Buckley, Neil J.; Denton, Frank T.; Robb, A. Leslie; Spencer, Byron G.
Being higher on the socio-economic scale is correlated with being in better health, but is there is a causal relationship? Using 3 years of longitudinal data for individuals aged 50 and older from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we study the health transitions for those who were in good health in the first year, focusing…
Lightner, Nancy J
Preferences for certain characteristics of an online shopping experience may be related to demographic data. This paper discusses the characteristics of that experience, demographic data and preferences by demographic group. The results of an online survey of 488 individuals in the United States indicate that respondents are generally satisfied with their online shopping experiences, with security, information quality and information quantity ranking first in importance overall. The sensory impact of a site ranked last overall of the seven characteristics measured. Preferences for these characteristics in e-commerce sites were differentiated by age, education and income. The sensory impact of sites became less important as respondents increased in age, income or education. As the income of respondents increased, the importance of the reputation of the vendor rose. Web site designers may incorporate these findings into the design of e-commerce sites in an attempt to increase the shopping satisfaction of their users. Results from the customer relationship management portion of the survey suggest that current push technologies and site personalization are not an effective means of achieving user satisfaction. PMID:12554404
Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A
An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. PMID:23168270
Buster, Kesha J.; You, Zhiying; Fouad, Mona; Elmets, Craig
Background Studies of non-cutaneous and cutaneous malignancies support the hypothesis that poor risk-perception status contributes to health disparity. Objective We evaluated skin cancer risk perceptions across race and other demographic markers using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) and compared them to discover differences in perception that may contribute to the disparities in skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. Methods Respondents with no prior history of skin cancer were randomly selected to answer questions assessing perceived risk and knowledge of preventive strategies of skin cancer. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations between perceptions of skin cancer and demographic variables including self-described race, age, sex, education, income, and health insurance status. Results Blacks, the elderly, and people with less education perceived themselves as at lower risk of developing skin cancer. They, along with Hispanics, were also more likely to believe that one cannot lower their skin cancer risk and that there are so many different recommendations on how to prevent skin cancer that it makes it difficult to know which ones to follow. Lower education also correlated with greater reluctance to have a skin exam. Limitations HINTS is a cross-sectional instrument, thus it only provides a snapshot of skin cancer perceptions. Conclusion Uncertainty and altered perceptions are more common in the skin cancer risk perceptions of ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those with less education. These are the same groups that are subject to disparities in skin cancer outcomes. Educational programs directed at these demographic groups may help to reduce the skin cancer-related health disparities. PMID:21875760
Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.
Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013
Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J
Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013
Nilssen, Yngvar; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Fjellbirkeland, Lars; Bartnes, Kristian; Brustugun, Odd Terje; O'Connell, Dianne L; Yu, Xue Qin; Møller, Bjørn
Selection of lung cancer treatment should be based on tumour characteristics, physiological reserves and preferences of the patient. Our aims were to identify and quantify other factors associated with treatment received. Lung cancer patient data from 2002 to 2011 were obtained from the national population-based Cancer Registry of Norway, Statistics Norway and the Norwegian Patient Register. Multivariable logistic regression examined whether year of diagnosis, age, sex, education, income, health trust, smoking status, extent of disease, histology and comorbidities were associated with choice of treatment; surgery or radical or palliative radiotherapy, within 1 year of diagnosis. Among the 24,324 lung cancer patients identified, the resection rate remained constant while the proportion of radical radiotherapy administered increased from 8.6 to 14.1%. Older patients, those with lower household incomes and certain health trusts were less likely to receive any treatment. Lower education and the male gender were identified as negative predictors for receiving surgery. Smoking history was positively associated with both radical and palliative radiotherapy, while comorbidity and symptoms were independently associated with receiving surgery and palliative radiotherapy. Although Norway is a highly egalitarian country with a free, universal healthcare system, this study indicates that surgery and radical and palliative radiotherapy were under-used among the elderly, those with a lower socioeconomic status and those living in certain health trusts. PMID:26421593
Barnett, Steve; Nores, Milagros
This working paper estimates participation in early childhood education (ECE) programs by child's age, program setting, family income level, and child's household language. To produce the best possible estimates of participation, the authors combined information from multiple data sets. In 2010, approximately 6.6 million between the ages of 2 and…
Carlson, Ronald H.; McChesney, Christopher S.
The authors examined the sustainability of income, as it relates to educational attainment, from the two recent decades, which includes three significant economic downturns. The data was analyzed to determine trends in the wealth gap, parsed by educational attainment and gender. Utilizing the data from 1991 through 2010, predictions in changes in…
Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; de Mola, Christian Loret; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C
Summary Background Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits, but its long-term consequences on human capital are yet to be established. We aimed to assess whether breastfeeding duration was associated with intelligence quotient (IQ), years of schooling, and income at the age of 30 years, in a setting where no strong social patterning of breastfeeding exists. Methods A prospective, population-based birth cohort study of neonates was launched in 1982 in Pelotas, Brazil. Information about breastfeeding was recorded in early childhood. At 30 years of age, we studied the IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd version), educational attainment, and income of the participants. For the analyses, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for ten confounding variables and the G-formula. Findings From June 4, 2012, to Feb 28, 2013, of the 5914 neonates enrolled, information about IQ and breastfeeding duration was available for 3493 participants. In the crude and adjusted analyses, the durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding (breastfeeding as the main form of nutrition with some other foods) were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income. We identified dose-response associations with breastfeeding duration for IQ and educational attainment. In the confounder-adjusted analysis, participants who were breastfed for 12 months or more had higher IQ scores (difference of 3·76 points, 95% CI 2·20–5·33), more years of education (0·91 years, 0·42–1·40), and higher monthly incomes (341·0 Brazilian reals, 93·8–588·3) than did those who were breastfed for less than 1 month. The results of our mediation analysis suggested that IQ was responsible for 72% of the effect on income. Interpretation Breastfeeding is associated with improved performance in intelligence tests 30 years later, and might have an important effect in real life, by increasing educational attainment and income in adulthood. Funding Wellcome Trust
Welch, Mary A., Ed.
The economics of the decision to go to college or obtain technical training is discussed in this booklet. To stay competitive in the job market requires constant educational updating. The following questions are discussed: (1) how income inequality is measured; (2) how income is distributed in the United States; (3) why income inequality is…
Brannon, Gerard M.
This paper explores some questions about the use of income for determining repayment of educational loans. The plans generally call for a level of repayment to cover the initial advances, plus interest for a college graduate with average income, but would require less than full repayment for the students with low income, and over full repayment…
Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall
As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…
Examines whether devoting more resources to education can positively affect the distribution of income within a country. Finds that public-education expenditures appear to be associated with a subsequent decrease in the level of income inequality. Finding is robust to the inclusion of various control variables and appears to be larger in…
Hashimoto, Keiji; Heath, Julia A.
Uses data from Japanese households to calculate the income elasticities of educational expenditure, allowing elasticities to vary nonmonotonically with household income. Explores whether income elasticities for education peak in the middle-income categories and diminish for the lower and upper ends of income distribution. Income elasticities do…
Hill, Catharine B.
This paper demonstrates that increasing income inequality can contribute to the trends we see in American higher education, particularly in the selective, private nonprofit and public sectors. Given these institutions' selective admissions and commitment to socioeconomic diversity, the paper demonstrates how increasing income inequality leads to…
Juster, F. Thomas, Ed.
This volume of essays reflects some ways higher education influences marriage patterns, family size, consumption, savings, and a cluster of social and political attitudes. Topics cover: mental ability and higher educational attainment in the 20th century; education, experience, and the distribution of earnings and employment; education as an…
Lee, Sang-Hyop; Mason, Andrew
Changes in the population age structure are known to influence the total income per person, but little is known about whether the changes are equally shared across the population or are concentrated on particular age groups and/or birth cohorts. The answer to this question has potentially important implications for income inequality, for human capital investment, and for fertility decision-making. We propose a new model of intergenerational transfers which distinguishes between the effects of changes in population structure and the effects of changes in family age structure. Using age-specific data from annual income and expenditure surveys of Taiwan between 1978 and 1998, we show that changes in age structure have had a very favorable effect on Taiwan's income growth. The gains are not equally shared by all age groups, however. Children and young adults have benefited the most, while the elderly have benefited the least. The population and family age structures have independent effects on per capita income; the effect of the population age structure is most important. Generational differences in per capita income are closely related to intergenerational differences in earnings, suggesting only a weak form of altruism. Finally, we predict that, on average, population aging will adversely influence per capita income growth in Taiwan in the coming decades. PMID:18443647
Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad
Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…
Cavaliere, Lorraine A.
Following a short paper on the rationale for aging education at all levels, several resource lists cite curriculum materials and general references on aging. Aging education is defined to encompass educational programs at all levels aimed at helping students learn more about the nature and problems of growing old. Focus is on the elementary and…
Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew
A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26-65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p=0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p<0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p=0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848
Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978
Describes a three-day program aimed at public school educators and community leaders. The goal was to encourage these people to include air age education in their programs. Activities included hands-on projects. (MA)
Yue, Changjun; Liu, Yanping
This study investigates, statistically and econometrically, the income level, income inequality, education inequality, and the relationship between education and income of different social groups, on the basis of the Chinese Urban Household Survey conducted in 2005, the Gini coefficient and the quartile regression method. Research findings…
Background The socioeconomic gradient in obesity and overweight is amply documented. However, the contribution of different socioeconomic indicators on trends of body mass index (BMI) over time is less well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of education and income with (BMI) from the late 1970s to the early 2000s. Methods Data were derived from nationwide cross-sectional health behaviour surveys carried out among Finns annually since 1978. This study comprises data from a 25-year period (1978–2002) that included 25 339 men and 25 330 women aged 25–64 years. BMI was based on self-reported weight and height. Education in years was obtained from the questionnaire and household income from the national tax register. In order to improve the comparability of the socioeconomic position measures, education and income were divided into gender-specific tertiles separately for each study year. Linear regression analysis was applied. Results An increase in BMI was observed among men and women in all educational and income groups. In women, education and income were inversely associated with BMI. The magnitudes of the associations fluctuated but stayed statistically significant over time. Among the Finnish men, socioeconomic differences were more complicated. Educational differences were weaker than among the women and income differences varied according to educational level. At the turn of the century, the high income men in the lowest educational group had the highest BMI whereas the income pattern in the highest educational group was the opposite. Conclusion No overall change in the socio-economic differences of BMI was observed in Finland between 1978 and 2002. However, the trends of BMI diverged in sub-groups of the studied population: the most prominent increase in BMI took place in high income men with low education and in low income men with high education. The results encourage further research on the pathways between income
Wallace, Bill C.
The elderly have recently become a target of national concern. There are currently more than 22 million people 65 years of age or older in the United States, and this number is continually increasing. Health education must respond to the need for better understanding of the aging process and the aged by including information and materials designed…
Neuenschwander, Lauren M.; Abbott, Angela; Mobley, Amy R.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate access and use of technologies such as the Internet among Indiana's low-income population. The secondary objective was to determine whether access and use of computers significantly differed by age, race, and/or education level. Methods: Data were collected from low-income adult…
Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Murasko, Jason E; Gansky, Stuart A
This study aimed to confirm whether the well-known income disparities in oral health seen over the life course are indeed absent in 9- to 11-yr-old children, and to explore the role of access to dental care in explaining the age-profile of the income gradient in child oral health. We used data from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health. Income gradients in parental reports of children's decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, broken teeth, bleeding gums, and fair/poor condition of teeth were assessed in stratified analyses according to age of child (1-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 yr), using survey logistic regression to control for family-, parental-, and child-level covariates. Health insurance status and use of preventive dental care were the indicators for children's access to dental care. The adjusted ORs for the effect of family income on having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth were not significant in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Different age-patterns were found for broken teeth and bleeding gums. The attenuation of the income gradients in having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth, previously seen in 9- to 11-yr-old children, was also seen in 15- to 17-, 12- to 14-, and 6- to 8-yr-old children, respectively, after controlling for children's access to dental care. This study supports the attenuation of income inequalities in oral health in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Access to dental care could attenuate income gradients in oral health in other age groups. PMID:26031837
Congbin, Guo; Weifang, Min
This study examines the relationship between education and intergenerational income mobility in urban China based on the data of "Chinese Urban Household Education and Employment Survey" (CHUHEES)--2004 by Institute of Economics of Education of Peking University. It analyzes the characteristics of the intergenerational income mobility of Chinese…
Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu
Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…
Utilising a globalisation framework this study contributes to discussions concerning inequality, education, and development by re-examining the effects of educational and economic variables on income inequality. This research shows that the effects of education on income inequality are affected by the level of economic freedom in a country, and…
Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew
A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26–65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p = 0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p < 0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848
National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.
