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Sample records for age optic disc

  1. Optical Disc Memory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanaka, Ryoichi; Saimi, Tetsuo; Okazaki, Yukinori; Okino, Yoshihiro

    1983-11-01

    The video and the audio disc systems have been realized and the progress of optical disc memory systems allows the new products such as the video file system and the document file system. The optical disc memory system has a number of advantages compared with the current magnetic disc memory. These are the large recording capacity, the high recording density (10 to 100 times more than ordinary magnetic disc) and the contact free record and retrieval of the information, which eliminates the "Head Crush" problems and realizes the reliable information storage system. However, high recording density and small track pitches (usually 1.6--2.5 micron meters) increases the probability of error rate of recording infomation. Bit error rate (BER) of the recorded optical disc sometimes presents 10-4-10-5 Which is much higher than the magnetic disc. This high BER strongly depends on the production process. Optical disc is preformatted with the address information and with the tracks for infor-mation recording. The pregrooved disc used to be produced by the optical mastering process and the U-V replication process, which needs the very high-grade clean room and the expensive facilities. Process control of the laser cutting on the resist coated glass master is quite sensitive and must be treated with extreme care. When the large quantity of mass produced optical memory discs is supplied, a new mastering process would be needed. One of the solutions of this problem is the dry mastering process with a mechanical cutting system.

  2. On the age and metallicity estimation of disc galaxies using optical and near-infrared photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-chul

    We have investigated the robustness of stellar population models in order to address the age and metallicity estimation of disc galaxies. We note that the scatter among simple stellar population models by different groups is surprisingly large at ages t<2 Gyr. The dominant uncertainties in stellar population models arise from convective core overshoot assumptions and the treatment of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase and helium abundance may play a significant role at higher metallicities. It is also emphasized that the current composite stellar population models need some implementation of chemical enrichment histories for the proper analysis of the observational data.

  3. The Chemistry of Optical Discs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkett, David

    2002-01-01

    Explains the chemistry used in compact discs (CD), digital versatile discs (DVD), and magneto-optical (MO) discs focusing on the steps of initial creation of the mold, the molding of the polycarbonate, the deposition of the reflective layers, the lacquering of the CDs, and the bonding of DVDs. (Contains 15 references.) (YDS)

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yali; Wei, Eric; Wang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Xinbo; Morrison, John C.; Parikh, Mansi; Lombardi, Lori H.; Gattey, Devin M.; Armour, Rebecca L.; Edmunds, Beth; Kraus, Martin F.; Fujimoto, James G.; Huang, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare optic disc perfusion between normal and glaucoma subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography and detect optic disc perfusion changes in glaucoma. Design Observational, cross-sectional study. Participants Twenty-four normal subjects and 11 glaucoma patients were included. Methods One eye of each subject was scanned by a high-speed 1050 nm wavelength swept-source OCT instrument. The split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm (SSADA) was used to compute three-dimensional optic disc angiography. A disc flow index was computed from four registered scans. Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) was used to measure disc rim area, and stereo photography was used to evaluate cup/disc ratios. Wide field OCT scans over the discs were used to measure retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness. Main Outcome Measurements Variability was assessed by coefficient of variation (CV). Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by sensitivity and specificity. Comparisons between glaucoma and normal groups were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Correlations between disc flow index, structural assessments, and visual field (VF) parameters were assessed by linear regression. Results In normal discs, a dense microvascular network was visible on OCT angiography. This network was visibly attenuated in glaucoma subjects. The intra-visit repeatability, inter-visit reproducibility, and normal population variability of the optic disc flow index were 1.2%, 4.2%, and 5.0% CV respectively. The disc flow index was reduced by 25% in the glaucoma group (p = 0.003). Sensitivity and specificity were both 100% using an optimized cutoff. The flow index was highly correlated with VF pattern standard deviation (R2 = 0.752, p = 0.001). These correlations were significant even after accounting for age, cup/disc area ratio, NFL, and rim area. Conclusions OCT angiography, generated by the new SSADA algorithm, repeatably measures optic disc perfusion. OCT angiography could be useful in the evaluation of glaucoma and glaucoma progression. PMID:24629312

  5. Holographic optical disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Gan; An, Xin; Pu, Allen; Psaltis, Demetri; Mok, Fai H.

    1999-11-01

    The holographic disc is a high capacity, disk-based data storage device that can provide the performance for next generation mass data storage needs. With a projected capacity approaching 1 terabit on a single 12 cm platter, the holographic disc has the potential to become a highly efficient storage hardware for data warehousing applications. The high readout rate of holographic disc makes it especially suitable for generating multiple, high bandwidth data streams such as required for network server computers. Multimedia applications such as interactive video and HDTV can also potentially benefit from the high capacity and fast data access of holographic memory.

  6. Medical Information on Optical Disc*

    PubMed Central

    Schipma, Peter B.; Cichocki, Edward M.; Ziemer, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    Optical discs may permit a revolutionary change in the distribution and use of medical information. A single compact disc, similar in size to that used for digital audio recording, can contain over 500 million characters of information that is accessible by a Personal Computer. These discs can be manufactured at a cost lower than that of print on paper, at reasonable volumes. Software can provide the health care professional with nearly instantaneous access to the information. Thus, for the first time, the opportunity exists to have large local medical information collections. This paper describes an application of this technology in the field of Oncology.

  7. The Optical Disc Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbreath, Jeremy

    1993-01-01

    Provides an update on optical disk technology as a means of digital media storage and explains why it may become a standard storage technology for telemedia technology. Topics discussed include read-only formats; write-once formats, including WORM and CD-WORM; rewritable formats; videodiscs; and future possibilities. (LRW)

  8. Glaucomatous-Type Optic Discs in High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Natsuko; Jonas, Jost B.; Morohoshi, Kei; Moriyama, Muka; Shimada, Noriaki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of glaucoma in patients with high myopia defined as myopic refractive error of >-8 diopters or axial length ≥26.5 mm. Methods The hospital-based observational study included 172 patients (336 eyes) with a mean age of 61.9±12.3 years and mean axial length of 30.1±2.3 mm (range: 24.7–39.1mm). Glaucomatous-type optic discs were defined by glaucomatous optic disc appearance. Glaucoma was defined by glaucomatous optic disc appearance and glaucomatous Goldmann visual field defects not corresponding with myopic macular changes. Results Larger disc area (mean: 3.18±1.94 mm2) was associated with longer axial length (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient: 0.45). Glaucoma was detected in 94 (28%; 95% Confidence intervals: 23%, 33%) eyes. In multivariate analysis, glaucoma prevalence was 3.2 times higher (P<0.001) in megalodiscs (>3.79 mm2) than in normal-sized discs or small discs (<1.51 mm2) after adjusting for older age. Axial length was not significantly (P = 0.38) associated with glaucoma prevalence in that model. Glaucoma prevalence increased by a factor of 1.39 for each increase in optic disc area by one mm2. Again, axial length was not significantly (P = 0.38) associated with glaucoma prevalence when added to this multivariate model. Conclusion Within highly myopic individuals, glaucoma prevalence increased with larger optic disc size beyond a disc area of 3.8 mm2. Highly myopic megalodiscs as compared to normal sized discs or small discs had a 3.2 times higher risk for glaucomatous optic nerve neuropathy. The increased glaucoma prevalence in axial high myopia was primarily associated with axial myopia associated disc enlargement and not with axial elongation itself. PMID:26425846

  9. Acute visual loss in a patient with optic disc drusen

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Deborah KL; Tow, Sharon LC

    2013-01-01

    Here we report a case of sudden, unilateral, painless visual loss in a middle-aged patient. A 45-year-old gentleman with no known past medical history presented with acute painless left visual impairment. Clinically, he was found to have a left optic neuropathy associated with a swollen and hyperemic left optic disc. The right optic disc was noted to be small and crowded, and both optic discs were noted to have irregular margins. Humphrey perimetry revealed a constricted visual field in the left eye. Fundus autofluorescence imaging revealed autofluorescence, and B-scan ultrasonography showed hyperreflectivity within both nerve heads. Blood investigations for underlying ischemic and inflammatory markers revealed evidence of hyperlipidemia but were otherwise normal. A diagnosis of left nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAAION) was made, with associated optic disc drusen and hyperlipidemia. NAAION typically occurs in eyes with small, structurally crowded optic discs. The coexistence of optic disc drusen and vascular risk factors may further augment the risk of developing NAAION. PMID:23658477

  10. Age-Related Changes in Ocular Blood Velocity in Suspects with Glaucomatous Optic Disc Appearance. Comparison with Healthy Subjects and Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Asejczyk-Widlicka, Magdalena; Krzyzanowska-Berkowska, Patrycja; Sander, Beata P.; Iskander, D. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate retrobulbar blood flow characteristics of glaucoma suspects with glaucomatous optic disc appearance (GODA) in comparison to healthy control group (CG) and primary open angle glaucoma patients (POAG) and assess the effect of age. Methods 145 patients from a single glaucoma clinic were enrolled and classified into two diagnostic groups (GODA and POAG). Third group of subjects consisted of 67 age matched individuals (CG). Retrobulbar blood velocity measurement in central retinal artery was performed using color Doppler imaging (CDI). CDI images were processed in custom software leading a range of parameter estimates from a continuous waveform signal. The effect of age on the estimated parameters was evaluated with the stepwise forward regression and ANCOVA in which age was used as a continuous factor. One-way ANOVA was used to test for the differences in the CDI parameters between the three considered groups. Correlation between restive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) was assessed with a bilinear fitting guaranteeing no discontinuities in RI intercept estimate. Fisher test was used to assess the applicability of a bilinear PI/RI relationship, while the statistics of the RI intercept estimate were evaluated using the bootstrap. Results ANCOVA showed significant interaction between age and group (p<0.05) for five out of nine considered CDI parameters. The RI intercept for CG and GODA groups was 0.602±0.047, and 0.574±0.044 respectively, while the RI intercept of 0.934±0.066 was found for the POAG. Conclusions The observed similarity of CG and GODA group and dissimilarity between GODA and POAG groups in terms of PI/RI relationship is remarkable. Age may play some role in the different mechanisms occurring in blood velocity dynamics in GODA and POAG subjects but it is not a strongly determining factor. PMID:26218249

  11. Optical Disc Technology for Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumm, Eugenia K.

    1991-01-01

    This summary of the literature on document image processing from 1988-90 focuses on WORM (write once read many) technology and on rewritable (i.e., erasable) optical discs, and excludes CD-ROM. Highlights include vendors and products, standards, comparisons of storage media, software, legal issues, records management, indexing, and computer…

  12. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  13. Optic Disc - Fovea Angle: The Beijing Eye Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Rahul A.; Wang, Ya Xing; Yang, Hua; Li, Jian Jun; Xu, Liang; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Jonas, Jost B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the optic disc-fovea angle (defined as angle between the horizontal and the line between the optic disc center and the fovea) and to assess its relationships with ocular and systemic parameters. Methods The population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals. A detailed ophthalmic examination was carried out. Using fundus photographs, we measured the disc-fovea angle. Results Readable fundus photographs were available for 6043 eyes of 3052 (88.0%) individuals with a mean age of 63.6±9.3 years (range: 50–91 years) and a mean axial length of 23.2±1.0 mm (range: 18.96–28.87 mm). Mean disc-fovea angle was 7.76 ± 3.63° (median: 7.65°; range: -6.3° to 28.9°). The mean inter-eye difference was 4.01 ± 2.94° (median: 3.49°; range: 0.00–22.3°). In multivariate analysis, larger disc-fovea angle was associated (regression coefficient r2: 0.08) with older age (P = 0.009; standardized regression coefficient beta: 0.05), thinner RNFL in the nasal superior sector (P<0.001; beta: -0.17), superior sector (P<0.001; beta: -0.10) and temporal superior sector (P<0.001; beta: -0.11) and thicker RNFL in the inferior sector (P<001; beta: 0.13), nasal inferior sector (P<001; beta: 0.13) and nasal sector (P = 0.007; beta: 0.06), higher prevalence of retinal vein occlusion (P = 0.02; beta: 0.04), and with larger cylindrical refractive error (P = 0.04; beta: 0.04). Conclusions The optic disc-fovea angle markedly influences the regional distribution of the RNFL thickness pattern. The disc-fovea angle may routinely be taken into account in the morphological glaucoma diagnosis and in the assessment of structure-function relationship in optic nerve diseases. Future studies may address potential associations between a larger disc-fovea angle and retinal vein occlusions and between the disc-fovea angle and the neuroretinal rim shape. PMID:26545259

  14. Superresolution technology applied to optical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changhe; Luo, Hongxin

    2005-09-01

    Smaller focal points are essential for the development of the next-generation optical disc. The size of focal point depends on the diffraction effect that is dependant on the numerical aperture of a lens and the wavelength of light. However, increase of the numerical aperture and decrease of the light wavelength will be ultimately limited due to the technical difficulty of fabricating a too-high NA lens and the too-short wavelength laser. In this paper, we report another approach of using the superresolution technology to compress the size of the so-called Airy spot for the next-generation optical disc, which is independent on the wavelength of laser. The superresolution phase plates are designed and fabricated with a microoptics technique. When such a phase plate is inserted into the optical system, the central spot at the focal plane of a lens is decreased to be 0.8 times of the Airy pattern, implying the possibility of reading higher storage density of optical discs. The most attractive feature is that the phase plate can be mass-produced at a very low cost, compared with the high cost of the high-numerical lens and/or the short wavelength laser. The disadvantages are that the inserted phase plate will induce the slight circular sidelobes around the central sport, so that it consumes a little more laser energy. The shortcoming could be overcome with suitable amendment. We have fabricated the phase plates with the surface-relief profile on a normal glass for phase modulation. Experimental results of superresolution effect with a low numerical aperture (NA=0.1) and a high-numerical lens (NA=0.8) are reported, which are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. Superresolution technique should be highly interesting as a novel technique of the next-generation pickup head for reading the high storage of the optical discs.

  15. Study of optical destruction techniques for optical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Taeyoung

    The topic of this dissertation is on the investigation of optical techniques for completely destroying data stored in optical discs. Complete and secure destruction of data is important when disposal of an optical disc containing sensitive and possibly classified information is concerned, since some information can be retrieved even from a fragment of a disc. After several candidate techniques and related systems are examined and fundamental system components are identified, an optical data destruction (ODD) system using a focused high power laser beam is devised, and a prototype system is designed and constructed. The ODD system uses a high power laser diode (HPLD) to expose data marks on optical discs and maintains the focused laser beam on a data layer by a focus servo using a diffractive optical element (DOE). The optical characteristics of the beam emitted from an HPLD are thoroughly investigated, and a few methods of modeling an HPLD beam in an optical system are studied. With the understanding of the HPLD beam properties, a limited-divergence raytracing (LDRT) model is developed to predict the propagation behavior of the HPLD beam in an optical system and shows good agreement with the real HPLD beam. This LDRT method is used to model the HPLD beam in the ODD system and simulate the resultant focus error signal with and without fabrication errors. The DOE focus sensor overcomes the problems in conventional focus sensors associated with the use of an intense line beam. The DOE comprising two angled gratings is designed to use only two weak 3rd order beams for focus sensing and fabricated on a chrome-coated glass substrate using a maskless lithography tool. The constructed ODD system is then used to perform destruction tests on various optical discs, which are examined using static and dynamic methods of data observation and retrieval. The observations show that data marks are optical invisible or completely covered with numerous micro-bubbles. These test results demonstrate that secure and complete destruction of data on optical discs is achieved using an ODD system. Successful destruction, however, depends greatly on exposure conditions and the type of optical media.

  16. Minimal gauge vitrectomy for optic disc pit maculopathy: Our results

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Atul; Gogia, Varun; Nagpal, Ritu; Roy, Sangeeta; Gupta, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the surgical technique and clinical outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy without laser or gas tamponade in cases with optic disc pit maculopathy at our centre. Six eyes of six consecutive patients presenting with unilateral optic disc pit maculopathy were enrolled. Preoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed to determine the presence and extent of schisis and macular detachment. All eyes underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with induction of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and eyes were closed under fluid. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months post-surgery. Median age of patients was 22.5 years. Five of six eyes had neurosensory detachment (NSD) at the presentation; whereas, inner layer schisis was present in all patients. None of the patients had any evidence of vitreomacular or vitreopapillary adhesion or PVD either clinically or on OCT. Inner and outer retinal schisis resolved in all eyes after follow-up of at least 6 months. Resolution of subretinal fluid in eyes with NSD was seen in 4 of 5 eyes. There was a significant visual acuity improvement from mean preoperative visual acuity of 0.79 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units to 0.36 logMAR units at 12 months (P = 0.001). Thus, vitrectomy with ILM peeling and PVD induction alone could achieve good functional outcomes in cases with optic disc pit maculopathy. PMID:26862100

  17. Interactive Optical Disc Systems: Part 1: Analog Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Details distinction between digital and analog data, advantages of analog storage, and optical disc use to store analog data. Configuration and potential of three levels of laser disc systems are explained. Selection of display devices for use with laser disc systems and accessing audio data are addressed. (Continued in next issue.) (EJS)

  18. Regression of bilateral optic disc edema after discontinuation of amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Shinder, Roman; Frohman, Larry P; Turbin, Roger E

    2006-09-01

    A 54-year-old non-obese woman treated with amiodarone reported blurred vision and had bilateral optic disc edema with relative preservation of visual function. Neurologic examination, brain imaging, and lumbar puncture opening pressures were normal, effectively ruling out increased intracranial pressure. Amiodarone was discontinued and the optic disc edema completely resolved over 15 months. In the absence of alternative explanations for the optic disc findings, amiodarone toxicity is suggested. PMID:16966939

  19. Optic disc detection using ant colony optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Marcy A.; Monteiro, Fernando C.

    2012-09-01

    The retinal fundus images are used in the treatment and diagnosis of several eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper proposes a new method to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically, due to the fact that the knowledge of the OD location is essential to the automatic analysis of retinal images. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behaviour of some ant species that has been applied in image processing for edge detection. Recently, the ACO was used in fundus images to detect edges, and therefore, to segment the OD and other anatomical retinal structures. We present an algorithm for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the Gabor wavelet transform, entropy and ACO algorithm. Forty images of the retina from DRIVE database were used to evaluate the performance of our method.

  20. The Age of Taurus: Environmental Effects on Disc Lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, J. M.; Wilson, T.; Bell, C. P. M.; Jeffries, R. D.; Naylor, T.

    2016-01-01

    Using semi-empirical isochrones, we find the age of the Taurus star-forming region to be 3-4 Myr. Comparing the disc fraction in Taurus to young massive clusters suggests discs survive longer in this low density environment. We also present a method of photometrically de-reddening young stars using iZJH data.

  1. Changes in retinal nerve fiber layer and optic disc algorithms by optical coherence tomography in glaucomatous Arab subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zeried, Ferial M; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the difference in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic disc algorithms between glaucomatous and normal Arab subjects using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods RNFL thickness and optic disc parameters were obtained in 65 patients aged 50.1 ± 7.7 years. Percentage differences in all parameters were calculated and analyzed between groups. Results The mean RNFL thickness around the disc and at all quadrants was significantly thinner in glaucomatous eyes than in normal eyes (P < 0.01). The greatest decrease in RNFL thickness was observed at the inferior (39.5%) and superior (39.3%) quadrants and at 1 o’clock (43%) and 5 o’clock (40%) hour sectors. Significant differences were observed between glaucomatous and control eyes in all disc parameters (P < 0.005) assessed. The disc area, cup area, mean cup/disc ratio, and vertical and horizontal cup/disc ratios were significantly larger (P < 0.01), whereas the vertical integrated rim area, horizontal integrated rim width, and rim area were significantly smaller (P < 0.001) in glaucomatous eyes than in normal eyes. Conclusion Stratus OCT is still a valuable tool in the diagnosis of early glaucoma changes and, as such, its use should be encouraged in glaucoma clinics in Saudi Arabia. The best OCT parameters for detecting early glaucoma change were RNFL thickness in the inferior, superior, and 1 o’clock hour sector; the cup area; and the vertical integrated rim area of the optic disc. PMID:24109175

  2. Product and process for manufacturing an optical disc master

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbin, R.B.; Loeppky, D.G.; Norton, J.R.; Del Mar, B.E.

    1994-01-11

    The invention discloses a simplified four step process for making an optical disc master or alternatively a WORM disc by first making or obtaining a transparent polymer disc with a tracking groove of desired geometry molded therein, then spin coating an optically active lamina on the grooved side of the disc, then recording data on said polymer disc with groove controlled and tracked laser means by ablating active lamina, forming pits, the shape of which is determined by the groove geometry and finally depositing a conductive and reflective lamina over the pitted active lamina. To change the OD master to an OD WORM, a protective cover is added to the electrically conductive and optically reflective lamina. 12 figs.

  3. Pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure was first described in 1853. Ever since, there has been a plethora of controversial hypotheses to explain its pathogenesis. I have explored the subject comprehensively by doing basic, experimental and clinical studies. My objective was to investigate the fundamentals of the subject, to test the validity of the previous theories, and finally, based on all these studies, to find a logical explanation for the pathogenesis. My studies included the following issues pertinent to the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure: the anatomy and blood supply of the optic nerve, the roles of the sheath of the optic nerve, of the centripetal flow of fluids along the optic nerve, of compression of the central retinal vein, and of acute intracranial hypertension and its associated effects. I found that, contrary to some previous claims, an acute rise of intracranial pressure was not quickly followed by production of optic disc edema. Then, in rhesus monkeys, I produced experimentally chronic intracranial hypertension by slowly increasing in size space-occupying lesions, in different parts of the brain. Those produced raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and optic disc edema, identical to those seen in patients with elevated CSFP. Having achieved that, I investigated various aspects of optic disc edema by ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic color fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography, and light microscopic, electron microscopic, horseradish peroxidase and axoplasmic transport studies, and evaluated the effect of opening the sheath of the optic nerve on the optic disc edema. This latter study showed that opening the sheath resulted in resolution of optic disc edema on the side of the sheath fenestration, in spite of high intracranial CSFP, proving that a rise of CSFP in the sheath was the essential pre-requisite for the development of optic disc edema. I also investigated optic disc edema with raised CSFP in patients, by evaluating optic disc and fundus changes by stereoscopic fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography. Based on the combined information from all the studies discussed above, it is clear that the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure is a mechanical phenomenon. It is primarily due to a rise of CSFP in the optic nerve sheath, which produces axoplasmic flow stasis in the optic nerve fibers in the surface nerve fiber layer and prelaminar region of the optic nerve head. Axoplasmic flow stasis then results in swelling of the nerve fibers, and consequently of the optic disc. Swelling of the nerve fibers and of the optic disc secondarily compresses the fine, low-pressure venules in that region, resulting in venous stasis and fluid leakage; that leads to the accumulation of extracellular fluid. Contrary to the previous theories, the various vascular changes seen in optic disc edema are secondary and not primary. Thus, optic disc edema in raised CSFP is due to a combination of swollen nerve fibers and the accumulation of extracellular fluid. My studies also provided information about the pathogeneses of visual disturbances in raised intracranial pressure. PMID:26453995

  4. Type I migration in optically thick accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, K.; Inaba, S.

    2012-08-01

    We study the torque acting on a planet embedded in an optically thick accretion disc, using global two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. The temperature of an optically thick accretion disc is determined by the energy balance between the viscous heating and the radiative cooling. The radiative cooling rate depends on the opacity of the disc. The opacity is expressed as a function of the temperature. We find that the disc is divided into three regions that have different temperature distributions. The slope of the entropy distribution becomes steep in the inner region of the disc with high temperature and the outer region of the disc with low temperature, while it becomes shallow in the middle region with intermediate temperature. Planets in the inner and outer regions move outwards owing to the large positive corotation torque exerted on the planet by an adiabatic disc, and on the other hand, a planet in the middle region moves inwards towards the central star. Planets are expected to accumulate at the boundary between the inner and middle regions of the adiabatic disc. The positive corotation torque decreases with an increase in the viscosity of the disc. We find that the positive corotation torque acting on the planet in the inner region becomes too small to cancel the negative Lindblad torque when we include the large viscosity, which destroys the enhancement of the density in the horseshoe orbit of the planet. This leads to the inward migration of the planet in the inner region of the disc. A planet with 5 Earth masses in the inner region can move outwards in a disc with surface density of 100 g cm-2 at 1 au when the accretion rate of a disc is smaller than 2 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1.

  5. Exploring the vertical age structure of the Galactic disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, Luca; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Serenelli, Aldo; Schoenrich, Ralph; Asplund, Martin; Feltzing, Sofia

    2015-08-01

    While in external or high-redshift galaxies we can only measure integrated stellar properties at best, the Milky Way offers us the unique opportunity to study its individual baryonic components, including stars. We use oscillations measured in giant stars by the Kepler satellite to derive stellar ages and explore the vertical age structure across few kpc of the Milky Way disc. We find that old stars dominate at increasing Galactic heights, whereas closer to the plane a rich zoology of ages exists. The age distribution of stars shows a smooth decline over the last 10 Gyr, which together with a flat age-metallicity relation is consistent with a quiescent evolution for the Milky Way disc since a redshift of about two.

  6. Optic Disc and Nerve Fiber Layer Imaging To Detect Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Badalà, Federico; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Raoof, Duna A.; Leeprechanon, Narakorn; Law, Simon K.; Caprioli, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To compare optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) imaging methods to discriminate eyes with early glaucoma from normal eyes. Design Retrospective, cross-sectional study. Methods Setting: Tertiary care academic glaucoma center. Ninety-two eyes of 92 subjects (46 with early perimetric open-angle glaucoma and 46 controls) were studied. Diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (StratusOCT), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC), confocal laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph III), and qualitative assessment of stereoscopic optic disc photographs were compared. Outcome measures were areas under receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC) and sensitivities at fixed specificities. Classification and Regression Trees (CART) analysis was used to evaluate combinations of quantitative parameters. Results The average (±SD) visual field mean deviation for glaucomatous eyes was −4.0±2.5 dB. Parameters with largest AUCs (±SE) were: average RNFL thickness for StratusOCT (0.96±0.02), nerve fiber indicator for GDx-VCC (0.92±0.03), FSM discriminant function for HRT III (0.91±0.03), and 0.97±0.02 for disc photograph evaluation. At 95% specificity, sensitivity of disc photograph evaluation (90%) was greater than GDx-VCC (p=0.05) and HRT III (p=0.002), but not significantly different than that of StratusOCT (p>0.05). Combination of StratusOCT average RNFL thickness and HRT III cup/disc area with CART produced a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 96% Conclusions StratusOCT, GDx-VCC, and HRT III performed as well as, but not better than, qualitative evaluation of optic disc stereophotographs for detection of early perimetric glaucoma. The combination of StratusOCT average RNFL thickness and HRT III cup/disc area ratio provided a high diagnostic precision. PMID:17868631

  7. Variability of expert observers in evaluating the optic disc.

    PubMed Central

    Lichter, P R

    1976-01-01

    A significant amount of variability exists between observers in designating cup/diac (C/D) ratios. Further, different methods are used for evaluating the size of the cup. On method uses a combination of contour and color, the other specifically measures contour and pallor separately. This study confirms that these methods yeild different numerical results. Interestingly, the "cupping/pallor" observers show no significant difference among one another in C/D determination which may support the notion that cupping observations are more consistent than "standard" C/D ratios. Though both groups feel the cup is larger on stereo compared to monocular viewing, the "cupping/pallor" group demonstrated much greater differences in this regard. However, the evaluation of pallor by the latter group corresponded closely to the C/D ratios of the "standard" group both for nonstereo and stereo. An individual observer is reasonably consistent on repeat evaluation, but at times, inconsistency is quite substantial. These inconsistencies lead to the conclusion that C/D ratios are an inexact method of recording the status of a disc. Except for considerable changes over time, this numerical method is probably not reliable in checking for small disc changes. However, the disc alone can provide clues as to whether it is physiologic or pathologic. Nevertheless, even with expert observers, significant variability exists in interpretation of an optic disc in this regard. Individuals who evaluate the disc cup by cupping and pallor tend to call discs more pathologic than other observers. The clinical implications of this study suggest that certain observers are more accurate than others and certain discs are more easily evaluated than others. Yet, no one method seems foolproof and no specific criteria can as yet distinguish a normal from an abnormal disc. Stereo color transparencies are evaluated more accurately than are nonstereo color prints. Vessel detail and pallor patterns are probably the most useful disc characteristics to observe. In this regard, a C/D ratio does nothing to indicate whether a disc is normal or not. A statement as to the observer's opinion should be made for each disc evaluation in addition to recording the appearance of the disc. Images FIGURE 4 1 FIGURE 4 2 FIGURE 4 3 FIGURE 4 4 FIGURE 4 5 FIGURE 4 6 FIGURE 4 7 FIGURE 4 8 FIGURE 4 9 FIGURE 4 10 FIGURE 4 11 FIGURE 4 12 FIGURE 4 13 FIGURE 4 14 FIGURE 4 15 FIGURE 4 16 FIGURE 4 17 FIGURE 4 18 FIGURE 4 19 FIGURE 4 20 PMID:867638

  8. Aging and age related stresses: a senescence mechanism of intervertebral disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Cai, F; Shi, R; Wang, X-H; Wu, X-T

    2016-03-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a complicated process that involves both age-related change and tissue damage caused by multiple stresses. In a degenerative IVD, cellular senescence accumulates and is associated with reduced proliferation, compromised self-repair, increased inflammatory response, and enhanced catabolic metabolism. In this review, we decipher the senescence mechanism of IVD degeneration (IVDD) by interpreting how aging coordinates with age-related, microenvironment-derived stresses in promoting disc cell senescence and accelerating IVDD. After chronic and prolonged replication, cell senescence may occur as a natural part of the disc aging process, but can potentially be accelerated by growth factor deficiency, oxidative accumulation, and inflammatory irritation. While acute disc injury, excessive mechanical overloading, diabetes, and chronic tobacco smoking contribute to the amplification of senescence-inducing stresses, the avascular nature of IVD impairs the immune-clearance of the senescent disc cells, which accumulate in cell clusters, demonstrate inflammatory and catabolic phenotypes, deteriorate disc microenvironment, and accelerate IVDD. Anti-senescence strategies, including telomerase transduction, supply of growth factors, and blocking cell cycle inhibitors, have been shown to be feasible in rescuing disc cells from early senescence, but their efficiency for disc regeneration requires more invivo validations. Guidelines dedicated to avoiding or alleviating senescence-inducing stresses might decelerate cellular senescence and benefit patients with IVD degenerative diseases. PMID:26455958

  9. Bilateral peripapillary serous retinal detachment in association with congenital optic disc pits.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Aabgina; Twaij, Suhair; Ibraheim, A

    2013-01-01

    A middle-aged asymptomatic patient was referred to the eye clinic by her optician because of unusual optic nerve heads. She was found to have optic disc pits with bilateral serous retinal detachments which were non-progressive. She did not need any treatment and was safely followed up in the community. This uncommon condition is discussed along with possible pathophysiology and treatment. PMID:23417933

  10. Bilateral peripapillary serous retinal detachment in association with congenital optic disc pits

    PubMed Central

    Shafi, Aabgina; Twaij, Suhair; Ibraheim, A

    2013-01-01

    A middle-aged asymptomatic patient was referred to the eye clinic by her optician because of unusual optic nerve heads. She was found to have optic disc pits with bilateral serous retinal detachments which were non-progressive. She did not need any treatment and was safely followed up in the community. This uncommon condition is discussed along with possible pathophysiology and treatment. PMID:23417933

  11. Superpixel classification based optic disc and optic cup segmentation for glaucoma screening.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Liu, Jiang; Xu, Yanwu; Yin, Fengshou; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Tan, Ngan-Meng; Tao, Dacheng; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Yin

    2013-06-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic eye disease that leads to vision loss. As it cannot be cured, detecting the disease in time is important. Current tests using intraocular pressure (IOP) are not sensitive enough for population based glaucoma screening. Optic nerve head assessment in retinal fundus images is both more promising and superior. This paper proposes optic disc and optic cup segmentation using superpixel classification for glaucoma screening. In optic disc segmentation, histograms, and center surround statistics are used to classify each superpixel as disc or non-disc. A self-assessment reliability score is computed to evaluate the quality of the automated optic disc segmentation. For optic cup segmentation, in addition to the histograms and center surround statistics, the location information is also included into the feature space to boost the performance. The proposed segmentation methods have been evaluated in a database of 650 images with optic disc and optic cup boundaries manually marked by trained professionals. Experimental results show an average overlapping error of 9.5% and 24.1% in optic disc and optic cup segmentation, respectively. The results also show an increase in overlapping error as the reliability score is reduced, which justifies the effectiveness of the self-assessment. The segmented optic disc and optic cup are then used to compute the cup to disc ratio for glaucoma screening. Our proposed method achieves areas under curve of 0.800 and 0.822 in two data sets, which is higher than other methods. The methods can be used for segmentation and glaucoma screening. The self-assessment will be used as an indicator of cases with large errors and enhance the clinical deployment of the automatic segmentation and screening. PMID:23434609

  12. Cutaneous larva migrans with optic disc edema: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A rare case of optic disc edema associated with cutaneous larva migrans is presented. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in literature. Joint management by ophthalmology and tropical medicine teams proved most beneficial for our patient, facilitating correct diagnosis, appropriate investigations and instigation of suitable treatment. Case presentation A 45-year-old Caucasian man, a naturalist, from the UK developed cutaneous larva migrans while in Kenya and presented to us with visual disturbance secondary to unilateral optic disc edema. This resolved after receiving a single dose of ivermectin and visual acuity reverted to normal. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, optic disc edema associated with cutaneous larva migrans has not been previously reported. This case highlights the importance of taking relevant history of recent travel to endemic areas affected by the nematodes in patients presenting with optic disc edema, and pertinent questioning regarding non-ocular symptoms, including skin lesions. In this case, a history of recent foreign travel and treatment for skin lesions was crucial. PMID:20609253

  13. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Optic Disc Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Isaacs, Aaron; Amin, Najaf; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Oostra, Ben A.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hysi, Pirro; Hammond, Christopher J.; Lemij, Hans G.; Vingerling, Johannes R.

    2010-01-01

    The optic nerve head is involved in many ophthalmic disorders, including common diseases such as myopia and open-angle glaucoma. Two of the most important parameters are the size of the optic disc area and the vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR). Both are highly heritable but genetically largely undetermined. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) data to identify genetic variants associated with optic disc area and VCDR. The gene discovery included 7,360 unrelated individuals from the population-based Rotterdam Study I and Rotterdam Study II cohorts. These cohorts revealed two genome-wide significant loci for optic disc area, rs1192415 on chromosome 1p22 (p = 6.72×10−19) within 117 kb of the CDC7 gene and rs1900004 on chromosome 10q21.3-q22.1 (p = 2.67×10−33) within 10 kb of the ATOH7 gene. They revealed two genome-wide significant loci for VCDR, rs1063192 on chromosome 9p21 (p = 6.15×10−11) in the CDKN2B gene and rs10483727 on chromosome 14q22.3-q23 (p = 2.93×10−10) within 40 kbp of the SIX1 gene. Findings were replicated in two independent Dutch cohorts (Rotterdam Study III and Erasmus Rucphen Family study; N = 3,612), and the TwinsUK cohort (N = 843). Meta-analysis with the replication cohorts confirmed the four loci and revealed a third locus at 16q12.1 associated with optic disc area, and four other loci at 11q13, 13q13, 17q23 (borderline significant), and 22q12.1 for VCDR. ATOH7 was also associated with VCDR independent of optic disc area. Three of the loci were marginally associated with open-angle glaucoma. The protein pathways in which the loci of optic disc area are involved overlap with those identified for VCDR, suggesting a common genetic origin. PMID:20548946

  14. Low-cost ultrahigh areal density optical disc system towards 400 Gbyte/disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Kurokawa, Takahiro; Kikukawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi; Chiba, Zenjiro; Takeshima, Hideharu; Matsuda, Isao; Kojyo, Shinichi; Shimomai, Kenichi; Fujii, Toru

    2015-09-01

    We introduce a new 400 Gbyte disc system, which has twice as much areal density as BDXL™ does, retaining the use of the conventional optical head and disc technology. Our proposal is based on the application of code modulations with enlarged minimum run length (d) and land/groove (L/G) geometry to increase linear recording density and track density by 1.5 and 1.33 times, respectively. Also, saw tooth wobble (STW) was introduced for a multilayered L/G disc system to suppress readout signal fluctuations. Here, we demonstrated that the linear recording density increased to 45.5 Gbyte/layer by applying d = 3 to a commercially available BDXL™. Also, we checked that crosstalk, which is a major concern in an L/G disc with a track pitch of 240 nm, was suppressed to below -30 dB by choosing the proper groove depth. Moreover, the investigation of the effect of track width modulation on the write/read performance demonstrated that an adverse influence can be suppressed by employing STW.

