tnfα, were higher in females than males. These data suggest that microglial gene expression is not uniformly more pro-inflammatory in males or older animals. Moreover, microglia from CNS regions in which neuronal damage predominates in neurodegenerative disease do not generally express more pro-inflammatory genes than microglia from regions less frequently affected. This study provides an in-depth assessment of regional-, sex- and age-dependent differences in key microglial transcripts from the healthy mouse CNS. PMID

  20. [Current model of breakfast for different age groups: children, a adolescents and adults].

    PubMed

    Núñez, C; Cuadrado, C; Carbajal, A; Moreiras, O

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to assess the current breakfast model in different age groups: children between the ages of 6 and 12 years (n = 54); adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years (n = 174); and adults, older than 18 years of age (n = 252). For this a questionnaire has been designed that follows the standards of that used for a similar study by our team in 1984 on a sample of 1350 individuals. The modified and amplified questionnaire included open and closed questions about: the omission of breakfast and its causes, foods that are a part of breakfast, the most frequent types and the variations, the role of the second breakfast, the number of fasting hours since dinner, the time spent of breakfast, and the subjective opinion regarding the importance or not of having breakfast. 98.95% answer yes to the question do you have breakfast, but only 9% eats a nutritionally correct breakfast, one defined as that breakfast that supplies 20% of the total energy and includes foods from at least four different groups. All the children included some form of milk product in their breakfast. The adolescents consumed the lowest proportion of cereals (19.4%) and the highest proportion of pastries (24.2%). The percentage of adults who drink coffee with milk (57%) and sugar (37.7%) is significantly higher than that it the other two groups. Bread (37.7%), pastries (28.3%) and cookies (26.1%) are the solid foods eaten most by the adults. The children spend the longest time on breakfast. 35.9% of the sample varies their breakfast, 43.1% never does, and 21% does so sometimes. The average time elapsed between dinner and breakfast is 10.5 +/- 1.2 hours. It is advisable to have a more nutritionally balanced breakfast, including different foods from at least four groups, and including a greater variety in the menus. PMID:9780752

  1. Using Korotkoff Sounds to Detect the Degree of Vascular Compliance in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The principle behind the generation of the Korotkoff sounds is the turbulence of blood flowing through a partially occluded area in the artery. With increasing age, the vascular wall compliance is expected to decrease, which is due to the thickening of the vessel wall, due to which the amplitude of the transmitted Korotkoff sounds is decreased. There is also an accompanying rise in the systolic B.P. and pulse pressure. Aim To record and compare the amplitudes of the intermediate Korotkoff sounds and the blood pressures in individuals of the two age groups, and calculate the pulse pressure and determine whether they vary in relation to the amplitude of the intermediate Korotkoff sounds recorded. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 young subjects (15-25 years) and 50 older subjects (50-70 years). The mid arm circumference was measured using a tape. A phonoarteriogram was placed over the left brachial artery and the sphygmomanometer cuff was tied 2cm above the cubital fossa of the left arm. The blood pressure was recorded using the Lab Tutor software. The Korotkoff sounds picked up and transmitted by the phonoarteriogram are represented as distinct lines on the graphical recording. Statistical Analysis Independent samples t-test to look for significant mean amplitude differences and for correlating mean amplitude and pulse pressure. Null hypothesis rejected at p<0.05. Data analysed using the SPSS software version 20.0 (SPSS Inc.). Results There was a significant difference in the mean amplitudes of Korotkoff sounds among the different age groups (p=0.001) and subject categories (p=0.043 among males, p=0.037 among females). A significant difference in pulse pressures was also seen among different age groups and subject categories. The decrease in the amplitudes of Korotkoff sounds in the older age group accompanies the increase in pulse pressures seen in this group and the same was seen among the different age groups within

  2. The Modeling of Time-Varying Stream Water Age Distributions: Preliminary Investigations with Non-Conservative Solutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilusz, D. C.; Harman, C. J.; Ball, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    Modeling the dynamics of chemical transport from the landscape to streams is necessary for water quality management. Previous work has shown that estimates of the distribution of water age in streams, the transit time distribution (TTD), can improve prediction of the concentration of conservative tracers (i.e., ones that "follow the water") based on upstream watershed inputs. A major challenge however has been accounting for climate and transport variability when estimating TDDs at the catchment scale. In this regard, Harman (2014, in review) proposed the Omega modeling framework capable of using watershed hydraulic fluxes to approximate the time-varying TTD. The approach was previously applied to the Plynlimon research watershed in Wales to simulate stream concentration dynamics of a conservative tracer (chloride) including 1/f attenuation of the power spectra density. In this study we explore the extent to which TTDs estimated by the Omega model vary with the concentration of non-conservative tracers (i.e., ones whose concentrations are also affected by transformations and interactions with other phases). First we test the hypothesis that the TTD calibrated in Plynlimon can explain a large part of the variation in non-conservative stream water constituents associated with storm flow (acidity, Al, DOC, Fe) and base flow (Ca, Si). While controlling for discharge, we show a correlation between the percentage of water of different ages and constituent concentration. Second, we test the hypothesis that TTDs help explain variation in stream nitrate concentration, which is of particular interest for pollution control but can be highly non-conservative. We compare simulation runs from Plynlimon and the agricultural Choptank watershed in Maryland, USA. Following a top-down approach, we estimate nitrate concentration as if it were a conservative tracer and examine the structure of residuals at different temporal resolutions. Finally, we consider model modifications to

  3. Age of the universe constrained from the primordial nucleosynthesis in the Brans-Dicke theory with a varying cosmological term.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etoh, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Arai, K.; Fujimoto, S.

    1997-09-01

    The age of the universe is investigated from a viewpoint of the primordial nucleosynthesis in the Brans-Dicke model with a varying {LAMBDA} term. It is shown that the age can be long enough compared with that of the globular clusters using two critical quantities recently reported from the HST observations: the Hubble constant, and deuterium abundances. Then it is shown that the present rate of variation in the gravitational ``constant'' can be predicted. From the observational constraint in the primordial nucleosynthesis, the baryon density relative to the critical density is found to be {OMEGA}_b_=0.047-0.14 from the observation by Songaila et al. (1996) and {OMEGA}_b_=0.16-0.22 from that by Tytler et al. (1996), where the critical density is ρ_c_=6.0x10^-30^g/cm^3^ for H_0_=80km/s/Mpc and a parameter characteristic to the Brans-Dicke theory. It is concluded that most of the matter consists of the non-baryonic dark matter if the universe is flat.

  4. Behavioral Group Work in a Home for the Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsk, N.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Elderly people in institutions frequently become isolated and noncommunicative. By using behavioral measurements of group workers and group members, the authors have formulated ways of treatment that encourage members to participate more actively. (Author)

  5. Leadership Asymmetries in Mixed-Age Children's Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doran C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Observed the decision-reaching and leadership behavior of children in same- amd mixed-age triads by coding their verbalizations in arriving at a consensus for their preference ranking of eight pictures. (HOD)

  6. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  7. Group Treatment of Sexually Abused Latency-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Lisa Y.; Gutierrez-Kovner, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot group developed to address the traumagenic stigmatization, powerlessness, betrayal, and sexualization that characterize victims of sexual abuse. Treatment modules developed within this framework focused on: group cohesiveness, discussion of specific abuse experiences, coping strategies, sexuality, victimization prevention, and…

  8. Mortality in mild cognitive impairment varies by subtype, sex and lifestyle factors. The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Vassilaki, Maria; Cha, Ruth H.; Aakre, Jeremiah A.; Therneau, Terry M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Roberts, Rosebud O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Etiologic differences in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes may impact mortality. Objective To assess the rate of death in MCI overall, and by subtype, in the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Methods Participants aged 70–89 years at enrollment were clinically evaluated at baseline and 15-month intervals to assess diagnoses of MCI and dementia. Mortality in MCI cases vs. cognitively normal (CN) individuals was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Over a median follow-up of 5.8 years, 331 of 862 (38.4%) MCI cases and 224 of 1292 (17.3%) cognitively normal participants died. Compared to CN individuals, mortality was elevated in persons with MCI (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.61 to 2.55), and was higher for non-amnestic MCI (naMCI; HR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.80 to 3.39) than for amnestic MCI (aMCI; HR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.48 to 2.41) after adjusting for confounders. Mortality varied significantly by sex, education, history of heart disease, and engaging in moderate physical exercise (p for interaction <0.05 for all). Mortality rate estimates were highest in MCI cases who were men, did not exercise, had heart disease, and had higher education vs. CN without these factors, and for naMCI cases vs. aMCI cases without these factors. Conclusions These findings suggest stronger impact of etiologic factors on naMCI mortality. Prevention of heart disease, exercise vigilance, may reduce MCI mortality. Delayed MCI diagnosis in persons with higher education impacts mortality, and higher mortality in men may explain similar dementia incidence by sex in our cohort. PMID:25697699

  9. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  10. AGING & HEALTH Expectations About Future Use Of Long-Term Services And Supports Vary By CurrentLiving Arrangement

    PubMed Central

    Henning-Smith, Carrie; Shippee, Tetyana

    2014-01-01

    Most Americans know little about options for long-term services and supports and underestimate their likely future needs for such assistance. Using data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, we examined expectations about future use of long-term services and supports among adults ages 40–65 and how these expectations varied by current living arrangement. We found differences by living arrangement in expectations about both future need for long-term services and supports and who would provide such care if needed. Respondents living with minor children were the least likely to expect to need long-term services and supports and to require paid care if the need arose. In contrast, respondents living alone were the most likely to expect that it was “very likely” that they would need long-term services and supports and to rely on paid care. Overall, we found a disconnect between expectations of use and likely future reality: 60 percent of respondents believed that they were unlikely to need long-term services and supports in the future, whereas the evidence suggests that nearly 70 percent of older adults will need them at some point. These findings both underscore the need for programs that encourage people to plan for long-term services and supports and indicate that information about living arrangements can be useful in developing and targeting such programs. PMID:25561642

  11. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  12. MULTI-AGE GROUPING--ENRICHING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES OF CHILDREN OCCUR NATURALLY IN PLAY AND IN MANY SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, FOR EXAMPLE, STUDENT COUNCIL MEETINGS, CLUBS, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS. THESE ACTIVITIES DEMAND THE VARIETY OF AGES, TALENTS, INTERESTS, AND EXPERIENCES REPRESENTED BY THE WHOLE RANGE OF STUDENTS IN A SCHOOL. IT IS QUESTIONED WHETHER ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES WOULD NOT…

  13. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  14. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  15. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  16. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  17. Timing Issues with Early Childhood Education Programs: How Effect Sizes Vary by Starting Age, Program Duration and Persistence of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Leak, James A.; Li, Weilin; Magnuson, Katherine; Schindler, Holly; Yoshikawa, Hiro

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to…

  18. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  19. [Efficacy of group psychotherapy for homosexual aging males].

    PubMed

    Gagliesi, Pablo

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this research is try to expose and to debate the groupal psychotherapy experience of homosexual males older than 65 years, in Buenos Aires. The starting point for this work is based on that homogeneous groups are effective in some contexts, what is demonstrated by the results at the beginning and at the end of the samples of the BSI and SAS, although this data are not, like it was supposed, commonly linked with the selected biographical antecedents (abuse of power, bereavements during the last military dictatorships, bereavements as result of the AIDS epidemic and the difficulties in the economic survival). PMID:12478313

  20. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy. PMID:22784412

  1. Age Group Differences in HIV Risk and Mental Health Problems among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2014-01-01

    HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study we divided a sample of 1,022 FSWs into three age groups (≤20 years, 21– 34 years, and ≥35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (a) older FSWs (≥35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (b) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use and STD history; (c) younger FSWs (≤20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (d) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSW aged 21–34 years; (e) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors. These findings indicate the need for intervention efforts to address varying needs among FSWs in different age groups. Specific interventional efforts are needed to reduce older FSWs’ exposure to HIV risk; meanwhile, more attention should be given to improve FSWs’ mental health status, especially among younger FSWs. PMID:24410298

  2. Valve repair in rheumatic heart disease in pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pramod K; Dharmapuram, Anil K; Swain, Sunil K; Ramdoss, Nagarajan; Raghavan, Sreekanth S; Murthy, Kona S

    2008-04-01

    Valve repair in children is technically demanding but more desirable than valve replacement. From April 2004 to September 2005, 1 boy and 8 girls with rheumatic heart disease, aged 2-13 years (median, 9 years), underwent valve repair for isolated mitral regurgitation in 5, combined mitral and aortic regurgitation in 2, mitral stenosis in 1, and mitral regurgitation associated with atrial septal defect in 1. Chordal shortening in 7, annular plication in 6, commissurotomy in 1, reconstruction of commissural leaflets in 7 were performed for mitral valve disease. Plication and reattachment of the aortic cusps was carried out in 2 patients. Annuloplasty rings were not used. All patients survived the operation, 8 had trivial or mild residual mitral regurgitation, and 1 had trivial aortic regurgitation. Mean left atrial pressure decreased from 14 to 7 mm Hg postoperatively. During follow-up of 3-18 months, all children were asymptomatic and enjoyed normal activity. None required reoperation. In addition to chordal shortening and annular plication, reconstruction of the commissural leaflets is considered the most important aspect of valve repair. It can be achieved without annuloplasty rings, giving good early and midterm results. PMID:18381871

  3. Spiritual Coping and Psychosocial Adjustment of Adolescents with Chronic Illness: The Role of Cognitive Attributions, Age, and Disease Group

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Nina; Mrug, Sylvie; Guion, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Spiritual coping is an important determinant of adjustment in youth with chronic illness, but the mechanisms through which it affects outcomes have not been elucidated. It is also unknown whether the role of spiritual coping varies by age or disease group. This study evaluated whether general cognitive attributions explain the effects of spiritual coping on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents with cystic fibrosis and diabetes and whether these relationships vary by age or disease group. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adolescents (N=128; M=14.7 yrs) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes completed measures of spiritual coping and attributional style. Adolescents and their caregivers reported on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Results Overall, positive spiritual coping was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. Negative spiritual coping was related to more externalizing problems, and for adolescents with cystic fibrosis only, also internalizing problems. Optimistic attributions mediated the effects of positive spiritual coping among adolescents with diabetes. The results did not vary by age. Conclusions An optimistic attribution style may help explain the effects of positive, but not negative, spiritual coping on adjustment of youth with diabetes. Youth with progressive, life-threatening illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis, may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of negative spiritual coping. Future research should examine if addressing spiritual concerns and promoting optimistic attributions improves adolescents’ emotional and behavioral functioning. PMID:23298988

  4. Finisher and performance trends in female and male mountain ultramarathoners by age group

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Eichenberger, Evelyn; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined changes according to age group in the number of finishers and running times for athletes in female and male mountain ultramarathoners competing in the 78 km Swiss Alpine Marathon, the largest mountain ultramarathon in Europe and held in high alpine terrain. Methods The association between age and performance was investigated using analysis of variance and both single and multilevel regression analyses. Results Between 1998 and 2011, a total of 1,781 women and 12,198 men finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon. The number of female finishers increased (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.001), whereas the number of male finishers (r2 = 0.18, P = 0.15) showed no change. The annual top ten men became older and slower, whereas the annual top ten women became older but not slower. Regarding the number of finishers in the age groups, the number of female finishers decreased in the age group 18–24 years, whereas the number of finishers increased in the age groups 30–34, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, and 70–74 years. In the age groups 25–29 and 35–39 years, the number of finishers showed no changes across the years. In the age group 70–74 years, the increase in number of finishers was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. For men, the number of finishers decreased in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35–39 years. In the age groups 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 70–74, and 75–79 years, the number of finishers increased. In the age group 40–44 years, the increase was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. Female finishers in the age group 40–44 years became faster over time. For men, finishers in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, 40–44, and 45–49 years became slower. Conclusion The number of women older than 30 years and men older than 40 years increased in the Swiss Alpine Marathon. Performance improved in women aged 40–44 years but

  5. Body-image perceptions across sex and age groups.

    PubMed

    Cullari, S; Rohrer, J M; Bahm, C

    1998-12-01

    Weight dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and body-image distortion measures were used with 98 fifth and eighth graders and 57 undergraduate students. Measures included the Piers-Harris Self-concept Scale and the Kids Eating Disorder Survey for the young children, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, and a seven-item mistaken beliefs scale for the college sample. Body dissatisfaction and Body-image distortion were assessed with a figure-drawing procedure. Significant differences in both weight dissatisfaction and body dissatisfaction were found between males and females in the eighth grade and undergraduate groups. There were no significant sex differences in body-image distortion in the fifth or eighth grades, but significant differences in body-image distortion between men and women were found in the college sample. The direction of body-image distortion for both the 20 men and the 37 women was consistent with their ideal weight. In the college sample, there was a significant correlation between body-image dissatisfaction and self-confidence for the women but not for the men. PMID:9885045

  6. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  7. Racial-Ethnic Comparisons of Temperament Constructs for Three Age Groups Using the Student Styles Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Mary E.; Oakland, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses construct validity for comparisons of racial-ethnic group response patterns on the SSQ when age is considered as a factor. Assesses whether the SSQ's factor structure is similar for African American, Hispanic American, and Anglo American children and youth, grouped by ages 8-10, 11-13, and 14-17 years old. (RJM)

  8. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR MONITORING AND ASSESSING CHILDHOOD EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children’s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current und...

  9. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  10. Scappoose Formation, Columbia County, Oregon: new evidence of age and relation to Columbia River basalt group

    SciTech Connect

    VanAtta, R.O.; Kelty, K.B.

    1985-05-01

    The Scappoose Formation, considered to be late Oligocene to early Miocene in age, was originally believed to be disconformably separated from both the underlying Pittsburg Bluff Formation and the overlying Yakima subgroup of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Recent mapping and petrography show that it lies disconformably on both the Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations, and interfingers with the Yakima Basalt. The Scappoose is composed of fluvial sandstone, conglomerate, and carbonaceous to coal-bearing mud rock, intertongued with shallow neritic to estuarine siltstone, mud rock, and minor sandstone. Chemistry of basalt clasts from fluvial conglomerates reveals that they are derived from the Yakima subgroup. Basalt conglomerate and palagonitic sediments in the upper part of the formation are intercalated with Grande Ronde basalt (Yakima subgroup) flows at many localities. Flows of Yakima Basalt are also invasive into originally wet, unconsolidated Scappoose sediment. Grande Ronde basalt and the Frenchman Springs Member of the Wanapum basalt overlie conglomerate of the Scappoose. In places, the Scappoose Formation is absent, and Yakima Basalt lies directly on the Pittsburg Bluff and Keasey Formations. The thickness of both the Scappoose Formation and the Columbia River Basalt Group varies widely, indicating that both were deposited over a paleotopography with a relief up to 800 ft (245 m). The definition of the boundaries of the Scappoose Formation should be revised, owing to the disconformable relation of the Scappoose to both the underlying Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations and to the Scappoose's intercalation with the overlying Yakima Basalt. Definition of age must also be revised, inasmuch as sedimentation of the formation was coeval with Columbia River Basalt volcanism.

  11. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  12. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people. PMID:27612887

  13. Mono- and polynucleation, atomistic growth, and crystal phase of III-V nanowires under varying group V flow

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2015-05-28

    We present a refined model for the vapor-liquid-solid growth and crystal structure of Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires, which revisits several assumptions used so far and is capable of describing the transition from mononuclear to polynuclear regime and ultimately to regular atomistic growth. We construct the crystal phase diagrams and calculate the wurtzite percentages, elongation rates, critical sizes, and polynucleation thresholds of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires depending on the As flow. We find a non-monotonic dependence of the crystal phase on the group V flow, with the zincblende structure being preferred at low and high group V flows and the wurtzite structure forming at intermediate group V flows. This correlates with most of the available experimental data. Finally, we discuss the atomistic growth picture which yields zincblende crystal structure and should be very advantageous for fabrication of ternary III-V nanowires with well-controlled composition and heterointerfaces.

  14. Mono- and polynucleation, atomistic growth, and crystal phase of III-V nanowires under varying group V flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2015-05-01

    We present a refined model for the vapor-liquid-solid growth and crystal structure of Au-catalyzed III-V nanowires, which revisits several assumptions used so far and is capable of describing the transition from mononuclear to polynuclear regime and ultimately to regular atomistic growth. We construct the crystal phase diagrams and calculate the wurtzite percentages, elongation rates, critical sizes, and polynucleation thresholds of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires depending on the As flow. We find a non-monotonic dependence of the crystal phase on the group V flow, with the zincblende structure being preferred at low and high group V flows and the wurtzite structure forming at intermediate group V flows. This correlates with most of the available experimental data. Finally, we discuss the atomistic growth picture which yields zincblende crystal structure and should be very advantageous for fabrication of ternary III-V nanowires with well-controlled composition and heterointerfaces.

  15. Quantifying risk over the life course - latency, age-related susceptibility, and other time-varying exposure metrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Molin; Liao, Xiaomei; Laden, Francine; Spiegelman, Donna

    2016-06-15

    Identification of the latency period and age-related susceptibility, if any, is an important aspect of assessing risks of environmental, nutritional, and occupational exposures. We consider estimation and inference for latency and age-related susceptibility in relative risk and excess risk models. We focus on likelihood-based methods for point and interval estimation of the latency period and age-related windows of susceptibility coupled with several commonly considered exposure metrics. The method is illustrated in a study of the timing of the effects of constituents of air pollution on mortality in the Nurses' Health Study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26750582

  16. P300 EVENT RELATED POTENTIAL IN NORMAL HEALTHY CONTROLS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, R.; Trivedi, J.K.; Singh, R.; Singh, Y.; Chakravorty, P.

    2000-01-01

    P300 event related potential was recorded in 115 healthy controls with a mean age of35.9±14.81 years and a male : female ratio of 72 : 43. There was significant difference in the P300 latency in < 40 years as compared to ≥ 40 years group (p< 0.001). There was no significant difference between males and females. There was a strong positive correlation between age and P300 latency (p< 0.001). The regression equation for P300 latency was Y=287.9+1.492x with an SEE of 20.2 (where Y is the P300 latency in ms, x is the age in years, SEE is the standard error of estimate). There was a negative correlation between age and P300 amplitude which was significant in ≥ 40 years age group while in > 40 years age group it was not significant. PMID:21407977

  17. Effects on Homework Completion and Accuracy of Varied and Constant Reinforcement within an Interdependent Group Contingency System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Steven G.; Akin-Little, Angeleque; Newman-Eig, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of an interdependent group contingency program on increasing homework completion and accuracy rates in fourth grade students in an elementary school. In addition, the present study attempted to determine whether randomized reinforcement was more effective than constant reinforcement. Overall, the…

  18. [Reproducibility of the answers of various groups of cardiovascular patients in a standardized questionnaire, differentiated by age and gender].

    PubMed

    Adelt, R; Bohm, R; Heinemann, L; Günther, K H

    1978-10-15

    For the purpose of the valuation of a questionnaire developed by us for the anamnestic recognition of angiocardiopathies, which consists of 63 questions, a repeated interrogation was performed with 220 patients of different age and sex during 14 days. The average reproducibility of the yes/no-decisions was good and varied only slightly in the 8 groups of diseases (86.3--99.4%). The average degree of reproducibility referred to the sexes is nearly the same (94.7% and 95.5%, respectively). Referred to the age groups the highest reproducibility was established in the patients older than 60 years (95.7%) and the lowest in patients between 50 and 60 years (93.3%). PMID:735245

  19. Age groups of antarctic krill, Euphausia superba dana, in the Prydz Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Sun, Song; Wang, Ke; Li, Chao-Iun

    2000-06-01

    Age groups of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba Dana) in the Prydz Bay region were studied by distribution mixture analysis based on length/frequency data collected by R/V Jidi during the 1989/1990 and 1990/1991 austral summer. Five age groups were determined, i.e. 1+, 2+, 3+, 4+, and 5+, or six age groups in all, if the 0+ larvae were included. The mean body length of 1+ to 5+ age groups was 25.70 mm, 40.47 mm, 45.52 mm, 50.52 mm and 54.52 mm respectively. Supposing the difference in body length between successive age groups is a reflection of the early growth, the maximum growth rate occurred during the period from 1+ juveniles to 2+ subadults (14.77 mm/a). From 2+ subadults to 3+ adults the growth rate dropped steeply (5.05 mm/a) because at this stage, increase of body length was substituted, to a great extent, by the growth of sexual products. From 3+ onwards the growth rate was maintained at a relatively low level and decreased slowly with age. The relative abundance of age groups 1+ and 2+, in our sample must be much lower than that in the real population owing to both the large mesh size we used and the distribution difference between juveniles and adults. If we left aside 1+ and 2+ age groups and just looked at the relative abundance of adults, we found that age group 3+ dominated the adult population and that the relative abundance decreased sharply with increasing age. If this situation is normal, one can expect an extremely high mortality rate in adults, 82.6% from 3+ to 4+ and 94.0% from 4+ to 5+. This is reasonably expectable for the Prydz Bay region.

  20. How do groups work? Age differences in performance and the social outcomes of peer collaboration.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J

    2015-05-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were awarded to the best performing individuals. Findings, both in terms of social outcomes and performance in the quiz, indicated that the 8-year olds viewed the benefits of group membership in terms of the opportunities to receive information from other members. The 13-year olds, in contrast, viewed group collaboration as a constructive process where success was connected with group cohesiveness. PMID:25250886

  1. Electrostatic generator/motor having rotors of varying thickness and a central stator electrically connected together into two groups

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Richard F.

    2010-11-16

    A sub-module consists of a set of two outer sets of stationary fan-blade-shaped sectors. These outer sectors include conductive material and are maintained at ground potential in several examples. Located midway between them is a set of stationary sector plates with each plate being electrically insulated from the others. An example provides that the inner sector plates are connected together alternately, forming two groups of parallel-connected condensers that are then separately connected, through high charging circuit resistances, to a source of DC potential with respect to ground, with an additional connecting lead being provided for each group to connect their output as an AC output to a load. These same leads can he used, when connected to a driver circuit, to produce motor action.

  2. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    PubMed

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age. PMID:26967593

  3. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong-Liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-Jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0-54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4-10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  4. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rong-liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0–54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4–10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  5. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  6. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  7. Influence of the age and sex of human hosts on the distribution of Escherichia coli ECOR groups and virulence traits.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David M; Stern, Steven E; Collignon, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli were isolated from the faeces of 266 individuals living in the Canberra region of Australia. The isolates were characterized for their ECOR group membership (A, B1, B2 or D) and for the presence of 29 virulence-associated traits. Overall, 19.5 % of the strains were members of group A, 12.4 % B1, 45.1 % B2 and 22.9 % D. The frequency with which strains belonging to the four ECOR groups were observed varied with the age and sex of the hosts from which they were isolated. In males, the probability of isolating A or D strains increased with host age, whilst the probability of detecting a group B2 strain declined. In females, the probability of recovering A or B2 strains increased with increasing host age and there was a concomitant decline in the likelihood of isolating B1 or D strains. Of the 29 virulence-associated traits examined, 24 were detected in more than one strain. The likelihood of detecting most traits varied with a strain's ECOR membership, with the exception of afa/draBC, astA, cvaC, eaeA, iss and iutA, for which there was no statistically significant evidence of an association with ECOR group. The frequency with which fimH, iha, eaeA, iroN, hlyD, iss, ompT and K1 were detected in a strain depended on the age or sex of the host from which the strain was isolated. In group B2 strains many of the virulence traits were non-randomly associated, with some co-occurring in a strain less often than expected by chance, whilst others were co-associated. In 17 cases, the extent to which two virulence traits were co-associated was found to depend on host sex and age. The results of this study suggest that the morphological, physiological and dietary differences that occur among human individuals of different sex or age may influence the distribution of E. coli genotypes. PMID:15632421

  8. Personality-informed interventions for healthy aging: conclusions from a National Institute on Aging work group.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-05-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how. In fact, the notion that personality could be changed was part and parcel of many schools of psychotherapy, which suggested that long-term and meaningful change in symptoms could not be achieved without change in relevant aspects of personality. We review intervention research documenting change in personality. On the basis of an integrative view of personality as a complex system, we describe a bottom-up model of change in which interventions to change basic personality processes eventuate in changes at the trait level. A 2nd framework leverages the descriptive and predictive power of personality to tailor individual risk prediction and treatment, as well as refine public health programs, to the relevant dispositional characteristics of the target population. These methods dovetail with, and add a systematic and rigorous psychosocial dimension to, the personalized medicine and patient-centeredness movements in medicine. In addition to improving health through earlier intervention and increased fit between treatments and persons, cost-effectiveness improvements can be realized by more accurate resource allocation. Numerous examples from the personality, health, and aging literature on Conscientiousness and other traits are provided throughout, and we conclude with a series of recommendations for research in these emerging areas. PMID:23978300

  9. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  10. State of gas exchange in recumbent and orthostatic positions and under physical load in healthy persons of varying age, sex and body build

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glezer, G. A.; Charyyev, M.; Zilbert, N. L.

    1980-01-01

    Age effect on gas exchange was studied in the recumbent and orthostatic positions and under physical load. In the case of the older age group and for normal as compared with hypersthenic persons, oxygen consumption during rest and during moderate physical overload diminishes. When the vertical position is assumed oxygen consumption in persons of various age groups is distinctly increased, particularly in the elderly group. There is a reduction in the amount of oxygen consumption, oxygen pulse, recovery coefficient, and work efficiency under moderate overload. In persons over 50, physical labor induces a large oxygen requirement and a sharp rise in the level of lactic acid and the blood's lactate/pyruvate ratio. No distinct difference was noted in the amount of oxygen consumed during rest and during physical overload in men and women of the same physical development and age.

  11. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  12. Human lung surfactant protein A exists in several different oligomeric states: oligomer size distribution varies between patient groups.

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, T. P.; Malhotra, R.; Sim, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a complex molecule composed of up to 18 polypeptide chains. In vivo, SP-A probably binds to a wide range of inhaled materials via the interaction of surface carbohydrates with the lectin domains of SP-A and mediates their interaction with cells as part of a natural defense system. Multiplicity of lectin domains gives high-affinity binding to carbohydrate-bearing surfaces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gel filtration analyses were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from three patient groups: pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (n = 12), birch pollen allergy (n = 11), and healthy volunteers (n = 4). Sucrose density gradient centrifugation was employed to determine molecular weights of SP-A oligomers. SP-A was solubilized from the lipid phase to compare oligomeric state with that of water soluble SP-A. RESULTS: SP-A exists as fully assembled complexes with 18 polypeptide chains, but it is also consistently found in smaller oligomeric forms. This is true for both the water- and lipid-soluble fractions of SP-A. CONCLUSION: The three patient groups analyzed show a shift towards lower oligomeric forms of SP-A in the following sequence: healthy-pulmonary alveolar proteinosis-pollen allergy. Depolymerization would be expected to lead to loss of binding affinity for carbohydrate-rich surfaces, with loss or alteration of biological function. While there are many complex factors involved in the establishment of an allergy, it is possible that reduced participation of SP-A in clearing a potential allergen from the lungs could be an early step in the chain of events. Images Fig. 4 FIG. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:9606179

  13. Degree and Content of Negative Meaning in Four Different Age Groups in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Sanna; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Dittmann-Kohli, Freya

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree and content of negative meaning (i.e., negative evaluations, motivations, feelings) in four different age groups of men and women in East- and West-Germany. A sample was drawn from 290 cities in Germany which was stratified according to four age groups (18-25, 40-54, 55-69, and 70-85), gender and…

  14. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in

  15. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged <25 years were significantly more likely to ingest medicinal overdoses, compared to older persons (aged 25-34 years, and ≥35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged <35 years). Interpersonal conflict as a trigger is common to all age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. PMID:26957344

  16. An Examination of Group-Based Treatment Packages for Increasing Elementary-Aged Students' Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Silber, Jennifer M.

    2006-01-01

    Reading fluency has been described as one of the essential ingredients for ensuring that students become successful readers. Unfortunately, a large number of elementary-aged students in this country do not fluently read age-appropriate material. Because of this, small-group interventions are practical and more time efficient than individualized…

  17. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  18. The Effects of Music on Age Group Swimmers' Motivation and Practice Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Bryan D.

    This study examined the effects of music on the motivation of 22 female and 5 male swimmers ages 10-13 years. These age-group swimmers practiced 2.0-2.5 hours per day and had six training sessions per week. Using observation logs, surveys, and open-ended questions, the study analyzed swimmers' perceptions of, and behavior when, listening to music…

  19. Age Group and Sex of Students. Fall 1974. Report No. 8-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    There has been considerable discussion in the literature of higher education regarding significant changes in student body characteristics. The data in this document examines distribution of students at the State University of New York system by age group and sex. Tables array four fundamental student characteristics: age, sex, level…

  20. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  1. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  2. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive…

  3. Relationship of optimism and suicidal ideation in three groups of patients at varying levels of suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Jeff C; Boehm, Julia K; Beach, Scott R; Beale, Eleanor E; DuBois, Christina M; Healy, Brian C

    2016-06-01

    Optimism has been associated with reduced suicidal ideation, but there have been few studies in patients at high suicide risk. We analyzed data from three study populations (total N = 319) with elevated risk of suicide: (1) patients with a recent acute cardiovascular event, (2) patients hospitalized for heart disease who had depression or an anxiety disorder, and (3) patients psychiatrically hospitalized for suicidal ideation or following a suicide attempt. For each study we analyzed the association between optimism (measured by the Life-Orientation Test-Revised) and suicidal ideation, and then completed an exploratory random effects meta-analysis of the findings to synthesize this data. The meta-analysis of the three studies showed that higher levels of self-reported optimism were associated with a lower likelihood of suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] = .89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .85-.95, z = 3.94, p < .001), independent of age, gender, and depressive symptoms. This association held when using the subscales of the Life Orientation Test-Revised scale that measured higher optimism (OR = .84, 95% CI = .76-.92, z = 3.57, p < .001) and lower pessimism (OR = .83, 95% CI = .75-.92], z = 3.61, p < .001). These results also held when suicidal ideation was analyzed as an ordinal variable. Our findings suggest that optimism may be associated with a lower risk of suicidal ideation, above and beyond the effects of depressive symptoms, for a wide range of patients with clinical conditions that place them at elevated risk for suicide. PMID:26994340

  4. Nature and Age of Neighbours Matter: Interspecific Associations among Tree Species Exist and Vary across Life Stages in Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ledo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Detailed information about interspecific spatial associations among tropical tree species is scarce, and hence the ecological importance of those associations may have been underestimated. However, they can play a role in community assembly and species diversity maintenance. This study investigated the spatial dependence between pairs of species. First, the spatial associations (spatial attraction and spatial repulsion) that arose between species were examined. Second, different sizes of trees were considered in order to evaluate whether the spatial relationships between species are constant or vary during the lifetime of individuals. Third, the consistency of those spatial associations with the species-habitat associations found in previous studies was assessed. Two different tropical ecosystems were investigated: a montane cloud forest and a lowland moist forest. The results showed that spatial associations among species exist, and these vary among life stages and species. The rarity of negative spatial interactions suggested that exclusive competition was not common in the studied forests. On the other hand, positive interactions were common, and the results of this study strongly suggested that habitat associations were not the only cause of spatial attraction among species. If this is true, habitat associations and density dependence are not the only mechanisms that explain species distribution and diversity; other ecological interactions, such as facilitation among species, may also play a role. These spatial associations could be important in the assembly of tropical tree communities and forest succession, and should be taken into account in future studies. PMID:26581110

  5. Nature and Age of Neighbours Matter: Interspecific Associations among Tree Species Exist and Vary across Life Stages in Tropical Forests.

    PubMed

    Ledo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Detailed information about interspecific spatial associations among tropical tree species is scarce, and hence the ecological importance of those associations may have been underestimated. However, they can play a role in community assembly and species diversity maintenance. This study investigated the spatial dependence between pairs of species. First, the spatial associations (spatial attraction and spatial repulsion) that arose between species were examined. Second, different sizes of trees were considered in order to evaluate whether the spatial relationships between species are constant or vary during the lifetime of individuals. Third, the consistency of those spatial associations with the species-habitat associations found in previous studies was assessed. Two different tropical ecosystems were investigated: a montane cloud forest and a lowland moist forest. The results showed that spatial associations among species exist, and these vary among life stages and species. The rarity of negative spatial interactions suggested that exclusive competition was not common in the studied forests. On the other hand, positive interactions were common, and the results of this study strongly suggested that habitat associations were not the only cause of spatial attraction among species. If this is true, habitat associations and density dependence are not the only mechanisms that explain species distribution and diversity; other ecological interactions, such as facilitation among species, may also play a role. These spatial associations could be important in the assembly of tropical tree communities and forest succession, and should be taken into account in future studies. PMID:26581110

  6. The Influence of Provocateurs' Emotion Displays on the Social Information Processing of Children Varying in Social Adjustment and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemerise, E.A.; Gregory, D.S.; Fredstrom, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of provocateurs' emotion displays on first through fourth graders' social information processing (SIP). Rating and nomination sociometric techniques were used to identify rejected-aggressive, rejected-nonaggressive, average-nonaggressive, and popular-nonaggressive groups. Children viewed videotaped ambiguous…

  7. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  8. Attitudes about Aging Well among a Diverse Group of Older Americans: Implications for Promoting Cognitive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Tseng, Winston; Wu, Bei; Beard, Renee L.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine perceptions about aging well in the context of cognitive health among a large and diverse group of older adults. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups were conducted with older adults living in the community ( N = 396; White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic). Participant descriptions …

  9. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  10. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  11. The Effects of Multi-Age Grouping on Young Children and Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie K.; Green, Virginia P.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on the effects of multiage groupings (MAGs) in the primary grades supports their use and argues that children in MAGs perform as well academically as children in single-age groupings (SAGs) and develop better self-concept and school attitudes than children in SAGs. Expresses concerns over lack of training and support for…

  12. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P < 0.001), but not in lateral PCO, and medial/lateral tibial slopes. In the analysis of covariance analyses, significant interaction between gender and age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population. PMID:26253858

  13. The Isochronal Age Scale of Young Moving Groups in the Solar Neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young (<~ 200 Myr), nearby (<~ 100 pc) moving groups, which is consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary ages for both the β Pic and Tucana-Horologium moving groups. This age scale was derived using a set of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones that incorporate an empirical colour-T eff relation and bolometric corrections based on the observed colours of Pleiades members, with theoretical corrections for the dependence on logg. Absolute ages for young, nearby groups are vital as these regions play a crucial role in our understanding of the early evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, as well as providing ideal targets for direct imaging and other measurements of dusty debris discs, substellar objects and, of course, extrasolar planets.

  14. Magnetostratigraphic and geochronological age constraints on the lowermost Beaufort Group, Karoo Basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, E.; Lanci, L.; Wilson, A.; Flint, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Karoo Basin of South Africa is a classic foreland basin sequence, with sedimentation putatively linked to Gondwanide orogenesis in the Cape Fold Belt. Biostratigraphic data for the fluvial to lacustrine sediments of the Beaufort Group have traditionally assigned a late Permian age to these foreland basin sediments on the basis of Glossopteris flora and Dicynodont fauna findings. This age conflicts with recently published U-Pb zircon age data from below the Beaufort Group that suggested a latest Permian, early Triassic age for those rocks. In order to resolve this discrepancy, we undertook a coupled magnetostratigraphic and geochronological study of the lowermost Beaufort Group of South Africa. Volcanic zircons from various tuffaceous horizons were analyzed for U-Pb age by SHRIMP. The youngest population of late Permian zircons are interpreted as the age of volcanic ashfall and sedimentation, with inheritance from pre-existing crust recognized from the presence of ca. 500 Ma and 1000-1100 Ma zircons. The possibility of Pb loss from these youngest grains will be assessed by CA-TIMS work. Magnetostratigraphic sampling was carried out in two separate sedimentary profiles, 169 m and 549 m thick, that are separated by roughly 85 km across depositional strike. Diagnostic patterns of normal and reversed magnetozones allow for the close correlation of these two sections. This pattern, anchored by the U-Pb zircon ages, can be correlated to the Global Polarity Timescale of Ogg et al. (2008), and supports a late Guadalupian age for these sediments.