The second in a series on school finance, this report describes the principles of fair and adequate state and local income taxation. The political setting is discussed, and the nature of indiviudal income taxes is explained by examining which states tax income and what income they tax. Tables 2, 3, and 4 demonstrate the expanding school financing…
Warner, David; Leonard, Charles
This book sets out the British policy context and theoretical framework for income generation by institutions of higher education and provides practical guidance in this area. Income generation is defined as all income generated over and above the core funding provided by an institution's primary funding body. Chapter 1 offers an overview of…
Bloome, Deirdre; Western, Bruce
Policy reforms and rising income inequality transformed educational and economic opportunities for Americans approaching midlife in the 1990s. Rising income inequality may have reduced mobility, as income gaps increased between rich and poor children. Against the effects of rising inequality, Civil Rights reforms may have increased mobility, as…
Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.
The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…
Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David
This study investigated one potential mechanism mediating continuity and discontinuity in low-income status across generations: children's educational aspirations and expectations. Data were drawn from a community sample of 808 participants who were followed from age 10 to 30. Four trajectory groups of children's educational aspirations and…
Klein, Robert E.
A study compared the personal income and educational attainment of male war veterans and nonveterans as of March 1983. Using data from the March supplement of the 1983 Current Population Survey, the researchers compared the educational attainment and income of 9 separate age groups of a sample of 22,823 veterans and 47,792 nonveterans. For the…
Yoon, Dae Hyun; Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Pyo-Min; Park, Doo-Heum; Ryu, Seung Ho; Yu, Jaehak
Objective Low-income adults are considered to be a group at high risk for suicide. We sought to examine the effect of type D personality and other socio-demographic factors on suicidality in low-income, middle-aged Koreans. Methods In total, 306 low-income, middle-aged Koreans [age: 49.16±5.24 (40-59) years, 156 males, 150 females] were enrolled from the Korean National Basic Livelihood Security System. Socio-demographic data, including employment status, income, health, marital status, and educational attainment, were gathered. Beck's 19-item Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) was applied to evaluate suicidality, and the DS14 was used to assess type D personality. Results Unemployment (p<0.01) and absence of spouse (p=0.03) predicted higher SSI scores independent of other socioeconomic factors. All type D personality scores [i.e., negative affectivity (NA), social inhibition (SI), and total score] predicted higher SSI scores independent of all socioeconomic factors (all, p<0.001). Subjects with type D personality had higher SSI scores (p<0.001), and the association between suicidality and socio-demographic factors (employment or physical health) could be found only in subjects without type D personality. Conclusion Type D personality was a risk factor for suicide in low-income Koreans, independently from socio-economic factors. In addition, the socio-demographic factors were less prominently associated with suicidality in those with type D personality. PMID:25670941
Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric
The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and internalizing problems (from age 18 to 36 months), particularly for lower-income children. For internalizing problems, ECEC buffered the effect of income-to-needs changes. These findings lend further support to the potential benefits of ECEC for children from lower-income families. PMID:25345342
The undermatch between low-income students' academic achievement and college destinations has become increasingly important in discussions of higher education access and equity. This study investigates whether low-income students are undermatched in their college choice, and if so, what factors are related to the undermatching. Specifically, this…
Presley, Jennifer B.; Clery, Suzanne B.
Profiles middle income undergraduates in comparison to their lower income and higher income counterparts, examines where middle income undergraduates enroll by price of attendance, and discusses how they pay for postsecondary education, including the role of financial aid. (Author)
Emmons, Karen; Puleo, Elaine; McNeill, Lorna H; Bennett, Gary; Chan, Sophia; Syngal, Sapna
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates in the US are suboptimal, particularly among lower income and racial/ethnically diverse groups. If specific populations have limited awareness of screening when they reach age 50, there may be delays in screening adoption. This study investigated sociodemographic and social contextual factors associated with awareness of CRC and intentions to be screened at age 50 among 692 low income, racial, and ethnic minority adults living in low income housing. The majority of respondents (62%) were between ages 30 and 49, and 94% had some form of health insurance (e.g., Medicaid). About 70% reported having heard about CRC screening; 66% reported intentions to be screened at age 50. In multivariable analyses, screening awareness was associated with age and education. Immigrants who had English as a second language had lower awareness. Females tended to have higher awareness if they had private insurance; there were no differences among males. Multivariable analyses found that screening intentions were higher among men, those with more role responsibilities, more role conflicts, and higher levels of social cohesion. It is important to identify opportunities for maximizing screening uptake among those who become age-eligible for screening if we are to make a significant impact on CRC disparities. PMID:18478340
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.
Designed as an aid for those teaching disadvantaged adults, this guide for consumer education for families with limited incomes consists of an overview for preparing teachers to teach consumer education to disadvantaged adults as well as English and Spanish instructional materials in 10 areas of consumer education. In the overview of teaching…
McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna
Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…
Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.
Can the nation's schools meet today's challenge of providing all students with the skills they will need to thrive in the rapidly changing economy and society of the 21st century? The authors point out in this article that a large percentage of children, overwhelmingly from low-income families, end their formal schooling without the…
The current income tax law's effects on common elements of education financing are discussed, including scholarships, loans, employment, and related issues. In light of recent tax changes that increase the after-tax cost of education, information for maximizing remaining tax advantages is offered. (MSE)
McLaughlin, Margaret J.; Speirs, Katherine E.; Shenassa, Edmond D.
This study examined the impact of childhood reading disability (RD) on adult educational attainment and income. Participants' (N = 1,344) RD was assessed at age 7, and adult educational attainment and income were assessed in midlife using categorical variables. Participants with RD at age 7 were 74% (95% CI: 0.18, 0.37) less likely to attain…
Macaranas, Federico M.
The reduction of social inequalities through education is widely believed to be possible. In the past decade however, social scientists have increasingly questioned the posited conventional relationship between education and socio-economic equality. Factors other than the number of years and/or the quality of schooling have to be considered in…
Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias
In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…
Heller, Donald E., Ed.
Chapters in this collection discuss the state of access to U.S. higher education institutions for lower income students and the status of student aid programs. The chapters of part 1, "College Access Issues for Lower Income Students," contains: (1) "Educational Opportunity in America" (Brian K. Fitzgerald and Jennifer A. Delaney); and (2) "An…
Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Co., Chicago.
The teacher's guide is for a high school unit on personal income management, part of a family financial education program which also includes a unit on accepting credit responsibility. It can be used by teachers of any subject attempting to develop in students habits and attitudes in the area of earning, saving, and spending. The unit is based on…
Mitchell, Anne; And Others
In 1991, the National Center for Children in Poverty undertook a study of low-income parents as child care consumers. The study involved a review of current research findings, interviews with staff of child resource and referral agencies, and an examination of child care consumer education provided in the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS)…
Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)
Lehning, Amanda J.; Smith, Richard J.; Dunkle, Ruth E.
Currently there is limited evidence linking age-friendly characteristics to outcomes in elders. Using a representative sample of 1,376 adults aged 60 and older living in Detroit, this study examined the association between age-friendly social and physical environmental characteristics and the expectation to age in place, and the potential differences between low- and higher-income elders. Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) age-friendly guide, we identified six factors reflecting age-friendly characteristics. Logistic regression models indicated that regardless of income level only neighborhood problems were significantly associated with expecting to age in place. Low-income elders were more likely to expect to age in place than their higher-income counterparts, and it is unclear whether this resulted from a desire to remain in the home or that there is no place else to go. Future research should address the ways in which financial resources affect the choices, expectations, and outcomes of aging in place. PMID:24652879
The emphasis of this article is on aging and the needs of the elderly as a basis for developing educational content in the curriculum. It includes a description of a theoretical framework developed by Abraham Maslow for a holistic approach to needs of the aged. (Editor/RK)
Gray, Walter W.
Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…
Parker, Stephany; Powell, Laura; Hermann, Janice; Phelps, Joshua; Brown, Barbara
The study reported here explored educational delivery preference of limited income older Oklahomans. Sixty participants 60 years or older enrolled in Community Nutrition Education Programs observed three educational delivery strategies and participated in a group discussion. Two researchers independently coded focus group transcripts and frequency…
Lemmon, Regina D.; McDade, Hiram L.
This study examined the use of literate language features (LLFs) in the oral narratives of African American and Caucasian American preschoolers residing in either low- or middle-income homes to determine whether differences existed as a result of age or household income. The oral narratives of 96 preschoolers enrolled in public school programs and…
Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.
Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An Early Math Trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from age 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math…
Lee, B S
Conflicting empirical evidence on the role of income distribution on fertility rates is the impetus for this 1982 study of providence-specific Chinese Census data, excluding Tibet. The findings support the prior thesis of Repetto but utilize the micromethods and per household income measures of the competing findings of Boulier. It is cautioned that in the Chinese analysis equal income distribution depresses fertility, but China may not reflect world wide patterns. China did not have until recently a market incentive system, and there are income measurement problems. The data are per capita economic output not per capita income, and those high output areas which did not produce low fertility may actually have had households with low incomes. The importance of this research is in establishing that cross-province data are a useful tool in understanding the influence of income distribution on fertility. As with most developing countries, women's education, for instance, at least junior high education explained the largest variation of fertility differences among the 28 provinces. The urbanization variable when controlling for income was positive, unlike the other developing countries. The 1949 Chinese government's spatial industrial policy encouraged urbanization and industrialization in rural areas and family planning programs such that highly urbanized provinces have low population density. A variety of variables on income level, income distribution, education, and urbanization are discussed. OLSQ regressions were generated utilizing such independent variables as output per capita in yuan (YOUTHPC80), the square of YOUTHPC80 (YOUTHPC802), YOUTHPC80 multiplied by the average family size in each province (YOUTHPH80), and the squared value of YOUTHPH80. PMID:12283836
Marasinghe, Keshini Madara; Lapitan, Jostacio Moreno; Ross, Alex
Despite the benefits derived from the use of assistive technologies (AT), some parts of the world have minimal or no access to AT. In many low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), only 5–15% of people who require AT have access to them. Rapid demographic changes will exacerbate this situation as populations over 60 years of age, as well as functional limitations among older populations, in LMIC are expected to be higher than in high-income countries in the coming years. Given both these trends, AT are likely to be in high demand and provide many benefits to respond to challenges related to healthy and productive ageing. Multiple databases were searched for English literature. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to AT, ageing population and LMIC selected for this study, namely Brazil, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Turkey and Zimbabwe. These countries are expected to see the most rapid growth in the 65 and above population in the coming years. Results indicate that all countries had AT designed for older adults with existing impairment and disability, but had limited AT that are designed to prevent impairment and disability among older adults who do not currently have any disabilities. All countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The findings conclude that AT for ageing populations have received some attention in LMIC as attested by the limited literature results. Analysis of review findings indicate the need for a comprehensive, integrated health and social system approach to increase the current availability of AT for ageing populations in LMIC. These would entail, yet not be limited to, work on: (1) promoting initiatives for low-cost AT; (2) awareness raising and capacity building on AT; (3) bridging the gap between AT policy and practice; and (4) fostering targeted research on AT. PMID:26688747
Objectives. Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Method. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994–2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Results. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Discussion. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. PMID:24942972
Education is moving into the digital age. Pedagogies have changed to engage the latest digital technologies. The methods of distribution are now a blend between face-to-face and some other combination of virtual interfaces. The content is moving from traditional text-based learning to text-plus-multimedia. The community is now involved in the…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Work for religious, charitable, educational... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1025 Work...
Dalton, Jon C.; Crosby, Pamela C.