  15. Ultrahigh-Speed Optical Correlation System Using Holographic Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ichikawa, Yuki; Akiyama, Reiko; Kodate, Kashiko

    2008-07-01

    The volume of information we handle is markedly increasing as a result of the change from text data to still and moving image files. In this paper, we propose and describe fabrication of a much higher speed search engine for image and video data using a holographic optical disc system. Preliminary correlation experiments using the holographic optical disc setup show an excellent performance as indicated by high correlation peaks and low error rates at a multiplexing pitch of 10 µm, and a rotational speed of 300 rpm. It is clear that the processing speed of our optical holographic calculation is markedly higher than the conventional digital signal processing architecture. This system can also be applied to various search engine systems.

  16. High-Density Near-Field Optical Disc Recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Ide, Naoki; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Shimouma, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2005-05-01

    We developed a high-density near-field optical recording disc system using a solid immersion lens. The near-field optical pick-up consists of a solid immersion lens with a numerical aperture of 1.84. The laser wavelength for recording is 405 nm. In order to realize the near-field optical recording disc, we used a phase-change recording media and a molded polycarbonate substrate. A clear eye pattern of 112 GB capacity with 160 nm track pitch and 50 nm bit length was observed. The equivalent areal density is 80.6 Gbit/in2. The bottom bit error rate of 3 tracks-write was 4.5 10-5. The readout power margin and the recording power margin were 30.4% and 11.2%, respectively.

  17. Familial Disorders of the Optic Disc: Presentation of a Mother and Daughter and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia Lee; Layton, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Optic disc pit and optic nerve coloboma are examples of congenital optic disc abnormalities. Although optic nerve coloboma can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, no conclusive link has been found in the case of optic disc pit as an autosomal dominant disease. We describe two cases: a daughter with an optic disc pit complicated by maculopathy and her mother with a congenitally abnormal optic disc complicated by peripapillary choroidal neovascularisation. PMID:26327911

  18. Neurological and developmental findings in children with optic disc drusen.

    PubMed

    Santavuori, P; Erkkilä, H

    1976-08-01

    In ophthalmoscopy, optic disc drusen often bear a fallacious resemblance to true papilloedema and some of those affected have neurological disorders. Adequate realization among neuropaediatricians of the relation between drusen and these disorders may save some children from neuroradiological and neurosurgical investigations, often considered unavoidable for exclusion of an intracranial process. Systematic evaluation in a series of 50 children with optic disc drusen showed that neurological disorders are common even in subjects brought to examination for other reasons than neurological symptoms. The findings showed accumulation into two subgroups. There was a group of 15 clumsy children with learning difficulties and delayed development of speech. Another group consisted of 20 children with sudden convulsions and/or headache and vomiting, and with EEG abnormalities but otherwise normal neurological findings. In addition, there were a subgroup with miscellaneous abnormalities and a minor group of children in whom no abnormalities were found except for the eye anomaly. PMID:60729

  19. Optic Disc and Optic Cup Segmentation Methodologies for Glaucoma Image Detection: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Almazroa, Ahmed; Burman, Ritambhar; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of loss of vision in the world. Examining the head of optic nerve (cup-to-disc ratio) is very important for diagnosing glaucoma and for patient monitoring after diagnosis. Images of optic disc and optic cup are acquired by fundus camera as well as Optical Coherence Tomography. The optic disc and optic cup segmentation techniques are used to isolate the relevant parts of the retinal image and to calculate the cup-to-disc ratio. The main objective of this paper is to review segmentation methodologies and techniques for the disc and cup boundaries which are utilized to calculate the disc and cup geometrical parameters automatically and accurately to help the professionals in the glaucoma to have a wide view and more details about the optic nerve head structure using retinal fundus images. We provide a brief description of each technique, highlighting its classification and performance metrics. The current and future research directions are summarized and discussed. PMID:26688751

  20. Optic Disc - Fovea Distance, Axial Length and Parapapillary Zones. The Beijing Eye Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Rahul Arvo; Wang, Ya Xing; Yang, Hua; Li, Jian Jun; Xu, Liang; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Jonas, Jost Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To measure the distance between the optic disc center and the fovea (DFD) and to assess its associations. Methods The population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals aged 50+ years. The DFD was measured on fundus photographs. Results Readable fundus photographs were available for 2836 (81.8%) individuals. Mean DFD was 4.76 ± 0.34mm (median: 4.74 mm; range: 3.76–6.53mm). In multivariate analysis, longer DFD was associated with longer axial length (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta: 0.62), higher prevalence of axially high myopia (P<0.001; beta:0.06), shallower anterior chamber depth (P<0.001; beta:-0.18), thinner lens thickness (P = 0.004; beta: -0.06), smaller optic disc-fovea angle (P = 0.02; beta: -0.04), larger parapapillary alpha zone (P = 0.008; beta: 0.05), larger parapapillary beta/gamma zone (P<0.001; beta: 0.11), larger optic disc area (P<0.001; beta: 0.08), lower degree of cortical cataract (P = 0.002; beta: -0.08), and lower prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (P = 0.001; beta: -0.06). Bruch´s membrane opening-fovea distance (DFD minus disc radius minus parapapillary beta/gamma zone width) in non-glaucomatous eyes was not significantly (P = 0.60) related with axial length in emmetropic or axially myopic eyes (axial length ≥23.5 mm), while it increased significantly (P<0.001; r: 0.32) with longer axial length in eyes with an axial length of <23.5mm. Ratio of mean DFD to disc diameter was 2.65 ± 0.30. If the ratio of disc-fovea distance to disc diameter was considered constant and if the individual disc diameter was calculated as the individual disc-fovea distance divided by the constant factor of 2.65, the resulting calculated disc diameter differed from the directly measured disc diameter by 0.16 ±0.13 mm (median: 0.13 mm, range: 0.00–0.89 mm) or 8.9 ± 7.3% (median: 7.4%; range: 0.00–70%) of the measured disc diameter. Conclusions DFD (mean: 4.76mm) increases with longer axial length, larger parapapillary alpha zone and parapapillary beta/gamma zone, and larger disc area. The axial elongation associated increase in DFD was due to an enlargement of parapapillary beta/gamma zone while the Bruch’s membrane opening-fovea distance did not enlarge with longer axial length. This finding may be of interest for the process of emmetropization and myopization. Due to its variability, the disc-fovea distance has only limited clinical value as a relative size unit for structures at the posterior pole. PMID:26390438

  1. Line-driven ablation of circumstellar discs - I. Optically thin decretion discs of classical Oe/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kee, Nathaniel Dylan; Owocki, Stanley; Sundqvist, J. O.

    2016-05-01

    The extreme luminosities of massive, hot OB stars drive strong stellar winds through line-scattering of the star's UV continuum radiation. For OB stars with an orbiting circumstellar disc, we explore here the effect of such line-scattering in driving an ablation of material from the disc's surface layers, with initial focus on the marginally optically thin decretion discs of classical Oe and Be stars. For this we apply a multidimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code that assumes simple optically thin ray tracing for the stellar continuum, but uses a multiray Sobolev treatment of the line transfer; this fully accounts for the efficient driving by non-radial rays, due to desaturation of line-absorption by velocity gradients associated with the Keplerian shear in the disc. Results show a dense, intermediate-speed surface ablation, consistent with the strong, blueshifted absorption of UV wind lines seen in Be shell stars that are observed from near the disc plane. A key overall result is that, after an initial adjustment to the introduction of the disc, the asymptotic disc destruction rate is typically just an order-unity factor times the stellar wind mass-loss rate. For optically thin Be discs, this leads to a disc destruction time of order months to years, consistent with observationally inferred disc decay times. The much stronger radiative forces of O stars reduce this time to order days, making it more difficult for decretion processes to sustain a disc in earlier spectral types, and so providing a natural explanation for the relative rarity of Oe stars in the Galaxy. Moreover, the decrease in line-driving at lower metallicity implies both a reduction in the winds that help spin-down stars from near-critical rotation, and a reduction in the ablation of any decretion disc; together these provide a natural explanation for the higher fraction of classical Be stars, as well as the presence of Oe stars, in the lower metallicity Magellanic Clouds. We conclude with a discussion of future extensions to study line-driven ablation of denser, optically thick, accretion discs of pre-main-sequence massive stars.

  2. Dissecting simulated disc galaxies - II. The age-velocity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martig, Marie; Minchev, Ivan; Flynn, Chris

    2014-09-01

    We study the relation between stellar ages and vertical velocity dispersion (the age-velocity relation, or AVR) in a sample of seven simulated disc galaxies. In our simulations, the shape of the AVR for stars younger than 9 Gyr depends strongly on the merger history at low redshift, with even 1:10-1:15 mergers being able to create jumps in the AVR (although these jumps might not be detectable if the errors on stellar ages are of the order of 30 per cent). For galaxies with a quiescent history at low redshift, we find that the vertical velocity dispersion rises smoothly for ages up to 8-9 Gyr, following a power law with a slope of ˜0.5, similar to what is observed in the solar neighbourhood by the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey. For these galaxies, we show that the slope of the AVR is not imprinted at birth, but is the result of subsequent heating. By contrast, in all our simulations, the oldest stars form a significantly different population, with a high velocity dispersion. These stars are usually born kinematically hot in a turbulent phase of intense mergers at high redshift, and also include some stars accreted from satellites. This maximum in σz is strongly decreased when age errors are included, suggesting that observations can easily miss such a jump with the current accuracy of age measurements.

  3. Bilateral optic disc oedema and associated optic neuropathy in the setting of FOLFOX chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To report a case of bilateral optic disc oedema and associated optic neuropathy in the setting of FOLFOX chemotherapy. Case presentation A case of a 57-year-old male being treated with FOLFOX chemotherapy for stage 3B colorectal cancer, who developed bilateral optic disc oedema and associated left sided optic neuropathy is described. The patient presented following cycles 7, 8 and 9 of chemotherapy with a history of bilateral simultaneous intermittent inferior altitudinal field defects. These episodes progressed to bilateral optic nerve oedema and a subsequent left sided optic neuropathy. The patient’s symptoms and oedema regressed with discontinuation of chemotherapy. Conclusion This is the first report suggesting a vasospastic role of 5-fluoruracil in 5-FU associated optic neuropathy. It highlights that 5-FU may have the potential to cause arterial vasospasm outside the cardiac vasculature, resulting in end-organ optic nerve ischaemia. PMID:23926927

  4. Emerging Digital Optical Disc Technologies: An Opportunity and a Challenge for Educational Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    Description of new applications of digital optical disc storage technologies focuses on CD-ROM (Compact Disc--Read Only Memory); CD-I (Compact Disc--Interactive); and DV-I (Digital Video--Interactive). Features of each technology are described in the context of instructional design and educational technology, and the role of educational research…

  5. 78 FR 64009 - Certain Optical Disc Drives, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Optical Disc Drives, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Institution of... Optical Devices, LLC of Peterborough, New Hampshire. A letter supplementing the complaint was filed on... certain optical disc drives, components thereof, and products containing the same by reason...

  6. Optic nerve axons and acquired alterations in the appearance of the optic disc.

    PubMed Central

    Wirtschafter, J D

    1983-01-01

    The pathophysiologic events in optic nerve axons have recently been recognized as crucial to an understanding of clinically significant acquired alterations in the ophthalmoscopic appearance of the optic disc. Stasis and related abnormalities of axonal transport appear to explain most aspects of optic nerve head swelling, including optic disc drusen and retinal cottonwool spots. Loss of axoplasm and axonal death can be invoked to interpret optic disc pallor, thinning and narrowing of rim tissue, changes in the size and outline of the optic cup, laminar dots, atrophy of the retinal nerve fiber layer, and acquired demyelination and myelination of the retinal nerve fiber layer. It is speculated that the axons may also play a role in the mechanical support of the lamina cribrosa in resisting the pressure gradient across the pars scleralis of the optic nerve head. Axons and their associated glial cells may be involved in those cases where "reversibility" of cupping of the optic disc has been reported. The structure, physiology, and experimental pathologic findings of the optic nerve head have been reviewed. Many aspects concerning the final anatomic appearance of the optic nerve head have been explained. However, many questions remain concerning the intermediate mechanisms by which increased intracranial pressure retards the various components of axonal transport in papilledema and by which increased IOP causes axonal loss in glaucoma. Investigation of the molecular biology of axonal constituents and their responses to abnormalities in their physical and chemical milieu could extend our understanding of the events that result from mechanical compression and local ischemia. Moreover, we have identified a need to further explore the role of axons in the pathophysiology of optic disc cupping. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:6203209

  7. Optic disc detection in color fundus images using ant colony optimization.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Gonçalves, Luís; Ferreira, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy has been revealed as the most common cause of blindness among people of working age in developed countries. However, loss of vision could be prevented by an early detection of the disease and, therefore, by a regular screening program to detect retinopathy. Due to its characteristics, the digital color fundus photographs have been the easiest way to analyze the eye fundus. An important prerequisite for automation is the segmentation of the main anatomical features in the image, particularly the optic disc. Currently, there are many works reported in the literature with the purpose of detecting and segmenting this anatomical structure. Though, none of them performs as needed, especially when dealing with images presenting pathologies and a great variability. Ant colony optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behavior of some ant species that has been applied in image processing with different purposes. In this paper, this algorithm preceded by anisotropic diffusion is used for optic disc detection in color fundus images. Experimental results demonstrate the good performance of the proposed approach as the optic disc was detected in most of all the images used, even in the images with great variability. PMID:23160896

  8. Automatic optic disc segmentation based on image brightness and contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shijian; Liu, Jiang; Lim, Joo Hwee; Zhang, Zhuo; Tan, Ngan Meng; Wong, Wing Kee; Li, Huiqi; Wong, Tien Yin

    2010-03-01

    Untreated glaucoma leads to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, which can progress to blindness. As glaucoma often produces additional pathological cupping of the optic disc (OD), cupdisc- ratio is one measure that is widely used for glaucoma diagnosis. This paper presents an OD localization method that automatically segments the OD and so can be applied for the cup-disc-ratio based glaucoma diagnosis. The proposed OD segmentation method is based on the observations that the OD is normally much brighter and at the same time have a smoother texture characteristics compared with other regions within retinal images. Given a retinal image we first capture the ODs smooth texture characteristic by a contrast image that is constructed based on the local maximum and minimum pixel lightness within a small neighborhood window. The centre of the OD can then be determined according to the density of the candidate OD pixels that are detected by retinal image pixels of the lowest contrast. After that, an OD region is approximately determined by a pair of morphological operations and the OD boundary is finally determined by an ellipse that is fitted by the convex hull of the detected OD region. Experiments over 71 retinal images of different qualities show that the OD region overlapping reaches up to 90.37% according to the OD boundary ellipses determined by our proposed method and the one manually plotted by an ophthalmologist.

  9. The Origin of Subretinal Fluid in Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Taskapan, Cagtay

    2016-03-01

    A surgical approach for the drainage of fluid leaking over the pit in optic disc pit maculopathy is described, and a theory of the origin of fluid is discussed. In two cases, complete fluid-air exchange was performed. The air infusion pressure was decreased to 5 mm Hg, and the collected fluid was drained by raising the infusion pressure to 25 mm Hg. The fluid inside the back-flush needle was routed via a microcentrifuge tube. Biochemical analyses of the fluids were conducted in order to find their origin. Results of the first and second case were comparable to normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels (chloride: 125 mmol/L, 122 mmol/L; sodium: 146 mmol/L, 147 mmol/L; potassium: 2.8 mmol/L, 3.0 mmol/L; protein: 29 mg/dL, 18.4 mg/ dL; and glucose: 60 mg/dL, 57 mg/dL, respectively). These findings suggest that the origin of subretinal fluid found in the submacular space in optic disc pit maculopathy is CSF. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:294-298.]. PMID:26985806

  10. Lamina Cribrosa Defects and Optic Disc Morphology in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma with High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yugo; Akagi, Tadamichi; Hangai, Masanori; Takayama, Kohei; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Suda, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hideo; Unoki, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether lamina cribrosa (LC) defects are associated with optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes with high myopia. Methods A total of 129 POAG patients and 55 age-matched control subjects with high myopia were evaluated. Three-dimensional scan images obtained by swept source optical coherence tomography were used to detect LC defects. Radial B-scans and infrared images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography were used to measure β-peripapillary atrophy (PPA) lengths with and without Bruch's membrane (BM) (temporal, nasal, superior, and inferior), tilt angle (vertical and horizontal), and disc diameter (transverse and longitudinal). Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations (PICCs), disc area, ovality index, and cyclotorsion of the optic disc were analyzed as well. Results LC defects were found in 70 of 129 (54.2%) POAG eyes and 1 of 55 (1.8%) control eyes (P<0.001). Age, sex, spherical equivalent, axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness were not significantly different among POAG eyes with LC defects, POAG eyes without LC defects, and control eyes. Temporal PPA lengths without BM in all three groups correlated significantly with vertical and horizontal tilt angles, although no PPA length with BM correlated significantly with any tilt angle. PICCs were detected more frequently in POAG eyes with LC defects than those without LC defects (P = 0.01) and control eyes (P = 0.02). POAG eyes with LC defects showed a smaller ovality index (P = 0.004), longer temporal PPA without BM (P<0.001), and larger vertical/horizontal tilt angles (vertical, P<0.001; horizontal, P = 0.01), and transverse diameter (P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis for the presence of LC defects, presence of POAG (P<0.001) and vertical tilt angle (P<0.001) were identified as significant. Conclusions The presence of LC defects was associated with myopic optic disc morphology in POAG eyes with high myopia. PMID:25531656

  11. Parapapillary atrophy and optic disc region assessment (PANDORA): retinal imaging tool for assessment of the optic disc and parapapillary atrophy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cheng-Kai; Tang, Tong Boon; Laude, Augustinus; Dhillon, Baljean; Murray, Alan F

    2012-10-01

    We describe a computer-aided measuring tool, named parapapillary atrophy and optic disc region assessment (PANDORA), for automated detection and quantification of both the parapapillary atrophy (PPA) and the optic disc (OD) regions in two-dimensional color retinal fundus images. The OD region is segmented using a combination of edge detection and ellipse fitting methods. The PPA region is identified by the presence of bright pixels in the temporal zone of the OD, and it is segmented using a sequence of techniques, including a modified Chan-Vese approach, thresholding, scanning filter, and multiseed region growing. PANDORA has been tested with 133 color retinal images (82 with PPA; 51 without PPA) drawn randomly from the Lothian Birth Cohort (LBC) database, together with a "ground truth" estimate from an ophthalmologist. The PPA detection rate is 89.47% with a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 1. The mean accuracy in defining the OD region is 81.31% (SD=10.45) when PPA is present and 95.32% (SD=4.36) when PPA is absent. The mean accuracy in defining the PPA region is 73.57% (SD=11.62). PANDORA demonstrates for the first time how to quantify the OD and PPA regions using two-dimensional fundus images, enabling ophthalmologists to study ocular diseases related to PPA using a standard fundus camera. PMID:23224009

  12. Parapapillary atrophy and optic disc region assessment (PANDORA): retinal imaging tool for assessment of the optic disc and parapapillary atrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng-Kai; Tang, Tong Boon; Laude, Augustinus; Dhillon, Baljean; Murray, Alan F.

    2012-10-01

    We describe a computer-aided measuring tool, named parapapillary atrophy and optic disc region assessment (PANDORA), for automated detection and quantification of both the parapapillary atrophy (PPA) and the optic disc (OD) regions in two-dimensional color retinal fundus images. The OD region is segmented using a combination of edge detection and ellipse fitting methods. The PPA region is identified by the presence of bright pixels in the temporal zone of the OD, and it is segmented using a sequence of techniques, including a modified Chan-Vese approach, thresholding, scanning filter, and multiseed region growing. PANDORA has been tested with 133 color retinal images (82 with PPA; 51 without PPA) drawn randomly from the Lothian Birth Cohort (LBC) database, together with a "ground truth" estimate from an ophthalmologist. The PPA detection rate is 89.47% with a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 1. The mean accuracy in defining the OD region is 81.31% (SD=10.45) when PPA is present and 95.32% (SD=4.36) when PPA is absent. The mean accuracy in defining the PPA region is 73.57% (SD=11.62). PANDORA demonstrates for the first time how to quantify the OD and PPA regions using two-dimensional fundus images, enabling ophthalmologists to study ocular diseases related to PPA using a standard fundus camera.

  13. Automatic optic disc detection in OCT slices via low-rank reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huazhu; Xu, Dong; Lin, Stephen; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Liu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Optic disc measurements provide useful diagnostic information as they have correlations with certain eye diseases. In this paper, we provide an automatic method for detecting the optic disc in a single OCT slice. Our method is developed from the observation that the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) which bounds the optic disc has a low-rank appearance structure that differs from areas within the disc. To detect the disc, our method acquires from the OCT image an RPE appearance model that is specific to the individual and imaging conditions, by learning a low-rank dictionary from image areas known to be part of the RPE according to priors on ocular anatomy. The edge of the RPE, where the optic disc is located, is then found by traversing the retinal layer containing the RPE, reconstructing local appearance with the low-rank model, and detecting the point at which appearance starts to deviate (i.e., increased reconstruction error). To aid in this detection, we also introduce a geometrical constraint called the distance bias that accounts for the smooth shape of the RPE. Experiments demonstrate that our method outperforms other OCT techniques in localizing the optic disc and estimating disc width. Moreover, we also show the potential usage of our method on optic disc area detection in 3-D OCT volumes. PMID:25438300

  14. Fast localization of optic disc and fovea in retinal images for eye disease screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Barriga, S.; Agurto, C.; Echegaray, S.; Pattichis, M.; Zamora, G.; Bauman, W.; Soliz, P.

    2011-03-01

    Optic disc (OD) and fovea locations are two important anatomical landmarks in automated analysis of retinal disease in color fundus photographs. This paper presents a new, fast, fully automatic optic disc and fovea localization algorithm developed for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening. The optic disc localization methodology comprises of two steps. First, the OD location is identified using template matching and directional matched filter. To reduce false positives due to bright areas of pathology, we exploit vessel characteristics inside the optic disc. The location of the fovea is estimated as the point of lowest matched filter response within a search area determined by the optic disc location. Second, optic disc segmentation is performed. Based on the detected optic disc location, a fast hybrid level-set algorithm which combines the region information and edge gradient to drive the curve evolution is used to segment the optic disc boundary. Extensive evaluation was performed on 1200 images (Messidor) composed of 540 images of healthy retinas, 431 images with DR but no risk of macular edema (ME), and 229 images with DR and risk of ME. The OD location methodology obtained 98.3% success rate, while fovea location achieved 95% success rate. The average mean absolute distance (MAD) between the OD segmentation algorithm and "gold standard" is 10.5% of estimated OD radius. Qualitatively, 97% of the images achieved Excellent to Fair performance for OD segmentation. The segmentation algorithm performs well even on blurred images.

  15. Unusual optic disc infarction in a case of arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AAION)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dawn KA; Shen, Sunny; Jejah, Issam Al; Cullen, James F

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report another case of arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy from Singapore, in which the initial optic disc swelling was extreme and the sequential disease resolved because the patient was already on maximum treatment. As the management of this biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis case was complicated by the presence of a number of other medical conditions, including end-stage renal failure, monitoring of the response to treatment proved problematic. PMID:25820857

  16. Optic Disc Perfusion in Primary Open Angle and Normal Tension Glaucoma Eyes Using Optical Coherence Tomography-Based Microangiography

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Joanne C.; Zhang, Qinqin; Xin, Chen; Gupta, Divakar; Mudumbai, Raghu C.; Johnstone, Murray A.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Philip P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate optic disc perfusion differences in normal, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes using optical microangiography (OMAG) based optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography technique. Design Cross-sectional, observational study. Subjects Twenty-eight normal, 30 POAG, and 31 NTG subjects. Methods One eye from each subject was scanned with a 68 kHz Cirrus HD-OCT 5,000-based OMAG prototype system centered at the optic nerve head (ONH) (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, CA). Microvascular images were generated from the OMAG dataset by detecting the differences in OCT signal between consecutive B-scans. The pre-laminar layer (preLC) was isolated by a semi-automatic segmentation program. Main Outcome Measures Optic disc perfusion, quantified as flux, vessel area density, and normalized flux (flux normalized by the vessel area) within the ONH. Results Glaucomatous eyes had significantly lower optic disc perfusion in preLC in all three perfusion metrics (p<0.0001) compared to normal eyes. The visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD) were similar between the POAG and NTG groups, and no differences in optic disc perfusion were observed between POAG and NTG. Univariate analysis revealed significant correlation between optic disc perfusion and VF MD, VF PSD, and rim area in both POAG and NTG groups (p≤0.0288). However, normalized optic disc perfusion was correlated with some structural measures (retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and ONH cup/disc ratio) only in POAG eyes. Conclusions Optic disc perfusion detected with OMAG was significantly reduced in POAG and NTG groups compared to normal controls, but no difference was seen between POAG and NTG groups with similar levels of VF damage. Disc perfusion was significantly correlated with VF MD, VF PSD, and rim area in glaucomatous eyes. Vascular changes at the optic disc as measured using OMAG may provide useful information for diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma. PMID:27149261

  17. Assessment of stereoscopic optic disc images using an autostereoscopic screen – experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Maged S; Lowell, James A; Holliman, Nick S; Hunter, Andrew; Vaideanu, Daniella; Hildreth, Anthony; Steel, David HW

    2008-01-01

    Background Stereoscopic assessment of the optic disc morphology is an important part of the care of patients with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to assess stereoviewing of stereoscopic optic disc images using an example of the new technology of autostereoscopic screens compared to the liquid shutter goggles. Methods Independent assessment of glaucomatous disc characteristics and measurement of optic disc and cup parameters whilst using either an autostereoscopic screen or liquid crystal shutter goggles synchronized with a view switching display. The main outcome measures were inter-modality agreements between the two used modalities as evaluated by the weighted kappa test and Bland Altman plots. Results Inter-modality agreement for measuring optic disc parameters was good [Average kappa coefficient for vertical Cup/Disc ratio was 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–0.91) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.6–0.92) for observer 1 and 2 respectively]. Agreement between modalities for assessing optic disc characteristics for glaucoma on a five-point scale was very good with a kappa value of 0.97. Conclusion This study compared two different methods of stereo viewing. The results of assessment of the different optic disc and cup parameters were comparable using an example of the newly developing autostereoscopic display technologies as compared to the shutter goggles system used. The Inter-modality agreement was high. This new technology carries potential clinical usability benefits in different areas of ophthalmic practice. PMID:18651983

  18. A Case of Optic Nerve Atrophy with Severe Disc Cupping after Methanol Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong Woon

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare case of optic nerve atrophy with severe disc cupping resulting from methanol poisoning. A 30-year-old man presented to the hospital complaining of decreased visual acuity in both eyes a day after drinking alcohol containing methanol. His initial visual acuity allowed for only visualizing hand motion and not corrected in either eye. Initial intraocular pressure was within normal limits in both eyes. Initial fundus examination showed optic disc swelling in both eyes. Four years later, he visited our hospital for an eye evaluation. Visual acuity in both eyes still only allowed for visualizing hand motion. No nystagmus was observed in either eye during the optokinetic nystagmus test, and no waves were found in a visual evoked potential test. No specific change was noted on brain magnetic resonance imaging. On fundus examination, there was disc pallor in both eyes and disc cupping with a high cup/disc (C/D) ratio above 0.9 in the left eye. C/D ratio of the right eye was 0.5. Methanol poisoning may induce glaucomatous disc cupping in the late stage as well as optic atrophy. One possible mechanism of disc cupping is ganglion cell loss due to acute demyelination of the retrobulbar optic nerve. This report is the first photographic evidence of methanol induced optic disc cupping in Korea. PMID:21461231

  19. A case of optic nerve atrophy with severe disc cupping after methanol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong Woon; Uhm, Ki Bang

    2011-04-01

    We report a rare case of optic nerve atrophy with severe disc cupping resulting from methanol poisoning. A 30-year-old man presented to the hospital complaining of decreased visual acuity in both eyes a day after drinking alcohol containing methanol. His initial visual acuity allowed for only visualizing hand motion and not corrected in either eye. Initial intraocular pressure was within normal limits in both eyes. Initial fundus examination showed optic disc swelling in both eyes. Four years later, he visited our hospital for an eye evaluation. Visual acuity in both eyes still only allowed for visualizing hand motion. No nystagmus was observed in either eye during the optokinetic nystagmus test, and no waves were found in a visual evoked potential test. No specific change was noted on brain magnetic resonance imaging. On fundus examination, there was disc pallor in both eyes and disc cupping with a high cup/disc (C/D) ratio above 0.9 in the left eye. C/D ratio of the right eye was 0.5. Methanol poisoning may induce glaucomatous disc cupping in the late stage as well as optic atrophy. One possible mechanism of disc cupping is ganglion cell loss due to acute demyelination of the retrobulbar optic nerve. This report is the first photographic evidence of methanol induced optic disc cupping in Korea. PMID:21461231

  20. Topographic optic disc analysis by Heidelberg retinal tomography in ocular Behçet's disease

    PubMed Central

    Berker, Nilufer; Elgin, Ufuk; Ozdal, Pinar; Batman, Aygen; Soykan, Emel; Ozkan, Seyhan S

    2007-01-01

    Aim To compare the topographic characteristics of the optic discs in patients with severe and mild ocular Behçet's disease by using Heidelberg retinal tomographaphy (HRT). Methods This prospective study included 47 eyes of 47 patients with ocular BD who were being followed‐up at the Uveitis Clinic of the Ankara Ulucanlar Eye Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 21 eyes with mild uveitis, and group 2 consisted of 26 eyes with severe uveitis. All patients underwent topographic optic disc analysis by HRT II, and the quantitative optic disc parameters of both groups were compared by non‐parametric Mann‐Whitney U test. Results The mean cup volume, rim volume, cup area, disc area and cup depth in group 1 were found to be statistically significantly greater than those in group 2 (p<0.0001, p = 0.03, p = 0.021, p = 0.01 and p = 0.017, respectively), while the difference between the mean cup‐to‐disc ratios in group 1 and group 2 were found to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.148). Conclusion A relationship was found between the severity of ocular BD and optic disc topography determined by HRT. In eyes with smaller optic discs, uveitis was observed to have a more severe course with more frequent relapses than those with larger discs. PMID:17475703

  1. Infiltration of the optic chiasm, nerve, and disc by gliomatosis cerebri.

    PubMed

    Traynis, Ilana; Singer, Samuel; Winterkorn, Jacqueline; Rosenblum, Marc; Dinkin, Marc

    2014-03-01

    An 18-year-old man with gliomatosis cerebri (GC) developed tumor infiltration of the optic chiasm and right optic nerve including the optic disc. Although papilledema often is seen with GC, tumor invasion of the optic nerve head is observed. PMID:23287703

  2. Birth characteristics and age at menarche: results from the dietary intervention study in children (DISC)

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Rovine, Michael J.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are individually associated with age at menarche. Methods Analyses were conducted using data from n = 278 female participants in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC). Age at menarche was prospectively collected as part of the original DISC investigation. DISC participants self-reported birth weight, birth length, and gestational age with assistance from their mothers and other records as part of the DISC06 Follow-up Study at ages 25–29. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of birth characteristics and age at menarche. Results Birth weight was positively associated with age at menarche (p ≤ 0.01) in multiple regression analyses after controlling for BMI-for-age percentile, race and DISC treatment group. No statistically significant relationships were detected between either length or gestational age and age at menarche. Conclusions Higher birth weight may be associated with a modest delay in age at menarche. PMID:20495859

  3. Biostereometrics In Ophthalmology For Measurement Of The Optic Disc Cup In Glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Bernard; Takamoto, Takenori

    1980-07-01

    Glaucoma is a disease characterized by increased ocular pressure with optic nerve atrophy and loss of visual field or side vision which eventually leads to blindness. The surface of the portion of the optic nerve within the eye, the optic disc, becomes depressed and its contours are altered. The optic disc becomes more cupped with increasing progress of the disease. For measurement of the cup, retinal cameras can provide simultaneous stereo photographs of the optic disc taken through the pupil. However, the photographs have to be obtained at a narrow angle due to the limit of the size of the dilated pupil. Our studies of the geometry of the stereo photographs show a greater error in depth compared to horizontal dimensions because of this biological limit. Similarly, data for the optimal conditions for photography of the optic disc, including aperture size and magnification have been obtained. Since the changes in the optic disc can progress with increase of the desease, photogrammetric techniques for measuring relative changes in the dimensions of the cup have been developed. Both subsequent and initial photographs are measured after being similarly oriented in space. The photogrammetric measurement of changes in the optic disc cup in glaucoma has potential as a useful technique which can have wide clinical application.