  15. Evaluation of the accuracy of an offline seasonally-varying matrix transport model for simulating ideal age

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bardin, Ann; Primeau, Francois; Lindsay, Keith; Bradley, Andrew

    2016-07-21

    Newton-Krylov solvers for ocean tracers have the potential to greatly decrease the computational costs of spinning up deep-ocean tracers, which can take several thousand model years to reach equilibrium with surface processes. One version of the algorithm uses offline tracer transport matrices to simulate an annual cycle of tracer concentrations and applies Newton’s method to find concentrations that are periodic in time. Here we present the impact of time-averaging the transport matrices on the equilibrium values of an ideal-age tracer. We compared annually-averaged, monthly-averaged, and 5-day-averaged transport matrices to an online simulation using the ocean component of the Community Earthmore » System Model (CESM) with a nominal horizontal resolution of 1° × 1° and 60 vertical levels. We found that increasing the time resolution of the offline transport model reduced a low age bias from 12% for the annually-averaged transport matrices, to 4% for the monthly-averaged transport matrices, and to less than 2% for the transport matrices constructed from 5-day averages. The largest differences were in areas with strong seasonal changes in the circulation, such as the Northern Indian Ocean. As a result, for many applications the relatively small bias obtained using the offline model makes the offline approach attractive because it uses significantly less computer resources and is simpler to set up and run.« less

  16. Evaluation of the accuracy of an offline seasonally-varying matrix transport model for simulating ideal age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardin, Ann; Primeau, François; Lindsay, Keith; Bradley, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Newton-Krylov solvers for ocean tracers have the potential to greatly decrease the computational costs of spinning up deep-ocean tracers, which can take several thousand model years to reach equilibrium with surface processes. One version of the algorithm uses offline tracer transport matrices to simulate an annual cycle of tracer concentrations and applies Newton's method to find concentrations that are periodic in time. Here we present the impact of time-averaging the transport matrices on the equilibrium values of an ideal-age tracer. We compared annually-averaged, monthly-averaged, and 5-day-averaged transport matrices to an online simulation using the ocean component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with a nominal horizontal resolution of 1° × 1° and 60 vertical levels. We found that increasing the time resolution of the offline transport model reduced a low age bias from 12% for the annually-averaged transport matrices, to 4% for the monthly-averaged transport matrices, and to less than 2% for the transport matrices constructed from 5-day averages. The largest differences were in areas with strong seasonal changes in the circulation, such as the Northern Indian Ocean. For many applications the relatively small bias obtained using the offline model makes the offline approach attractive because it uses significantly less computer resources and is simpler to set up and run.

  17. MAGNETO-CONVECTION AND LITHIUM AGE ESTIMATES OF THE {beta} PICTORIS MOVING GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, J.; Mullan, D. J. E-mail: mullan@udel.ed

    2010-11-10

    Although the means of the ages of stars in young groups determined from Li depletion often agree with mean ages determined from Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram isochrones, there are often statistically significant differences in the ages of individual stars determined by the two methods. We find that inclusion of the effects of inhibition of convection due to the presence of magnetic fields leads to consistent ages for the individual stars. We illustrate how age consistency arises by applying our results to the {beta} Pictoris moving group (BPMG). We find that, although magnetic inhibition of convection leads to increased ages from the H-R diagram isochrones for all stars, Li ages are decreased for fully convective M stars and increased for stars with radiative cores. Our consistent age determination for BPMG of 40 Myr is larger than previous determinations by a factor of about two. We have also considered models in which the mixing length ratio is adjusted to give consistent ages. We find that our magneto-convection models, which give quantitative estimates of magnetic field strength, provide a viable alternative to models in which the effects of magnetic fields (and other processes) are accounted for by reducing the mixing length ratio.

  18. The Ages of A-Stars. I. Interferometric Observations and Age Estimates for Stars in the Ursa Major Moving Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, R. J.; Boyajian, T.; Schaefer, G.; Baines, E.; Ireland, M.; Patience, J.; ten Brummelaar, T.; McAlister, H.; Ridgway, S. T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Goldfinger, P. J.

    2015-11-01

    We have observed and spatially resolved a set of seven A-type stars in the nearby Ursa Major moving group with the Classic, CLIMB, and PAVO beam combiners on the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Array. At least four of these stars have large rotational velocities (v{sin}i ≳ 170 {km} {{{s}}}-1) and are expected to be oblate. These interferometric measurements, the stars’ observed photometric energy distributions, and v{sin}i values are used to computationally construct model oblate stars from which stellar properties (inclination, rotational velocity, and the radius and effective temperature as a function of latitude, etc.) are determined. The results are compared with MESA stellar evolution models to determine masses and ages. The value of this new technique is that it enables the estimation of the fundamental properties of rapidly rotating stars without the need to fully image the star. It can thus be applied to stars with sizes comparable to the interferometric resolution limit as opposed to those that are several times larger than the limit. Under the assumption of coevality, the spread in ages can be used as a test of both the prescription presented here and the MESA evolutionary code for rapidly rotating stars. With our validated technique, we combine these age estimates and determine the age of the moving group to be 414 ± 23 Myr, which is consistent with, but much more precise than previous estimates.

  19. Physicochemical traits of Holstein loin and top round veal from two slaughter age groups.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Park, Sang-Woon; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and microbial quality of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. Semimembranosus) in Holstein veal produced from two slaughter age groups (5 and 8 months of age). A total of 20 Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm. The slaughtered cold carcasses were vacuum-packaged. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition and physicochemical analyses and stored for 1, 7, 10, 20 and 30 days for microbiological analyses. Fat and protein contents of loin for the 8 month group were higher than those for the 5 month groups (p < 0.05). For both loin and top round muscles, the pH, cooking loss and the shear force values for the 5 month group was higher than those for the 8 month group (p < 0.05). On the other hands, the water-holding capacity (WHC) for the 8 month group was higher than those for the 5 month group (p < 0.05). In terms of meat color, CIE L* (lightness) for both muscle were higher in the 5 month group than in the 8 month groups. On the other hands, a* (redness) were higher in the 8 month group than in the 5 month groups (p < 0.05). Total aerobic counts in all samples remained up to 30 days at values less than 7 log CFU/g. However, there was no significant difference for both muscles between the two age groups. The results indicate that Holstein muscles from the 8 month group had desirable quality properties than those from the 5 month group. PMID:26290744

  20. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  1. Benefits of gregarious feeding by aposematic caterpillars depend on group age structure.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart A; Stastny, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Gregarious feeding is a common feature of herbivorous insects and can range from beneficial (e.g. dilution of predation risk) to costly (e.g. competition). Group age structure should influence these costs and benefits, particularly when old and young larvae differ in their feeding mode or apparency to predators. We investigated the relative value of gregarious feeding by aposematic larvae of Uresiphita reversalis that we observed feeding in groups of mixed ages and variable densities on wild Lupinus diffusus. In a manipulative field experiment, the survivorship and growth of young larvae were enhanced in the presence of older conspecifics, but not in large groups of similarly aged larvae. Estimates of insect damage and induced plant responses suggest that mixed-age groups enhance plant quality for young larvae while avoiding competition. We conclude that benefits of gregariousness in this species are contingent on group age structure, a finding of significance for the ecology and evolution of gregariousness and other social behaviours. PMID:25399243

  2. The Density of Knobs on Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes Depends on Developmental Age and Varies among Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Quadt, Katharina A.; Barfod, Lea; Andersen, Daniel; Bruun, Jonas; Gyan, Ben; Hassenkam, Tue; Ofori, Michael F.; Hviid, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is related to the parasite’s ability to evade host immunity through clonal antigenic variation and tissue-specific adhesion of infected erythrocytes (IEs). The P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family expressed on dome-shaped protrusions called knobs on the IE surface is central to both. Differences in receptor specificity and affinity of expressed PfEMP1 are important for IE adhesiveness, but it is not known whether differences in the number and size of the knobs on which the PfEMP1 proteins are expressed also play a role. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide detailed information on isolate- and time-dependent differences in knob size and density. Methodology/Principal Findings We used atomic force microscopy to characterize knobs on the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Fourteen ex vivo isolates from Ghanaian children with malaria and 10 P. falciparum isolates selected in vitro for expression of a particular PfEMP1 protein (VAR2CSA) were examined. Knob density increased from ∼20 h to ∼35 h post-invasion, with significant variation among isolates. The knob density ex vivo, which was about five-fold higher than following long-term in vitro culture, started to decline within a few months of culture. Although knob diameter and height varied among isolates, we did not observe significant time-dependent variation in these dimensions. Conclusions/Significance The density of knobs on the P. falciparum-IE surface depends on time since invasion, but is also determined by the infecting isolate in a time-independent manner. This is the first study to quantitatively evaluate knob densities and dimensions on different P. falciparum isolates, to examine ex vivo isolates from humans, and to compare ex vivo and long-term in vitro-cultured isolates. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the interaction between P. falciparum parasites and the infected host. PMID

  3. Duration of the immune response to MMR vaccine in children of two age-different groups.

    PubMed

    Li Volti, S; Giammanco-Bilancia, G; Grassi, M; Garozzo, R; Gluck, R; Giammanco, G

    1993-05-01

    A combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) was administered to both a group of children aged 10-12 months simultaneously with booster doses of compulsory diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and oral poliovirus vaccine and a group of children aged 15-24 months who had previously received booster doses of the compulsory vaccines. Apart from one subject belonging to the second group who was non responder and one from the same group who did not seroconvert against the mumps virus alone, 5 to 6 weeks after MMR vaccine administration we found protective levels of antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella viruses in all children. The follow up of both groups at 3 years did not reveal difference between the two groups. Protective levels of serum antibodies against measles and mumps were found in the two groups, although a significant decline of rubella antibodies was shown (p < 0.05). Since the immunogenicity of the vaccines in the two groups did not differ, we recommend that the scientific community reconsider the vaccination schedule until now recommended. In our opinion the MMR vaccine should be administered simultaneously with booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and oral poliovirus vaccine at 10-12 months of age because this policy improves parents' compliance, markedly reduces community costs and simplifies routine immunization schedule. PMID:8405317

  4. Violent death in the pediatric age group: rural and urban differences.

    PubMed

    Gausche, M; Seidel, J S; Henderson, D P; Ness, B; Ward, P M; Wayland, B W

    1989-03-01

    Violent death (homicide and suicide) in the pediatric age group is a major public health problem. A descriptive study was undertaken to review retrospectively the 1077 pediatric coroner's cases in 11 California counties for differences between urban and rural violent death rates. Pediatric violent death was more prevalent in the urban region than in the rural region (P less than 0.0007). High urban homicide rates accounted for most of this difference. Suicide rates were not significantly different (P = 0.18). Seventy-four percent of the violent deaths were in the 15- to 18-year age group, and most of these deaths were caused by firearms (81%). Blacks had the highest homicide and suicide rates. Child abuse was an important cause of death for young children in the urban area only. Socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, high population density, and the availability of firearms were proposed as factors affecting violent death in the pediatric age group. PMID:2785264

  5. [CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RETINA IN CHRONIC STRESS IN LABORATORY RATS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS].

    PubMed

    Nesterova, A A; Yermilov, V V; Tiurenkov, I N; Smirnov, A V; Grigoriyeva, N V; Zagrebin, V L; Rogova, L N; Antoshkin, O N; Dovgalyov, A O

    2016-01-01

    The retina was studied in albino laboratory male rats of two age groups (12 and 24 months), 10 animals in each subjected to chronic combined stress. The stress was caused in animals by simultaneous exposure to pulsed light, loud sound, swinging and restriction of mobility for 7 days, 30 mm daily. The retina of intact rats of the corresponding age groups (n = 20) served as control. Enucleated eyes of stressed and control animals were processed with standard histological technique and stained with Nissl's method and hematoxylin-eosin. The retina of the stressed animals of both age groups showed the decrease in the number of cells and the disarrangement of its layers, most pronounced in the layers of photoreceptor neurons and ganglion cells. The comparative morphometric analysis demonstrated a reduction of the layer thickness and cell numerical density in the retina of stressed animals, both young (12 months) and old (24 months), as compared to that of control animals. PMID:27487662

  6. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball. PMID:27468992

  7. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  8. Teaching the Moon: A Study of Teaching Methodology Across Age Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, F.; Paust, N.

    2012-08-01

    In this study I attempted to determine the most effective teaching style for teaching elementary, middle school, and undergraduate students about lunar phases and eclipses. Within each age group, there were two sub groups, one of which was introduced to the material in a standard lecture format while the other sub-group interacted with the content through activities and demonstrations. After their respective lessons, both sub-groups were given the same post-instruction test in order to assess their comprehension of the content. The results from this experiment provided insight into effective teaching styles and common misconceptions about lunar phases and eclipses at different age levels, as well as introducing new interactive teaching activities for elementary, middle school and undergraduate students.

  9. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Langen, Carolyn D; White, Tonya; Ikram, M Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W; Niessen, Wiro J

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, "bi-modal comparison plots" show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using "worm plots". Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the "connectogram". These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1) middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2) patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the "Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity" method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson's correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only fractional anisotropy

  10. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Langen, Carolyn D.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, “bi-modal comparison plots” show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using “worm plots”. Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the “connectogram”. These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1) middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2) patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the “Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity” method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson’s correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only

  11. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  12. An evaluation of selective feeding by three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, K.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tri-algal diet was fed to three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris: ages 2-3 d, 50-53 d, and 3-6 years. Changes in the relative abundance of each algal species were determined in 5-h feeding trials from feeding chambers and by gut content analyses. All age-groups rejected Scenedesmus quadricauda and preferentially selected Nannochloropsis oculata and Selenastrum capricornutum, principally on the basis of size. Changes in the relative abundance of algae in feeding chambers did not differ significantly among age-groups. Observed differences in the ingested quantities of the similar-sized N. oculata and S. capricornutum were attributed to other particle-related characteristics. Results indicate that the rainbow mussel can be fed similar-sized algae at ali ages in captive propagation facilities. When developing a suitable algal diet for rearing juvenile mussels, one probably need not investigate different species at each stage of development if the algae used are in the 2.8-8.5-??m size range.

  13. Comparative Research on Mixed-Age Groups in Swedish Nursery and Compulsory Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut

    1994-01-01

    Reviews recent studies on the effects of mixed-age grouping (MAG) in Swedish nursery and elementary schools. Although studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that MAG was beneficial to children's learning and socioemotional development and to teachers' work satisfaction, studies conducted in the 1990s suggest that MAG does not promote…

  14. Outcome Differences Across Age Groups. Data Notes. Volume 3, Number 2, March/April 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community College Count, this issue examines the differing developmental needs and enrollment and persistence patterns of Achieving the Dream students across different age groups. The data show older students in Achieving the Dream colleges tended to achieve higher grades and perform better academically than…

  15. Metabolic Effects of Chronic Heavy Physical Training on Male Age Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, Garret P.; And Others

    This study attempts to appraise the effectiveness of chronic heavy exercise on 13 male swimmers from 10 to 17 years of age. The experimental group trained six days a week, often with more than one workout per day. During this period, the principles of interval training were employed in conjunction with high-intensity swimming. At the completion of…

  16. Age, sources, and provenances of protoliths of metasedimentary rocks of the Dzheltulak group, Dzheltulak suture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikoslavinskii, S. D.; Kotov, A. B.; Kovach, V. P.; Tolmacheva, E. V.; Larin, A. M.; Sorokin, A. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Wang, K. L.; Salnikova, E. B.

    2016-06-01

    The results of Sm-Nb isotopic-geochemical studies of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the Dzheltulak Group of the central part of the Dzheltulak suture, as well as geochronological U-Th-Pb (LA ICP MS) studies of detrital zircons from metasedimentary rocks, which are considered as Paleoproterozoic in current stratigraphic schemes, are presented. The age of the youngest zircons is 170-190 Ma, whereas the age of the last stage of regional metamorphism is 140-150 Ma. Thus, the Dzheltulak Group hosts metasedimentary rocks, the age of the protolith of which ranges from 140-150 to 170-190 Ma. The detrital zircons derived from intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the Selenga-Stanovoi and Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoi superterranes.

  17. Length of papillary muscles in both ventricles of different age group on Bangladeshi cadaver.

    PubMed

    Farzana, T; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Sultana, J; Sumi, M S; Sultana, R

    2015-01-01

    Papillary muscle rupture and dysfunction can lead to complications of prolapsed atrioventricular valve and valvular regurgitation. Morphology, measurements and attachments of papillary muscles in both tricuspid and bicuspid valve gains utmost importance in cardiac surgeries and variations in the papillary muscle morphology is one of causes for myocardial infarction in recent time. Therefore, it is important to know both the normal anatomy and variations of papillary muscles. The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2013 to June 2014. A total 80 human hearts were collected by purposive sampling method, among them 49 were male and 31 were female. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 6 months to 60 years, from autopsy laboratory of the Department of Forensic Medicine of Mymensingh Medical College. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 40 years) and Group C (41 to 60 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. Length of each papillary muscle was measured in both ventricles in different age groups. In present study the mean length of the anterior papillary muscles of right ventricle was higher than both the posterior and septal papillary muscles among the age groups. The mean±SD length of the anterior papillary muscle was 1.07±0.48, 1.50±0.37 and 1.60±0.25cm in Group A, B and C respectively. The mean±SD length of the posterior papillary muscle was 1.02±0.35, 1.31±0.40 and 1.37±0.34cm in Group A, B & C respectively. The mean±SD length of the septal papillary muscle in right ventricle was 0.51±0.42, 0.65±0.31 and 0.81±0.35cm in Group A, B & C respectively. It was also observed that the mean length of anterior, posterior and septal papillary muscle was increased with age. In present study the mean length of the anterior papillary muscles in left ventricle was

  18. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  19. Employee age and perceptions of work in self-managing and traditional work groups.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, B; Miller, C; Beyerlein, M M; Johnson, D; Metheny, W; Yeatts, D

    1996-01-01

    Self-managing work groups are a form of work design in which employees take responsibility for the group's tasks and have discretion over decisions which impact group performance. To explore the impact of age and work teams on job attitudes, data from 477 employees suggested that self-managed work group members differed from traditional job holders regarding perceived general job satisfaction, perceived control by supervisors, as well as a number of specific dimensions of the work environment. Moreover, while there was evidence of an age effect on attitudes toward supervisory control, there was no joint effect of age by work design on job attitudes, i.e., one's perceived general job satisfaction. Older employees who were members of self-managed work groups were however, more impacted by this form of work design in reporting more positive perceptions of their access to information essential to the performance of their work. These findings suggest that an "older" work force should not be considered a barrier to implementing a work teams approach to job design. PMID:8835612

  20. Inter-individual Variability in Soccer Players of Different Age Groups Playing Different Positions

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis; Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie; Arnon, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to profile physical characteristics and motor abilities of three age groups of soccer players – under 14 years, 14–17, and over 17, playing different positions – goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders, and forwards; and (b) to examine the inter-individual variability among the players in each age group in all physical and physiological measurements performed in the study. In addition, anthropometric, power, strength, and flexibility tests were administered. Findings showed large inter-individual variability in all three age groups and in all playing positions. Differences between playing positions were found only in the 14–17 group (body mass) and in the over-17 group (body height, body mass, fat-free mass, and mean power in the Wingate Anaerobic Test). Due to the observed large inter-individual variability, it was concluded that the findings obtained in the physical and physiological tests should be interpreted with caution when attempting to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful soccer players, as well as when trying to predict future success in soccer. PMID:25031689

  1. DNA-damaging activity in ethanol-soluble fractions of feces from New Zealand groups at varying risks of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, L R; Alley, P G; Gribben, B M

    1985-01-01

    Using repair-proficient and repair-deficient strains of E. coli, we investigated the application of a liquid incubation assay to measure the DNA-damaging activity of ethanol-soluble fecal extracts. This method appears to be suitable for the study of a wide range of sample types. It was used to measure the DNA-modifying activity of ethanol-soluble fecal extracts from a group of European colorectal cancer patients. Data were compared with those from Europeans of similar age and sex distribution who did not have bowel cancer. We also studied groups of Maoris, Samoans, and European Seventh-Day Adventists who followed an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet. There are significant levels of DNA-modifying materials in the feces of many Europeans on a mixed diet, regardless of whether or not they have cancer. The number of positive samples was less in the Polynesian groups, and there were no samples that could be unequivocally scored as positive in the Seventh-Day Adventist groups. We conclude that diet can significantly reduce the level of ethanol-soluble mutagens, at least in New Zealand Europeans. The data may provide an explanation for the reduced incidence of bowel cancer in Seventh-Day Adventist groups. PMID:3906579

  2. Capturing heterogeneous group differences using mixture-of-experts: Application to a study of aging.

    PubMed

    Eavani, Harini; Hsieh, Meng Kang; An, Yang; Erus, Guray; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-01-15

    In MRI studies, linear multi-variate methods are often employed to identify regions or connections that are affected due to disease or normal aging. Such linear models inherently assume that there is a single, homogeneous abnormality pattern that is present in all affected individuals. While kernel-based methods can implicitly model a non-linear effect, and therefore the heterogeneity in the affected group, extracting and interpreting information about affected regions is difficult. In this paper, we present a method that explicitly models and captures heterogeneous patterns of change in the affected group relative to a reference group of controls. For this purpose, we use the Mixture-of-Experts (MOE) framework, which combines unsupervised modeling of mixtures of distributions with supervised learning of classifiers. MOE approximates the non-linear boundary between the two groups with a piece-wise linear boundary, thus allowing discovery of multiple patterns of group differences. In the case of patient/control comparisons, each such pattern aims to capture a different dimension of a disease, and hence to identify patient subgroups. We validated our model using multiple simulation scenarios and performance measures. We applied this method to resting state functional MRI data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, to investigate heterogeneous effects of aging on brain function in cognitively normal older adults (>85years) relative to a reference group of normal young to middle-aged adults (<60years). We found strong evidence for the presence of two subgroups of older adults, with similar age distributions in each subgroup, but different connectivity patterns associated with aging. While both older subgroups showed reduced functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN), increases in functional connectivity within the pre-frontal cortex as well as the bilateral insula were observed only for one of the two subgroups. Interestingly, the subgroup

  3. Within-Trait Heterogeneity in Age Group Differences in Personality Domains and Facets: Implications for the Development and Coherence of Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Johnson, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for facet scales and facets for domain scales) showed consistent age group differences. For this, measurement invariance (MI) framework was used. In a sample of 2,711 Estonians who had completed the NEO Personality Inventory 3 (NEO PI-3), more than half of the facet scales and one domain scale did not meet the criterion for weak MI (factor loading equality) across 12 age groups spanning ages from 18 to 91 years. Furthermore, none of the facet and domain scales met the criterion for strong MI (intercept equality), suggesting that items of the same facets and facets of the same domains varied in age group differences. When items were residualized for their respective facets, 46% of them had significant (p < 0.0002) residual age-correlations. When facets were residualized for their domain scores, a majority had significant (p < 0.002) residual age-correlations. For each domain, a series of latent factors were specified using random quarters of their items: scores of such latent factors varied notably (within domains) in correlations with age. We argue that manifestations of aetiologically coherent traits should show similar age group differences. Given this, the FFM domains and facets as embodied in the NEO PI-3 do not reflect aetiologically coherent traits. PMID:25751273

  4. Capturing Age-group Differences and Developmental Change with the BASC Parent Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Baptiste; Hein, Sascha; Luthar, Suniya S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change across distinct developmental periods is often challenged by the use of age-appropriate (but non-parallel) measures. We present a short version of the Behavior Assessment System (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998), Parent Rating Scales for Children (PRS-C) and Adolescents (PRS-A), which uses only their common-items to derive estimates of the initial constructs optimized for developmental studies. Measurement invariance of a three-factor model (Externalizing, Internalizing, Adaptive Skills) was tested across age-groups (161 mothers using PRS-C; 200 mothers using PRS-A) and over time (115 mothers using PRS-C at baseline and PRS-A five years later) with the original versus short PRS. Results indicated that the short PRS holds a sufficient level of invariance for a robust estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change, as compared to the original PRS, which held only weak invariance leading to flawed developmental inferences. Importance of test-content parallelism for developmental studies is discussed. PMID:25045196

  5. The Seroepidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) in Different Age Groups in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Zohreh; Emadi Ghanjin, Sekyneh

    2005-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), the causative agent of chicken pox and shingles, can cause severe systemic infections of the CNS and the respiratory tract in immunocompetent individuals as well as in immunocompromized patients.The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of antibody Varicella zoster virus in different age groups.The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to assess the presence of anti -VZV antibody.A total of 635 serum samples were collected. Age specific prevalence of IgG antibody to VZV showed a progressive increase with age in both males and females. The overall seroprevalence rate was 83.6%. Prevalence of antibodies was 59.7% in the age group of less than 10 years, 60.4 % in 10-14 years, 87.5 % in 15-19 years, 88 % in 20-24 years, 89.4 % in 25-29 years and 87.9 % in 30-39 years.The data show that children should be considered as a target group for prevention programs against VZV infection. PMID:17301429

  6. Coronary, aortic and cerebral atherosclerosis in swine of 3 age-groups: implications*

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, H. L.; Luginbühl, H.; Pivnik, L.

    1970-01-01

    Coronary, aortic and intercranial atherosclerosis has been compared in swine maintained under the following conditions: (1) adequate food and housing but animals held in test social situations for 1 year; postmortem examination at ages of 13 to 15 months; (2) food and management designed for high productivity; postmortem examination at ages of 6 to 9 years; (3) an outdoor system of husbandry and a cooked garbage diet; postmortem examination at ages of 8 to 14 years. Extramural coronary, aortic and intracranial atherosclerosis was most advanced in swine that were fed garbage. Cerebral infarction (cerebromalacia) also was most advanced in these swine but developed in swine of the younger groups in which it was associated with atherosclerosis of small intracranial extracerebral arteries rather than with stenosis of the larger intracranial extracerebral arteries as in the oldest swine. The lesions of atherosclerosis in swine of these 3 age-groups form a continuous series and are morphologically identical with corresponding stages of atherosclerosis of man. It is concluded that swine can replace non-human primates as subjects for studies of atherosclerotic vascular disease, and that experimental designs must allow for age and behaviour patterns of the species. ImagesFIG. 4-7FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:5310139

  7. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  8. Adult house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) activity and age of females near varying levels of (Z)-9-tricosene on a southern California dairy.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sarah M; Mullens, Bradley A

    2010-10-01

    The number of adult male and female house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), near varying levels of (Z)-9-tricosene alone (5, 50, or 100 micdrol) or combined (50 microl) with sugar was determined using conical screened traps on a dairy in southern California. Overall, significantly more males than females were collected in the traps. Significantly more flies (male and female) were collected in traps with (Z)-9-tricosene. There were no significant differences among doses of (Z)-9-tricosene alone, but numbers of both sexes were significantly higher in traps baited with (Z)-9-tricosene and sugar compared with the 5- and 50-microl doses without sugar. The age of female flies collected in traps was determined by pterin analysis. Mean female ages ranged from 94.7 to 99.6 degree-days (6.3-6.8 d of age) and did not differ significantly among treatments. Dissections of a subset of females from each treatment determined that collected females were primarily nongravid (86.3%). Proportions of gravid females that were collected did not differ among treatments. PMID:21061998

  9. PROGRESSIVE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN CORTICAL BONE IN TENSION FOR TWO AGE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Jeffry S.; Roy, Anuradha; Reyes, Michael J.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of bone for post-yield energy dissipation decreases with age. To gain information on the cause of such changes, we examined the mechanical behavior of human cadaveric bone as a function of progressive deformation. In this study, tensile specimens from tibiae of 9 middle aged and 8 elderly donors were loaded till failure in an incremental and cyclic (load-dwell-unload-dwell-reload) scheme. The elastic modulus, maximum stress, permanent strain, stress relaxation, viscoelastic time constant, plastic strain energy, elastic release strain energy, and hysteresis energy were determined at incremental strains of each loading cycle. Experimental results showed that elderly bone failed at much lower strains compared to middle aged bone, but little age-related differences were observed in the mechanical behavior of bone until the premature failure of elderly bone. Energy dissipation and permanent strain appeared to linearly increase with increasing strain, while non-linear changes occurred in the modulus loss and stress relaxation/time constant with increasing strain. Such changes suggest that two distinct stages may exist in the progressive deformation of bone. In Stage I, rapid damage accumulation and increased involvement of collagen in load bearing appeared to dominate the mechanical behavior of bone with limited energy dissipation (<20% of total energy dissipated), whereas Stage II is dominated by continuous plastic deformation, accompanied by major energy dissipation through all three pathways till failure. This study suggests that damaging mechanisms in bone vary with deformation and age affects the post-yield mechanisms causing a significant decline in the capacity of aged bone to dissipate energy. PMID:18437693

  10. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  11. Progressive post-yield behavior of human cortical bone in compression for middle-aged and elderly groups

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Huijie; Dong, X. Neil; Wang, Xiaodu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a progressive loading regimen (load–dwell–unloading–dwell–reloading) was applied on bone samples to examine the compressive post-yield response of bone at increasing strain levels. Cortical bone specimens from human tibiae of two age groups (middle-aged group: 53±2 years, 4 females and 4 males, elderly group: 83±6 years, 4 females and 4 males) were loaded in compression using the progressive loading scheme. Modulus degradation, plastic deformation, viscous response, and energy dissipation of bone during post-yield deformation were assessed. Although initial modulus was not significantly different between the two age groups, the degradation of modulus with the applied strain in the elderly group was faster than in the middle-aged group. The modulus loss (or microdamage accumulation) of bone occurred prior to plastic deformation. Plastic strain had a similar linear relationship with the applied strain for both middle-aged and the elderly group although middle-aged bone yielded at a greater strain. The viscoelastic time constant changed similarly with increasing strain for the two groups, whereas a higher magnitude of stress relaxation was observed in the middle-aged group. Energy dissipation was investigated through three pathways: elastic release strain energy, hysteresis energy, and plastic strain energy. The middle-aged group had significantly greater capacity of energy dissipation than the elderly group in all three pathways. The information obtained may provide important insights in age-related effects on bone fragility. PMID:19150716

  12. Comparison of fungiform taste-bud distribution among age groups using confocal laser scanning microscopy in vivo in combination with gustatory function.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takehisa; Ito, Tetsufumi; Ito, Yumi; Manabe, Yasuhiro; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the distribution of taste buds in fungiform papillae (FP) and gustatory function between young and elderly age groups. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used because it allows many FP to be observed non-invasively in a short period of time. The age of participants (n = 211) varied from 20 to 83 yr. The tip and midlateral region of the tongue were observed. Taste buds in an average of 10 FP in each area were counted. A total of 2,350 FP at the tongue tip and 2,592 FP in the midlateral region could be observed. The average number of taste buds was similar among all age groups both at the tongue tip and in the midlateral region. The taste function, measured by electrogustometry, among participants 20-29 yr of age was significantly lower than that in the other age groups; however, there was no difference among any other age groups in taste function. These results indicate that the peripheral gustatory system is well maintained anatomically and functionally in elderly people. PMID:26917278

  13. Detection of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus Infection in different age groups by using rapid influenza diagnostic tests

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fengxiang; Loring, Carol; Laviolette, Michael; Bolton, Denise; Daly, Elizabeth R.; Bean, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Gao et al. (2011) Detection of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus Infection in different age groups by using rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e30–e34. Background  The performance of rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) in detecting influenza A(H1N1) 2009 has varied widely. Evaluations of RIDTs among infected individuals across all age groups have not been described in depth. Objectives  Determine RIDT clinical sensitivity in comparison with influenza detection using real‐time RT‐PCR among patients infected with influenza A(H1N1) 2009 across all age groups. Study design  This study analyzed respiratory specimens received by the New Hampshire Public Health Laboratories (NHPHL) from September 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009. RIDT performance was evaluated among different age groups of patients determined to be infected with influenza A (H1N1) 2009, and the association between age and RIDT sensitivity was determined. Results  Of 1373 specimens examined, 269 tested positive for influenza A(H1N1) 2009 by real‐time RT‐PCR (rRT‐PCR) and had RIDT results available. Overall clinical sensitivity and specificity of RIDTs were 53·9 and 98·5%, respectively. By age group, clinical sensitivity was 85·7% in patients <2 years old, 60·3% in patients between 2‐ and 39 years old, and 33·3% in patients aged 40 and older. Logistic regression analysis indicated that increasing age was negatively associated with RIDT performance. Conclusion  Rapid influenza diagnostic test sensitivity decreased significantly with increasing age. Findings from this study may impact a clinician’s interpretation of RIDT test results and ultimately have implications in clinical decision‐making. PMID:22114876

  14. Changes in the constraints of semantic and syntactic congruity on memory across three age groups.

    PubMed

    Toyota, H

    2001-06-01

    20 college undergraduates, 25 sixth-grade, and 31 second-grade students studied targets embedded in three types of sentence contexts and then performed free recall and cued recall tests. Although there were no differences in performance of free recall among sentence types within each age group, the differences in cued recall among sentence types were observed. For sixth graders and undergraduates, both semantically congruous/syntactically congruous sentences and semantically incongruous/syntactically congruous sentences led to a better cued recall of targets than semantically incongruous/syntactically incongruous sentences. Second graders performed better in a cued recall of targets in semantically congruous/syntactically congruous sentences than for the other two sentence types. The results were interpreted as indicating changes across age groups in constraints of semantic and syntactic congruity on the spreading activation of targets in memory. PMID:11453195

  15. Attitudes toward mental health services: age-group differences in Korean American adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20-45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen's (1968; A behavioral model of families' use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and enabling (acculturation, health insurance coverage and personal experience and beliefs) variables were considered. In the mean-level assessment, younger and older adults were found to hold a similar level of positive attitudes toward mental health services. In the multivariate analysis, culture-influenced beliefs were shown to have a substantial contribution to the model of attitudes toward mental health services in both age groups. The belief that depression is a medical condition was found to be a common predictor of positive attitudes across the groups. In the older adult sample, more negative attitudes were observed among those who believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness and that having a mentally ill family member brings shame to the whole family. Our findings show that older adults are not only more subject to cultural misconceptions and stigma related to mental disorders, but also their attitudes toward service use are negatively influenced by the cultural stigma. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs. PMID:19197698

  16. Posterior scleritis in pediatric age group: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Radha; Suryawanshi, Milind; Isaac, Roshini; Philip, Santhosh K.

    2016-01-01

    Posterior scleritis is rare in both the adult and pediatric age groups. Increased awareness and availability of advanced diagnostic facilities aid in early diagnosis and management. Visual recovery is possible with systemic steroids and immunosuppression. We report the case of a 12-year-old male child who presented with poor vision in his right eye and was found to have retinal striae and disc edema due to posterior scleritis. PMID:27013832

  17. Phylogeny and age of diversification of the planitibia species group of the Hawaiian Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bonacum, James; O'Grady, Patrick M; Kambysellis, Michael; Desalle, Rob

    2005-10-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophila offer a unique opportunity to examine evolutionary questions because of the known ages of the Hawaiian Islands and the large number of species endemic to this archipelago. One of the more well studied groups of Hawaiian Drosophila is the planitibia species group, a long-standing population genetic model system. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of all 17 taxa in the planitibia group based on nucleotide sequences from two mitochondrial (16S and COII) and four nuclear (Adh, Gpdh, Yp1, and Yp2) loci, accounting for over 4kb of sequence per taxon. We use these data to estimate major divergence times within this group. Our results suggest that the basal diversification within this group, calculated at 6.1 +/- 0.47 MY, predates the oldest high island of Kauai. The older diversifications in this group took place on Kauai, with subsequent colonization and speciation events occurring as new islands became available to Drosophila. Understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of this important group will place the existing population genetic work in a macroevolutionary context and stimulate additional work, particularly on those taxa endemic to the Maui Nui complex of islands. PMID:16182150

  18. Interactive effects of temperature and exo-enzyme age on substrate decay vary between C- and N-acquiring enzymes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, S. A.; Min, K.; Chen, Y.; Sellers, M.; Ballantyne, F.; Lehmeier, C.

    2013-12-01

    BGase differently. Rates of age-induced catalytic decline of NAGase increased with temperature. At 25°C, rates declined to ~40% of their initial levels after 1 d; at 5°C, ~1.5 d had elapsed before rates had declined to that same fraction of the lower, initial levels. During the first 3 d, BGase activity at 25°C declined linearly with age. Thereafter, BGase activity at 25°C remained constant at ~50% of the initial rate. At 5°C, BGase activity was lower than at 25°C and insensitive to EE age. Though warming temperatures increase reaction rates for EEs and their respective substrates, our data suggest that NAGase does not retain its initial catalytic rate as it ages in temperatures as cool as 5°C, and that BGase catalytic rates decline with age only at relatively warm temperatures. In turn, this suggests that the C:N flow ratio - the ratio of assimilable C to assimilable N - varies as a function of the interaction between time since EE production and temperature. Our work articulates some of the complexities of predicting microbial resource needs and availability of assimilable resources, particularly given the relatively lasting value of microbial investment in BGase production at cool temperatures compared to NAGase.

  19. [Emotional experience and regulation across the adult lifespan: comparative analysis in three age groups].