Many scholars argue that America is becoming a dangerously divided nation because of increasing inequality, especially in income distribution. This article examines the problem of widening income inequality with particular focus on the role that colleges and universities and their student affairs organizations play in serving low income students…
Davies, Neil M.; Hemani, Gibran; Timpson, Nic J.; Windmeijer, Frank; Davey Smith, George
We investigated the role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and household income. We used data from 5,458 participants of the National Child Development Study to estimate: 1) the associations of rs9320913, rs11584700 and rs4851266 and socioeconomic position and educational phenotypes; and 2) the univariate chip-heritability of each phenotype, and the genetic correlation between each phenotype and educational attainment at age 16. The three SNPs were associated with most measures of educational attainment. Common genetic variation contributed to 6 of 14 socioeconomic background phenotypes, and 17 of 29 educational phenotypes. We found evidence of genetic correlations between educational attainment at age 16 and 4 of 14 social background and 8 of 28 educational phenotypes. This suggests common genetic variation contributes both to differences in educational attainment and its relationship with other phenotypes. However, we remain cautious that cryptic population structure, assortative mating, and dynastic effects may influence these associations. PMID:26561353
Need, Ariana; de Jong, Uulkje
In this article we examine gender differences in income expectations of students in higher education. We found quite large gender differences. Men and women differ significantly in the income they expect to earn at the top of their career. We examined how much personality traits contribute to explain gender differences in income expectations, and…
Data on the income, race, sex, and age of college students from 1970 to 1980 are presented, and policy implications of the trends are considered. The most significant finding is that the college-going rates for full-time students from the lowest incomes (under $5,000) increased measurably (9.5 percent in 1974 to 14.3 percent in 1980). The…
Alaimo, K; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A; Briefel, R R
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated associations between family income, food insufficiency, and health among US preschool and school-aged children. METHODS: Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Children were classified as food insufficient if the family respondent reported that the family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat. Regression analyses were conducted with health measures as the outcome variables. Prevalence rates of health variables were compared by family income category, with control for age and gender. Odds ratios for food insufficiency were calculated with control for family income and other potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Low-income children had a higher prevalence of poor/fair health status and iron deficiency than high-income children. After confounding factors, including poverty status, had been controlled, food-insufficient children were significantly more likely to have poorer health status and to experience more frequent stomachaches and headaches than food-sufficient children; preschool food-insufficient children had more frequent colds. CONCLUSIONS: Food insufficiency and low family income are health concerns for US preschool and school-aged children. PMID:11344887
Graham, B C; Jason, L A; Ferrari, J F
The experience of psychological sense of community (PSOC) can play an important role in the substance abuse recovery process. This study explored the relationship between PSOC and setting-level variables of age and income amongst residents living in Oxford House, a communal, self-governed recovery housing model (n = 70). Age and income variables were not related to an overall PSOC or components such as shared common mission or feelings of reciprocal responsibility. However, both age and income variables were significant predictors of the harmony felt within these houses. The role that PSOC may play in recovery facilities and other co-housing arrangements was discussed, and implications for future research and application were outlined. PMID:20657670
Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M.; Nfor, Oswald N.; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po
Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category“51” or “52”) and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18–44 years) and males (45–64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937–4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603–3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878–3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821–2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549
While widespread financial illiteracy and reduced opportunities for low-income students to participate in higher education may seem unrelated, both challenges can be addressed through Individual Development Accounts (IDAs), an existing but widely underutilized tool. IDAs have the potential both to increase access and retention of low-income…
Drajea, Alice J.; O'Sullivan, Carmel
This article investigates the effect of parents' literacy levels and family income in Uganda on the quality and nature of parents' involvement in their children's primary education. A mixed-methods study with an ethnographic element was employed to explore the views and opinions of 21 participants through a qualitative approach. Methods for data…
Badiani, Reena Chandu
This dissertation examines two related questions. First, it estimates the effect of growth in the demand for skilled and unskilled labor on rural household incomes and the rural wage structure. Second, it examines the effect of growth in household incomes and in labor market returns to education on household educational investment. The…
The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various educational and…
... public retirement system income. 1.37-3 Section 1.37-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... age 65 who have public retirement system income. (a) In general. This section provides rules for the... includes retirement income within the meaning of paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section (i.e., under a...
Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie
The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children’s preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079
Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie
The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079
Brown, Courtney M.; Girio-Herrera, Erin L.; Sherman, Susan N.; Kahn, Robert S.; Copeland, Kristen A.
BACKGROUND The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians promote early childhood education (ECE). However, pediatricians have met resistance from low-income parents when providing anticipatory guidance on some topics outside the realm of physical health. Parents’ views on discussing ECE with the pediatrician have not been studied. OBJECTIVES We sought to understand low-income parents’ experiences and attitudes with regard to discussing early childhood education (ECE) with the pediatrician and to identify opportunities for pediatrician input. METHODS We conducted 27 in-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with parents of 3- and 4-year-old patients (100% Medicaid, 78% African American) at an urban primary care center. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed for themes by a multidisciplinary team. RESULTS Most low-income parents in our study reported they primarily sought ECE advice from family and friends but were open to talking about ECE with the pediatrician. They considered their children’s individual behavior and development to be important factors in ECE decisions and appreciated pediatricians’ advice about developmental readiness for ECE. Participants’ decisions about ECE were often driven by fears that their children would be abused or neglected. Many viewed 3 years as the age at which children had sufficient language skills to report mistreatment and could be safely enrolled in ECE. CONCLUSIONS Participants were generally accepting of discussions about ECE during well child visits. There may be opportunity for the pediatrician to frame ECE discussions in the context of development, behavior, and safety and to promote high-quality ECE at an earlier age. PMID:23324946
Kohon, Jacklyn; Carder, Paula
This study focused on meanings of health, housing, independence and aging among low-income adults age 55 and older who live in, or are on a waiting list for, publicly subsidized rental housing. The purpose was to learn how low-income older adults perceive their independence and health, and how their place of residence contributes to these perceptions, as well as related perceptions of self. Qualitative data were collected using in-person narrative interviews with 45 individuals and a second photo elicitation interview with 31 of these persons. Themes describe how disrupted identities influence subjective thoughts about the aging process, housing, health, and finances, the process of clinicalization, and place identities. These findings highlight the relationship between housing status, dignity, and shifting identities as older adults experience the aging process in a low-income context. This study expands the current scholarship on the relationship between environment and aging as well as our understanding of poverty among older persons. These topics are relevant for new policies and programs to support the aging in place of older persons in subsidized housing. Understanding the life worlds of those who live in or have applied to this form of housing will be instrumental in developing such strategies. PMID:24984907
Wood, Dana; Kaplan, Rachel; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
This study examined how youths' gender is related to the educational expectations of urban, low-income African American youth, their parents, and their teachers. As predicted, African American boys (ages 9-16) reported lower expectations for future educational attainment than did their female counterparts. Parents and teachers also reported lower…
Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Smyth, Russell
This paper employs cointegration and error-correction modelling to test the causal relationship between real income, real investment and tertiary education using data for the People's Republic of China over the period 1952-1999. To proxy tertiary education we use higher education enrolments and higher education graduates in alternative empirical…
McDaniel, Susan; Gazso, Amber
Through the lens of individualization, aging families demonstrate changes both in family composition and in meanings of family and support. So, also, do low-income families that - in order to survive - choose flexible, sometimes novel, social-support relations, including kin and non-kin: these are aging families by choice. Applying the concept of liminality (transitional states of being) created through individualization, we explored the experiences of close relations in low-income families consisting of aging kin and non-kin members. Qualitative interviews with respondents representing two or three generations of aging families of choice illustrated how these families perceive the meanings of family and social support. We find that reciprocity is less vital to relationships of older with younger members in familial networks than may be expected. Liminality contours meanings and exchanges in low-income aging families of choice such that no matter how tenuous relations may be, they provide a sense of belonging and meaning. PMID:25298078
Bravo, J H
This article provides a very simplified analysis of the impact of changes in unemployment, retirement age, and fertility on economic dependency and per capita income in Latin America. The macroeconomic consequences of variations in age structure have received a little recent attention among Latin American researchers and policymakers, partly because of the lack of simple but rigorous analytical models to orient research. This analysis is simplified in that it focuses on changes in age distribution but does not explicitly consider effects of changes in population size, even though in reality the 2 types of changes are interrelated. The analysis has also been simplified by not taking into account any type of causal interaction between the demographic and economic variables analyzed; only the most elementary accounting relations between them are utilized. The 1st section defines the concept of economic dependency, specifies the effects of changes in its demographic and economic components, and establishes a simple link between the dependency ratio and per capita income. These and other derivations in the following sections permit evaluation of the impact of changes in employment, retirement age, and fertility on the dependency ratio and per capita income. The work concludes with a synthesis and general discussion, including a theoretical consideration of the effects of interactions among components. Only the most important equations are presented in the main text, but all variables, equations, and relations are defined and derived in the appendix. 6 countries were studied to illustrate the relationships in the context of the demographic diversity of Latin America. Argentina and Cuba represented countries in an advanced stage of the demographic transition, Chile and Mexico represented an intermediate phase, and Bolivia and Peru represented countries at the beginning of the transition. Results of decomposition of changes in dependency and income due to each of the
Mohanty, Alekha Chandra
The prevalence of widespread poverty and the increasing inequality in income distribution across nations point to the failure of the trickle-down theory. The long-held faith in the growth of income as the sole policy instrument to achieve the national objective of growth with equity has been put to the test. The increasing numbers of the poor,…
Research on the social determinants of health has increasingly sought to understand the relative importance of different features of socioeconomic status. Much of the ensuing debate has wavered between education and income, with recent research leaning increasingly toward income. This research has not, however, consistently explored interactions…
Despite the tremendous expansion in education access worldwide, countries differ dramatically both in primary and secondary enrollment rates and in student achievement. Although per capita income explains a great deal of the difference, schooling outcomes vary sharply even among countries at similar income levels. This study asks whether…
With the growing demand for highly skilled workers and declining wages for those who are less skilled, low-income youth with limited education and no work experience have few opportunities for gainful employment. Since the Great Depression, the federal government has been funding programs that provide low-income, out-of-school, and unemployed…
Nieto, Sandra; Ramos, Raúl
This article analyzes the factors that explain the gap in educational outcomes between the top and bottom quartile of students in different countries, according to their socioeconomic status. To do so, it uses PISA microdata for 10 middle-income and 2 high-income countries, and applies the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Its results show that…
Fenske, Mark S.
The correlation between income level and achievement has led some educators to believe that low-income students cannot learn at the same level as can middle-class and affluent peers. This problem is significant because as more families become impoverished, more students may be at risk for failure. Many studies have identified challenges facing…
Al Agili, Dania E.
Introduction We examined the association between sealant prevalence and parental education for different levels of family income, controlling for other covariates. Methods We combined data from 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study sample was 7,090 participants aged 6 to 19 years. Explanatory variables, chosen on the basis of Andersen and Aday’s framework of health care utilization, were predisposing variables — child’s age, sex, race/ethnicity, and parental education (
Ghazalah, I. A.
A study used federal income tax data to examine the long-term earning, unemployment, and interregional mobility patterns among 15,055 persons who graduated from 14 Ohio vocational education programs in 1979. Income data on the graduates' income earned during the 1983 tax year were also compared with U.S. Census Bureau data on 1983 Money Income of…
FRANCOEUR, RICHARD BENOIT
Income-equivalence scales (IES) provide distinct advantages over poverty indices to adjust family income for differences in family size, including improved specification of hypothesized causal relationships involving objective measures of economic well-being. In a novel IES application, cancer patients' out-of-pocket health costs are adjusted for differences in family income and size and, along with five other subindices, contribute to an overall index of “objective family financial stress.” Age-related changes are modeled simultaneously within relationships between overall objective family financial stress and subjective patient perceptions about financial strain. Among the findings, the impact of age on one area of subjective financial strain, “difficulty paying bills,” is negative and curvilinear. Regardless of adjusted out-of-pocket costs, as age advances, patients appear increasingly likely to accommodate to financial stress by reporting less difficulty paying bills. This phenomenon could serve to mask and isolate older adults who are foregoing needed yet unaffordable medical care and prescriptions. PMID:18443643
Gardner, William E.
This paper considers the needs of future educational systems in an age of information. Characteristics of such systems are described and analyzed. An information age educational system would stress the big picture, be experimental, emphasize skills and tools of thought and action and extend throughout life. It would have alternative delivery…
A statistical study of Brazilian education reveals that children of high-income, well-educated groups enjoy better educational opportunities and a usually higher rate of return on their educational investment than do the children of low-income groups. Poorer regions of the country, however, have a higher rate of return than do regions with a…
Hofmeister, Alan M.