  4. Detecting Optic Disc on Asians by Multiscale Gaussian Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bob; You, Jane; Karray, Fakhri

    2012-01-01

    The optic disc (OD) is an important anatomical feature in retinal images, and its detection is vital for developing automated screening programs. Currently, there is no algorithm designed to automatically detect the OD in fundus images captured from Asians which are larger and have thicker vessels compared to Caucasians. In this paper, we propose such a method to complement current algorithms using two steps: OD vessel candidate detection and OD vessel candidate matching. The first step is achieved with multiscale Gaussian filtering, scale production, and double thresholding to initially extract the vessels' directional map of various thicknesses. The map is then thinned before another threshold is applied to remove pixels with low intensities. This result forms the OD vessel candidates. In the second step, a Vessels' Directional Matched Filter (VDMF) of various dimensions is applied to the candidates to be matched, and the pixel with the smallest difference designated the OD center. We tested the proposed method on a new database consisting of 402 images from a diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening programme consisting of Asians. The OD center was successfully detected with an accuracy of 99.25% (399/402). PMID:22844267

  5. The comparison of manual vs automated disc margin delineation using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, S M; Sehi, M

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine the impact of manual vs automated disc margin delineation on optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Methods A prospective cohort study consisting of normal, glaucoma suspect (GS) and glaucoma patients who underwent ONH and RNFL measurements using SDOCT technology (RTVue; Optovue Inc.). The retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch's membrane (RPE/BM) complex end points were automatically determined first, and were manually redefined subsequently. Analysis of variance, coefficient of variation (COV), concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and Bland–Altman plots were used for the analyses. Results Ninety-nine eyes of 50 subjects (age 68±10 years) consisting of 36 glaucoma, 56 GS, and 7 normal eyes were included. The RNFL thickness measurements were similar (P>0.05) between the two methods of demarcation, except for the inferior-nasal sector (P=0.04). For the ONH measurements, the cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio and rim area showed significant differences between the two methods (P<0.001). COV/CCC values for the ONH parameters were as follows: cup area 17.6%/0.88; cup volume 7.4%/0.91; average C/D ratio 18.1%/0.78; rim area 25.3%/0.69; and rim volume 42.6%/0.71, respectively. CCC/COV values for the RNFL parameters were as follows: average 2.1%/0.98; inferior-temporal quadrant 8.1%/0.79; inferior-nasal quadrant INQ quadrant 12.6%/0.67; SNQ quadrant 7.8%/0.83; and STQ quadrant 7.8%/0.88, respectively. Conclusion An overall high agreement and moderate–substantial concordance was observed between the demarcation methods. Automated disc margin delineation of SDOCT can be used reliably in clinical practice. PMID:23907624

  6. Inverted Autologous Internal Limiting Membrane for Management of Optic Disc Pit with Macular Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Osman Abdelzaher; Pai, Anant

    2013-01-01

    Macular detachment causes visual deterioration in 25-75% of patients with congenital optic disc pit. A number of treatment options have been reported to manage the macular detachment in optic pit. An optic disc pit represents a defect in the lamina cribrosa; theoretically, an ideal procedure to treat optic pit associated macular detachment would be one that prevents the flow of fluid across the pit by creating an additional barrier. We present a new surgical technique that employs an autologous internal limiting membrane (ILM) to create this barrier. The technique involves standard vitrectomy along-with ILM peeling. Subsequently, the peeled ILM was inverted and transplanted onto the optic disc pit to close the optic nerve pit. This technique showed satisfactory anatomic result with good functional improvement in visual acuity. PMID:24339690

  7. Obvious optic disc swelling in a patient with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Mariko; Yoshikawa, Tadanobu; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Heike, Toshio; Takahashi, Kanji

    2013-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a group of rare hereditary autoinflammatory diseases caused by mutations of the NLRP3 gene, and leads to excessive production of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-lβ. A 35-year-old male presented with recurrent symptoms of urticarial-like rash, periodic fever, arthralgia, headache, and eye redness. His best-corrected visual acuity was 1.0 OD and 0.9 OS. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival and episcleral injection in both eyes. Ophthalmoscopy revealed obvious bilateral optic disc swelling and retinal vascular sheathing around the optic discs. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography also showed obvious optic disc swelling. Steroid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs did not improve these symptoms. Genetic testing detected a heterozygous mutation of c.907G>A. Thus, the patient was genetically confirmed with CAPS. Visual acuity did not decrease for 3 years, although the optic discs became white in color. CAPS should therefore be distinguished from other disorders when examining optic disc swelling and/or uveitis patients with urticarial-like rash and periodic fever. PMID:23966762

  8. Optic Disc and Cup Segmentation from Color Fundus Photograph Using Graph Cut with Priors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Stambolian, Dwight; O’Brien, Joan; Gee, James C.

    2014-01-01

    For automatic segmentation of optic disc and cup from color fundus photograph, we describe a fairly general energy function that can naturally fit into a global optimization framework with graph cut. Distinguished from most previous work, our energy function includes priors on the shape & location of disc & cup, the rim thickness and the geometric interaction of “disc contains cup”. These priors together with the effective optimization of graph cut enable our algorithm to generate reliable and robust solutions. Our approach is able to outperform several state-of-the-art segmentation methods, as shown by a set of experimental comparisons with manual delineations and a series of results of correlations with the assessments of a merchant-provided software from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) regarding several cup and disc parameters. PMID:24579126

  9. Structural Glaucomatous Progression Before and After Occurrence of an Optic Disc Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Esther; Demetriades, Anna M.; Christos, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background An optic disc hemorrhage (DH) has been associated with subsequent structural glaucoma progression but it is unknown if there is structural progression prior to a DH. We evaluated a cohort of patients to determine whether structural progression occurs before a DH, after a DH or is simply associated with a DH. Methods Eyes meeting inclusion criteria were placed into two groups. Group 1 included eyes that each had a baseline photograph of the optic nerve and a photograph with a DH at follow-up. Group 2 included eyes that each had a photograph of the optic nerve with a DH at baseline and a photograph at follow-up. Flicker images were created and graded by two ophthalmologists for structural glaucomatous change. We compared the proportion of structural progressors between Groups 1 and 2. Patient characteristics were also compared between the two groups. Results 49 patients and 51 unique eyes were included. Group 1 and Group 2 had 28 and 38 sets of photographs respectively. The proportion of global progression in Groups 1 and 2 were 21.4% and 39.5% respectively (p=0.12). No significant differences in any structural progression feature and patient characteristics (besides age at time of DH (p=0.04) between the two groups were found. Conclusions Patients show structural glaucomatous progression both before and after the event of a disc hemorrhage without significant differences. This suggests that a DH is an ongoing structural progression in glaucoma and may not be a discrete event that leads to subsequent progression. PMID:25057184

  10. Associations between Optic Cup-to-disc Ratio and Systemic Factors in the Healthy Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yang Jae; Shim, Seong Hee; Bae, Jeong Hun; Park, Ki Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the relationships between optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) and age, sex, and other demographic and health characteristics in the healthy Korean population. Methods The study design was retrospective and population-based. A total of 28,377 subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2011 were enrolled in this study. Participants underwent structured interviews as well as systemic and ophthalmic examinations. Patients with glaucoma who were diagnosed using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology classification were excluded. Changes in vertical CDR were examined by age in relation to systemic variables on multiple regression analysis. Results The mean vertical CDR was 0.34 ± 0.12. The vertical CDR increased with age from subjects in their 20s to those in their 80s (p < 0.001). The mean CDR in males was significantly higher than that of females (p < 0.001). On multiple regression analysis, the vertical CDR was positively associated with age (p < 0.001), male sex (p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.009), and intraocular pressure (p < 0.001) but was negatively associated with body mass index (p < 0.001). Conclusions Greater vertical CDR was related to age, male sex, higher diastolic blood pressure, higher intraocular pressure, and lower body mass index in healthy Koreans. PMID:26457040

  11. Application of Principal Component Analysis in Automatic Localization of Optic Disc and Fovea in Retinal Images

    PubMed Central

    Mudassar, Asloob Ahmad; Butt, Saira

    2013-01-01

    A retinal image has blood vessels, optic disc, fovea, and so forth as the main components of an image. Segmentation of these components has been investigated extensively. Principal component analysis (PCA) is one of the techniques that have been applied to segment the optic disc, but only a limited work has been reported. To our knowledge, fovea segmentation problem has not been reported in the literature using PCA. In this paper, we are presenting the segmentation of optic disc and fovea using PCA. The PCA was trained on optic discs and foveae using ten retinal images and then applied on seventy retinal images with a success rate of 97% in case of optic discs and 94.3% in case of fovea. Conventional algorithms feed one patch at a time from a test retinal image, and the next patch separated by one pixel part is fed. This process is continued till the full image area is covered. This is time consuming. We are suggesting techniques to cut down the processing time with the help of binary vessel tree of a given test image. Results are presented to validate our idea.

  12. Optic Disc Localization in Retinal Images Based on Cumulative Sum Fields.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ivo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Pinheiro, Antonio M G

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes an automatic method for the optic disc localization in retinal images, which is effective and reliable with multiple datasets. Particularly, the described method reveals very effective dealing with retinal images with large pathological signs. The algorithm begins with a new vessel enhancement method based on a modified corner detector. Subsequently, a weighted version of the vessel enhancement is combined with morphological operators, to detect the four main vessels orientations {0(°), 45(°), 90(°), 135(°) }. These four image functions have all the necessary information to determine an initial optic disc localization, resulting in two images that are respectively divided along the vertical or horizontal orientations with different division sizes. Each division is averaged creating a 2-D step function, and a cumulative sum of the different sizes step functions is calculated in the vertical and horizontal orientations, resulting in an initial optic disc position. The final optic disc localization is determined by a vessel convergence algorithm using its two most relevant features; high vasculature convergence and high intensity values. The proposed method was evaluated in eight publicly available datasets, including the STARE and DRIVE datasets. The optic disc was localized correctly in 1752 out of the 1767 retinal images (99.15%) with an average computation time of 18.34 s. PMID:25594989

  13. Revisiting the relations: Galactic thin disc age-velocity dispersion relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabroke, G. M.; Gilmore, G.

    2007-10-01

    The velocity dispersion of stars in the solar neighbourhood thin disc increases with time after star formation. Nordström et al. performed the most recent observations to constrain the age-velocity dispersion relation. They fitted the age-velocity dispersion relations of each Galactic cardinal direction space velocity component, U (towards the Galactic Centre), V (in the direction of Galactic rotation) and W (towards the North Galactic Pole), with power laws and interpreted these as evidence for continuous heating of the disc in all directions throughout its lifetime. We revisit these relations with their data and use the results of Famaey et al. to show that structure in the local velocity distribution function distorts the in-plane (U and V) velocity distributions away from Gaussian so that a dispersion is not an adequate parametrization of their functions. The age-σW relation can however be constrained because the sample is well phase-mixed vertically. We do not find any local signature of the stellar warp in the Galactic disc. Vertical disc heating does not saturate at an early stage. Our new result is that a power law is not required by the data: disc heating models that saturate after ~4.5 Gyr are equally consistent with observations.

  14. The Palenque Project: A Process of Design and Development as Research in the Evolution of an Optical Disc Prototype for Children. Technical Report No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kathleen S.; Tally, William J.

    This report describes the Palenque Project, a highly interactive, multimedia, optical disc research prototype which was developed for home use and tested by observing 25 children in the 9 to 14 year age range and their families and 8 12-year-olds in pairs. It is noted that the project was intended to create a rich, multimedia database environment…

  15. The Spectrum of Optic Disc Ischemia in Patients Younger than 50 Years (An Amercian Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Anthony C.; Costa, Roberta M. S.; Dumitrascu, Oana M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the spectrum of clinical and fluorescein angiographic features of optic disc ischemia in patients younger than 50 years. Methods: This retrospective comparative case series from a university consultative neuro-ophthalmology practice consisted of two phases. The first compared 108 cases of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in patients younger than 50 years (NAIONy) to a cohort of 108 cases in patients 50 years or older (NAIONo). Predisposing risk factors, fluorescein angiographic features, and clinical course were compared. In the second phase, 12 cases of diabetic papillopathy under age 50 were assessed by fluorescein angiographic criteria for evidence of optic disc ischemia and compared to patients with NAIONy. Results: NAIONy comprised 108 (12.7%) of 848 NAION cases reviewed. Chronic renal failure with dialysis and migraine were more common in NAIONy. Fellow eye involvement rate was significantly higher for NAIONy patients (46/108, 42.6%) than for NAIONo patients (32/108, 29.6%). Fluorescein angiographic features of ischemia were documented in 44 (81.5%) of 54 eyes studied. In one case, these features were documented in pre-NAION edema. Diabetic papillopathy demonstrated delayed filling consistent with ischemia in 7 of 10 (70.0%), without significant visual field loss. Conclusions: Ischemic optic neuropathy in patients younger than 50 years is not rare. Fellow eye involvement is more frequent in younger patients. Fluorescein angiography confirmation of impaired perfusion in multiple syndromes of optic neuropathy corroborates a spectrum of optic disc ischemia ranging from perfusion delay without visual loss to severely impaired perfusion and visual loss and incorporates optic neuropathies previously considered nonischemic. PMID:24167327

  16. A new approach to optic disc detection in human retinal images using the firefly algorithm.

    PubMed

    Rahebi, Javad; Hardalaç, Fırat

    2016-03-01

    There are various methods and algorithms to detect the optic discs in retinal images. In recent years, much attention has been given to the utilization of the intelligent algorithms. In this paper, we present a new automated method of optic disc detection in human retinal images using the firefly algorithm. The firefly intelligent algorithm is an emerging intelligent algorithm that was inspired by the social behavior of fireflies. The population in this algorithm includes the fireflies, each of which has a specific rate of lighting or fitness. In this method, the insects are compared two by two, and the less attractive insects can be observed to move toward the more attractive insects. Finally, one of the insects is selected as the most attractive, and this insect presents the optimum response to the problem in question. Here, we used the light intensity of the pixels of the retinal image pixels instead of firefly lightings. The movement of these insects due to local fluctuations produces different light intensity values in the images. Because the optic disc is the brightest area in the retinal images, all of the insects move toward brightest area and thus specify the location of the optic disc in the image. The results of implementation show that proposed algorithm could acquire an accuracy rate of 100 % in DRIVE dataset, 95 % in STARE dataset, and 94.38 % in DiaRetDB1 dataset. The results of implementation reveal high capability and accuracy of proposed algorithm in the detection of the optic disc from retinal images. Also, recorded required time for the detection of the optic disc in these images is 2.13 s for DRIVE dataset, 2.81 s for STARE dataset, and 3.52 s for DiaRetDB1 dataset accordingly. These time values are average value. PMID:26093773

  17. Optic Disc Segmentation by Balloon Snake with Texture from Color Fundus Image

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinyang; Luan, Fangjun; Wu, Hanhui

    2015-01-01

    A well-established method for diagnosis of glaucoma is the examination of the optic nerve head based on fundus image as glaucomatous patients tend to have larger cup-to-disc ratios. The difficulty of optic segmentation is due to the fuzzy boundaries and peripapillary atrophy (PPA). In this paper a novel method for optic nerve head segmentation is proposed. It uses template matching to find the region of interest (ROI). The method of vessel erasing in the ROI is based on PDE inpainting which will make the boundary smoother. A novel optic disc segmentation approach using image texture is explored in this paper. A cluster method based on image texture is employed before the optic disc segmentation step to remove the edge noise such as cup boundary and vessels. We replace image force in the snake with image texture and the initial contour of the balloon snake is inside the optic disc to avoid the PPA. The experimental results show the superior performance of the proposed method when compared to some traditional segmentation approaches. An average segmentation dice coefficient of 94% has been obtained. PMID:25861249

  18. Bilateral optic disc swelling as a presenting sign of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Pakter, Grant Jason

    2012-01-01

    The case of a 59-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a 6-week history of intermittent blurring of vision and diplopia is reported. Fundoscopy revealed asymmetrical, bilateral optic disc swelling with peripapillary haemorrhages. An initial CT scan and D-dimer level were reported as normal. A subsequent MRI revealed a recanalising superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare and potentially fatal condition. The author suggests that it should be part of the differential diagnosis of bilateral optic disc swelling and that a normal unenhanced CT scan and D-dimer would not rule out this potentially devastating condition. PMID:22987907

  19. Bilateral optic disc swelling as a presenting sign of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Pakter, Grant Jason

    2012-01-01

    The case of a 59-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a 6-week history of intermittent blurring of vision and diplopia is reported. Fundoscopy revealed asymmetrical, bilateral optic disc swelling with peripapillary haemorrhages. An initial CT scan and D-dimer level were reported as normal. A subsequent MRI revealed a recanalising superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare and potentially fatal condition. The author suggests that it should be part of the differential diagnosis of bilateral optic disc swelling and that a normal unenhanced CT scan and D-dimer would not rule out this potentially devastating condition. PMID:22987907

  20. A multiscale decomposition approach to detect abnormal vasculature in the optic disc.

    PubMed

    Agurto, Carla; Yu, Honggang; Murray, Victor; Pattichis, Marios S; Nemeth, Sheila; Barriga, Simon; Soliz, Peter

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a multiscale method to detect neovascularization in the optic disc (NVD) using fundus images. Our method is applied to a manually selected region of interest (ROI) containing the optic disc. All the vessels in the ROI are segmented by adaptively combining contrast enhancement methods with a vessel segmentation technique. Textural features extracted using multiscale amplitude-modulation frequency-modulation, morphological granulometry, and fractal dimension are used. A linear SVM is used to perform the classification, which is tested by means of 10-fold cross-validation. The performance is evaluated using 300 images achieving an AUC of 0.93 with maximum accuracy of 88%. PMID:25698545

  1. Optical effects related to Keplerian discs orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate possible optical signatures of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) naked singularity spacetimes representing a spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the modified Hořava gravity. In such spacetimes, accretion structures significantly different from those present in standard black hole spacetimes occur due to the ‘antigravity’ effect, which causes an internal static sphere surrounded by Keplerian discs. We focus our attention on the optical effects related to the Keplerian accretion discs, constructing the optical appearance of the Keplerian discs, the spectral continuum due to their thermal radiation, and the spectral profiled lines generated in the innermost parts of such discs. The KS naked singularity signature is strongly encoded in the characteristics of predicted optical effects, especially in cases where the spectral continuum and spectral lines are profiled by the strong gravity of the spacetimes due to the vanishing region of the angular velocity gradient influencing the effectiveness of the viscosity mechanism. We can conclude that optical signatures of KS naked singularities can be well distinguished from the signatures of standard black holes.

  2. Choosing an Optical Disc System: A Guide for Users and Resellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vane-Tempest, Stewart

    1995-01-01

    Presents a guide for selecting an optional disc system. Highlights include storage hierarchy; standards; data life cycles; security; implementing an optical jukebox system; optimizing the system; performance; quality and reliability; software; cost of online versus near-line; and growing opportunities. Sidebars provide additional information on…

  3. Optical Discs for Storage and Access in ARL Libraries. SPEC KIT 133.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holibaugh, Ralph

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) kit provides a sample of excerpts from technical and planning documents contributed by 40 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries that are planning to install or have already implemented optical disc technology. Selected to represent a variety of media and applications, the…

  4. Reproducibility of Perfusion Parameters of Optic Disc and Macula in Rhesus Monkeys by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yang, Yi-Quan; Yang, Di-Ya; Liu, Xiang-Xiang; Sun, Yun-Xiao; Wei, Shi-Fei; Wang, Ning-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography is a novel technique by which we can detect the local perfusion of fundus directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of optic disc and macular flow perfusion parameters in rhesus monkeys using OCT angiography. Methods: Eighteen healthy monkeys (18 eyes) were subjected to optic disc and macula flow index measurements via a high-speed and high-resolution spectral-domain OCT XR Avanti with a split-spectrum amplitude de-correlation angiography algorithm. Right eye was imaged 3 times during the first examination and once during each of the two following examinations. The intra-visit and inter-visit intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were both determined. Results: The average flow indices of the four optic disc area layers were 0.171 ± 0.009 (optic nerve head), 0.015 ± 0.004 (vitreous), 0.052 ± 0.009 (radial peripapillary capillary), and 0.167 ± 0.011 (choroid). Average flow indices of the four macula area layers were 0.044 ± 0.011 (superficial retina), 0.036 ± 0.011 (deep retina), 0.016 ± 0.009 (outer retina), and 0.155 ± 0.013 (choroid). Intra-visit (ICC value: 0.821–0.954) and inter-visit (ICC value: 0.844–0.899) repeatability were both high. Conclusions: The study is about the reproducibility of optic disc and macular perfusion parameters as measured by OCT angiography in healthy rhesus monkeys. Flow index measurement reproducibility is high for both the optic disc and macula of normal monkey eyes. OCT angiography might be a useful technique to assess changes when examining monkeys with experimental ocular diseases. PMID:27098795

  5. Spherical Aberration Error Detection for Blu-ray Disc Optical Pickups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Nobuo; Kanazawa, Yasunori; Horiyama, Makoto; Nishioka, Sumito; Miyake, Takahiro; Nakata, Yasuo; Kurata, Yukio

    2006-07-01

    For a high-numerical-aperture (NA) optical pickup system, the spherical aberration (SA) caused by cover layer thickness error should be corrected. We detected the SA error signal using a newly designed hologram optical element (HOE). The HOE has both sufficient signal sensitivity and constant signal level independent of objective lens shift. In addition, we fabricated on SA servo for a dual-layer Blu-ray disc.

  6. Localization and segmentation of optic disc in retinal images using circular Hough transform and grow-cut algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Muhammad; Barman, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Automated retinal image analysis has been emerging as an important diagnostic tool for early detection of eye-related diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we have presented a robust methodology for optic disc detection and boundary segmentation, which can be seen as the preliminary step in the development of a computer-assisted diagnostic system for glaucoma in retinal images. The proposed method is based on morphological operations, the circular Hough transform and the grow-cut algorithm. The morphological operators are used to enhance the optic disc and remove the retinal vasculature and other pathologies. The optic disc center is approximated using the circular Hough transform, and the grow-cut algorithm is employed to precisely segment the optic disc boundary. The method is quantitatively evaluated on five publicly available retinal image databases DRIVE, DIARETDB1, CHASE_DB1, DRIONS-DB, Messidor and one local Shifa Hospital Database. The method achieves an optic disc detection success rate of 100% for these databases with the exception of 99.09% and 99.25% for the DRIONS-DB, Messidor, and ONHSD databases, respectively. The optic disc boundary detection achieved an average spatial overlap of 78.6%, 85.12%, 83.23%, 85.1%, 87.93%, 80.1%, and 86.1%, respectively, for these databases. This unique method has shown significant improvement over existing methods in terms of detection and boundary extraction of the optic disc. PMID:27190713

  7. Modulation Code and Signal Characteristics for Signal Waveform Modulation Optical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hailong; Pei, Jing; Pan, Longfa; Ni, Yi

    2010-08-01

    A high-efficient and novel varying-level multilevel run-length-limited modulation code is proposed for signal waveform modulation (SWM) optical discs. The proposed code is composed of a maximum transition run (MTR) code and a level modulation process. The MTR code is employed to realize high code rate and satisfy the requirements of channels. Level modulation is used to eliminate inappropriate codewords for SWM channels and determine the level numbers for different runs. The rate of the presented code is 7/8 bits/symbols, and the recording density parameter RBPF (recording bits per 400 nm) is 2.26, which is 50.7% more than that of a digital versatile disc (DVD). The realization of the proposed code in SWM discs and the corresponding signal characteristics are also shown. With the run-length detection and level detection solution, the bit error rate (BER) is less than 2×10-4, which is feasible for SWM multilevel optical discs.

  8. The collagen structure of bovine intervertebral disc studied using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matcher, Stephen J.; Winlove, C. Peter; Gangnus, Sergei V.

    2004-04-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is used to measure the birefringence properties of bovine intervertebral disc and equine flexor tendon. For equine tendon the birefringence Dgrn is (6.0 ± 0.2) × 10-3 at a wavelength of 1.3 µm. This is somewhat larger than the values reported for bovine tendon. The surface region of the annulus fibrosus of a freshly excised intact bovine intervertebral disc displays an identical value of birefringence, Dgrn = (6.0 ± 0.6) × 10-3 at 1.3 µm. The nucleus pulposus does not display birefringence, the measured apparent value of Dgrn = (0.39 ± 0.01) × 10-3 being indistinguishable from the effects of depolarization due to multiple scattering. A clear difference is found between the depth-resolved retardance of equine tendon and that of bovine intervertebral disc. This apparently relates to the lamellar structure of the latter tissue, in which the collagen fibre orientation alternates between successive lamellae. A semi-empirical model based on Jones calculus shows that the measurements are in reasonable agreement with previous optical and x-ray data. These results imply that PS-OCT could be a useful tool to study collagen organization within the intervertebral disc in vitro and possibly in vivo and its variation with applied load and disease.

  9. Optical Disc Technology and the Cooperative Television Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranch, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of individual television film libraries combining film holdings onto optical disks and developing networks that would allow online searching of, access to, and transmission of video images. It is concluded that recent advances in technology would support fast and cost effective image retrieval with no loss in video

  10. Databases on Optical Discs and Their Potential in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, S. Nazim

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the reliance of developing nations on technologically advanced countries to provide information--especially in the areas of science and technology--to aid in technology transfer and research development, and examines the advantages of using optical data disk technology to store and retrieve this information. (22 references) (CLB)

  11. The impact of accretion disc winds on the optical spectra of cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. H.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Higginbottom, N.

    2015-07-01

    Many high-state non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs) exhibit blueshifted absorption or P-Cygni profiles associated with ultraviolet (UV) resonance lines. These features imply the existence of powerful accretion disc winds in CVs. Here, we use our Monte Carlo ionization and radiative transfer code to investigate whether disc wind models that produce realistic UV line profiles are also likely to generate observationally significant recombination line and continuum emission in the optical waveband. We also test whether outflows may be responsible for the single-peaked emission line profiles often seen in high-state CVs and for the weakness of the Balmer absorption edge (relative to simple models of optically thick accretion discs). We find that a standard disc wind model that is successful in reproducing the UV spectra of CVs also leaves a noticeable imprint on the optical spectrum, particularly for systems viewed at high inclination. The strongest optical wind-formed recombination lines are H α and He II λ4686. We demonstrate that a higher density outflow model produces all the expected H and He lines and produces a recombination continuum that can fill in the Balmer jump at high inclinations. This model displays reasonable verisimilitude with the optical spectrum of RW Trianguli. No single-peaked emission is seen, although we observe a narrowing of the double-peaked emission lines from the base of the wind. Finally, we show that even denser models can produce a single-peaked H α line. On the basis of our results, we suggest that winds can modify, and perhaps even dominate, the line and continuum emission from CVs.

  12. Automated segmentation of optic disc in SD-OCT images and cup-to-disc ratios quantification by patch searching-based neural canal opening detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Menglin; Leng, Theodore; de Sisternes, Luis; Rubin, Daniel L; Chen, Qiang

    2015-11-30

    Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness worldwide. Early detection of glaucoma is traditionally based on assessment of the cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio, an important indicator of structural changes to the optic nerve head. Here, we present an automated optic disc segmentation algorithm in 3-D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes to quantify this ratio. The proposed algorithm utilizes a two-stage strategy. First, it detects the neural canal opening (NCO) by finding the points with maximum curvature on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) boundary with a spatial correlation smoothness constraint on consecutive B-scans, and it approximately locates the coarse disc margin in the projection image using convex hull fitting. Then, a patch searching procedure using a probabilistic support vector machine (SVM) classifier finds the most likely patch with the NCO in its center in order to refine the segmentation result. Thus, a reference plane can be determined to calculate the C/D radio. Experimental results on 42 SD-OCT volumes from 17 glaucoma patients demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve high segmentation accuracy and a low C/D ratio evaluation error. The unsigned border error for optic disc segmentation and the evaluation error for C/D ratio comparing with manual segmentation are 2.216 ± 1.406 pixels (0.067 ± 0.042 mm) and 0.045 ± 0.033, respectively. PMID:26698750

  13. Optic Disc Vascularization in Glaucoma: Value of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Lévêque, Pierre-Maxime; Zéboulon, Pierre; Brasnu, Emmanuelle; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To detect changes in optic nerve head (ONH) vascularization in glaucoma patients using spectral-domain OCT angiography (OCT-A). Material and Method. Fifty glaucoma patients and 30 normal subjects were evaluated with OCT-A (AngioVue®, Optovue). The total ONH vessel density and temporal disc vessel density were measured. Clinical data, visual field (VF) parameters, and spectral-domain OCT evaluation (RNFL: retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, GCC: ganglion cell complex thickness, and rim area) were recorded for glaucoma patients. Correlations among total and temporal ONH vessel density and structural and VF parameters were analyzed. Results. In the glaucoma group, total and temporal ONH vessel density were reduced by 24.7% (0.412 versus 0.547; p < 0.0001) and 22.88% (0.364 versus 0.472; p = 0.001), respectively, as compared with the control group. Univariate analysis showed significant correlation between rim area (mm2) and temporal ONH vessel density (r = 0.623; p < 0.0001) and total ONH vessel density (r = 0.609; p < 0.0001). Significant correlations were found between temporal and total ONH vessel density and RNFL, GCC, VF mean deviation, and visual field index. Conclusion. In glaucoma patients OCT-A might detect reduced ONH blood vessel density that is associated with structural and functional glaucomatous damage. OCT-A might become a useful tool for the evaluation of ONH microcirculation changes in glaucoma. PMID:26998352

  14. Optic disc and macula detection in fundus images by means of template matching.

    PubMed

    Garduno-Alvarado, Tzolkin; Martinez-Perez, M Elena; Martinez-Castellanos, Maria A; Rodriguez-Quinones, Luvia; Salinas-Longoria, Samantha M

    2014-01-01

    Various methods for detecting optic disc and macula in fundus images have been developed. Our aim is to propose a fairly easy method for detecting both features jointly. This is achieved by first correcting in homogenous luminosity using a polynomial approximation of the background of the images. Secondly, the use of the cross-correlation in the frequency domain between the images and a steerable template which contains both structures. The 38 photographs used in this work belong to a local database of patients suffering diabetic retinopathy along its four severity stages. Our results showed 100% optic disc centers located within the OD area and 90% macula centers located within the MC area. PMID:25569915

  15. Unilateral morning glory optic disc anomaly in a case with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This case is unique because it is the first reported case of Down syndrome with morning glory optic disc anomaly in literature. Case presentation A 15-year-old girl with features of Down syndrome presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology for a regular ophthalmologic examination. Her best corrected visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. The fundus examination revealed findings compatible with unilateral morning glory optic disc anomaly in the right eye. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic and systemic evaluation to explore possible associated findings. Conclusion This case report emphasizes the importance of ophthalmic screening-examinations in Down children to rule out any vision relevant pathology. PMID:24725623

  16. Method and system for assigning a confidence metric for automated determination of optic disc location

    DOEpatents

    Karnowski, Thomas P.; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Muthusamy Govindasamy, Vijaya Priya; Chaum, Edward

    2012-07-10

    A method for assigning a confidence metric for automated determination of optic disc location that includes analyzing a retinal image and determining at least two sets of coordinates locating an optic disc in the retinal image. The sets of coordinates can be determined using first and second image analysis techniques that are different from one another. An accuracy parameter can be calculated and compared to a primary risk cut-off value. A high confidence level can be assigned to the retinal image if the accuracy parameter is less than the primary risk cut-off value and a low confidence level can be assigned to the retinal image if the accuracy parameter is greater than the primary risk cut-off value. The primary risk cut-off value being selected to represent an acceptable risk of misdiagnosis of a disease having retinal manifestations by the automated technique.

  17. Transition Mechanism of WOx Available for Optical Disc by Laser Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusu, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Matsumaru, Masaaki; Nakamura, Naomasa; Katsuda, Shinichi

    2009-03-01

    WOx thin films are one of the candidates for the recording layer of write-once optical discs and the inorganic photoresist material used in heat-mode mastering. We have investigated the transformation mechanism of WOx during laser irradiation. As a result, we observed changes in the volume and crystallinity of WOx film. We conclude from various analyses that the solubility of WOx film in alkali solution may sensitively depend on the atomic ordering determined by deposition conditions or laser exposure conditions.

  18. Histomorphometry of the optic disc in highly myopic eyes with absolute secondary angle closure glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Dichtl, A.; Jonas, J.; Naumann, G.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate histomorphometrically the optic nerve head in highly myopic eyes with absolute secondary angle closure glaucoma.
METHODS—Optic disc sections of 16 highly myopic eyes with an axial length of more than 26 mm and of 19 eyes with an axial length of less than 26 mm were histomorphometrically evaluated. All eyes had been enucleated due to painful absolute secondary angle closure glaucoma.
RESULTS—In the highly myopic eyes compared with the non-highly myopic eyes, mean optic disc diameter was significantly larger (mean 2.33 (SD 0.55) mm versus 1.77 (0.50) mm; p=0.01), and the optic cup was significantly shallower (optic cup depth 0.34 (0.29) mm versus 0.63 (0.23) mm; p=0.03). The peripapillary scleral ring was significantly broader (0.58 (0.65) mm versus 0.08 (0.06) mm; p=0.001), and the β zone (0.83 (0.74) mm versus 0.28 (0.25) mm; p=0.006) of the parapapillary chorioretinal atrophy was significantly larger in the highly myopic eyes.
CONCLUSIONS—The results of the present study agree with biomorphometric data of the optic nerve head in highly myopic eyes with glaucoma. In the highly myopic group, a markedly enlarged peripapillary scleral ring characterised by absence of Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris contributes in addition to α and β zone to the parapapillary atrophy.

 Keywords: optic disc; histomorphometry; myopia; angle closure glaucoma PMID:9602626

  19. Automatic detection of optic disc based on PCA and mathematical morphology.

    PubMed

    Morales, Sandra; Naranjo, Valery; Angulo, Us; Alcaniz, Mariano

    2013-04-01

    The algorithm proposed in this paper allows to automatically segment the optic disc from a fundus image. The goal is to facilitate the early detection of certain pathologies and to fully automate the process so as to avoid specialist intervention. The method proposed for the extraction of the optic disc contour is mainly based on mathematical morphology along with principal component analysis (PCA). It makes use of different operations such as generalized distance function (GDF), a variant of the watershed transformation, the stochastic watershed, and geodesic transformations. The input of the segmentation method is obtained through PCA. The purpose of using PCA is to achieve the grey-scale image that better represents the original RGB image. The implemented algorithm has been validated on five public databases obtaining promising results. The average values obtained (a Jaccard's and Dice's coefficients of 0.8200 and 0.8932, respectively, an accuracy of 0.9947, and a true positive and false positive fractions of 0.9275 and 0.0036) demonstrate that this method is a robust tool for the automatic segmentation of the optic disc. Moreover, it is fairly reliable since it works properly on databases with a large degree of variability and improves the results of other state-of-the-art methods. PMID:23314772

  20. Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kwon, Young H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2013-03-01

    Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One important structural parameter for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma is the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), which tends to become larger as glaucoma progresses. While approaches exist for segmenting the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs, and more recently, within spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes, no approaches have been reported for the simultaneous segmentation of these structures within both modalities combined. In this work, a multimodal pixel-classification approach for the segmentation of the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs and SD-OCT volumes is presented. In particular, after segmentation of other important structures (such as the retinal layers and retinal blood vessels) and fundus-to-SD-OCT image registration, features are extracted from both modalities and a k-nearest-neighbor classification approach is used to classify each pixel as cup, rim, or background. The approach is evaluated on 70 multimodal image pairs from 35 subjects in a leave-10%-out fashion (by subject). A significant improvement in classification accuracy is obtained using the multimodal approach over that obtained from the corresponding unimodal approach (97.8% versus 95.2%; p < 0:05; paired t-test).

  1. Bilateral optic disc pit with maculopathy in a patient with cleft lip and cleft palate

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Anisha; Gupta, Rajat; Gupta, Anika; Raina, Usha K; Ghosh, Basudeb

    2015-01-01

    Optic disc pit (ODP) is small, gray-white, oval depression found at the optic nerve head. It is a congenital defect that occurs due to imperfect closure of superior edge of the embryonic fissure. Cleft lip and palate are also congenital midline abnormalities occurring due to defect in the fusion of frontonasal prominence, maxillary prominence and mandibular prominence. There is only one case report describing the occurrence of ODP in a young patient with cleft lip and palate who also had basal encephalocele. We describe a 52-year-old patient with congenital cleft lip and palate with bilateral ODP with maculopathy but without any other midline abnormality. PMID:26044478

  2. Design of a fibre-optic disc accelerometer: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongjie; Xiao, Hao; Zhang, Songwei; Li, Fang; Liu, Yuliang

    2007-06-01

    Mechanical principles of fibre-optic disc accelerometers (FODA) different from those assumed in previous calculation methods are presented. An FODA with a high sensitivity of 82 rad/g and a resonance frequency of 360 Hz is designed and tested. In this system, the minimum measurable demodulation phase of the phase-generated carrier (PGC) is 10-5 rad, and the minimum acceleration reaches 120 ng theoretically. This kind of FODA, with its high responsivity, all-optic-fibre configuration, small size, light weight and stiff shell housing, ensures effective performance in practice.