    PubMed

    Márquez-González, María; Izal Fernández de Trocóniz, María; Montorio Cerrato, Ignacio; Losada Baltar, Andrés

    2008-11-01

    The studies focused on age-related differences in emotional experience are still scarce, and most of them have been conducted with North-American samples. This study explores the presence of age-related differences in some facets of emotional experience (subjective well-being and emotional intensity), as well as in variables related to emotion regulation (subjective emotional control and three emotion-regulation mechanisms: situation selection, emotion suppression, rumination) in the Spanish population. One hundred and sixty people from three age groups (younger, middle-aged and older adults) participated in the study. Older participants reported lower levels of life satisfaction and positive emotional intensity than younger ones, as well as higher levels of perceived emotional control, emotional maturity and leveling of positive affect, and more use of emotion suppression. The results partially support the emotional maturity hypothesis of emotional functioning in old age, but also suggest that older adults' emotional regulation may present important peculiarities which have not yet been addressed in the extant literature, such as the moderation or limitation of emotional experience, especially positive emotions. PMID:18940059

  20. Effect of Training on Physiological and Biochemical Variables of Soccer Players of Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Indranil; Khanna, Gulshan Lal; Chandra Dhara, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To find out the effect of training on selected physiological and biochemical variables of Indian soccer players of different age groups. Methods A total of 120 soccer players volunteered for the study, were divided (n = 30) into 4 groups: (i) under 16 years (U16), (ii) under 19 years (U19), (iii) under 23 years (U23), (iv) senior (SR). The training sessions were divided into 2 phases (a) Preparatory Phase (PP, 8 weeks) and (b) Competitive Phase (CP, 4 weeks). The training program consisted of aerobic, anaerobic and skill development, and were completed 4 hrs/day; 5 days/week. Selected physiological and biochemical variables were measured at zero level (baseline data, BD) and at the end of PP and CP. Results A significant increase (P < 0.05) in lean body mass (LBM), VO2max, anaerobic power, grip and back strength, urea, uric acid and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in body fat, hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected in some groups in PP and CP phases of the training when compare to BD. However, no significant change was found in body mass and maximal heart rate of the players after the training program. Conclusion This study would provide useful information for training and selection of soccer players of different age groups. PMID:22375187

  1. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  2. Patterns of Adverse Drug Reactions in Different Age Groups: Analysis of Spontaneous Reports by Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yun Mi; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Soo An; Jo, Yun Hee; Youn, So Jung; Lee, Mo Se; Choi, Kwang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) spontaneously reported by community pharmacists and to compare the ADRs by age. Methods ADRs reported to the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of the Korean Pharmaceutical Association by community pharmacists from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. Causality was assessed using the WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system. The patient population was classified into three age groups. We analyzed 31,398 (74.9%) ADRs from 9,705 patients, identified as having a causal relationship, from a total pool of 41,930 ADRs from 9,873 patients. Median patient age was 58.0 years; 66.9% were female. Results Gastrointestinal system (34.4%), nervous system (14.4%), and psychiatric (12.1%) disorders were the most frequent symptoms. Prevalent causative drugs were those for acid-related disorders (11.4%), anti-inflammatory products (10.5%), analgesics (7.2%), and antibacterials (7.1%). Comparisons by age revealed diarrhea and antibacterials to be most commonly associated with ADRs in children (p < 0.001), whereas dizziness was prevalent in the elderly (p < 0.001). Anaphylactic reaction was the most frequent serious event (19.7%), mainly associated with cephalosporins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among 612 ADRs caused by nonprescription drugs, the leading symptoms and causative drugs were skin disorders (29.6%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.2%), respectively. Conclusions According to the community pharmacist reports, the leading clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with ADRs in outpatients differed among age groups. PMID:26172050

  3. The hierarchical factor model of ADHD: Invariant across age and national groupings?

    PubMed Central

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the factor structure of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and sibling samples, across three different instruments and across parent and teacher informants. Specific consideration was given to factorial invariance analyses across different ages and different countries in the ADHD sample. Method A sample of children and adolescents between 5 and 17 years of age with ADHD and their unselected siblings was assessed. Participants were recruited from seven European countries and Israel. ADHD symptom data came from a clinical interview with parents (PACS) and questionnaires from parents and teachers (Conners Parent and Teacher). Results A hierarchical general factor model with two specific factors best represented the structure of ADHD in both the ADHD and unselected sibling groups, and across informants and instruments. The model was robust and invariant with regard to age differences in the ADHD sample. The model was not strongly invariant across different national groups in the ADHD sample, likely reflecting severity differences across the different centers and not any substantial difference in the clinical presentation of ADHD. Conclusions The results replicate previous studies of a model with a unitary ADHD component and separable specific traits of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The unique contribution of this study was finding support for this model across a large developmental and multinational/multicultural sample and its invariance across ages. PMID:22084976

  4. Early adulthood: an overlooked age group in national sodium reduction initiatives in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Jounghee; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Jong-Wook; Byun, Jae-Eon; Kang, Baeg-Won; Choi, Bo Youl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES South Korean's sodium consumption level is more than twice the upper limit level suggested by the WHO. Steep increases in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Korea necessitate more effective sodium reduction programs. This study was conducted in order to compare sodium intake-related eating behaviors and key psychosocial factors according to age group and gender. SUBJECTS/METHODS Using an online survey, a total of 1,564 adults (20-59 years old) considered to be geographically representative of South Korea were recruited and surveyed. The major outcomes were perceived behaviors, knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy related to sodium intake. RESULTS The results show that perceived behavior and level of self-efficacy related to low sodium consumption differed by age and gender. Female participants showed better behavior and intention towards low sodium intake than male counterparts. Young participants in their 20s showed the lowest intention to change their current sodium intake as well as lowest self-efficacy measures. CONCLUSIONS Future sodium reduction interventions should be developed with tailored messages targeting different age and gender groups. Specifically, interventions can be planned and implemented at the college level or for workers in their early career to increase their intention and self-efficacy as a means of preventing future health complications associated with high sodium intake. PMID:25489413

  5. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Maureen C.; Nolan, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6,555 dogs and 1,566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1 – 4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1 - 4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites. PMID:19709815

  6. Risk groups in children under six months of age using self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Schilithz, A O C; Kale, P L; Gama, S G N; Nobre, F F

    2014-06-01

    Fetal and infant growth tends to follow irregular patterns and, particularly in developing countries, these patterns are greatly influenced by unfavorable living conditions and interactions with complications during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify groups of children with different risk profiles for growth development. The study sample comprised 496 girls and 508 boys under six months of age from 27 pediatric primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were obtained through interviews with the mothers and by reviewing each child's health card. An unsupervised learning, know as a self-organizing map (SOM) and a K-means algorithm were used for cluster analysis to identify groups of children. Four groups of infants were identified. The first (139) consisted of infants born exclusively by cesarean delivery, and their mothers were exclusively multiparous; the highest prevalences of prematurity and low birthweight, a high prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and a low proportion of hospitalization were observed for this group. The second (247 infants) and the third (298 infants) groups had the best and worst perinatal and infant health indicators, respectively. The infants of the fourth group (318) were born heavier, had a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, and had a higher rate of hospitalization. Using a SOM, it was possible to identify children with common features, although no differences between groups were found with respect to the adequacy of postnatal weight. Pregnant women and children with characteristics similar to those of group 3 require early intervention and more attention in public policy. PMID:24725333

  7. The medico-legal evaluation of injuries from falls in pediatric age groups.

    PubMed

    Kafadar, Safiye; Kafadar, Hüseyin

    2015-04-01

    Blunt trauma from accidental falls or intentional jumping from great heights occurs frequently in forensic medicine. The goal of this study was to investigate injuries due to falls in children under 19 years of age. Injuries from falls are the leading cause of visits to emergency departments and to deaths due to injuries. Various methods are used in the classification of falls. In this study, we have classified falls as "high-level" (≥ 5 m), "low-level" (<5 m) and "ground-level". We have retrospectively evaluated 814 boys (61.18%) and 512 girls (38.62%), making up a total of 1326 children (under 19 years old) with the mean age of 7.85 ± 3.46, that were admitted to State Hospital between January 2009 and December 2013 due to falls from heights and falls on ground-level. Falls were low-level in 738 cases, high-level in 176 cases, and ground-level in 412 cases. Cases were categorized by gender, age, age group, fall height, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), injured body part(s), mortality rate, and distribution according to months. In conclusion, falls merit attention because of their high risk of mortality and morbidity, as well as their burden on medical budgets. If the medico-legal aspects of falls were evaluated with regard to preventive event or death, the importance of the topic could be better understood. PMID:25735785

  8. [Psychophysiological characteristics of professional burnout syndrome in doctors of various specialties and different age groups].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    Based on clinical psychopathology, psycho-physiological and medical tests the risk factors of professional burnout among medical professionals of all ages were revealed and the assessment of their impact on the formation of adverse functional status of physicians under research was conducted. The role of psycho-physiological factors (neuro-psychological stability, coping strategies, psychological defense mechanisms, psychosemantic self-relation space, asthenic, obsessive-phobic, hypothymic, anancastic symptoms, the dynamic characteristics of the inhibitory processes, and emotional lability) in the formation of professional burnout among medical specialists of young, middle and elderly age was defined. Neurophysiological markers of professional burnout among medical specialists of young, middle and old age, which are characterized by lower levels of reserve capacity of the cerebral cortex of alpha-rhythm, the prevalence and strength of excitation and balance of beta-rhythm were examined. It was shown that clinical examination of medical specialists of different age groups with symptoms of professional burnout should include the clinical-psychopathological and psychophysiological examinations to determine the psychopathological and personal features, psychological and emotional states of the border areas, which help to identify reactive neurotic disorders and conduct its targeted correction. PMID:23734523

  9. Equestrian injuries in the paediatric age group: a two centre study.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Hewson, G L; Robinson, S M; Egleston, C V

    1999-03-01

    This study's objective was to examine the nature, cause and frequency of injury resulting from equestrian sport in paediatric patients attending two accident and emergency departments. We recorded the attendances of patients aged less than 16 years with equestrian-related trauma in 1 year. Demographic details, injury, mechanism of injury, rider experience and use of protective equipment were noted. There were 41 attendances (39 female, two male, median age 12 years). Thirty-one were injured while mounted, 10 while dismounted. The commonest group of injuries were soft tissue injuries of the lower limb (13 cases), soft tissue injuries of the upper limb (12 cases), fractures of the upper limb (nine cases), and minor head injury (seven cases). There was one case of severe head injury. Two patients required admission to hospital. The commonest mechanism of injury in the mounted group was a fall or throw (23 cases), in the dismounted group injuries were most commonly the result of being trodden on or being kicked (seven cases). The majority of equestrian-related trauma was minor in this study. The possibility of severe trauma exists. Emergency physicians working in areas where equestrian sport is popular should be aware of the likely injuries and their treatment. PMID:10340733

  10. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  11. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  12. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs. PMID:26416108

  13. Effect of yellow filter on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under glare condition among different age groups.

    PubMed

    Mahjoob, Monireh; Heydarian, Samira; Koochi, Somayyeh

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of yellow filter on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under glare condition for various ages. A total of 60 subjects, aged 5-60 years, with no ocular pathology and no previous surgery were assessed in this cross-sectional study. We divided subjects into six subgroups according to their ages, and the number of subjects in each group was 10: group 1, aged 5-10 years; group 2, aged 11-20 years; group 3, aged 21-30 years; group 4, aged 31-40 years; group 5, aged 41-50 years; and group 6, aged 51-60 years. Snellen visual acuity and Pelli Robson contrast sensitivity with and without glare and with the use of yellow filter under glare condition were determined. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS, version 20. Our results showed a significant reduction in contrast sensitivity under glare condition in all age groups (p = 0.000), which improved significantly with the use of yellow filter (p = 0.000). Although when data in different age groups were analyzed separately, this improvement was only significant in older subjects, aged 51-60 years (p = 0.007). No significant difference was found between Snellen visual acuity with and without glare (p = 0.083), and also we found no yellow filter effect on visual acuity under glare condition. We conclude that yellow filter, which absorbs short wavelength, may provide significant contrast sensitivity benefits for individuals and influences older subjects more than younger ones. PMID:26613932

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    PubMed

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age. PMID:26595203

  15. Teasing out the effects of macro-conditions on race-specific male homicide rates: Do distinct predictors vary by racial group and over time?

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Richard; Parker, Karen F

    2013-05-01

    Researchers tend to capture the multiple disadvantages facing urban areas by using an all-encompassing disadvantage index, which combines poverty, joblessness and other economic predictors into a single index. While the use of this index is important for conceptual and methodological reasons, questions remain about whether these city characteristics differ in magnitude and significance when influencing race-specific homicide rates and whether or not there effects exhibit stability or vary over time? This article examines how discrete measures of disadvantage differ in their importance for race-specific groups over three critical time points: 1980, 1990, and 2000. After accounting for problems associated with statistical inferences, cross sectional, Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) analyses reveal that family disruption and poverty status were among the strongest predictors of race-specific homicide rates. Wald tests for the equality of coefficients confirmed significant differences in the influence of many discrete measures of disadvantage for white and black males, but the number of differences declined from 1980 and into the 2000s. That is, along with the crime drop, our research reveals increasing racial parity in structural predictors over time. PMID:23521985

  16. Ovarian cycle activity varies with respect to age and social status in free-ranging elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Elizabeth W.; Meyer, Jordana M.; Putman, Sarah B.; Schulte, Bruce A.; Brown, Janine L.

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging African elephants live in a fission–fusion society, at the centre of which is the matriarch. Matriarchs are generally older females that guide their families to resources and co-ordinate group defense. While much is known about elephant society, knowledge is generally lacking about how age affects the physiology of wild elephants. Investigation of the ovarian activity of free-ranging elephants could provide insight into the reproductive ageing process, with implications for population management. Faecal samples were collected from 46 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 60 years for a 2-year period, and progestagen metabolite analyses were used to examine relationships between social status, age, season, and ovarian activity in female elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Social status was the strongest predictor of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in non-pregnant elephants, with grand matriarchs (n = 6) having the lowest values compared with matriarchs (n = 21) and non-matriarch females (n = 19). Likewise, social status and age were the strongest predictors of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in pregnant elephants (n = 27). The number of years since a non-pregnant female gave birth to her last calf (post-partum duration) was longer for older females with a higher social status, as well as during the dry season. Our results indicate that social standing and age of elephants are related to reproductive function, and that older females exhibit reductions in ovarian capacity. These results expand our understanding of reproduction and fertility throughout an elephant's lifespan, and the factors that impact gonadal function in free-ranging females. Given that possible over-abundance of elephants in areas such as Addo Elephant National Park is fuelling the debate over how best to manage these populations, knowledge about the reproductive potential of high-ranking females can provide managers with

  17. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  18. Teachers Observe to Learn: Differences in Social Behavior of Toddlers and Preschoolers in Same-Age and Multiage Groupings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Mary Ellin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an action research conducted by a group of teachers comparing multiage with same-age interactions of children, especially among toddlers. The research involving 31 children ranging in age from two through five-and-a-half was conducted under optimal conditions, with small groups, low teacher-child ratios, and highly trained…

  19. Swimming Training Assessment: The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge P; Pyne, David B; Castro, Flávio Antônio de S

    2016-05-01

    Zacca, R, Fernandes, RJP, Pyne, DB, and Castro, FAdS. Swimming training assessment: the critical velocity and the 400-m test for age-group swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1365-1372, 2016-To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T400) for CV4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV4par calculated through a single T400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r = 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s, p = 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s when plotted against CV4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV4par = 0.92 × v400. A single T400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers. PMID:26473520

  20. Alarm signals of the great gerbil: Acoustic variation by predator context, sex, age, individual, and family group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Jan A.; McCowan, Brenda; Collins, Kellie C.; Hooper, Stacie L.; Rogovin, Konstantin

    2005-10-01

    The great gerbil, Rhombomys opinus, is a highly social rodent that usually lives in family groups consisting of related females, their offspring, and an adult male. The gerbils emit alarm vocalizations in the presence of diverse predators with different hunting tactics. Alarm calls were recorded in response to three predators, a monitor lizard, hunting dog, and human, to determine whether the most common call type, the rhythmic call, is functionally referential with regard to type of predator. Results show variation in the alarm calls of both adults and subadults with the type of predator. Discriminant function analysis classified an average of 70% of calls to predator type. Call variation, however, was not limited to the predator context, because signal structure also differed by sex, age, individual callers, and family groups. These variations illustrate the flexibility of the rhythmic alarm call of the great gerbil and how it might have multiple functions and communicate in multiple contexts. Three alarm calls, variation in the rhythmic call, and vibrational signals generated from foot-drumming provide the gerbils with a varied and multi-channel acoustic repertoire.

  1. Patients Presenting with Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease: Epidemiological Features by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We explored factors influencing presentation with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease by age group. Data were derived from a city-wide cross-sectional survey of 759 HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. The significance of each observed factor was assessed via multivariate logistic regression. Of subjects aged 20-34 years, lower educational level had a positive influence on presentation with advanced HIV disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-4.34); those recently diagnosed with HIV were more likely to be presented with advanced HIV disease (aOR, 3.17; 95% CI, 0.99-10.2). Of the subjects aged 35-49 years, those w ith advanced HIV disease were more likely to have been diagnosed during health check-ups (aOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.15-7.32) or via clinical manifestations (aOR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.39-9.36). Of the subjects aged ≥ 50 years, presentation with advanced HIV disease was significantly more common in older subjects (aOR per increment of 5 years, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.32-3.23) and less common among individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2000-2006 (aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.83). In conclusion, a lower educational level in younger subjects and more advanced age in older subjects positively influence the presentation of advanced HIV disease. PMID:26839469

  2. What it Takes to Successfully Implement Technology for Aging in Place: Focus Groups With Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Eveline JM; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. Objective To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Methods Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults’ needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying

  3. Pesticide exposure of two age groups of women and its relationship with their diet.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Ana; Cerrillo, Isabel; Granada, Alicia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2007-08-15

    The widespread presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in human samples may be explained by the environmental exposure of the population. Foods are considered a constant source of exposure, despite compliance with maximum permitted residue levels. This study aimed to examine the relationship between nutritional habits of women in Southeast Spain and their serum concentrations of OCs. A semi-quantitative questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency of consumption of foods by two age groups of women, pre-menopausal (Pre-M) and post-menopausal (Post-M), and their serum pesticide levels were measured by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector and confirmed by GC and mass spectrometry. The Pre-M group showed significantly higher serum concentrations of all OCs studied with the exception of DDE. The groups significantly differed in consumption of all food groups with the exception of fruit. In the Pre-M group, the mean serum p,p-DDT concentration was significantly associated with milk/yoghurt (p<0.045) and red meat (p<0.023), serum o,p-DDT with red meat (p<0.049), serum aldrin with eggs (p<0.038) and poultry (p<0.024), and serum DDE with eggs (p<0.025). In the Post-M group, serum lindane was associated with fresh and cured cheese (p<0.001), red meat (p<0.001) and white and oily fish (p<0.001), and both serum DDE and dieldrin were associated with fresh cheese, cured cheese, red meat, and white and oily fish (p<0.001). These results confirm foods as a source of human exposure to persistent organic molecules. Consideration should be given to the reduction of permitted residue levels to minimize this threat to human and animal health. PMID:17477954

  4. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Margaret C.; Gordon, Nancy P.; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R. Grant; Lo, Joan C.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3–5, 44.2% were 6–11, and 41.6% were 12–17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents. PMID:26885385

  5. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  6. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  7. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  8. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication. PMID:26708734

  9. Metabolism of Oxycodone in Human Hepatocytes from Different Age Groups and Prediction of Hepatic Plasma Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Korjamo, Timo; Tolonen, Ari; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Turpeinen, Miia; Kokki, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool) and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 h, and 1 μM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 μM). Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. The data suggests that there are no children-specific metabolites of oxycodone. Moreover, CYP3A activity seems to be the major determinant in metabolic clearance of oxycodone regardless of age group or individual variability in hepatocyte batches. PMID:22291644

  10. The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups.

    PubMed

    Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies. PMID:27068433

  11. Coating morphology and surface composition of acrylic terpolymers with pendant catechol, OEG and perfluoroalkyl groups in varying ratio and the effect on protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jun; Ji, Hua; Duan, Jiang; Tu, Haiyang; Zhang, Aidong

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at developing versatile low-biofouling polymeric coatings by using acrylic terpolymers (DOFs) that bear pendant catechol (D), oligo(ethylene glycol) (O), and perfluoroalkyl (F) groups in varying ratios. The polymers were endowed with the ability to form firmly coatings on virtually any surfaces and undergo surface microphase separation and self-assembly, as revealed by the surface enrichment of F pendants and the morphology variation from irregular solid domains to discrete crater-type aggregates of different size. The effect on protein adsorption was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and adhesive fibrinogen (Fib) as model proteins. The coating of DOF164 (low F content), which has morphology of discrete crater-type aggregates of ∼ 400 nm in size, adsorbed a least amount of protein but with a highest protein unit activity as determined by SPR and immunosorbent assay; whereas the coating of DOF1612 (high F content) showed a 12.3-fold higher adsorption capacity toward Fib. Interestingly, a 2.2-fold lower adsorption amount but with a 1.8-fold higher unit activity was found for Fib adsorbed on the DOF164 surface than on DOF250 (without F fraction), whose OEG segments being a widely recognized protein compatible material. The features of the DOF164 terpolymer presenting a robust coating ability and a minimal protein adsorption capacity while with a high protein unit activity suggest its potential application as a non-fouling surface-modifier for medical antifouling coatings and as a matrix material for selective protein immobilization and activity preservation in biosensor construction. PMID:26764109

  12. Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

    Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain

  13. Identification of specific age groups with a high risk for developing cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Vesna; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Voit, Martin; Suntheim, Patricia; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2016-07-01

    The impact of age on the incidence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a matter of ongoing discussion. The aim of this study was to identify age groups with a higher risk for developing vasospasm, delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND), or delayed infarction (DI) and to identify a cut-off age for a better risk stratification. We defined six age groups (<30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and >70 years). ROC analysis was performed to determine a cutoff age with the highest positive predictive value (PPV) for developing vasospasm, defined as a blood-flow-velocity-increase >120 cm/s in transcranial-Doppler-sonography (TCD). Multivariate binary-logistic-regression-analysis was then performed to evaluate differences in the incidence of cerebral vasospasm, DIND, and DI among the different age groups. A total of 753 patients were included in the study. The highest incidence (70 %) of TCD-vasospasm was found in patients between 30 and 39 years of age. The cutoff age with the highest PPV (65 %) for developing TCD-vasospasm was 38 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that age <38 years (OR 3.6; CI 95 % 2.1-6.1; p < 0.001) best predicted vasospasm, followed by the need for cerebrospinal fluid drainage (OR 1.5; CI 95 % 1.0-2.3; p = 0.04). However, lower age did not correlate with higher rates of DIND or infarcts. The overall vasospasm-incidence after aSAH is age-dependent and highest in the age group <38 years. Surprisingly, the higher incidence in the younger age group does not translate into a higher rate of DIND/DI. This finding may hint towards age-related biological factors influencing the association between arterial narrowing and cerebral ischemia. PMID:26940102

  14. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Bhattathiry, Malini M.; Ethirajan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed. PMID:24696634

  15. Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Stetter S.L.; Rudstam, L. G.; Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to identify Lake Champlain rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in June, July, and September of 2001 using mobile and stationary surveys, knowledge of vertical distribution preferences, and predicted TS from trawl catches. YAO rainbow smelt (93-179 mm total length) had wide TS distributions between -60 and -35 dB in all 3 months with two modes at approximately -50 and -40 dB. Most stationary survey single-fish tracks attributed to YAO had targets in both TS modes and a wide TS range often over 15 dB. Between June and September, YOY rainbow smelt TS increased, but single-fish tracks were unimodal, and the TS range was smaller (6 dB). Overlap in TS attributed to YOY and YAO increased from no overlap in June (YOY TS -76 to -61 dB, 15-25 mm) to moderate overlap in July (-76 to -50 dB, 25-63 mm) to considerable overlap in September (-68 to -45 dB, 33-80 mm). In June and July, the TS distribution changed abruptly at the thermocline, indicating almost complete separation of the two groups. A more gradual TS transition was evident in September, indicating substantial overlap between YOY and YAO. Separate estimates can be obtained in September by decomposing TS overlap into components attributed to YOY and YAO rainbow smelt. However, this decomposition introduces additional uncertainty and an assessment in July or possibly August is preferable to obtain separate abundance estimates of YOY and YAO. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  17. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  18. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Z B; Luan, J H; Miller, M K; Yu, C Y; Liu, C T

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  19. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  20. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for twomore » interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.« less

  1. The Economic and Epidemiological Impact of Focusing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention on Specific Age Groups and Regions in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Since its launch in 2010, the Tanzania National Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) Program has focused efforts on males ages 10–34 in 11 priority regions. Implementers have noted that over 70% of VMMC clients are between the ages of 10 and 19, raising questions about whether additional efforts would be required to recruit men age 20 and above. This analysis uses mathematical modeling to examine the economic and epidemiological consequences of scaling up VMMC among specific age groups and priority regions in Tanzania. Methods and Findings Analyses were conducted using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), a compartmental model implemented in Microsoft Excel 2010. The model was populated with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections from external sources, including outputs from Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM). A separate DMPPT 2.0 model was created for each of the 11 priority regions. Tanzania can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising males ages 20–34. This strategy would also require the fewest VMMCs for each HIV infection averted. Circumcising men ages 10–24 will have the greatest impact on HIV incidence over a 15-year period. The most cost-effective approach (lowest cost per HIV infection averted) targets men ages 15–34. The model shows the VMMC program is cost saving in all 11 priority regions. VMMC program cost-effectiveness varies across regions due to differences in projected HIV incidence, with the most cost-effective programs in Njombe and Iringa. Conclusions The DMPPT 2.0 results reinforce Tanzania’s current VMMC strategy, providing newfound confidence in investing in circumcising adolescents. Tanzanian policy makers and program implementers will continue to focus scale-up of VMMC on men ages 10–34 years, seeking to maximize program impact and cost-effectiveness while acknowledging trends in demand among the younger and older age groups

  2. A comparison of participation and performance in age-group finishers competing in and qualifying for Ironman Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Michael; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Background Athletes intending to compete in Ironman Hawaii need to qualify in an age-group based qualification system. We compared participation and top ten performances of athletes in various age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Methods Finishes in Ironman Hawaii and in its qualifier races in 2010 were analyzed in terms of performance, age, and sex. Athletes were categorized into age groups from 18–24 to 75–79 years and split and race times were determined for the top ten athletes in each age group. Results A higher proportion of athletes aged 25–49 years finished in the qualifier races than in Ironman Hawaii. In athletes aged 18–24 and 50–79 years, the percentage of finishes was higher in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. For women, the fastest race times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for those aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 25–29 (P<0.05), and 60–64 (P<0.05) years. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for 18–24, 25–29, 40–44, 50–54, and 60–64 years (P<0.05) in age groups. For men, finishers aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 40–44 (P<0.001), 50–54 (P<0.01), 55–59 (P<0.001), 60–64 (P<0.01), and 65–69 (P<0.001) years were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for those aged 18–24 and those aged 40 years and older (P<0.05). Conclusion There are differences in terms of participation and performance for athletes in different age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Triathletes aged 25–49 years and men generally were underrepresented in Ironman Hawaii compared with in its Ironman qualifier races. These athletes may have had less chance to qualify for Ironman Hawaii than female athletes or younger (<25

  3. US suicide rates by age group, 1970-2002: an examination of recent trends.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Robert E; Cuffe, Steven P; Schulz, Richard M

    2006-10-01

    US suicide rates have declined in recent years, reversing earlier trends. We examined suicide rates among 4 age groups from 1970 to 2002 and the factors that may have contributed to the decline. We paid particular attention to newer anti-depressants because of recent concerns and controversy about a possible association with suicidal behaviors. These trends warrant more extensive analysis of suicide rates among specific subgroups, including consideration of additional variables that may influence rates differentially. The relative contributions of depression diagnosis and treatment, postsuicide attempt care, and other contextual factors (e.g., overall economic conditions) also deserve attention. If the decline is associated with contextual factors, clarifying these associations will better inform public policy decisions and contribute to more effective interventions for preventing suicide. PMID:17008567

  4. The elasticity of demand for health care in Burkina Faso: differences across age and income groups.

    PubMed

    Sauerborn, R; Nougtara, A; Latimer, E

    1994-06-01

    Like many other developing countries, Burkina Faso has been exploring how community resources can be tapped to co-finance health services. Although revenue generation is important for the viability of health services, effects on utilization and on equity of access to health care must also be considered. The authors present a logistic regression model to derive price elasticities of demand for health care based on cross-sectional survey data. While demand for health care appears inelastic overall (-0.79), subgroup analysis reveals differences in elasticity across age and income groups. Elasticities of demand for infants and children (-3.6 and -1.7) and for the lowest income quartile (-1.4) are substantially greater than overall elasticity. The method used is unusual in that it allows estimation of elasticities before the introduction of user fees. This increases the value of the information to policy makers. PMID:15726780

  5. Ileal perforation associated with dengue in the paediatric age group: an uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Gupta, Archika; Pandey, Anand; Kureel, Shiv Narain

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdomen in dengue, a common arboviral disease found in tropical and subtropical countries, is not uncommon and can occasionally present as acute surgical emergency requiring urgent surgical intervention. The spectrum of acute abdomen presenting as surgical emergency in dengue infection that raises suspicion of an abdominal catastrophe includes acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, appendicitis and, rarely, intestinal perforation. All cases of intestinal perforation including appendicular, gastric and jejunal perforation have been reported in adult patients during the course of dengue infection. However, intestinal perforation during the course of dengue infection in the paediatric age group has never been reported. We report two cases of ileal perforation in children occurring during the course of dengue infection. PMID:27485879

  6. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel. PMID:24868510

  7. Age constraints for Paleoproterozoic glaciation in the Lake Superior Region: Detrital zircon and hydrothermal xenotime ages for the Chocolay Group, Marquette Range Supergroup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallini, D.A.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A geochronological study of the Chocolay Group at the base of the Paleoproterozoic Marquette Range Supergroup in Michigan, Lake Superior Region, is attempted for the first time, Age data from detrital zircon grains and hydrothermal xenotime from the basal glaciogenic formation, the Enchantment Lake Formation, and the stratigraphically higher Sturgeon Quartzite and its equivalent, the Sunday Quartzite, provide maximum and minimum age constraints for the Chocolay Group. The youngest detrital zircon population in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2317 ?? 6 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2306 ?? 9 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2647 ?? 5 Ma. The oldest hydrothermal xenotime age in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2133 ?? 11 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2115 ?? 5 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2207 ?? 5 Ma. The radiometric age data in this study implies the depositional age of the Chocolay Group is constrained to ???2.3-2.2 Ga, which proves its correlation with part of the Huronian Supergroup in the Lake Huron Region, Ontario, and reveals the unconformity that separates the Chocolay Group from the overlying Menominee Group is up to 325 million years in duration. The source(s) of the ??? 2.3 Ga detrital zircon populations in the Enchantment Lake Formation and Sturgeon Quartzite remains an enigma because no known rock units of this age are known in the Michigan area. It is speculated that once widespread volcano-sedimentary cover sequences in Michigan were removed or concealed prior to Chocolay Group deposition. The hydrothermal xenotime ages probably reflect basinal hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the period of extension involving rifting and major dyke formation, that affected the North American provinces between 2.2 and 2.1 Ga. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  8. A Group and Individual Analysis of the Relationship between Age and Information Channel Capacity of Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, William L.

    This study was designed to measure adult performance as related to age. Using methodology derived from information theory, information processing ability was measured with the individuals performing as a communication system. Fifty-five school teachers, ranging in age from 20 to 66, served as subjects. In four groups, the subjects judged the sizes…

  9. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  10. The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…

  11. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger. PMID:12940411

  12. Evaluation of the ovarian reserve function in patients with metabolic syndrome in relation to healthy controls and different age groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ovarian reserve function in female patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods This study evaluated 136 subjects, 67 with MetS and 69 controls. Subjects were divided into three age groups. Group I included 49 subjects aged 20–29 years, 22 with MetS and 27 controls; group II included 45 subjects aged 30–39 years, 22 with MetS and 23 controls; and group III included 42 subjects aged 40–49 years, 23 with MetS and 19 controls. Demographic characteristics, anthropometrics, blood biochemistry, and gonadotrophic hormones were compared as total ovarian volume and antral follicle count on ovarian transvaginal ultrasonography. Results Serum levels of FSH, LH, E2 and progesterone were similar in the MetS and control groups, while testosterone levels were significantly higher in MetS patients than controls, both in the overall population (p = 0.024) and in those aged 20–29 years (p = 0.018). Total ovarian volume was significantly lower in MetS patients than controls, in both the overall population (p = 0.003) and those aged 20–29 years (p = 0.018), while antral follicle counts were similar. Ovarian volume correlated positively with antral follicle count (AFC) (r = 0.37; p < 0.001) and negatively with age (r = 0.34; p < 0.001) and FSH concentration (r = 0.21; p = 0.013). AFC was negatively correlated with age (r = 0.36; p < 0.001). Conclusion Ovarian reserve function is significantly lower in MetS patients than in healthy control subjects, particularly in women aged 20–29 years. PMID:24955131

  13. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Lymphocytes from Different Age Groups of Bolivian Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis)

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Pramod N.; Hanley, Patrick W.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Yang, Guojun; Ruiz, Julio C.; Williams, Lawrence; Abee, Christian R.; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2013-01-01

    Due to many physiological and genetic characteristic similarities to humans, squirrel monkeys provide an ideal animal model specifically for studying malaria, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease). While squirrel monkeys three years and older are generally considered adult subjects suitable for use in medical research studies, little is known about the functional properties of lymphocytes in relation to the age of these animals, which could significantly impact the quality and quantity of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated differences in the phenotype and function of lymphocytes subsets of young (3–4 years), adult (8–10 years) and aged (16–19 years) squirrel monkeys. In general, animals in all three age groups exhibited comparable numbers of different lymphocyte subsets except for CD20+ B cells that were significantly lower in aged relative to young animals and T cells subsets expressing both CD4 and CD8 (double positive) were significantly higher in aged relative to young animals. With increasing age, phenotypic differences in central and effector memory T cells subsets were observed, that were more pronounced for the CD8+ T cells. Despite equal proportions of CD3+ T cells among the three age groups, responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to T cell mitogens PHA and Con A showed lower IFN-γ producing cells in the aged group than that in the young group. Furthermore, aged animals showed significantly higher plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12. These findings suggest that while the squirrel monkeys in general share phenotypic and functional similarities of lymphocyte subsets with humans in relation to age, specific differences exist in immune function of lymphocytes between young and old animals that could potentially impact experimental outcomes for which the measurement of immunologic endpoints are critical. PMID:24282512

  14. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18–45 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%), vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%), malodor 5 (4.5%), pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%), and dysuria 1 (0.9%). The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30%) cases, of which 18 (54.5%) were C. albicans and 15 (45.5%) non-albicans Candida (NAC) infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n = 10), C. tropicalis (n = 3), and C. krusei (n = 2). BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p = 0.001) and vulval itching/irritation (p = 0.007) was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management. PMID:26351613

  15. Patterns of Multiple Myeloma During the Past 5 Decades: Stable Incidence Rates for All Age Groups in the Population but Rapidly Changing Age Distribution in the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Turesson, Ingemar; Velez, Ramon; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Landgren, Ola

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define age-adjusted incidence trends in multiple myeloma (MM) in a well-characterized population during a long period, given that some, but not all, studies have reported increasing MM incidence over time and that clinical experience from some centers suggests an increased incidence mainly in younger age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all patients (N=773) with MM diagnosed in Malmö, Sweden, from January 1, 1950, through December 31, 2005. Using census data for the population of Malmö, we calculated age- and sex-specific incidence rates. Incidence rates were also calculated for 10-year birth cohorts. Analyses for trends were performed using the Poisson regression. RESULTS: From 1950 through 2005, the average annual age-adjusted (European standard population) incidence rate remained stable (Poisson regression, P=.07 for men and P=.67 for women). Also, comparisons between 10-year birth cohorts (from 1870-1879 to 1970-1979) failed to detect any increase. Between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005, the median age at diagnosis of MM increased from 70 to 74 years, and the proportion of newly diagnosed patients aged 80 years or older increased from 16% to 31%. CONCLUSION: Our finding of stable MM incidence rates for all age groups during the past 5 decades suggests that recent clinical observations of an increase of MM in the young may reflect an increased referral stream of younger patients with MM, which in turn might be a consequence of improved access to better MM therapies. Importantly, because of the aging population, the proportion of patients with MM aged 80 years or older doubled between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005. PMID:20194150

  16. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  17. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  18. A survey of the causes of sudden cardiac death in the under 35-year-age group.

    PubMed

    Quigley, F; Greene, M; O'Connor, D; Kelly, F

    2005-09-01

    CRY (Cardiac Risk in the Young) is a registered Irish charity established by parents who are bereaved as a result of sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study is to establish the incidence and causes of sudden cardiac death in Dublin city in the 10-year period from 1st January 1993 to 31st December 2002. All sudden cardiac deaths in the under 35-year age group which were reported to the city coroner in the study period were examined. Details regarding age, sex, previous symptoms, investigations, circumstances of death and main pathological finding were recorded in each case. A total of 72 cases of sudden cardiac death in the under-35 year age group were reported. 52 were men. The median age was 26.5 years (range 12-34 years). The cause of death in 20 cases was reported as atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease. The second commonest cause of death (24% cases) was Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy was the commonest cause of death under the age of 25 years. Overall atherosclerotic coronary artery disease was the commonest cause of death in this group. The importance of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is highlighted by the fact it was the commonest cause of death in the under 25-year age group. Screening those at high risk of sudden cardiac death especially the relatives of those affected by Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy need to be discussed and implemented. PMID:16255113

  19. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Administration in Pediatric Older Age Groups in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Kimberly; Welch, Emily; Elder, Kate; Cohn, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is included in the World Health Organization’s routine immunization schedule and is recommended by WHO for vaccination in high-risk children up to 60 months. However, many countries do not recommend vaccination in older age groups, nor have donors committed to supporting extended age group vaccination. To better inform decision-making, this systematic review examines the direct impact of extended age group vaccination in children over 12 months in low and middle income countries. Methods An a priori protocol was used. Using pre-specified terms, a search was conducted using PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Abstracts, clinicaltrials.gov and the International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases abstracts. The primary outcome was disease incidence, with antibody titers and nasopharyngeal carriage included as secondary outcomes. Results Eighteen studies reported on disease incidence, immune response, and nasopharyngeal carriage. PCV administered after 12 months of age led to significant declines in invasive pneumococcal disease. Immune response to vaccine type serotypes was significantly higher for those vaccinated at older ages than the unimmunized at the established 0.2ug/ml and 0.35ug/ml thresholds. Vaccination administered after one year of age significantly reduced VT carriage with odds ratios ranging from 0.213 to 0.69 over four years. A GRADE analysis indicated that the studies were of high quality. Discussion PCV administration in children over 12 months leads to significant protection. The direct impact of PCV administration, coupled with the large cohort of children missed in first year vaccination, indicates that countries should initiate or expand PCV immunization for extended age group vaccinations. Donors should support implementation of PCV as part of delayed or interrupted immunization for older

  20. Flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy as a screening modality for colorectal adenomas in older age groups? Findings in a cohort of the normal population aged 63-72 years

    PubMed Central

    Thiis-Evensen, E; Hoff, G; Sauar, J; Majak, B; Vatn, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Most cases of colorectal cancer originate from adenomas. Removing adenomas has been shown to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer. The design of cost effective endoscopic screening programmes requires a knowledge of the distribution of adenomas in different age groups.
AIM—To investigate the distribution of colorectal adenomas in older age groups in the normal population.
METHOD—A total of 356 men and women selected randomly from the population register were offered a colonoscopic screening examination to detect and remove polyps.
RESULTS—In all, 241(68%) subjects, mean age 67.4 years (range 62-73), attended. The caecum was intubated in 193 (80%), and in this group 32 (38%) women and 51 (47%) men had adenomas. One hundred and ten (54%) of the adenomas and 11 (39%) of the "high risk adenomas" (adenomas larger than 10 mm in diameter, adenomas containing villous components, and adenomas with severe dysplasia) were found proximal to the sigmoid colon. In 36 (43%) of the subjects with adenomas, the adenomas were only found proximal to the sigmoid colon. Twenty two (11%) subjects had more than two adenomas. Of 203 adenomas discovered, 189 (93%) were less than 10 mm in diameter.
CONCLUSION—More than half of the adenomas were localised proximal to the sigmoid colon, and, in nearly half of the adenoma bearing subjects examined, the adenoma was proximal to the descending colon. This indicates that a sigmoidoscopic screening examination in this age group would miss a substantial number of adenomas, but this may be acceptable as the vast majority of proximal adenomas do not progress to clinical cancer within the life expectancy of this age group.


Keywords: adenoma; colon; colorectal neoplasms; endoscopy; epidemiology; polyps PMID:10562581

  1. Absolute age constraints on the age and tectonics of the Middle and Late Proterozoic Pahrump Group, southern Death Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Calzia, J.P. ); Troxel, B.W.

    1993-04-01

    The Pahrump Group unconformably overlies 1.35 Ga granite, is unconformably overlain by the Late Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite, and is divided into the Crystal Spring Formation, the Beck Spring Dolomite, and the Kingston Peak Formation. Contacts between these formations are gradational through several meters of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. Lithologic data, sedimentary structures, and fossil assemblages suggest that the Pahrump Group, from middle Crystal Spring to lower Kingston Peak time, was deposited in an intratidal to supratidal environment. Diamictite, volcanic ash, and mono lithologic megabreccia suggest that the middle and the upper members of the Kingston Peak Formation were deposited in a higher energy sedimentary and tectonic environment. Dikes and sills of 1.08 Ga diabase intrude the gneiss and all members of the Crystal Spring Formation; erosional clasts of diabase first appear in the middle Kingston Peak Formation. The diabase sills are up to 450 m thick and have caused at least 20 percent inflation of the Crystal Spring, Beck Spring, and lower Kingston Peak formations. If these sedimentary rocks were deposited at or above wave base, evidence of intraplate rifting or gross stratigraphic inflation is not recorded in the Pahrump stratigraphy until middle and upper Kingston Peak time. Therefore, the stratigraphic and petrologic data suggest that the diabase was emplaced in the Crystal Spring Formation during post-lower but pre-middle Kingston Peak time. The Beck Spring Dolomite and the lower Kingston Peak Formation are older than 1.08 Ga; the contact between the lower and the middle Kingston Peak Formation is a regional disconformity that marks significant changes in the depositional and the tectonic environments of the Pahrump Group at about 1.08 Ga.