The author cites the arrival of the information age and considers its implications for special education. He suggests that special educators must build their information management skills. Four specific applications of microcomputers in special education are addressed: tool applications (in which students use microcomputer technology as personal…
Relates the history of ideas to the history of education during the middle ages. Topics discussed include cultural life, economic factors, the political economy of medieval education, and the difficulty of writing about educational trends during a time for which there are few authoritative sources. (DB)
Lee, Anne CC; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Kozuki, Naoko; Vogel, Joshua P; Adair, Linda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Marchant, Tanya; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndirangu, James; Newell, Marie-Louise; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Rosen, Heather E; Sania, Ayesha; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Willey, Barbara A; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E
Summary Background National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010. Methods Small for gestational age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (23 countries) were used to model the prevalence of term-SGA births. Prevalence of preterm-SGA infants was calculated from meta-analyses. Findings In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born small for gestational age in low-income and middle-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18 million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were born in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. Interpretation The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia. Implementation of effective interventions for babies born too small or too soon is an urgent priority to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to
Ventura, Alison K.; Gromis, Judy C.; Lohse, Barbara
Objective: To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Design: Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Setting: Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Participants: Thirty-two parents of…
Sauerborn, R; Nougtara, A; Latimer, E
Like many other developing countries, Burkina Faso has been exploring how community resources can be tapped to co-finance health services. Although revenue generation is important for the viability of health services, effects on utilization and on equity of access to health care must also be considered. The authors present a logistic regression model to derive price elasticities of demand for health care based on cross-sectional survey data. While demand for health care appears inelastic overall (-0.79), subgroup analysis reveals differences in elasticity across age and income groups. Elasticities of demand for infants and children (-3.6 and -1.7) and for the lowest income quartile (-1.4) are substantially greater than overall elasticity. The method used is unusual in that it allows estimation of elasticities before the introduction of user fees. This increases the value of the information to policy makers. PMID:15726780
Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1) prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2) use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3) be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1) being nagged by children’s food requests, 2) being undermined by other
Marais, M. A.
Provides empirical evidence concerning the education/earnings distribution relationship in South Africa. Investment in education is directly related to earnings across racial groups. An increase in the average education level is associated with a narrower dispersion of earnings. A more equal education distribution is associated with a more equal…
Education is thought to be the pathway to success for disadvantaged groups. Given that young women now match or surpass men's educational achievements on many measures, how do they fare in terms of equal earnings? Would further educational changes matter for closing any existing gap? Analyzing data from the National Educational Longitudinal…
Most would agree that education is a social good and necessity, yet serious inequities and inequalities remain in our educational system. The largest sources of support for public schools are the local school district and the state. The revenues they contribute come from property and sales taxes, both of which are regressive and inequitable. Our…
Harding, Jessica F.
Although the strong link between maternal education and children's outcomes is one of the most well-established findings in developmental psychology (Reardon, 2011; Sirin, 2005), less is known about how young, low-income children are influenced by their mothers completing additional education. In this research, longitudinal data from the Head…
This qualitative phenomenological study engaged 20 young, low-income credit union members who participated in financial education classes at Denver Community Credit Union. The study explored learning experiences that generated changes in money management behaviors and sought evidence of transformational learning in a nonformal education setting.…
Foldvari, Peter; van Leeuwen, Bas
In this paper, we revisit the question whether inequality in education and human capital is closely related to income inequality. Using the most popular functional forms describing the relationship between, first, output and human capital and, second, education and human capital, we find that the effect of inequality in schooling on income…
Tikly, Leon; Barrett, Angeline M.
The paper sets out a theoretical approach for understanding the quality of education in low income countries from a social justice perspective. The paper outlines and critiques the two dominant approaches that currently frame the debate about education quality, namely, the human capital and human rights approaches. Drawing principally on the ideas…
Technical notes concerning the Survey of Income and Education (SIE), April-July 1976, which was conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, are presented. Information is presented on the source of the data, sample design, estimation procedure, reliability of the estimates, nonsampling variability,…
Wilbur, MaryAnn B.; Marani, Jodi E.; Appugliese, Danielle; Woods, Ryan; Siegel, Jane A.; Cabral, Howard J.; Frank, Deborah A.
OBJECTIVE The goal was to evaluate whether children of incarcerated fathers are more likely to report or exhibit behavioral symptoms than their equally disadvantaged peers without an incarcerated father. METHODS During an ongoing longitudinal study of intrauterine cocaine exposure involving 102 children (50% male and 89% black) from urban, low-income homes, questions regarding incarceration of the child's father were asked of the child's primary caregiver at each visit during school age. Children were administered the Children's Depression Inventory between the ages of 6 and 11 years, and their primary caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. In addition, the children's teachers completed the Teacher Report Form. Children's Depression Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist, and Teacher Report Form data obtained at the oldest available age after the first report of paternal incarceration were analyzed. RESULTS In bivariate analyses, children whose fathers were in jail had higher Children's Depression Inventory total scores compared with children without incarcerated fathers, indicating more depressive symptoms. This finding was robust in multivariate analyses after adjustment for children's age, gender, prenatal cocaine and alcohol exposure, and school-age violence exposure. Teachers reported higher Teacher Report Form externalizing scores for children whose fathers were in jail, after adjustment for age, gender, prenatal cocaine and marijuana exposure, and school-age violence exposure. CONCLUSIONS Children of incarcerated fathers reported more depressive symptoms and their teachers noted more externalizing behaviors, after controlling for other biopsychosocial risks. Interventions targeted to ameliorate the distress of children with incarcerated fathers should be considered. PMID:17766508
Wallace, Maeve E.; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.
Objectives. We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor’s or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Results. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. Conclusions. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur. PMID:26066964
Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes
The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…
Aggarwal, Ajay; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Lewison, Grant; Sullivan, Richard
Mexico is undergoing rapid population ageing as a result of its epidemiological transition. This study explores the interface between this rapid population ageing and the burden of cancer. The number of new cancer cases is expected to increase by nearly 75% by 2030 (107,000 additional cases per annum), with 60% of cases in the elderly (aged ≥ 65). A review of the literature was supplemented by a bibliometric analysis of Mexico's cancer research output. Cancer incidence projections for selected sites were estimated with Globocan software. Data were obtained from recent national census, surveys, and cancer death registrations. The elderly, especially women and those living in rural areas, face high levels of poverty, have low rates of educational attainment, and many are not covered by health insurance schemes. Out of pocket payments and private health care usage remain high, despite the implementation of Seguro Popular that was designed to achieve financial protection for the lowest income groups. A number of cancers that predominate in elderly persons are not covered by the scheme and individuals face catastrophic expenditure in seeking treatment. There is limited research output in those cancer sites that have a high burden in the elderly Mexican population, especially research that focuses on outcomes. The elderly population in Mexico is vulnerable to the effects of the rising cancer burden and faces challenges in accessing high quality cancer care. Based on our evidence, we recommend that geriatric oncology should be an urgent public policy priority for Mexico. PMID:26015805
Aggarwal, Ajay; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Lewison, Grant; Sullivan, Richard
Mexico is undergoing rapid population ageing as a result of its epidemiological transition. This study explores the interface between this rapid population ageing and the burden of cancer. The number of new cancer cases is expected to increase by nearly 75% by 2030 (107,000 additional cases per annum), with 60% of cases in the elderly (aged ≥ 65). A review of the literature was supplemented by a bibliometric analysis of Mexico’s cancer research output. Cancer incidence projections for selected sites were estimated with Globocan software. Data were obtained from recent national census, surveys, and cancer death registrations. The elderly, especially women and those living in rural areas, face high levels of poverty, have low rates of educational attainment, and many are not covered by health insurance schemes. Out of pocket payments and private health care usage remain high, despite the implementation of Seguro Popular that was designed to achieve financial protection for the lowest income groups. A number of cancers that predominate in elderly persons are not covered by the scheme and individuals face catastrophic expenditure in seeking treatment. There is limited research output in those cancer sites that have a high burden in the elderly Mexican population, especially research that focuses on outcomes. The elderly population in Mexico is vulnerable to the effects of the rising cancer burden and faces challenges in accessing high quality cancer care. Based on our evidence, we recommend that geriatric oncology should be an urgent public policy priority for Mexico. PMID:26015805
Surgical care is recognized as an important component of public health, however, many low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) are faced with a shortage of trained personnel. In response to this unmet need, many countries have developed local postgraduate training programs in surgery. This study aims to characterize general surgery postgraduate education in LMICs. PubMed, EMBASE, and Global Index Medicus databases were searched for articles related to postgraduate general surgery education in LMICs. Studies in other surgical specialties and those published prior to 1990 were excluded. Data were collected on the characteristics of postgraduate training programs. Sixty-four articles discussed postgraduate surgical education in LMICs. Programs in 34 different countries and 6 different regions were represented. Nine countries were low-income, 12 were low-middle-income, and 13 were upper-middle-income countries. Sixty-four articles described aspects of the local postgraduate training program. Prior to postgraduate training, residents complete an undergraduate medical degree with 19 programs describing a pre-training experience such as internship. Surgical curricula were broad-based to prepare trainees to work in low-resource settings. At the completion of postgraduate training, examination formats varied including oral, written, and clinical exams. Postgraduate general surgery programs ranged from 2.5 to 7 years. Postgraduate surgical education is one mechanism to increase surgical capacity in LMICs. Different strategies have been employed to improve surgical education in LMICs and learning from these programs can optimize surgical education across teaching sites. PMID:26902628
Lukaš, Mirko; Samardžic, Darko
The aim of this paper is to provide an objective overview of the impact of teacher salaries on the educational achievements of students. It is often debated about teacher salaries and improvement or jeopardizing their standard, but educational consequences that may ensue as a result of these intentions are rarely addressed. Teacher's role in…
California State Dept. of Industrial Relations, San Francisco. Fair Employment Practices Commission.
The Negro population in California increased sevenfold from 1940 to 1960 due principally to in-migration from other states. Settlement of immigrants occurred in urban areas. Educational attainment of Negroes in California is lower than that of white Californians reflecting social, economic, and educational restrictions. Employment statistics show…
Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur
Although the role of education in an economy is emphasized in theoretical studies, empirical literature finds mixed results for the relationship between growth and education. We examine the relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and enrollments in primary, secondary, and high schools, as well as universities in Turkey for 1937-1996, in…
Chaparro, M. Pia; Whaley, Shannon E.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Koleilat, Maria; Nobari, Tabashir Z.; Seto, Edmund; Wang, May C.
Background Few studies have examined the association between the food environment and adiposity in early childhood, a critical time for obesity prevention. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between neighborhood food environment and adiposity among low-income preschool-aged children in a major metropolitan region in the United States. Methods The study sample was 32,172 low-income preschool-aged children in Los Angeles County who had repeated weight and height measurements collected between ages 2 and 5 years through a federal nutrition assistance program. We conducted multilevel longitudinal analyses to examine how spatial densities of healthy and unhealthy retail food outlets in the children’s neighborhoods were related to adiposity, as measured by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), while controlling for neighborhood-level income and education, family income, maternal education, and child’s gender and race/ethnicity. Results Density of healthy food outlets was associated with mean WHZ at age 3 in a non-linear fashion, with mean WHZ being lowest for those exposed to approximately 0.7 healthy food outlets per square mile and higher for lesser and greater densities. Density of unhealthy food outlets was not associated with child WHZ. Conclusions We found a non-linear relationship between WHZ and density of healthy food outlets. Research aiming to understand the socio-behavioral mechanisms by which the retail food environment influences early childhood obesity development is complex and must consider contextual settings. PMID:25012991
Long, David E.
A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.
Golant, Stephen M
This commentary argues that one-size-fits-all aging in place solutions will often not be in the best interests of low-income and frail older homeowners in the United States. This contrarian view runs counter to the reported preferences of this group, various private-sector activities, and U.S. public policies that are increasingly funding home and community-based care. The particular focus is on low-income elderly homeowners living in the oldest housing stock in the country who have demographic characteristics putting them at greater risk of having both unmet care and housing needs, which in turn have spillover effects on their neighborhoods. These vulnerable homeowners would be better served if they relocated to more affordable, easier to maintain, and better designed smaller owned units or rental properties or to planned affordable seniors' rental housing complexes that can offer both light and heavy care. Such residential moves are often not feasible, however, because of the shortage of these housing arrangements. PMID:19042553
Jin-Qinghua; Liu-Yan; Zhang-Yan; Li-Qiong
This study investigated the pre-school education of children from low-income families in six urban districts of Beijing, using questionnaires and in-depth interviews with respondents from district educational committees, sub-district and resident's committees, nursery schools, and low-income families. The results indicated that (1) the number of…
Jacobson, Louis; Mokher, Christine
Attaining a post-secondary credential has become increasingly important for securing opportunities to get high-return jobs in the United States in the 21st century. Students from low-income families are underrepresented at every milestone in the educational pipeline, limiting their ability to attain post-secondary credentials and break the…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.
We examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. We make two contributions. First, we present a conceptual model, which has been lacking in the…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.
The authors examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. The authors make two contributions. First, they present a conceptual model, which has been…
Madaus, Joseph W.; Grigal, Meg; Hughes, Carolyn
Few students with disabilities from high-poverty backgrounds attend college. We discuss the effects of disability and growing up in poverty on expectations for postsecondary education attendance. We describe the limiting effects of attending high-poverty high schools on student achievement followed by challenges faced by low-income students with…
Hoogerheide, Lennart; Block, Joern H.; Thurik, Roy
The validity of family background variables instrumenting education in income regressions has been much criticized. In this paper, we use data from the 2004 German Socio-Economic Panel and Bayesian analysis to analyze to what degree violations of the strict validity assumption affect the estimation results. We show that, in case of moderate direct…
Woodford, Michelle; Mammen, Sheila
Using human capital theory, this paper identifies the factors that may affect the opportunity for rural low-income mothers to pursue post-secondary education or training in order to escape poverty. Dependent variables used in the logistic regression model included micro-level household variables as well as the effects of state-wide welfare…
Isaacs, Julia; Magnuson, Katherine
This study uses data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth (ECLS-B) Cohort to estimate associations between two important indicators of family socioeconomic status--family income and maternal education--and children's school readiness measured by academic skills, behavior, and physical health at school entry. We find large gaps in our…
Ellsworth, Devin; Ernst, Jenny; Snelling, Anastasia
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a nutrition-education intervention delivered at low-income middle schools in Washington, DC in the USA, using a mobile farmers' market to bring hands-on lessons to schools. The program was a partnership between a local farm and university and was funded by the United States Department…
Bastedo, Michael N.; Jaquette, Ozan
The increasing concentration of wealthy students at highly selective colleges is widely perceived, but few analyses examine the underlying dynamics of higher education stratification over time. To examine these dynamics, the authors build an analysis data set of four cohorts from 1972 to 2004. They find that low-income students have made…
Weiss, Heather B.; Mayer, Ellen; Kreider, Holly; Vaughan, Margaret; Dearing, Eric; Hencke, Rebecca; Pinto, Kristina
This article explores the complex relation between employment and family involvement in children's elementary education for low-income women. Mixed-method analyses showed work as both an obstacle to and opportunity for involvement. Mothers who worked or attended school full time were less involved in their children's schooling than other mothers,…
Condon, James V.; Prince, Lori H.
This article describes higher education financial assistance tools designed mainly for students of middle- and upper-income families who may not be eligible for financial aid from other sources. It includes the 2007 legislative updates for these tools, all of which have been devised and offered by either state or federal governments. The authors…
Esposito, Alena G.; Baker-Ward, Lynne
This investigation is an initial examination of possible enhancement of executive function through a dual-language (50:50) education model. The ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 120 children from Grades K, 2, and 4 consisted of approximately equal numbers of children enrolled in dual-language and traditional classrooms. Dual-language…
Johnson, Matthew D.
The author is gratified and encouraged that such an esteemed group of relationship scientists as Hawkins et al. (2013, this issue) want to continue the discussion of government-supported marriage and relationship education (MRE) programs for lower income couples by responding to his article (Johnson, May-June 2012). In their comment, they argued…
Jamison, Eliot A.; Jamison, Dean T.; Hanushek, Eric A.
Previous work shows that higher levels of education quality (as measured by international student achievement tests) increase growth rates of national income. This paper begins by confirming those findings in an analysis involving more countries over more time with additional controls. We then use the panel structure of our data to assess whether…
Corcoran, Sean; Evans, William N.
Using a panel of U.S. school districts spanning 1970-2000, we examine the relationship between income inequality and fiscal support for public education. In contrast with recent theoretical and empirical work suggesting a negative relationship between inequality and public spending, we find results consistent with a median voter model, in which…
Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…
Bailey, Tatiana M.; Delva, Jorge; Gretebeck, Kimberlee; Siefert, Kristine; Ismail, Amid
Objective We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of educational interventions in increasing mammography screening among low-income women. Data Sources Bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the ISI Web of Science, were searched for relevant articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Randomized, community-based trials targeting low-income women and published between January 1980 and March 2003 were included. Data Extraction The search yielded 242 studies; 24 met all inclusion criteria. Data Synthesis Three studies used mammography vans, three used low-cost vouchers or provided free mammograms, three used home visits, one used community education alone, one provided referrals, five incorporated multiple intervention strategies, two used phone calls, one used videos and print material, and five used primarily print material. Results Of nine studies that reduced barriers to care via mammography vans, cost vouchers, or home visits, eight showed statistically significant increases in mammography screening. Seven of the eight studies that used peer educators had significant increases in screening, as did four of the five studies that used multiple (intervention) components. Conclusions Interventions that used peer educators, incorporated multiple intervention strategies, or provided easy access via vans, cost vouchers, or home visits were effective in increasing screenings. Mailed letter or telephone reminders were not effective in trials involving low-income women, which is contrary to findings from middle/upper-income studies. PMID:16295701
Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric
The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…
Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770
Malhotra, Khushi; Herman, Allison N; Wright, Gretchen; Bruton, Yasmeen; Fisher, Jennifer O; Whitaker, Robert C
Eating regular family meals is associated with a lower risk of obesity among preschool-aged children. Children in lower-income households are at higher risk for obesity, but there is little information about their mothers' perceptions of family meals, and such information could improve nutrition counseling. To identify the perceived benefits and challenges of having family meals, four focus groups were conducted with 20 mothers of preschool-aged children living in low-income households in Philadelphia, PA. Three authors independently analyzed verbatim transcripts using an inductive method of open coding, and themes were established by consensus among all authors. Of the 20 mothers, 18 were black, 11 had education beyond high school, and 12 were living with an adult partner or husband. Mothers' strong childhood memories of mealtimes, both negative and positive, motivated them to have family meals because of the opportunities afforded by mealtimes to build strong relationships with their children. However, mothers also described needing help, especially from other household adults, in preparing meals and establishing calm and order with their children during mealtimes. To identify what motivates the mothers of low-income, preschool-aged children to have family meals, registered dietitians can benefit from asking about the mothers' own childhood experiences of family meals. Studies are needed to examine whether such an approach to identifying maternal motivations, when combined with practical advice about overcoming challenges with meal preparation and managing children's mealtime behavior, could lead to more frequent and nutritious family meals in this population. PMID:24144074
Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bradley, Robert H.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby
Caregiver education is known to relate to the growth of children, but possible mediation mechanisms of this association are poorly characterized and generally lack empirical support. We test whether instructional capital (caregiver education) leads to improved infant growth through availability of physical capital (household resources) across a wide swath of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS3), we explore relations among caregiver education, household resources, and infant (M age = .99 years) growth in 117,881 families living in 39 LMIC. Overall, household resources mediated 76% of the small association between caregiver education and infant growth. When disaggregated by countries characterized by low, medium, and high levels of human development (as indexed by average life expectancy, education, and gross domestic product), household resources mediated 48% to 78% of the association between caregiver education and infant growth. Caregiver education had effects on infant growth through household resources in countries characterized by low, medium, and high levels of human development; for girls and boys; and controlling for indexes of infant feeding and health. PMID:26273231
SAMPSON, ROBERT J.; MARE, ROBERT D.; PERKINS, KRISTIN L.
This article focuses on stability and change in “mixed middle-income” neighborhoods. We first analyze variation across nearly two decades for all neighborhoods in the United States and in the Chicago area, particularly. We then analyze a new longitudinal study of almost 700 Chicago adolescents over an 18-year span, including the extent to which they are exposed to different neighborhood income dynamics during the transition to young adulthood. The concentration of income extremes is persistent among neighborhoods, generally, but mixed middle-income neighborhoods are more fluid. Persistence also dominates among individuals, though Latino-Americans are much more likely than African Americans or whites to be exposed to mixed middle-income neighborhoods in the first place and to transition into them over time, even when adjusting for immigrant status, education, income, and residential mobility. The results here enhance our knowledge of the dynamics of income inequality at the neighborhood level, and the endurance of concentrated extremes suggests that policies seeking to promote mixed-income neighborhoods face greater odds than commonly thought. PMID:26722129
Midlife Women: Policy Proposals on Their Problems. A Summary of Papers Submitted to the Subcommittee on Retirement Income and Employment of the Select Committee on Aging, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.
Highlights of 18 papers on problems of midlife women are provided by 29 experts invited to testify before the Subcommittee on Retirement Income and Employment of the U.S. House of Representatives' Select Committee on Aging. The papers address the following areas of concern: (1) work and education, (2) displaced homemakers, (3) economic inequality,…
Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Jiang, Yuan
Background There are few studies that examine the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. Objective The goal of this study is to estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urban smokers in China using individual level longitudinal survey data. We also examine the differential responses to cigarette price increases among groups with different income and/or educational levels. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted to estimate the conditional cigarette demand price elasticity using data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China. The first three waves of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Analyses based on subsample by education and income were conducted. Findings Our results show that overall conditional cigarette demand price elasticity ranges from −0.12 to −0.14, implying a 10% increase in cigarette price would result in a reduction in cigarette consumption among adult urban Chinese smokers by 1.2% to 1.4%. No differential responses to cigarette price increase were found across education levels. The price elasticity estimates do not differ between high income smokers and medium income smokers. However, cigarette consumption among low income smokers did not seem to decrease after a price increase, at least among those who continued to smoke. Conclusion Relative to many other low- and middle-income countries, cigarette consumption among Chinese adult smokers is not very sensitive to changes in cigarette prices. The total impact of cigarette price increase would be larger if its impact on smoking initiation and cessation, as well as the price-reducing behaviors such as brand switching and trading down, were taken into account. PMID
Philip, Donald N.
This paper examines the Knowledge Age and how economic factors are causing educators to rethink and reinvent education. Two key factors in education in the Knowledge Age will be education for an economy of innovation, and the increasing virtualization of education. We present knowledge building pedagogy as a model for education in the Knowledge…
This study examined the factors influencing the academic success of 50 Mexican-Americans from low-income families who received Ph.D., J.D., or M.D. degrees from prestigious universities. All of the subjects received their college and graduate education during the 1960s and 1970s, and were interviewed using a 141-question interview protocol. The…
Tyler, I. Keith, Comp.; Williams, Catharine M., Comp.
As a tribute to Dr. Edgar Dale on his retirement from Ohio State University, the papers in this book refer to "the failures of education,""the impotence of the school,""the need for sweeping change," the existence of a "systems break," and "incipient civil war," all of which are products of an age of revolution which continues today. Educational…
The percentage of adults aged 65 years or older is expected to increase from 12 percent of the population in 1980 to more than 21 percent by the year 2030. Since many adults stay involved with learning activities well into their 80s and 90s, educational organizations have a great opportunity to supply learning activities to this population. To…
Haglund, Bengt; Högberg, Ulf; Essén, Birgitta
Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27 957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100 000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186
Mistry, Rashmita S; White, Elizabeth S; Benner, Aprile D; Huynh, Virginia W
This short-term longitudinal study investigated the simultaneous influences of adults' (mothers and teachers) educational expectations and youth's achievement (standardized test scores and teachers' ratings of academic performance) across a 3-year time span on youth's performance in school (GPA). Participants were an ethnically diverse sample of 426 low-income urban youth, ages 6 through 16 at T1. Results from cross-lagged and autoregressive path analyses indicated stability in adults' expectations and youth's standardized test scores; cross-lagged influences of teachers', but not mothers', expectations across time; and effects of youth's achievement outcomes on adults' expectations at T2, but not vice versa. Overall, the pattern of findings demonstrate that adults' educational expectations are dynamic and responsive to how youth are faring in school and to changes in academic performance across time. PMID:19636784
Background: Many cohort studies have been carried out that have provided information on the relationship between diet and health-related outcomes. Omission of important covariates during multivariate analysis may give rise to error due to residual confounding. A possibly important covariate is socioeconomic status (SES) as this is related to both diet and health. Objective: To determine the frequency with which different measures of SES are included as covariates during multivariate analysis of cohort studies that investigated the relationship between diet and health. Methodology: An analysis was carried out of 76 randomly selected papers from 66 cohort studies. The papers covered many dietary variables and a wide variety of diseases/health-related outcomes. The cohort studies were carried out in many different locations and the subjects varied widely in age. Results: Approximately two-thirds of the papers (65.8%) used at least one measure of SES as a covariate. Education was used most often (60.5% of papers), followed by income (14.4%) and social class (2.6%). More than one measure of SES was used in 11.8% of papers. Conclusions: Failure to include income (or another measure of present SES, such as occupation) may be a common source of error in cohort studies. Over-reliance on education may be particularly important as it is likely to be a weaker measure of present SES than is income. There is a need for more research on this question. SES in childhood is almost never included in multivariate analysis in cohort studies carried out on adults. This could also play a significant role in disease risk in middle age or later. Very little is known regarding whether this is also a source of residual confounding. PMID:27303622
Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.
Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods…
... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency...
... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid...
... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid...
... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid to individuals under age...
... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency...
... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid...
... resource requirements of AFDC. 436.222 Section 436.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN....222 Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency...
... resource requirements of AFDC. 435.222 Section 435.222 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN... income and resource requirements of AFDC. (a) The agency may provide Medicaid to individuals under age...
Thomas, Duane E.; Stevenson, Howard
A fundamental consideration in discourses on risk and schooling for primary and secondary school-age students focuses on gender inequalities in the classroom. Gender equity in education debates have raged for several decades and so remain an enduring concern of educators and researchers across the nation. However, educational research often…
Lumeng, Julie C.; Miller, Alison L.; Peterson, Karen E.; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M.
This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3–4 years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60 minutes since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3 days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight versus not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with “hypocortisolism” reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. PMID:24177439
Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M
This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. PMID:24177439
Barry, Kate R.
The purpose of this study is to critically explore low-income women's experience as they negotiate post secondary education in community colleges. Three research questions explore the context through which low-income women have entered the college experience, what that experience is like for them, and how the community college experience has…
Efrat, Merav W.; Esparza, Salvador; Mendelson, Sherri G.; Lane, Christianne J.
Objectives: To assess whether a telephone-based breastfeeding intervention delivered by lactation educators influenced exclusive breastfeeding rates among low-income Hispanic women in the USA. Design: Randomised two-group design. Setting: Pregnant low-income Hispanic women (298) were recruited from community health clinics in Los Angeles County…
Anand, Priyanka; Mizala, Alejandra; Repetto, Andrea
This paper estimates the impact of private education on the academic achievement of low-income students in Chile. To deal with selection bias, we use propensity score matching to compare the test scores of reduced-fee paying, low-income students in private voucher schools to those of similar students in public schools and free private voucher…
Chhen Stewart, Lee May
Typically, studies first-generation, low-income students have focused on the financial aid and academic preparedness to enter college and persist. These researchers have found little data about first-generation, low-income students once they enter higher education. One question largely unexplored has been why some first-generation, low-income…
Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne CC; Kozuki, Naoko; Lawn, Joy E; Cousens, Simon; Blencowe, Hannah; Ezzati, Majid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara A; Adair, Linda; Barros, Fernando; Baqui, Abdullah H; Christian, Parul; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Humphrey, Jean; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Victora, Cesar G; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Black, Robert E
Summary Background Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods For this pooled analysis, we searched all available studies and identified 20 cohorts (providing data for 2 015 019 livebirths) from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that recorded data for birthweight, gestational age, and vital statistics through 28 days of life. Study dates ranged from 1982 through to 2010. We calculated relative risks (RR) and risk differences (RD) for mortality associated with preterm birth (<32 weeks, 32 weeks to <34 weeks, 34 weeks to <37 weeks), small-for-gestational-age (SGA; babies with birthweight in the lowest third percentile and between the third and tenth percentile of a US reference population), and preterm and SGA combinations. Findings Pooled overall RRs for preterm were 6·82 (95% CI 3·56–13·07) for neonatal mortality and 2·50 (1·48–4·22) for post-neonatal mortality. Pooled RRs for babies who were SGA (with birthweight in the lowest tenth percentile of the reference population) were 1·83 (95% CI 1·34–2·50) for neonatal mortality and 1·90 (1·32–2·73) for post-neonatal mortality. The neonatal mortality risk of babies who were both preterm and SGA was higher than that of babies with either characteristic alone (15·42; 9·11–26·12). Interpretation Many babies in low-income and middle-income countries are SGA. Preterm birth affects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. The mortality risks associated with both characteristics extend beyond the neonatal period. Differentiation of the burden and risk of babies born preterm and SGA rather than with low birthweight could guide
Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.
An extensive survey of empirical research on education as related to poverty, growth, and income distribution is presented, with the focus on 21 developing nations. The study uses the latest available data on alternative measures of income distribution, income shares of various population groups by income classes, and poverty ratios. The analysis…
Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te
This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…
Weathers, Robert R; Walter, Gerard; Schley, Sara; Hennessey, John; Hemmeter, Jeffrey; Burkhauser, Richard V
The rapid growth in the number of children participating in the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program before the age of 18 has led policymakers to consider new methods of assisting children with disabilities in their transition from school to work. Postsecondary education represents one path that SSI children may take to acquire the skills necessary to enter employment and reduce dependency on the SSI disability program as adults. Yet little is known about SSI children's experience with postsecondary education, let alone their ability to increase their labor market earnings and reduce their time on SSI as adults in the long term. This lack of information on long-term outcomes is due in part to a lack of longitudinal data. This article uses a unique longitudinal data set to conduct a case study of SSI children who applied for postsecondary education at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) within the Rochester Institute of Technology. The data set was created by merging NTID administrative data on the characteristics and experiences of its applicants to Social Security Administration (SSA) longitudinal data on earnings and program participation. We used this data file to estimate the likelihood that an SSI child will graduate from NTID relative to other hearing-impaired NTID applicants, and we estimated the influence of graduation from NTID on participation in the SSI adult program and later success in the labor market. The results of our analysis show that the percentage of NTID applicants who were SSI children increased over time, from a low of 10 percent in 1982 to more than 41 percent in 2000. However, the differences in the probability of graduation from NTID between deaf SSI children and deaf applicants who were not SSI children did not change accordingly. The probability of graduation for SSI children who applied to NTID was 13.5 percentage points lower than for those who were not SSI children. The estimated disparity indicates that
Kaur, Supreet; Sachdev, HPS; Dwivedi, S N; Lakshmi, R; Kapil, Umesh; Sareen, Neha
Background and Objectives: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases world-wide and the prevalence in school-aged children appears to be increasing perhaps as a result of increased prevalence of obesity. Thus, the present study was planned to establish an association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with hypertension amongst school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group (LIG) and middle income group (MIG) in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Subjects and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using the standard methodology. Results and Interpretation: t0 he prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 3.8 and 4.4% with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. Subjects and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using the standard methodology. Results and Interpretation: t0 he prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 3.8 and 4.4% with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. PMID:24019604
Kondo, Naoki; Saito, Masashige; Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Aida, Jun; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro
Background Relative deprivation of income is hypothesised to generate frustration and stress through upward social comparison with one's peers. If psychosocial stress is the mechanism, relative deprivation should be more strongly associated with specific health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease (compared with other health outcomes, eg, non-tobacco-related cancer). Methods We evaluated the association between relative income deprivation and mortality by leading causes, using a cohort of 21 031 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older. A baseline mail-in survey was conducted in 2003. Information on cause-specific mortality was obtained from death certificates. Our relative deprivation measure was the Yitzhaki Index, derived from the aggregate income shortfall for each person, relative to individuals with higher incomes in that person's reference group. Reference groups were defined according to gender, age group and same municipality of residence. Results We identified 1682 deaths during the 4.5 years of follow-up. A Cox regression demonstrated that, after controlling for demographic, health and socioeconomic factors including income, the HR for death from cardiovascular diseases per SD increase in relative deprivation was 1.50 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.08) in men, whereas HRs for mortality by cancer and other diseases were close to the null value. Additional adjustment for depressive symptoms and health behaviours (eg, smoking and preventive care utilisation) attenuated the excess risks for mortality from cardiovascular disease by 9%. Relative deprivation was not associated with mortality for women. Conclusions The results partially support our hypothesised mechanism: relative deprivation increases health risks via psychosocial stress among men. PMID:25700534
Ang, SiewChing; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Wänström, Linda
Although the Flynn Effect has been studied widely across cultural, geographic, and intellectual domains, and many explanatory theories have been proposed, little past research attention has been paid to subgroup differences. Rodgers and Wänström (2007) identified an aggregate-level Flynn Effect (FE) at each age between 5 and 13 in the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSYC) PIAT-Math data. FE patterns were not obtained for Reading Recognition, Reading Comprehension, or Digit Span, consistent with past FE research suggesting a closer relationship to fluid intelligence measures of problem solving and analytic reasoning than to crystallized measures of verbal comprehension and memory. These prior findings suggest that the NLSYC data can be used as a natural laboratory to study more subtle FE patterns within various demographic subgroups. We test for subgroup Flynn Effect differences by gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, household income, and urbanization. No subgroups differences emerged for three demographic categories. However, children with more educated (especially college educated) mothers and/or children born into higher income households had an accelerated Flynn effect in their PIAT-M scores compared to cohort peers with lower educated mothers or lower income households. We interpret both the positive and the null findings in relation to previous theoretical explanations. PMID:20657802
Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)
OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012
How pronounced is income inequality around the world--and how can education help reduce it? This paper reports the following: (1) Across OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, the average income of the richest 10% of the population was about nine times that of the poorest 10% before the onset of the global economic…
Lin, Chun-Hung A.
The expansion of higher education in Taiwan starting from the late 1980s has successfully raised the average level of education. Using the concept of the education Gini, we find that the educational inequality declined as average schooling rose during the period of 1976-2003. The impacts of a rising average schooling and a declining educational…
Kim, Juhee; Gallien, Tara L
The primary objective of this study is to examine the disparities in childcare and infant feeding practices by family structure (single-mother vs. two-parent households) and whether household income level may modify the observed associations by family structure. The cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 2 years enrolled in the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. The analytic sample is children from single mothers (n = 1801, 16.0%) and children from two parents (n = 11 337, 84.0%). Children of single mothers used more non-parental childcare [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.99-3.58], especially relative care and centre care, than children of two parents. Lower rates of any breastfeeding for 6 months (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.77) and ever breastfed (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89) were reported among children of single mothers than those of two parents. The many observed differences in childcare arrangements and breastfeeding by family structure remained significant in both low- and high-income households. However, children of low-income single mothers had more last-minute changes of childcare arrangement (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.55-3.52) than children of low-income two-parent households and children of high-income single mothers had more early introduction of complementary foods (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.12-3.29) than children of high-income two-parent households. This study documented disparities in childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure, regardless of income level. These findings support the need to for comprehensive policies that address maternal employment leave, childcare support and workplace accommodations and support for breastfeeding for children 0 to 2 years, especially among single mothers, regardless of income. PMID:25393914
Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John
Abstract Objective To determine the unadjusted and adjusted effects of income on heart disease; its main disease intermediary, high blood pressure; and its main behavioural risk factors, smoking and physical inactivity. Design Random-digit dialing telephone survey collected through the Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada. Setting Saskatchewan. Participants A total of 27 090 residents aged 20 years and older; each health region in Saskatchewan was represented. Main outcome measures Overall, 178 variables related to demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, behaviour, life stress, disease intermediaries, health outcomes, and access to health care were analyzed to determine their unadjusted and adjusted effects on heart disease. Results The mean age of the sample was 52.6 years. Women represented 55.9% of the sample. Most respondents were married (52.3%) and had some postsecondary or graduate education (52.5%). The mean personal income was $23 931 and the mean household income was $37 533. All models statistically controlled for age. Five covariates independently associated with heart disease included high blood pressure, household income of $29 999 or less per year, being a daily smoker, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure included being overweight or obese, being a daily smoker, household income of $29 999 or less per year, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with daily smoking included being a visible minority, household income of $29 999 or less per year, not being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, and male sex. Six covariates independently associated with physical inactivity included being a visible minority, being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, male sex, household income of $29 999 or less per year, and being a daily smoker. Conclusion Household
We assess the implementation of income contingent loan (ICL) schemes for higher education in a context characterized by two main features: a formerly tuition-free system and a great heterogeneity in the quality and cost of higher education. In that case, ICL implementation leads to a trade-off between increasing "career" equity in terms of…
Capshaw, Norman Clark
The disruptive technologies of the Internet and computers are changing our world in myriad ways. These technologies are also increasingly being employed in higher education but to what effect? Are the effects on higher education quality measurable, and if so, what is the effect on the traditional gap between high-income and low- to middle-income…
Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chin, Chong-Hee
Focusing on the family as a context for the development of life plans by youth, this report summarizes findings of a 14-year longitudinal study on the educational and occupational life plans and achievement of youth in rural low-income areas in six southeastern states. Specific attention is given to (1) how parental educational and occupational…
Othman, Mariam; Muijs, Daniel
Shortcomings of educational quality in rural schools remain a key focus in the literature related to developing countries. This paper studies whether rural primary schools in Malaysia, an upper middle-income developing country, are still experiencing lower levels of educational resources, school climate, school leadership, and parental involvement…
Rasmussen, Christopher James
This study examines the global trend in shifting university costs from national governments to individual students and families, with a specific focus on the existing cost-sharing model in Australian higher education. The research examines the manner in which the availability of income-contingent loans (through the Higher Education Contribution…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb
Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project 2005", this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb
Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project" 2005, this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary education,…
Loeb, Susannna; Socias, Miguel
The federal role in education finance is commonly seen as compensatory. The federal government gives large sums of money to low-income schools and school districts through programs such as Title 1. Yet, this view of federal aid is based solely on direct educational expenditures. The federal government and state governments also support schools…
This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…
Diez Roux, Ana V.; Gebreab, Samson Y.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Dubbert, Patricia M.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A.