  3. Analysis of the Correlation Among Age, Disc Morphology, Positive Discography and Prognosis in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Min; Lee, Bo-Ram; Hwang, Jeong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation among age, disc morphology, positive discography, and prognosis in patients with chronic low back pain. Methods A total of 183 intervertebral discs in 72 patients with chronic low back pain were studied. Discography was performed using a pressure-controlled manometric technique. The pain reaction during discography at each level was recorded as follows: no pain, dissimilar pain, similar pain, or concordant pain. Discs with similar or concordant pain were classified as positive. All the examined discs were assessed morphologically using axial computed tomography imaging. The grade of general degeneration and annular disruption of the discs were assessed according to the Dallas discogram description (DDD). Intradiscal injection of steroid was tried for patients with symptomatic disc identified during provocative discography and who did not consent to surgical operation. Results There was a higher correlation between general degeneration and age, as compared with annular disruption and age. Higher general degeneration and annular disruption grades had higher positive rates of discography. However, annular disruption alone was independently associated with positive discography. Age and grade of general degeneration did not affect the prognosis. Conclusion The grade of general degeneration was associated with age, but it was not correlated with positive discography and prognosis. In addition, high grade of annular disruption correlated with positive discography. PMID:26161339

  4. Posterior staphyloma is related to optic disc morphology and the location of visual field defect in normal tension glaucoma patients with myopia

    PubMed Central

    Park, H-YL; Jung, Y; Park, C K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the morphologic features of the optic disc and the location of visual field (VF) defect in relation to posterior staphyloma in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes with myopia. Methods One hundred and thirty-four NTG patients with myopia were enrolled. B-scan ultrasonography was performed in enrolled patients. Disc tilt ratio, disc torsion, and area of peripapillary atrophy were measured from disc photographs. Patients were classified according to the presence of posterior staphyloma and its location: staphyloma involving the optic disc, staphyloma involving either the supero-temporal side of the optic disc or the infero-temporal side of the optic disc. The relationship between the location of the posterior staphyloma and that of the VF defect was analyzed. Results Among 134 eyes, 74 eyes (55.2%) had posterior staphyloma on B-scan ultrasonography. Mean torsion degree was significantly greater in eyes with staphyloma involving the temporal side of the optic disc (19.78±18.00°) compared with eyes with staphyloma involving the optic disc (4.65±4.92°, P=0.001). The frequency of the location of VF damage differed significantly between eyes with staphyloma involving the supero-temporal side and those involving the infero-temporal side of the optic disc (P=0.008), which was not significant in eyes with staphyloma involving the optic disc (P=0.813). Conclusions Optic disc torsion was a prominent finding in myopic NTG eyes when posterior staphyloma was located temporal to the optic disc. The location of posterior staphyloma was related to the direction of disc torsion and the location of VF defect. PMID:25376120

  5. ISSLS PRIZE WINNER: INHIBITION OF NF-κB ACTIVITY AMELIORATES AGE-ASSOCIATED DISC DEGENERATION IN A MOUSE MODEL OF ACCELERATED AGING

    PubMed Central

    Nasto, Luigi A.; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Robinson, Andria R.; Tilstra, Jeremy S.; Clauson, Cheryl L.; Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Ngo, Kevin; Dong, Qing; Pola, Enrico; Lee, Joon Y.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Kang, James D.; Robbins, Paul D.; Vo, Nam V.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design NF-κB activity was pharmacologically and genetically blocked in an accelerated aging mouse model to mitigate age-related disc degenerative changes. Objective To study the mediatory role of NF-κB signaling pathway in age-dependent intervertebral disc degeneration. Summary of Background Data Aging is a major contributor to intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD), but the molecular mechanism behind this process is poorly understood. NF-κB is a family of transcription factors which play a central role in mediating cellular response to damage, stress, and inflammation. Growing evidence implicates chronic NF-κB activation as a culprit in many aging-related diseases, but its role in aging-related IDD has not been adequately explored. We studied the effects of NF-κB inhibition on IDD using a DNA repair-deficient mouse model of accelerated aging (Ercc1-/Δ mice) previously been reported to exhibit age-related IDD. Methods Systemic inhibition of NF-κB activation was achieved either genetically by deletion of one allele of the NF-κB subunit p65 (Ercc1-/Δp65+/- mice) or pharmacologically by chronic intra-peritoneal administration of the Nemo Binding Domain (8K-NBD) peptide to block the formation of the upstream activator of NF-κB, IκB Inducible Kinase (IKK), in Ercc1-/Δ mice. Disc cellularity, total proteoglycan content and proteoglycan synthesis of treated mice and untreated controls were assessed. Results Decreased disc matrix proteoglycan content, a hallmark feature of IDD, and elevated disc NF-κB activity were observed in discs of progeroid Ercc1-/Δ mice and naturally aged wild-type compared to young WT mice. Systemic inhibition of NF-κB by the 8K-NBD peptide in Ercc1-/Δ mice increased disc proteoglycan synthesis and ameriolated loss disc cellularity and matrix proteoglycan. These results were confirmed genetically by using the p65 haploinsufficient Ercc1-/Δp65+/- mice. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway is a key mediator of age-dependent IDD and represents a therapeutic target for mitigating disc degenerative diseases associated with aging. PMID:22343279

  6. Quantitative chemical tagging, stellar ages and the chemo-dynamical evolution of the Galactic disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitschang, A. W.; De Silva, G.; Zucker, D. B.; Anguiano, B.; Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.

    2014-03-01

    The early science results from the new generation of high-resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys, such as Galactic Archaeology with HERMES (GALAH) and the Gaia European Southern Observatory survey (Gaia-ESO), will represent major milestones in the quest to chemically tag the Galaxy. Yet this technique to reconstruct dispersed coeval stellar groups has remained largely untested until recently. We build on previous work that developed an empirical chemical tagging probability function, which describes the likelihood that two field stars are conatal, that is, they were formed in the same cluster environment. In this work, we perform the first ever blind chemical tagging experiment, i.e. tagging stars with no known or otherwise discernible associations, on a sample of 714 disc field stars with a number of high-quality high-resolution homogeneous metal abundance measurements. We present evidence that chemical tagging of field stars does identify coeval groups of stars, yet these groups may not represent distinct formation sites, e.g. as in dissolved open clusters, as previously thought. Our results point to several important conclusions, among them that group finding will be limited strictly to chemical abundance space, e.g. stellar ages, kinematics, colours, temperature and surface gravity do not enhance the detectability of groups. We also demonstrate that in addition to its role in probing the chemical enrichment and kinematic history of the Galactic disc, chemical tagging represents a powerful new stellar age determination technique.

  7. Pharmacological enhancement of disc diffusion and differentiation of healthy, ageing and degenerated discs : Results from in-vivo serial post-contrast MRI studies in 365 human lumbar discs.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Venkatadass, K; Naresh Babu, J; Ganesh, K; Shetty, Ajoy P

    2008-05-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is still a poorly understood phenomenon because of the lack of availability of precise definition of healthy, ageing and degenerated discs. Decreased nutrition is the final common pathway for DDD and the status of the endplate (EP) plays a crucial role in controlling the extent of diffusion, which is the only source of nutrition. The vascular channels in the subchondral plate have muscarinic receptors but the possibility of enhancing diffusion pharmacologically by dilation of these vessels has not been probed. Although it is well accepted that EP damage will affect diffusion and thereby nutrition, there is no described method to quantify the extent of EP damage. Precise definitions with an objective method of differentiating healthy, ageing and degenerated discs on the basis of anatomical integrity of the disc and physiological basis of altered nutrition will be useful. This information is an urgent necessity for better understanding of DDD and also strategizing prevention and treatment. Seven hundred and thirty endplates of 365 lumbar discs from 73 individuals (26 healthy volunteers and 47 patients) with age ranging from 10-64 years were evaluated by pre-contrast and 10 min, 2, 4, 6 and 12 h post contrast MRI after IV injection of 0.3 mmol/kg of Gadodiamide. End plates were classified according to the extent of damage into six grades and an incremental score was given for each category. A total endplate score (TEPS) was derived by adding the EP score of the two endplates for each concerned disc. The base line value (SI(base)) and the signal intensity at particular time periods were used to derive the enhancement percentage for each time period (Enhancement (%) = SI(tp) - SI(base)/SI(base) x 100). The enhancement percentage for each time period, the time for peak enhancement (T-max) and the time intensity curve (TIC) over 12 h were used to study and compare the diffusion characteristics. The differences in pattern of diffusion were obvious visually at 4 h which was categorized into five patterns-Pattern A representing normal diffusion to Pattern E representing a total abnormality in diffusion. Degeneration was classified according to Pfirrmann's grading and this was correlated to the TEPS and the alterations in diffusion patterns. The relationship of TEPS on the increase in DDD was evaluated by a logistic curve and the cut point for severe DDD was found by ROC curve. The influence of the variables of age, level, Modic changes, instability, annulus fibrosis defect (DEBIT), TEPS and diffusion patterns on DDD was analyzed by multiple and stepwise regression analysis. Oral nimodipine study: Additional forty lumbar end-plates from four young healthy volunteers were studied to document the effect of oral nimodipine. Pre-drug diffusion levels were studied by pre and post contrast MRI (0.3 mmol/kg of gadodiamide) at 10 min, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h. Oral nimodipine was administered (30 mg QID) for 5 days and post-contrast MRI studies were performed similarly. Enhancement was calculated at vertebral body-VB; subchondral bone-SCB; Endplate Zone-EPZ and at superior and inferior peripheral nucleus pulposus-PNP and central nucleus pulposus-CNP, using appropriate cursors by a blinded investigator. Paired sample t test and area under curve (AUC) measurements were done.The incidence of disc degeneration had a significant correlation with increasing TEPS (Trend Chi-square, P < 0.01). Only one out of 83 (1.2%) disc had either Pfirrmann Grade IV or V when the score was 4 or below when compared to 34/190 (17.9%) for scores 5-7; 41 of 72 (56.9%) for scores 8-10 and 18 of 20 (90%) for scores 11 and 12 (P < 0.001 for all groups). Pearson's correlation between TEPS and DDD was statistically significant, irrespective of the level of disc or different age groups (r value was above 0.6 and P < 0.01 for all age groups). Logistic curve fit analysis and ROC curve analysis showed that the incidence of DDD increased abruptly when the TEPS crossed six. With a progressive increase of end plate damage, five different patterns of diffusion were visualized. Pattern D and E represented totally altered diffusion pattern questioning the application of biological method of treatment in such situations. Four types of time intensity curves (TIC) were noted which helped to differentiate between healthy, aged and degenerated discs. Multiple and stepwise regression analysis indicated that pattern of disc diffusion and TEPS to be the most significant factors influencing DDD, irrespective of age. Nimodipine increased the average signal intensity for all regions-by 7.6% for VB, 8% for SCB and EPZ and 11% for CNP at all time intervals (P < 0.01 for all cases). Although the increase was high at all time intervals, the maximum increase was at 2 h for VB, SCB and EPZ; 4 h for PNP and 12 h for CNP. It was also interesting that post-nimodipine, the peak signal intensity was attained early, was higher and maintained longer compared to pre-nimodipine values. Our study has helped to establish that EP damage as a crucial event leading to structural failure thereby precipitating DDD. An EP damage score has been devised which had a good correlation to DDD and discs with a score of six and above can be considered 'at risk' for severe DDD. New data on disc diffusion patterns were obtained which may help to differentiate healthy, ageing and degenerated discs in in-vivo conditions. This is also the first study to document an increase in diffusion of human lumbar discs by oral nimodipine and poses interesting possibility of pharmacological enhancement of lumbar disc nutrition. PMID:18357472

  8. Near IR photometry of the old open clusters Berkeley 17 and Berkeley 18. Probing the age of the Galactic Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Giovanni; Vallenari, Antonella; Girardi, Léo; Richichi, Andrea

    1999-03-01

    We report on near IR (J and K bands) observations of two 8 x 8 (arcmin)(2) regions centered on the old open clusters Berkeley 17 and Berkeley 18, for which only optical photometry (in B,V and I bands) exists. J and K photometry allows us to obtain an independent estimate of cluster metallicity by means of the relationship between the spectroscopic metallicity and the Red Giant Branch (RGB) slope calibrated by Tiede et al. (1997). From the analysis of the colour magnitude diagram (CMD) and luminosity function (LF), Berkeley 17 turns out to have a metal content [Fe/H] ~ -0.35. It is 9 Gyr old, suffers from a reddening E(B-V) = 0.58 mag and has an heliocentric distance of 2.5 kpc. Berkeley 17 comes out to be substantially younger than in previous work (age ~ 13 Gyr). On the other hand Berkeley 18 is found to have solar metal abundance, and to be younger than Berkeley 17, with an age of about 4 Gyr. While we confirm Kaluzny (1997) reddening estimate, we significantly revise the distance of the cluster, which lies 4.5 kpc from the Sun. These results on two open clusters believed to be between the oldest put constraints on the age and the evolution of the Galactic Disc. The absence of clusters older than 8-9 Gyr suggests the possibility that the Galaxy underwent a star formation minimum between 13 and 10 Gyr ago. Based on observations taken at TIRGO.

  9. Automatic Detection of the Optic Disc of the Retina: A Fast Method

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, M.; Rabbani, H.; Amini, Z.; Kafieh, R.; Ommani, A.; Lakshminarayanan, V.

    2016-01-01

    Localizing the optic disc (OD) in retinal fundus images is of critical importance and many techniques have been developed for OD detection. In this paper, we present the results obtained from two fast methods, correlation and least square, to approximate the location of optic cup. These methods are simple and are not complex, while most of the OD detection algorithms are. The methods were tested on two groups of data (a total of 100 color fundus images) and were 98% successful in the detection of the optic cup. An algorithm using the vessel mask of fundus images is proposed to be run after correlation to ensure that the localization of OD in all images is successful. It was tested on 40 of the test images and had a 100% rate of success. PMID:27014613

  10. Bilateral Optic Disc Anomalies Associated with PAX2 Mutation in a Case of Potter Sequence.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Mizuki; Honda, Shigeru; Morioka, Ichiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Negi, Akira

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the ophthalmic findings in the fundus of a Japanese infant with Potter sequence having a mutation in the PAX2 gene. METHODS: A 1-month-old infant diagnosed with Potter sequence who had bilateral renal hypoplasia and a mutation in the PAX2 gene was subjected to detailed ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Funduscopy revealed a megalopapilla with marked excavation in the right eye. The left optic disc showed a similar abnormality, but to a lesser extent. B-mode ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging detected giant cystic lesions occupying the optic nerve head in both eyes. According to these results, we diagnosed this patient as having papillorenal syndrome (PRS) associated with a PAX2 mutation. CONCLUSIONS: This report shows ophthalmic findings in the youngest patient with PRS and PAX2-associated Potter sequence. Optic disc anomalies may be involved in some infants with Potter sequence. We anticipate an increase in opportunities for ophthalmic examinations in infants with diseases such as Potter sequence with previously high mortality rates. PMID:21151632

  11. Automatic Detection of Optic Disc in Retinal Image by Using Keypoint Detection, Texture Analysis, and Visual Dictionary Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bayır, Şafak

    2016-01-01

    With the advances in the computer field, methods and techniques in automatic image processing and analysis provide the opportunity to detect automatically the change and degeneration in retinal images. Localization of the optic disc is extremely important for determining the hard exudate lesions or neovascularization, which is the later phase of diabetic retinopathy, in computer aided eye disease diagnosis systems. Whereas optic disc detection is fairly an easy process in normal retinal images, detecting this region in the retinal image which is diabetic retinopathy disease may be difficult. Sometimes information related to optic disc and hard exudate information may be the same in terms of machine learning. We presented a novel approach for efficient and accurate localization of optic disc in retinal images having noise and other lesions. This approach is comprised of five main steps which are image processing, keypoint extraction, texture analysis, visual dictionary, and classifier techniques. We tested our proposed technique on 3 public datasets and obtained quantitative results. Experimental results show that an average optic disc detection accuracy of 94.38%, 95.00%, and 90.00% is achieved, respectively, on the following public datasets: DIARETDB1, DRIVE, and ROC. PMID:27110272

  12. Automatic Detection of Optic Disc in Retinal Image by Using Keypoint Detection, Texture Analysis, and Visual Dictionary Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Kemal; Şen, Baha; Bayır, Şafak

    2016-01-01

    With the advances in the computer field, methods and techniques in automatic image processing and analysis provide the opportunity to detect automatically the change and degeneration in retinal images. Localization of the optic disc is extremely important for determining the hard exudate lesions or neovascularization, which is the later phase of diabetic retinopathy, in computer aided eye disease diagnosis systems. Whereas optic disc detection is fairly an easy process in normal retinal images, detecting this region in the retinal image which is diabetic retinopathy disease may be difficult. Sometimes information related to optic disc and hard exudate information may be the same in terms of machine learning. We presented a novel approach for efficient and accurate localization of optic disc in retinal images having noise and other lesions. This approach is comprised of five main steps which are image processing, keypoint extraction, texture analysis, visual dictionary, and classifier techniques. We tested our proposed technique on 3 public datasets and obtained quantitative results. Experimental results show that an average optic disc detection accuracy of 94.38%, 95.00%, and 90.00% is achieved, respectively, on the following public datasets: DIARETDB1, DRIVE, and ROC. PMID:27110272

  13. EVALUATION OF TERMINAL VERTEBRAL PLATE ON CERVICAL SPINE AT DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH INTERVERTEBRAL DISC THICKNESS

    PubMed Central

    Luiz Vieira, Juliano Silveira; da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Nogueira Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, by means of histomorphometry, terminal vertebral plate thickness, intervertebral disc thickness and its correlation on different age groups, seeking to identify its correlation. Methods: C4-C5 and C5-C6 cervical segments removed from human cadavers of both genders were assessed and divided into five groups of 10-year age intervals, from 21 years old. TVP and intervertebral disc thickness evaluation was made by means of histomorphometry of histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosyn. Lower C4 TVP, upper C5 TVP, and upper C6 TVP de were compared between each other and to the interposed intervertebral disc thickness between relevant TVP. Results: The thickness of terminal vertebral plates adjacent to the same ID did not show statistic differences. However, the comparison of upper and lower vertebral plates thickness on the same cervical vertebra (C5), showed statistical difference on all age groups studied. We found a statistical correlation coefficient above 80% between terminal vertebral plate and adjacent intervertebral disc, with a proportional thickness reduction of both structures on the different cervical levels studied, and also on the different age groups assessed. Conclusion: Terminal vertebral plate shows a morphologic correlation with the intervertebral disc next to it, and does not show correlation with the terminal vertebral plate on the same vertebra. PMID:26998448

  14. No direct coupling between bending of galaxy disc stellar age and light profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Pérez, I.; Florido, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husemann, B.; Kehrig, C.; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Papaderos, P.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Zibetti, S.; CALIFA Team

    2016-02-01

    We study the stellar properties of 44 face-on spiral galaxies from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey via full spectrum fitting techniques. We compare the age profiles with the surface brightness distribution in order to highlight differences between profile types (type I, exponential profile; and II, down-bending profile). We observe an upturn (`U-shape') in the age profiles for 17 out of these 44 galaxies with reliable stellar information up to their outer parts. This `U-shape' is not a unique feature for type II galaxies but can be observed in type I as well. These findings suggest that the mechanisms shaping the surface brightness and stellar population distributions are not directly coupled. This upturn in age is only observable in the light-weighted profiles while it flattens out in the mass-weighted profiles. Given recent results on the outer parts of nearby systems and the results presented in this Letter, one of the most plausible explanations for the age upturn is an early formation of the entire disc (˜10 Gyr ago) followed by an inside-out quenching of the star formation.

  15. In vivo age- and sex-related creep of human lumbar motion segments and discs in pure centric tension.

    PubMed

    Kurutz, Marta

    2006-01-01

    In vivo creep of human lumbar motion segments and discs subject to pure centric tension is presented, in terms of aging, sex and disc level. Time-related elongations of segments L3-4, L4-5 and L5-S1 were measured during the usual 20 min long traction hydrotherapy of patients, by using a computerized subaqual ultrasound measuring method [Kurutz et al., 2002a. Orvosi Hetilap 143 (13), 673-684; Kurutz et al., 2003. Journal of Bioengineering and Biomechanics 5 (1), 67-92]. Elongation of segments was considered as a change of the distance between two adjacent spinous processes. Based on these experiments, in vivo creep of human lumbar FSUs was investigated in centric tension, in terms of sex, age and disc level. Three-parameter rheological models were used to determine viscoelastic tensile moduli of human lumbar FSUs and discs. From three time-related measured elongation values, in vivo damping constants with creep functions were calculated for each segment, in terms of sex, aging and disc level. It has been demonstrated that initial elastic elongations decrease, concerning stiffness increase with aging. Similarly, tensile creep elongations decrease, damping properties increase with aging. Former observations concerning the difference in deformation propagation of men and women in time, have been verified by means of creep analysis: although males have higher initial elastic deformability, due to a smaller damping of females, the deformation propagation of women overtakes men in creep process. This tendency is more significant with aging. Increasing damping was observed in distal direction, both for males and females. PMID:15925372

  16. 3D optic disc reconstruction via a global fundus stereo algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bansal, M; Sizintsev, M; Eledath, J; Sawhney, H; Pearson, D J; Stone, R A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to recover 3D structure of the optic disc in the retina from two uncalibrated fundus images. Retinal images are commonly uncalibrated when acquired clinically, creating rectification challenges as well as significant radiometric and blur differences within the stereo pair. By exploiting structural peculiarities of the retina, we modified the Graph Cuts computational stereo method (one of current state-of-the-art methods) to yield a high quality algorithm for fundus stereo reconstruction. Extensive qualitative and quantitative experimental evaluation (where OCT scans are used as 3D ground truth) on our and publicly available datasets shows the superiority of the proposed method in comparison to other alternatives. PMID:24111076

  17. Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Novel Loci Associated With Optic Disc Morphology.

    PubMed

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Mishra, Aniket; Hysi, Pirro G; Gharahkhani, Puya; Höhn, René; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Luo, Xiaoyan; Ramdas, Wishal D; Vithana, Eranga; Koh, Victor; Yazar, Seyhan; Xu, Liang; Forward, Hannah; Kearns, Lisa S; Amin, Najaf; Iglesias, Adriana I; Sim, Kar-Seng; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Demirkan, Ayse; van der Lee, Sven; Loon, Seng-Chee; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Nag, Abhishek; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Schillert, Arne; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Oostra, Ben A; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Zhou, Tiger; Burdon, Kathryn P; Spector, Timothy D; Lackner, Karl J; Saw, Seang-Mei; Vingerling, Johannes R; Teo, Yik-Ying; Pasquale, Louis R; Wolfs, Roger C W; Lemij, Hans G; Tai, E-Shyong; Jonas, Jost B; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Aung, Tin; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Klaver, Caroline C W; Craig, Jamie E; Young, Terri L; Haines, Jonathan L; MacGregor, Stuart; Mackey, David A; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wong, Tien-Yin; Wiggs, Janey L; Hewitt, Alex W; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hammond, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy and an important cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The optic nerve head or optic disc is divided in two parts: a central cup (without nerve fibers) surrounded by the neuroretinal rim (containing axons of the retinal ganglion cells). The International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies consisting of 17,248 individuals of European ancestry and 6,841 individuals of Asian ancestry. The outcomes of the genome-wide association studies were disc area and cup area. These specific measurements describe optic nerve morphology in another way than the vertical cup-disc ratio, which is a clinically used measurement, and may shed light on new glaucoma mechanisms. We identified 10 new loci associated with disc area (CDC42BPA, F5, DIRC3, RARB, ABI3BP, DCAF4L2, ELP4, TMTC2, NR2F2, and HORMAD2) and another 10 new loci associated with cup area (DHRS3, TRIB2, EFEMP1, FLNB, FAM101, DDHD1, ASB7, KPNB1, BCAS3, and TRIOBP). The new genes participate in a number of pathways and future work is likely to identify more functions related to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. PMID:25631615

  18. Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Novel Loci Associated With Optic Disc Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Mishra, Aniket; Hysi, Pirro G.; Gharahkhani, Puya; Höhn, René; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N.; Luo, Xiaoyan; Ramdas, Wishal D.; Vithana, Eranga; Koh, Victor; Yazar, Seyhan; Xu, Liang; Forward, Hannah; Kearns, Lisa S.; Amin, Najaf; Iglesias, Adriana I.; Sim, Kar-Seng; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Demirkan, Ayse; van der Lee, Sven; Loon, Seng-Chee; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Nag, Abhishek; Sanfilippo, Paul G.; Schillert, Arne; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Oostra, Ben A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zhou, Tiger; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Spector, Timothy D.; Lackner, Karl J.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Teo, Yik-Ying; Pasquale, Louis R.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Lemij, Hans G.; Tai, E-Shyong; Jonas, Jost B.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Aung, Tin; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Craig, Jamie E.; Young, Terri L.; Haines, Jonathan L.; MacGregor, Stuart; Mackey, David A.; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wong, Tien-Yin; Wiggs, Janey L.; Hewitt, Alex W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy and an important cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The optic nerve head or optic disc is divided in two parts: a central cup (without nerve fibers) surrounded by the neuroretinal rim (containing axons of the retinal ganglion cells). The International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies consisting of 17,248 individuals of European ancestry and 6,841 individuals of Asian ancestry. The outcomes of the genome-wide association studies were disc area and cup area. These specific measurements describe optic nerve morphology in another way than the vertical cup-disc ratio, which is a clinically used measurement, and may shed light on new glaucoma mechanisms. We identified 10 new loci associated with disc area (CDC42BPA, F5, DIRC3, RARB, ABI3BP, DCAF4L2, ELP4, TMTC2, NR2F2, and HORMAD2) and another 10 new loci associated with cup area (DHRS3, TRIB2, EFEMP1, FLNB, FAM101, DDHD1, ASB7, KPNB1, BCAS3, and TRIOBP). The new genes participate in a number of pathways and future work is likely to identify more functions related to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. PMID:25631615

  19. The expression of osteoprotegerin is required for maintaining the intervertebral disc endplate of aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qian-Qian; Li, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Quan; Xing, Lianping; Cheng, Shao-Dan; Ding, Dao-Fang; Xu, Le-Qin; Tang, De-Zhi; Bian, Qin; Xi, Zhi-Jie; Zhou, Chongjian; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Objective Human chondrocytes and annulus fibrosus cells of intervertebral disc (IVD) express osteoprotegerin (OPG), but the effect of OPG on the pathogenesis of IVD degeneration remains unknown. Here we assessed the phenotype change of IVD in OPG−/− mice. Methods The IVDs from 12-, 20-, and 28-week-old OPG−/− mice and WT controls were subjected to histologic analyses including TRAP staining for osteoclasts, immunostaining for OPG and type I collagen protein expression, and TUNEL staining for apoptosis. The IVD tissues were also subjected to real time RT-PCR for mRNA expression of genes for osteoblast-osterix, ALP, and osteocalcin; for osteoclasts-trap, rank, mmp9 and cathepsin K, and for chondrocytes-aggrecan, mmp13 and Col10. Results OPG protein expresses at the cells of endplate cartilage and annulus fiborsis in IVDs of WT mice. Compared to WT mice, OPG−/− mice developed aging related cartilage loss and bony tissue appearance at the endplate. Stating from 20 weeks of age, IVDs from OPG−/− mice expressed significantly increased mmp13 and Col10 levels, which is associated with increased osteoblast number and elevated expression of osteoblast marker genes. Furthermore, TRAP+ osteoclasts were presented in the endplate cartilage of OPG−/− mice. These osteoclasts localized adjacently to and erosion into the cartilage. Increased expression of RANK, mmp9 and cathepsin k was detected in OPG−/− IVDs. Conclusions OPG at IVD plays an important role for maintaining the integrity of endplate cartilage during aging by preventing endplate cartilage from osteoclast-mediated resorption. PMID:21466864

  20. Laser-Induced Forward Transfer-printing of focused ion beam pre-machined crystalline magneto-optic yttrium iron garnet micro-discs.

    PubMed

    Sones, C L; Feinaeugle, M; Sposito, A; Gholipour, B; Eason, R W

    2012-07-01

    We present femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer of focused ion beam pre-machined discs of crystalline magneto-optic yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films. Debris-free circular micro-discs with smooth edges and surface uniformity have been successfully printed. The crystalline nature of the printed micro-discs has not been altered by the LIFT printing process, as was confirmed via micro-Raman measurements. PMID:22772215

  1. Structural and optical properties of disc-in-wire InGaN/GaN LEDs.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lifan; Jahangir, Shafat; Wight, Scott A; Nikoobakht, Babak; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Millunchick, Joanna M

    2015-03-11

    This study examines the role of the microstructure and optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanowire LED structures on Si(111) having different nanowire coverages. Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements show that all samples exhibit broad emission around the intended energy, 1.95 eV (635 nm). While the absolute emission intensity is hard to compare for CL measurement, the bandgap emission (∼3.4 eV) coming from the GaN root is more pronounced as coverage of nanowires decreases, which has less coalescence formation. The width of the emission peak is likely due to variations in the morphology of the InGaN discs within the wires, as faceted layers with different thicknesses and quantum dots are observed by transmission electron microscopy. Nonepitaxial six-fold symmetric lateral branching, called "nanocrowns," emanate from stacking faults within the active regions. These features likely reduce optical emission as a result of grain boundaries between the nanocrown and nanowire. PMID:25658444

  2. Optical methods for diagnostics and feedback control in laser-induced regeneration of spine disc and joint cartilages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, Emil; Sviridov, Alexander; Omeltchenko, Alexander; Baum, Olga; Baskov, Andrey; Borchshenko, Igor; Golubev, Vladimir; Baskov, Vladimir

    2011-03-01

    In 1999 we have introduced a new approach for treatment of spine diseases based on the mechanical effect of nondestructive laser radiation on the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. Laser reconstruction of spine discs (LRD) involves puncture of the disc and non-destructive laser irradiation of the nucleus pulposus to activate reparative processes in the disc tissues. In vivo animal study has shown that LRD allows activate the growth of hyaline type cartilage in laser affected zone. The paper considers physical processes and mechanisms of laser regeneration, presents results of investigations aimed to optimize laser settings and to develop feedback control system for laser reparation in cartilages of spine and joints. The results of laser reconstruction of intervertebral discs for 510 patients have shown substantial relief of back pain for 90% of patients. Laser technology has been experimentally tested for reparation of traumatic and degenerative diseases in joint cartilage of 20 minipigs. It is shown that laser regeneration of cartilage allows feeling large (more than 5 mm) defects which usually never repair on one's own. Optical techniques have been used to promote safety and efficacy of the laser procedures.

  3. Optical Spectroscopic Monitoring of Parachute Yarn Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Tallant, D.R.; Garcia, M.J.; Simpson, R.L.; Behr, V.L.; Whinery, L.D.; Peng, L.W.

    1999-04-01

    Optical spectroscopic techniques were evaluated as nondestructive monitors of the aging of parachutes in nuclear weapons. We analyzed thermally aged samples of nylon and Kevlar webbing by photoluminescence spectroscopy and reflection spectroscopy. Infrared analysis was also performed to help understand the degradation mechanisms of the polymer materials in the webbing. The photoluminescence and reflection spectra were analyzed by chemometric data treatment techniques to see if aged-induced changes in the spectra correlated to changes in measured tensile strength. A correlation was found between the shapes of the photoluminescent bands and the measured tensile strengths. Photoluminescent spectra can be used to predict the tensile strengths of nylon and Kevlar webbing with sufficient accuracy to categorize the webbing sample as above rated tensile strength, marginal or below rated tensile strength. The instrumentation required to perform the optical spectroscopic measurement can be made rugged, compact and portable. Thus, optical spectroscopic techniques offer a means for nondestructive field monitoring of parachutes in the enduring stockpile/

  4. Association of retinal thickness and optic disc-to-fovea angle to axial length of young healthy eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Takehiro; Sakamoto, Taiji; Terasaki, Hiroto; Tanaka, Minoru; Kii, Yuya; Uchino, Eisuke; Hisatomi, Toshio; Nakao, Kumiko

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the relationship between the axial length (AL) and the retinal thickness in the posterior pole and to the optic disc-to-fovea (ODF) angle of healthy eyes. Procedures A prospective, observational cross-sectional study (registration number, UMIN000006040) of 64 healthy right eyes (mean age 26.0±4.5 years) was performed. The thickness of the 64 areas within the central 24° area were measured in the Spectralis spectral domain–optical coherent tomographic images obtained by posterior pole scans. Each area was 3°×3°. The ODF angle was measured in each fundus photograph. The relationships between the AL and the retinal thickness of each of the 64 areas and the ODF angle were investigated by linear regression analyses. Results The mean AL was 25.0±1.3 mm and the mean ODF angle was 17.2°±1.0°. The average retinal thickness of the four areas around the fovea was constant and not significantly correlated with the AL. However, the retinal thicknesses of 54 of the other 60 areas were significantly and negatively correlated with the AL (R=−0.25 to −0.56, P<0.05). The ODF angle was also constant and not significantly correlated with the AL (R=−0.17, P=0.19). Conclusion The lack of significant correlations between the AL and the retinal thicknesses of the central 6° or the ODF angle suggests that there might be some feedback system to keep the central retinal thickness and ODF angle constant regardless of an elongation of the AL. PMID:26664037

  5. Autologous platelet concentrate in surgery for macular detachment associated with congenital optic disc pit

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Jeroni; Figueroa, Marta S; Carreras, Elisa; Pujol, Patricia; Canut, Maria Isabel; Barraquer, Rafael Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the anatomical and functional results obtained with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) plus autologous platelet concentrate (APC) as a treatment for macular detachment associated with optic disc pit (ODP). Methods We performed a prospective interventional study of 19 eyes of 19 consecutive patients with posterior macular detachment due to ODP. All patients underwent PPV, posterior hyaloid peeling, fluid–air exchange, injection of 0.05 mL of APC over the ODP and 15% perfluoropropane (C3F8) endotamponade. Postoperative measures included face-up positioning for 2 hours and then avoidance of the face-up position during the ensuing 10 days. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography preoperatively at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months postoperatively and then annually. Outcome measures were best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) by logMAR, improvement of quality of vision, macular attachment, and resolution of intraretinal schisis-like separation. Results Preoperatively, the median BCVA was 0.70 (range: 0.30–1.70) and all patients showed improved visual acuity after surgery; BCVA was 0.22 (range: 0.07–0.52) at 12 months follow-up. All patients showed complete reabsorption of intraretinal fluid (median time: 3.5 months [range: 2–8 months]) and macular attachment at the end of follow-up (median: 60 months [range: 12–144 months]), with stable or improved visual acuity. No reoperations were needed and no major adverse events were recorded. Conclusion For macular detachment associated with ODP, the combination of PPV, posterior hyaloid peeling, APC, and C3F8 tamponade is a highly effective alternative technique with stable anatomical and functional results. PMID:26543348

  6. New Edge-Shift Detection Method for Write Strategy Optimization in High-Density Optical Disc Recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Takahiro; Minemura, Hiroyuki; Kikukawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    2011-09-01

    We propose a sophisticated edge-shift detection method based on the partial response maximum likelihood technology for high-density optical disc recordings. One of the major features is the capability of detecting the edge shifts of short marks that cannot be optically resolved. Another feature is that measured values are not affected by the signal-to-noise ratio in a readout signal. This ensures drive compatibility. Furthermore, the edge-shift values are sorted and evaluated corresponding to the write pulse control parameters for simplifying write strategy optimization. These features make write strategy optimization possible under an areal recording density of over 30 Gbyte/layer.