  2. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  3. The Age of the Ursa Major Moving Group from Interferometric Measurements of Its A-type Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel J.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Schaefer, Gail; Baines, Ellyn K.; Ireland, Michael; Patience, Jenny; McAlister, Harold A.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo

    2015-01-01

    A set of six A-type stars in the nearby Ursa Major moving group have been observed and spatially resolved with the CHARA Array, using the Classic and/or CLIMB beam combiners. At least four of these stars are rapidly rotating (vsini ≥ 170 kms-1) and are expected to be oblate. These interferometric measurements and the stars' observed photometric energy distributions (PEDs) are used to construct oblate star models from which stellar properties (R(θ), T(θ), etc.) are determined. The results are compared with MESA stellar evolution models to determine mass and age. This analysis provides an independently determined mean age estimate for the Ursa Major moving group of 490 Myr with a standard deviation of 98 Myr, consistent with previous age estimates. This validated technique can be used to provide independent age estimates of field A-stars, including those that host directly imaged substellar companions (e.g. HR 8799, κ And).

  4. Ambiguous response of lung lamellar bodies to sauna-like heat stress in two age groups of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Heino, M E

    1980-06-01

    Two groups of adult male rats, aged 2.5 and 5 months, were exposed daily for 12 min to 65 degrees C for five successive periods a week for 6 weeks. Both age groups, and in particular the young one, repeatedly suffered from exhausting heat stress. Lung specimens from cardiac lobes were prepared for light- and electron-microscopy. A significnat increase was noted in the lung lamellar body number in the old test rats, on comparison with old ones employed as controls (p < 0.05). The young group was unresponsive. Consequently, stress induced by increased sympathetic activity is not always a direct stimulus, as had been thought earlier. It seems, at least where heat stress is concerned, that it is the age, weight, and systemic reactions which exercise a great influence upon lamellar body production, and may even overrule the role of sympathetic activity. PMID:7417113

  5. Students' perceptions of being graded as a group in the college classroom: relations among students' age, employment, and perceived group satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Rufus L

    2002-12-01

    This investigation compared and measured for different age groups of students, hours of employment, and previous grading experiences of one student cohort in relation to their perceived overall satisfaction with being graded as a group. A cohort of 230 students from a large southern metropolitan university enrolled in sections of two undergraduate classes. Group Interaction and Decision Making and Conflict Management, participated. Analysis indicated that (a) older students (28-47 years) were more likely to be dissatisfied with a group grade experience than middle (23-27 years) and younger (18-22 years) students. (b) Older students working part time were significantly more dissatisfied with the overall group experience than the younger part-time working students. (c) Older part-time working students were significantly more dissatisfied with the overall experience of working and being graded as a group than the middle part-time and middle full-time working students. Differences were noted between the older and younger students, which supported older students' overall dissatisfaction with their experience of being graded as a group. Common complaints by older students were that younger students were immature, irresponsible, lacked "real-life" experience, and had misplaced priorities. Common complaints by younger students were that older students were too serious and rigid. It is recommended that this work be extended to include other comparison groups, graduate students, and other disciplines. PMID:12578270

  6. What Proportion of Children Stay in the Same Location as Adults, and How Does This Vary across Location and Groups? Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper No. 09-145

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides new information on what proportion of individuals spend their adult work lives in their childhood metropolitan area or state. I also examine how this proportion varies across different demographic groups, and with the size and growth rate of the metropolitan area. I find that the proportion of individuals who spend most of…

  7. Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, but the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Head group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a plant lipid modification occurring during bacterial infection. Little is known about the range of stresses that induce this lipid modification, the molecular species induced, and the function of the modification. Lipidomic analysis using trip...

  8. Multiloop integral system test (MIST): Test Group 31, SBLOCA (small-break loss-of-coolant accident) with varied boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gloudemans, J.R. . Nuclear Power Div.)

    1989-07-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox-designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock and Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral system facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility --- the once-through integral system (OTIS) --- was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP-5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST program is reported in 11 volumes. The program is summarized in Volume 1; Volumes 2 through 8 describe groups of tests by test type; Volume 9 presents inter-group comparisons; Volume 10 provides comparisons between the calculations of RELAP5 MOD2 and MIST observations, and Volume 11 presents the later, Phase 4 tests. This is Volume 3 pertaining to Test Group 31, Boundary Conditions Variations. The specifications, conduct, observations, and results of these tests are described. 8 refs., 328 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Age group estimation in free-ranging African elephants based on acoustic cues of low-frequency rumbles

    PubMed Central

    Stoeger, Angela S.; Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Baotic, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Animal vocal signals are increasingly used to monitor wildlife populations and to obtain estimates of species occurrence and abundance. In the future, acoustic monitoring should function not only to detect animals, but also to extract detailed information about populations by discriminating sexes, age groups, social or kin groups, and potentially individuals. Here we show that it is possible to estimate age groups of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) based on acoustic parameters extracted from rumbles recorded under field conditions in a National Park in South Africa. Statistical models reached up to 70 % correct classification to four age groups (infants, calves, juveniles, adults) and 95 % correct classification when categorising into two groups (infants/calves lumped into one group versus adults). The models revealed that parameters representing absolute frequency values have the most discriminative power. Comparable classification results were obtained by fully automated classification of rumbles by high-dimensional features that represent the entire spectral envelope, such as MFCC (75 % correct classification) and GFCC (74 % correct classification). The reported results and methods provide the scientific foundation for a future system that could potentially automatically estimate the demography of an acoustically monitored elephant group or population. PMID:25821348

  10. Lower Paleozoic Through Archean Detrital Zircon Ages From Metasedimentary Rocks of the Nome Group, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, J. M.; Miller, E. L.; Gehrels, G.

    2003-12-01

    Metamorphic rocks of Seward Peninsula have been divided into two groups based on their metamorphic grade and history: The Nome Group and the Kigluaik Group. Although it is sometime been assumed that the higher structural position of the Nome Group versus the Kigluaik Group indicates the Kigluaik Group is older, this relationship and the age of the protoliths of these rocks has never been well-established. The Nome Group includes (delete the) lower grade blueschist and greenschist facies rocks which are widespread across the Seward Peninsula (delete) Rock types include pelitic schist, more mafic chlorite-white mica-albite schist, marble, quartzite, and metabasite. An early metamorphic event (pre-120 Ma) occurred at high pressure and relatively low temperature, and is everywhere overprinted by younger deformation and greenschist facies Rare eclogite facies assemblages are preserved in metabasites, and garnet-glaucophane in some of the pelitic schists. The Kigluaik Group includes upper greenschist to granulite facies rocks that are exposed in the core of a gneiss dome. They record a younger event (~91 Ma) that occurred at higher temperatures and resulted in partial thermal overprinting of the Nome Group and upper greenschist to granulite facies assemblages forming in the Kigluaik Group. The Kigluaik Group and equivalent rocks in the Bendeleben and Darby Mountains represent at least in part similar protoliths to many of the units in the Nome Group (Till and Dumoulin, 1994). The boundary between the rocks of the Nome Group and those clearly affected by the second metamorphic event is placed arbitrarily at the "Biotite-in" isograd along the flanks of the gneiss dome. In order to assess the protolith ages and source rock ages for these units, detrital zircon ages were obtained from three samples from the Nome Group, with Kigluaik Group ages forthcoming. LA-MC-ICPMS U/Pb isotope analysis was used for dating. Two samples were collected from the western Kigluaik Mountains

  11. Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

  12. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  13. Genetic determination of telomere size in humans: A twin study of three age groups

    SciTech Connect

    Slagboom, P.E.; Droog, S.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1994-11-01

    Reduction of telomere length has been postulated to be a casual factor in cellular aging. Human telomeres terminate in tandemly arranged repeat arrays consisting of the (TTAGGG) motif. The length of these arrays in cells from human mitotic tissues is inversely related to the age of the donor, indicating telomere reduction with age. In addition to telemore length differences between different age cohorts, considerable variation is present among individuals of the same age. To investigate whether this variation can be ascribed to genetic influences, we have measured the size of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) in HaeIII-digested genomic DNA from 123 human MZ and DZ twin pairs 2-95 years of age. The average rate of telomere shortening was 31 bp/year, which is similar to that observed by others. Statistical analysis in 115 pairs 2-63 years of age indicates a 78% heritability for mean TRF length in this age cohort. The individual differences in mean TRF length in blood, therefore, seem to a large extent to be genetically determined. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  15. Contribution of streetscape audits to explanation of physical activity in four age groups based on the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS).

    PubMed

    Cain, Kelli L; Millstein, Rachel A; Sallis, James F; Conway, Terry L; Gavand, Kavita A; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Geremia, Carrie M; Chapman, James; Adams, Marc A; Glanz, Karen; King, Abby C

    2014-09-01

    Ecological models of physical activity emphasize the effects of environmental influences. "Microscale" streetscape features that may affect pedestrian experience have received less research attention than macroscale walkability (e.g., residential density). The Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) measures street design, transit stops, sidewalk qualities, street crossing amenities, and features impacting aesthetics. The present study examined associations of microscale attributes with multiple physical activity (PA) measures across four age groups. Areas in the San Diego, Seattle, and the Baltimore metropolitan areas, USA, were selected that varied on macro-level walkability and neighborhood income. Participants (n = 3677) represented four age groups (children, adolescents, adults, older adults). MAPS audits were conducted along a 0.25 mile route along the street network from participant residences toward the nearest non-residential destination. MAPS data were collected in 2009-2010. Subscale and overall summary scores were created. Walking/biking for transportation and leisure/neighborhood PA were measured with age-appropriate surveys. Objective PA was measured with accelerometers. Mixed linear regression analyses were adjusted for macro-level walkability. Across all age groups 51.2%, 22.1%, and 15.7% of all MAPS scores were significantly associated with walking/biking for transport, leisure/neighborhood PA, and objectively-measured PA, respectively. Supporting the ecological model principle of behavioral specificity, destinations and land use, streetscape, street segment, and intersection variables were more related to transport walking/biking, while aesthetic variables were related to leisure/neighborhood PA. The overall score was related to objective PA in children and older adults. Present findings provide strong evidence that microscale environment attributes are related to PA across the lifespan. Improving microscale features may be a feasible

  16. Contribution of Streetscape Audits to Explanation of Physical Activity in Four Age Groups Based on the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS)

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Kelli L.; Millstein, Rachel A.; Sallis, James F.; Conway, Terry L.; Gavand, Kavita A.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Saelens, Brian E.; Geremia, Carrie M.; Chapman, James; Adams, Marc A.; Glanz, Karen; King, Abby C.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological models of physical activity emphasize the effects of environmental influences. “Microscale” streetscape features that may affect pedestrian experience have received less research attention than macroscale walkability (e.g., residential density). The Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) measures street design, transit stops, sidewalk qualities, street crossing amenities, and features impacting aesthetics. The present study examined associations of microscale attributes with multiple physical activity (PA) measures across four age groups. Areas in the San Diego, Seattle, and the Baltimore metropolitan areas, USA, were selected that varied on macro-level walkability and neighborhood income. Participants (n=3677) represented four age groups (children, adolescents, adults, older adults). MAPS audits were conducted along a 0.25 mile route along the street network from participant residences toward the nearest non-residential destination. MAPS data were collected in 2009–2010. Subscale and overall summary scores were created. Walking/biking for transportation and leisure/neighborhood PA were measured with age-appropriate surveys. Objective PA was measured with accelerometers. Mixed linear regression analyses were adjusted for macro-level walkability. Across all age groups 51.2%, 22.1%, and 15.7% of all MAPS scores were significantly associated with walking/biking for transport, leisure/neighborhood PA, and objectively-measured PA, respectively. Supporting the ecological model principle of behavioral specificity, destinations and land use, streetscape, street segment, and intersection variables were more related to transport walking/biking, while aesthetic variables were related to leisure/neighborhood PA. The overall score was related to objective PA in children and older adults. Present findings provide strong evidence that microscale environment attributes are related to PA across the lifespan. Improving microscale features may be a

  17. Calibrating the Lower Cretaceous Time Scale with U-Pb Zircon Ages from the Great Valley Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokawa, A.; Coleman, D. S.; Bralower, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    U-Pb dating of zircons from the Great Valley Group in northern California provides an opportunity to improve the resolution and reliability of the Early Cretaceous Time Scale and enhance its global range and applicability. Well established calcareous nannofossil and macrofossil biostratigraphy, enabled by good preservation, allows for the Great Valley Group to be anchored within the global Geologic Time Scale. Interlayered bentonites contain zircon, which when analyzed via U-Pb ID-TIMS can yield high precision ages. Our understanding of Early Cretaceous events - such as the Cretaceous Normal Polarity Super-Chron and oceanic anoxic events - will be improved by a refined time scale, particularly since the Early Cretaceous is one of the periods most lacking in high-precision radiometric points in the entire Mesozoic. Prior to this study, no U-Pb zircon analyses from the Great Valley Group involved the thermal annealing-chemical abrasion technique. Here, two new TA-CA ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon ages from the McCarty Creek section of the Great Valley Group are presented. The first bentonite is lower Valanginian, from an interval that cannot be biostratigraphically distinguished between NK-3 (Calcicalathina oblongata) and NK-4 (Cruciellipsis cuvillieri) nannofossil biozones, and four concordant dates yield an age of 137.22±0.098Ma. This age corroborates the GTS2008 lower Valanginian boundary age of 140.2Ma, and calls into question previously published Great Valley Group late Berriasian ages: 136.9±0.3Ma for a bentonite from the Stony Creek section, and 137.1±0.6Ma for a bentonite from the Grindstone Creek section. These ages appear to be too young, perhaps as a result of lead loss - the effects of which can be vastly minimized by chemical abrasion. Very preliminary results of re-dating the same aforementioned Grindstone Creek horizon yield an older age of 138.4Ma. The second bentonite is lower Aptian (Chiastozygus litterarius (NK-6) biozone) and three concordant dates yield

  18. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30–39, 40–49, 50–59, and 60–69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (2.2%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea. PMID:26807709

  19. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  20. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1-5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6-11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12-17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18-59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1-5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6-11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12-17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  1. Does Net Endogenous Acid Production (NEAP) Estimated from Diet Vary with Age and Body Mass Index (BMI) in Men and Women?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acid-base balance may influence skeletal health in humans. Animal and plant-based foods provide acid and alkaline precursors respectively, which contribute to net acid-base balance. Algorithms for estimating NEAP from dietary protein and potassium levels have been published, but it is unknown if age...

  2. Age-Related Differences in Functional Nodes of the Brain Cortex – A High Model Order Group ICA Study

    PubMed Central

    Littow, Harri; Elseoud, Ahmed Abou; Haapea, Marianne; Isohanni, Matti; Moilanen, Irma; Mankinen, Katariina; Nikkinen, Juha; Rahko, Jukka; Rantala, Heikki; Remes, Jukka; Starck, Tuomo; Tervonen, Osmo; Veijola, Juha; Beckmann, Christian; Kiviniemi, Vesa J.

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI measured with blood oxygen dependent (BOLD) contrast in the absence of intermittent tasks reflects spontaneous activity of so-called resting state networks (RSN) of the brain. Group level independent component analysis (ICA) of BOLD data can separate the human brain cortex into 42 independent RSNs. In this study we evaluated age-related effects from primary motor and sensory, and, higher level control RSNs. One hundred sixty-eight healthy subjects were scanned and divided into three groups: 55 adolescents (ADO, 13.2 ± 2.4 years), 59 young adults (YA, 22.2 ± 0.6 years), and 54 older adults (OA, 42.7 ± 0.5 years), all with normal IQ. High model order group probabilistic ICA components (70) were calculated and dual-regression analysis was used to compare 21 RSN's spatial differences between groups. The power spectra were derived from individual ICA mixing matrix time series of the group analyses for frequency domain analysis. We show that primary sensory and motor networks tend to alter more in younger age groups, whereas associative and higher level cognitive networks consolidate and re-arrange until older adulthood. The change has a common trend: both spatial extent and the low frequency power of the RSN's reduce with increasing age. We interpret these result as a sign of normal pruning via focusing of activity to less distributed local hubs. PMID:20953235

  3. Does the Great Valley Group contain Jurassic strata? Reevaluation of the age and early evolution of a classic forearc basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Surpless, K.D.; Graham, S.A.; Covault, J.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Cretaceous detrital zircon in Upper Jurassic strata of the Great Valley Group may require revision of the lower Great Valley Group chronostratigraphy, with significant implications for the Late Jurassic-Cretaceous evolution of the continental margin. Samples (n = 7) collected from 100 km along strike in the purported Tithonian strata of the Great Valley Group contain 20 Cretaceous detrital zircon grains, based on sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe age determinations. These results suggest that Great Valley Group deposition was largely Cretaceous, creating a discrepancy between biostratigraphy based on Buchia zones and chronostratigraphy based on radiometric age dates. These results extend the duration of the Great Valley Group basal unconformity, providing temporal separation between Great Valley forearc deposition and creation of the Coast Range Ophiolite. If Great Valley forearc deposition began in Cretaceous time, then sediment by passed the developing forearc in the Late Jurassic, or the Franciscan subduction system did not fully develop until Cretaceous time. In addition to these constraints on the timing of deposition, pre-Mesozoic detrital zircon age signatures indicate that the Great Valley Group was linked to North America from its inception. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  4. Planning and Decision Making about the Future Care of Older Group Home Residents and Transition to Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, C.; Bowers, B.; Webber, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Planning for future care after the death of parental caregivers and adapting disability support systems to achieve the best possible quality of life for people with intellectual disability as they age have been important issues for more than two decades. This study examined perceptions held by family members, group home staff and…

  5. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  6. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of 19 games…

  7. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  8. An Investigation of the Usability of the Stylus Pen for Various Age Groups on Personal Digital Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xiangshi; Zhou, Xiaolei

    2011-01-01

    Many handheld devices with stylus pens are available in the market; however, there have been few studies which examine the effects of the size of the stylus pen on user performance and subjective preferences for handheld device interfaces for various age groups. Two experiments (pen-length experiment and pen-tip width/pen-width experiment) were…

  9. Hematology and plasma biochemistry analytes in five age groups of immature, captive-reared loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Rousselet, Estelle; Stacy, Nicole I; LaVictoire, Kara; Higgins, Benjamin M; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Flanagan, Joseph P; Godard-Codding, Céline A J

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Blood samples of 85 immature, apparently healthy, captive-reared loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) were analyzed for 13 hematologic variables and total solids of 5 age groups (8, 20, 32, 44, and 56 mo old) and for 20 plasma biochemical analytes of 4 age groups (20 to 56 mo old). Each individual turtle was sampled under similar conditions during a blood collection period of 3 days. Hematologic analytes included packed cell volume, white blood cell (WBC) counts, WBC estimates, and leukocyte differentials. Biochemical analysis included albumin, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatine kinase, creatinine, gamma glutamyltransferase, globulins, glucose, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, total bilirubin, total protein, total solids, and uric acid. In due consideration of small sample size in all five age groups, the results of hematologic and biochemical analysis were used to determine ranges for these analytes and to compare values among consecutive age groups. Several significant differences in some hematologic and biochemical variables were identified and need to be considered in the interpretation of blood work of immature, growing sea turtles in human care. PMID:24450044

  10. Perceptions of Retirement Affect Career Commitment: The Mediating Role of Retirement System Satisfaction for Two Teacher Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin L.; Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated a sample of California elementary, intermediate, and high school employed teachers (N = 247) to assess the effects of retirement perceptions on career commitment among teachers who are in different age groupings. Using path analysis, the influence of five retirement perceptions variables was examined: concerns about…

  11. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  12. Focus Groups with Working Parents of School-Aged Children: What's Needed to Improve Family Meals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To conduct focus groups to identify parents' perceptions of barriers to family meals and elucidate ideas to guide the development of interventions to overcome barriers. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 27 working parents in urban community settings. Results: Parents reported enjoying the sharing/bonding…

  13. Age Difference and Face-Saving in an Inter-Generational Problem-Based Learning Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    This study used grounded theory methodology to investigate whether learning in a problem-based learning (PBL) group was influenced by student demographic diversity. Data comprised observations, in the form of video footage, of one first-year PBL group carried out over the period of an academic year, along with student interviews. Using the…

  14. Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

  15. Levels of the serum amyloid A protein (SAA) in normal persons of different age groups.

    PubMed Central

    Hijmans, W; Sipe, J D

    1979-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) has been implicated by three independent studies to increase in concentration with ageing. The present study measured SAA concentration in 395 samples from 302 healthy individuals ranging in age from 21 to 100 years. The average SAA concentration was 20 microgram/ml, with only five serum samples falling below 5 microgram/ml. SAA concentrations are expressed in terms of cross-reactivity of purified, denatured SAA with anti-AA antibodies, rather than the purified, denatured amyloid fibril protein AA from tissues, which has been used in the past. No age-related increase in SAA concentration was observed in the present study. The average SAA concentration in these normal, healthy individuals was almost a hundred-fold less than values measured in acute phase human serum in a separate study with the same reagents. PMID:428149

  16. Multinomial logistic regression model to assess the levels in trans, trans-muconic acid and inferential-risk age group among benzene-exposed group.

    PubMed

    Mala, A; Ravichandran, B; Raghavan, S; Rajmohan, H R

    2010-08-01

    There are only a few studies performed on multinomial logistic regression on the benzene-exposed occupational group. A study was carried out to assess the relationship between the benzene concentration and trans-trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), biomarkers in urine samples from petrol filling workers. A total of 117 workers involved in this occupation were selected for this current study. Generally, logistic regression analysis (LR) is a common statistical technique that could be used to predict the likelihood of categorical or binary or dichotomous outcome variables. The multinomial logistic regression equations were used to predict the relationship between benzene concentration and t,t-MA. The results showed a significant correlation between benzene and t,t-MA among the petrol fillers. Prediction equations were estimated by adopting the physical characteristic viz., age, experience in years and job categories of petrol filling station workers. Interestingly, there was no significant difference observed among experience in years. Petrol fillers and cashiers having a higher occupational risk were in the age group of ≤24 and between 25 and 34 years. Among the petrol fillers, the t,t-MA levels with exceeding ACGIH TWA-TLV level was showing to be more significant. This study demonstrated that multinomial logistic regression is an effective model for profiling the greatest risk of the benzene-exposed group caused by different explanatory variables. PMID:21120078

  17. Multinomial logistic regression model to assess the levels in trans, trans-muconic acid and inferential-risk age group among benzene-exposed group

    PubMed Central

    Mala, A.; Ravichandran, B.; Raghavan, S.; Rajmohan, H. R.

    2010-01-01

    There are only a few studies performed on multinomial logistic regression on the benzene-exposed occupational group. A study was carried out to assess the relationship between the benzene concentration and trans-trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), biomarkers in urine samples from petrol filling workers. A total of 117 workers involved in this occupation were selected for this current study. Generally, logistic regression analysis (LR) is a common statistical technique that could be used to predict the likelihood of categorical or binary or dichotomous outcome variables. The multinomial logistic regression equations were used to predict the relationship between benzene concentration and t,t-MA. The results showed a significant correlation between benzene and t,t-MA among the petrol fillers. Prediction equations were estimated by adopting the physical characteristic viz., age, experience in years and job categories of petrol filling station workers. Interestingly, there was no significant difference observed among experience in years. Petrol fillers and cashiers having a higher occupational risk were in the age group of ≤24 and between 25 and 34 years. Among the petrol fillers, the t,t-MA levels with exceeding ACGIH TWA-TLV level was showing to be more significant. This study demonstrated that multinomial logistic regression is an effective model for profiling the greatest risk of the benzene-exposed group caused by different explanatory variables. PMID:21120078

  18. Association and Virulence Gene Expression Vary among Serotype III Group B Streptococcus Isolates following Exposure to Decidual and Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Korir, Michelle L.; Knupp, David; LeMerise, Kathryn; Boldenow, Erica; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Aronoff, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes severe disease in neonates, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. GBS species are highly diverse and can be classified by serotype and multilocus sequence typing. Sequence type 17 (ST-17) strains cause invasive neonatal disease more frequently than strains of other STs. Attachment and invasion of host cells are key steps in GBS pathogenesis. We investigated whether four serotype III strains representing ST-17 (two strains), ST-19, and ST-23 differ in their abilities to attach to and invade both decidual cells and lung epithelial cells. Virulence gene expression following host cell association and exposure to amnion cells was also tested. The ST-17 strains differed in their abilities to attach to and invade decidual cells, whereas there were no differences with lung epithelial cells. The ST-19 and ST-23 strains, however, attached to and invaded decidual cells less than both ST-17 strains. Although the ST-23 strain attached to lung epithelial cells better than ST-17 and -19 strains, none of the strains effectively invaded the lung epithelial cells. Notably, the association with host cells resulted in the differential expression of several virulence genes relative to basal expression levels. Similar expression patterns of some genes were observed regardless of cell type used. Collectively, these results show that GBS strains differ in their abilities to attach to distinct host cell types and express key virulence genes that are relevant to the disease process. Enhancing our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms could aid in the identification of novel therapeutic targets or vaccine candidates that could potentially decrease morbidity and mortality associated with neonatal infections. PMID:25135682

  19. The Hierarchical Factor Model of ADHD: Invariant across Age and National Groupings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1,373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1,772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and…

  20. Medullomyoblastoma: A rare case in an unusual location in an atypical age group.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sumit; Borkar, Sachin A; Suri, Ashish; Sharma, Mehar C; Mahapatra, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Medullomyoblastoma is a variant of medulloblastoma with an aggressive course. It is typically seen in children less than 10 years of age and usually arises from the cerebellar vermis. Authors report an unusual case of medullomyoblastoma arising from the right middle cerebellar peduncle in an adult patient and pertinent literature is reviewed regarding this uncommon entity. PMID:27366275

  1. Mature Age Workers: Are They a Disadvantaged Group in the Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandenHeuvel, Adriana

    1999-01-01

    Although a majority work full time, many mature-age workers (45 and older) are clearly at a disadvantage in the Australian labor market. Average unemployment duration is long, many unwillingly work part time or are underemployed, and their likelihood of unemployment is very high, especially for older women. (JOW)

  2. Medullomyoblastoma: A rare case in an unusual location in an atypical age group

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sumit; Borkar, Sachin A.; Suri, Ashish; Sharma, Mehar C.; Mahapatra, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    Medullomyoblastoma is a variant of medulloblastoma with an aggressive course. It is typically seen in children less than 10 years of age and usually arises from the cerebellar vermis. Authors report an unusual case of medullomyoblastoma arising from the right middle cerebellar peduncle in an adult patient and pertinent literature is reviewed regarding this uncommon entity. PMID:27366275

  3. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  4. Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group.

    PubMed

    Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Bauer, Jürgen M; Barazzoni, Rocco; Biolo, Gianni; Boirie, Yves; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Cederholm, Tommy; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Krznariç, Zeljko; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Singer, Pierre; Teta, Daniel; Tipton, Kevin; Calder, Philip C

    2014-12-01

    The aging process is associated with gradual and progressive loss of muscle mass along with lowered strength and physical endurance. This condition, sarcopenia, has been widely observed with aging in sedentary adults. Regular aerobic and resistance exercise programs have been shown to counteract most aspects of sarcopenia. In addition, good nutrition, especially adequate protein and energy intake, can help limit and treat age-related declines in muscle mass, strength, and functional abilities. Protein nutrition in combination with exercise is considered optimal for maintaining muscle function. With the goal of providing recommendations for health care professionals to help older adults sustain muscle strength and function into older age, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) hosted a Workshop on Protein Requirements in the Elderly, held in Dubrovnik on November 24 and 25, 2013. Based on the evidence presented and discussed, the following recommendations are made (a) for healthy older people, the diet should provide at least 1.0-1.2 g protein/kg body weight/day, (b) for older people who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition because they have acute or chronic illness, the diet should provide 1.2-1.5 g protein/kg body weight/day, with even higher intake for individuals with severe illness or injury, and (c) daily physical activity or exercise (resistance training, aerobic exercise) should be undertaken by all older people, for as long as possible. PMID:24814383

  5. Stratified at Seven: In-Class Ability Grouping and the Relative Age Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    There is an established body of evidence indicating that a pupil's relative age within their school year cohort is associated with academic attainment throughout compulsory education. In England, autumn-born pupils consistently attain at higher levels than summer-born pupils. Analysis here investigates a possible channel of this relative age…

  6. Body Build Stereotypes and Self-Identification in Three Age Groups of Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, David; Hinsdale, Gary

    1978-01-01

    Body build stereotypes of average-weight and heavy females, ages 6, 15, and 19, were studied through adjective checklists and drawings of endomorphs, ectomorphs, and mesomorphs. Mesomorph drawings were favored and the endomorphs least liked. But heavy subjects rejected for themselves behavioral stereotypes previously applied to the endomorph…

  7. Act Smart. HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum for Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff facilitator…

  8. Descriptive Study of Multi-Age Grouping for Primary Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafenstein, Norma Lu; And Others

    This descriptive study used qualitative methods to examine academic and affective components in two primary level multi-aged classrooms at a special school for gifted children. The study methodology included classroom observation, a parent questionnaire, parent interviews, a student questionnaire, student interviews, and teacher interviews. The…

  9. Examining the Effects of Shared Book Reading across Age-Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Glen N.; Buyer, Linda S.

    A study investigated whether increasing the motivation/interest for children and their families to engage in more frequent and higher quality shared book reading interactions will significantly increase the vocabulary and reading/reading readiness abilities of school-aged and preschool children. Subjects were 30 preschool and 30 school-aged…

  10. [Nutritional intakes in a group of infants aged six to fourteen months].

    PubMed

    Nasraoui, A; Hamdaoui, M; Achour, A; Nagati, K

    1999-03-01

    Infant feeding poses many challenges, such as the rapid growth of the child and the immature nature of his or her body¿s systems. Foods that are poorly suited to such immaturity can lead to functional problems and even sometimes-serious allergies. Infant nutritional intake is also influenced by environmental, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. Of these factors, the eating habits of Tunisians, with a tendency to overconsume cereal- and sugar-based products, is of particular concern. The authors examined the nutritional intakes of 342 healthy infants aged 6-14 months from the Tunis region. The 180 boys and 162 girls were recruited in 5 primary health centers in Tunis, as well as from several suburbs. These centers were chosen at random from among the region¿s 144 centers. Energy intakes are close to those recommended for infants aged 8-14 months, yet low for those aged 6-8 months. Protein supply is about 2.5 g/kg weight/day. Lipids consumed cover more than 35% of the energy supply for infants aged 6-8 and 12-14 months. Glucidic consumption is slightly higher for babies aged 8-12 months who have an energy supply covered sometimes by more than 60% of glucid. With regard to key vitamin and mineral supplies, there are deficits in vitamins C and D, as well as in calcium. There is a good supply of iron. The observed disequilibria in nutritional intake are not alarming, but parents need to be aware of them in order to reduce the risks of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. PMID:10392033

  11. Training elementary aged peer behavior managers to control small group programmed mathematics1

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Sloane, Howard N.; Baskin, Arlene

    1974-01-01

    The effects of a training procedure and two maintenance contingencies on consequence-dispensing behavior were investigated. Four peer behavior managers were trained to supervise small groups of subjects (four to six per group) working in programmed math materials and were compared with a teacher skilled in the use of social and point reinforcement and response cost. Manager training was differentially effective in accelerating manager's rates of appropriate social and point dispensing. Having manager reinforcement contingent upon manager consequence-dispensing resulted in moderately higher rates of appropriate social and point dispensing for three of four subjects than did having manager reinforcement contingent upon group study behavior. Two managers exposed to the group performance contingency before the manager performance contingency increased inappropriate social and point-dispensing behaviors to pretraining baseline levels. Subsequent change to the manager performance contingency was effective in reducing the inappropriate dispensing behavior of only one of the two managers. PMID:16795460

  12. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful. PMID:25338266

  13. A review of the evidence to inform pneumococcal vaccine recommendations for risk groups aged 2 years and older.

    PubMed

    Steens, A; Vestrheim, D F; Aaberge, I S; Wiklund, B S; Storsaeter, J; Riise Bergsaker, M A; Rønning, K; Furuseth, E

    2014-12-01

    For decades, vaccination with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) has been available for risk groups aged ⩾2 years to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Recently, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13) has been licensed for use in all age groups. PCV13 may induce better protection than PPV23 because of different immunogenic properties. This called for a revision of vaccine recommendations for risk groups. We therefore reviewed literature on risk groups for IPD, and effectiveness and safety of pneumococcal vaccines and supplemented that with information from public health institutes, expert consultations and data on IPD epidemiology. We included 187 articles. We discuss the implications of the heterogenic vulnerability for IPD within and between risk groups, large indirect effects of childhood immunization, and limited knowledge on additional clinical benefits of PCV13 in combination with PPV23 for the Norwegian recommendations. These are now step-wise and consider the need for vaccination, choice of pneumococcal vaccines, and re-vaccination interval by risk group. PMID:24932959

  14. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  15. Effects of pelvic suspension of beef carcasses on quality and physical traits of five muscles from four gender-age groups.

    PubMed

    Ahnström, Maria Lundesjö; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2012-03-01

    Pelvic and Achilles suspension methods for beef carcasses were compared for four gender-age groups (24month bulls, 34month bulls, heifers, and cows) and five muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. adductor (AD), M. psoas major (PM), and M. gluteus medius (GM)]. Pelvic suspension increased muscle and sarcomere lengths in the SM, LD, GM, and AD muscles. The following effects were significant (p<0.05). Peak force was reduced by pelvic suspension in the LD and GM of bulls-24 and bulls-34, but not heifers and cows. Furthermore, peak forces decreased for the SM after pelvic suspension in bulls-24, bulls-34, and heifers. For the AD, the only decrease in peak force was for bulls-34. Water-holding capacity increased and purge in vacuum bags decreased for pelvic suspension of all muscles except the PM. Although the effects of pelvic suspension varied somewhat between gender-age groups and muscles, this method of hanging carcasses merits industrial consideration because it improves muscle yields, tenderness, and reduces variation within muscles. PMID:22077997

  16. Study of a European male champion in 10-km road races in the age group >85 years.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Kohler, Götz; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    An 86-year-old man became a double champion in the European championship for road running in 2009. He won the 10-km road run with a time of 58:01 minutes, setting a new European record for men aged 85 and older. Two days later, he became a European champion in the same age group for the half-marathon, with a time of 2:17 hours. He started his running career at the age of 64 years and has trained for about an hour three times a week every year since. During these 22 years, he has performed several road runs each year, ranging from 2.5 to 10 km, and also completed a number of half-marathons. Although his running speeds had progressively slowed since the age of 64, there was an increased rate of decline at the age of 82. This man's outstanding performance should encourage other master runners to continue running and competing past the age of 85. PMID:20671823

  17. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  18. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  19. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children. PMID:27215601

  20. Monitoring of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in adults undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia: a prospective cohort study of two age groups.

    PubMed

    Goettel, Nicolai; Patet, Camille; Rossi, Ariane; Burkhart, Christoph S; Czosnyka, Marek; Strebel, Stephan P; Steiner, Luzius A

    2016-06-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow is a key feature of the human cerebral vascular system to assure adequate oxygenation and metabolism of the brain under changing physiological conditions. The impact of advanced age and anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation remains unclear. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation in two different age groups. This is a follow-up analysis of data acquired in a prospective observational cohort study. One hundred thirty-three patients aged 18-40 and ≥65 years scheduled for major noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia were included. Cerebral autoregulation indices, limits, and ranges were compared in young and elderly patient groups. Forty-nine patients (37 %) aged 18-40 years and 84 patients (63 %) aged ≥65 years were included in the study. Age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentrations of sevoflurane were 0.89 ± 0.07 in young and 0.99 ± 0.14 in older subjects (P < 0.001). Effective autoregulation was found in a blood pressure range of 13.8 ± 9.8 mmHg in young and 10.2 ± 8.6 mmHg in older patients (P = 0.079). The lower limit of autoregulation was 66 ± 12 mmHg and 73 ± 14 mmHg in young and older patients, respectively (P = 0.075). The association between sevoflurane concentrations and autoregulatory capacity was similar in both age groups. Our data suggests that the autoregulatory plateau is shortened in both young and older patients under sevoflurane anesthesia with approximately 1 MAC. Lower and upper limits of cerebral blood flow autoregulation, as well as the autoregulatory range, are not influenced by the age of anesthetized patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00512200). PMID:26285741

  1. Generic Tobacco Use among Four Ethnic Groups in a School Age Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moor, Carl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…

  2. A Comparative Study of the Perceived Stress of Springboard Diving by Age and Sex Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, R. Gary

    Three measures--physiological, behavioral, and phenomenological in nature--were used to register inexperienced springboard divers' perceptions of stress when faced with the execution of a forward dive from three standard heights; pool deck, one-meter and three-meter springboards. Forty-eight subjects were divided into four groups representing…

  3. Bill Gates' Great-Great-Granddaughter's Honeymoon: An Astronomy Activity for Several Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When students finish a unit or course on the planets these days, they are often overwhelmed with facts, comparisons, and images. A good culminating activity, to help them organize their thinking (and review), is to have them divide into small groups (travel agencies) and come up with their top ten solar system "tourist sights" for future space…

  4. Development of an Outreach Group for Children Ages Five through Thirteen Who Have Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Corinne

    This practicum took place at a spouse abuse shelter located in a county classified as urban in the southeast United States. It was found that once a family left the shelter, support groups were not available to help the children with feelings related to living in a home where domestic violence has occurred. Most of these children were already…

  5. Primary nasal-paranasal oropharyngeal lymphoma in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Wollner, N; Mandell, L; Filippa, D; Exelby, P; McGowan, N; Lieberman, P

    1990-03-15

    Nasal-paranasal oropharyngeal (NPOP) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a disease of the very young (median age, 5 years) and of the aging adult (median age, 50-60 years). Of a total of 208 pediatric patients with NHL studied, 20 (9.6%) had primary NPOP. Sixty percent of the patients had Stage I and II disease. Primary sites were maxillary sinus in eight patients; tonsils in eight; posterior pharynx in two; mandible in one; and orbit in one patient. Histologically, the disease is different than that of the adults since most patients had B-cell lymphomas of the diffuse undifferentiated type (Rappaport) or small cell non-cleaved types (Lukes-Collins, Kiel, and Working Formulation). None of these patients had gastrointestinal involvement. All patients were treated with the LSA2-L2 regimen and radiation therapy was given to primary unresectable tumors and regional metastases. The lymphoma event-free survival was 75%, with a median observation period of 99+ months. In staging systems that refer mostly to amount of disease outside of the primary (such as ours, Murphy's, and the Ann Arbor staging systems) stage did not correlate well with disease-free survival. In the TNM staging of 1977, a staging system that refers to size of primary tumor as well as regional and systemic disease, stage correlated better with prognosis and survival. In our staging system, eight of 12 patients (66.7%) with Stage I and II disease; four of four with Stage III; two of two with Stage IVA; and zero of two with Stage IVB survived. In the TNM staging system, three of three patients with Stage II and III disease and 12 of 18 patients (67%) with Stage IV disease survived. All recurrences occurred early suggesting that early intensification of chemotherapy may produce better results. PMID:2306688

  6. Visceral adipose tissue influences on coronary artery calcification at young and middle-age groups using computed tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Abazid, Rami M.; Kattea, M. Obadah; Sayed, Sawsan; Saqqah, Hanaa; Qintar, Mohammed; Smettei, Osama A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of excessive visceral adipose tissue (VAT) on subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and coronary artery calcifications (CAC) in young and middle-age groups using multislice computed tomography. Methods: This study is a single center, cross-sectional study. Eligible patients (n = 159), who under the age of 61 years, with chest pain and mild to moderate probability to have coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled. Coronary calcium score and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) were measured at the level of the left main coronary artery while VAT was measured at the level of the iliac crest. Results: The average age was (48 ± 8 years). The mean VAT was (38 ± 21 cm2) with no significant difference between men and women (38 ± 22 vs. 37 ± 19 P = 0.8) respectively. Student's t-test analysis showed significantly higher VAT in patients with detectable CAC than patients with no CAC (48 ± 24 vs. 33 ± 18 P = 0.00002), respectively. Univariate regression analysis showed that VAT and EAT, are strong predictor for CAC (hazard ratio [HR] 1.034, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.016–1.052]. P <0.001 and [HR] 1.344, 95% CI: [1.129–1.601] P = 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Excessive VAT is significantly associated with positive CAC. VAT can strongly predict subclinical CAD in individuals at young and middle-age groups. PMID:26229760

  7. [Usefulness of hybrid small group learning and age-mixing method in early exposure learning in 2006 and 2007].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Tomohiro; Taguchi, Tadao; Kato, Hiroshi; Yoshimi, Akira; Yamada, Shinnosuke; Kato, Marina; Yoshimura, Tomoko; Ito, Tatsuo; Noda, Yukihiro

    2009-09-01

    In 2006 the Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University has introduced an early exposure learning into the first-year curriculum of the 6-year pharmacy education system, with the aim of "understanding of patients," "enhancing motivation to learn pharmacy," and "understanding of the roles of pharmacists in the clinical setting". This program has three approaches: "active learning", "hybrid small group learning (SGL)" and "age-mixing". The 2006 questionnaire survey on this program revealed some disadvantages, including the inability of student facilitators to get the program in perspective, due to their lack of numbers and time assigned to each group. In response to the survey results, steps were taken to rectify these defects. Accordingly, in the 2007 questionnaire survey, the first-year undergraduates, student facilitators and faculty facilitators responded that the program was achieving its aims. In particular, they acknowledged the usefulness of "age-mixing" and "hybrid SGL" as educational approaches fundamental to the 6-year education system. Thus, in 2007 the program became more useful through our efforts to remedy the issues pointed out in 2006, including the low degree of understanding of "age-mixing" among the first-year undergraduates, and poor assignment of student facilitators to each group. The challenges for 2008 include further enhancing motivation of first-year undergraduates regarding SGL and establishment of a method for student facilitator intervention in SGL. Focusing on these challenges, we will continue our efforts to enhance the quality of pharmaceutical education through such approaches as early exposure learning. PMID:19721385

  8. Presence of the dinosaur Scelidosaurus indicates Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation (Glen Canyon Group, northern Arizona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padian, Kevin

    1989-05-01

    The Glen Canyon Group (Moenave, Wingate, Kayenta and Navajo Formations) of northern Arizona represents an extensive outcrop of early Mesozoic age terrestrial sediments. The age of these formations has long been disputed because independent stratigraphic data from marine tie-ins, paleobotanical and palynological evidence, and radiometric calibrations have been scanty or absent. The fauna of the Kayenta Formation in particular has been problematic because it has appeared to contain both typical Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa Here I report that the principal evidence for Late Triassic taxa, dermal scutes previously assigned to an aetosaur, in fact belongs to the thyreophoran ornithischian dinosaur Scelidosaurus, previously known only as a washed-in form found in marine sediments in the Early Jurassic of England. The presence of this dinosaur represents the first vertebrate biostratigraphic tie-in of the Glen Canyon Group horizons with reliably dated marine deposits in Europe. Together with revised systematic assessments of other vertebrates and independent evidence from fossil pollen, it supports an Early Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation and most or all of the Glen Canyon Group.