Objectives. We examined the social patterning of cumulative dysregulation of multiple systems, or allostatic load, among African Americans adults. Methods. We examined the cross-sectional associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with summary indices of allostatic load and neuroendocrine, metabolic, autonomic, and immune function components in 4048 Jackson Heart Study participants. Results. Lower education and income were associated with higher allostatic load scores in African American adults. Patterns were most consistent for the metabolic and immune dimensions, less consistent for the autonomic dimension, and absent for the neuroendocrine dimension among African American women. Associations of SES with the global allostatic load score and the metabolic and immune domains persisted after adjustment for behavioral factors and were stronger for income than for education. There was some evidence that the neuroendocrine dimension was inversely associated with SES after behavioral adjustment in men, but the immune and autonomic components did not show clear dose–response trends, and we observed no associations for the metabolic component. Conclusions. Findings support our hypothesis that allostatic load is socially patterned in African American women, but this pattern is less consistent in African American men. PMID:22594727
This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period 1981-2006.…
Ukoli, Flora A; Patel, Kushal; Hargreaves, Margaret; Beard, Katina; Moton, Pierre J; Bragg, Richard; Beech, Derrick; Davis, Rodney
African American men bear disproportionate burden of prostate cancer (PCa) that can be reduced by early detection. A 15-minute culturally appropriate PCa education intervention developed to communicate effective, relevant, and balanced PCa screening information to low-income African American men was evaluated in men 42 years and older who had not been screened in one year. Of 539 men enrolled, 392 (72.7%) completed the six-month follow-up. Mean age was 54.4±8.9, 34.7% had no high school diploma, and 65.3% earned less than $25,000 annually. Barriers to screening included health insurance (41.4%), discomfort of digital rectal exam (32.1%), and fear of cancer diagnosis (29.9%). Mean knowledge score of 21 points increased from 13.27±3.51 to 14.95±4.14 (p<.001), and prostate-specific antigen screening from 22.1% to 62.8%. Men without high school diploma recorded the lowest post-intervention PCa knowledge and screening rate (47.7%), suggestive of the need for more than a single education session. Annual physicals with free prostate examination can maintain the positive trend observed. PMID:23377736
Butler, Marilyn W
There are several different models of education and care delivery models in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and many endeavors combine more than one of the described models. This article summarizes the burden of pediatric surgical disease and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of the following: faith-based missions; short-term surgical trips; partnerships, twinning, and academic collaborations; teaching workshops, "train the trainer," and pediatric surgery camps; specialty treatment centers; online conferences, telemedicine, and mobile health; specific programs for exchange and education; and training in high-income countries (HICs), fellowships, and observorships. It then addresses ethical concerns common to all humanitarian pediatric surgical efforts. PMID:26831137
Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Rosselli, M; Gómez, C
The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education on cognitive decline during normal aging. An 806-subject sample was taken from five different Mexican regions. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. Subjects were grouped into four educational levels: illiterate, 1-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years of education, and four age ranges: 16-30, 31-50, 51-65, and 66-85 years. A brief neuropsychological test battery (NEUROPSI), standardized and normalized in Spanish, was administered. The NEUROPSI test battery includes assessment of orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, motor skills, and executive functions. In general, test scores were strongly associated with level of educational, and differences among age groups were smaller than differences among education groups. However, there was an interaction between age and education such as that among illiterate individuals scores of participants 31-50 years old were higher than scores of participants 16-30 years old for over 50% of the tests. Different patterns of interaction among educational groups were distinguished. It was concluded that: (a) The course of life-span changes in cognition are affected by education. Among individuals with a low level of education, best neuropsychological test performance is observed at an older age than among higher-educated subjects; and (b) there is not a single relationship between age-related cognitive decline and education, but different patterns may be found, depending upon the specific cognitive domain. PMID:14590204
On February 11, 1997, we published interim final rules with a request for comments to implement the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) childhood disability provisions of sections 211 and 212 of Public Law (Pub. L.) 104-193, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. We are now publishing revised final rules in response to public comments. We are also conforming our rules to amendments to Public Law 104-193 made by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Public Law 105-33. Finally, we are simplifying and clarifying some rules in keeping with the President's goal of using plain language in regulations. PMID:11503639
Wilson, Katherine E.; Miller, Alison L.; Bonuck, Karen; Lumeng, Julie C.; Chervin, Ronald D.
Study Objectives: To evaluate a novel sleep education program for low-income preschool children and their families. Design: Randomized trial of an educational intervention. Setting: Community-based. Participants: Head Start preschool families (n = 152) in greater Lansing and Detroit, Michigan. Interventions: Classrooms or Head Start sites were randomized to an intervention group (prompt intervention) versus a control group (delayed intervention). Parents attended a one-time, 45-min sleep education program and preschoolers received 2 w (320 total min) of classroom sleep curriculum. Measurements: Parent knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and beliefs were assessed as the primary outcomes just before the 45-min sleep intervention, immediately postintervention, and approximately 1 mo postintervention. Parents reported their child's bedtimes and wake times on 7-day sleep diaries at baseline and at 1-mo follow-up. Average weeknight sleep durations and bedtimes served as secondary outcomes. Results: Linear mixed models showed a time × treatment effect for parents' knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy (each P < 0.05) but not beliefs. These improvements were found immediately postintervention but were not retained at 1-mo follow-up. Children in the intervention group improved their weeknight sleep duration at 1-mo follow-up by 30 min (11.0 ± 0.9 h vs. 10.5 ± 1.0 hours at baseline) compared to controls (10.4 ± 0.9 h versus 10.5 ± 0.9 h at baseline) (P = 0.04 for difference between groups). Children did not show statistically significant improvements in bedtime. Conclusions: Educational interventions in early childhood can have an effect on parents' sleep knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy, and on children's sleep behavior. However, repeated exposure to the new information may be important for parents as well as their children. Citation: Wilson KE, Miller AL, Bonuck K, Lumeng JC, Chervin RD. Evaluation of a sleep education program for low-income preschool
Money Income and Poverty Status in 1975 of Families and Persons in the United States and the Northeast Region, by Divisions and States (Spring, 1976 Survey of Income and Education). Current Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 110.
Apple, Karen K.; And Others
This report contains estimates for families, unrelated individuals, and persons by money income and poverty status for the United States, the Northeast region of the U.S., and the divisions and states within the region. The estimates were obtained from the Survey of Income and Education (SIE), which was conducted between April and July 1976 by the…
Conway, David I.; Brenner, Darren R.; McMahon, Alex D.; Macpherson, Lorna M.D.; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Curioni, Otávio A.; Maso, Luigino Dal; Daudt, Alexander W.; de Gois Filho, José F.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Edefonti, Valeria; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Franceschi, Silvia; Gillison, Maura; Hayes, Richard B.; Healy, Claire M.; Herrero, Rolando; Holcatova, Ivana; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Kelsey, Karl; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Luce, Daniele; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana M; Menvielle, Gwenn; Merletti, Franco; Morgenstern, Hal; Moysich, Kirsten; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew F.; Purdue, Mark P.; Ramroth, Heribert; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Schantz, Stimson; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Shangina, Oxana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine; Stucker, Isabelle; Sturgis, Erich M.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M.; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Yu, Guo-Pei; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Znaor, Ariana; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ghodrat, Marianoosh; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul
Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 – 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 – 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. PMID:24996155
King, Abby C.; Sallis, James F.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Saelens, Brian E.; Cain, Kelli; Conway, Terry L.; Chapman, James E.; Ahn, David K.; Kerr, Jacqueline
While there is a growing literature on the relations between neighborhood design and health factors such as physical activity and obesity, less focus has been placed on older adults, who may be particularly vulnerable to environmental influences. This study evaluates the relations among objectively measured neighborhood design, mobility impairment, and physical activity and body weight in two U.S. regional samples of community dwelling older adults living in neighborhoods differing in walkability and income levels. An observational design involving two time points six months apart was employed between 2005–2008. U.S. Census block groups in Seattle-King County, Washington and Baltimore. Maryland-Washington DC regions were selected via geographic information systems to maximize variability in walkability and income. Participants were 719 adults ages 66 years and older who were able to complete surveys in English and walk at least 10 feet continuously. Measurements included reported walking or bicycling for errands (i.e., transport activity) and other outdoor aerobic activities measured via the CHAMPS questionnaire: accelerometry-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; reported body mass index; and reported lower-extremity mobility impairment measured via the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument. Across regions, time, and neighborhood income, older adults living in more walkable neighborhoods had more transport activity and moderate-to- vigorous physical activity and lower body mass index relative to those living in less walkable neighborhoods. The most mobility-impaired adults living in more walkable neighborhoods reported transport activity levels that were similar to less mobility-impaired adults living in less walkable neighborhoods. The results add to the small literature aimed at understanding how neighborhood design may influence physical activity and related aspects of health linked with day-to-day function and independence as people age. PMID
This study investigates the educational attainment of an aging workforce from the perspective of educational credentialing. The research questions are defined as follows: Why are workers over age 50 attaining university degrees? How do they narratively construct the rational for pursuing well-recognized credentials in midlife? The specific focus…
Bryan, William R.; Linke, Charles M.
Statistics prove that being middle-aged, well educated, white, and male enhances earnings. This paper uses data from the March 1991 Current Population Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census along with some common statistical techniques to chart the specific impact of age, education, race, and gender on earnings. It is shown that earnings…
Bonner, Kimberly; Welch, Emily; Elder, Kate; Cohn, Jennifer
Introduction Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is included in the World Health Organization’s routine immunization schedule and is recommended by WHO for vaccination in high-risk children up to 60 months. However, many countries do not recommend vaccination in older age groups, nor have donors committed to supporting extended age group vaccination. To better inform decision-making, this systematic review examines the direct impact of extended age group vaccination in children over 12 months in low and middle income countries. Methods An a priori protocol was used. Using pre-specified terms, a search was conducted using PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Abstracts, clinicaltrials.gov and the International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases abstracts. The primary outcome was disease incidence, with antibody titers and nasopharyngeal carriage included as secondary outcomes. Results Eighteen studies reported on disease incidence, immune response, and nasopharyngeal carriage. PCV administered after 12 months of age led to significant declines in invasive pneumococcal disease. Immune response to vaccine type serotypes was significantly higher for those vaccinated at older ages than the unimmunized at the established 0.2ug/ml and 0.35ug/ml thresholds. Vaccination administered after one year of age significantly reduced VT carriage with odds ratios ranging from 0.213 to 0.69 over four years. A GRADE analysis indicated that the studies were of high quality. Discussion PCV administration in children over 12 months leads to significant protection. The direct impact of PCV administration, coupled with the large cohort of children missed in first year vaccination, indicates that countries should initiate or expand PCV immunization for extended age group vaccinations. Donors should support implementation of PCV as part of delayed or interrupted immunization for older
Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.