  7. Circumpapillary course of retinal pigment epithelium can be fit to sine wave and amplitude of sine wave is significantly correlated with ovality ratio of optic disc.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takehiro; Sakamoto, Taiji; Yoshihara, Naoya; Terasaki, Hiroto; Kii, Yuya; Tanaka, Minoru; Nakao, Kumiko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of quantifying the degree of optic disc tilt in normal eyes. This was a prospective, observational cross sectional study of 126 right eyes of 126 healthy volunteers. The optic disc tilt was determined from the circular peripapillary optical coherence tomographic (OCT) scan images. The course of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer in the peripapillary cross sectional scan images was fit to a sine wave curve, and the amplitude of the sine curve was used to reflect the degree of the optic disc tilt in the optical axis. The repeatability of the amplitude determinations was calculated. The correlation between the amplitude and the ovality ratio of the optic disc was determined. The correlation between the amplitude and the body height was also calculated. The mean amplitude was 36.6 ± 17.5 pixels, which was significantly and inversely correlated with the ovality ratio of the optic disc (R = -0.59, P < 0.001). The intra-rater and inter-rater correlation coefficients of the amplitude were significant high (P < 0.001, both). The amplitude was significantly and inversely correlated with the body height (R = -0.38, P < 0.001), but not with the axial length. In conclusion, a sine wave function can be used to describe the course of the RPE in the circumpapillary OCT images. The results indicate that the amplitude of the sine wave can be used to represent the degree of optic disc tilt. Thus, the sine wave analyses can be used as a quantifiable and repeatable method to determine the optic disc tilt. PMID:25848777

  8. Minimal invasive localization of the germinal disc in ovo for subsequent chicken sexing using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Anke; Geissler, Stefan; Cimalla, Peter; Walther, Julia; Koch, Edmund

    2010-02-01

    Reason for using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to locate the germinal disc is the questionable and ethically alarming killing of male layer chickens because for the layer line only the females are necessary. To avoid this and to protect the animal rights, the sex of the fertilized chicken egg has to be determined as early as possible in the unincubated state. Because the information whether the chick becomes male or female can be found in the germinal disc an accurate localization for sexing is essential. The germinal disc is located somewhere on top of the yolk and has a diameter of approximately 4 - 5 mm. Different imaging methods like ultrasonography, 3D-X-ray micro computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used for localization until now, but found to be impractical. The goal of this study is to prove if OCT can be a moderate approach for the precise in ovo localization. Because the eggshell is an impenetrable barrier for OCT and to minimize the penetration of germs a very small hole is placed in the eggshell and a fan-shaped optical scanning pattern is used.

  9. Central Retinal Venous Pressure in Eyes of Normal-Tension Glaucoma Patients with Optic Disc Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ko Eun; Kim, Dong Myung; Flammer, Josef; Kim, Kyoung Nam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare central retinal venous pressure (CRVP) among eyes with and without optic disc hemorrhage (ODH) in bilateral normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients and NTG eyes without an episode of ODH. Methods In this prospective study, 22 bilateral NTG patients showing a unilateral ODH and 29 bilateral NTG patients without an episode of ODH were included. Eyes were categorized into group A (n = 22, eyes with ODH), group B (n = 22, fellow eyes without ODH), and group C (n = 29, NTG eyes without an episode of ODH). A contact lens ophthalmodynamometer was used to measure CRVP and central retinal arterial pressure (CRAP). Results Intraocular pressure (IOP) measured on the day of contact lens ophthalmodynamometry showed no difference among groups. However, the mean baseline IOP in group A was significantly lower than that in group C (P = .008). The CRVP in group A (29.1 ± 10.8 mmHg) was significantly lower than that in group C (40.1 ± 8.8 mmHg, P = .001), but similar to that in group B (30.5 ± 8.7 mmHg, P = .409). A similar relationship was noted for CRAP. No significant eye-associated variable for ODH was found in group A and B by conditional logistic regression analysis (all P > 0.05). However, multivariate logistic regression analysis in groups A and C revealed that low mean baseline IOP (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.98, P = 0.043) and low CRVP (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.95, P = 0.003) were associated with ODH. Conclusions CRVP was lower in NTG eyes with ODH than in eyes without an episode of ODH, but similar to that of fellow eyes without ODH. These imply less likelihood of association between increased central retinal venous resistance and ODH. PMID:25996599

  10. Detection of the optic disc in fundus images by combining probability models.

    PubMed

    Harangi, Balazs; Hajdu, Andras

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a combination method for the automatic detection of the optic disc (OD) in fundus images based on ensembles of individual algorithms. We have studied and adapted some of the state-of-the-art OD detectors and finally organized them into a complex framework in order to maximize the accuracy of the localization of the OD. The detection of the OD can be considered as a single-object detection problem. This object can be localized with high accuracy by several algorithms extracting single candidates for the center of the OD and the final location can be defined using a single majority voting rule. To include more information to support the final decision, we can use member algorithms providing more candidates which can be ranked based on the confidence ordered by the algorithms. In this case, a spatial weighted graph is defined where the candidates are considered as its nodes, and the final OD position is determined in terms of finding a maximum-weighted clique. Now, we examine how to apply in our ensemble-based framework all the accessible information supplied by the member algorithms by making them return confidence values for each image pixel. These confidence values inform us about the probability that a given pixel is the center point of the object. We apply axiomatic and Bayesian approaches, as in the case of aggregation of judgments of experts in decision and risk analysis, to combine these confidence values. According to our experimental study, the accuracy of the localization of OD increases further. Besides single localization, this approach can be adapted for the precise detection of the boundary of the OD. Comparative experimental results are also given for several publicly available datasets. PMID:26259029

  11. Uveal melanomas near the optic disc or fovea. Visual results after proton beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Seddon, J.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Egan, K.M.; Glynn, R.J.; Munzenrider, J.E.; Austin-Seymour, M.; Goitein, M.; Verhey, L.; Urie, M.; Koehler, A.

    1987-04-01

    Proximity to the disc and fovea is a risk factor for visual loss after proton beam irradiation of uveal melanomas. Of 562 eyes treated over a 10-year period with pretreatment visual acuity of 20/200 or better, 363 (64.6%) contained tumors within 2 disc diameters (DD) of the disc or fovea. Rates of visual loss after treatment to worse than 20/200 and causes of visual decline were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cumulative rates of visual loss among subjects with tumors near the disc or fovea were 33 and 47% 1 and 2 years after treatment compared to 17 and 28%, respectively, for subjects with tumors located farther from both structures. The leading cause of visual loss in the first year among eyes with tumors near the disc or fovea was retinal detachment. Controlling for other predictors of visual loss to worse than 20/200, location near the disc or fovea was independently related to visual loss primarily due to retinal detachment, cataract, and radiation retinopathy. Despite the unfavorable location of these tumors, over half of patients with 20/200 or better pretreatment visual acuity had useful vision 2 years after treatment.

  12. Quantification of Optic Disc Edema during Exposure to High Altitude Shows No Correlation to Acute Mountain Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Willmann, Gabriel; Fischer, M. Dominik; Schatz, Andreas; Schommer, Kai; Messias, Andre; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Background The study aimed to quantify changes of the optic nerve head (ONH) during exposure to high altitude and to assess a correlation with acute mountain sickness (AMS). This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methodology/Principal Findings A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT3®) was used to quantify changes at the ONH in 18 healthy participants before, during and after rapid ascent to high altitude (4559 m). Slitlamp biomicroscopy was used for clinical optic disc evaluation; AMS was assessed with Lake Louise (LL) and AMS-cerebral (AMS-c) scores; oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) were monitored. These parameters were used to correlate with changes at the ONH. After the first night spent at high altitude, incidence of AMS was 55% and presence of clinical optic disc edema (ODE) 79%. Key stereometric parameters of the HRT3® used to describe ODE (mean retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL] thickness, RNFL cross sectional area, optic disc rim volume and maximum contour elevation) changed significantly at high altitude compared to baseline (p<0.05) and were consistent with clinically described ODE. All changes were reversible in all participants after descent. There was no significant correlation between parameters of ODE and AMS, SpO2 or HR. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to high altitude leads to reversible ODE in the majority of healthy subjects. However, these changes did not correlate with AMS or basic physiologic parameters such as SpO2 and HR. For the first time, a quantitative approach has been used to assess these changes during acute, non-acclimatized high altitude exposure. In conclusion, ODE presents a reaction of the body to high altitude exposure unrelated to AMS. PMID:22069483

  13. Anti-Bacterial effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) determined by Disc Diffusion Method against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Saha, S K; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Gomes, R R; Imtiaz, M; Islam, M M; Nahar, H; Begum, S A; Mirza, T T

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to determine the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) against standard strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Antibacterial effect of AGE was determined by disc diffusion method. Sensitivity of AGE determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 4mm, 10mm and 20mm at 25μg/10μl, 50μg/10μl and 100μg/10μl concentrations respectively. From the findings it is clearly determined the extract has definite antibacterial effect upon Escherichia coli. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract as well as detail steps of mechanism responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account. PMID:26931244

  14. Characterization of the optic disc in retinal imagery using a probabilistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth W., Jr.; Chaum, Edward; Govindasamy, V. P.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Sezer, Omer

    2006-03-01

    The application of computer based image analysis to the diagnosis of retinal disease is rapidly becoming a reality due to the broad-based acceptance of electronic imaging devices throughout the medical community and through the collection and accumulation of large patient histories in picture archiving and communications systems. Advances in the imaging of ocular anatomy and pathology can now provide data to diagnose and quantify specific diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). Visual disability and blindness have a profound socioeconomic impact upon the diabetic population and DR is the leading cause of new blindness in working-age adults in the industrialized world. To reduce the impact of diabetes on vision loss, robust automation is required to achieve productive computer-based screening of large at-risk populations at lower cost. Through this research we are developing automation methods for locating and characterizing important structures in the human retina such as the vascular arcades, optic nerve, macula, and lesions. In this paper we present results for the automatic detection of the optic nerve using digital red-free fundus photography. Our method relies on the accurate segmentation of the vasculature of the retina along with spatial probability distributions describing the luminance across the retina and the density, average thickness, and average orientation of the vasculature in relation to the position of the optic nerve. With these features and other prior knowledge, we predict the location of the optic nerve in the retina using a two-class, Bayesian classifier. We report 81% detection performance on a broad range of red-free fundus images representing a population of over 345 patients with 19 different pathologies associated with DR.

  15. Image processing based automatic diagnosis of glaucoma using wavelet features of segmented optic disc from fundus image.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore; ParthaSarathi, M; Uher, Vaclav; Burget, Radim

    2016-02-01

    Glaucoma is a disease of the retina which is one of the most common causes of permanent blindness worldwide. This paper presents an automatic image processing based method for glaucoma diagnosis from the digital fundus image. In this paper wavelet feature extraction has been followed by optimized genetic feature selection combined with several learning algorithms and various parameter settings. Unlike the existing research works where the features are considered from the complete fundus or a sub image of the fundus, this work is based on feature extraction from the segmented and blood vessel removed optic disc to improve the accuracy of identification. The experimental results presented in this paper indicate that the wavelet features of the segmented optic disc image are clinically more significant in comparison to features of the whole or sub fundus image in the detection of glaucoma from fundus image. Accuracy of glaucoma identification achieved in this work is 94.7% and a comparison with existing methods of glaucoma detection from fundus image indicates that the proposed approach has improved accuracy of classification. PMID:26574297

  16. Transient accretion disc-like envelope in the symbiotic binary BF Cygni during its 2006-2015 optical outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, N. A.; Tomova, M. T.; Bisikalo, D. V.

    2015-09-01

    The optical light of the symbiotic binary BF Cyg during its last eruption after 2006 shows orbital variations because of an eclipse of the outbursting compact object. The first orbital minimum is deeper than the following ones. Moreover, the Balmer profiles of this system acquired additional satellite components indicating a bipolar collimated outflow at one time between the first and second orbital minima. This behaviour is interpreted in the framework of the model of a collimated stellar wind from the outbursting object. It is supposed that one extended disc-like envelope covering the accretion disc of the compact object and collimating its stellar wind forms in the period between the first and second minima. The uneclipsed part of this envelope is responsible for the decrease of the depth of the orbital minimum. The calculated U BVR_{ C}I_{ C} fluxes of this uneclipsed part are in agreement with the observed residual of the depths of the first and second orbital minima. The parameters of the envelope require that it is the main emitting region of the line Hα but the Hα profile is less determined from its rotation and mostly from other mechanisms. It is concluded that the envelope is a transient nebular region and its destruction determines the increase of the depth of the orbital minimum with fading of the optical light.

  17. A novel collinear optical system with annulus mirrors for holographic disc driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye

    2008-12-01

    This paper focus on a novel collinear lens system with annulus mirrors for holographic disc driver, both information beam and reference beam are use same laser beam. The expanded and parallel laser beam, center part of it as the information beam then through Fourier transform lens, the beam around center part as a reference beam. On this axis, the ring reference beam reflected by two annulus shaped mirrors, then became a convergent beam, together with the information beam which through the first Fourier transform lens then produce holographic pattern to be write into the holographic disc behind of them, this lens system with two mirrors made the angle between information beam and reference beam more wide, can improved the multiplex level of holographic storage. Pair of Fourier transform lens with advance performance is designed in this paper.

  18. Heterozygous triplication of upstream regulatory sequences leads to dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 19 in patients with cavitary optic disc anomaly.

    PubMed

    Hazlewood, Ralph J; Roos, Benjamin R; Solivan-Timpe, Frances; Honkanen, Robert A; Jampol, Lee M; Gieser, Stephen C; Meyer, Kacie J; Mullins, Robert F; Kuehn, Markus H; Scheetz, Todd E; Kwon, Young H; Alward, Wallace L M; Stone, Edwin M; Fingert, John H

    2015-03-01

    Patients with a congenital optic nerve disease, cavitary optic disc anomaly (CODA), are born with profound excavation of the optic nerve resembling glaucoma. We previously mapped the gene that causes autosomal-dominant CODA in a large pedigree to a chromosome 12q locus. Using comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative PCR analysis of this pedigree, we report identifying a 6-Kbp heterozygous triplication upstream of the matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19) gene, present in all 17 affected family members and no normal members. Moreover, the triplication was not detected in 78 control subjects or in the Database of Genomic Variants. We further detected the same 6-Kbp triplication in one of 24 unrelated CODA patients and in none of 172 glaucoma patients. Analysis with a Luciferase assay showed that the 6-Kbp sequence has transcription enhancer activity. A 773-bp fragment of the 6-Kbp DNA segment increased downstream gene expression eightfold, suggesting that triplication of this sequence may lead to dysregulation of the downstream gene, MMP19, in CODA patients. Lastly, immunohistochemical analysis of human donor eyes revealed strong expression of MMP19 in optic nerve head. These data strongly suggest that triplication of an enhancer may lead to overexpression of MMP19 in the optic nerve that causes CODA. PMID:25581579

  19. The origin of UV-optical variability in AGN and test of disc models: XMM-Newton and ground-based observations of NGC 4395

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHardy, I. M.; Connolly, S. D.; Peterson, B. M.; Bieryla, A.; Chand, H.; Elvis, M. S.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Falco, E.; Gandhi, P.; Kaspi, S.; Latham, D.; Lira, P.; McCully, C.; Netzer, H.; Uemura, M.

    2016-05-01

    The origin of short timescale (weeks/months) variability of AGN, whether due to intrinsic disc variations or reprocessing of X-ray emission by a surrounding accretion disc, has been a puzzle for many years. However recently a number of observational programmes, particularly of NGC 5548 with Swift, have shown that the UV/optical variations lag behind the X-ray variations in a manner strongly supportive of X-ray reprocessing. Somewhat surprisingly, the implied size of the accretion disc is ∼3 times greater than expected from a standard, smooth, Shakura-Sunyaev thin disc model. Although the difference may be explained by a clumpy accretion disc, it is not clear whether the difference will occur in all AGN or whether it may change as, eg, a function of black hole mass, accretion rate, or disc temperature. Measurements of interband lags for most AGN require long timescale monitoring, which is hard to arrange. However for low mass (< 106 M⊙) AGN, the combination of XMM-Newton EPIC (X-rays) with the optical monitor in fast readout mode allows an X-ray/UV-optical lag to be measured within a single long observation. Here we summarise previous related observations and report on XMM-Newton observations of NGC 4395 (mass 100 times lower, accretion rate ∼20 times lower than for NGC 5548). We find that the UVW1 lags the X-rays by ∼ 470 s. Simultaneous observations at 6 different ground based observatories also allowed the g-band lag (∼ 800s) to be measured. These observations are in agreement with X-ray reprocessing but initial analysis suggests that, for NGC 4395, they do not differ markedly from the predictions of the standard thin disc model.

  20. Age-sensitivity of time-related in vivo deformability of human lumbar motion segments and discs in pure centric tension.

    PubMed

    Kurutz, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document the effect of aging, sex and disc level on time-dependent in vivo tensile deformability of human lumbar-lumbosacral motion segments and discs in pure centric tension, when the contracting effect of muscles can be neglected. Elongations of segments L3-L4, L4-L5 and L5-S1 were measured during the usual suspension hydrotraction therapy of patients, by using a subaqual ultrasound measuring method reported in (Kurutz et al., 2002a, 2003). Patients were suspended cervically in lukewarm water for 20 min, loaded by 20-20 N lead weights on ankles. The mean initial elastic elongations (strains) of segments or discs were about 0.8 mm (10%) for patients under 40 years; 0.5 mm (6%) between 40-60 years; and 0.2 mm (3%) over 60 years. The mean final viscoelastic elongations were 1.5 mm (18%) under 40 years; 1.2 mm (15%) between 40-60 years; and 0.6 mm (7%) over 60 years. In the beginning/end of the treatment, patients of extended segments were on average 6/8 years younger than those with unextended ones. Based on the in vivo measured elongations, initial tensile stiffness was obtained in terms of aging, sex and disc level. For the above age-classes, the approximate mean tensile stiffness of less/more degenerated lumbar FSUs or discs were about 600/800, 800/1000 and 1800/2800 N/mm, respectively. A new terminology, the so-called age-sensitivity has been introduced as a value of 0.01-0.04 mm/year elongation capacity decrease per a year of aging, after the age of 35. No significant difference was found between sexes regarding age-dependence in tension. PMID:16271599

  1. Retinal Nerve Fiber and Optic Disc Morphology in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Using the Heidelberg Retina Tomography 3

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Kozak, Igor; Grant, Igor; Knudsen, Victoria L.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Lee, Byung Ro; Freeman, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To use novel confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy technology to test hypothesis that HIV-seropositive patients without history of retinitis with a history of a low CD4 count are more likely to have damage to their retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) when compared to patients with high CD4 count. In addition, we compared optic disc morphologic changes with glaucoma. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants and Controls 171 patients were divided into four groups. The control group consisted of 40 eyes of 20 HIV-seronegative patients. The second group consisted of 80 eyes of 41 HIV-positive patients whose CD4 cell count never dropped below 100 (1.0 x 109/L). The third group consisted of 44 eyes of 26 HIV-positive patients with a history of low CD4 counts <100. Fourth group consisted of 79 eyes of 79 patients with confirmed glaucoma who served as positive controls. Testing Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy was performed with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT3) and data were analyzed with HRT3, software (Heyex version 1.5.10.0). Main Outcome Measures Disc area, cup area, cup volume, rim volume, mean cup depth, maximum cup depth, cup-to-disc ration, mean RNFL thickness, and RNFL cross-sectional area. Results Analysis of the global optic nerve and cup parameters showed no difference in disk area among the four groups. There was also no difference in cup, rim volume, mean cup depth, or maximum cup depth among the first three groups but they were all different from glaucoma group. The RNFL was thinner in glaucoma and both HIV-positive groups compared to HIV-seronegative subjects. The cross sectional RNFL area was thinner in both high and low CD4 HIV-positive groups compared to HIV-seronegative group in the nasal and temporal/inferior sectors, respectively. Glaucoma group showed thinning in all sectors. Conclusions HIV retinopathy results in retinal nerve fiber layer loss without structural optic nerve supportive tissue change. RNFL damage may occur early in HIV disease by mechanism different than in glaucoma. PMID:26258547

  2. Study of Interpolated Timing Recovery Phase-Locked Loop with Linearly Constrained Adaptive Prefilter for Higher-Density Optical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yoshiyuki; Shiraishi, Junya; Kobayashi, Shoei; Yamagami, Tamotsu

    2009-03-01

    A digital phase-locked loop (PLL) with a linearly constrained adaptive filter (LCAF) has been studied for higher-linear-density optical discs. LCAF has been implemented before an interpolated timing recovery (ITR) PLL unit in order to improve the quality of phase error calculation by using an adaptively equalized partial response (PR) signal. Coefficient update of an asynchronous sampled adaptive FIR filter with a least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm has been constrained by a projection matrix in order to suppress the phase shift of the tap coefficients of the adaptive filter. We have developed projection matrices that are suitable for Blu-ray disc (BD) drive systems by numerical simulation. Results have shown the properties of the projection matrices. Then, we have designed the read channel system of the ITR PLL with an LCAF model on the FPGA board for experiments. Results have shown that the LCAF improves the tilt margins of 30 gigabytes (GB) recordable BD (BD-R) and 33 GB BD read-only memory (BD-ROM) with a sufficient LMS adaptation stability.

  3. Age-related accumulation of pentosidine in aggrecan and collagen from normal and degenerate human intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Sarit Sara; Tsitron, Eve; Wachtel, Ellen; Roughley, Peter; Sakkee, Nico; van der Ham, Frits; Degroot, Jeroen; Maroudas, Alice

    2006-10-01

    During aging and degeneration, many changes occur in the structure and composition of human cartilaginous tissues, which include the accumulation of the AGE (advanced glycation end-product), pentosidine, in long-lived proteins. In the present study, we investigated the accumulation of pentosidine in constituents of the human IVD (intervertebral disc), i.e. collagen, aggrecan-derived PG (proteoglycan) (A1) and its fractions (A1D1-A1D6) in health and pathology. We found that, after maturity, pentosidine accumulates with age. Over the age range studied, a linear 6-fold increase was observed in pentosidine accumulation for A1 and collagen with respective rates of 0.12 and 0.66 nmol x (g of protein)(-1) x year(-1). Using previously reported protein turnover rate constants (k(T)) obtained from measurements of the D-isomer of aspartic residue in collagen and aggrecan of human IVD, we could calculate the pentosidine formation rate constants (k(F)) for these constituents [Sivan, Tsitron, Wachtel, Roughley, Sakkee, van der Ham, DeGroot, Roberts and Maroudas (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 13009-13014; Tsitron (2006) MSc Thesis, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel]. In spite of the comparable formation rate constants obtained for A1D1 and collagen [1.81+/-0.25 compared with 3.71+/-0.26 micromol of pentosidine x (mol of lysine)(-1) x year(-1) respectively], the higher pentosidine accumulation in collagen is consistent with its slower turnover (0.005 year(-1) compared with 0.134 year(-1) for A1D1). Pentosidine accumulation increased with decreasing buoyant density and decreasing turnover of the proteins from the most glycosaminoglycan-rich PG components (A1D1) to the least (A1D6), with respective k(F) values of 1.81+/-0.25 and 3.18+/-0.37 micromol of pentosidine.(mol of lysine)(-1) x year(-1). We concluded that protein turnover is an important determinant of pentosidine accumulation in aggrecan and collagen of human IVD, as was found for articular cartilage. Correlation of pentosidine accumulation with protein half-life in both normal and degenerate discs further supports this finding. PMID:16787390

  4. Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Abràmoff, Michael D; Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Wang, Jui-Kai; Kwon, Young H; Garvin, Mona K

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a multimodal approach is proposed to use the complementary information from fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes in order to segment the optic disc and cup boundaries. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem where the optimal solution is obtained using a machine-learning theoretical graph-based method. In particular, first the fundus photograph is registered to the 2D projection of the SD-OCT volume. Three in-region cost functions are designed using a random forest classifier corresponding to three regions of cup, rim, and background. Next, the volumes are resampled to create radial scans in which the Bruch's Membrane Opening (BMO) endpoints are easier to detect. Similar to in-region cost function design, the disc-boundary cost function is designed using a random forest classifier for which the features are created by applying the Haar Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) to the radial projection image. A multisurface graph-based approach utilizes the in-region and disc-boundary cost images to segment the boundaries of optic disc and cup under feasibility constraints. The approach is evaluated on 25 multimodal image pairs from 25 subjects in a leave-one-out fashion (by subject). The performances of the graph-theoretic approach using three sets of cost functions are compared: 1) using unimodal (OCT only) in-region costs, 2) using multimodal in-region costs, and 3) using multimodal in-region and disc-boundary costs. Results show that the multimodal approaches outperform the unimodal approach in segmenting the optic disc and cup. PMID:25781623

  5. Chemical evolution of the Galactic bulge as traced by microlensed dwarf and subgiant stars. II. Ages, metallicities, detailed elemental abundances, and connections to the Galactic thick disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.; Johnson, J. A.; Gould, A.; Adn, D.; Asplund, M.; Melndez, J.; Gal-Yam, A.; Lucatello, S.; Sana, H.; Sumi, T.; Miyake, N.; Suzuki, D.; Han, C.; Bond, I.; Udalski, A.

    2010-03-01

    Context. The Bulge is the least understood major stellar population of the Milky Way. Most of what we know about the formation and evolution of the Bulge comes from bright giant stars. The underlying assumption that giants represent all the stars, and accurately trace the chemical evolution of a stellar population, is under debate. In particular, recent observations of a few microlensed dwarf stars give a very different picture of the evolution of the Bulge from that given by the giant stars. Aims: We aim to resolve the apparent discrepancy between Bulge metallicity distributions derived from microlensed dwarf stars and giant stars. Additionally, we aim to put observational constraints on the elemental abundance trends and chemical evolution of the Bulge. Methods: We perform a detailed elemental abundance analysis of dwarf stars in the Galactic bulge, based on high-resolution spectra that were obtained while the stars were optically magnified during gravitational microlensing events. The analysis method is the same as for a large sample of F and G dwarf stars in the Solar neighbourhood, enabling a fully differential comparison between the Bulge and the local stellar populations in the Galactic disc. Results: We present detailed elemental abundances and stellar ages for six new dwarf stars in the Galactic bulge. Combining these with previous events, here re-analysed with the same methods, we study a homogeneous sample of 15 stars, which constitute the largest sample to date of microlensed dwarf stars in the Galactic bulge. We find that the stars span the full range of metallicities from [Fe/H] = -0.72 to +0.54, and an average metallicity of < [Fe/H]> = -0.08 0.47, close to the average metallicity based on giant stars in the Bulge. Furthermore, the stars follow well-defined abundance trends, that for [Fe/H]<0 are very similar to those of the local Galactic thick disc. This suggests that the Bulge and the thick disc have had, at least partially, comparable chemical histories. At sub-solar metallicities we find the Bulge dwarf stars to have consistently old ages, while at super-solar metallicities we find a wide range of ages. Using the new age and abundance results from the microlensed dwarf stars we investigate possible formation scenarios for the Bulge. Based on observations made with the European Southern Observatory telescopes, Program IDs 082.B-0453 and 083.B-0265.Table 5 is also available in electronic form at the CDS and full Table 4 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/512/A41

  6. Design, Installation and Post-Implementation Assessment of an Optical Disc Based Storage and Retrieval System for Images of Engineering Contract Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, J. H.; Masters, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an image storage system for contract documentation in the Engineering Directorate of Thames Water Utilities (England) which uses optical disc storage and a relational database for indexing and retrieval of nearly 500,000 pages in compressed image format, and provides end user access through 7 workstations. Requirements, feasibility

  7. The Coming of Age of Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    How Ground-Based Astronomers Beat the Atmosphere Adaptive Optics (AO) is the new ``wonder-weapon'' in ground-based astronomy. By means of advanced electro-optical devices at their telescopes, astronomers are now able to ``neutralize'' the image-smearing turbulence of the terrestrial atmosphere (seen by the unaided eye as the twinkling of stars) so that much sharper images can be obtained than before. In practice, this is done with computer-controlled, flexible mirrors which refocus the blurred images up to 100 times per second, i.e. at a rate that is faster than the changes in the atmospheric turbulence. This means that finer details in astronomical objects can be studied and also - because of the improved concentration of light in the telescope's focal plane - that fainter objects can be observed. At the moment, Adaptive Optics work best in the infrared part of spectrum, but at some later time it may also significantly improve observations at the shorter wavelengths of visible light. The many-sided aspects of this new technology and its impact on astronomical instrumentation was the subject of a recent AO conference [1] with over 150 participants from about 30 countries, presenting a total of more than 100 papers. The Introduction of AO Techniques into Astronomy The scope of this meeting was the design, fabrication and testing of AO systems, characterisation of the sources of atmospheric disturbance, modelling of compensation systems, individual components, astronomical AO results, non-astronomical applications, laser guide star systems, non-linear optical phase conjugation, performance evaluation, and other areas of this wide and complex field, in which front-line science and high technology come together in a new and powerful symbiosis. One of the specific goals of the meeting was to develop contacts between AO scientists and engineers in the western world and their colleagues in Russia and Asia. For the first time at a conference of this type, nine Russian scientists were invited to give presentations; this was made possible by a grant from the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD) Following the declassification of much AO technology and the introduction of AO into regular astronomical research several years ago, first at ESO with the ``Come-On'' system at La Silla [2], the fundamental importance of AO to ground-based astronomy has now become widely recognised. Since the last AO meeting that was held in Garching in August 1993, many groups in different countries have been developing such systems and have begun to use them. As Fritz Merkle (Carl Zeiss, Jena) emphasized during a review talk, there has also been an interesting opening of new commercial and industrial AO applications, such as for high power lasers and for laser communications systems. However, the chief field of AO development and application remains astronomy and the vast majority of papers presented at the conference were concerned, directly or indirectly, with this science. Towards Scientific and Technological Maturity According to Martin Cullum (ESO), the organiser of this conference, it is apparent that a certain technological maturity has been reached during the past two years. However, it is also much more widely realised that it is not straightforward to produce good science, even with a high-performance AO system. A detailed characterization of the atmosphere, painstaking system calibrations and a lot of hard work during the astronomical observations and especially at the time of the reduction and interpretation of the voluminous datasets are necessary to obtain reliable results of high quality. Many of the presentations reflected this fact. From the technical standpoint, highlights of the meeting included the significant progress that was reported in the development of adaptive secondary mirrors for the upgrade of the Multi-Mirror-Telescope (MMT) in Arizona, the initial tests of the laser guide-star AO system installed on the Lick 3-metre telescope in California, as well as the development of an advanced visible-light AO system for satellite reconnaissance and astronomy on Mt. Haleakala, Hawaii. On the scientific side, an overview of the adaptive optics observations that have been carried out with ESO's Come-On-Plus AO system at the 3.6-metre telescope on La Silla during the first 4 years of operation was given by Pierre Lena (Paris Observatory) and forcefully illustrated the power of adaptive optics techniques in astronomy. Impressive recent results were also presented by Bernhard Brandl and collaborators (Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching) on the starburst cluster R136, that is located at the centre of the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This was especially interesting, because the scientific results were obtained by combining high-resolution optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope with diffraction-limited infrared images from the Come-On-Plus system. Without either one of these data sources, the exciting, final results could not have been obtained. They include a very thorough characterization of the stellar types in this extremely young cluster whose age is apparently only a few million years, as well as a detailed description of its dynamical state. This demonstrates once again that, far from being competitors, ground-based AO facilities and space instruments are highly complementary. This perhaps provides an insight into the direction modern astronomy is developing. Adaptive Optics at ESO It is now more than five years since the first AO system, developed in collaboration with institutes in France, was installed at the 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla. Since then, much experience has been gained and the state-of the-art ADONIS/Come-On-Plus AO instrumental constellation is now regularly used by visiting astronomers. It employs a flexible silicon-mirror that is supported by 52 computer-controlled supports. The mirror changes its shape one hundred times per second, allowing to achieve very nearly the theoretical image sharpness in the mid-infrared wavelength region. Closer to the visible spectral region, images have been obtained at wavelength 1.5 microns which are only 0.12 arcseconds wide. Under the leadership of Norbert Hubin at the ESO Headquarters in Garching, a team of astronomers and engineers is now in the process of designing the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) that will be used at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will use a mirror with about 250 supports. Following testing in the second half of 1998, it is expected that the first NAOS device will be mounted on the first 8.2-metre VLT unit telescope in early 1999. Notes: [1] The Topical Meeting on Adaptive Optics sponsored by the Optical Society of America and the European Southern Observatory was held on the premises of the Munich Technical University in Garching, on October 2--6, 1995. [2] See ESO Press Releases 06/89 of 24 October 1989 and 05/90 of 25 May 1990.

  8. Can Automated Imaging for Optic Disc and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis Aid Glaucoma Detection?

    PubMed Central

    Banister, Katie; Boachie, Charles; Bourne, Rupert; Cook, Jonathan; Burr, Jennifer M.; Ramsay, Craig; Garway-Heath, David; Gray, Joanne; McMeekin, Peter; Hernández, Rodolfo; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of automated imaging for glaucoma. Design Prospective, direct comparison study. Participants Adults with suspected glaucoma or ocular hypertension referred to hospital eye services in the United Kingdom. Methods We evaluated 4 automated imaging test algorithms: the Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) glaucoma probability score (GPS), the HRT Moorfields regression analysis (MRA), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx enhanced corneal compensation; Glaucoma Diagnostics (GDx), Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) nerve fiber indicator (NFI), and Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT; Heidelberg Engineering) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) classification. We defined abnormal tests as an automated classification of outside normal limits for HRT and OCT or NFI ≥ 56 (GDx). We conducted a sensitivity analysis, using borderline abnormal image classifications. The reference standard was clinical diagnosis by a masked glaucoma expert including standardized clinical assessment and automated perimetry. We analyzed 1 eye per patient (the one with more advanced disease). We also evaluated the performance according to severity and using a combination of 2 technologies. Main Outcome Measures Sensitivity and specificity, likelihood ratios, diagnostic, odds ratio, and proportion of indeterminate tests. Results We recruited 955 participants, and 943 were included in the analysis. The average age was 60.5 years (standard deviation, 13.8 years); 51.1% were women. Glaucoma was diagnosed in at least 1 eye in 16.8%; 32% of participants had no glaucoma-related findings. The HRT MRA had the highest sensitivity (87.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.2%–92.1%), but lowest specificity (63.9%; 95% CI, 60.2%–67.4%); GDx had the lowest sensitivity (35.1%; 95% CI, 27.0%–43.8%), but the highest specificity (97.2%; 95% CI, 95.6%–98.3%). The HRT GPS sensitivity was 81.5% (95% CI, 73.9%–87.6%), and specificity was 67.7% (95% CI, 64.2%–71.2%); OCT sensitivity was 76.9% (95% CI, 69.2%–83.4%), and specificity was 78.5% (95% CI, 75.4%–81.4%). Including only eyes with severe glaucoma, sensitivity increased: HRT MRA, HRT GPS, and OCT would miss 5% of eyes, and GDx would miss 21% of eyes. A combination of 2 different tests did not improve the accuracy substantially. Conclusions Automated imaging technologies can aid clinicians in diagnosing glaucoma, but may not replace current strategies because they can miss some cases of severe glaucoma. PMID:27016459

  9. Comparison of optical and electrical investigations of meat ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopyeva, Elena; Tománek, Pavel; Kocová, Lucie; Palai-Dany, Tomáš; Balík, Zdeněk.; Škarvada, Pavel; Grmela, Lubomír.

    2013-05-01

    Different ultrasonic, electromagnetic, electrical and optical methods are used for meat ageing detection. Muscles are turbid anisotropic media, they exhibit changes in electrical and optical properties according to the direction of the electrical and optical fields in the sample. The work assesses the feasibility of impedance measurements for meat ageing detection and their comparison with optical measurement of scattered light. The pork chop slices were used for their relative homogeneity. An investigation was carried out for the detection of the ageing of unpacked slices exposed directly to the air, and other packed in polyethylene bags. The electrical method is a promising method due to the possibility of getting much information and realizing cheap and fast enough measurement systems. The optical method allows measure the rotation of polarization plane in the range of 95 degrees within considered period. Nevertheless, further work has to be provided to determine closer relationships between optical scattering characteristics, electrical anisotropy in ageing-related tissue structural properties.

  10. Accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, Marek A.; Straub, Odele

    2014-08-01

    Accretion discs are flattened astronomical objects made of rapidly rotating gas which slowly spirals onto a central gravitating body. The gravitational energy of infalling matter extracted in accretion discs powers stellar binaries, active galactic nuclei, proto-planetary discs and some gamma-ray bursts. The black hole accretion in quasars is the most powerful and efficient stationary engine known in the universe. In accretion discs the high angular momentum of rotating matter is gradually transported outwards by stresses (related to turbulence, viscosity, shear and magnetic fields). This gradual loss of angular momentum allows matter to progressively move inwards, towards the centre of gravity. The gravitational energy of the gaseous matter is thereby converted to heat. A fraction of the heat is converted into radiation, which partially escapes and cools down the accretion disc. Accretion disc physics is thus governed by a non-linear combination of many processes, includ! ing gravity, hydrodynamics, viscosity, radiation and magnetic fields.