  9. Fission track ages of detrital zircons from sandstones of the Umpqua Group and Tyee Formation, Oregon coast range

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, J.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Brandon, M.T. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Detrital zircons from Paleogene sandstones of the Umpqua Group (UG) and the Tyee Fm (TF) yield contrasting FT age patterns which distinguish these two units and cast new light on their regional extent, correlation and provenance. In the Roseburg (Rg) area of the southern Oregon Coast Range, where most widely exposed, the UG consists of continental and marine clastic beds which overlie submarine lavas of the Coast Range Basalt. K-Ar And Ar-Ar dating of the basement basalts shows a younging trend from about 62 Ma at Rg at the south to 56 Ma at Siletz River and 53 Ma at Tillamook to the north. Detrital zircons from the Rg area are characterized by old FT ages. Of 192 grains dated, 90% are older than 90 Ma; the median age is 129 Ma. A diorite cobble from an UG conglomerate gave a zircon FT age of 105 Ma. These ages point to a source in the Jurassic plutons in the Klamath Mountains nearby to the south. The authors have determined FT cooling ages of 110 and 120 Ma for zircons from the Mt. Ashland and Grants Pass plutons. Continental and shallow marine clastic strata of the TF overly the UG beds west of Rg. The UG is not widely exposed north of Rg where it thins and pinches out above the Coast Range Basalt and is overlain by a northern turbidite facies of the TF. Three TF sandstones from the latitude of Rg and three others from west and south of Corvallis yielded distinctive and identical zircon FT age patterns characterized by young ages. Of 335 zircons dated, 80% are younger than 90 Ma; the median age is 61 Ma. This maximum age is very close to that of the overlying Tillamook and Fisher Fms. The flood of detrital zircons with young FT ages in the TF marks the abrupt change from a nearby Klamath source for the UG beds to a distant, easterly TF source in a recently uplifted plutonic-metamorphic terrane.

  10. Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on exercise performance and body composition across varying levels of age, sex, and training experience: A review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Gabriel J; Wilson, Jacob M; Manninen, Anssi H

    2008-01-01

    The leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been extensively used as an ergogenic aid; particularly among bodybuilders and strength/power athletes, who use it to promote exercise performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. While numerous studies have supported the efficacy of HMB in exercise and clinical conditions, there have been a number of conflicting results. Therefore, the first purpose of this paper will be to provide an in depth and objective analysis of HMB research. Special care is taken to present critical details of each study in an attempt to both examine the effectiveness of HMB as well as explain possible reasons for conflicting results seen in the literature. Within this analysis, moderator variables such as age, training experience, various states of muscle catabolism, and optimal dosages of HMB are discussed. The validity of dependent measurements, clustering of data, and a conflict of interest bias will also be analyzed. A second purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive discussion on possible mechanisms, which HMB may operate through. Currently, the most readily discussed mechanism has been attributed to HMB as a precursor to the rate limiting enzyme to cholesterol synthesis HMG-coenzyme A reductase. However, an increase in research has been directed towards possible proteolytic pathways HMB may operate through. Evidence from cachectic cancer studies suggests that HMB may inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway responsible for the specific degradation of intracellular proteins. HMB may also directly stimulate protein synthesis, through an mTOR dependent mechanism. Finally, special care has been taken to provide future research implications. PMID:18173841

  11. Association of Obesity with Hypertension Amongst School-Age Children Belonging to Lower Income Group and Middle Income Group in National Capital Territory of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Supreet; Sachdev, HPS; Dwivedi, S N; Lakshmi, R; Kapil, Umesh; Sareen, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases world-wide and the prevalence in school-aged children appears to be increasing perhaps as a result of increased prevalence of obesity. Thus, the present study was planned to establish an association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with hypertension amongst school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group (LIG) and middle income group (MIG) in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Subjects and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using the standard methodology. Results and Interpretation: t0 he prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 3.8 and 4.4% with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. Subjects and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using the standard methodology. Results and Interpretation: t0 he prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 3.8 and 4.4% with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. PMID:24019604

  12. Changes across age groups in self-choice elaboration and incidental memory.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroshi; Tatsumi, Tomoko

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated differences in the self-choice elaboration and an experimenter-provided elaboration on incidental memory of 7- to 12-yr.-olds. In a self-choice elaboration condition 34 second and 25 sixth graders were asked to choose one of the two sentence frames into which each target could fit more congruously, whereas in an experimenter-provided elaboration they were asked to judge the congruity of each target to each frame. In free recall, sixth graders recalled targets in bizarre sentence frames better than second graders for self-choice elaboration condition. An age difference was not found for the experimenter-provided elaboration. In cued recall self-choice elaboration led to better performance of sixth graders for recalling targets than an experimenter-provided elaboration in both bizarre and common sentence frames. However, the different types of elaboration did not alter the recall of second graders. These results were interpreted as showing that the effectiveness of a self-choice elaboration depends on the subjects' age and the type of sentence. PMID:12776835

  13. Age influences post-graft-versus-host disease non-relapse mortality in adults with acute graft-versus-host disease of varying severity following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Takahiko; Fukuda, Takahiro; Kanda, Junya; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Eto, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Kazuteru; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Kurokawa, Mineo; Mori, Takehiko; Morishima, Yasuo; Nagamura-Inoue, Tokiko; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Murata, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 2682 patients who developed grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). On analysis with stratification into five age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and ≥60), 2-year non-relapse mortality rates (NRM) after the onset of GVHD were 20.7, 26.2, 26.6, 37.0 and 40.4%, respectively (p<0.001). We found a significant interaction between the patient's age and GVHD severity with respect to NRM (p=0.004). On multivariate analyses stratified by GVHD severity, the hazard ratio (HR) for NRM in the groups aged 50 years or more (reference: age group 20-29) was about twice as great in patients with grade II acute GVHD when compared with grade III-IV disease (HR in those aged 50-59 years: 2.9 for grade II and 1.5 [p=0.03 and 0.04] for grades III-IV; HR if ≥60 years: 3.3 for grade II and 1.5 for grades III-IV [p<0.001 for both]). PMID:25629984

  14. The Spatio-temporal Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Cases in Different Age Groups in Mainland China, 2004 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huanyu; Song, Miao; Li, Minghua; Fu, Shihong; Lv, Zhi; He, Ying; Lei, Wenwen; Wang, Bin; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis (JE) is very prevalent in China, but the incidence of JE among children has been greatly reduced by extensive promotion of vaccinations. The incidence of JE among adults, however, has increased in some parts of China. Methods/Principal Findings Data on JE in mainland China, in terms of incidence, gender, and age, were collected between 2004 and 2014. We conducted spatial and temporal analyses on data from different age groups. Generally, children aged 0–15 years still represent the major population of JE cases in China, despite the gradual decrease in incidence over years. However, the incidence of JE among adults in several provinces is notably higher than the national average, especially during the epidemic waves in 2006, 2009, and 2013. The JE cases in the 0–15-year-old group are distributed mainly in the area south of the Yangtze River, with peak incidence occurring from July to September. In the adult group, especially for those over 40 years old, the JE cases are concentrated mainly in the area north of the Yangtze River. JE incidence in the adult group in September and October is significantly greater compared to the other groups. Further analysis using Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) reveals that the distribution of adult JE cases in the six provinces north of the Yangtze River, between north 30–35° latitude and east 110–130° longitude, is a hotspot for adult JE cases. Conclusions/Significance The rate of JE case increase for adults is much greater than for children and has become a public health issue. Therefore, studies on the necessity and feasibility of vaccinating adults who live in JE-endemic areas, but have never been vaccinated for JE, should become a new focus of JE prevention in the future. PMID:27050414

  15. Behavioural development in groups of pen-housed pullets in relation to genetic strain, age and food form.

    PubMed

    Savory, C J; Mann, J S

    1997-03-01

    1. Behavioural development in groups of 8 pullets kept in pens with litter floors, and fed on either mash or pellets, was studied from 0 to 10 weeks in a White Leghorn x broiler (F2) hybrid line (experiment 1) and from 0 to 24 weeks in Hisex, White Leghorn and Brown Leghorn strains (experiment 2). The aim was to identify precursors of feather pecking and cannibalism. 2. Rates of body weight gain were consistently greater with pellets than with mash in both experiments. In experiment 2, the onset of lay was at 17 weeks of age in Hisex, 21 weeks in White Leghorns and 23 weeks in Brown Leghorns. 3. Persistent feather pecking, which was not seen in experiment 1, developed in 2 of 12 groups (one Hisex and one White Leghorn, both fed on pellets) in experiment 2, and was studied in detail at 23 and 24 weeks. The more damaging pecking in the Hisex group was followed by cannibalism in the same group. 4. Based on the (often inconsistent) effects of genetic strain, age and food form on behaviour that were observed, a working hypothesis was constructed to account for the aetiology of feather pecking and cannibalism in situations where there is floor litter. 5. An age-related decline in one or more foraging activities may coincide with increases in preening and non-damaging pecking at other birds. Consumption of litter particles and moulted feathers may be reinforcing. Dustbathing may enhance the stimulus value of litter particles when they are contrasted against background plumage colour. This may direct pecking towards the backs of birds, where feathers as well as litter particles may be removed and eaten. Regular pecking and feather removal may lead eventually, after the onset of lay, to vent pecking and cannibalism. This sequence of events may be more likely in groups where activity levels are high. PMID:9088611

  16. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in pediatric age group: Assessment of effectiveness and complications

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Ender; Mercimek, Mehmet Necmettin

    2016-01-01

    Management of kidney stone disease in pediatric population is a challenging condition in urology practice. While the incidence of kidney stone is increasing in those group, technological innovations have conrtibuted to the development of minimally invasive treatment of urinary stone disease such as mini-percutenous nephrolitotomy (mini-PCNL), micro-PCNL, ultra mini-PCNL. In this review we tried to evaluate the effect of new teratment techniques on pediatric kidney stones. PMID:26788467

  17. Pancreatoblastoma an Unusual Occurrence of a Tumour in Paediatric Age Group: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Pankaj; Mukhopadhyay, Bedabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatoblastoma, is rare exocrine malignant tumour of childhood. We are reporting a case of three-year-old child presented to our hospital suffering from vague abdominal pain for further examination and treatment. Clinical examination revealed only a palpable abdominal mass. CT Scan revealed a huge complex space occupying lesion 9.1x8.8x9.2cm with large central cystic degeneration and lobulated enhancing peripheral solid components with foci of calcification, seem to arise from body and tail regions of pancreas. Surgery was done and mass was removed. By histopathology and immunohistochemistry it was diagnosed as pancreatoblastoma. The prognosis is very good in paediatric age, lacking evidence of metastatic disease at first presentation. Therefore early diagnosis is needed for specific treatment. The case is being reported because of its rarity. PMID:27134883

  18. Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: findings in the pediatric age group

    SciTech Connect

    Katzberg, R.W.; Tallents, R.H.; Hayakawa, K.; Miller, T.L.; Goske, M.J.; Wood, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Findings in 31 pediatric patients with pain and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are reported. The average age was 14 years and the average duration of symptoms was 21.4 months. Internal derangements were found in 29 patients (94%) and degenerative arthritis in 13 (42%). In 12 patients (39%), the problem could be traced to an injury to the jaw. Secondary condylar hypoplasia was associated with the meniscal abnormality in 3 patients (10%). Further awareness of internal derangements of the TMJ in the pediatric population should permit greater recognition of their etiology. It is important that threatment be initiated as soon as possible, not only to minimize the development of osseous disease in young adults but also to prevent facial growth deformities.

  19. Pancreatoblastoma an Unusual Occurrence of a Tumour in Paediatric Age Group: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Halder, Pankaj; Mukhopadhyay, Bedabrata; Das, Chhanda; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatoblastoma, is rare exocrine malignant tumour of childhood. We are reporting a case of three-year-old child presented to our hospital suffering from vague abdominal pain for further examination and treatment. Clinical examination revealed only a palpable abdominal mass. CT Scan revealed a huge complex space occupying lesion 9.1x8.8x9.2cm with large central cystic degeneration and lobulated enhancing peripheral solid components with foci of calcification, seem to arise from body and tail regions of pancreas. Surgery was done and mass was removed. By histopathology and immunohistochemistry it was diagnosed as pancreatoblastoma. The prognosis is very good in paediatric age, lacking evidence of metastatic disease at first presentation. Therefore early diagnosis is needed for specific treatment. The case is being reported because of its rarity. PMID:27134883

  20. [SCREENING-EVALUATION OF THE CARDIAC ARTERY DISEASE IN CIVIL PILOTS OF THE SENIOR AGE GROUP].

    PubMed

    Kuzmina A Yu

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnostics of cardiac artery disease (CAD) is essential for annual medical flight certification. The investigation was aimed at screening-evaluation of senior civil pilots for CAD using the criteria of ECG findings during the submaximal bicycle ergometry test (BT). The investigation embraced 1189 civil pilots, on reaching the age of 55 years and older in 2009-2010. BT with ECG recording was completed by 976 pilots (82.1%). The test was considered CAD negative in 909 pilots (93.1 %) and CAD positive in 9 pilots (0.9%); of 53 doubtful tests (5.5%), CAD was stated by the ST-criterion in 40 pilots (4.1%) and because of arrhythmias in 13 pilots (1.4%). In 5 cases (0.5%) test results were uninterpretable. Further analysis of the screening results led to diagnosing of clinically significant atherosclerosis of coronary arteries in 17 pilots (1.75%). PMID:26738309

  1. General and Gender Characteristics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among the Younger and Older Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mukhtar, Samir Burhanaldin; Fadhil, Nabeel Najib; Hanna, Bassam Edward

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study the characteristics of cardiovascular risk factors in regard to age (before and after 60) and gender. Many reports refer to the higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among the younger type 2 diabetics in comparison with the older population. Methods The study included 462 randomly recruited type 2 diabetic subjects (above and below 60 years) attending Al-Zahrawi Private Hospital in Mosul City-Iraq, during the period from June to August 2011. They were analyzed in regard to age, duration of diabetes, smoking, socioeconomic status, anthropometric indices, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c and serum lipids. Data were analyzed using chi-square and unpaired Z test. Results Duration of diabetes, diastolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, number of hypercholesterolemic patients, number of patients having unfavorable total cholesterol/HDL ratio (≥5) and positive family history of coronary heart disease were all significantly higher in the younger diabetics. In addition, younger diabetic females were distinguished by a larger number of hypertensive patients, higher level of systolic blood pressure, higher means of body mass index, total cholesterol and LDL, and larger number of patients having low HDL-C (<1 mmol/L). The younger diabetic males were distinct by a larger number of smokers, number of smoked cigarettes/day, and longer duration of smoking. All parameters ranged between p<0.05 and p<0.005. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors were significantly higher among younger type 2 diabetics (<60 years), particularly females. PMID:23074547

  2. Group 1 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Function and Its Regulation of Learning and Memory in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, Caroline; Quirion, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    Normal aging is generally characterized by a slow decline of cognitive abilities albeit with marked individual differences. Several animal models have been studied to explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and its receptors have been closely linked to spatial learning and hippocampus-dependent memory processes. For decades, ionotropic glutamate receptors have been known to play a critical role in synaptic plasticity, a form of adaptation regulating memory formation. Over the past 10 years, several groups have shown the importance of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) in successful cognitive aging. These G-protein-coupled receptors are enriched in the hippocampal formation and interact physically with other proteins in the membrane including glutamate ionotropic receptors. Synaptic plasticity is crucial to maintain cognitive abilities and long-term depression (LTD) induced by group 1 mGluR activation, which has been linked to memory in the aging brain. The translation and synthesis of proteins by mGluR-LTD modulate ionotropic receptor trafficking and expression of immediate early genes related to cognition. Fragile X syndrome, a genetic form of autism characterized by memory deficits, has been associated to mGluR receptor malfunction and aberrant activation of its downstream signaling pathways. Dysfunction of mGluR could also be involved in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Indeed, beta-amyloid, the main component of insoluble senile plaques and one of the hallmarks of AD, occludes mGluR-dependent LTD leading to diminished functional synapses. This review highlights recent findings regarding mGluR signaling, related synaptic plasticity, and their potential involvement in normal aging and neurological disorders. PMID:23091460

  3. Motion Analysis of Match Play in New Zealand U13 to U15 Age-Group Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Atan, Siti A; Foskett, Andrew; Ali, Ajmol

    2016-09-01

    Atan, SA, Foskett, A, and Ali, A. Motion analysis of match play in New Zealand U13 to U15 age-group soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2416-2423, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate motion analysis in 85 players (U13-U15 years) from Auckland's Metropolitan League during 2 competitive soccer matches. Five-Hz global positioning system (with interpolated 10-Hz output) units were used to measure total distance (absolute and relative) and time spent in standing, walking, low-intensity running, medium-intensity running, high-intensity running, and sprinting. Speed thresholds for each match activity were determined through mean 10-m flying sprint peak speed for each age group. Under 15 years (U15, 6600 ± 1480 m) covered more absolute distance because of longer playing time than under 14 years (U14, 5385 ± 1296 m, p = 0.001) and under 13 years (U13, 4516 ± 702.6 m, p = 0.001). However, there were no differences in relative distances covered (U15, 94.5 ± 11.2 m·min, U14, 96.1 ± 11.9 m·min, U15, 97.3 ± 17.6 m·min, p = 0.685). Maximum speed attained during the match was faster for U15 (26.5 ± 1.68 km·h) than U14 (25.4 ± 1.93 km·h, p = 0.022) and U13 (23.5 ± 1.74 km·h, p = 0.001); there were no differences in average distance per sprint, with all age groups covering ∼16 m per sprint (p = 0.603). The current findings provide useful information for developing specific training programs for young soccer players and a framework for developing age-specific soccer simulation protocols. PMID:26808854

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Distribution and Sexual Behaviors across Gender and Age Group in an African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Djoba Siawaya, Joel Fleury

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) cases across gender and age groups in Libreville (Gabon); (2) examine Gabonese Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)-related risk behaviour. Methods The sampled population was people attending the “Laboratoire National de Santé Plublique”. Between 2007 and 2011, 14 667 and 9 542 people respectively, were tested for CT and HIV infections. 1 854 of them were tested for both infections. We calculated CT and HIV rates across gender and age groups. Also analysed was the groups' contribution to the general CT and HIV epidemiology. STIs-related risk behaviours were assessed in 224 men and 795 women (between July 2011 and March 2013) who agreed and answered a questionnaire including questions on their marital status, number of sex partners, sexual practices, history of STIs, sex frequency and condom use. Results Data showed a 24% dropped in the CT infection rate between 2007 and 2010, followed by a 14% increase in 2011. The HIV infection rates for the same period were between 15% and 16%. The risk of a CT-positive subject getting HIV is about 0.71 times the risk of a CT-negative subject. Young adult aged between 18 and 35 years old represented 65.2% of people who had STIs. 80% of women and 66% of men confessed to an inconsistent use of condoms. 11.6% of women and 48% of men declared having multiple sex partners. 61% of questioned women and 67% of men declared knowing their HIV status. Conclusions In this Gabonese setting, the population-aged from18 to 35 years is the most affected by STIs. Other matters of concern are the inconsistent use of protection and sex with non-spousal or non-life partners. PMID:24594663

  5. Conservative gap arthroplasty in temporomandibular ankylosis not involving the sigmoid notch: a selected age group study.

    PubMed

    Temerek, Ahmed Talaat

    2016-06-01

    In this prospective, cohort, clinical follow-up study we aimed to investigate the role of conservative gap arthroplasty without interpositional material in managing ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Thirteen patients (15 joints) with ankylosis who fulfilled the other inclusion criteria were enrolled. The ankylotic mass was excised to create a gap of 7-9mm. No interpositional material was used. Ipsilateral or bilateral masseter reflection, pterygomasseteric sling, and temporalis tendon release plus coronoidectomy were considered if maximum mouth opening failed to reach 35mm. A physiotherapy protocol was started on the first day. Patients' ages ranged from 13-38 (mean (SD) 18 (7) years). Trauma was the main cause. Duration of ankylosis at presentation ranged from 1-17 years (mean (SD) 5 (4) years). Eleven patients had unilateral, and two bilateral, ankylosis that did not involve the sigmoid notch. The mean (SD) maximum incisal opening (mm) was 38 (4) two years' postoperatively. The facial nerve was affected temporarily in two patients. Mean (SD) duration of follow-up was 4 (2) years without recurrence. Within our selection criteria, conservative gap arthroplasty of 7-9mm without interpositional material and with vigorous postoperative physiotherapy has a role in treating ankylosis of the TMJ and preventing its recurrence for more than four years. PMID:26972420

  6. A clinic-based study of refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia in pediatric age-group

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tamimi, Elham R.; Shakeel, Ayisha; Yassin, Sanaa A.; Ali, Syed I.; Khan, Umar A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the distribution and patterns of refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia in children seen at a pediatric eye care. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a Private Hospital in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from March to July 2013. During this period, a total of 1350 children, aged 1–15 years were seen at this Center's Pediatric Ophthalmology Unit. All the children underwent complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction. Results: Refractive errors accounted for 44.4% of the cases, the predominant refractive error being hypermetropia which represented 83%. Strabismus and amblyopia were present in 38% and 9.1% of children, respectively. Conclusions: In this clinic-based study, the focus was on the frequency of refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia which were considerably high. Hypermetropia was the predominant refractive error in contrast to other studies in which myopia was more common. This could be attributed to the criteria for sample selection since it was clinic-based rather than a population-based study. However, it is important to promote public education on the significance of early detection of refractive errors, and have periodic screening in schools. PMID:26392796

  7. Offense history and recidivism in three victim-age-based groups of juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Therese Skubic; Kistner, Janet A

    2007-12-01

    This study compared subgroups of juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) who victimized children (child offenders), peers (peer offenders), or both children and peers (mixed offenders) on sexual and nonsexual offense history, treatment outcomes, and recidivism to determine if these are distinct and valid subgroups. Though the group of mixed offenders was small, results showed that they exhibited a more diverse and more physically intrusive sexual offense history than the other JSOs and were less likely to successfully complete treatment. Sexual and nonsexual recidivism rates of mixed offenders did not differ from the other subgroups despite subgroup differences in juvenile sexual and nonsexual criminal records. However, differences in sexual recidivism rates of child versus peer offenders were found when the mixed offenders were either excluded from the sample or combined with child offenders. The results highlight the need to include mixed offenders in future research examining the etiology of sexual offending, treatment, and recidivism of JSOs. PMID:17952596

  8. Comparison of anxiety levels associated with noise in the dental clinic among children of age group 6-15 years.

    PubMed

    Muppa, Radhika; Bhupatiraju, Prameela; Duddu, Mahesh; Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Dandempally, Arthi; Panthula, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Fear or anxiety due to noise produced in the dental clinic is rated third among the reasons to avoid dental visits. The aim of the present study was to determine anxiety levels associated with noise in a dental clinic. The study was done using a survey questionnaire containing 10 questions and was divided into two parts. The first part included demographic information such as name, age, gender, and school; the second half included questions regarding patient's feelings toward noise in the dental clinic and its possible link to dental anxiety. Two-hundred and fifty children and adolescents of age group 6-15 years participated in the study. Results of the study showed that 50% of females, 29% males avoided a visit to the dentist because of anxiety and fear, 38% subjects of age group 6-11 years reported that sound of the drill makes them uncomfortable, followed by having to wait in the reception area. Gender gap was also observed with more females feeling annoyed than males on the 1-10 annoyance level scale. More than 60% felt "annoyed" to "extremely annoyed" by noise in the dental clinic. 45% of subjects preferred watching television to cope with such noise. This study concludes that the noise produced in dental clinic is anxiety provoking and significantly contributes to avoidance of dental treatment and the best way opted by the majority of subjects to overcome this anxiety was audiovisual distraction method. PMID:23689302

  9. Host age, social group, and habitat type influence the gut microbiota of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Genevieve; Malone, Matthew; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R; Amato, Katherine R

    2016-08-01

    The gut microbiota contributes to host health by maintaining homeostasis, increasing digestive efficiency, and facilitating the development of the immune system. The composition of the gut microbiota can change dramatically within and between individuals of a species as a result of diet, age, or habitat. Therefore, understanding the factors determining gut microbiota diversity and composition can contribute to our knowledge of host ecology as well as to conservation efforts. Here we use high-throughput sequencing to describe variation in the gut microbiota of the endangered ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) in southwestern Madagascar. Specifically, we measured the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in relation to social group, age, sex, tooth wear and loss, and habitat disturbance. While we found no significant variation in the diversity of the ring-tailed lemur gut microbiota in response to any variable tested, the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was influenced by social group, age, and habitat disturbance. However, effect sizes were small and appear to be driven by the presence or absence of relatively low abundance taxa. These results suggest that habitat disturbance may not impact the lemur gut microbiota as strongly as it impacts the gut microbiota of other primate species, highlighting the importance of distinct host ecological and physiological factors on host-gut microbe relationships. Am. J. Primatol. 78:883-892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27177345

  10. Exploring the Potential of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation and the Age Groups of Oil Palm Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiran, N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    The land use/land cover transformation in Malaysia is enormous due to palm oil plantation which has provided huge economical benefits but also created a huge concern for carbon emission and biodiversity. Accurate information about oil palm plantation and the age of plantation is important for a sustainable production, estimation of carbon storage capacity, biodiversity and the climate model. However, the problem is that this information cannot be extracted easily due to the spectral signature for forest and age group of palm oil plantations is similar. Therefore, a noble approach "multi-scale and multi-texture algorithms" was used for mapping vegetation and different age groups of palm oil plantation using a high resolution panchromatic image (WorldView-1) considering the fact that pan imagery has a potential for more detailed and accurate mapping with an effective image processing technique. Seven texture algorithms of second-order Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) with different scales (from 3×3 to 39×39) were used for texture generation. All texture parameters were classified step by step using a robust classifier "Artificial Neural Network (ANN)". Results indicate that single spectral band was unable to provide good result (overall accuracy = 34.92%), while higher overall classification accuracies (73.48%, 84.76% and 93.18%) were obtained when textural information from multi-scale and multi-texture approach were used in the classification algorithm.

  11. The Multi-age Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Deborah C.

    2003-01-01

    Presents strategies for planning lessons for home-schoolers, science circuses, and summer science programs with multi-age groups of children. Suggests a spiraling curriculum centered on big ideas and varying a common activity in mixed-ability classrooms. Includes examples of activities for multi-age groups. (KHR)

  12. Designing exercise clinical trials for older adults with cancer: Recommendations from 2015 Cancer and Aging Research Group NCI U13 Meeting.

    PubMed

    Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M H; Presley, Carolyn J; Wildes, Tanya M; Klepin, Heidi D; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916

  13. Designing exercise clinical trials for older adults with cancer: Recommendations from 2015 Cancer and Aging Research Group NCI U13 Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Presley, Carolyn J.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916

  14. Parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatric age: results of a pooled analysis from North American and European cooperative groups

    PubMed Central

    Merks, J. H. M.; De Salvo, G. L.; Bergeron, C.; Bisogno, G.; De Paoli, A.; Ferrari, A.; Rey, A.; Oberlin, O.; Stevens, M. C. G.; Kelsey, A.; Michalski, J.; Hawkins, D. S.; Anderson, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Parameningeal (PM) site is a well-known adverse prognostic factor in children with localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). To identify risk factors associated with outcome at this site, we pooled data from 1105 patients treated in 10 studies conducted by European and North American cooperative groups between 1984 and 2004. Patients and methods Clinical factors including age, histology, size, invasiveness, nodal involvement, Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) clinical group, site, risk factors for meningeal involvement (MI), study group, and application of radiotherapy (RT) were studied for their impact on event-free and overall survival (EFS and OS). Results Ten-year EFS and OS were 62.6 and 66.1% for the whole group. Patients without initial RT showed worse survival (10-year OS 40.8% versus 68.5% for RT treated patients). Multivariate analysis focusing on 862 patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment revealed four unfavorable prognostic factors: age <3 or >10 years, signs of MI, unfavorable site, and tumor size. Utilizing these prognostic factors, patients could be classified into different risk groups with 10-year OS ranging between 51.1 and 80.9%. Conclusions While, in general, PM localization is regarded as an adverse prognostic factor, the current analysis differentiates those with good prognosis (36% patients with 0–1 risk factor: 10-year OS 80.9%) from high-risk PM patients (28% with 3–4 factors: 10-year OS 51.1%). Furthermore, this analysis reinforces the necessity for RT in PM RMS. PMID:24356633

  15. On the age of the Onverwacht Group, Swaziland sequence, South Africa. [radioactive dating of stratified igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, B.-M.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1974-01-01

    Some rocks of the Onverwacht Group, South Africa, have been analyzed for Rb and Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic composition. These rocks include volcanic rocks, layered ultramafic differentiates and cherty sediments. Whole rock data indicate that the Rb-Sr isotopic systems in many samples were open and yield no reasonable isochron relationships. However, the data of mineral separates from a basaltic komatiite define a good isochron of 3.50 (plus or minus .2) b.y. with an initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of 0.70048 plus or minus 5. The orthodox interpretation of this age is the time of the low grade metamorphism. It is reasonable to assume that the age of 3.50 b.y. might also represent the time of initial Onverwacht volcanism and deposition. The initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio obtained above is important to an understanding of the Sr isotopic composition of the Archean upper mantle.

  16. Muscle Torque and its Relation to Technique, Tactics, Sports Level and Age Group in Judo Contestants

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman’s r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821). PMID:25964820

  17. A Clinico-Etiological Study of Dermatoses in Pediatric Age Group in Tertiary Health Care Center in South Gujarat Region

    PubMed Central

    Jawade, Sugat A; Chugh, Vishal S; Gohil, Sneha K; Mistry, Amit S; Umrigar, Dipak D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatologic conditions have different presentation and management in pediatric age group from that in adult; this to be studied separately for statistical and population based analysis. Objective: To study the pattern of various dermatoses in infants and children in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age attending the Dermatology OPD of New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat over a period of 12 months from June 2009 to June 2010. All patients were divided into four different study groups: <1 month (neonates), 1 month to 1 year, >1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years. Results: There were 596 boys and 425 girls in total 1021 study populations. Majority of the skin conditions in neonates were erythema toxicum neonatorum (12.97%), scabies (9.92%), mongolian spot (9.16%), and seborrheic dermatitis (7.63%). In > 1 month to 14 years age group of children among infectious disorder, children were found to be affected most by scabies (24.49%), impetigo (5.96%), pyoderma (5.62%), molluscum contagiosum (5.39%), tinea capitis (4.49%), leprosy (2.02%), and viral warts (1.35%) while among non-infectious disorders, they were affected by atopic dermatitis (4.27%), pityriasis alba (4.16%), seborrheic dermatitis (3.60%), pityriasis rosea (3.15%), others (3.01%), phrynoderma (2.70%), lichen planus (2.58%), contact dermatitis (1.57%) and ichthyosis (1.45%). Conclusion: There is a need to emphasize on training the management of common pediatric dermatoses to dermatologists, general practitioners and pediatricians for early treatment. PMID:26677296

  18. Gait analysis in clinically healthy sheep from three different age groups using a pressure-sensitive walkway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding normal gait requires allowing for variations in normal patterns by the sex, age, and species in question. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate kinetic and temporospatial parameters in clinically healthy sheep from three different age groups with a pressure-sensing walkway. The sheep were judged to be healthy based on the results of complete physical and orthopaedic examinations and had no history of lameness. Twenty-one clinically healthy female Santa Ines sheep were divided into three groups: G1 – seven animals, aged from 8 to 12 months and weighing 19.5-33 kg; G2 - seven individuals, aged from 2 to 4 years and weighing 26.5-42 kg; and G3 - seven sheep, aged more than 5 years and weighing 37.3-45 kg. The animals were examined from two directions: first on the left side and then on the right side of the handler. The data from the first five valid trials in each direction were collected for each sheep and analysed using the designated software. A trial was considered valid if the sheep walked within the correct velocity (1.1-1.3 m/s) and acceleration (from −0.15 to 0.15 m/s2) ranges. The peak vertical force (PVF), vertical impulse (VI), gait cycle time, stance time, swing time, stride length, and the percentage body weight distribution among the four limbs were determined. Results No significant differences were observed, in either the forelimbs or the hind limbs, between the left and right sides or between the two directions for any of the variables. No significant temporospatial differences were found among the groups. Significant PVF (%BW) differences were observed in the forelimbs (G1 > G3) and hind limbs (G1 > G3), and significant VI differences were observed in the forelimbs (G1 > G3). Conclusions Young healthy sheep differ from older sheep in the vertical forces they create when walking at the same velocity on a pressure-sensing walkway. PMID:22726641

  19. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy with Family Involvement for Middle-School-Age Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Thienemann, Margo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Middle-school-aged children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are poised in development between the dependency of elementary school-aged children and growing independence of adolescence. OCD patients of this age group may differ from older ones in the quality of symptoms and level of insight. We report the results of a…

  20. The occurrence and fission-track ages of late neogene and quaternary volcanic sediments, Siwalik group, Northern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.D.; Zeitler, P.; Naeser, C.W.; Johnson, N.M.; Summers, D.M.; Frost, C.D.; Opdyke, N.D.; Tahirkheli, R.A.K.

    1982-01-01

    Volcanic sediments, now mostly bentonites and bentonitic mudstones, occur throughout the Late Neogene and Quaternary Siwalik Group of northern Pakistan. A number of these deposits have been dated by the fission-track method, utilizing zircon phenocrysts from these deposits, and provide the chronometric constraints upon which a paleomagnetic stratigraphy is developed for the Siwalik Group. Notable in the occurrence of these altered tuff horizons is an apparent mode in their stratigraphic development from approximately 3.0 to 1.5 m.y. B.P. which coincides with the period of activity of the Dacht-e-Nawar volcanic complex of east-central Afghanistan. Fission-track ages of certain tuffs for critical areas of northern Pakistan are reported herein. ?? 1982.

  1. Are Constructs of the Transtheoretical Model for Physical Activity Measured Equivalently Between Sexes, Age Groups, and Ethnicities?

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Motl, Robert W.; McGee, Kelly; McCurdy, Dana; Matthai, Caroline Horwath; Dishman, Rod K.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose Identifying mediators of physical activity change requires measurement instruments that are reliable, valid, and generalizable to multiple populations. Despite continued application of the transtheoretical model (TTM) to the study of physical activity, the structural components of the TTM measurement instruments have been understudied in diverse populations. Methods A multiethnic sample (N=700, Mage=47, 63% women, 38% Caucasian) of participants living in Hawaii completed TTM measures. The factor validity and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of decisional balance, barrier self-efficacy, temptations, and processes of change instruments were explored between men, women, age groups, and ethnicities. Results/Conclusions Measurement models of barrier self-efficacy and revised models of temptations and processes of change demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I among all subgroups. A revised model of decisional balance demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I between genders and among ethnicities, but not among age groups. Future research should examine the stability of these constructs across time. PMID:18607667

  2. Coupling age-structured stock assessment and fish bioenergetics models: a system of time-varying models for quantifying piscivory patterns during the rapid trophic shift in the main basin of Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    He, Ji X.; Bence, James R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Dobiesz, Norine E.; Fielder, David G.; Johnson, James E.; Ebener, Mark P.; Cottrill, Adam R.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Koproski, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    We quantified piscivory patterns in the main basin of Lake Huron during 1984–2010 and found that the biomass transfer from prey fish to piscivores remained consistently high despite the rapid major trophic shift in the food webs. We coupled age-structured stock assessment models and fish bioenergetics models for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). The model system also included time-varying parameters or variables of growth, length–mass relations, maturity schedules, energy density, and diets. These time-varying models reflected the dynamic connections that a fish cohort responded to year-to-year ecosystem changes at different ages and body sizes. We found that the ratio of annual predation by lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye combined with the biomass indices of age-1 and older alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) increased more than tenfold during 1987–2010, and such increases in predation pressure were structured by relatively stable biomass of the three piscivores and stepwise declines in the biomass of alewives and rainbow smelt. The piscivore stability was supported by the use of alternative energy pathways and changes in relative composition of the three piscivores. In addition, lake whitefish became a new piscivore by feeding on round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). Their total fish consumption rivaled that of the other piscivores combined, although fish were still a modest proportion of their diet. Overall, the use of alternative energy pathways by piscivores allowed the increases in predation pressure on dominant diet species.