This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…
Lo, Leslie N. K; Wang, Fang
In Chinese societies, moral education has always been considered the most essential component of education because the nurturing of moral persons is the prime function of schooling. The implementation of moral education has relied on the inculcation of values that reflect moral ideals. The emergence of the Information Age, with a plethora of…
Drawing on a case study of 60 low-income single mothers in California, I present a grounded account of the barriers and supports single mothers encounter in their pursuit of postsecondary education (PSE) and detail what the women themselves attributed to their success. I highlight the role both significant others (peers, family, friends) and…
Little, Jeffrey C.; Perry, Danielle R.; Volpe, Stella Lucia
Investigated the effectiveness of a nutrition supplement educational intervention in improving the nutrition supplement knowledge of low-income adolescents. Data on high school students separated into experimental and control groups indicated that they had extremely poor pre-intervention knowledge. However, the short-term nutrition education…
Chandler, Marissa Arboe
This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of a learning style intervention on persistence and success of low-income and first-generation college students enrolled in online courses. With the continuing rise of online education, there is potential for both promise and problems within higher academia. The TRiO Student Support Services…
Herd, Pamela; Goesling, Brian; House, James S.
This article seeks to elucidate the relationship between socioeconomic position and health by showing how different facets of socioeconomic position (education and income) affect different stages (onset vs. progression) of health problems. The biomedical literature has generally treated socioeconomic position as a unitary construct. Likewise, the…
Wells, Ryan S.; Lynch, Cassie M.
This study investigates delayed college entry, including how college enrollment differs based on students' plans while in high school. Results confirm that low-SES students are repeatedly disadvantaged in the college transition, but add complexity concerning the influences of family income, parental education, and parental occupational status.…
Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…
Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.
Introduction Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. Methods As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age <21 years, who had survived ≥5 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor. Siblings were used as a comparison group. We asked questions about education, profession and income and retrieved clinical data from the SCCR. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with income. Results We analyzed data from 1’506 survivors and 598 siblings. Survivors were less likely than siblings to have a high monthly income (>4’500 CHF), even after we adjusted for socio-demographic and educational factors (OR = 0.46, p<0.001). Older age, male sex, personal and parental education, and number of working hours were associated with high income. Survivors of leukemia (OR = 0.40, p<0.001), lymphoma (OR = 0.63, p = 0.040), CNS tumors (OR = 0.22, p<0.001), bone tumors (OR = 0.24, p = 0.003) had a lower income than siblings. Survivors who had cranial irradiation, had a lower income than survivors who had no cranial irradiation (OR = 0.48, p = 0.006). Discussion Even after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, education and working hours, survivors of various diagnostic groups have lower incomes than siblings. Further research needs to identify the underlying causes. PMID:27213682
PERSONS, EDGAR A.; SWANSON, GORDON I.
THE MAIN PURPOSE OF THIS PROJECT WAS TO STUDY THE RELATIONSHIPS OF EDUCATIONAL, ECONOMIC, AND BIOGRAPHICAL VARIABLES TO FARM SUCCESS. UNDERSTANDING THESE RELATIONSHIPS WAS PREREQUISITE TO DEVISING A MEANS OF PREDICTING SUCCESS FOR A YOUNG MAN CONTEMPLATING PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE AS AN OCCUPATION. SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS FOCUSED ON THE ROLE OF THE…
Background In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Methods Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators “AND” and “OR” to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Results Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles), India (14), Egypt (10) and South Africa (10). While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58%) reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles) of which computer-assisted learning (CAL) comprised the majority (45 articles). Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles), web-based learning (14 articles), and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles). Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities. Conclusions E
Crase, Darrell; Rosato, Frank D.
Several factors have focused new attention on aging and the aged. A major concern emanating from these has been the role of physical fitness upon the health status of the aging. Benefits of exercise and educational and curricular modifications are identified to promote health and well-being among the elderly. (Author/BEF)
Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.
Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…
Lohse, Barbara; Rifkin, Robin; Arnold, Kristen; Least, Christine
Objective: To evaluate the digital program, "Mealtime is Family Time", as a means of educating caregivers of preschoolers on the importance of family meals within the division of feeding responsibility framework. Methods: Descriptive design using 2 approaches: focus group program review and discussion or self-report survey after independent…
... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1025 Work for... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work for religious, charitable,...
Pearson, Thomas A
The 2002 World Health Report warns that the allies of poverty and ignorance are joining forces with the new formidable enemies of health. This describes the epidemiologic transition of burden of disease from infectious and parasitic diseases to that of noncommunicable diseases. All parts of the world, with the possible exception of sub-Saharan Africa, have well-established epidemics of coronary heart disease and stroke. Hypertension contributes significantly to mortality everywhere and is a leading global problem. Education and wealth have strong influences on the epidemiologic transition and might serve as a double-edged sword of benefit and risk. While improved education and enhanced resources are necessary to reduce infectious, parasitic, and perinatal diseases, these factors are also associated with adoption of deleterious health behaviors, which lead to the atherosclerotic diseases. The diffusion of innovation theory describes the early adoption of unhealthy lifestyles in the educated and wealthy, who soon recognize the costs to their community and modify these lifestyles. The uneducated poor may adopt these unhealthy lifestyles later, but, once that occurs, are left with higher risk and burden of cardiovascular disease. One possible reason for this is that discretionary income and the desire for modern conveniences quickly attract unhealthy products (tobacco, high fat/high salt foods) and unhealthy behaviors (sedentary entertainment transportation without physical exertion). The commercial interests of these products have been efficient and effective in delivering their messages to developing societies. Heart health organizations must be more aggressive in their assessment of needs for programs, education of people over a broad range of education levels, assurance of access to heart health services, alteration of the environment to facilitate heart health, and the development of policies and laws to limit deleterious products and behaviors. These late
Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.
Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…
Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.…
Rebok, George W.
An understanding of adulthood educational participation should be developed according to a criterion of environmental and situationally dependent factors rather than solely to one of inexorable and cross-situational biophysical decline. Environmental and organismic factors that may relate to chronically low rates of educational participation by…
Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.
Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.
This document contains regulations governing the administration of the Childfind system for children age birth to under age 6, the provision of early intervention services to eligible children birth through two with disabilities and their families, and the provision of special education and related services to eligible children age 3 to under 6…
Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.
Parents’ rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social–cognitive predictors of parents’ restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents (N = 147) of preschool-aged children (2–6 years) completed self-administered questionnaires examining parent and child screen time, parent restriction of screen time, self-efficacy to restrict screen time, and beliefs about screen time. Structural equation modeling results indicated that greater self-efficacy to restrict screen time (β = .29, p = .016) and greater perceived importance of restricting child screen use (β = .55, p < .001) were associated with greater restriction of child screen use, after controlling for parent screen time. Family-based interventions that consider broader attitudinal factors around child screen time may be necessary to engage parents in restricting screen use. PMID:23239766
Banks, Vera J.; Kalbacher, Judith Z.
Special tabulation of the March 1976 Current Population Survey provided data on income sources, geographic distribution, and social (age, sex, race, education), family, and employment characteristics of farm income recipients. Of the 3.1 million persons and 2.6 million families receiving some farm self-employment income in 1975, a larger…
Smith, Gary R.
This teaching guide on aging contains 18 activities for students. A major cognitive objective is for students to examine and evaluate personal and societal attitudes and behavior toward aging in the United States and in other societies. When students make cross-cultural comparisons of these attitudes and behaviors they become aware that their own…
Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M; Nfor, Oswald N; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po
Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue.The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex.The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category"51" or "52") and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes.Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18-44 years) and males (45-64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937-4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603-3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878-3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821-2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years.Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549
The state of education in Saudi Arabia is reviewed in this brief analysis of the country's growth. Considered are the single-sex institutions, enrollment trends at the university level, faculty shortages, campus expansion, and religious influences. (LBH)
Noble, Kimberly G.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Brito, Natalie H.; Bartsch, Hauke; Kan, Eric; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J.; Murray, Sarah S.; Casey, B. J.; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M.; Frazier, Jean A.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Kennedy, David N.; Zijl, Peter Van; Mostofsky, Stewart; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Kenet, Tal; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.
Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. Here, we investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Specifically, among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data indicate that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children. Potential implications are discussed. PMID:25821911
As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.
Powell, Valerie J. H.; Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zomp, Christopher; Johnson, Randall S.; Miller, Phillip; Powell, James C.
This paper updates the efforts to educate blind students in higher education in the digital age and describes how to support the development of mental models in learning through tactile learning and 3D-printing technology. It cites research documenting a drop in Braille literacy along with the growth in use of digital technologies by blind…
The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…
Seffrin, John R.
Due to the trend toward more smoking among the young and to the effect of smoking on human health and life, educators need to devise effective antismoking programs as part of the secondary curriculum. The real problem lies in educating youths prior to the age at which the decision to smoke is made. (JN)
Callis, Laura Kyser; Osborn, Daniel
This article presents profiles of and reflections by teachers with international experience, including the authors, who offer insights on education in a global age. The respondents who were colleagues of the authors were interviewed to learn about their K-12 education, insights into and analysis of their experiences teaching abroad, and thoughts…
Ysseldyke, James E.; And Others
The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been working with federal and state agencies to facilitate and enhance the collection and use of data on educational outcomes for students with disabilities. The purpose of this document is to present a model of: (1) early childhood outcomes at age 3, where outcomes are defined as the results…
Oppenheim, Jerrold; MacGregor, Theo
Noting that high-quality preschool increases the ability of low-income children to profit from elementary and secondary education, thereby increasing their high school graduation rate and generating economic and other returns for taxpayers, this report articulates and analyzes the economic benefits of providing a high-quality preschool education…
Jefferson County Public Schools, Louisville, KY. Office of Career Education.
Project EPIC (Educational Preparation for Involvement in Careers) was designed for the needs of low income, inner city students (K-12). The curriculum was divided into three phases: awareness (focusing on a basic foundation in the areas of academics, work, self concept, decision making, and community for grades K-6); exploration (focusing on…
Ashby, Cornelia M.
Congress has expanded the number of low-income and minority-serving institutions eligible for grants under Titles III and V of the Higher Education Act and significantly increased funding for the grants. This study investigated: how institutions used their Title III and Title V grants, and benefits they received from using the grant funds;…
Sellers, Debra M.; Bolender, Benjamin C.; Crocker, Andrew B.
The specific aim of this research study was to gain knowledge regarding beliefs about aging, in order to develop future, priority, educational, and aging-related opportunities in Kansas. The study included six focus groups with a self-selected sample of Kansans born during the years 1946-1964 (N = 39). The main themes that surfaced included the…
Tan, Oon Seng
The twenty-first century is often described as an age of uncertainty and ambiguity with unprecedented challenges. Those with a creative mind-set however might call this millennium an age of wonder. New technologies and digital media are facilitating imagination and inventiveness. How are we innovating education? Are schools and classroom fostering…
Rodriguez, Daniel; Zavodny, Madeline
Analysis of Displaced Workers Surveys suggests that between 1983-97, the likelihood of job loss declined among most age groups but rose for middle-aged/older workers relative to younger workers. Changes in educational attainment and industry shifts were contributing factors. Probability of displacement increased significantly for service workers.…
Dennis, Everette E., Ed.; LaMay, Craig L., Ed.
This book of 16 author-contributed chapters examines issues of the media and public institutions of higher education including: the media ranking of universities and their contribution to low expectations of universities; the disjunction between massive support for college and university sports events and the intellectual and presumed academic…
Long, David E.
A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education…
Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities' rights have to be secured, but also majorities…
Censorship exists in institutions where art exists, and also where art education exists. In fall 2005, a group of instructors and the author taught a group project with a political theme--peace. In this article, she examines institutionalized censorship within schools, and the ramifications of teaching the subject of peace in a time of war.…
Haslam, Ian R.
Discusses the potential for teaching psychological skills to student athletes in school sport programs, outlining a conceptual approach to psychological skills training for athletic coaches. The paper details how to develop a psychological skills education curriculum, explaining issues of curriculum sequence and implementation strategies in the…
Koonce, Joan; Scarrow, Andrea; Palmer, Lance
Free tax programs, such as Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA), allow recipients of the earned income tax credit (EITC) to have their returns filed for free. VITA and other free tax programs are nationwide. However, each program is distinct, and the services provided by these programs differ. This article discusses a successful and unique…