  11. Optical coherence tomography as approach for the minimal invasive localization of the germinal disc in ovo before chicken sexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Anke; Geissler, Stefan; Koch, Edmund

    2010-04-01

    In most industrial states a huge amount of newly hatched male layer chickens are usually killed immediately after hatching by maceration or gassing. The reason for killing most of the male chickens of egg producing races is their slow growth rate compared to races specialized on meat production. When the egg has been laid, the egg contains already a small disc of cells on the surface of the yolk known as the blastoderm. This region is about 4 - 5 mm in diameter and contains the information whether the chick becomes male or female and hence allows sexing of the chicks by spectroscopy and other methods in the unincubated state. Different imaging methods like sonography, 3D-X-ray micro computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used for localization of the blastoderm until now, but found to be impractical for different reasons. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables micrometer-scale, subsurface imaging of biological tissue and could therefore be a suitable technique for an accurate localization. The intention of this study is to prove if OCT can be an appropriate approach for the precise in ovo localization.

  12. Optics in the Age of Euler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakfoort, Casper

    1995-01-01

    This book studies the eighteenth-century origins and early phase of a fundamental debate in optics: whether light is a particle or wave. Specifically, it is the first in-depth study of the contents and reception of Leonhard Euler's wave theory of light. The author shows that contrary to what has been assumed, the debate did not start in 1672 with Newton's particle theory of light. Rather, it only really got under way after Euler published his wave theory in 1746. He also corrects the misapprehension that Newton's theory was prevalently held in Germany in the early years of the debate, but really only became dominant around 1795. In his discussion, Professor Hakfoort demonstrates in dramatic fashion the relevance of chemical experiments on physical optics. Finally, in the epilogue, the author reflects on the mathematical, experimental, and metaphysical aspects of physical optics that shaped early modern science.

  13. Polarimetric microlensing of circumstellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajadian, Sedighe; Rahvar, Sohrab

    2015-12-01

    We study the benefits of polarimetry observations of microlensing events to detect and characterize circumstellar discs around the microlensed stars located at the Galactic bulge. These discs which are unresolvable from their host stars make a net polarization effect due to their projected elliptical shapes. Gravitational microlensing can magnify these signals and make them be resolved. The main aim of this work is to determine what extra information about these discs can be extracted from polarimetry observations of microlensing events in addition to those given by photometry ones. Hot discs which are closer to their host stars are more likely to be detected by microlensing, owing to more contributions in the total flux. By considering this kind of discs, we show that although the polarimetric efficiency for detecting discs is similar to the photometric observation, but polarimetry observations can help to constraint the disc geometrical parameters e.g. the disc inner radius and the lens trajectory with respect to the disc semimajor axis. On the other hand, the time-scale of polarimetric curves of these microlensing events generally increases while their photometric time-scale does not change. By performing a Monte Carlo simulation, we show that almost four optically thin discs around the Galactic bulge sources are detected (or even characterized) through photometry (or polarimetry) observations of high-magnification microlensing events during 10-yr monitoring of 150 million objects.

  14. A computational analysis on the implications of age-related changes in the expression of cellular signals on the role of IGF-1 in intervertebral disc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Asfour, Shihab; Travascio, Francesco; Elmasry, Shady; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-21

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a well-known anabolic agent in intervertebral discs (IVD), promoting both proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis and cell proliferation. Accordingly, it is believed that IGF-1 plays a central role in IVD homeostasis. The IGF-mediated anabolic activity in IVD occurs when the growth factor, free from binding proteins (IGFBP), binds to IGF cell surface receptors (IGF-1R). Previous studies reported that, with aging, cellular expression of IGFBP increases, while that of IGF-1R decreases. Both changes in cellular signals are thought to be among the factors that are responsible for the age-related decline in IGF-mediated PG biosynthesis, which ultimately leads to disc degeneration. In this study, a computational model describing the role of IGF-1 in the homeostasis of IVD was deployed in a parametric analysis to investigate the effects of age-related changes in expression of IGF-1R and IGFBP on the IGF-mediated upregulation of PG biosynthesis and cellular proliferation. It was found that changes in the expression of IGF-1R and IGFBP mostly affected the nucleus pulposus, while in the most external disc regions (annulus fibrosus and cartilage endplates) the IVD homeostatic balance was unaltered. It was shown that a decrease of IGF-1R expression caused reduction of both PG levels and cell density in the tissue. In contrast, increase in IGFBP expression increased both PG and cell concentration, suggesting that such change in cellular signaling may be a plausible defense mechanism from age-related IVD degeneration. PMID:25488135

  15. Free space optical communications: coming of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotts, Larry B.; Stadler, Brian; Lee, Gary

    2008-04-01

    Information superiority, where for the military or business, is the decisive advantage of the 21st Century. While business enjoys the information advantage of robust, high-bandwidth fiber optic connectivity that heavily leverages installed commercial infrastructure and service providers, mobile military forces need the wireless equivalent to leverage that advantage. In other words, an ability to deploy anywhere on the globe and maintain a robust, reliable communications and connectivity infrastructure, equivalent to that enjoyed by a CONUS commercial user, will provide US forces with information superiority. Assured high-data-rate connectivity to the tactical user is the biggest gap in developing and truly exploiting the potential of the information superiority weapon. Though information superiority is much discussed and its potential is well understood, a robust communications network available to the lowest military echelons is not yet an integral part of the force structure, although high data rate RF communications relays, e.g., Tactical Common Data Link, and low data SATCOM, e.g, Ku Spread Spectrum, are deployed and used by the military. This may change with recent advances in laser communications technologies created by the fiber optic communications revolution. This paper will provide a high level overview of the various laser communications programs conducted over the last 30 plus years, and proposed efforts to get these systems finally deployed.

  16. Have protoplanetary discs formed planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, J. S.; Rice, W. K. M.

    2010-09-01

    It has recently been noted that many discs around T Tauri stars appear to comprise only a few Jupiter masses of gas and dust. Using millimetre surveys of discs within six local star formation regions, we confirm this result, and find that only a few per cent of young stars have enough circumstellar material to build gas giant planets, in standard core accretion models. Since the frequency of observed exoplanets is greater than this, there is a `missing-mass' problem. As alternatives to simply adjusting the conversion of dust flux to disc mass, we investigate three other classes of solution. Migration of planets could hypothetically sweep up the disc mass reservoir more efficiently, but trends in multiplanet systems do not support such a model, and theoretical models suggest that the gas accretion time-scale is too short for migration to sweep the disc. Enhanced inner-disc mass reservoirs are possible, agreeing with predictions of disc evolution through self-gravity, but not adding to millimetre dust flux as the inner disc is optically thick. Finally, the incidence of massive discs is shown to be higher at the protostellar stages, Classes 0 and I, where discs substantial enough to form planets via core accretion are abundant enough to match the frequency of exoplanets. Gravitational instability may also operate in the Class 0 epoch, where half the objects have potentially unstable discs of >~30 per cent of the stellar mass. However, recent calculations indicate that forming gas giants inside 50 au by instability is unlikely, even in such massive discs. Overall, the results presented suggest that the canonically `protoplanetary' discs of Class II T Tauri stars have globally low masses in dust observable at millimetre wavelengths, and conversion to larger bodies (anywhere from small rocks up to planetary cores) must already have occurred.

  17. Morphometric evaluation of changes with time in optic disc structure and thickness of retinal nerve fibre layer in chronic ocular hypertensive monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Tomita, Goji; Taniguchi, Takazumi; Sasaoka, Masaaki; Hara, Hideaki; Kitazawa, Yoshiaki; Araie, Makoto

    2006-03-01

    We examined the time course of changes in optic disc structure by means of a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT) in ocular hypertensive (experimental glaucoma) monkeys, and clarified the relationships between the histological RNFL thickness and HRT parameters. Further, the time course of changes in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in individual eyes was measured using a scanning laser polarimeter with fixed corneal polarization compensator (GDx FCC). In the present study, two separate experiments were carried out. A chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was induced by laser trabeculoplasty in the left eye in 11 cynomolgus monkeys. In Experiment 1, the HRT and GDx parameters were measured 12 weeks after the laser treatment in 10 eyes in five monkeys. In Experiment 2, the time course of changes in the HRT and GDx parameters was examined before and 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 weeks after the laser treatment in 12 eyes in six monkeys. The retardation values (thickness parameters) obtained from the GDx were used to derive thickness and ratio parameters in the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants. Ratio parameters were expressed as a ratio of superior and inferior quadrant to nasal quadrant. After the last measurements, each eye was enucleated, and retinal cross sections were prepared for histological analysis. In the left (hypertensive) eyes, IOP was persistently elevated throughout the observation periods in both Experiments 1 and 2. In the HRT measurements in Experiment 1, seven out of eight global topographic parameters (exception, disc area) were statistically different between the hypertensive and control eyes 12 weeks after the laser treatment. In Experiment 2, the HRT parameters changed in a time-dependent manner, but each of them almost plateaued at about 4 weeks after the laser treatment. Significant correlations were seen between the histological mean RNFL thickness at 1.5 disc diameters from the optic disc margin and the HRT parameters in 21 eyes from 11 monkeys in Experiments 1 and 2. Especially good correlations with histological mean RNFL thickness were seen for the rim volume and cup volume. In Experiment 1, good correlations were found between GDx ratio parameters and histological RNFL thickness in individual right control eyes (n=5). In individual left experimental glaucoma eyes of Experiment 2 (n=6), GDx ratio parameters declined in a time-dependent manner alongside the IOP elevation. In conclusion, alongside the IOP elevation, time-related changes in optic disc topography and RNFL thickness were demonstrated in monkey eyes using HRT and GDx. HRT (rim and cup) parameters showed good correlations with histological RNFL thickness, and significant interrelations. PMID:16388801

  18. MRI Evaluation of Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rupal; Mehta, Chetan; Patel, Narrotam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lower back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease is a condition that affects young to middle-aged persons with peak incidence at approximately 40 y. MRI is the standard imaging modality for detecting disc pathology due to its advantage of lack of radiation, multiplanar imaging capability, excellent spinal soft-tissue contrast and precise localization of intervertebral discs changes. Aims and Objective: To evaluate the characterization, extent, and changes associated with the degenerative lumbar disc disease by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Study Design: Cross-sectional and observational study. Materials and Methods: A total 109 patients of the lumbar disc degeneration with age group between 17 to 80 y were diagnosed & studied on 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging machine. MRI findings like lumbar lordosis, Schmorl’s nodes, decreased disc height, disc annular tear, disc herniation, disc bulge, disc protrusion and disc extrusion were observed. Narrowing of the spinal canal, lateral recess and neural foramen with compression of nerve roots observed. Ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was observed. Result: Males were more commonly affected in Degenerative Spinal Disease & most of the patients show loss of lumbar lordosis. Decreased disc height was common at L5-S1 level. More than one disc involvement was seen per person. L4 – L5 disc was the most commonly involved. Annular disc tear, disc herniation, disc extrusion, narrowing of spinal canal, narrowing of lateral recess, compression of neural foramen, ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was common at the L4 –L5 disc level. Disc buldge was common at L3 – L4 & L4 – L5 disc level. Posterior osteophytes are common at L3 - L4 & L5 –S1 disc level. L1- L2 disc involvement and spondylolisthesis are less common. Conclusion: Lumbar disc degeneration is the most common cause of low back pain. Plain radiograph can be helpful in visualizing gross anatomic changes in the intervertebral disc. But, MRI is the standard imaging modality for detecting disc pathology due to its advantage of lack of radiation, multiplanar imaging capability, excellent spinal soft-tissue contrast and precise localization of intervertebral discs changes. PMID:26023617

  19. Accelerated optical polymer aging studies for LED luminaire applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estupiñán, Edgar; Wendling, Peter; Kostrun, Marijan; Garner, Richard

    2013-09-01

    There is a need in the lighting industry to design and implement accelerated aging methods that accurately simulate the aging process of LED luminaire components. In response to this need, we have built a flexible and reliable system to study the aging characteristics of optical polymer materials, and we have employed it to study a commercially available LED luminaire diffuser made of PMMA. The experimental system consists of a "Blue LED Emitter" and a working surface. Both the temperatures of the samples and the optical powers of the LEDs are appropriately characterized in the system. Several accelerated aging experiments are carried out at different temperatures and optical powers over a 90 hour period and the measured transmission values are used as inputs to a degradation model derived using plausibility arguments. This model seems capable of predicting the behavior of the material as a function of time, temperature and optical power. The model satisfactorily predicts the measured transmission values of diffusers aged in luminaires at two different times and thus can be used to make application recommendations for this material. Specifically, at 35000 hours (the manufacturer's stated life of the luminaire) and at the typical operational temperature of the diffuser, the model predicts a transmission loss of only a few percent over the original transmission of the material at 450 nm, which renders this material suitable for this application.

  20. Astrocytic hamartoma of the optic disc and multiple café-au-lait macules in a child with neurofibromatosis type 2.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Reecha; Rothner, David A; Traboulsi, Elias I; Hayden, Brandy C; Rychwalski, Paul J

    2010-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a heritable syndrome characterized by multifocal proliferation of neural crest-derived cells. The characteristic and diagnostic finding of NF2 is bilateral vestibular nerve schwannomas (acoustic neuromas). In addition to other tumors involving the central and peripheral nervous systems, ophthalmic manifestations, including posterior subcapsular and peripheral cortical cataracts, optic nerve meningiomas, epiretinal membrane, and combined pigment epithelial and retinal hamartomas, are common to NF2. Herein we present an 8-year-old girl with NF2 and astrocytic hamartoma of the optic disc. This patient had been previously diagnosed with NF1 on the basis of multiple CAL macules and suspected subcutaneous neurofibromas. However, neuroimaging revealed bilateral acoustic neuromas, leading to a clinical diagnosis of NF2. Subsequent molecular genetic analysis confirmed the NF2 diagnosis. Multiple CAL macules and astrocytic hamartomas, while associated with NF1, are rarely associated with NF2. Specifically, we are not aware of any reported cases of optic disc astrocytic hamartoma in the setting of NF2. PMID:21067482

  1. A trifurcated fiber-optic-probe-based optical system designed for AGEs measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yikun; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Ling; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Gong; Wang, An

    2012-03-01

    Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) are biochemical end-products of non-enzymatic glycation and are formed irreversibly in human serum and skin tissue. AGEs are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and corresponding complications. All conventional methods for measuring AGEs must take sampling and measure in vitro. These methods are invasive and have the problem of relatively time-consuming. AGEs have fluorescent characteristics. Skin AGEs can be assessed noninvasively by collecting the fluorescence emitted from skin tissue when excited with proper light. However, skin tissue has absorption and scattering effects on fluorescence of AGEs, it is not reliable to evaluate the accumulation of AGEs according the emitted fluorescence but not considering optical properties of skin tissue. In this study, a portable system for detecting AGEs fluorescence and skin reflectance spectrum simultaneously has been developed. The system mainly consists of an ultraviolet light source, a broadband light source, a trifurcated fiber-optic probe, and a compact charge coupled device (CCD) spectrometer. The fiber-optic probe consists of 36 optical fibers which are connected to the ultraviolet light source, 6 optical fibers connected to the broadband light source, and a core fiber connected to the CCD spectrometer. Demonstrative test measurements with the system on skin tissue of 40 healthy subjects have been performed. Using parameters that are calculated from skin reflectance spectrum, the distortion effects caused by skin absorption and scattering can be eliminated, and the integral intensity of corrected fluorescence has a strong correlation with the accumulation of AGEs. The system looks very promising for both laboratory and clinical applications to monitor AGEs related diseases, especially for chronic diabetes and complications.

  2. A trifurcated fiber-optic-probe-based optical system designed for AGEs measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yikun; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Ling; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Gong; Wang, An

    2011-11-01

    Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) are biochemical end-products of non-enzymatic glycation and are formed irreversibly in human serum and skin tissue. AGEs are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and corresponding complications. All conventional methods for measuring AGEs must take sampling and measure in vitro. These methods are invasive and have the problem of relatively time-consuming. AGEs have fluorescent characteristics. Skin AGEs can be assessed noninvasively by collecting the fluorescence emitted from skin tissue when excited with proper light. However, skin tissue has absorption and scattering effects on fluorescence of AGEs, it is not reliable to evaluate the accumulation of AGEs according the emitted fluorescence but not considering optical properties of skin tissue. In this study, a portable system for detecting AGEs fluorescence and skin reflectance spectrum simultaneously has been developed. The system mainly consists of an ultraviolet light source, a broadband light source, a trifurcated fiber-optic probe, and a compact charge coupled device (CCD) spectrometer. The fiber-optic probe consists of 36 optical fibers which are connected to the ultraviolet light source, 6 optical fibers connected to the broadband light source, and a core fiber connected to the CCD spectrometer. Demonstrative test measurements with the system on skin tissue of 40 healthy subjects have been performed. Using parameters that are calculated from skin reflectance spectrum, the distortion effects caused by skin absorption and scattering can be eliminated, and the integral intensity of corrected fluorescence has a strong correlation with the accumulation of AGEs. The system looks very promising for both laboratory and clinical applications to monitor AGEs related diseases, especially for chronic diabetes and complications.

  3. Optical sensing system based on wireless paired emitter detector diode device and ionogels for lab-on-a-disc water quality analysis.

    PubMed

    Czugala, Monika; Gorkin, Robert; Phelan, Thomas; Gaughran, Jennifer; Curto, Vincenzo Fabio; Ducrée, Jens; Diamond, Dermot; Benito-Lopez, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    This work describes the first use of a wireless paired emitter detector diode device (PEDD) as an optical sensor for water quality monitoring in a lab-on-a-disc device. The microfluidic platform, based on an ionogel sensing area combined with a low-cost optical sensor, is applied for quantitative pH and qualitative turbidity monitoring of water samples at point-of-need. The autonomous capabilities of the PEDD system, combined with the portability and wireless communication of the full device, provide the flexibility needed for on-site water testing. Water samples from local fresh and brackish sources were successfully analysed using the device, showing very good correlation with standard bench-top systems. PMID:23070147

  4. Heterozygous triplication of upstream regulatory sequences leads to dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19) in patients with cavitary optic disc anomaly (CODA)

    PubMed Central

    Hazlewood, Ralph J.; Roos, Benjamin R.; Solivan-Timpe, Frances; Honkanen, Robert A.; Jampol, Lee M.; Gieser, Stephen C.; Meyer, Kacie J.; Mullins, Robert F.; Kuehn, Markus H.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Kwon, Young H.; Alward, Wallace L.M.; Stone, Edwin M.; Fingert, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a congenital optic nerve disease, cavitary optic disc anomaly (CODA), are born with profound excavation of the optic nerve resembling glaucoma. We previously mapped the gene that causes autosomal dominant CODA in a large pedigree to a chromosome 12q locus. Using comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative PCR analysis of this pedigree, we report identifying a 6Kbp heterozygous triplication upstream of the matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19) gene, present in all 17 affected family members and no normal members. Moreover, the triplication was not detected in 78 control subjects or in the Database of Genomic Variants. We further detected the same 6Kbp triplication in 1 of 24 unrelated CODA patients and in none of 172 glaucoma patients. Analysis with a luciferase assay showed that the 6Kbp sequence has transcription enhancer activity. A 773bp fragment of the 6Kbp DNA segment increased downstream gene expression 8-fold, suggesting that triplication of this sequence may lead to dysregulation of the downstream gene, MMP19, in CODA patients. Lastly, immunohistochemical analysis of human donor eyes revealed strong expression of MMP19 in optic nerve head. These data strongly suggest that triplication of an enhancer may lead to overexpression of MMP19 in the optic nerve which causes CODA. PMID:25581579

  5. On the reliability of protostellar disc mass measurements and the existence of fragmenting discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Arce, Héctor G.

    2014-10-01

    We couple non-magnetic, hydrodynamical simulations of collapsing protostellar cores with radiative transfer evolutionary models to generate synthetic observations. We then use these synthetic observations to investigate the extent to which a simple method for measuring protostellar disc masses used in the literature recovers the intrinsic masses of the discs formed in the simulations. We evaluate the effects of contamination from the surrounding core, partially resolving out the disc, optical depth, fixed assumed dust temperatures, inclination, and the dust opacity law. We show that the combination of these effects can lead to disc mass underestimates by up to factors of 2-3 at millimetre wavelengths and up to an order of magnitude or larger at submillimetre wavelengths. The optically thin portions of protostellar discs are generally cooler in the Class I stage than the Class 0 stage since Class I discs are typically larger and more optically thick, and thus more shielded. The observed disc mass distribution closely resembles the intrinsic distribution if this effect is taken into account, especially at millimetre wavelengths where optical depth effects are minimized. Approximately 50-70 per cent of protostellar discs observed to date with this method are consistent with the masses of the gravitationally unstable discs formed in the simulations, suggesting that at least some protostellar discs are likely sufficiently massive to fragment. We emphasize key future work needed to confirm these results, including assembling larger, less biased samples, and using molecular line observations to distinguish between rotationally supported, Keplerian discs and magnetically supported pseudodiscs.

  6. Inhibition of Ethylene Biosynthesis by Aminoethoxyvinylglycine and by Polyamines Shunts Label from 3,4-[14C]Methionine into Spermidine in Aged Orange Peel Discs 1

    PubMed Central

    Even-Chen, Zeev; Mattoo, Autar K.; Goren, Raphael

    1982-01-01

    The flux of radioactivity from 3,4-[14C]methionine into S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), spermine, and spermidine while inhibiting conversion of ACC to ethylene by 100 millimolar phosphate and 2 millimolar Co2+ was studied in aged peel discs of orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit. Inhibition up to 80% of ethylene production by phosphate and cobalt was accompanied by a 3.3 times increase of label in ACC while the radioactivity in SAM was only slightly reduced. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) increased the label in SAM by 61% and reduced it in ACC by 47%. Different combinations of standard solution, in which putrescine or spermidine were administered alone or with AVG, demonstrated clearly that inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis—at the conversion of SAM to ACC—by AVG, exogenous putrescine or exogenous spermidine, stimulated the incorporation of 3,4-[14C]methionine into spermidine. PMID:16662214

  7. Design of Compatible Optics for Solid-Immersion-Lens-Based Near-Field Recording System and Blu-ray Disc Using Relay Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyun; Kim, Jong-Pil; Yoon, Yong-Joong; Kim, Wan-Chin; Park, No-Cheol; Park, Young-Pil; Park, Kyoung-Su

    2009-03-01

    We designed compatible optics for a solid-immersion-lens (SIL)-based near-field recording (NFR) system and a Blu-ray disc (BD). The working distance, numerical aperture (NA), and cover layer thickness of the SIL-based NFR system differ from those of BD. Therefore, for the compatibility of a cover layer incident type NFR system of whose NA is 1.46 and BD, we use a relay lens that is composed of two low-NA lenses. The optical tolerances such as decenter, tilt, and SIL thickness tolerances are considered to ensure manufacturability. The decenter and tilt tolerances of each optical component are greater than 1.0 µm and 0.1°, respectively. The tolerance of the SIL thickness range is 14 µm at the criterion of the wavefront aberration of 0.035 λrms. We design the optical layout and simulate each focus error signal of BD and the SIL-based NFR system. From the practical design results, we confirm that the SIL-based NFR system can be compatible to BD with a simple relay lens.

  8. An Analysis of Burst Disc Pressure Instability

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Robinson; B. C. Odegard, Jr.; N. r. Moody; S. H. Goods

    2000-06-01

    During the development stage of the 1X Acorn burst disc, burst pressure test results exhibited an unexpected increase of 8 to 14% over times of 90--100 days from initial fabrication. This increase is a concern where design constraints require stability. The disc material, 316L stainless steel sheet, is formed to a dome-like geometry and scored to produce a thin-walled, high-strength ligament. The fracture events controlling burst occur in that ligament. Thus it has been characterized both for tensile properties and microstructure through nanoindentation, magnetic measurements, optical and transmission electron microscopy. These results compare favorably with finite element simulation of the properties of the ligament. The ligament exhibits a highly heterogeneous microstructure; its small volume and microstructural heterogeneity make it difficult to identify which microstructural feature controls fracture and hence burst pressure. Bulk mechanical test specimens were fabricated to emulate mid-ligament properties, and aged at both room and elevated temperatures to characterize and accelerate the temporal behavior of the burst disc. Property changes included yield and ultimate tensile strength increases, and fracture strain decreases with aging. Specimens were subjected to a reversion anneal identical to that given the burst disc to eliminate the martensite phase formed during rolling. Reversion-annealed samples exhibited no change in properties in room temperature or accelerated aging, showing that the reversion-anneal eliminated the aging phenomenon. Aging was analyzed in terms of diffusion controlled precipitate growth kinetics, showing that carbon migration to dislocations is consistent with the strength increases. A vacancy-assisted diffusion mechanism for carbon transport is proposed, giving rise to rapid aging, which replaces interstitial carbon diffusion until excess vacancies from deformation are consumed. Mechanical activation parameters in stress relaxation were measured, indicating that the deformation structures formed at high strains typical of the score ligament are resistant to annealing, and mimic the behavior of a thermal obstacles. This model also qualitatively explains the different rates of aging resulting from a range of levels of cold work.

  9. Genetics of disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chan, Danny; Song, Youqiang; Sham, Pak; Cheung, Kenneth M C

    2006-08-01

    Low back pain from degenerative disc disease (DDD) is one of the most common disorders seen in general and orthopaedic practices. DDD has been attributed to the accumulation of environmental factors, primarily mechanical insults and injuries, imposed on the "normal" aging changes. However, recent studies have shown an association between genetic influences and disc degeneration, with risk of developing DDD quoted to be increased up to six times that of the general population. It is likely that DDD is a complex, multifactorial disease determined by the interplay between gene(s) and the environment. This review focuses on the evidence for genetic disposition, the genes or biological processes that are implicated, and the need to consolidate resources and clarify phenotype definition to take advantage of the new technologies in genetic analysis to enhance our understanding of this condition. PMID:16819621

  10. Redundant disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barack, W. N.; Domas, P. A.; Beekman, S. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A rotatable disc is described that consists of parallel plates tightly joined together for rotation about a hub. Each plate is provided with several angularly projecting spaced lands. The lands of each plate are interposed in alternating relationship between the lands of the next adjacent plate. In this manner, circumferential displacement of adjacent sectors in any one plate is prevented in the event that a crack develops. Each plate is redundantly sized so that, in event of structural failure of one plate, the remaining plates support a proportionate share of the load of the failed plate. The plates are prevented from separating laterally through the inclusion of generally radially extending splines which are inserted to interlock cooperating, circumferentially adjacent lands.

  11. Age- and degeneration-related variations in cell density and glycosaminoglycan content in the human cervical intervertebral disc and its endplates.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Walocha, Jerzy A; Mizia, Ewa; Gładysz, Tomasz; Głowacki, Roman; Tomaszewska, Romana

    2015-09-01

    The first aim of this study was to quantify cell density in cervical intervertebral discs (IVDs) and endplates of varying age and degeneration grade. The second aim was to analyze glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in cervical IVDs and their endplates. Sixty cervical IVDs were excised from 30 human cadavers, not later than 24 hours post-mortem. Each sample underwent sectioning. Half of each sample underwent GAG content analysis using the dimethylmethylene blue binding assay. The other half underwent histological processing, histological degeneration grading, and cell density assessment using the Abercrombie method. The nucleus pulposus (NP) (4218 ± 417 cells/mm³) had significantly higher cell density than the anterior annulus fibrosus (AF) (3283 ± 438 cells/mm³; p < 0.0001), and similar cell density (4464 ± 551 cells/mm³; p = 0.36) to the posterior AF. Cell density was similar throughout the different regions of the endplate. The NP (619 ± 178 µg/mg dry weight) had a significantly higher GAG content than both the anterior (428 ± 199 µg/mg dry weight; p < 0.0001) and posterior AF (524 ± 218 µg/mg dry weight; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, this study introduces detailed 3D maps of cervical IVD and endplate cell density and GAG content. Furthermore, it shows that cervical IVDs and their endplates only slightly differ, in terms of cell density and GAG content, from lumbar IVDs. PMID:26619109

  12. Optical characters and texture maps of skin and the aging mechanism by use of multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoman; Huang, Yudian; Xu, Xiaohui

    2012-03-01

    Cutaneous aging is a complicated biological process affecting different constituents of skin, which can be divided into two types: the chronological aging and the photo-aging. The two cutaneous aging processes often co-exist accompanying with each other. The effects are often overlapped including changes in epithelium and dermis. The degeneration of collagen is a major factor in dermal alteration with aging. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) with its high resolution imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) with its depth resolved imaging were used to study the anti-aging dermatology in vivo. It was attempted to make the optical parameter and texture feature to evaluate the process of aging skin using mathematical image processing. The links among optical parameter, spectrum and texture feature in collagen with aging process were established to uncover mechanism of aging skin.

  13. Alteration of lunar optical properties: age and composition effects.

    PubMed

    Adams, J B; McCord, T B

    1971-02-12

    A model for lunar surface processes is presented which explains the main albedo and color contrasts and the temporal changes in these optical properties. Evidence from Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 samples and telescopic spectral reflectivity measurements indicates that the maria are similar in mineralogy on a regional scale and that the highlands are consistent with an anorthositic-gabbro composition. Bright craters and rays in both regions expose materials that are relatively crystalline compared with their backgrounds, which are richer in dark glass. With age, bright craters and rays in the maria darken in place by meteorite impact-induced vitrification and mixing with the surrounding material. Highland bright craters and rays may, however, darken primarily through regional contamination by iron- and titanium-rich mare material. PMID:17734782

  14. Percutaneous diode laser disc nucleoplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchetti, P. P.; Longo, Leonardo

    2004-09-01

    The treatment of herniated disc disease (HNP) over the years involved different miniinvasive surgical options. The classical microsurgical approach has been substituted over the years both by endoscopic approach in which is possible to practice via endoscopy a laser thermo-discoplasty, both by percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty. In the last ten years, the percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty have been done worldwide in more than 40000 cases of HNP. Because water is the major component of the intervertebral disc, and in HNP pain is caused by the disc protrusion pressing against the nerve root, a 980 nm Diode laser introduced via a 22G needle under X-ray guidance and local anesthesia, vaporizes a small amount of nucleous polposus with a disc shrinkage and a relief of pressure on nerve root. Most patients get off the table pain free and are back to work in 5 to 7 days. Material and method: to date, 130 patients (155 cases) suffering for relevant symptoms therapy-resistant 6 months on average before consulting our department, have been treated. Eightyfour (72%) males and 46 (28%) females had a percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty. The average age of patients operated was 48 years (22 - 69). The level of disc removal was L3/L4 in 12 cases, L4/L5 in 87 cases and L5/S1 in 56 cases. Two different levels were treated at the same time in 25 patients. Results: the success rate at a minimum follow-up of 6 months was 88% with a complication rate of 0.5%.

  15. Compact Disc Recordable with Substrate of Biomass Plastic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Kodama, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Hiroto; Ohno, Minoru; Osugi, Satomi; Maeno, Yoshiaki; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2006-08-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biomass material made of starch. Compact disc recordable (CD-R) discs with a PLA substrate were prepared and their properties were measured. Although the glass transition point of PLA is lower than that of polycarbonate (PC), the PLA substrate is usable for CD-R discs. It was confirmed that the substrate is usable for recordable optical discs at temperatures under 50 °C.

  16. Correlation between the ganglion cell complex and structural measures of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Bresciani-Battilana, Erica; Teixeira, Ivan C; Barbosa, Diego T Q; Caixeta-Umbelino, Cristiano; Paolera, Maurício D; Kasahara, Niro

    2015-10-01

    To correlate the ganglion cell complex (GCC) parameters with structural measures of the optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) as evaluated by Fourier-Domain optic coherence tomography (OCT). This retrospective study included patients with glaucoma, ocular hypertensive patients and glaucoma suspects who had previously undergone OCT examination with the RTVue-100. The parameters of GCC (average, superior, inferior, focal loss volume [FLV], global loss volume [GLV]) were correlated with the values of the ONH (cup volume, cup area, horizontal cup-to-disk ratio, vertical cup-to-disk ratio, and rim area) and RNFL (average, superior, and inferior) using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The sample included 74 eyes of 37 patients. All correlations between GCC parameters and RNFL were strong (r > 0.60). The correlation between GCC parameters and ONH were good for most parameters, except that for FLV and cup volume (r = 0.13), GLV and cup volume (r = 0.09), and GLV and cup area (r = 0.21). The GCC parameters can be used as structural measures of the glaucomatous optic neuropathy. PMID:25183459

  17. Does Posterior Capsule Opacification Affect the Results of Diagnostic Technologies to Evaluate the Retina and the Optic Disc?

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Medina, Jose Javier; del Rio-Vellosillo, Monica; Zanon-Moreno, Vicente; Santos-Bueso, Enrique; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Ferreras, Antonio; Pinazo-Duran, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    The visual outcome obtained after cataract removal may progressively decline because of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). This condition can be treated by creating an opening in the posterior lens capsule by Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. PCO optical imperfections cause several light reflection, refraction, and diffraction phenomena, which may interfere with the functional and structural tests performed in different ocular locations for the diagnosis and follow-up of ocular disease, like macular and optic nerve diseases. Some parameters measured by visual field examinations, scanning laser polarimetry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have changed after PCO removal. Imaging quality also changes following capsulotomy. Consequently, the results of ancillary tests in pseudophakic eyes for studying ocular diseases like glaucoma or maculopathies should be correlated with other clinical examinations, for example, slit-lamp biomicroscopy or funduscopy. If PCO is clinically significant, a new baseline should be set for future comparisons following capsulotomy when using automated perimetry and scanning laser polarimetry. To perform OCT in the presence of PCO, reliable examinations (considering signal strength) apparently guarantee that measurements are not influenced by PCO. PMID:26167499

  18. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihajoki, P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  19. A distinct X-linked syndrome involving joint contractures, keloids, large optic cup-to-disc ratio, and renal stones results from a filamin A (FLNA) mutation.

    PubMed

    Lah, Melissa; Niranjan, Tejasvi; Srikanth, Sujata; Holloway, Lynda; Schwartz, Charles E; Wang, Tao; Weaver, David D

    2016-04-01

    We further evaluated a previously reported family with an apparently undescribed X-linked syndrome involving joint contractures, keloids, an increased optic cup-to-disc ratio, and renal stones to elucidate the genetic cause. To do this, we obtained medical histories and performed physical examination on 14 individuals in the family, five of whom are affected males and three are obligate carrier females. Linkage analysis was performed on all but one individual and chromosome X-exome sequencing was done on two affected males. The analysis localized the putative gene to Xq27-qter and chromosome X-exome sequencing revealed a mutation in exon 28 (c.4726G>A) of the filamin A (FLNA) gene, predicting that a conserved glycine had been replaced by arginine at amino acid 1576 (p.G1576R). Segregation analysis demonstrated that all known carrier females tested were heterozygous (G/A), all affected males were hemizygous for the mutation (A allele) and all normal males were hemizygous for the normal G allele. The data and the bioinformatic analysis indicate that the G1576R mutation in the FLNA gene is very likely pathogenic in this family. The syndrome affecting the family shares phenotypic overlap with other syndromes caused by FLNA mutations, but appears to be a distinct phenotype, likely representing a unique genetic syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26804200

  20. Intervertebral disc degeneration: evidence for two distinct phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    We review the evidence that there are two types of disc degeneration. ‘Endplate-driven’ disc degeneration involves endplate defects and inwards collapse of the annulus, has a high heritability, mostly affects discs in the upper lumbar and thoracic spine, often starts to develop before age 30 years, usually leads to moderate back pain, and is associated with compressive injuries such as a fall on the buttocks. ‘Annulus-driven’ disc degeneration involves a radial fissure and/or a disc prolapse, has a low heritability, mostly affects discs in the lower lumbar spine, develops progressively after age 30 years, usually leads to severe back pain and sciatica, and is associated with repetitive bending and lifting. The structural defects which initiate the two processes both act to decompress the disc nucleus, making it less likely that the other defect could occur subsequently, and in this sense the two disc degeneration phenotypes can be viewed as distinct. PMID:22881295

  1. The quiescent phase of galactic disc growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumer, Michael; Binney, James; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    We perform a series of controlled N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies within non-growing, live dark matter haloes of varying mass and concentration. Our initial conditions include either a low-mass disc or a compact bulge. New stellar particles are continuously added on near-circular orbits to the existing disc, so spiral structure is continuously excited. To study the effect of combined spiral and giant molecular cloud (GMC) heating on the discs we introduce massive, short-lived particles that sample a GMC mass function. An isothermal gas component is introduced for a subset of the models. We perform a resolution study and vary parameters governing the GMC population, the histories of star formation and radial scale growth. Models with GMCs and standard values for the disc mass and halo density provide the right level of self-gravity to explain the age velocity dispersion relation of the Solar neighbourhood (Snhd). GMC heating generates remarkably exponential vertical profiles with scaleheights that are radially constant and agree with observations of galactic thin discs. GMCs are also capable of significantly delaying bar formation. The amount of spiral induced radial migration agrees with what is required for the metallicity distribution of the Snhd. However, in our standard models the outward migrating populations are not hot enough vertically to create thick discs. Thick discs can form in models with high baryon fractions, but the corresponding bars are too long, the young stellar populations too hot and the discs flare considerably.