  3. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well. PMID:26560991

  4. Child maltreatment in Taiwan for 2004-2013: A shift in age group and forms of maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Tsai; Yang, Nan-Ping; Chou, Pesus

    2016-02-01

    Cases of child maltreatment are being increasingly reported in Taiwan. However, the trend or changes of child maltreatment in Taiwan are fragmentary and lack empirical evidence. This study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of substantiated child maltreatment cases from the previous decade, using mortality as an indicator to investigate the care of children who experienced substantiated maltreatment in the past to determine any new developments. Data for analysis and estimates were retrieved from the Department of Statistics in the Ministry of the Interior from 2004 to 2013. Trend analyses were conducted using the Joinpoint Regression Program. The child maltreatment rate in Taiwan was found to have nearly tripled from 2004 to 2013. A greater increase in the maltreatment of girls than boys and the maltreatment of aboriginal children than non-aboriginal children was noted from 2004 to 2013. When stratified by age group, the increase in maltreatment was most pronounced in children aged 12-17 years, and girls aged 12-17 years experienced the greatest increase in maltreatment. In terms of the proportional changes of different maltreatment forms among substantiated child maltreatment cases, child neglect was decreasing. The increase in sexual abuse was higher than for any other form of maltreatment and surpassed neglect by the end of 2013. Furthermore, the mortality rate of children with substantiated maltreatment record is increasing in Taiwan, whereas the mortality rate among children without any substantiated maltreatment record is decreasing. The results of this study highlight the need for policy reform in Taiwan regarding child maltreatment. PMID:26726760

  5. Two-criteria dental aging method applied to a Bosnian population: comparison of formulae for each tooth group versus one formula for all teeth.

    PubMed

    Sarajlić, Nermin; Cihlarz, Zdenko; Klonowski, Eva-Elvira; Selak, Ivan; Brkić, Hrvoje; Topić, Berislav

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain age estimation formulae using the length of periodontosis, transparency of the root and root height in each tooth group for the current male population in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to compare these formulae with Lamendin's and Prince's formulae. The research was undertaken on 847 single rooted teeth from 200 identified deceased persons, individuals who died between the ages of 23 and 85 years. Periodontosis, transparency and root height were measured according to Lamendin's procedure. All teeth were grouped in two ways: according to the tooth groups and to the age groups. The highest coefficients of correlation are obtained for maxillary canines (R = 0,731) and mandibular canines (R = 0,706) and the maxillary lateral incisors showed the lowest mean error (ME = 6,63 years). In age groups, the lowest mean error was obtained in the 40-49 years age group (ME = 5,15 years). Equations developed in this study give statistically significantly better age estimations in comparison to the original Lamendin and Prince formulae for the whole sample as well as for each tooth group, except for mandibular central incisors. Age estimation with models developed for each tooth group (except for mandibular lateral incisors) was statistically significantly better than models based on the whole sample. PMID:16995854

  6. Association of body mass index and waist circumference with hypertension among school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group and middle income group in National Capital Territory of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Umesh; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Sareen, Neha; Kaur, Supreet

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases world-wide and the prevalence in school-aged children appears to be increasing perhaps as a result of increased prevalence of obesity. Thus, the present study was planned to establish an association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with hypertension amongst school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group (LIG) and middle income group (MIG) in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Materials and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using standard methodology. Results: The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 2.8% and 4.1% respectively. Similarly, the prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 2.7% and 4.2%, respectively. Statistical positive correlation was observed between BMI and WC with SBP and DBP. Thus, it can be inferred that children with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. PMID:24251210

  7. Relation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status with skeletal muscle mass by sex and age group among Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Min Jung; Yun, Sungha; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Kirang

    2015-12-14

    The objective of this study was to examine whether high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was associated with high skeletal muscle mass, taking into account the effects of sex and age among the participants of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) aged 40 years or older. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the 2009 to 2010 KNHANES; a total of 8406 subjects (3671 men and 4735 women) were included. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMMI, kg/m2) was estimated to measure the skeletal muscle mass. Hypovitaminosis was classified when the level of serum 25(OH)D was <20 ng/ml. The general linear model adjusted for confounding factors was used to determine differences in means of ASMMI by 25(OH)D status. The mean values of ASMMI were higher for men when compared with women. Women had a greater proportion of hypovitaminosis (71·1%) compared with men (53·2%). After adjusting for multiple factors, men were seen to have significant differences in ASMMI based on 25(OH)D status regardless of age, showing a lower mean value of ASSMI in those with hypovitaminosis. However, there was no difference in ASMMI by 25(OH)D status among women in both younger and older age groups. In conclusion, we found that there might be a positive relationship between 25(OH)D and skeletal muscle mass in men, indicating that interventions to improve 25(OH)D levels that are aimed at increasing muscle mass could be beneficial for men with more rapid decreased rate of skeletal muscle mass. PMID:26420417

  8. Comparison between continuous ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring and standard blood pressure measurements among patients of younger and older age group.

    PubMed

    Babić, Betty Korljan; Bagatin, Jugoslav; Kokić, Slaven; Ostojić, Sanja Barsić; Carević, Vedran; Berović, Nina

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether there is a difference between blood pressure measured in a physician's office and the average 24 hr continuous blood pressure monitored by hypertensive patients at home. If there is a difference between these two situations then is it possibly the result of a blood pressure response by the patient to the physician which is known as "white coat effect" or "white coat hypertension". We studied 80 hypertensive outpatients which were divided into two groups of 40 patients each--a younger patient group, with a mean age of 22.8 +/- 1.8 years, and an older patient group with a mean age of 50.3 +/- 5.7 years. They were selected because they had been diagnosed as essentially hypertension grade 1, according to 2007 ESH/ESC Guidelines, or the USA Joint National Committee Guidelines (JNC 7) (i.e., arterial blood pressure > 140/90 mm Hg and < 160/100 mmHg) and 35 were not having any antihypertensive treatment. All participants in the study went through a two-week "wash-out" period without medication. At the beginning of the study blood pressure was measured using the Riva-Rocci-Korotkoff method (mercury sphygmomanometer) after 5 minutes of rest and with the patient in the sitting position. The average of the two last measurements by sphygmomanometer was used in the analysis. The subsequent measurement was made by continuous ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (SpaceLabs 90207 device). Continuous ambulatory blood pressure monitoring revealed that 17 patients of the younger age group (42.5%) who were diagnosed hypertonic, according to mercury sphygmomanometeric measurement, were in fact normotonic. In the older age group only 7 (17.5%) of participants were normotonic during 24 hr blood pressure monitoring. The proportion of miss-diagnosed normotonic younger patients was directly related to elevated clinic blood pressure, which could be referred to as office hypertension or isolated clinic hypertension (white coat hypertension

  9. Fibrin network pattern changes of platelet-rich fibrin in young versus old age group of individuals: A cell block cytology study

    PubMed Central

    Yajamanya, Shravanthi Raghav; Chatterjee, Anirban; Babu, Chaitanya Nischay; Karunanithi, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate variations in fibrin network patterns of the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in different age groups. Materials and Methods: Ninety-five patients were divided into three age groups: Group 1: (20–39 years); Group 2: (40–59 years); and Group 3: (60 years and above). PRF was prepared from blood samples of all patients and were subjected to cell block cytology method of histological analysis and slides were prepared to histologically assess the age-related changes in (i) fibrin network patterns in terms of density and (ii) entrapment of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) within fibrin meshwork. Results: Two types of fibrin network pattern arrangements noticed: Dense and loose types in three age groups. However, there was a noticeable decrease in the dense type of fibrin network with progressing age and increase in the loose type of fibrin arrangement. Furthermore, variation in a number of platelets and WBCs entrapped within fibrin network in relation to age was noticed. Conclusion: From the current study it can be concluded that age can be considered as one of the influencing factors on quality of PRF in terms of fibrin network patterns and hence, platelet and WBCs entrapment within these fibrin networks. PMID:27143826

  10. The Non-carcinogenic Risk of Cadmium in Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Jafarzadeh, Saeedeh; Moradi, Bigard; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of heavy metals such as cadmium in drinking water resources can be dangerous for human because of toxicity and biological accumulation. The consumption of water which contains Cd in high concentration can lead to Bone and Kidney diseases. Material and Methods: In this present study, the researcher collected 432 samples of bottled water in the popular marks in summer and winter from the surface of Bandar Abbas. The cadmium concentration was measured by atomic absorption Spectrophotometer in model DR2800 through the Dithizone method. CDI, R and HQ which are caused by Cd for adult men, women and children, have been calculated and evaluated through the equations of EPA and WHO. Results: Mean of 1.73±0.19 µg/l (M±SE) is lower than the standard of WHO and EPA. However, 33.2% of all the samples have concentrations more than the standard limit of WHO, and the concentrations of 22.4% of the samples are more than EPA’s standard. The CDI for different age groups is as following manner; Children>adult women>adult men. The CDI in children is more than twice as much as in the CDI for adult men and women. The mean of HQ order for different age groups is children>adult men>adult women. Since HQ of adult men (34E-5), adult women (31E-5) and children (84E-5), is lower than 1. Conclusion: It can be said that the population of Bandar Abbas is in a safe area regarding the HQ of the bottled water’s cadmium. PMID:25872158

  11. Age Group and Sex Do Not Influence Responses of Vitamin K Biomarkers to Changes in Dietary Vitamin K123

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Jennifer T.; Fu, Xueyan; Saltzman, Edward; Al Rajabi, Ala; Dallal, Gerard E.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate vitamin K intake has been associated with abnormal soft tissue calcification. Older adults may have insufficient intakes of vitamin K and respond less to vitamin K supplementation compared with younger adults. However, little is known about the determinants that influence the response to vitamin K supplementation. Our primary objective was to assess dietary and nondietary determinants of vitamin K status in healthy younger and older adults. In a nonrandomized, nonmasked study, 21 younger (18–40 y) and 21 older (55–80 y) men and women consumed a baseline diet (200 μg phylloquinone/d) for 5 d, a phylloquinone-restricted diet (10 μg phylloquinone/d) for 28 d, and a phylloquinone-supplemented diet (500 μg phylloquinone/d) for 28 d. Changes in vitamin K status markers in response to vitamin K depletion and repletion were studied and the influences of BMI, body fat, and circulating TG were assessed by including them as covariates in the model. Despite baseline differences in measures of vitamin K status, plasma phylloquinone tended to increase (P = 0.07) and the percentage of uncarboxylated osteocalcin and uncarboxylated prothrombin both improved with phylloquinone supplementation (P < 0.007), regardless of age group or sex. Only the excretion of urinary menadione, a vitamin K metabolite, was greater among younger adults in response to depletion than in older adults (P = 0.012), regardless of sex. Adiposity measures and circulating TG did not predict response of any measures. In conclusion, poor vitamin K status can be similarly improved with vitamin K supplementation, regardless of age group or sex. PMID:22437558

  12. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D.; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Cerasoli, Douglas M.; Bahnson, Brian J.

    2009-09-02

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P{sub R} and P{sub S} stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P{sub R} stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents.

  13. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Cerasoli, Douglas M; Bahnson, Brian J

    2009-08-15

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P(R) and P(S) stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P(R) stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents. PMID:19394314

  14. Impact of extreme temperatures on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio

    2006-07-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between extreme temperatures and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. Daily mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, air pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for temperatures ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO2 concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of extreme temperature is by no means negligible.

  15. Visual outcome and complications in Ab-externo scleral fixation IOL in aphakia in pediatric age group

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Bhutto, Isra; Qadir Kazi, Ghulam; Mahar, P.S; Ahmed Qidwai, Umair

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the visual outcome and complications in patients after Ab-externo scleral fixation of intraocular lens in pediatric age group (15 years or less). Methods: This quasi experimental study was conducted at Isra Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Al-Ibrahim Eye Hospital, Karachi, from January 2012 to December 2012. All cases included were worked up according to the protocol. All patients underwent Ab-externo scleral fixation of IOL under general anesthesia. Patients were followed up at 1stday, 1stweek, 1stmonth, 2ndmonth and 3rdmonth. Complete eye examination including best-corrected visual acuity and complications were noted on each visit. Results: Thirty patients were included in the study, with mean age of 8.6 years (±3.93569). Most of the patients, 20 (66.7%), had visual acuities of 6/18 or better. No complication was seen in 18 (60%) of the patients intra operatively while soft eye was observed in 7 (23.3%) of the patients. Another complication noted was vitreous hemorrhage, which was seen in 5 (16.7%) patients. Most common post-operative complication was Uveitis followed by astigmatism. Lens dislocation and iris abnormalities were seen in only one patient. Most of the patients showed significant visual improvement after surgery. Conclusion: Ab-externo scleral fixation of an IOL was found to be safe and showed favorable postoperative results with fewer complications. PMID:24353665

  16. The Polycomb Group Protein Pcgf1 Is Dispensable in Zebrafish but Involved in Early Growth and Aging.

    PubMed

    Dupret, Barbara; Völkel, Pamela; Le Bourhis, Xuefen; Angrand, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC) 1 regulates the control of gene expression programs via chromatin structure reorganization. Through mutual exclusion, different PCGF members generate a variety of PRC1 complexes with potentially distinct cellular functions. In this context, the molecular function of each of the PCGF family members remains elusive. The study of PCGF family member expression in zebrafish development and during caudal fin regeneration reveals that the zebrafish pcgf genes are subjected to different regulations and that all PRC1 complexes in terms of Pcgf subunit composition are not always present in the same tissues. To unveil the function of Pcgf1 in zebrafish, a mutant line was generated using the TALEN technology. Mutant pcgf1-/- fish are viable and fertile, but the growth rate at early developmental stages is reduced in absence of pcgf1 gene function and a significant number of pcgf1-/- fish show signs of premature aging. This first vertebrate model lacking Pcgf1 function shows that this Polycomb Group protein is involved in cell proliferation during early embryogenesis and establishes a link between epigenetics and aging. PMID:27442247

  17. The Polycomb Group Protein Pcgf1 Is Dispensable in Zebrafish but Involved in Early Growth and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Le Bourhis, Xuefen; Angrand, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC) 1 regulates the control of gene expression programs via chromatin structure reorganization. Through mutual exclusion, different PCGF members generate a variety of PRC1 complexes with potentially distinct cellular functions. In this context, the molecular function of each of the PCGF family members remains elusive. The study of PCGF family member expression in zebrafish development and during caudal fin regeneration reveals that the zebrafish pcgf genes are subjected to different regulations and that all PRC1 complexes in terms of Pcgf subunit composition are not always present in the same tissues. To unveil the function of Pcgf1 in zebrafish, a mutant line was generated using the TALEN technology. Mutant pcgf1-/- fish are viable and fertile, but the growth rate at early developmental stages is reduced in absence of pcgf1 gene function and a significant number of pcgf1-/- fish show signs of premature aging. This first vertebrate model lacking Pcgf1 function shows that this Polycomb Group protein is involved in cell proliferation during early embryogenesis and establishes a link between epigenetics and aging. PMID:27442247

  18. Impact of extreme temperatures on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio

    2006-07-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between extreme temperatures and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. Daily mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, air pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for temperatures ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO(2) concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of extreme temperature is by no means negligible. PMID:16718468

  19. Early age hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate (synthetic ye'elimite, C{sub 4}A{sub 3}S{sup ¯}) in the presence of gypsum and varying amounts of calcium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Craig W.; Kirchheim, Ana Paula; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Gartner, Ellis M.

    2013-06-15

    Suspensions of synthetic ye'elimite (C{sub 4}A{sub 3}S{sup ¯}) in a saturated gypsum (CS{sup ¯}H{sub 2}) and calcium hydroxide (CH) solution were examined in-situ in a wet cell by soft X-ray transmission microscopy and ex-situ by scanning electron microscopy. The most voluminous hydration product observed was ettringite. Ettringite commonly displayed acicular, filiform, reticulated, and stellate crystal habits. Additionally, pastes with C{sub 4}A{sub 3}S{sup ¯}, 15% CS{sup ¯}H{sub 2}, and varying amounts of CH were prepared and examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and isothermal calorimetry. The XRD experiments showed that increasing CH content caused more solid solution (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/OH{sup −}) AFm phases to form at early ages (< 1 d) and more monosulfate to form at later ages (> 1 d). Calorimetry indicated that the increased production of solid solution AFm was accompanied with an increase in the initial (< 30 min) rate of heat evolution, and increasing CH generally reduced the time till the second maximum rate of heat evolution due to the formation of ettringite and monosulfate.

  20. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups. A population-based, case–control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups. Individuals with dinner-to-bed time <3 hours were more prone to have GC (P < 0.001), and the shorter the dinner-to-bed time was, the higher was the risk for GC (Ptrend < 0.001). Post-dinner nonwalk was associated with a 2.9-fold increased risk for GC compared with post-dinner walk (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.942, 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs] = 2.072–4.179). The interaction effect of dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on GC risk was detected (AOR = 1.862, 95% CIs = 1.584–3.885, synergy index [SI] = 2.654, 95% CIs = 2.27–3.912). Participants with dinner-to-bed time <3 hours who did not walk after dinner were 7.4 times likely to suffer from GC (AOR = 7.401, 95% CIs = 4.523–13.16) than those with dinner-to-bed time ≥4 hours who took such walk. The risk of GC due to dinner-to-bed time <3 hours, post-dinner nonwalk and their interaction was positively correlated with age. The strongest risk was observed among people ≥70 years old, but the effects were not significant for people ≤55 years old. Dinner-to-bed time <3 hours and post-dinner nonwalk are

  1. Lithofacies, Age, and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group in the Skimo Creek Area, Central Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Whalen, Michael T.; Harris, Anita G.

    2008-01-01

    The Lisburne Group, a mainly Carboniferous carbonate succession that is widely distributed across northern Alaska, contains notable amounts of oil and gas at Prudhoe Bay. Detailed studies of the Lisburne in the Skimo Creek area, central Brooks Range, delineate its lithofacies, age, conodont biofacies, depositional environments, and sequence stratigraphy and provide new data on its hydrocarbon source-rock and reservoir potential, as well as its thermal history, in this area. We have studied the Lisburne Group in two thrust sheets of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, herein called the Skimo and Tiglukpuk thrust sheets. The southern, Skimo Creek section, which is >900 m thick, is composed largely of even-bedded to nodular lime mudstone and wackestone intercalated with intervals of thin- to thick-bedded bioclastic packstone and grainstone. Some parts of the section are partially to completely dolomitized and (or) replaced by chert. A distinctive, 30-m-thick zone of black, organic-rich shale, lime mudstone, and phosphorite is exposed 170 m below the top of the Lisburne. The uppermost 40 m of section is also distinctive and made up of dark shale, lime mudstone, spiculite, and glauconitic grainstone. The northern, Tiglukpuk Creek section, which is similar to the Skimo Creek section but only ~760 m thick, includes more packstone and grainstone and less organic-rich shale. Analyses of conodonts and foraminifers indicate that both sections range in age from late Early Mississippian (Osagean) through Early Pennsylvanian (early Morrowan) and document a hiatus of at least 15 m.y. at the contact between the Lisburne and the overlying Siksikpuk Formation. No evidence of subaerial exposure was observed along this contact, which may represent a submarine erosional surface. Lithofacies and biofacies imply that the Lisburne Group in the study area was deposited mainly in midramp to outer-ramp settings. Deepest water strata are mud rich and formed below storm or fair-weather wave

  2. Quantification and Correlation of Oral Candida with Caries Index Among Different Age Groups of School Children: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, BV; Reginald, BA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common infectious disease affecting humans and is the predominant cause of tooth loss in children. Although Candida's role in dental caries has been studied extensively, limited homogenous studies have been conducted and none have been found, that associate Candida with dental caries, while correlating it to different age groups. Aim: The study aimed to quantify oral Candida in school children and correlate candidal carriage to the caries index and further analyze an age association. Subjects and Methods: Decayed-Filled teeth/Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (dft/DMFT) index scores of 150 subjects were evaluated, and concentrated oral rinse samples were collected from each participant for mycologic investigation. Based on the age and caries activity, the participants were categorized into three groups consisting of 50 each such as Group-I (caries active participants of 6–12 years age), Group-II (caries active participants in 13–18 years age), and Group-III (caries-free participants in 6–18 years age); CHROMagar™ was used as a primary culture medium for candidal growth. The data was statistically analyzed using Unpaired t-test, Chi-square test and Spearman's rank order. Results: The results demonstrated that as age increases, the dft/DMFT scores as well as the candidal growth decreased. In addition, the oral candidal carriage levels were found to be low in caries-free group (Group-III) when compared to the study groups. Conclusion: The presence of Candida was directly related to the caries status and inversely proportional to the age. PMID:27213089

  3. The Predictive Value of Job Demands and Resources on the Meaning of Work and Organisational Commitment across Different Age Groups in the Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthun, Kirsti Sarheim; Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of job demands and resources on the meaning of work and organisational commitment across three age groups; young workers (<30 years), a middle age group of workers (30-49 years) and older workers (>50 years). Data were collected from a survey conducted among university employees (N = 3,066).…

  4. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  5. The Age of the Antrim Lava Group, Northern Ireland, and its correlation to the North Atlantic Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganerød, M.; McKenna, C.; Smethurst, M.; Prestvik, T.; Rousse, S.; Torsvik, T.; Hendriks, B.

    2008-12-01

    Modern radiometric dating techniques enable reliable dating of flood basalt provinces and in doing so, lead to a deeper understanding of eruption dynamics. Reliable ages have been published for much of the pre-drift lava succession of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. However, chronology of emplacement of the extensive Antrim Lava Group (ALG) in Northern Ireland was until now, poorly constrained. The ALG consists in stratigraphic order of the lower basalt Fm (LBF), interbasaltic Fm (IB) with the Tardree rhyolite, and upper basalt Formation (UBF). A study by Thompson (1985), using the 40Ar/39Ar method, left the age of the LBF inconclusive, but a reliable date of 61 ± 0.6 Ma was obtained for the Tardree rhyolite (IB), and 58.3 +/- 1.1 Ma for the UBF. The date of 61 +/- 0.6 Ma for the Tardree rhyolite corresponds well with a recent U-Pb date of 60.9 +/- 0.5 Ma (Gould, 2004) of detrital zircons from a laterite layer underlying the Causeway Tholeiites (IB) in the north, zircons that may have Tardree as a source. However, Gamble et al. (1999) reported a younger date of 58.4 +/- 0.7 Ma using the U-Pb SHRIMP method for the Tardree rhyolite, so a discrepancy exists between different investigations to obtain the age of emplacement of these rhyolites. The magnetic polarity of the ALG has been reinvestigated by us and shown to be of reverse polarity. Based on the reverse magnetic polarity and the close spatial relationship with other trap sub-provinces in the British Tertiary Igneous Province, the literature has placed ALG to C26r on the geomagnetic polarity timescale. We have dated the principal lava formation in the ALG using the 40Ar/39Ar method. We obtained a weighted mean age (3 samples) of 61.4 +/- 0.5 for the LBF and 60.5 +/- 0.5 (1s, including the error on J) for the Tardree rhyolite (IB). These dates overlap at the 95% confidence level using a conservative 1% error on the J-value, but are separate using a less conservative approach. We obtained a date of 57

  6. Sexual Risk Attitudes and Intentions of Youth Aged 12-14 Years: Survey Comparisons of Parent-Teen Prevention and Control Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Regina P.; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared differences in sexual risk attitudes and intentions for three groups of youth (experimental program, n = 90; attention control, n = 80; and nonparticipant control, n = 634) aged 12-14 years. Two student groups participated with their parents in programs focused on strengthening family interaction and prevention…

  7. Characterization of a human surfactant protein A1 (SP-A1) gene-specific antibody; SP-A1 content variation among individuals of varying age and pulmonary health.

    PubMed

    Tagaram, Hephzibah Rani S; Wang, Guirong; Umstead, Todd M; Mikerov, Anatoly N; Thomas, Neal J; Graff, Gavin R; Hess, Joseph C; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Kavuru, Mani S; Phelps, David S; Floros, Joanna

    2007-05-01

    The human surfactant protein A (SP-A) locus consists of two functional genes (SP-A1, SP-A2) with gene-specific products exhibiting qualitative and quantitative differences. The aim here was twofold: 1) generate SP-A1 gene-specific antibody, and 2) use this to assess gene-specific SP-A content in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). An SP-A1-specific polyclonal antibody (hSP-A1_Ab(68-88)_Col) was raised in chicken, and its specificity was determined by immunoblot and ELISA using mammalian Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-expressed SP-A1 and SP-A2 variants and by immunofluorescence with stably transfected CHO cell lines expressing SP-A1 or SP-A2 variants. SP-A1 content was evaluated according to age and lung status. A gradual decrease (P < 0.05) in SP-A1/SP-A ratio was observed in healthy subjects (HS) with increased age, although no significant change was observed in total SP-A content among age groups. Total SP-A and SP-A1 content differed significantly between alveolar proteinosis (AP) patients and HS, with no significant difference observed in SP-A1/SP-A ratio between AP and HS. The cystic fibrosis (CF) ratio was significantly higher compared with AP, HS, and noncystic fibrosis (NCF), even though SP-A1 and total SP-A were decreased in CF compared with most of the other groups. The ratio was higher in culture-positive vs. culture-negative samples from CF and NCF (P = 0.031). A trend of an increased ratio was observed in culture-positive CF (0.590 +/- 0.10) compared with culture-positive NCF (0.368 +/- 0.085). In summary, we developed and characterized an SP-A1 gene-specific antibody and used it to identify gene-specific SP-A content in BALFs as a function of age and lung health. PMID:17189324

  8. A Systematic Review of CPAP Adherence Across Age Groups: Clinical and Empiric Insights for Developing CPAP Adherence Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, A.M.; Gooneratne, N.; Marcus, C.L.; Ofer, D.; Richards, K.C.; Weaver, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a highly efficacious treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but adherence to the treatment limits its overall effectiveness across all age groups of patients. Factors that influence adherence to CPAP include disease and patient characteristics, treatment titration procedures, technological device factors and side effects, and psychological and social factors. These influential factors have guided the development of interventions to promote CPAP adherence. Various intervention strategies have been described and include educational, technological, psychosocial, pharmacological, and multi-dimensional approaches. Though evidence to date has led to innovative strategies that address adherence in CPAP-treated children, adults, and older adults, significant opportunities exist to develop and test interventions that are clinically applicable, specific to subgroups of patients likely to demonstrate poor adherence, and address the multifactorial nature of CPAP adherence. The translation of CPAP adherence promotion interventions to clinical practice is imperative to improve health and functional outcomes in all persons with CPAP-treated OSA. PMID:21652236

  9. Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation as Curative Therapy for Patients with Myelofibrosis: Long-Term Success in all Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Deeg, H Joachim; Bredeson, Christopher; Farnia, Stephanie; Ballen, Karen; Gupta, Vikas; Mesa, Ruben A; Popat, Uday; Hari, Parameswaran; Saber, Wael; Seftel, Matthew; Tamari, Roni; W Petersdorf, Effie

    2015-11-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are chronic marrow disorders with variable prognoses. Most patients with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, or even primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are successfully treated with conservative strategies for years or even decades, and recent data suggest that even in patients with high-risk disease, in particular those with PMF, life expectancy can be extended by treatment with janus kinase (JAK2) inhibitors. However, none of those modalities are curative, and after marrow failure develops, the disease "accelerates," or transforms to acute leukemia, the only option able to effectively treat and, in fact, cure MPN is allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Outcome is superior if HCT is performed before leukemic transformation occurs. Several reports document survival in unmaintained remission beyond 10 years. The most recent analyses show reduced regimen-related mortality (less than 10% or even 5% at day 100) and progressively improved survival with both HLA-identical sibling and unrelated donors. The development of low/reduced-intensity conditioning regimens has contributed to the improved success rate and has allowed successful HCT in patients in their seventh and even eighth decade of life. We propose, therefore, that HCT should be offered to fit patients in these age groups and should be covered by their respective insurance carriers. PMID:26371371

  10. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  11. Head injury mortality in a geriatric population: differentiating an "edge" age group with better potential for benefit than older poor-prognosis patients.

    PubMed

    Bouras, Triantafyllos; Stranjalis, George; Korfias, Stefanos; Andrianakis, Ilias; Pitaridis, Marianos; Sakas, Damianos E

    2007-08-01

    A comparison of outcomes between different modes of head-injury treatment in the elderly has important bearing on questions of cost-effectiveness and medical ethics. Here, we have examined rates of mortality in elderly head-trauma victims to determine whether it is valid to differentiate an "edge" age group of younger elderly patients, 65-74 years of age, from older elderly patients, considering possible benefit from intensive treatment and surgical intervention. We collected data from 1926 cases of head trauma and separated them into three age groups: 14-64 years, 65-74 years, and 75 years or older. We then compared these groups with respect to cause of injury, severity of injury, and whether or not treatment included either admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or surgical intervention. We found that road traffic accidents were the major cause of head injury in the younger age group, whereas in the elderly falls predominated. Mortality was higher in the elderly in all the head injury severity subgroups. Young subjects with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of less than or equal to 8 tended to benefit from ICU treatment whereas patients 75 and over did not, regardless of their severity of injury. For these patients who were in the 65-74 age group, the data suggested that some benefit was likely. Patients 75 and older were significantly less likely to survive surgical intervention than younger patients. We conclude that it is valid to treat patients in the age group 65-74 years as a separate group from those patients 75 and older. Patients in this younger subset of the elderly may benefit from ICU treatment or surgical intervention. However, the patients in our older subset of elderly patients clearly did not, and they had a significantly higher risk of surgical mortality. PMID:17711397

  12. Audio-visual speechreading in a group of hearing aid users. The effects of onset age, handicap age, and degree of hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Tillberg, I; Rönnberg, J; Svärd, I; Ahlner, B

    1996-01-01

    Speechreading ability was investigated among hearing aid users with different time of onset and different degree of hearing loss. Audio-visual and visual-only performance were assessed. One group of subjects had been hearing-impaired for a large part of their lives, and the impairments appeared early in life. The other group of subjects had been impaired for a fewer number of years, and the impairments appeared later in life. Differences between the groups were obtained. There was no significant difference on the audio-visual test between the groups in spite of the fact that the early onset group scored very poorly auditorily. However, the early-onset group performed significantly better on the visual test. It was concluded that the visual information constituted the dominant coding strategy for the early onset group. An interpretation chiefly in terms of early onset may be the most appropriate, since dB loss variations as such are not related to speechreading skill. PMID:8976000

  13. Zircon U-Pb age constraints on the Paleoproterozoic sedimentary basement of the Ediacaran Porongos Group, Sul-Riograndense Shield, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertille, Juliana; Hartmann, Léo Afraneo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo

    2015-11-01

    Thick quartzites record significant information on cratonic environments during long geological periods. The capacity to resist weathering and deformation turn the quartzite covers especially useful in the provenance studies of Precambrian basins. Provenance of 194 detrital zircon grains from two samples of thick quartzite cover on the Paleoproterozoic Encantadas Complex displays mostly Paleoproterozoic (95%) and minor Archean (5%) sources. The results indicate that sediments were derived from the La Plata Craton with the maximum depositional age at 2.03 Ga possibly up to 1.7 Ga. In comparison, the adjacent Porongos Group has provenance data of 61 detrital zircon grains indicating mostly Mesoproterozoic (69%), subordinately Paleoproterozoic (26%) and minor Archean ages (5%). Considering previous published data, the Porongos Group is Ediacaran in age and probably chronocorrelated with sedimentary basins from the Tandilia Belt (Argentina). Therefore, the quartzite cover and the Porongos Group require distinct evolution in time and in tectonic environment.

  14. Age-Group-Specific Associations between the Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Relevant Risk Factors in Male and Female Patients

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xingqi; Gu, Wei; Li, Yanyan; Liu, Mei; Li, Yan; Gao, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Aim To seek accurate and credible correlation manner between gender, age, and obesity; and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in large-scale population. Methods Totals of 1,975 male and 378 female OSA patients were sequentially recruited. Centralized covariant tendencies between age, body mass index (BMI), and waist hip ratio (WHR); and OSA severity, were explored in a gender-specific manner via multiple statistical analyses. The accuracies of observed correlations were further evaluated by adaptive multiple linear regression. Results All of age, BMI, WHR, smoking, drinking, and OSA severity differed between males and females. BMI and WHR were positively and (approximately) linearly associated with OSA severity in both males and females. Restricted cubic spline analysis was more effective than was the Pearson correlation approach in correlating age with AHI, and provided age crossover points allowing further piecewise linear modeling for both males and females. Multiple linear regression showed that increasing age was associated with OSA exacerbation in males aged ≤40 years and in females aged 45–53 years. BMI, WHR, and diabetes were independently associated with OSA severity in males with age-group-specific pattern. In females, only BMI was associated with OSA severity at all ages. Conclusions In male patients, BMI and WHR are prominent risk factors for OSA exacerbation. Age and diabetes are associated with OSA severity in males of particular ages. In females, BMI is also a prominent risk factor for severe OSA, and OSA severity increased with age in the range 45–53 years. PMID:25211035

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy urban children of two age groups in relation to their antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Literak, Ivan; Petro, Radim; Dolejska, Monika; Gruberova, Erika; Dobiasova, Hana; Petr, Jan; Cizek, Alois

    2011-06-01

    The study was performed in the Czech Republic during 2007 to 2009. Of Escherichia coli isolates from 275 children aged 6 weeks, 36% (n = 177) were resistant to 1 to 7 antibiotics. Of isolates from 253 children aged 6 to 17 years, 24% (n = 205) were resistant to 1 to 5 antibiotics. There was no significant difference in the prevalences of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates between these groups of children, even though the consumptions of antibiotics were quite different. PMID:21464246

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance in Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Healthy Urban Children of Two Age Groups in Relation to Their Antibiotic Therapy▿

    PubMed Central

    Literak, Ivan; Petro, Radim; Dolejska, Monika; Gruberova, Erika; Dobiasova, Hana; Petr, Jan; Cizek, Alois

    2011-01-01

    The study was performed in the Czech Republic during 2007 to 2009. Of Escherichia coli isolates from 275 children aged 6 weeks, 36% (n = 177) were resistant to 1 to 7 antibiotics. Of isolates from 253 children aged 6 to 17 years, 24% (n = 205) were resistant to 1 to 5 antibiotics. There was no significant difference in the prevalences of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates between these groups of children, even though the consumptions of antibiotics were quite different. PMID:21464246

  17. Development of gender- and age group-specific equations for estimating body weight from anthropometric measurement in Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Trakulhoon, Vibul; Ungpinitpong, Winai; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2012-01-01

    Background Many medical procedures routinely use body weight as a parameter for calculation. However, these measurements are not always available. In addition, the commonly used visual estimation has had high error rates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a predictive equation for body weight using body circumferences. Methods A prospective study was performed in healthy volunteers. Body weight, height, and eight circumferential level parameters including neck, arm, chest, waist, umbilical level, hip, thigh, and calf were recorded. Linear regression equations were developed in a modeling sample group divided by sex and age (younger <60 years and older ≥60 years). Original regression equations were modified to simple equations by coefficients and intercepts adjustment. These equations were tested in an independent validation sample. Results A total of 2000 volunteers were included in this study. These were randomly separated into two groups (1000 in each modeling and validation group). Equations using height and one covariate circumference were developed. After the covariate selection processes, covariate circumference of chest, waist, umbilical level, and hip were selected for single covariate equations (Sco). To reduce the body somatotype difference, the combination covariate circumferences were created by summation between the chest and one torso circumference of waist, umbilical level, or hip and used in the equation development as a combination covariate equation (Cco). Of these equations, Cco had significantly higher 10% threshold error tolerance compared with Sco (mean percentage error tolerance of Cco versus Sco [95% confidence interval; 95% CI]: 76.9 [74.2–79.6] versus 70.3 [68.4–72.3]; P < 0.01, respectively). Although simple covariate equations had more evidence errors than the original covariate equations, there was comparable error tolerance between the types of equations (original versus simple: 74.5 [71.9–77.1] versus 71.7 [69.2

  18. Comparison of the effects of extreme temperatures on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain), by age group: The need for a cold wave prevention plan.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J; Carmona, R; Mirón, I J; Ortiz, C; Linares, C

    2015-11-01

    A number of studies have shown that there is a time trend towards a reduction in the effects of heat on mortality. In the case of cold, however, there is practically no research of this type and so there is no clearly defined time trend of the impact of cold on mortality. Furthermore, no other specific studies have yet analysed the time trend of the impact of both thermal extremes by age group. We analysed data on daily mortality due to natural causes (ICD-10: A00-R99) in the city of Madrid across the period 2001-2009 and calculated the impact of extreme temperatures on mortality using Poisson regression models for specific age groups. The groups of age selected coinciding with the pre-existing age-groups analyzed in previous papers. For heat waves the groups of age used were: <10 years, 10-17 years, 18-44 years, 45-64 years, 65-74 years and over-75 years. For cold waves the groups of age used were: <1 year; 1-5 years, 6-17 years, 18-44 years, 45-64 years, 65-74 years and over-75 years. <1, 1-17, 18-44, 45-66, 65-74 and over-75 years. We controlled for confounding variables, such as air pollution, noise, influenza, pollen, pressure and relative humidity, trend of the series, as well as seasonalities and autoregressive components of the series. The results of these models were compared to those obtained for the same city during the period 1986-1997 and published in different studies. Our results show a lightly reduction in the effects of heat, especially in the over-45-year age group. In the case of cold, the behaviour pattern was the opposite, with an increase in its effect. Heat adaptation and socio-economic and public-health prevention and action measures may be behind this amelioration in the effects of heat, whereas the absence of such actions in respect of low temperatures may account for the increase in the effects of cold on mortality. From a public health point of view, the implementation of cold wave prevention plans covering all age groups is thus called

  19. Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernandez, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and…

  20. Varying constants quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczyńska, Katarzyna; Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P. E-mail: abalcerz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2015-02-01

    We discuss minisuperspace models within the framework of varying physical constants theories including Λ-term. In particular, we consider the varying speed of light (VSL) theory and varying gravitational constant theory (VG) using the specific ansätze for the variability of constants: c(a) = c{sub 0} a{sup n} and G(a)=G{sub 0} a{sup q}. We find that most of the varying c and G minisuperspace potentials are of the tunneling type which allows to use WKB approximation of quantum mechanics. Using this method we show that the probability of tunneling of the universe ''from nothing'' (a=0) to a Friedmann geometry with the scale factor a{sub t} is large for growing c models and is strongly suppressed for diminishing c models. As for G varying, the probability of tunneling is large for G diminishing, while it is small for G increasing. In general, both varying c and G change the probability of tunneling in comparison to the standard matter content (cosmological term, dust, radiation) universe models.