  2. Study of the shape of an optical window in a super-resolution state by electromagnetic-thermal coupled simulation: Effects of melting of an active layer in an optical disc

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Haruyuki; Shima, Takayuki; Kuwahara, Masashi; Fujita, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Munehisa; Aono, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-21

    We performed a multi-physics simulation for the propagation of electromagnetic waves and heat conduction in a super-resolution optical disc that includes an active layer of InSb. Because the change in the optical constant of InSb due to the phase transition is taken into account, the melting of the active layer can be realistically simulated in our calculation. It was found that in the case of an incident light power (P) of 2 mW, a profile of the electric field intensity transmitted through the InSb layer has an asymmetric shape with a narrow peak. This beam-narrowing was suggested to be an essential mechanism of the super-resolution, because a narrower light beam allows the detection of a smaller pit structure than the optical diffraction limit. This beam-narrowing was found to be originating from a small molten region produced in the InSb layer, which works as a mask for light exposure.

  3. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  4. Adaptive optics-assisted optical coherence tomography for imaging of patients with age related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, Kenta; Cense, Barry

    2013-03-01

    We developed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) prototype with a sample arm that uses a 3.4 mm beam, which is considerably larger than the 1.2 to 1.5 mm beam that is used in commercialized OCT systems. The system is equipped with adaptive optics (AO), and to distinguish it from traditional AO-OCT systems with a larger 6 mm beam we have coined this concept AO-assisted OCT. Compared to commercialized OCT systems, the 3.4 mm aperture combined with AO improves light collection efficiency and imaging lateral resolution. In this paper, the performance of the AOa-OCT system was compared to a standard OCT system and demonstrated for imaging of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Measurements were performed on the retinas of three human volunteers with healthy eyes and on one eye of a patient diagnosed with AMD. The AO-assisted OCT system imaged retinal structures of healthy human eyes and a patient eye affected by AMD with higher lateral resolution and a 9° by 9° field of view. This combination of a large isoplanatic patch and high lateral resolution can be expected to fill a gap between standard OCT with a 1.2 mm beam and conventional AO-OCT with a 6 mm beam and a 1.5° by 1.5° isoplanatic patch.

  5. Impact of optical and structural aging in As₂S₃ microstructured optical fibers on mid-infrared supercontinuum generation.

    PubMed

    Mouawad, O; Amrani, F; Kibler, B; Picot-Clémente, J; Strutynski, C; Fatome, J; Désévédavy, F; Gadret, G; Jules, J-C; Heintz, O; Lesniewska, E; Smektala, F

    2014-10-01

    We analyze optical and structural aging in As₂S₃ microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) that may have an impact on mid-infrared supercontinuum generation. A strong alteration of optical transparency at the fundamental OH absorption peak is measured for high-purity As₂S₃ MOF stored in atmospheric conditions. The surface evolution and inherent deviation of corresponding chemical composition confirm that the optical and chemical properties of MOFs degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions because of counteractive surface process. This phenomenon substantially reduces the optical quality of the MOFs and therefore restrains the spectral expansion of generated supercontinuum. This aging process is well confirmed by the good matching between previous experimental results and the reported numerical simulations based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. PMID:25321968

  6. Counterrotating stars in simulated galaxy discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algorry, David G.; Navarro, Julio F.; Abadi, Mario G.; Sales, Laura V.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Piontek, Franziska

    2014-02-01

    Counterrotating stars in disc galaxies are a puzzling dynamical feature whose origin has been ascribed to either satellite accretion events or to disc instabilities triggered by deviations from axisymmetry. We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of a disc galaxy to show that counterrotating stellar disc components may arise naturally in hierarchically clustering scenarios even in the absence of merging. The simulated disc galaxy consists of two coplanar, overlapping stellar components with opposite spins: an inner counterrotating bar-like structure made up mostly of old stars surrounded by an extended, rotationally supported disc of younger stars. The opposite-spin components originate from material accreted from two distinct filamentary structures which at turn around, when their net spin is acquired, intersect delineating a `V'-like structure. Each filament torques the other in opposite directions; the filament that first drains into the galaxy forms the inner counterrotating bar, while material accreted from the other filament forms the outer disc. Mergers do not play a substantial role and most stars in the galaxy are formed in situ; only 9 per cent of all stars are contributed by accretion events. The formation scenario we describe here implies a significant age difference between the co- and counterrotating components, which may be used to discriminate between competing scenarios for the origin of counterrotating stars in disc galaxies.

  7. In vivo evaluation of optic nerve aging in adult rhesus monkey by diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yumei; Li, Longchuan; Preuss, Todd M.; Hu, Xiaoping; Herndon, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Aging of the optic nerve can result in reduced visual sensitivity or vision loss. Normal optic nerve aging has been investigated previously in tissue specimens but poorly explored in vivo. In the present study, the normal aging of optic nerve was evaluated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in non-human primates. Adult female rhesus monkeys at the ages of 9 to 13 years old (young group, n=8) and 21 to 27 years old (old group, n=7) were studied using parallel-imaging-based DTI on a clinical 3T scanner. Compared to young adults, the old monkeys showed 26% lower fractional anisotropy (P<0.01), and 44% greater radial diffusivity, although the latter difference was of marginal statistical significance (P=0.058). These MRI findings are largely consistent with published results of light and electron microscopic studies of optic nerve aging in macaque monkeys, which indicate a loss of fibers and degenerative changes in myelin sheaths. PMID:24649434

  8. Glycosaminoglycans in intervertebral disc amyloid deposits.

    PubMed

    Athanasou, N A; Kokubun, S; West, L; Sallie, B; Puddle, B

    1995-01-01

    Intervertebral discs are a common site of localized articular and some forms of systemic articular amyloid deposition. Whether there is an intrinsic matrix factor that favours amyloid deposition in intervertebral disc connective tissues is uncertain, but it is known that small localized deposits of amyloid in intervertebral discs are largely age related. As the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) composition of the intervertebral disc is known to change with age, and as some forms of systemic amyloid deposition have been shown to be associated with particular highly sulphated GAGs, we examined the GAGs profile of amyloid deposits in intervertebral discs using mucin histochemistry (Alcian blue: MgCl2 critical electrolyte concentration) and immunohistochemistry. We found strong staining for very highly sulphated GAGs (0.9 M and 1 M MgCl2) and confirmed the presence of keratan sulphate in both localized and systemic, dialysis-associated beta 2-microglobulin amyloid deposits within disc fibrocartilage. These findings suggest that qualitative and quantitative changes in matrix GAGs, particularly strongly sulphated GAGs such as keratan sulphate, may play a role in the pathogenesis of localized and systemic amyloid deposition in intervertebral discs. PMID:8581533

  9. [Correlation of clinico-neurological peculiarities and morphological signs of small hernias (protrusion) of the lumbar intervertebral discs in formation of discogenic pain syndromes in patients of different age].

    PubMed

    Khizhniak, M V; Makeeva, T I; Priĭmak, I V

    2014-01-01

    Morphological signs of small hernias (protrusion) of intervertebral discs (IVD), the results of a neurovisualizing methods of investigation and clinico-neurological features of osteochondrosis as well, were summarized. In young and middle age patients morphological chatacteristics of small hernias (protrusion) of IVD, data of neurovisualizing methods of investigation have had correlated with clinico-neurological features of the disease and were the key determinants while performance of the puncture laser microdiscectomy. In a middle age and elderly patients a weak correlation was noted between the IVD protrusion dimensions and intensity of a lumbar and radicular pain syndromes, functional activity (Osvestry index), what have had permitted to apply a pathogenetically substantiated method of a durable epidural pharmacotherapy. The investigation results witness the necessity of differentiated application of the puncture methods of treatment for the pain discogenic syndromes in patients of different age. PMID:24923150

  10. Percutaneous lumbar disc decompression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay; Derby, Richard

    2006-04-01

    Chronic low back pain is a major social, economic, and healthcare issue in the United States. Various techniques are utilized in managing discogenic pain, with or without disc herniation. Percutaneous techniques are rapidly replacing traditional open surgery in operations requiring discectomy, decompression, and fusion. The percutaneous access to the disc was first used in the 1950s to biopsy the disc with needles. Percutaneous access to the disc using endoscopic techniques was developed in the 1970s. Technical advances in the use of intradiscal therapies led to the development of intradiscal electrothermal annuloplasty (IDET), DISC Nucleoplasty, and DeKompressor, along with laser-assisted, endoscopic, and Nucleotome disc decompressions. The indications for percutaneous lumbar disc decompression include low back and lower extremity pain caused by a symptomatic disc. Internal disc disruptions and disc herniations are common causes of low back and/or lower extremity pain which may become chronic, if not diagnosed and treated. Annular tears lead to migration of the nuclear material and deranged internal architecture. In the chronically damaged intervertebral disc, leakage of nuclear material from annular tears can initiate, promote, and continue the inflammatory process and delay or stop recovery of vital remaining intradiscal tissue. The most often stated goal of central nuclear decompression is to lower the pressure in the nucleus and to allow room for the herniated fragment to implode inward. Provocative discography prior to percutaneous lumbar disc decompression is recommended. Percutaneous disc decompression may result in a small number of complications but occasionally, these could be serious. PMID:16703975

  11. Long-term monitoring of the archetype Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15: X-ray, optical and near-IR variability of the corona, disc and torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, P.; Arévalo, P.; Uttley, P.; McHardy, I. M. M.; Videla, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present long-term monitoring of MCG-6-30-15 in X-rays, optical and near-IR wavelengths, collected over 5 yr of monitoring. We determine the power spectrum density of all the observed bands and show that after taking into account the host contamination similar power is observed in the optical and near-IR bands. There is evidence for a correlation between the light curves of the X-ray photon flux and the optical B band, but it is not possible to determine a lag with certainty, with the most likely value being around 0 d. Strong correlation is seen between the optical and near-IR bands. Cross-correlation analysis shows some complex probability distributions and lags that range from 10 to 20 d, with the near-IR following the optical variations. Filtering the light curves in frequency space shows that the strongest correlations are those corresponding to the shortest time-scales. We discuss the nature of the X-ray variability and conclude that this is intrinsic and cannot be accounted for by absorption episodes due to material intervening in the line of sight. It is also found that the lags agree with the relation τ ∝ λ4/3, as expected for an optically thick geometrically thin accretion disc, although for a larger disc than that predicted by the estimated black hole mass and accretion rate in MCG-6-30-15. The cross-correlation analysis suggests that the torus is located at ˜20 light-days from the central source and at most at ˜50 light-days from the central region. This implies an active galactic nucleus bolometric luminosity of ˜3 × 1043 erg s-1 cm-2.

  12. Spectroscopic Parameters of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terbetas, G.; Kozlovskaja, A.; Varanius, D.; Graziene, V.; Vaitkus, J.; Vaitkuviene, A.

    2009-06-01

    There are numerous methods of investigating intervertebral disc. Visualization methods are widely used in clinical practice. Histological, imunohistochemical and biochemical methods are more used in scientific research. We propose that a new spectroscopic investigation would be useful in determining intervertebral disc material, especially when no histological specimens are available. Purpose: to determine spectroscopic parameters of intervertebral disc material; to determine emission spectra common for all intervertebral discs; to create a background for further spectroscopic investigation where no histological specimen will be available. Material and Methods: 20 patients, 68 frozen sections of 20 μm thickness from operatively removed intervertebral disc hernia were excited by Nd:YAG microlaser STA-01-TH third harmonic 355 nm light throw 0, 1 mm fiber. Spectrophotometer OceanOptics USB2000 was used for spectra collection. Mathematical analysis of spectra was performed by ORIGIN multiple Gaussian peaks analysis. Results: In each specimen of disc hernia were found distinct maximal spectral peaks of 4 types supporting the histological evaluation of mixture content of the hernia. Fluorescence in the spectral regions 370-700 nm was detected in the disc hernias. The main spectral component was at 494 nm and the contribution of the components with the peak wavelength values at 388 nm, 412 nm and 435±5 nm were varying in the different groups of samples. In comparison to average spectrum of all cases, there are 4 groups of different spectral signatures in the region 400-500 nm in the patient groups, supporting a clinical data on different clinical features of the patients. Discussion and Conclusion: besides the classical open discectomy, new minimally invasive techniques of treating intervertebral disc emerge (PLDD). Intervertebral disc in these techniques is assessed by needle, no histological specimen is taken. Spectroscopic investigation via fiber optics through the needle can give additional information of needle position, assuring the needle tip is directed into intervertebral disc material. Spectroscopic analysis of intervertebral disc removed during open surgery, creates background for further investigation on intervertebral disc degeneration spectral classification.

  13. A study of axonal degeneration in the optic nerves of aging mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. E., Jr.; Philpott, D. E.; Miquel, J.

    1978-01-01

    The optic nerves of C57BL/6J mice ranging from 3 to 30 months were examined by electron microscopy. At all ages investigated, optic nerve axons contained enlarged mitochondria with abnormal cristae. With increasing age, a large number of necrotic axons were observed and were in the process of being phagocytized. The abnormal mitochondria may represent preliminary changes that eventually lead to necrosis of the axon.

  14. The avian intervertebral disc arises from rostral sclerotome and lacks a nucleus pulposus: Implications for evolution of the vertebrate disc

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Bradley J.; Maier, Jennifer A.; Mohiuddin, Yasmin S.; Powers, Rae; Lo, YinTing; Guimarães-Camboa, Nuno; Evans, Sylvia M.; Harfe, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Deterioration of the intervertebral discs is an unfortunate consequence of aging. The intervertebral disc in mammals is composed of three parts: a jelly-like center called the nucleus pulposus, the cartilaginous annulus fibrosus and anterior and posterior endplates that attach the discs to vertebrae. In order to understand the origin of the disc, we have investigated the intervertebral region of chickens. Surprisingly, our comparison of mouse and chicken discs revealed that chicken discs lack nuclei pulposi. In addition, the notochord, which in mice forms nuclei pulposi, was found to persist as a rod-like structure and express Shh throughout chicken embryogenesis. Our fate mapping data indicates that cells originating from the rostral half of each somite are responsible for forming the avian disc while cells in the caudal region of each somite form vertebrae. A histological analysis of mammalian and non-mammalian organisms suggests that nuclei pulposi are only present in mammals. PMID:22354863

  15. Stem Cell Approaches to Intervertebral Disc Regeneration: Obstacles from the Disc Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Shi, Rui; Cai, Feng; Wang, Yun-Tao; Wu, Xiao-Tao

    2015-11-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration results in segmental instability and irritates neural compressive symptoms, such as low back pain and motor deficiency. The transplanting of stem cell into degenerative discs has attracted increasing clinical attention, as a new and proven approach to alleviating disc degeneration and to relieving discogenic pains. Aside from supplementation with stem cells, the IVD itself already contains a pool of stem and progenitor cells. Since the resident disc stem cells are incapable of reversing the pathologic changes that occur during aging and disc degeneration, it has been debated as to whether transplanted stem cells are capable of providing an efficient and durable therapeutic effect, even though there have been positive outcomes in both animal models and in clinical trials. This review aims to decipher the interactions between the stem cell and the disc microenvironment. Within their new niches in the IVD, the exogenous stem cell shows metabolic adaptation to the low-glucose supply, hypoxia, and compressive loadings, but demonstrates little tolerance to the disc-like acidity and hypertonicity. Similarly, the survival of endogenous stem cells is threatened as well by the harsh disc microenvironment, which may exhaust the stem cell resources and restrict the self-repair capacity of a degenerating IVD. To eliminate the intrinsic obstacles within the stressful disc niches, stem cells should be delivered with an injectable scaffold that provides both survival and mechanical support. Quick healing or concretion of the injection injuries, which minimizes stem cell leakage and disturbance to disc homeostasis, is of equal importance toward achieving efficient stem cell-based disc regeneration. PMID:26228642

  16. Chemonucleolysis as Treatment for Herniated Lumbar Disc

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, David I.

    1986-01-01

    Herniated disc, while not the most common cause of low back pain, is the most common reason for surgery to relieve back pain. An alternative to surgery when sciatic pain is the result of disc herniation is chemonucleolysis with chymopapain. Since this enzyme is effective only in very specific circumstances, proper patient selection is crucial. Five criteria for selection are presented, emphasizing that since chemonucleolysis is not conservative treatment, it should be reserved for patients whose pain is unrelieved by conservative methods. There are several important contraindications to chemonucleolysis: allergy to chymopapain, risk of injury to the cauda equina, disc lesions at cord levels, pregnancy, patient's age (not recommended for adolescents) and sequestrated disc. Technique is exacting and should be limited to surgeons with the opportunity for concentrated experience. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21274248

  17. The focussing light guide disc DIRC design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föhl, K.; Brodski, I.; Düren, M.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Koch, P.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Sporleder, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.

    2009-11-01

    For the bar PANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility, charged particle identification is of major importance, and hence one foresees a DIRC detector with a circular radiator disc placing the optical elements for photon readout around the disc rim. To improve detector performance beyond the established BaBar DIRC the design presented here implements focussing optics and chromatic dispersion correction. A simplified disc DIRC at WASA shall serve a dual purpose. For the WASAatCOSY experiment itself the DIRC velocity measurement provides an improved energy resolution. For bar PANDA this WASA-DIRC is a real-experiment prototype validating essential design parts, and beyond the minimum design can act as a test bench for bar PANDA technology.

  18. Chemical derivatization of compact disc polycarbonate surfaces for SNPs detection.

    PubMed

    Bañuls, María-José; García-Piñón, Francisco; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Angel

    2008-03-01

    Compact discs have been proposed as an efficient analytical platform, with potential to develop high-throughput affinity assays for genomics, proteomics, clinics, and health monitoring. Chemical derivatization of CD surfaces is one of the keys to developing highly efficient microarraying-based assays on discs. Approaches for mild chemical modification of polycarbonate (PC) disc surface based on nitration, reduction, and chloromethylation reactions have been developed. Derivatized surfaces as amino and thiol are obtained for PC, maintaining unchanged the mechanical and optical properties of the discs. Studies of covalent attachment of oligonucleotide probes (5' Cy5-labeled, 3' NH 2-ended) on the modified surfaces have been performed to develop microarraying assays based on hybridization of cDNA strands and single nucleotide polymorphism discrimination (SNPs). A demonstration of the applicability to the compact disc audio/video technology for its use as analytical system is performed, including the employment of a commercial CD player to read the results on disc. PMID:18254580

  19. MRI evaluation of spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the alpaca cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Stolworthy, Dean K; Bowden, Anton E; Roeder, Beverly L; Robinson, Todd F; Holland, Jacob G; Christensen, S Loyd; Beatty, Amanda M; Bridgewater, Laura C; Eggett, Dennis L; Wendel, John D; Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Taylor, Meredith D

    2015-12-01

    Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding human pathology, treatment, and healing, but few animals are known to naturally develop intervertebral disc degeneration. The study of degenerative disc disease and its treatment would greatly benefit from a more comprehensive, and comparable animal model. Alpacas have recently been presented as a potential large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration due to similarities in spinal posture, disc size, biomechanical flexibility, and natural disc pathology. This research further investigated alpacas by determining the prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration among an aging alpaca population. Twenty healthy female alpacas comprised two age subgroups (5 young: 2-6 years; and 15 older: 10+ years) and were rated according to the Pfirrmann-grade for degeneration of the cervical intervertebral discs. Incidence rates of degeneration showed strong correlations with age and spinal level: younger alpacas were nearly immune to developing disc degeneration, and in older animals, disc degeneration had an increased incidence rate and severity at lower cervical levels. Advanced disc degeneration was present in at least one of the cervical intervertebral discs of 47% of the older alpacas, and it was most common at the two lowest cervical intervertebral discs. The prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration encourages further investigation and application of the lower cervical spine of alpacas and similar camelids as a large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:26135031

  20. Age-related changes of the corneal speckle by Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Danilo A; Iskander, D Robert

    2015-08-01

    Ageing of the population has several consequences for the human visual system. The corneal tissue which is responsible for two thirds of the total optical power is not an exception, suffering structural and anatomical changes with the age. In this study, we have explored the usefulness of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) speckle to study the age-related changes in corneal stroma. The Generalized Gamma distribution has been suggested as a model for OCT corneal speckle and was used here to investigate OCT envelope statistics in three different age groups (65 subjects in total). The scaling and the two shape parameters have shown significant statistical differences (p <; 0.05) among the age groups, showing the possibility to track the corneal changes using envelope statistics. This study shows that Generalized Gamma distribution has a great potential to fit the corneal speckle and could be a helpful complement to evaluate the structure and elastic properties of the cornea in vivo. PMID:26737576

  1. Reconstructing the star formation history of the Milky Way disc(s) from chemical abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snaith, O.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.; Katz, D.; Gómez, A.

    2015-06-01

    We develop a chemical evolution model to study the star formation history of the Milky Way. Our model assumes that the Milky Way has formed from a closed-box-like system in the inner regions, while the outer parts of the disc have experienced some accretion. Unlike the usual procedure, we do not fix the star formation prescription (e.g. Kennicutt law) to reproduce the chemical abundance trends. Instead, we fit the abundance trends with age to recover the star formation history of the Galaxy. Our method enables us to recover the star formation history of the Milky Way in the first Gyrs with unprecedented accuracy in the inner (R < 7-8 kpc) and outer (R > 9-10 kpc) discs, as sampled in the solar vicinity. We show that half the stellar mass formed during the thick-disc phase in the inner galaxy during the first 4-5 Gyr. This phase was followed by a significant dip in star formation activity (at 8-9 Gyr) and a period of roughly constant lower-level star formation for the remaining 8 Gyr. The thick-disc phase has produced as many metals in 4 Gyr as the thin-disc phase in the remaining 8 Gyr. Our results suggest that a closed-box model is able to fit all the available constraints in the inner disc. A closed-box system is qualitatively equivalent to a regime where the accretion rate maintains a high gas fraction in the inner disc at high redshift. In these conditions the SFR is mainly governed by the high turbulence of the interstellar medium. By z ~ 1 it is possible that most of the accretion takes place in the outer disc, while the star formation activity in the inner disc is mostly sustained by the gas that is not consumed during the thick-disc phase and the continuous ejecta from earlier generations of stars. The outer disc follows a star formation history very similar to that of the inner disc, although initiated at z ~ 2, about 2 Gyr before the onset of the thin-disc formation in the inner disc.

  2. Optic Nerve Drusen

    MedlinePlus

    ... the disc drusen become more apparent. How are optic disc drusen treated? There is no treatment for drusen. In the rare cases (with choroidal neovascularization) laser treatment may be indicated. Revised March 2016 Eye ...

  3. Proteomic Signature of the Murine Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Matthew R.; Patel, Priya; Frimpong, Agya; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter L.; Séguin, Cheryle A.

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is the most common musculoskeletal problem and the single most common cause of disability, often attributed to degeneration of the intervertebral disc. Lack of effective treatment is directly related to our limited understanding of the pathways responsible for maintaining disc health. While transcriptional analysis has permitted initial insights into the biology of the intervertebral disc, complete proteomic characterization is required. We therefore employed liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) protein/peptide separation and mass spectrometric analyses to characterize the protein content of intervertebral discs from skeletally mature wild-type mice. A total of 1360 proteins were identified and categorized using PANTHER. Identified proteins were primarily intracellular/plasma membrane (35%), organelle (30%), macromolecular complex (10%), extracellular region (9%). Molecular function categorization resulted in three distinct categories: catalytic activity (33%), binding (molecule interactions) (29%), and structural activity (13%). To validate our list, we confirmed the presence of 14 of 20 previously identified IVD-associated markers, including matrix proteins, transcriptional regulators, and secreted proteins. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed distinct localization patterns of select protein with the intervertebral disc. Characterization of the protein composition of healthy intervertebral disc tissue is an important first step in identifying cellular processes and pathways disrupted during aging or disease progression. PMID:25689066

  4. Discovery of the Fomalhaut C debris disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, G. M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Kalas, P.; Duchêne, G.; Sibthorpe, B.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Matthews, B. C.; Greaves, J.

    2014-02-01

    Fomalhaut is one of the most interesting and well-studied nearby stars, hosting at least one planet, a spectacular debris ring and two distant low-mass stellar companions (TW PsA and LP 876-10, a.k.a. Fomalhaut B and C). We observed both companions with Herschel, and while no disc was detected around the secondary, TW PsA, we have discovered the second debris disc in the Fomalhaut system, around LP 876-10. This detection is only the second case of two debris discs seen in a multiple system, both of which are relatively wide (≳3000 au for HD 223352/40 and 158 kau [0.77 pc] for Fomalhaut/LP 876-10). The disc is cool (24 K) and relatively bright, with a fractional luminosity Ldisc/L⋆ = 1.2 × 10-4, and represents the rare observation of a debris disc around an M dwarf. Further work should attempt to find if the presence of two discs in the Fomalhaut system is coincidental, perhaps simply due to the relatively young system age of 440 Myr, or if the stellar components have dynamically interacted and the system is even more complex than it currently appears.

  5. On total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Berg, Svante

    2011-02-01

    Low back pain consumes a large part of the community's resources dedicated to health care and sick leave. Back disorders also negatively affect the individual leading to pain suffering, decreased quality-of-life and disability. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is today often treated with fusion when conservative treatment has failed and symptoms are severe. This treatment is as successful as arthroplasty is for hip arthritis in restoring the patient's quality of life and reducing disability. Even so, there are some problems with this treatment, one of these being recurrent CLBP from an adjacent segment (ASD) after primarily successful surgery. This has led to the development of alternative surgical treatments and devices that maintain or restore mobility, in order to reduce the risk for ASD. Of these new devices, the most frequently used are the disc prostheses used in Total Disc Replacement (TDR). This thesis is based on four studies comparing total disc replacement with posterior fusion. The studies are all based on a material of 152 patients with DDD in one or two segments, aged 20-55 years that were randomly treated with either posterior fusion or TDR. The first study concerned clinical outcome and complications. Follow-up was 100% at both one and two years. It revealed that both treatment groups had a clear benefit from treatment and that patients with TDR were better in almost all outcome scores at one-year follow-up. Fusion patients continued to improve during the second year. At two-year follow-up there was a remaining difference in favour of TDR for back pain. 73% in the TDR group and 63% in the fusion group were much better or totally pain-free (n.s.), while twice as many patients in the TDR group were totally pain free (30%) compared to the fusion group (15%). Time of surgery and total time in hospital were shorter in the TDR group. There was no difference in complications and reoperations, except that seventeen of the patients in the fusion group were re-operated for removal of their implants. The second study concerned sex life and sexual function. TDR is performed via an anterior approach, an approach that has been used for a long time for various procedures on the lumbar spine. A frequent complication reported in males when this approach is used is persistent retrograde ejaculation. The TDR group in this material was operated via an extra-peritoneal approach to the retroperitoneal space, and there were no cases of persistent retrograde ejaculation. There was a surprisingly high frequency of men in the fusion group reporting deterioration in ability to have an orgasm postoperatively. Preoperative sex life was severely hampered in the majority of patients in the entire material, but sex life underwent a marked improvement in both treatment groups by the two-year follow-up that correlated with reduction in back pain. The third study was on mobility in the lumbar spinal segments, where X-rays were taken in full extension and flexion prior to surgery and at two-year follow-up. Analysis of the films showed that 78% of the patients in the fusion group reached the surgical goal (non-mobility) and that 89% of the TDR patients maintained mobility. Preoperative disc height was lower than in a normative database in both groups, and remained lower in the fusion group, while it became higher in the TDR group. Mobility in the operated segment increased in the TDR group postoperatively. Mobility at the rest of the lumbar spine increased in both treatment groups. Mobility in adjacent segments was within the norm postoperatively, but slightly larger in the fusion group. In the fourth study the health economics of TDR vs Fusion was analysed. The hospital costs for the procedure were higher for patients in the fusion group compared to the TDR group, and the TDR patients were on sick-leave two months less. In all, these studies showed that the results in the TDR group were as good as in the fusion group. Patients are more likely to be totally pain-free when treated with TDR compared to fusion. Treatment with this new procedure seems justified in selected patients at least in the short-term perspective. Long-term follow-up is underway and results will be published in due course. PMID:21542779

  6. Activ C cervical disc replacement for myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, L.; Cadman, S.; Chitgopkar, S. D.; Canavan, L.; O’Malley, M.; Shackleford, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cervical disc replacement is becoming an increasingly popular treatment option for cervical myelopathy. It retains motion at the affected segment, unlike anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The aim of this study is to assess the outcomes of a series of patients who underwent Activ C disc replacement for cervical myelopathy. Materials and Methods: A series of patients at the above Trust with clinical and radiological evidence of cervical myelopathy who were suitable for cervical disc replacement from 2007 to 2009 were included. Implants were inserted by one of two consultant surgeons {IMS, MO’M}. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at six, 12 and 24 months, postoperatively, with a visual analogue score (VAS) for neck and arm pain severity and frequency, the Neck Disability Index questionnaire (NDI) and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression questionnaire (CES-D). Results: Ten patients underwent surgery between May 2007 and July 2009, 6 women, and 4 men. Average age was 54 years (40-64). Disc levels replaced were: four at C4-5; eight at C5-6; seven at C6-7. Three patients had one disc replaced, five patients had two discs replaced, and two patients had three discs replaced. The VAS for neck pain improved from 5.9 pre-operatively to 1.4-24 months postoperatively and the VAS arm pain improved from 5.4 to 2.6. The NDI improved from 51% preoperatively to 26.8% at 24 months postoperatively. The CES-D showed a slight increase from 19.5 preoperatively to 21.7 at 24 months, postoperatively. Conclusion: Cervical decompression and disc replacement improves pain and function in patients with cervical myelopathy. This benefit is maintained at 24 months post op, with no cases requiring revision. PMID:23125494

  7. Demographics of transition discs in Ophiuchus and Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najita, Joan R.; Andrews, Sean M.; Muzerolle, James

    2015-07-01

    Transition disc systems are young stars that appear to be on the verge of dispersing their protoplanetary discs. We explore the nature of these systems by comparing the stellar accretion rates dot{M}_* and disc masses Md of transition discs and normal T Tauri stars in Taurus and Ophiuchus. After controlling for the known dependences of dot{M}_* and Md on age, dot{M}_* on stellar mass and Md on the presence of stellar or substellar companions, we find that the normal T Tauri stars show a trend of dot{M}_* increasing with Md. The transition discs tend to have higher average disc masses than normal T Tauri stars as well as lower accretion rates than normal T Tauri stars of the same disc mass. These results are most consistent with the interpretation that the transition discs have formed objects massive enough to alter the accretion flow, i.e. single or multiple giant planets. Several Ophiuchus T Tauri stars that are not known transition disc systems also have very low accretion rates for their disc masses. We speculate on the possible nature of these sources.

  8. Optical properties of neonatal skin measured in vivo as a function of age and skin pigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; Mentink, Rosaline; Kok, Joke H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties of neonatal skin is invaluable when developing new, or improving existing optical techniques for use at the neonatal intensive care. In this article, we present in vivo measurements of the absorption μa and reduced scattering coefficient μs' of neonatal skin between 450 and 600 nm and assess the influence of age and skin pigmentation on the optical properties. The optical properties were measured using a spatially resolved, steady state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy setup, combined with a modified spatially resolved diffusion model. The method was validated on phantoms with known values for the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. Values of μa and μs' were obtained from the skin at four different body locations (forehead, sternum, hand, and foot) of 60 neonates with varying gestational age, postnatal age, and skin pigmentation. We found that μa ranged from 0.02 to 1.25 mm-1 and μs' was in the range of 1 to 2.8 mm-1 (5th to 95th percentile of the patient population), independent of body location. In contrast to previous studies, no to very weak correlation was observed between the optical properties and gestational maturity, but a strong dependency of the absorption coefficient on postnatal age was found for dark skinned patients.

  9. Changes in diffusion path length with old age in diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnéry, Clément; Leclerc, Paul-Olivier; Desjardins, Michèle; Hoge, Rick; Bherer, Louis; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    Diffuse, optical near infrared imaging is increasingly being used in various neurocognitive contexts where changes in optical signals are interpreted through activation maps. Statistical population comparison of different age or clinical groups rely on the relative homogeneous distribution of measurements across subjects in order to infer changes in brain function. In the context of an increasing use of diffuse optical imaging with older adult populations, changes in tissue properties and anatomy with age adds additional confounds. Few studies investigated these changes with age. Duncan et al. measured the so-called diffusion path length factor (DPF) in a large population but did not explore beyond the age of 51 after which physiological and anatomical changes are expected to occur [Pediatr. Res. 39(5), 889-894 (1996)]. With increasing interest in studying the geriatric population with optical imaging, we studied changes in tissue properties in young and old subjects using both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Monte-Carlo simulations and time-domain diffuse optical imaging. Our results, measured in the frontal cortex, show changes in DPF that are smaller than previously measured by Duncan et al. in a younger population. The origin of these changes are studied using simulations and experimental measures.

  10. A revised burial dose estimation procedure for optical dating of youngand modern-age sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, L.J.; Roberts, R.G.; Galbraith, R.F.; DeLong, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of genuinely zero-age or near-zero-age grains in modern-age and very young samples poses a problem for many existing burial dose estimation procedures used in optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating. This difficulty currently necessitates consideration of relatively simplistic and statistically inferior age models. In this study, we investigate the potential for using modified versions of the statistical age models of Galbraith et??al. [Galbraith, R.F., Roberts, R.G., Laslett, G.M., Yoshida, H., Olley, J.M., 1999. Optical dating of single and multiple grains of quartz from Jinmium rock shelter, northern Australia: Part I, experimental design and statistical models. Archaeometry 41, 339-364.] to provide reliable equivalent dose (De) estimates for young and modern-age samples that display negative, zero or near-zero De estimates. For this purpose, we have revised the original versions of the central and minimum age models, which are based on log-transformed De values, so that they can be applied to un-logged De estimates and their associated absolute standard errors. The suitability of these 'un-logged' age models is tested using a series of known-age fluvial samples deposited within two arroyo systems from the American Southwest. The un-logged age models provide accurate burial doses and final OSL ages for roughly three-quarters of the total number of samples considered in this study. Sensitivity tests reveal that the un-logged versions of the central and minimum age models are capable of producing accurate burial dose estimates for modern-age and very young (<350??yr) fluvial samples that contain (i) more than 20% of well-bleached grains in their De distributions, or (ii) smaller sub-populations of well-bleached grains for which the De values are known with high precision. Our results indicate that the original (log-transformed) versions of the central and minimum age models are still preferable for most routine dating applications, since these age models are better suited to the statistical properties of typical single-grain and multi-grain single-aliquot De datasets. However, the unique error properties of modern-age samples, combined with the problems of calculating natural logarithms of negative or zero-Gy De values, mean that the un-logged versions of the central and minimum age models currently offer the most suitable means of deriving accurate burial dose estimates for very young and modern-age samples. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reliability and accelerated aging of LiNbO3 integrated optic fiber gyro circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchoski, Paul G., Jr.; Boivin, Gary R.