  1. Ages and sources of components of Zn-Pb, Cu, precious metal, and platinum group element deposits in the goodsprings district, clark county, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, P.; Browne, Q.J.; Fleck, R.; Hofstra, A.; Wooden, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Goodsprings district, Clark County, Nevada, includes zinc-dominant carbonate replacement deposits of probable late Paleozoic age, and lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits, copper ?? precious metal-platinum group element (PGE) deposits, and gold ?? silver deposits that are spatially associated with Late Triassic porphyritic intrusions. The district encompasses ??500 km2 although the distribution of all deposits has been laterally condensed by late Mesozoic crustal contraction. Zinc, Pb, and Cu production from about 90 deposits was ??160,000 metric tons (t) (Zn > Pb >> Cu), 2.1 million ounces (Moz) Ag, 0.09 Moz Au, and small amounts of PGEs-Co, V, Hg, Sb, Ni, Mo, Mn, Ir, and U-were also recovered. Zinc-dominant carbonate replacement deposits (Zn > Pb; Ag ?? Cu) resemble Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) Zn-Pb deposits in that they occur in karst and fault breccias in Mississippian limestone where the southern margin of the regional late Paleozoic foreland basin adjoins Proterozoic crystalline rocks of the craton. They consist of calcite, dolomite, sphalerite, and galena with variably positive S isotope compositions (??34S values range from 2.5-13%), and highly radiogenic Pb isotope compositions (206Pb/204Pb >19), typical of MVT deposits above crystalline Precambrian basement. These deposits may have formed when southward flow of saline fluids, derived from basinal and older sedimentary rocks, encountered thinner strata and pinch-outs against the craton, forcing fluid mixing and mineral precipitation in karst and fault breccias. Lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits (Pb > Zn, Ag ?? Cu ?? Au) occur among other deposit types, often near porphyritic intrusions. They generally contain higher concentrations of precious metals than zinc-dominant deposits and relatively abundant iron oxides after pyrite. They share characteristics with copper ?? precious metal- PGE and gold ?? silver deposits including fine-grained quartz replacement of carbonate minerals in

  2. Acute Respiratory Infections among Under-Five Age Group Children at Urban Slums of Gulbarga City: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pattankar, Jayashree; Puttahonnappa, Suresh Kuralayanapalya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among all illness, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) account for 30-60% of paediatric outpatient attendance and 20-30% of hospital admissions. Aim To study the morbidity pattern of ARI among under-five-age group children and to assess the determinants. Materials and Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted for a one year period, comprising a cumulative sample of 400 children from 3 urban slums of Gulbarga city. History of nasal discharge, cough, fever, sore throat, breathing difficulty, any discharge from ear alone or in combination, was used in the recognition of an ARI episode. Respiratory rate >60/minute (<2 month infants), >50(2-11 months) and >40(1-5 years) in a child with cough, cold or fever singly or in combination was considered the criteria for recognition of pneumonia. Results Out of the 400 surveyed, ARI was detected among 109 children giving an incidence of 27.25%. Among these, Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) was found among 19.25% and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) among 8%. ARI was observed among 38.04% of infants, 37.84% of 2-3-year-old children, 36.87% of boys, 40.43% of children born to illiterate father’s, 35.77% of SES class IV & 40.79% of SES class V, and 41.89% of children with family history of respiratory illness. All these data were found to be statistically significant. High rates of ARI were also observed among 41.36% of children living in households with firewood fuel usage, 35.04% of children with pets in the household, 34.82% of children with delayed milestones, 53.85% of children with grade IV and 66.67% of children with grade V malnutrition. More episodes occurred during winter months of the year (Oct – Jan). During the follow-up phase of study done on a cohort of 112 children for a period of one year, an attack rate of 3.27 episodes/child/year was observed. Conclusion Community education programs should focus on addressing specific issues viz. identification of respiratory illness

  3. Girls arrested for murder: an empirical analysis of 32 years of U.S. data by offender age groups.

    PubMed

    Heide, Kathleen M; Sellers, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on adolescent male offenders. As a result, little is known about the population of female juveniles arrested for murder. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to investigate age differences between younger (aged 6-12 years) and older (aged 13-17 years) females arrested for murder in the United States from 1976 to 2007. As predicted, six variables used to test seven hypotheses with respect to younger and older female JHOs in single victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim gender, victim offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that younger girls were seven times more likely than older girls to kill children aged 0-12 years. Girls aged 6-12 years were five times more likely than their teen counterparts to be involved in conflict-related homicides as opposed to crime-related homicides. Although approximately the same percentages of younger and older girls killed infants under the age of 1, the victims were significantly different for the two offender age groups. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research. PMID:25043923

  4. The Correlations of Anti-Mullerian Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Antral Follicle Count in Different Age Groups of Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Barbakadze, Ludmila; Kristesashvili, Jenara; Khonelidze, Natalia; Tsagareishvili, Gia

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of our study was to identify the correlations between the tests currently used in ovarian reserve assessment: anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and antral follicle count (AFC) and to distinguish the most reliable markers for ovarian reserve in order to select an adequate strategy for the initial stages of infertility treatment. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 112 infertile women were assessed. Subjects were divided into three age groups: group I <35 years (n=39), group II 35-40 years (n=31), and group III 41-46 years (n=42). AMH, FSH and AFC were determined on days 2-3 of the patients’ menstrual cycles. Results There was a significantly elevated negative correlation between age and AMH level (rs=-0.67, p<0.0001) and AFC (rs=-0.55, p<0.0001). We observed a significantly positive correlation between age and FSH (rs=0.38, p<0.0001). AMH negatively correlated with FSH (rs=-0.48, p<0.0001) and positively with AFC (r=-0.71, p=0.0001). There was a moderate negative relation between FSH and AFC (r=-0.41, p=0.0001) and moderate positive relation between age and FSH (rs=0.38, p<0.0001). The correlation analysis performed in separate groups showed that AMH and AFC showed a statistically significant positive correlation for group I (r=0.57, p<0.0001), group II (r=0.69, p<0.0001) and group III (r=0.47, p<0.002). A statistically significant correlation between FSH and AMH was detected only in groups I (r=-0.41, p<0.02) and II (r=-0.55, p<0.0001). A statistically significant correlation existed between FSH and AFC only in group III (r=-0.42, p<0.006), as well as between age and AFC only in group I (r=-0.35, p<0.03). Conclusion Currently, AMH should be considered as the more reliable of the ovarian reserve assessments tests compared to FSH. There is a strong positive correlation between serum AMH level and AFC. The use of AMH combined with AFC may improve ovarian reserve evaluation. PMID:25780521

  5. Self-Efficacy, Loneliness, Effort, and Hope: Developmental Differences in the Experiences of Students with Learning Disabilities and Their Non-Learning Disabled Peers at Two Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackaye, Timothy; Margalit, Malka

    2008-01-01

    The goals of this study were to (a) examine differences between two age groups of adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD) in their general and specific self-efficacy beliefs (in history and mathematics), their academic achievement (in history and mathematics), and their loneliness, effort, and hope; and (b) identify predictors of…

  6. Profile of the Young Californian (Age Group 16 to 24): How Has It Changed Over the Last Three Decades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Rosa Maria

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the distribution of young Californians by race/ethnic groups and socio-economic conditions, and compares trends using census data from 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. Classification of race/ethnic groups separates Hispanics from any race category (Whites, Asians, African Americans), as defined by the Census. The objective of the…

  7. Improving the Effects of Group Working in Classrooms with Young School-Aged Children: Facilitating Attainment, Interaction and Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutnick, Peter; Ota, Cathy; Berdondini, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Within primary school classrooms children are often seated in groups but research shows that pupils do not collaborate or learn effectively within these groups. This study is focused on children 5-7 years old. Using a quasi-experimental design, children in experimental classes undertook relational activities to improve the effectiveness of group…

  8. 75 FR 27141 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ45 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under...

  9. Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability

    PubMed Central

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and daughters such that mothers reported later expectations for the timing of behavioral autonomy than did daughters. Follow-up analyses indicated that findings appeared to be driven by maternal nativity, with dyads comprised of Mexico-born mothers reporting the latest age expectations for behavioral autonomy when compared with dyads comprised of U.S.-born mothers. Findings underscore the need to examine normative development among Latino adolescents and their families with a specific focus on how sociocultural characteristics can contribute to within-family differences. PMID:22093152

  10. Incidence and recovery of neurosensory disturbances after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy in different age groups: a retrospective study of 263 patients.

    PubMed

    Verweij, J P; Mensink, G; Fiocco, M; van Merkesteyn, J P R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence of neurosensory disturbance (NSD) after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) in different age groups and to assess the probability of sensory recovery in patients aged <19 years, 19-30 years, and >30 years. Hypoaesthesia of the lower lip was assessed subjectively and objectively immediately after BSSO and at 1 week and 1, 6, and 12 months after BSSO. Hypoaesthesia was considered permanent if it was present 1 year after BSSO. The frequency of NSD immediately after surgery was significantly higher in older patients. The cumulative incidence of recovery at 1 year was lower and the mean time to recovery was longer in the older patients, although these differences were not statistically significant. Older age was a significant risk factor for permanent hypoaesthesia, with an incidence of 4.8% per patient aged <19 years, 7.9% per patient aged 19-30 years, and 15.2% per patient aged >30 years. These findings show that the risk of NSD after BSSO is significantly higher in older patients. These results may aid surgeons in preoperative patient counselling and in deciding the optimal age at which to perform BSSO. PMID:26846794

  11. Relationship of the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers with the birth weight and gestational age: Need for public and individual educational programs

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Zahra; Mansourian, Marjan; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers and neonatal low birth weight and premature births. Materials and Methods: In this cohort, the target population was 225 pregnant women, randomly selected from different geographical areas of the city of Isfahan, Iran (from April to September, 2012). The main variables in the study were weight and gestational age of the neonates and the type and amount of different food groups used by the mothers. All nutritional variables were compared according to different groups of infants (normal, premature, and low birth weight). In the multivariate analysis, multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to identify those different food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) variables independently associated with the newborn's weight and gestational age, adjusted by maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy. Results: A total of 214 (47.7% boys) infants with complete information were included. They had a mean gestational age of 38.72 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean birth weight was 3.11 ± 0.384 kg. The percentages of premature and low birth weight (LBW) infants were 7 and 5%, respectively. At multiple logistic regression controlling for potentially confounding factors that were significantly associated with prematurity and LBW at univariate analysis (maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy), type of nutritional groups containing dairy products, proteins, fish, and shrimp group, as well as fruits and vegetables, had a significant positive association with increasing the gestational age (P < 0.05). The group that consumed proteins, fish, and shrimp, as well as fruits and vegetables had a significant positive association with the newborn's weight (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated the importance of proper nutrition on reducing the rates of LBW and

  12. The Moderating Role of Age-Group Identification and Perceived Threat on Stereotype Threat among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sonia K.; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates…

  13. Cross-Age Peer Tutors in Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Studying the Impact of Tutors Labelling Their Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, M.; Van Keer, H.; Valcke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Cross-age tutors were randomly assigned to one of the three tutor training conditions distinguished for the current study: (1) the labelling experimental condition, characterized by requirements to label their tutor interventions, based on the e-moderating model of Salmon; (2) the non-labelling experimental condition, focusing on tutor's acting…

  14. Cross-Age Peer Tutors in Asynchronous Discussion Groups: A Study of the Evolution in Tutor Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This study explores cross-age peers' tutoring behavior to support freshmen collaborating online. The study fits in with the need to inquire into the process of peer facilitation in CSCL-environments and focuses on types of peer support and on the evolution over time. The study was conducted with 19 pairs of fourth-year students, each tutoring one…

  15. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE AGE GROUPS FOR ASSESSING CHILDHOOD EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major issue facing the Agency is how to consistently consider age-related changes in behavior and physiology when assessing early lifestage exposure and potential dose. Key to this issue is how to capture these changes in an assessment of risks from exposure to environmental c...

  16. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Pertussis Toxin among Different Age Groups in Thailand after 37 Years of Universal Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Ngaovithunvong, Varisara; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Vichaiwattana, Preeyaporn; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high coverage of prophylactic vaccine against Bordetella pertussis infection in many countries for more than three decades, pertussis remains a common vaccine-preventable disease. Infections have been detected more commonly in countries using acellular pertussis vaccine in their Expanded Program of Immunization. Thailand implemented a routine infant immunization program with whole-cell pertussis vaccine in 1977, and since 1992, the national vaccine policy has offered a five-dose whole-cell pertussis vaccine for children given at the ages of 2, 4, 6, 18, and 48 months. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis toxin among healthy people across all ages to determine the level of whole-cell vaccine-induced immunity in the population, and to identify which age group should be targeted for a booster dose. The lowest seronegative rate and highest geometric mean concentrations were found in the 0–10 years age group, corresponding to their recent pertussis vaccination. The proportion of people with undetectable IgG level was prominent, starting after 11 years of age onwards. Now that a reduced-dose pertussis vaccine with fewer adverse effects is available, a booster dose during adolescence should be considered in order to reduce the incidence of pertussis disease. Further studies exploring how long the reduced-dose pertussis vaccine can provide protective immunity against pertussis disease when administered to adults and adolescents should also be performed. PMID:26837004

  17. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Pertussis Toxin among Different Age Groups in Thailand after 37 Years of Universal Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Ngaovithunvong, Varisara; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Vichaiwattana, Preeyaporn; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high coverage of prophylactic vaccine against Bordetella pertussis infection in many countries for more than three decades, pertussis remains a common vaccine-preventable disease. Infections have been detected more commonly in countries using acellular pertussis vaccine in their Expanded Program of Immunization. Thailand implemented a routine infant immunization program with whole-cell pertussis vaccine in 1977, and since 1992, the national vaccine policy has offered a five-dose whole-cell pertussis vaccine for children given at the ages of 2, 4, 6, 18, and 48 months. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis toxin among healthy people across all ages to determine the level of whole-cell vaccine-induced immunity in the population, and to identify which age group should be targeted for a booster dose. The lowest seronegative rate and highest geometric mean concentrations were found in the 0-10 years age group, corresponding to their recent pertussis vaccination. The proportion of people with undetectable IgG level was prominent, starting after 11 years of age onwards. Now that a reduced-dose pertussis vaccine with fewer adverse effects is available, a booster dose during adolescence should be considered in order to reduce the incidence of pertussis disease. Further studies exploring how long the reduced-dose pertussis vaccine can provide protective immunity against pertussis disease when administered to adults and adolescents should also be performed. PMID:26837004

  18. Histological and immunohistochemical study of estrogen and progesterone receptors in normal human breast tissue in adult age groups vulnerable to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Goyal, R; Gupta, T; Gupta, R; Aggarwal, A; Sahni, D; Singh, G

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of receptor status has become standard procedure for assessing breast cancer patients. Estrogen causes epithelial proliferation in breast tissue via the estrogen receptor (ER). The progesterone receptor (PR) is also regulated by the estrogen gene. Analyzing ER and PR together gives information regarding the likely response of carcinoma patients to hormonal therapy. The aim of the present study was to record the expression patterns of ER and PR in normal mammary tissue in different age groups to provide reference data to facilitate histological diagnosis. Breast tissues from the upper outer quadrant of each side of 27 adult female cadavers were examined after H & E staining. ER and PR were identified and examined by immunohistochemistry. The percentage area occupied by parenchyma relative to stromal tissue was calculated in different age groups and was about 4:6, 3.5:6.5, 3:7, 2:8, and 1.5:8.5 in the 3rd, 4th and 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th, and 10th decades of life, respectively. Both ER and PR were present in all age groups and the numbers of both receptors were maximal during the 4th decade. The distribution and staining patterns for both ER and PR were recorded in different age groups. The contiguous pattern of ER, which is considered pathognomonic of breast carcinoma, was not seen except in one case in the 6th decade. Moderately stained ER and PR receptor sites predominated throughout. The study of normal breast tissue of similar age might provide comparisons that will help histopathologists to make clinical diagnoses from breast biopsies. Clin. Anat. 29:729-737, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038435

  19. Does the Age and Familiarity of the Informant Group Influence the Tendency of 3- and 4-year-old Children to Conform?

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Nicola; Stevenson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to explore whether the age and the familiarity of the individuals comprising a group majority influenced the tendency of 3- and 4-year-old children to conform. Participants were presented with 2 variants of a novel task in which they were required to judge which of 3 line-drawn tigers had the greatest number of stripes. The participants made their judgments in 2 contexts, first after viewing 5 informants perform the task incorrectly, and second without viewing the responses of other individuals. The informants comprised a group of familiar children, a group of unfamiliar children, a group of familiar adults, or a group of unfamiliar adults. The results showed that the children displayed selective conformity with respect to informant age, readily adopting the incorrect response when it was indicated by an adult majority, but failing to do so when the same incorrect response was indicated by a majority of children. In contrast the familiarity of the individuals comprising the majority had little influence on the tendency of children to conform. These results suggest that children are not blanket conformists, rather they respond selectively depending on characteristics of the individuals comprising the group majority. PMID:27341477

  20. Feasibility and benefits of group-based exercise in residential aged care adults: a pilot study for the GrACE programme

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Timothy; Climstein, Mike; Keogh, Justin William Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the feasibility and benefits of a group resistance training exercise programme for improving muscle function in institutionalised older adults. A feasibility and acceptability study was designed for a residential aged care (RAC) facility, based on the Gold Coast, Australia. Thirty-seven adults, mean age 86.8 ± 6.1 years (30 females) living in a RAC facility. Participants were allocated into an exercise (n = 20) or control (n = 17) group. The exercise group, the Group Aged Care Exercise (GrACE) programme, performed 12 weeks of twice weekly resistance exercises. Feasibility was measured via recruitment rate, measurement (physiological and surveys) completion rate, loss-to-follow-up, exercise session adherence, adverse events, and ratings of burden and acceptability. Muscle function was assessed using gait speed, sit-to-stand and handgrip strength assessments. All intervention participants completed pre- and post-assessments, and the exercise intervention, with 85% (n = 17) of the group attending ≥ 18 of the 24 sessions and 15% (n = 3) attending all sessions. Acceptability was 100% with exercise participants, and staff who had been involved with the programme strongly agreed that the participants “Benefited from the programme.” There were no adverse events reported by any participants during the exercise sessions. When compared to the control group, the exercise group experienced significant improvements in gait speed (F(4.078) = 8.265, p = 0.007), sit to stand performance (F(3.24) = 11.033, p = 0.002) and handgrip strength (F(3.697) = 26.359, p < 0.001). Resistance training via the GrACE programme is feasible, safe and significantly improves gait speed, sit-to-stand performance and handgrip strength in RAC adults. PMID:27231652

  1. Time-varying BRDFs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K

    2007-01-01

    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials. PMID:17356224

  2. The hand and environment (5):--Physiological changes of digital functions in two age groups studied by three stress tests under three environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Ijichi, M; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuki, T; Ito, K; Matsushita, T

    1983-01-01

    Our serial physiological studies on "the hand and environment" have been reported these last three years. As a stressor to the hand, cold water immersion was the most effective, and the lower the room temperature was, each stressor became the more effective. As a detector for the function of the hand, the digital temperature was the most valuable. However, for studying the digital temperature, the room temperature should be set at more than 20 degrees C. The counting numbers were reduced by aging and colder temperatures. The nerve conduction velocity SCV or MCV became slower in a colder room, but showed no differences between the two age groups in this study. PMID:6864037

  3. Comparison on three classification techniques for sex estimation from the bone length of Asian children below 19 years old: an analysis using different group of ages.

    PubMed

    Darmawan, M F; Yusuf, Suhaila M; Kadir, M R Abdul; Haron, H

    2015-02-01

    Sex estimation is used in forensic anthropology to assist the identification of individual remains. However, the estimation techniques tend to be unique and applicable only to a certain population. This paper analyzed sex estimation on living individual child below 19 years old using the length of 19 bones of left hand applied for three classification techniques, which were Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) multilayer perceptron. These techniques were carried out on X-ray images of the left hand taken from an Asian population data set. All the 19 bones of the left hand were measured using Free Image software, and all the techniques were performed using MATLAB. The group of age "16-19" years old and "7-9" years old were the groups that could be used for sex estimation with as their average of accuracy percentage was above 80%. ANN model was the best classification technique with the highest average of accuracy percentage in the two groups of age compared to other classification techniques. The results show that each classification technique has the best accuracy percentage on each different group of age. PMID:25540897

  4. Comparison of Safety and Immunogenicity of PVRV and PCECV Immunized in Patients with WHO Category II Animal Exposure: A Study Based on Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Hu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity between purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) in patients with WHO category II animal exposure, especially in different age groups. Methodology/Principal Findings In one-year clinical observation after vaccination with PVRV or PCECV under Zagreb (2-1-1) or Essen (1-1-1-1-1) regimens, information collection for the demographic and adverse events (AEs) and rabies virus laboratory examination of neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers were performed for all patients with WHO category II animal exposure in Wuhan city. The results showed no significant differences of safety and immunogenicity between PVRV and PCECV both in Zagreb and Essen regimens. However, when compared with other age groups, most systemic AEs (36/61) occurred in <5-year-old patients, and <5-year-old patients have significant lower RVNA titer and seroconversion rate (RVNA ≥0.5 IU/ml) at day 7 both in Zagreb and Essen regimens or PVRV and PCECV groups. Conclusions Our data showed that vaccination with PVRV is as safe and immunogenic as PCECV in patients of all age groups, but might be more popular for clinical use. When performing a vaccination with rabies vaccine in young children, the most optimal vaccine regimen should be selected. PMID:25522244

  5. [FEATURES OF CONSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG MALES AGED OF 17-20 YEARS, NATIVES OF THE BAIKAL REGION WITH REGARD TO THEIR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Kolokoltsev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The study of somatotypes of the constitution is an important point in planning of the improvements of measures among the population in various regions of Russia. The purpose of the work was to reveal features of age dynamics of somatotypes of the constitution in students of youthful age of the Baikal Region by means of somatotyping according to scheme by Nikityuk B. A. and Kozlova A.I (1990) with taking into account their functional group of health. There were examined 1286 Slavic young males, natives of the Irkutsk region, aged of 17-20 years, from them, according to data of the medical examination 996 were referred to the 1st (main) and 290--to the 2nd (preparatory) functional group of health for physical exercises. There were established significant differences in somatotypes of the constitution in young men of the 1st and 2nd functional groups of health. In both functional groups there is noted a significant amount of young males with transitional somatotypes that testifies to incompleteness of growth processes of their organism. The obtained results of a somatotyping are used in the educational process for a training individualization on physical culture of students of IRGTU, and also in construction of independent physical--improving programs. PMID:27430074

  6. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the Silver Springs Group, central Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Toth, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched δ15N and δ18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5 mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age.

  7. Age-group differences in speech identification despite matched audiometrically normal hearing: contributions from auditory temporal processing and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Moore, Brian C. J.; Stone, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss with increasing age adversely affects the ability to understand speech, an effect that results partly from reduced audibility. The aims of this study were to establish whether aging reduces speech intelligibility for listeners with normal audiograms, and, if so, to assess the relative contributions of auditory temporal and cognitive processing. Twenty-one older normal-hearing (ONH; 60–79 years) participants with bilateral audiometric thresholds ≤ 20 dB HL at 0.125–6 kHz were matched to nine young (YNH; 18–27 years) participants in terms of mean audiograms, years of education, and performance IQ. Measures included: (1) identification of consonants in quiet and in noise that was unmodulated or modulated at 5 or 80 Hz; (2) identification of sentences in quiet and in co-located or spatially separated two-talker babble; (3) detection of modulation of the temporal envelope (TE) at frequencies 5–180 Hz; (4) monaural and binaural sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS); (5) various cognitive tests. Speech identification was worse for ONH than YNH participants in all types of background. This deficit was not reflected in self-ratings of hearing ability. Modulation masking release (the improvement in speech identification obtained by amplitude modulating a noise background) and spatial masking release (the benefit obtained from spatially separating masker and target speech) were not affected by age. Sensitivity to TE and TFS was lower for ONH than YNH participants, and was correlated positively with speech-in-noise (SiN) identification. Many cognitive abilities were lower for ONH than YNH participants, and generally were correlated positively with SiN identification scores. The best predictors of the intelligibility of SiN were composite measures of cognition and TFS sensitivity. These results suggest that declines in speech perception in older persons are partly caused by cognitive and perceptual changes separate from age-related changes in

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF OBJECT CATEGORIZATION IN YOUNG CHILDREN: HIERARCHICAL INCLUSIVENESS, AGE, PERCEPTUAL ATTRIBUTE, AND GROUP VERSUS INDIVIDUAL ANALYSES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Arterberry, Martha E.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple levels of category inclusiveness in 4 object domains (animals, vehicles, fruit, and furniture) were examined using a sequential touching procedure and assessed in both individual and group analyses in 80 12-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month-olds. The roles of stimulus discriminability and child motor development, fatigue, and actions were also investigated. More inclusive levels of categorization systematically emerged before less inclusive levels, and a consistent advantage for categorizing high versus low perceptual contrasts was found. Group and individual analyses generally converged, but individual analyses added information about child categorization over group analyses. The development of object categorization in young children is discussed in light of efficiency of processing and similarity/differentiation theories. PMID:20210495

  9. Using a telephone support group for HIV-positive persons aged 50+ to increase social support and health-related knowledge.

    PubMed

    Nokes, Kathleen M; Chew, Lee; Altman, Carolyn

    2003-07-01

    Middle-aged and older persons living with HIV/AIDS have unique needs arising from the physical, mental, and social changes associated not only with normal aging but also related to living with a chronic illness. To address these needs, two 10-week telephone psychoeducational support groups were offered for HIV-infected persons aged 50 or older. Each group was cofacilitated by a registered nurse and a social worker; each session was 50-60 minutes every Friday; approximately 1-5 clients participated with an average number of 3 clients and there was no charge to the participants. The issues addressed in the group were: (1) staying healthy; (2) symptom management; (3) understanding other chronic illnesses; (4) understanding diagnostic tests; (5) strategies for effective interactions with the health care provider; (6) optimizing HIV/AIDS medication use; (7) understanding new developments in HIV treatment; (8) coping with losses; and (9) finding commonalities. There were unique challenges. Boundaries of respect were more difficult to maintain in a teleconference, as opposed to an in-person group. Nonverbal cues were impossible to interpret and therefore greater sensitivity was required to gauge the impact of borderline, less controlled group members, especially in relationship to other group members who may tend to be less assertive. One group member withdrew because his hearing was impaired and the telephone modality was just too challenging. It has been found that middle-aged and older adults living with HIV/AIDS with greater depression identify a need for information and support. It is crucial to share concrete information, identify symptoms clearly, and explore the use of effective and ineffective medications and treatments. The psychosocial concerns are very real and encouraging group members to open up to one another to create a cohesive community of sharing is equally important. Although the use of teleconference technology makes this more difficult, the attempt

  10. Clinical, physical and lifestyle variables and relationship with cognition and mood in aging: a cross-sectional analysis of distinct educational groups

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Nadine C.; Costa, Patrício S.; Cunha, Pedro; Portugal-Nunes, Carlos; Amorim, Liliana; Cotter, Jorge; Cerqueira, João J.; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    It is relevant to unravel the factors that may mediate the cognitive decline observed during aging. Previous reports indicate that education has a positive influence on cognitive performance, while age, female gender and, especially, depressed mood were associated with poorer performances across multiple cognitive dimensions (memory and general executive function). Herein, the present study aimed to characterize the cognitive performance of community-dwelling individuals within distinct educational groups categorized by the number of completed formal school years: “less than 4,” “4, completed primary education,” and “more than 4.” Participants (n = 1051) were randomly selected from local health registries and representative of the Portuguese population for age and gender. Neurocognitive and clinical assessments were conducted in local health care centers. Structural equation modeling was used to derive a cognitive score, and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted for each educational group. Education, age and depressed mood were significant variables in directly explaining the obtained cognitive score, while gender was found to be an indirect variable. In all educational groups, mood was the most significant factor with effect on cognitive performance. Specifically, a depressed mood led to lower cognitive performance. The clinical disease indices cardiac and stroke associated with a more negative mood, while moderate increases in BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity associated positively with improved mood and thus benefitted cognitive performance. Results warrant further research on the cause-effect (longitudinal) relationship between clinical indices of disease and risk factors and mood and cognition throughout aging. PMID:24605100

  11. The Effects of Age Composition of 12-Step Groups on Adolescent 12-Step Participation and Substance Use Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Youth substance use disorder treatment programs frequently advocate integration into 12-Step fellowships to help prevent relapse. However, the effects of the predominantly adult composition of 12-step groups on adolescent involvement and substance use outcome remain unstudied. Greater knowledge could enhance the specificity of treatment…

  12. Group Intervention to Promote Social Skills in School-Age Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Reconsidering Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; De Los Reyes, Andres; Cicchetti, Domenic; Scahill, Lawrence; Klin, Ami

    2009-01-01

    A consistent result in the evaluation of group-delivered intervention to promote social reciprocity in children with PDDs is that outcome data are inconclusive. Lack of robust evidence of efficacy confounds understanding of these interventions and their value to the field. It is conceivable that the construct of impaired social reciprocity in PDD…

  13. Internet Postings Linked to Student Highlight Interest in "Hate Groups": Experts Say Recruitment Efforts Targeting School-Age Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    In an Internet forum run by the Libertarian National Socialist Green Party, an organization espousing neo-Nazi views, Jeff Weise made his comments about the group in the year leading up to his deadly armed assault at Red Lake High School in Minnesota. The forum lists 34 postings written by the 16-year-old Native American youth. The commentary Mr.…

  14. Nicotinamide, NAD(P)(H), and Methyl-Group Homeostasis Evolved and Became a Determinant of Ageing Diseases: Hypotheses and Lessons from Pellagra

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Adrian C.; Hill, Lisa J.; Ramsden, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Compartmentalized redox faults are common to ageing diseases. Dietary constituents are catabolized to NAD(H) donating electrons producing proton-based bioenergy in coevolved, cross-species and cross-organ networks. Nicotinamide and NAD deficiency from poor diet or high expenditure causes pellagra, an ageing and dementing disorder with lost robustness to infection and stress. Nicotinamide and stress induce Nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT) improving choline retention but consume methyl groups. High NNMT activity is linked to Parkinson's, cancers, and diseases of affluence. Optimising nicotinamide and choline/methyl group availability is important for brain development and increased during our evolution raising metabolic and methylome ceilings through dietary/metabolic symbiotic means but strict energy constraints remain and life-history tradeoffs are the rule. An optimal energy, NAD and methyl group supply, avoiding hypo and hyper-vitaminoses nicotinamide and choline, is important to healthy ageing and avoids utilising double-edged symbionts or uncontrolled autophagy or reversions to fermentation reactions in inflammatory and cancerous tissue that all redistribute NAD(P)(H), but incur high allostatic costs. PMID:22536229

  15. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities in persons aged 65 years and older (the Cardiovascular Health Study). Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group.

    PubMed

    Furberg, C D; Manolio, T A; Psaty, B M; Bild, D E; Borhani, N O; Newman, A; Tabatznik, B; Rautaharju, P M

    1992-05-15

    Electrocardiographic abnormalities are often found in older patients, but their prevalence in free-living elderly populations is not well-defined. In addition, the clinical significance of many of these abnormalities is uncertain. The prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was determined in 5,150 adults aged greater than or equal to 65 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study--a study of risk factors for stroke and coronary heart disease in the elderly. Ventricular conduction defects, major Q/QS waves, left ventricular hypertrophy, isolated major ST-T-wave abnormalities, atrial fibrillation and first-degree atrioventricular block were collectively categorized as major electrocardiographic abnormalities. Prevalence of any major electrocardiographic abnormality was 29% in the entire cohort, 19% among 2,413 participants who reported no history of coronary artery disease or systemic hypertension, and 37% among 2,737 participants with a history of coronary artery disease or hypertension. Prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was higher in men than in women regardless of history, and tended to increase with age. Major Q/QS waves were found in 5.2%, and more than half were in those who did not report a previous myocardial infarction. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities are common in elderly men and women irrespective of the history of heart disease. PMID:1585868

  16. "Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests": Correction to Fox, Berry, and Freeman (2014).

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Reports an error in "Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests" by Mark C. Fox, Jane M. Berry and Sara P. Freeman (, 2014[Dec], Vol 29[4], 925-938). In the article, unneeded zeros were inadvertently included at the beginnings of some numbers in Tables 1-4. In addition, the right column in Table 4 includes three unnecessary zeros after asterisks. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) Relatively high vocabulary scores of older adults are generally interpreted as evidence that older adults possess more of a common ability than younger adults. Yet, this interpretation rests on empirical assumptions about the uniformity of item-response functions between groups. In this article, we test item response models of differential responding against datasets containing younger-, middle-aged-, and older-adult responses to three popular vocabulary tests (the Shipley, Ekstrom, and WAIS-R) to determine whether members of different age groups who achieve the same scores have the same probability of responding in the same categories (e.g., correct vs. incorrect) under the same conditions. Contrary to the null hypothesis of measurement invariance, datasets for all three tests exhibit substantial differential responding. Members of different age groups who achieve the same overall scores exhibit differing response probabilities in relation to the same items (differential item functioning) and appear to approach the tests in qualitatively different ways that generalize across items. Specifically, younger adults are more likely than older adults to leave items unanswered for partial credit on the Ekstrom, and to produce 2-point definitions on the WAIS-R. Yet, older adults score higher than younger adults, consistent with most reports of vocabulary outcomes in the cognitive aging literature. In light of these findings, the most generalizable conclusion to be drawn from the cognitive aging

  17. Swine influenza virus infection in different age groups of pigs in farrow-to-finish farms in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding swine influenza virus (SIV) ecology has become more and more important from both the pig industry and public health points of views. However, the mechanism whereby SIV occurs in pig farms is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a proper strategy for SIV surveillance. Findings We conducted longitudinal monitoring in 6 farrow-to-finish farms in the central region of Thailand from 2008 to 2009. Nasal swabs and serum samples were collected periodically from clinically healthy pigs consisting of sows, fattening pigs, weaned piglets and pigs transferred from other farms. A total of 731 nasal swabs were subjected to virus isolation and 641 serum samples were subjected to detection of SIV antibodies against H1 and H3 subtypes using the hemagglutination inhibition test and ELISA. Twelve SIVs were isolated in this study and eleven were from piglets aged 4 and 8 weeks. Phylogenetical analysis revealed that SIVs isolated from different farms shared a common ancestor. Antibodies against SIVs were detected in fattening pigs on farms with no SIV isolation in the respective periods studied. These observations suggested that piglets aged 8 weeks or younger could be a main target for SIV isolation. Farm-to-farm transmission was suggested for farms where pigs from other farms are introduced periodically. In addition, antibodies against SIVs detected in fattening pigs could be a marker for SIV infection in a farm. Conclusions The present study provided important information on SIV surveillance that will enable better understanding of SIV ecology in farrow-to-finish farms. PMID:22166074

  18. A new turtle from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group of Brazil, updated phylogeny and implications for age of the Santo Anastácio Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegazzo, Mirian Costa; Bertini, Reinaldo José; Manzini, Flávio Fernando

    2015-03-01

    A new Podocnemidinura specimen from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group (Paraná Basin) of southeastern Brazil was described. The Bauru Group provided an important portrait of the Brazilian Mesozoic terrestrial biota, which boasts a vertebrate fauna formed from fishes, frogs, lacertilians, crocodyliforms, dinosaurs and mammals; records of palynomorphs; and invertebrate fauna consisted of gastropods, bivalves, ostracods and conchostracans. Nevertheless, the age of these continental deposits is not precisely estimated, which prevents global correlations, and its fauna is argued to be endemic. The new specimen described is the first turtle from the Santo Anastácio Formation, and its morphological comparison with other South American forms provided a significant advancement in the understanding of the age of this unit (Late Cretaceous). This study permitted a revision of the turtle taxa of the Bauru Group. As a result, some taxa were considered synonym, including the new Santo Anastácio form. The specimen is still unnamed due to the absence of skull characters that preclude its accurate positioning within the Bauru Group skull-based taxa. In addition, the phylogenetic affinities of this taxon were analyzed into Podocnemidinura clade.

  19. Zircon U-Pb Ages from an Ultra-High Temperature Metapelite, Rauer Group, East Antarctica: Implications for Overprints by Grenvillian and Pan-African Events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Yanbin; Tong, Laixi; Liu, Dunyi

    2007-01-01

    SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon from an ultra-high temperature (UHT, ~1000 °C) granulite-facies metapelite from the Rauer Group, Mather Peninsula, east Antarctica, has yielded evidence for two episodes of metamorphic zircon growth, at ~1.00 Ga and ~530 Ma, and two episodes of magmatism in the source region for the protolith sediment, at ~2.53 and ~2.65 Ga, were identified from the zircon cores. Successive zircon growth at ~1.00 Ga and ~530 Ma records a sequence of distinct, widely spaced high-temperature metamorphic and/or anatectic events related to Grenvillian and Pan-African orogenesis. This study presents the first robust geochronological evidence for the timing of UHT metamorphism of the Rauer Group, supporting arguments that the peak UHT metamorphic event occurred at ~1.00 Ga and was overprinted by a separate high-grade event at ~530 Ma. The new age data indicate that the UHT granulites of the Rauer Group experienced a complex, multi-stage tectonothermal history, which cannot simply be explained via a single Pan-African (~500 Ma) high-grade tectonic event. This is critical in understanding the role of the eastern Prydz Bay region during the assembly of the east Gondwana supercontinent, and the newly recognized inherited Archaean ages (~2.53 and ~2.65 Ga) suggest a close tectonic relationship between the Rauer Group and the adjacent Archaean of the Vestfold Hills

  20. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and redox status in a short-term low-dosed multivitamin and mineral supplementation study in two human age groups.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Eugene; Beekhof, Piet; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Luksiene, Dalia; Baceviciene, Migle

    2015-10-01

    A 60-day intervention study was conducted in which the participants took a low dose of a multivitamin and mineral supplement. The study consists of a final number of 66 volunteers (30 males and 36 females), divided into two age groups of 30-35 and 60-65 years. For 30 days they took a multivitamin and mineral supplement with 1× the recommended daily intake (RDI) followed by another 30 days with 2× the RDI. The aim of the study was to monitor oxidative stress and redox status of both young and old age groups. In serum, the expected increase of the water-soluble vitamins folate and vitamin B12 was observed with a concomitant decrease in homocysteine. Serum biomarkers of oxidative stress, the reactive oxygen metabolites, of the antioxidant status, the biological antioxidant potential did not change. However, the total thiol levels in serum, biomarker of the redox status, decreased significant, only in both groups of elderly after 60 days. In erythrocytes, there was a change in the glutathione metabolism as observed by an increase in glutathione reductase and to a lower extend in glutathione peroxidase, indicating an increase in oxidative stress in all groups. It is concluded that a low-dosed multivitamin and -mineral supplementation have different effects on the redox status in young versus old. It remained to explain why a low dose of a multivitamin and -mineral supplement cause increased oxidative stress. PMID:25773009

  1. Absolute vs. weight-related maximum oxygen uptake in firefighters: fitness evaluation with and without protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus among age group.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen's College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

  2. Explicit and Implicit Positive Alcohol Expectancies in Problem and Non-Problem Drinkers: Differences Across Age Groups from Young Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vilenne, Aurélie; Quertemont, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence. Methods: Adolescent (13–16 year old), young adult (17–18 year old), and adult (35–55 year old) participants were recruited. On the basis of their score on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), they were classified as non-problem (AUDIT ≤ 7) or problem (AUDIT ≥ 11) drinkers. The participants completed the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) and performed two unipolar Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess implicit associations between alcohol and the concepts of “stimulation” and “sedation”. Results: Problem drinkers from the three age groups reported significantly higher positive alcohol expectancies than non-problem drinkers on all AEQ subscales. Positive alcohol explicit expectancies also gradually decreased with age, with adolescent problem drinkers reporting especially high positive expectancies. This effect was statistically significant for all positive expectancies, with the exception of relaxation expectancies that were only close to statistical significance. In contrast, stimulation and sedation alcohol implicit associations were not significantly different between problem and non-problem drinkers and did not change with age. Conclusion: These results indicate that explicit positive alcohol effect expectancies predict current alcohol consumption levels, especially in adolescents. Positive alcohol expectancies also gradually decrease with age in the three cross-sectional groups of adolescents, young adults, and adults. This effect might be related to changes in the physiological response to alcohol. PMID:26635680

  3. Acute lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in a group of Egyptian children under 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and aim Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) in infants and young children. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of ALRTI associated with RSV among children ≤ 5 years old in Egypt. Patients and Methods We enrolled 427 children ≤ 5 years old diagnosed with ALRTI attending the outpatient clinic or Emergency Department (ED) of Children Hospital, Cairo University during a one- year period. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from the patients, kept on ice and processed within 2 hours of collection. Immunoflourescent assay (IFA) for RSV was performed. Results 91 cases (21.3%) had viral etiology with RSV antigens detected in 70 cases (16.4%). The RSV positive cases were significantly younger than other non-RSV cases (mean age 8.2 months versus 14.2 months, p <0.001). RSV cases had significantly higher respiratory rate in the age group between 2-11 months (mean 58.4 versus 52.7/minute, p < 0.001) and no significant difference in the mean respiratory rate in the age group between 12-59 months. More RSV cases required supplemental oxygen (46% versus 23.5%, p < 0.001) with higher rate of hospitalization (37.1% versus 11.2%, p < 0.001) than the non-RSV cases. 97% of RSV cases occurred in winter season (p < 0.001). Conclusion RSV is the most common viral etiology of ALRTI in children below 5 years of age, especially in young infants below 6 months of age. It is more prevalent in winter and tends to cause severe infection. PMID:21466713

  4. A Study of Interaction Effects of School and Home Environments on Students of Varying Race/Ethnicity, Class, and Gender. Final Report. Volume II: Ethnographies of Five Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, John D.; And Others

    This report describes the ethnographic phase of a 2-year study (consisting of ethnographic observation and a survey) on how perceptions of home and school climates and interaction between the two factors might affect school performance among students of different racial/ethnic groups, sex, and socioeconomic status. Ethnographic case studies of…

  5. The Multiple Meanings of Age for Television Content Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Marie-Louise; Sun, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined how adult age and time of measurement influence media preferences. Study 1 (using TV ratings data from 1970s to 1980s) found that the popularity of genres varied over time, but even after controlling for year, age groups differed in (a) genre choices (consistent with socioemotional selectivity theory) and (b) age of characters…

  6. CC-chemokine receptor 5 polymorphism and age of onset in familial multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Group.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, L F; Schito, A M; Rimmler, J B; Vittinghoff, E; Shih, A; Lincoln, R; Callier, S; Elkins, M K; Goodkin, D E; Haines, J L; Pericak-Vance, M A; Hauser, S L; Oksenberg, J R

    2000-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common disease of the central nervous system characterized by myelin loss and progressive neurological dysfunction. An underlying genetic susceptibility plays a clear role in the etiology of MS, likely acting in concert with an undefined environmental exposure. Full-genome screenings in multiplex MS families have identified several susceptibility regions, supporting a polygenic model for MS. Among these regions, evidence for weak linkage was observed at 3p/3cen suggesting the presence of an MS gene(s) of modest effect. Encoded here are two chemokine receptors, CCR5 and CCR2B. We examined the chromosome 3p21-24 region in 125 MS families (322 total affecteds and 200 affected sib-pairs), and performed genetic analyses of CCR5 and CCR2B loci and two nearby markers (D3S1289 and D3S1300) using both linkage- and association-based tests. No evidence of linkage to MS was observed for any of the tested markers. Affected relative-pair (SimIBD) and sib-pair analyses (ASPEX), and association testing (sib-TDT) for each locus were also not significant. However, age of onset was approximately 3 years later in patients carrying the CCR5delta32 deletion (P=0.018 after controlling for gender effects). Thus, chemokine receptor expression may be associated with differential disease onset in a subset of patients, and may provide a therapeutic target to modulate inflammatory demyelination. PMID:10803840

  7. Ganymede varied terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Voyager 2 took this picture of Ganymede on 5 March 1979. It was taken with the narrow-angle camera from a range of 270,000 kilometers. Clear examples of several of the different types of terrain common on Ganymede's surface are visible. The broad light regions running through the older dark areas are the typical grooved structures seen within most of the light regions on Ganymede. Many examples of craters of all ages can be seen in this image, including fresh, bright ray craters, large, subdued circular markings thought to be the 'scars' of large ancient impacts and craters with thin, bright rims a small central crater. The Voyager Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  8. Neisseria meningitidis Group A IgG1 and IgG2 Subclass Immune Response in African Children Aged 12–23 Months Following Meningococcal Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Holme, Daniel; Findlow, Helen; Sow, Samba O.; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Carlone, George; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT, was licensed in 2010 and was previously studied in a phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate its safety and immunogenicity in African children 12–23 months of age. Methods. Subjects received either PsA-TT; meningococcal group A, C, W, Y polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY); or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib-TT). Forty weeks following primary vaccination, the 3 groups were further randomized to receive either PsA-TT, one-fifth dose of PsACWY, or Hib-TT. Group A–specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass response was characterized using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The predominant IgG subclass response, regardless of vaccine, was IgG1. One month following primary vaccination, the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of IgG1 and IgG2 in the PsA-TT group were 21.73 µg/mL and 6.27 µg/mL, whereas in the PsACWY group the mean GMCs were 2.01 µg/mL and 0.97 µg/mL, respectively (P < .0001). Group A–specific IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs remained greater in the PsA-TT group than in the PsACWY group 40 weeks following primary vaccination (P < .0001). One week following revaccination, those given 2 doses of PsA-TT had the greatest IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs of 125.23 µg/mL and 36.12 µg/mL, respectively (P = .0008), and demonstrated a significant increase in IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio, indicative of the T-cell–dependent response associated with conjugate vaccines. Conclusions. Vaccination of African children aged 12–24 months with either PsA-TT or PsACWY elicited a predominantly IgG1 response. The IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio decreased following successive vaccination with PsACWY, indicating a shift toward IgG2, suggestive of the T-cell–independent immune response commonly associated with polysaccharide antigens. Clinical Trials Registration. SRCTN78147026. PMID:26553689

  9. The effect of color on the production of responses to Rorschach cards VIII, IX, and X in age groups of 11-12 and 15-16 years.

    PubMed

    Silva, Danilo R; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2014-01-01

    The effect of color on the production of responses to the Rorschach task has been considered by investigators from 2 different positions: (a) that color has little effect on the production of responses, and (b) that color increases the number of responses. Some previous results found by the current investigators have supported the first position for the last 3 fully colored Rorschach cards (VIII, IX, and X), in children from 5 to 12 years old. Other studies of ours, however, have confirmed the second position for these same cards with a group of young adults 17 to 23 years old. As there was no increase of responses up to age 12, for this study we hypothesized a developmental effect in adolescence such that there would be an increase in the production of responses to the colored Rorschach cards at the age of 15 to 16 years, and this is what the results indicate. From a pragmatic standpoint, these results imply a revision of interpretive meaning for the Color and Affective Ratio variables in children's protocols. Our results also indicate that color cannot be regarded as a means of expression of affect at age 11 to 12 like it will be from age 15 to 16 and on. PMID:24456089

  10. Critical role of phospholipase A2 group IID in age-related susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome–CoV infection

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Rahul; Hua, Xiaoyang; Meyerholz, David K.; Miki, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kei; Gelb, Michael; Murakami, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation in the lungs are associated with aging and may contribute to age-related immune dysfunction. To maintain lung homeostasis, chronic inflammation is countered by enhanced expression of proresolving/antiinflammatory factors. Here, we show that age-dependent increases of one such factor in the lungs, a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) group IID (PLA2G2D) with antiinflammatory properties, contributed to worse outcomes in mice infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Strikingly, infection of mice lacking PLA2G2D expression (Pla2g2d−/− mice) converted a uniformly lethal infection to a nonlethal one (>80% survival), subsequent to development of enhanced respiratory DC migration to the draining lymph nodes, augmented antivirus T cell responses, and diminished lung damage. We also observed similar effects in influenza A virus–infected middle-aged Pla2g2d−/− mice. Furthermore, oxidative stress, probably via lipid peroxidation, was found to induce PLA2G2D expression in mice and in human monocyte–derived macrophages. Thus, our results suggest that directed inhibition of a single inducible phospholipase, PLA2G2D, in the lungs of older patients with severe respiratory infections is potentially an attractive therapeutic intervention to restore immune function. PMID:26392224

  11. Assessment of lutein and zeaxanthin status and dietary markers as predictors of the contrast threshold in 2 age groups of men and women.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin (L + Z) status is associated with the macular pigment (MP). The relationship between MP and visual function is controversial. We hypothesized that, within the framework of nutrition, visual function was related to MP and nutritional and/or/dietary factors influencing it. A cross-sectional study was performed in 108 volunteers divided into 2 age groups (20-35 years; 45-65 years), each 27 women and 27 men, to assess the relationship between MP optical density (MPOD) and contrast threshold (CT), considering the influence of L + Z and, fruit and vegetable (F + V) intake. MPOD, L + Z in serum and dietary intake were determined using heterochromatic flicker photometry, high-performance liquid chromatography and 3-day food records, respectively. CT was measured with the CGT-1000 Contrast Glaretester at 6 stimulus sizes, with and without glare. Spearman correlation coefficient and a generalized linear model were used for the statistical study. MPOD and CT were higher and lower, respectively in younger than in elder individuals (P < .000) and were correlated only in the older group. CT were higher under glare conditions, at the intermediate and smaller visual angles, with greater differences in the older (P < .003) than the younger group (P < .014). In the total sample, CT correlated inversely with MPOD (correlation coefficients and P values ranging from -.245 to -.152 and from .000 to .026, respectively) and directly with F + V intake (correlation coefficients and P values ranging from -.265 to -.176 and from .000 to .010, respectively). As predictors of CT in the total sample, MPOD, F + V (every 100 g/d) and sex were identified (β coefficients ranged from -0.01 to -1.86; from 0.01 to 0.08 and from 0.01 to 0.40, respectively). CT revealed age-specific nutritional predictors: MPOD and serum lutein in the 45- to 65-year group, and F + V intake in the 20- to 35-year group. PMID:27262538

  12. The hand and environment (3)--physiological changes of digital functions in two age groups studied by vibratory stimulations and a cold water immersion.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Ijichi, M; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuki, T; Ito, K; Kamogawa, M; Matsushita, T; Kotani, K; Seki, A; Tanaka, H; Kawamura, K

    1982-02-25

    Skin temperature, vibratory sensibility and pinch strength of the hand were recorded continuously in 20 healthy adults through two vibratory stress tests (32 Hz and 125 Hz) and a cold water (10 degrees C) immersion (for 10 min) test in a climatic chamber (20 degrees C, 50% humidity). As a stressor to the hand, the immersion was the most effective and the vibrator stress at 32 Hz was next. As a detector for function of the hand, vibratory sensibility at 125 Hz was proved to be the most valuable and the digital temperature was the next. As to aging, the mature age group showed low vibratory sensibilities at 63 Hz, higher digital temperatures, stronger pinch strengths, and quicker recoveries after the stress tests. Along the passage of time after entering the chamber, the vibratory sensibilities and the pinch strengths did not show any changes. However, the digital temperatures became continuously lower. PMID:7077112

  13. A new Late Triassic age for the Puesto Viejo Group (San Rafael depocenter, Argentina): SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating and biostratigraphic correlations across southern Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottone, Eduardo G.; Monti, Mariana; Marsicano, Claudia A.; de la Fuente, Marcelo S.; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Armstrong, Richard; Mancuso, Adriana C.

    2014-12-01

    The Puesto Viejo Group crops out in the San Rafael Block, southwest Mendoza, at approximately 35° S and 68°20‧ W. It consists of the basal mainly grayish Quebrada de los Fósiles Formation (QF) overlying by the reddish Río Seco de la Quebrada Formation (RSQ). The basal unit includes both plant remains (pleuromeians and sphenopsids) and vertebrates (scattered fish scales, dicynodont synapsids and remains of an archosauriform). In contrast, the RSQ beds have yielded only tetrapods, although a more diverse fauna. The latter includes cynodonts as Cynognathus, Pascualognathus and Diademodon, and also dicynodonts (Vinceria and Kannemeyeria). Based on the assemblage of tetrapod taxa the bearing levels were correlated to the Cynognathus AZ of South Africa and thus referred to the Middle Triassic (Anisian). We obtained a SHRIMP 238U/206Pb age of 235.8 ± 2.0 Ma from a rhyolitic ignimbrite interdigitated between the QF and RSQ formations at the Quebrada de los Fósiles section. This new radiometric date for the Puesto Viejo Group suggests that the tetrapod fauna in the RSQ beds existed, instead, during the Late Triassic (early Carnian) some 10 Ma later than the currently accepted age. Two scenarios might explain our results: first, the Cynognathus AZ of South Africa is wrongly assigned to the lower Middle Triassic (Anisan) and should be considered younger in age, Late Triassic (Carnian); second, the relative age of the Cynognathus AZ of South Africa is correct but the inferred range of Cynognathus and Diademodon is incorrect as they were present during the Late Triassic (Carnian) at least in South America. In any case, this new date pose serious doubts about the validity of biostratigraphic correlations based solely on tetrapod taxa, a common practice for Triassic continental successions across Gondwana.

  14. Older Age Predicts Decreased Metastasis and Prostate Cancer-Specific Death for Men Treated With Radiation Therapy: Meta-Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Hamstra, Daniel A.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Pilepich, Miljenko V.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Grignon, David J.; McGowan, David G.; Roach, Mack; Lawton, Colleen; Lee, R. Jeffrey; Sandler, Howard

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The impact of age on prostate cancer (PCa) outcome has been controversial; therefore, we analyzed the effect of age on overall survival (OS), distant metastasis, prostate cancer-specific death (PCSD), and nonprostate cancer death (NPCD) on patients with locally advanced PCa. Methods and Materials: Patients who participated in four Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III trials, 8531, 8610, 9202, and 9413, were studied. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for OS analysis, and cumulative events analysis with Fine and Gray's regression was used for analyses of metastasis, PCSD, and NPCD. Results: Median follow-up of 4,128 patients with median age of 70 (range, 43-88 years) was 7.3 years. Most patients had high-risk disease: cT3 to cT4 (54%) and Gleason scores (GS) of 7 (45%) and 8 to 10 (27%). Older age ({<=}70 vs. >70 years) predicted for decreased OS (10-year rate, 55% vs. 41%, respectively; p < 0.0001) and increased NPCD (10-year rate, 28% vs. 46%, respectively; p < 0.0001) but decreased metastasis (10-year rate, 27% vs. 20%, respectively; p < 0.0001) and PCSD (10-year rate, 18% vs. 14%, respectively; p < 0.0001). To account for competing risks, outcomes were analyzed in 2-year intervals, and age-dependent differences in metastasis and PCSD persisted, even in the earliest time periods. When adjusted for other covariates, an age of >70 years remained associated with decreased OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.70] p < 0.0001) but with decreased metastasis (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.63-0.83] p < 0.0001) and PCSD (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.66-0.92] p < 0.0001). Finally, the impact of the duration of androgen deprivation therapy as a function of age was evaluated. Conclusions: These data support less aggressive PCa in older men, independent of other clinical features. While the biological underpinning of this finding remains unknown, stratification by age in future trials appears to be warranted.

  15. IgG avidity antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in high risk females of reproductive age group in India.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Naushaba; Shujatullah, Fatima; Khan, Haris M; Rabbani, Tamkin; Khan, Parvez A

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that is distributed worldwide. Recently, several tests for avidity of Toxoplasma IgG antibodies have been introduced to help discriminate between recently acquired and distant infections. The study was conducted in Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, India from February 2011 to September 2012. Serum specimens were subjected to Toxoplasma IgM ELISA and IgG avidity ELISA test. Out of 48 patients with abortions, 17 (35.4%) were positive for IgM ELISA, and 8 (16.6%) had low IgG avidity antibodies. Out of 48 patients with other obstetric problems, 23 (47.9%) were positive for IgM ELISA, and 17 (35.4%) had low IgG avidity antibodies. Combining both groups on avidity test, only 25 of 40 (62.5%) IgM-positive women had low-avidity IgG antibodies suggesting a recent T. gondii infection in these women. More importantly, 15 (37.5%) of the IgM-positive women had high-avidity antibodies suggesting that the infection was acquired before gestation The relation of IgM seropositivity with the following risk factors was not found to be statistically significant; contact with cats (0.13), non-vegetarian food habits (0.05), and low socio-economic status (0.49). While, for IgG avidity ELISA, only contact with cats (0.01) was significantly associated with seropositivity. All other risk factors have P-values of >0.05 (not significant). IgG avidity test when used in combination with IgM test was a valuable assay for diagnosis of ongoing or recently acquired T. gondii infection in India. PMID:25352696

  16. Ganymede's Varied Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Voyager 2 took this picture of Ganymede as the spacecraft was nearing its encounter with the ice giant. It was taken from a range of 312,000 kilometers (195,000 miles), and it shows features down to about 5 to 6 kilometers across. Clear examples of several of the different types of terras in common on Ganymede s surface are visible (right).. The boundary of the largest region of dark ancient terrain on Ganymede can be seen to the east (right), revealing some of the light linear features which may be all that remains of a large ancient impact structure similar to the large ring structure on Callisto. The broad light regions running through the image are the typical grooved structures seen within most of the light regions on Ganymede. To the lower left is another example of what might be evidence of large scale lateral motion in Ganymede's crust. The band of grooved terrain (about 100 kilometers wide) in this region appears to be offset by 50 kilometers or more on the left hand edge by a linear feature perpendicular to it. A feature similar to this one was previously discovered by Voyager 1. These are the first clear examples of strike-slip style faulting on any planet other than Earth. Many examples of craters of all ages can be seen in this image, ranging from fresh, bright ray craters to large, subdued circular markings thought to be the 'scars' of large ancient impacts that have been flattened by glacier-like flows.

  17. Comparative Study of Probiotic Ice Cream and Probiotic Drink on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in 6-12 Years Age Group Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Reddy, K M Parveen; Kumar, N H Praveen; Nara, Asha; Ashwin, Devasya; Buddiga, Vinutna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. Probiotics are one the various preventive methods to reduce dental caries. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of probiotic ice cream and drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: A three phase study was carried out in children (n = 50) of 6-12 years age with zero decayed missing filled teeth (dmft)/DMFT. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva samples were collected before the consumptions of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink. Colony count obtained was recorded as baseline data. For both groups probiotic ice cream and drink was given randomly for 7 days and a washout period of 90 days were given and then the saliva samples were collected and colony counting was done. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s paired t-test and multiple comparisons by Tukey’s honest significant difference test which showed, there is a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans level in both groups after 7 days period. However, after washout period only probiotic ice cream showed reduction whereas drink did not. Also, there was no significant difference between probiotic ice cream and drink. Conclusion: Probiotic organisms definitely have a role in reducing the salivary S. mutans level and ice cream would be a better choice than drink. However, the prolonged use of the agents and their effects on caries is still to be determined. PMID:26435616

  18. MtDNA Haplogroup A10 Lineages in Bronze Age Samples Suggest That Ancient Autochthonous Human Groups Contributed to the Specificity of the Indigenous West Siberian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pilipenko, Aleksandr S.; Trapezov, Rostislav O.; Zhuravlev, Anton A.; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Romaschenko, Aida G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The craniometric specificity of the indigenous West Siberian human populations cannot be completely explained by the genetic interactions of the western and eastern Eurasian groups recorded in the archaeology of the area from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. Anthropologists have proposed another probable explanation: contribution to the genetic structure of West Siberian indigenous populations by ancient human groups, which separated from western and eastern Eurasian populations before the final formation of their phenotypic and genetic features and evolved independently in the region over a long period of time. This hypothesis remains untested. From the genetic point of view, it could be confirmed by the presence in the gene pool of indigenous populations of autochthonous components that evolved in the region over long time periods. The detection of such components, particularly in the mtDNA gene pool, is crucial for further clarification of early regional genetic history. Results and Conclusion We present the results of analysis of mtDNA samples (n = 10) belonging to the A10 haplogroup, from Bronze Age populations of West Siberian forest-steppe (V—I millennium BC), that were identified in a screening study of a large diachronic sample (n = 96). A10 lineages, which are very rare in modern Eurasian populations, were found in all the Bronze Age groups under study. Data on the A10 lineages’ phylogeny and phylogeography in ancient West Siberian and modern Eurasian populations suggest that A10 haplogroup underwent a long-term evolution in West Siberia or arose there autochthonously; thus, the presence of A10 lineages indicates the possible contribution of early autochthonous human groups to the genetic specificity of modern populations, in addition to contributions of later interactions of western and eastern Eurasian populations. PMID:25950581

  19. Early crust of the Podolia Domain of the Ukrainian Shield: Isotopic age of terrigenous zircons from quartzites of the Bug Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, E. V.; Fedotova, A. A.; Claesson, S.; Stepanyuk, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Detrital zircons of the ancient metasedimentary rocks bear important information about the early crust of the Earth. In this work, the early crust in the west of the Ukrainian Shield was studied using U-Pb dating of terrigenous zircons from metasedimentary rocks (quartzites) of the lower parts of the Bug Group (Kosharo-Aleksandrovka Formation) of the Podolia Domain and through Sm-Nd isotopic investigation of these rocks. The Nd model age of rocks is 3.4-3.1 Ga. Detrital zircons were studied in two samples of quartzites. The cathodoluminescent images of most zircons support their clastic origin. More than 150 zircon grains were studied on an ion microprobe. The isotope age of zircons is 3775-2000 Ma. These results were compared with previous results of study of terrigenous zircons from garnet schists of the Zaval'e quarry located closely to the studied area. It is concluded that both Paleoarchean and Meso- to Neoarchean rocks were destroyed during formation of terrigenous rocks of the Bug Group. The different amount of ancient zircons in quartzites and garnet schists indicates the different remoteness of the most ancient rocks from sedimentary basins.

  20. Markers of lutein and zeaxanthin status in two age groups of men and women: dietary intake, serum concentrations, lipid profile and macular pigment optical density

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in retina (macular pigment). Their nutritional status can be assessed using dietary or biochemical markers and both have been associated with macular pigment optical density. We proposed to assess dietary and status markers of lutein and zeaxanthin in a group of healthy Spanish volunteers, considering the potential influence of age, gender and serum lipids to investigate the predictors of the macular pigment optical density. Methods Serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations, dietary intake and macular pigment optical density were determined in 108 healthy men and women (20–35 and 45–65 years), using high-performance liquid chromatography, 3-day food records and heterochromic flicker photometry, respectively. Mann–Whitney U-test, Spearman correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analysis were used for the statistical study. Results Serum concentrations and dietary intake of lutein plus zeaxanthin (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively) were higher in older vs younger subjects, whereas macular pigment optical density was lower (p = 0.038). The highest correlation coefficients between intake and serum were for fruit and serum lutein (ρ = 0.452, p < 0.0001) and for fruit and lutein + zeaxanthin (ρ = 0.431, p < 0.0001) in the younger group. Macular pigment optical density correlated with serum xanthophylls (ρ = 0.223, p = 0.02) and fruit and vegetable intake (ρ = 0.350, p = 0.0002), showing highest correlations when lutein and zeaxanthin were expressed in relation to serum lipids in older subjects (ρ = 0.262, p = 0.006). Multivariate regression analysis identified age and serum lutein as major predictors of macular pigment optical density (total sample), and a coefficient of determination of 29.7% for the model including lutein + zeaxathin/cholesterol + triglycerides, sex and fruit + vegetables in the older group. Conclusions The

  1. Hospital Based Prospective Observational Study to Audit the Prescription Practices and Outcomes of Paediatric Patients (6 months to 5 years age group) Presenting with Acute Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Kondekar, Santosh; Rathi, Surbhi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhea is a leading killer of children, accounting for 9% of all deaths among under-five children worldwide. WHO protocol deviation in management of diarrheas in children is likely due to various reasons. Aim To study the prescription practices, regarding adherence to WHO protocol and deviations, in the management of acute diarrhea in children presenting at a tertiary care hospital and its impact on the outcome. Materials and Methods This was a prospective observational hospital based study at a tertiary care carried out over a 12-month period including all cases of acute diarrhea (defined as 3 or more loose stools in last 24 hours) in children belonging to the age group of 6 months to 5 years. Patients were followed up on day 3,7,14 and 28 from the day of presentation. Software SPSS Version 17.0 was used for analysis. Correlation regression analysis was used to study predictiveness of different variables affecting outcome. Results In this study, 447 children aged between 6 months and 5 years were enrolled, of which 45 cases were lost in follow-up and excluded. The median age was 14 months. Some deviation from WHO protocol was noted in 78.4% of the cases. Most common deviations from WHO protocol were addition of probiotics (78.1% of cases) and addition of race cadotril (15.9% of cases). Inadvertent use of antibiotics in diarrhea was noted in 12.2% of cases. Presence of fever was strong predictor for use of antibiotics. Cases of early recovery within 3 days of presentation were higher in WHO protocol deviation group. Use of probiotics had statistically significant association with early recovery. Conclusion In diarrhea management, WHO protocol deviation is common. Probiotics are likely to help in early recovery. PMID:27437317

  2. Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants on pneumonia and influenza hospitalization and mortality in all age groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Lone; Taylor, Robert J; Young-Xu, Yinong; Haber, Michael; May, Larissa; Klugman, Keith P

    2011-01-01

    A seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduced in the United States in 2000 has been shown to reduce invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in both vaccinated children and adults through induction of herd immunity. We assessed the impact of infant immunization on pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations and mortality in all age groups using Health Care Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases (SID) for 1996 to 2006 from 10 states; SID contain 100% samples of ICD9-coded hospitalization data for the selected states. Compared to a 1996-1997 through 1998-1999 baseline, by the 2005-2006 season, both IPD and pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations and deaths had decreased substantially in all age groups, including a 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38 to 54%) reduction in nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (ICD9 code 481 with no codes indicating IPD) in infants <2 years old and a 54% reduction (CI, 53 to 56%) in adults ≥65 years of age. A model developed to calculate the total burden of pneumococcal pneumonia prevented by infant PCV7 vaccination in the United States from 2000 to 2006 estimated a reduction of 788,838 (CI, 695,406 to 875,476) hospitalizations for pneumococcal pneumonia. Ninety percent of the reduction in model-attributed pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations occurred through herd immunity among adults 18 years old and older; similar proportions were found in pneumococcal disease mortality prevented by the vaccine. In the first seasons after PCV introduction, when there were substantial state differences in coverage among <5-year-olds, states with greater coverage had significantly fewer influenza-associated pneumonia hospitalizations among children, suggesting that PCV7 use also reduces influenza-attributable pneumonia hospitalizations. PMID:21264063

  3. Determination of the knowledge of e-waste disposal impacts on the environment among different gender and age groups in China, Laos, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Sharp, Alice

    2016-04-01

    E-waste is the fastest growing waste in the solid waste stream in the urban environment. It has become a widely recognised social and environmental problem; therefore, proper management is vital to protecting the fragile environment from its improper disposal. Questionnaire surveys were conducted to determine the knowledge of environmental impacts of e-waste disposal as it relates to mobile phones among different gender and age groups in China, Laos, and Thailand. The results revealed that gender was positively correlated with their knowledge of the status of environmental conditions (P104) (r = 0.077, n = 1994, p < 0.01) and negatively correlated with their knowledge of how to improve environmental conditions (P105) (r = -0.067, n = 2037, p < 0.01). In addition, an increase in age was positively correlated with respondents' concern over the environmental conditions (P103) (r = 0.052, n = 2077, p < 0.05) and P105 (r = 0.061, n = 2061, p < 0.01) mentioned above. The results indicated that female respondents were less knowledgeable about how to improve environmental conditions than male respondents in the three countries. Knowledge gaps were detected in the respondents, at age ⩽17, in the three countries, and from age 18-22 to 36-45 or older from Thailand and China, on their knowledge of the existing e-waste-related laws. Thus, an effort to bridge the gaps through initiating proper educational programmes in these two countries is necessary. PMID:26873910

  4. 1.99 Ga mafic dykes of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Scotland: An upper age limit for the Palaeoproterozoic Loch Maree Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Thomas; Prave, Tony; Spencer, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Mafic dyke swarms are often used as geochronological markers, as they are widespread and emplaced over short timespans. The ca. 2.4 Ga Scourie dyke swarm is one such example that has played a key role in understanding the complex tectonic and metamorphic history of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Scotland (LGC), part of the North Atlantic Craton (NAC). The LGC consists of Archean and Palaeoproterozoic terranes that experienced polyphase deformation prior to their assembly at ca. 1.8 Ga. Zircons separated from a doleritic dyke from the Gairloch terrane have yielded a concordant U-Th-Pb age (1,989 +4.3 / -0.99 Ma) using the ID-TIMS method. The doleritic dyke is emplaced in Lewisian gneiss that experienced both granulite and amphibolite-facies metamorphism. Partial recrystallisation and amphibolitisation of the dyke demonstrate that it pre-dates the most recent (Laxfordian) amphibolite-facies metamorphic event. The age obtained from the dyke overlaps the U-Pb age of a previously dated olivine gabbro dyke from the Assynt terrane (1,992 Ma). These combined ages provide strong corroborating evidence for a ca. 2.0 Ga mafic dyke swarm event, distinct from the older ca. 2.4 Ga Scourie dyke event known from elsewhere in the LGC. The existence of a ca. 2.0 Ga mafic dyke swarm provides an upper age limit for the Loch Maree Group (LMG), a Palaeoproterozoic succession of metasediment and metavolcanic rocks that overlie the LGC and which are not cross-cut by the Scourie dykes. This study proposes that a period of crustal extension took place in the region at ca. 2.0 Ga. Later, subduction may have resulted in the accretion of the LMG and the adjacent Ard Gneiss, which has previously been regarded as a magmatic arc. The ca. 1.9 Ga age of the earliest stage of the Laxfordian metamorphic event, which affected the LMG, could therefore mark the onset of collision. This sequence of events can be correlated with other coeval areas of the NAC, including the Nagssugtoqidian mobile belt of

  5. The effect of motivational lung age feedback on short-term quit rates in smokers seeking intensive group treatment: a randomized controlled pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Foulds, Jonathan; Veldheer, Susan; Hrabovsky, Shari; Yingst, Jessica; Sciamanna, Chris; Chen, Gang; Maccani, Jennifer Z. J.; Berg, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Background A brief “Lung Age” feedback intervention has shown promise for personalizing the health impact of smoking and promoting cessation in unselected smokers. Now that many healthcare organizations provide face-to-face cessation services, it is reasonable to ask whether such motivational feedback of lung function tests might improve treatment compliance and cessation rates in smokers wanting to quit. This study assessed effects of baseline motivational spirometry-based “Lung Age” feedback on treatment compliance and tobacco abstinence at 28-day follow-up. Methods This randomized controlled pilot study took place in Penn State University-affiliated outpatient medical practices. Participants were 225 adult smokers (≥ 5 cigarettes/day) willing to attend tobacco dependence treatment. At assessment lung function (FEV-1) and exhaled carbon-monoxide (CO) were assessed. The Intervention group (n=120) were randomly allocated to receive motivational “Lung Age” feedback estimated by FEV-1 and on exhaled CO; Control group (n=105) received minimal feedback. Participants were offered 6 weekly group smoking cessation sessions and nicotine patches and followed-up 28 days after target quit date. The primary outcome measure was self-reported 7-day tobacco abstinence, confirmed by CO<10ppm at 28-day follow-up. Results Quit rates were similar at follow-up (Intervention 50.8%; Control 52.4%; p=0.65) after controlling for abstinence predictors. Group attendance and patch use were similar. Among those attending follow-up (n=164, 73%), a greater proportion of the Intervention group had improved lung function (67% v. 46%; p=0.0083). Conclusions Baseline Lung Age feedback did not improve quit rates or compliance at 28-day follow-up in smokers seeking intensive treatment. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01980485). PMID:26051163

  6. Epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in Brazil (EpiGastro): A population-based study according to sex and age group

    PubMed Central

    do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria; Medeiros da Silva, Aline; Chinzon, Décio; Eisig, Jaime N; Dias-Bastos, Telma RP

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalences of symptoms consistent with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and dyspepsia in South America. METHODS: A telephone survey was conducted among adult owners of land-based telephones in São Paulo, Brazil, using previously validated computer-assisted sampling and survey protocols. The Portuguese-language survey included (1) sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., weight, height, smoking) and comorbidities; (2) dietary habits; (3) presence of symptoms consistent with GERD or dyspepsia within the prior 3 mo; and (4) use of medications and other therapies to manage symptoms. Data were stratified post-hoc into three homogeneous geographical regions of São Paulo according to the Social Exclusion Indices of the districts and postal codes. Survey response data from each respondent were weighted by the numbers of adults and landline telephones in each household. The analyses were weighted to account for sampling design and to be representative of the São Paulo population according to city census data. RESULTS: Among 4570 households contacted, an adult from 3050 (66.7%) agreed to participate. The nonresponse rate was 33.3%. The mean (SE) respondent age was 42.6 (16.0) years. More than half of all respondents were women (53.1%), aged 18 through 49 years (66.7%), married or cohabitating (52.5%), and/or above normal-weight standards (i.e., 35.3% overweight and 16.3% obese). A total of 26.5% of women were perimenopausal. More than 20% of respondents reported highly frequent symptoms consistent with GERD (e.g., gastric burning sensation = 20.8%) or dyspepsia (e.g., abdominal swelling/distension = 20.9%) at least once per month. Prevalences of these symptoms were significantly (approximately 1.5- to 2.0-fold) higher among women than men but did not vary significantly as a function of advancing age. For instance, 14.1% of women reported that they experienced stomach burning (symptom of GERD) at least twice per week, compared to 8.4% of men (P

  7. [Recommendations for prevention of community-acquired pneumonia with bacteremia as the leading form of invasive pneumococcal infections in the population of people over 50 years of age and risk groups above 19 years of age].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Piotr; Antczak, Adam; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Skoczyńska, Anna; Radzikowski, Andrzej; Kedziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Bernatowska, Ewa; Stompór, Tomasz; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Gyrczuk, Ewa; Imiela, Jacek; Jedrzejczak, Wiesław; Windak, Adam

    2014-02-01

    risk groups in the age > 19 years. At these work research findings were described above PPV23 and PCV13 at adults and world recommendations of applying both vaccines in risk groups from 19 years up to the advanced years. Also Polish recommendations of optimum applying of these vaccines were presented. They are recommending applying PCV13 at first in them, while PPV23, if to her readings exist should be given to > or = 8 of weeks from PCV13. In persons > or = 19 years which earlier received 1 or should receive more PPV23 doses first PCV13 dose should be given after the year or later than the last PPV23 dose, and then again PPV23 > or = 8 of weeks from PCV13 and the second PPV23 dose not earlier than 5 years from last PPV23. If the PPV23 application seems to be justified, it is irrespective of the more previous state vaccination against pneumococci, PCV13 should be given to as first. PMID:24720101

  8. Increased participation and improved performance in age group backstroke master swimmers from 25-29 to 100-104 years at the FINA World Masters Championships from 1986 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Chiara M; Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated for different sport disciplines, but not for master swimmers. The knowledge on this topic is still missing for a particular stroke such as backstroke. Changes in participation and performance of male and female age group backstroke swimmers (≥25 years) competing in 50, 100 and 200 m pool swimming at the FINA World Masters Championships held between 1986 and 2014 were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses. The overall participation was n = 26,217 including n = 13,708 women and n = 12,509 men. In 50 m, female (age groups 85-89 years; p = 0.002) and male participation (age groups 55-59; p = 0.030 and 80-84 years; p = 0.002) increased, while female participation decreased in age groups 55-59 (p = 0.010) and 60-64 years (p = 0.050). In 100 and 200 m, participation increased in age groups 45-49, 50-54, 65-69, 70-74, 80-84 years. Swimmers in age groups 25-29 to 95-99 years improved performance over all distances. Women were slower than men in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years, but not in age groups 85-89 to 95-99 years over all distances. In 50 m and 100 m, the sex difference decreased in age groups 40-44 (p = 0.007 and p = 0.005), 45-49 (p = 0.017 and p = 0.034), 50-54 (p = 0.002 and p = 0.040), to 55-59 years (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004). In 200 m, the sex difference decreased in age groups 40-44 (p = 0.044) and 90-94 (p = 0.011), but increased in age group 25-29 years (p = 0.006). In summary, in age group backstroke swimmers, (1) participation increased or remained unchanged (except women in age groups 55-59 and 60-64 years in 50 m), (2) swimming performance improved in all age groups from 25-29 to 95-99 years over all distances, (3) men were faster than women in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years (except age groups 85-89 to 95-99 years) over time and all distances. PMID:27330911

  9. A comparative study of two mouthrinses on plaque and gingivitis in school children in the age group of 13-16 years in Bangalore city.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, K; Veeresha, K L; Hiremath, S S

    2007-01-01

    Research and clinical evidence indicate that most forms of plaque associated periodontal disease start as inflammatory lesions of the gingiva which if left untreated, may progress and eventually involve and compromise the entire periodontal attachment apparatus of the affected teeth. A study was conducted to assess the effect of a mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride on plaque accumulation and gingivitis in comparison with a chlorhexidine mouthrinse alone in a group of school children aged 13-16 years in Bangalore city. This combination along with the well established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries presents an important contribution to dental public health. The results suggest that the chlorhexidine-sodium fluoride mouthrinse potentially possesses a significant effect on inhibition of plaque accumulation and gingivitis. This combination along with the well-established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries, presents an important contribution to dental public health. PMID:17951928

  10. A prospective study of magnetic resonance imaging patterns of central nervous system infections in pediatric age group and young adults and their clinico-biochemical correlation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kamini; Banerjee, Avik; Saggar, Kavita; Ahluwalia, Archana; Saggar, Karan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are common and routinely encountered. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroimaging features of the various infections of the CNS so as to differentiate them from tumoral, vascular, and other entities that warrant a different line of therapy. Aims: Our aim was to analyze the biochemical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in CNS infections. Settings and Design: This was a longitudinal, prospective study over a period of 1½ years. Subjects and Methods: We studied cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and MRI patterns in 27 patients of 0–20 years age group with clinical features of CNS infections. MRI was performed on MAGNETOM Avanto 18 Channel 1.5 Tesla MR machine by Siemens India Ltd. The MRI protocol consisted of diffusion-weighted and apparent diffusion coefficient imaging, turbo spin echo T2-weighted, spin echo T1-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and gradient-echo in axial, FLAIR in coronal, and T2-weighted in sagittal plane. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequence and MR spectroscopy were done whenever indicated. Results and Conclusions: We found that most of the children belong to 1–10 years age group. Fungal infections were uncommon, mean CSF adenosine deaminase values specific for tuberculosis and mean CSF glucose-lowered in pyogenic. Hemorrhagic involvement of thalamus with/without basal ganglia and brainstem involvement may indicate Japanese encephalitis or dengue encephalitis. Diffusion restriction or hemorrhage in not expected in the brainstem afflicted lesions of rabies. Congenital cytomegalovirus can cause cortical malformations. T1 hyperintensities with diffusion restriction may represent viral encephalitis. Lesions of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) may mimic viral encephalitis. Leptomeningeal enhancement is predominant in pyogenic meningitis. Basilar meningitis in the presence of tuberculomas is highly sensitive and specific for tuberculosis. PMID

  11. DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in a middle-childhood-aged group of Malaysian children using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Atefeh; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Udin, Amirmudin; Haghdoost, AliAkbar

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Pediatric anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders in the middle-childhood age group. The purpose of this study is to assess anxiety disorder symptoms, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), in a large community sample of low socioeconomic level rural children and to investigate some of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and convergent validity and items rated as often or always experienced) of the Malay version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale - Child version (SCAS-C). Method Six hundred children aged 9-11 and 424 of their parents completely answered the child or parent versions of the SCAS. Results Results indicated that the internal reliability of subscales were moderate to adequate. Significant correlations between child and parent reports supported the measure's concurrent validity. Additionally, anxiety levels in this Malaysian sample were lower than among South-African children and higher than among their Western peers. There were both similarities and differences between symptom items reported as often or always experienced by Malaysian students and by children from other cultures. Confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of the existence of five inter-correlated factors for anxiety disorders based on SCAS-C. Conclusion Although some of the instrument's psychometric properties deviated from those observed in some other countries, it nevertheless appears to be useful for assessing childhood anxiety symptoms in this country. PMID:27007941

  12. Increase in reptile-associated human salmonellosis and shift toward adulthood in the age groups at risk, the Netherlands, 1985 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Heck, Max; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-08-25

    While the contribution of the main food-related sources to human salmonellosis is well documented, knowledge on the contribution of reptiles is limited. We quantified and examined trends in reptile-associated salmonellosis in the Netherlands during a 30-year period, from 1985 to 2014. Using source attribution analysis, we estimated that 2% (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.8) of all sporadic/domestic human salmonellosis cases reported in the Netherlands during the study period (n = 63,718) originated from reptiles. The estimated annual fraction of reptile-associated sal