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes various reliability and accelerated aging tests that have been performed on LiNbO3 integrated optical FOG circuits fabricated by annealed proton exchange. Fully packaged devices have been temperature cycled 100 times from -65 to 125 C and subjected to 11 Grms random vibration with less than 0.5 dB variation in insertion loss. Potential failure mechanisms of LiNbO3 integrated optical circuits are discussed. Ten devices with passive 3-dB couplers have been aged at 150 C and tested every 1000 hr with little, if any, change in device performance.

  12. Artificial Disc Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... absorbs water. The device is placed into the nuclear cavity of the disc and hydrates to expand ... like material that coils around to fill the nuclear cavity. No nuclear replacement devices are available for ...

  13. Herniated Lumbar Disc

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a herniated disc? Nonsurgical treatment Medication and pain management Surgery What can I expect after surgery? How ... program are important parts of treatment. Medication and pain management Medications used to control pain are called analgesics. ...

  14. Cone photopigment in older subjects: decreased optical density in early age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Ann E.; Burns, Stephen A.; Weiter, John J.

    2002-01-01

    We measured changes to cone photoreceptors in patients with early age-related macular degeneration. The data of 53 patients were compared with normative data for color matching measurements of long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the central macula. A four-parameter model quantified cone photopigment optical density and kinetics. Cone photopigment optical density was on average less for the patients than for normal subjects and was uncorrelated with visual acuity. More light was needed to reduce the photopigment density by 50% in the steady state for patients. These results imply that cone photopigment optical density is reduced by factors other than slowed kinetics.

  15. Disc in Flames: Roles of TNF-α and IL-1β in Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Zariel I.; Schoepflin, Zachary R.; Choi, Hyowon; Shapiro, Irving M.; Risbud, Makarand V.

    2016-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is an important mechanical structure that allows range of motion of the spinal column. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc, incited by aging, traumatic insult, genetic predisposition, or other factors, is often defined by functional and structural changes in the tissue, including excessive breakdown of the extracellular matrix, increased disc cell senescence and death, and compromised biomechanical function of the tissue. Intervertebral disc degeneration is strongly correlated with low back pain, which is a highly prevalent and costly condition, significantly contributing to loss in productivity and health care costs. Disc degeneration is a chronic, progressive condition, and current therapies are limited and often focused on symptomatic pain relief rather than curtailing the progression of the disease. Inflammatory processes, exacerbated by cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β are believed to be key mediators of disc degeneration and low back pain. In this review, we describe the contributions of TNF-α and IL-1β to changes seen during disc degeneration at the cellular and tissue level, new evidence suggesting a link between infection of the spine and low back pain, and the emerging therapeutic modalities aimed at combating these processes. PMID:26388614

  16. Relationship between Initial Telomere Length, Initial Telomerase Activity, Age, and Replicative Capacity of Nucleus Pulposus Chondrocytes in Human Intervertebral Discs: What Is a Predictor of Replicative Potential?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun-Seok; Jeong, Seo-Won; Cho, Sung-Wook; Juhn, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Ki-Won

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA), and age are related to the replicative potential of human nucleus pulposus chondrocytes (NPCs). However, it has not yet been established if any of these factors can serve as predictors of the replicative potential of NPCs. To establish predictors of the replicative potential of NPCs, we evaluated potential relationships between replicative capacity of NPCs, initial TL (telomere length at the first passage), initial TA (telomerase activity at the first passage), and age. Nucleus pulposus specimens were obtained from 14 patients of various ages undergoing discectomy. NPCs were serially cultivated until the end of their replicative lifespans. Relationships among cumulative population doubling level (PDL), initial TL, initial TA, and age were analyzed. Initial TA was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.674, P = 0.008). However, no correlation between initial TL and age was observed. Cumulative PDL was also negatively correlated with age (r = -0.585, P = 0.028). Although the cumulative PDL appeared to increase with initial TL or initial TA, this trend was not statistically significant. In conclusion, age is the sole predictor of the replicative potential of human NPCs, and replicative potential decreases with age. Initial TL and initial TA are not predictors of replicative potential, and can serve only as reference values. PMID:26633809

  17. Investigation of optical loss changes in siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Shashikant G.

    In high performance electronic systems, with increasing chip speed and larger number of processors, the system performance is being limited by off-chip metal interconnects. In such systems, optical interconnects are being considered to replace electrical interconnects because of their high capacity for bandwidth and due to having less constraints on link length. Polymer waveguides are attractive as an optical interconnect medium because they can enable low-cost and high-density interconnects, and can be relatively easily integrated into organic board-level processes. The optical loss in the polymer optical waveguides is the key criterion used to evaluate their performance. Although thermal curing and aging factors can change the optical loss of polymer waveguides significantly, there is limited study on the effect of those factors. Also the field-use conditions of an embedded optoelectronic package with these polymer waveguides have not been reported in existing literature. In this research, the relationship between optical loss variations in polymer waveguides with polymer properties during thermal curing is investigated. The evolution of degree-of-cure is determined from differential scanning calorimetry and compared to optical absorption from spectroscopy. Optical loss due to scattering mechanisms is related to local density fluctuations, which is studied using dielectric analysis. Optical loss measurements are conducted on both uncladded and cladded waveguides during isothermal cure, which result in certain optical loss trends. Based on the trends, the underlying mechanisms for the optical loss variations are proposed and a cure process schedule to realize the lowest optical loss is recommended. Process-induced thermal stresses can also affect the polymer waveguide by introducing stress birefringence. In this work, the stress-optical coefficients of the siloxane polymer are extracted and employed in a numerical modeling method to determine the stress-induced birefringence in an optical waveguide system. The outlined methodology is generic in nature and can be applied to different waveguide geometries, planarization materials, and substrate/board materials to assess how stress-induced birefringence can be minimized for a given polymer core material. This research also seeks to understand the effect of thermal aging in polymer waveguides, and develop an optical loss model to ensure that the optical performance over extended field-use conditions is within the optical loss budget. The thermal-aging dependent optical loss is determined for waveguide samples at several different accelerated temperature conditions. To determine the field-use conditions, the temperature distribution in the vicinity of the embedded laser and the polymer waveguide is determined. Using such thermal experimental data, the analytical reliability models were employed to determine the optical loss with time, and provide a practical way of determining whether the optical waveguides would perform within the optical loss budget during field-use conditions.

  18. Optic disc boundary segmentation from diffeomorphic demons registration of monocular fundus image sequences versus 3D visualization of stereo fundus image pairs for automated early stage glaucoma assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Vijay; Hill, Jason; Mitra, Sunanda; Nutter, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Despite the current availability in resource-rich regions of advanced technologies in scanning and 3-D imaging in current ophthalmology practice, world-wide screening tests for early detection and progression of glaucoma still consist of a variety of simple tools, including fundus image-based parameters such as CDR (cup to disc diameter ratio) and CAR (cup to disc area ratio), especially in resource -poor regions. Reliable automated computation of the relevant parameters from fundus image sequences requires robust non-rigid registration and segmentation techniques. Recent research work demonstrated that proper non-rigid registration of multi-view monocular fundus image sequences could result in acceptable segmentation of cup boundaries for automated computation of CAR and CDR. This research work introduces a composite diffeomorphic demons registration algorithm for segmentation of cup boundaries from a sequence of monocular images and compares the resulting CAR and CDR values with those computed manually by experts and from 3-D visualization of stereo pairs. Our preliminary results show that the automated computation of CDR and CAR from composite diffeomorphic segmentation of monocular image sequences yield values comparable with those from the other two techniques and thus may provide global healthcare with a cost-effective yet accurate tool for management of glaucoma in its early stage.

  19. Bryan total disc arthroplasty: a replacement disc for cervical disc disease

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Markus; Markwalder, Thomas-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Total disc arthroplasty is a new option in the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. Several types of cervical disc prostheses currently challenge the gold-standard discectomy and fusion procedures. This review describes the Bryan Cervical Disc System and presents the Bryan prosthesis, its indications, surgical technique, complications, and outcomes, as given in the literature. PMID:22915917

  20. Assessment of fiber optic sensors for aging monitoring of industrial liquid coolants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riziotis, Christos; El Sachat, Alexandros; Markos, Christos; Velanas, Pantelis; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Aggelos

    2015-03-01

    Lately the demand for in situ and real time monitoring of industrial assets and processes has been dramatically increased. Although numerous sensing techniques have been proposed, only a small fraction can operate efficiently under harsh industrial environments. In this work the operational properties of a proposed photonic based chemical sensing scheme, capable to monitor the ageing process and the quality characteristics of coolants and lubricants in industrial heavy machinery for metal finishing processes is presented. The full spectroscopic characterization of different coolant liquids revealed that the ageing process is connected closely to the acidity/ pH value of coolants, despite the fact that the ageing process is quite complicated, affected by a number of environmental parameters such as the temperature, humidity and development of hazardous biological content as for example fungi. Efficient and low cost optical fiber sensors based on pH sensitive thin overlayers, are proposed and employed for the ageing monitoring. Active sol-gel based materials produced with various pH indicators like cresol red, bromophenol blue and chorophenol red in tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), were used for the production of those thin film sensitive layers deposited on polymer's and silica's large core and highly multimoded optical fibers. The optical characteristics, sensing performance and environmental robustness of those optical sensors are presented, extracting useful conclusions towards their use in industrial applications.

  1. Cervical disc hernia operations through posterior laminoforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yolas, Coskun; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Okay, Hilmi Onder; Kanat, Ayhan; Senol, Mehmet; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Yilmaz, Hakan; Coban, Mustafa Kemal; Yuksel, Mehmet Onur; Kahraman, Umit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The most common used technique for posterolateral cervical disc herniations is anterior approach. However, posterior cervical laminotoforaminomy can provide excellent results in appropriately selected patients with foraminal stenosis in either soft disc prolapse or cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical outcomes following posterior laminoforaminotomy in patients with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients diagnosed with posterolateral cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis with foraminal stenosis causing radiculopathy operated by the posterior cervical keyhole laminoforaminotomy between the years 2010 and 2015. Results: The file records and the radiographic images of the 35 patients were assessed retrospectively. The mean age was 46.4 years (range: 34-66 years). Of the patients, 19 were males and 16 were females. In all of the patients, the neurologic deficit observed was radiculopathy. The posterolaterally localized disc herniations and the osteophytic structures were on the left side in 18 cases and on the right in 17 cases. In 10 of the patients, the disc level was at C5-6, in 18 at C6-7, in 2 at C3-4, in 2 at C4-5, in 1 at C7-T1, in 1 patient at both C5-6 and C6-7, and in 1 at both C4-5 and C5-6. In 14 of these 35 patients, both osteophytic structures and protruded disc herniation were present. Intervertebral foramen stenosis was present in all of the patients with osteophytes. Postoperatively, in 31 patients the complaints were relieved completely and four patients had complaints of neck pain and paresthesia radiating to the arm (the success of operation was 88.5%). On control examinations, there was no finding of instability or cervical kyphosis. Conclusion: Posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy is an alternative appropriate choice in both cervical soft disc herniations and cervical stenosis. PMID:27217655

  2. The origin of thick discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, Sébastien

    2015-03-01

    Thick discs are defined to be disc-like components with a scale height larger than that of the classical discs. They are ubiquitous (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comerón et al. 2011a), they are made of mostly old and metal-poor stars and are most easily detected in close to edge-on galaxies. Their origin has been considered mysterious and several formation theories have been proposed: • The thick disc being formed secularly by thin disc stars heated by disc overdensities such as giant molecular clouds or spiral arms (Villumsen 1985, ApJ, 290, 75) and by stars moved outwards from their original orbits by radial migration mechanisms (Schönrich & Binney 2009). • The thick disc being formed by the heating of the thin disc by satellites (Quinn et al. 1993) and the tidal stripping of them (Abadi et al. 2003). • The thick disc being formed fast and already thick at high redshift in an highly unstable disc. Inside that thick disc, a thin disc would form afterwards as suggested by Elemgreen & Elmegreen (2006). • The thick disc being formed originally thick at high redshift by the merger of gas-rich protogalactic fragments and a thin disc forming afterwards within it (Brook et al. 2007). The first mechanism is a secular evolution mechanism. The time-scale of the second one is dependent on the merger history of the main galaxy. In the two last mechanisms, the thick disc forms already thick in a short time-scale at high redshift. Recent Milky Way studies, (see, e.g., Bovy et al. 2012), have shown indications that there is no discontinuity between the thin and the thick disc chemical and kinematic properties. Instead, those studies indicate the presence of a monotonic distribution of disc thicknesses. This would suggest a secular origin for the Milky Way thick disc. Studies in external galaxies (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comerón et al. 2011b), have shown that low-mass disc galaxies have thick disc relative masses much larger than those found in large-mass galaxies. Because low-mass galaxies are dynamically younger than their larger counterparts, it seems difficult for their thick discs to have a secular evolution origin, but simulations show that their thick disc masses are compatible with those of a thick disc formed at high redshift. Thus, recent studies seem to indicate that large-mass galaxies have their thick discs formed mainly due to secular evolution and that low-mass galaxies have them formed at high redshift.

  3. Use of polystyrene spin-coated compact discs for microimmunoassaying.

    PubMed

    Tamarit-López, Jesús; Morais, Sergi; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Angel

    2008-02-18

    The analytical potential of polystyrene (PS) spin-coated modified compact discs (CDs) surface as platforms for the development of microarray immunoassays is presented. The surface maintained the optical characteristics of compact discs, obtaining a transparent and smooth film polymer of 70 nm thickness, the track being read (lambda 780 nm) without errors in a commercial CD reader/writer. The analytical capability of the methodology was demonstrated through an analysis of a neurotoxic compound (2560 spots per disc), reaching 0.08 microg L(-1) as limit of detection. These figures demonstrate the enormous potential of using PS spin-coated compact discs in combination with CD players as an easy-to-operate and portable device to develop lab-on-a-disc analytical applications. PMID:18243880

  4. Herschel-PACS observations of discs in the η Chamaeleontis association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Elliott, P.; Rebollido, I.; Bayo, A.; Ribas, A.; Merín, B.; Kamp, I.; Dent, W. R. F.; Montesinos, B.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Protoplanetary discs are the birthplace of planets. Studying protoplanetary discs is the key to constraining theories of planet formation. By observing dust and gas in associations at different ages we can study the evolution of these discs, their clearing timescales, and their physical and geometrical properties.The stellar association η Cha is peculiar; some members still retain detectable amounts of gas in their discs at the late age of ~7 Myr, making it one of the most interesting young stellar associations in the solar neighbourhood. Aims: We characterise the properties of dust and gas in protoplanetary and transitional discs in the η Cha young cluster, with special emphasis on explaining the peculiarities that lead to the observed high disc detection fraction and prominent IR excesses at an age of ~7 Myr. Methods: We observed 17 members of the η Cha association with Herschel-PACS in photometric mode and line spectroscopic mode. A subset of members were also observed in range spectroscopic mode. The observations trace [OI] and H2O emissions at 63.18 and 63.32 μm, respectively, as well as CO, OH, CH+, and [CII] at different wavelengths for those systems observed in range mode. The photometric observations were used to build complete spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the optical to the far-IR. High-resolution multi-epoch optical spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios were also analysed to study the multiplicity of the sources and look for further gas (accreting) and outflow indicators. Results: We detect four out of fifteen sources observed at 70 μm, four out of six at 100 μm, and six out of sixteen at 160 μm. Only one system shows [OI] emission at 63 μm, namely RECX 15 or J0843.3-7905. None of them shows far-IR line emission at any other wavelength. The [OI] emission toward RECX 15 points to the presence of an outflow; however, the emission is not extended. We study Hα emission among η Cha members and conclude that RECX 4, 5, 9, 11, and 15 are actively accreting in at least one epoch. Conclusions: The SEDs of the discs in η Cha show a variety of shapes, from those in Taurus and in Upper Scorpius to sources showing excess over the Taurus median SED. Furthermore, the SEDs of RECX 3 and RECX 4 are typical of debris discs. The detection fraction for [OI] in η Cha is lower than younger regions like Taurus and Cha II, indicative of an evolutionary trend. The lack of [OI] emission, together with the intermediate values of the IR excess, can be explained by long-lived discs with a flattened geometry or by flared discs with a low UV flux, or by a combination of the two scenarios. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  5. The ProDisc artificial disc: insertion technique.

    PubMed

    Aryan, Henry E; Acosta, Frank L; Ames, Christopher P

    2005-10-01

    The ProDisc artificial lumbar disc was designed for use in treatment of degenerative lumbar disease. The disc is implanted using an anterior approach to the lumbar spine with the assistance of intraoperative fluoroscopy. A variety of insertion instruments guide the surgeon through this process. The disc is implanted via an anterior approach, generally retroperitoneally but on occasion transperitoneally. The different approaches and insertion technique are described in this article. PMID:16326288

  6. Aging Related Changes of Retina and Optic Nerve of Uromastyx aegyptia and Falco tinnunculus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a biological phenomenon that involves gradual degradation of the structure and function of the retina and optic nerve. To our knowledge, little is known about the aging-related ocular cell loss in avian (Falco tinnunculus) and reptilian species (Uromastyx aegyptia). A selected 90 animals of pup, middle, and old age U. aegyptia (reptilian) and F. tinnunculus (avian) were used. The retinae and optic nerves were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and assessments of neurotransmitters, antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismustase and glutathione s transferase), caspase-3 and -7, malonadialdhyde, and DNA fragmentation. Light and TEM observations of the senile specimens revealed apparent deterioration of retinal cell layers, especially the pigmented epithelium and photoreceptor outer segments. Their inclusions of melanin were replaced by lipofuscins. Also, vacuolar degeneration and demyelination of the optic nerve axons were detected. Concomitantly, there was a marked increase of oxidative stress involved reduction of neurotransmitters and antioxidant enzymes and an increase of lipid peroxidation, caspase-3 and -7, subG0/G1 apoptosis, and P53. We conclude that aging showed an inverse relationship with the neurotransmitters and antioxidant enzymes and a linear relationship of caspases, malondialdhyde, DNA apoptosis, and P53 markers of cell death. These markers reflected the retinal cytological alterations and lipofuscin accumulation within inner segments. PMID:24215233

  7. Total Disc Arthroplasty for Treating Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Lumber disc arthroplasty is a technological advancement that has occurred in the last decade to treat lumbar degenerative disk diseases. Purpose The aim of this retrospective study was to establish the impact and outcomes of managing patients with lumbar degenerative disk disease who have been treated with lumbar total disc arthroplasty (TDA). Overview of Literature Several studies have shown promising results following this surgery. Methods We reviewed the files of 104 patients at the Department of Neurosurgery in Colmar (France) who had been operated on by lumbar spine arthroplasty (Prodisc) between April 2002 and October 2008. Results Among the 104 patients, 67 were female and 37 were male with an average age of 33.1 years. We followed the cases for a mean of 20 months. The most frequent level of discopathy was L4-L5 with 62 patients (59.6%) followed by L5-S1 level with 52 patients (50%). Eighty-three patients suffered from low back pain, 21 of which were associated with radiculopathy. The status of 82 patients improved after surgery according to the Oswestry Disability Index score, and 92 patients returned to work. Conclusions The results indicate that TDA is a good alternative treatment for lumbar spine disk disease, particularly for patients with disabling and chronic low back pain. This technique contributes to improve living conditions with correct patient selection for surgery. PMID:25705336

  8. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth of the superficial reticular dermis. PMID:26066511

  9. Measuring skin aging using optical coherence tomography in vivo: a validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojahn, Carina; Dobos, Gabor; Richter, Claudia; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Dermal and epidermal structures in human skin change during intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Epidermal thickness is one of the most often reported parameters for the assessment of skin aging in cross-sectional images captured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We aimed to identify further parameters for the noninvasive measurement of skin aging of sun-exposed and sun-protected areas utilizing OCT. Based on a literature review, seven parameters were inductively developed. Three independent raters assessed these parameters using four-point scales on images of female subjects of two age groups. All items could be detected and quantified in our sample. Interrater agreement ranged between 25.0% and 83.3%. The item scores "stratum corneum reflectivity," "upper dermal reflectivity," and "dermoepidermal contrast" showed significant differences between age groups on the volar and dorsal forearm indicating that they were best able to measure changes during skin aging. "Surface unevenness" was associated with the skin roughness parameters, Rz and Rmax, on the inner upper arm and volar forearm supporting the criterion validity of this parameter on sun-protected skin areas. Based on the interrater agreement and the ability to differentiate between age groups, these four parameters are being considered as the best candidates for measuring skin aging in OCT images.

  10. Autonomous Optical Sensor System for the Monitoring of Nitrogen Dioxide from Aging Rocket Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    COX, TRISHA D.; SINGH, SEEMA; HUNTER, JOHN A.; JONES, GARY D.; SINCLAIR, MICHAEL B.; ROHWER, LAUREN E. S.; POHL, PHILLIP I.; ANDRZEJEWSKI, WILLIAM; SASAKI, DARRYL Y.

    2001-09-01

    An optical sensor system has been developed for the autonomous monitoring of NO{sub 2} evolution in energetic material aging studies. The system is minimally invasive, requiring only the presence of a small sensor film within the aging chamber. The sensor material is a perylene/PMMA film that is excited by a blue LED light source and the fluorescence detected with a CCD spectrometer. Detection of NO{sub 2} gas is done remotely through the glass window of the aging chamber. Irreversible reaction of NO{sub 2} with perylene, producing the non-fluorescent nitroperylene, provides the optical sensing scheme. The rate of fluorescence intensity loss over time can be modeled using a numerical solution to the coupled diffusion and a nonlinear chemical reaction problem to evaluate NO{sub 2} concentration levels. The light source, spectrometer, spectral acquisition, and data processing were controlled through a Labivew program run by a laptop PC. Due to the long times involved with materials aging studies the system was designed to turn on, warm up, acquire data, power itself off, then recycle at a specific time interval. This allowed the monitoring of aging HE material over the period of several weeks with minimal power consumption and stable LED light output. Despite inherent problems with gas leakage of the aging chamber they were able to test the sensor system in the field under an accelerated aging study of rocket propellant. They found that the propellant evolved NO{sub 2} at a rate that yielded a concentration of between 10 and 100 ppm. The sensor system further revealed that the propellant, over an aging period of 25 days, evolves NO{sub 2} with cyclic behavior between active and dormant periods.

  11. Thoracic disc herniations.

    PubMed

    Dietze, D D; Fessler, R G

    1993-01-01

    Because of the protean nature of thoracic disc disease, surgeons should maintain a high order of suspicion of a thoracic disc herniation in the patient with unexplained localized back or torso pain and sensorimotor deficits. These patients should have MR imaging performed as a screening test, and, if suspicious for a thoracic disc herniation, confirmatory myelogram and postmyelogram CT imaging. Though the natural history is anecdotal, there appears to be a tendency for myelopathic symptoms and signs to be progressive, warranting surgical intervention. For radicular dysfunction or localized back pain, a conservative therapeutic plan is recommended. If intractable pain is demonstrated, and the diagnosis is certain, then surgical intervention is recommended. Once surgical intervention is recommended the surgical approach needs to be individualized according to the surgeon's skills and experience and the specifics of the patient's pathology. Appropriate surgical decision-making depends on an understanding of the variety of surgical options and their advantages and disadvantages, and an understanding of the biomechanical factors of the spine of the individual patient. Surgical concepts important to successful thoracic disc removal are (1) minimal spinal cord manipulation, (2) preservation of the neurovascular supply whenever possible, (3) minimal manipulation of the intercostal nerve, and (4) preservation of maximal bony and ligamentous attachments allowable for adequate exposure. Lastly it is recommended that the posterior longitudinal ligament be removed to ensure complete spinal cord decompression. PMID:8428158

  12. The DISC Quotient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John R.; Baxter, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    D.I.S.C: Decipherment Impact of a Signal's Content. The authors present a numerical method to characterise the significance of the receipt of a complex and potentially decipherable signal from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). The purpose of the scale is to facilitate the public communication of work on any such claimed signal, as such work proceeds, and to assist in its discussion and interpretation. Building on a "position" paper rationale, this paper looks at the DISC quotient proposed and develops the algorithmic steps and comprising measures that form this post detection strategy for information dissemination, based on prior work on message detection, decipherment. As argued, we require a robust and incremental strategy, to disseminate timely, accurate and meaningful information, to the scientific community and the general public, in the event we receive an "alien" signal that displays decipherable information. This post-detection strategy is to serve as a stepwise algorithm for a logical approach to information extraction and a vehicle for sequential information dissemination, to manage societal impact. The "DISC Quotient", which is based on signal analysis processing stages, includes factors based on the signal's data quantity, structure, affinity to known human languages, and likely decipherment times. Comparisons with human and other phenomena are included as a guide to assessing likely societal impact. It is submitted that the development, refinement and implementation of DISC as an integral strategy, during the complex processes involved in post detection and decipherment, is essential if we wish to minimize disruption and optimize dissemination.

  13. The Teddy Bears' Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurillard, Diana

    1985-01-01

    Reports an evaluation of the Teddy Bear disc, an interactive videodisc developed at the Open University for a second-level course in metallurgy and materials technology. Findings from observation of students utilizing the videodisc are reviewed; successful design features and design problems are considered; and development costs are outlined. (MBR)

  14. Revival of the Jumping Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H-J.

    2009-01-01

    Snap discs made of bimetal have many technical applications as thermostats. Jumping discs are a toy version of such snap discs. Besides giving technical information, we describe physical investigations. We show especially how, through simple measurements and calculations, you can determine the initial speed ([approximately equal to]3.5 m

  15. Revival of the Jumping Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H-J.

    2009-01-01

    Snap discs made of bimetal have many technical applications as thermostats. Jumping discs are a toy version of such snap discs. Besides giving technical information, we describe physical investigations. We show especially how, through simple measurements and calculations, you can determine the initial speed ([approximately equal to]3.5 m…

  16. Accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline GRIN lens.

    PubMed

    Sheil, Conor J; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce a new age-dependent model of the human lens with two GRIN power distributions (axial and radial) that allow decoupling of its refractive power and axial optical path length. The aspect ratio of the lens core can be held constant under accommodation, as well as the lens volume by varying the asphericity of the lens external surfaces. The spherical aberration calculated by exact raytracing is shown to be in line with experimental data. The proposed model is compared to previous GRIN models from the literature, and it is concluded that the features of the new model will be useful for GRIN reconstruction in future experimental studies; in particular, studies of the accommodation-dependent properties of the ageing human eye. A proposed logarithmic model of the lens core enables decoupling of three fundamental optical characteristics of the lens, namely axial optical path length, optical power and third-order spherical aberration, without changing the external shape of the lens. Conversely, the near-surface GRIN structure conforms to the external shape of the lens, which is necessary for accommodation modelling. PMID:27231637

  17. Accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline GRIN lens

    PubMed Central

    Sheil, Conor J.; Goncharov, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce a new age-dependent model of the human lens with two GRIN power distributions (axial and radial) that allow decoupling of its refractive power and axial optical path length. The aspect ratio of the lens core can be held constant under accommodation, as well as the lens volume by varying the asphericity of the lens external surfaces. The spherical aberration calculated by exact raytracing is shown to be in line with experimental data. The proposed model is compared to previous GRIN models from the literature, and it is concluded that the features of the new model will be useful for GRIN reconstruction in future experimental studies; in particular, studies of the accommodation-dependent properties of the ageing human eye. A proposed logarithmic model of the lens core enables decoupling of three fundamental optical characteristics of the lens, namely axial optical path length, optical power and third-order spherical aberration, without changing the external shape of the lens. Conversely, the near-surface GRIN structure conforms to the external shape of the lens, which is necessary for accommodation modelling. PMID:27231637

  18. Modeling the Compact Disc Read System in Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinaus, Brad; Veum, Mick

    2009-01-01

    One of the great, engaging aspects of physics is its application to everyday technology. The compact disc player is an example of one such technology that applies fundamental principles from optics in order to efficiently store and quickly retrieve information. We have created a lab in which students use simple optical components to assemble a

  19. Modeling the Compact Disc Read System in Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinaus, Brad; Veum, Mick

    2009-01-01

    One of the great, engaging aspects of physics is its application to everyday technology. The compact disc player is an example of one such technology that applies fundamental principles from optics in order to efficiently store and quickly retrieve information. We have created a lab in which students use simple optical components to assemble a…

  20. Taking the pulse of aging: mapping pulse pressure and elasticity in cerebral arteries with optical methods.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, Monica; Low, Kathy A; Tan, Chin-Hong; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Fletcher, Mark A; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Maclin, Edward L; Chiarelli, Antonio M; Sutton, Bradley P; Gratton, Gabriele

    2014-11-01

    Cerebrovascular support is crucial for healthy cognitive and brain aging. Arterial stiffening is a cause of reduced brain blood flow, a predictor of cognitive decline, and a risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents and Alzheimer's disease. Arterial health is influenced by lifestyle factors, such as cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). We investigated new noninvasive optical measures of cerebrovascular health, which provide estimates of arterial pulse parameters (pulse pressure, transit time, and compliance/elasticity) within specific cerebral arteries and cortical regions, and low-resolution maps of large superficial cerebral arteries. We studied naturally occurring variability in these parameters in adults (aged 55-87), and found that these indices of cerebrovascular health are negatively correlated with age and positively with CRF and gray and white matter volumes. Further, regional pulse transit time predicts specific neuropsychological performance. PMID:25100639

  1. Massive black hole binary mergers within subparsec scale gas discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadra, J.; Armitage, P. J.; Alexander, R. D.; Begelman, M. C.

    2009-03-01

    We study the efficiency and dynamics of supermassive black hole binary mergers driven by angular momentum loss to small-scale gas discs. Such binaries form after major galaxy mergers, but their fate is unclear since hardening through stellar scattering becomes very inefficient at subparsec distances. Gas discs may dominate binary dynamics on these scales, and promote mergers. Using numerical simulations, we investigate the evolution of the semimajor axis and eccentricity of binaries embedded within geometrically thin gas discs. Our simulations directly resolve angular momentum transport within the disc, which at the radii of interest is likely dominated by disc self-gravity. We show that the binary decays at a rate which is in good agreement with analytical estimates, while the eccentricity grows. Saturation of eccentricity growth is not observed up to values e >~ 0.35. Accretion on to the black holes is variable, and is roughly modulated by the binary orbital frequency. Scaling our results, we analytically estimate the maximum rate of binary decay that is possible without fragmentation occurring within the surrounding gas disc, and compare that rate to an estimate of the stellar dynamical hardening rate. For binary masses in the range 105 <~ M <~ 108Msolar we find that decay due to gas discs may dominate for separations below a ~ 0.01-0.1pc, in the regime where the disc is optically thick. The minimum merger time-scale is shorter than the Hubble time for M <~ 107Msolar. This implies that gas discs could commonly attend relatively low-mass black hole mergers, and that a significant population of binaries might exist at separations of a few hundredths of a parsec, where the combined decay rate is slowest. For more massive binaries, where this mechanism fails to act quickly enough, we suggest that scattering of stars formed within a fragmenting gas disc could act as a significant additional sink of binary angular momentum.

  2. An optical age chronology of late Quaternary extreme fluvial events recorded in Ugandan dambo soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahan, S.A.; Brown, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    There is little geochonological data on sedimentation in dambos (seasonally saturated, channel-less valley floors) found throughout Central and Southern Africa. Radiocarbon dating is problematic for dambos due to (i) oxidation of organic materials during dry seasons; and (ii) the potential for contemporary biological contamination of near-surface sediments. However, for luminescence dating the equatorial site and semi-arid climate facilitate grain bleaching, while the gentle terrain ensures shallow water columns, low turbidity, and relatively long surface exposures for transported grains prior to deposition and burial. For this study, we focused on dating sandy strata (indicative of high-energy fluvial events) at various positions and depths within a second-order dambo in central Uganda. Blue-light quartz optically stimulated luminescences (OSL) ages were compared with infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) ages from finer grains in the same sample. A total of 8 samples were dated, with 6 intervals obtained at ???35, 33, 16, 10.4, 8.4, and 5.9 ka. In general, luminescence ages were stratigraphically, geomorphically and ordinally consistent and most blue-light OSL ages could be correlated with well-dated climatic events registered either in Greenland ice cores or Lake Victoria sediments. Based upon OSL age correlations, we theorize that extreme fluvial dambo events occur primarily during relatively wet periods, often preceding humid-to-arid transitions. The optical ages reported in this study provide the first detailed chronology of dambo sedimentation, and we anticipate that further dambo work could provide a wealth of information on the paleohydrology of Central and Southern Africa. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Origin and Evolution of Transition Discs: Successes, Problems, and Open Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, James E.

    2016-02-01

    Transition discs are protoplanetary discs that show evidence for large holes or wide gaps (with widths comparable to their radii) in their dust component. These discs could be giving us clues about the disc destruction mechanism or hints about the location and time-scales for the formation of planets. However, at the moment there remain key gaps in our theoretical understanding. The vast majority of transition discs are accreting onto their central stars, indicating that-at least close to the star-dust has been depleted from the gas by a very large amount. In this review, we discuss evidence for two distinct populations of transition discs: mm-faint-those with low mm-fluxes, small holes (≲ 10 AU), and low accretion rates (~ 10-10 - 10-9 M⊙ yr-1) and mm-bright-discs with large mm-fluxes, large holes (≳ 20 AU), and high accretion rates ~ 10-8 M⊙ yr-1. MM-faint transition discs are consistent with what would naively be expected from a disc undergoing dispersal; however, mm-bright discs are not, and are likely to be rare and long-lived objects. We discuss the two commonly proposed mechanisms for creating transition discs: photoevaporation and planet-disc interactions, with a particular emphasis on how they would evolve in these models, comparing these predictions to the observed population. More theoretical work on explaining the lack of optically thick, non-accreting transition discs is required in both the photoevaporation and planetary hypothesis, before we can start to use transition discs to constrain models of planet formation. Finally, we suggest that the few discs with primordial looking spectral energy distribution, but serendipitously imaged showing large cavities in the mm (e.g. MWC758 and WSB 60) may represent a hidden population of associated objects. Characterising and understanding how these objects fit into the overall paradigm may allow us to unravel the mystery of transition discs.

  4. Biomechanics of Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Palepu, V.; Kodigudla, M.; Goel, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Disc degeneration and associated disorders are among the most debated topics in the orthopedic literature over the past few decades. These may be attributed to interrelated mechanical, biochemical, and environmental factors. The treatment options vary from conservative approaches to surgery, depending on the severity of degeneration and response to conservative therapies. Spinal fusion is considered to be the “gold standard” in surgical methods till date. However, the association of adjacent level degeneration has led to the evolution of motion preservation technologies like spinal arthroplasty and posterior dynamic stabilization systems. These new technologies are aimed to address pain and preserve motion while maintaining a proper load sharing among various spinal elements. This paper provides an elaborative biomechanical review of the technologies aimed to address the disc degeneration and reiterates the point that biomechanical efficacy followed by long-term clinical success will allow these nonfusion technologies as alternatives to fusion, at least in certain patient population. PMID:22745914

  5. LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    Vialle, Luis Roberto; Vialle, Emiliano Neves; Suárez Henao, Juan Esteban; Giraldo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis among the degenerative abnormalities of the lumbar spine (affecting 2 to 3% of the population), and is the principal cause of spinal surgery among the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (four to six weeks). The initial treatment should be conservative, managed through medication and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with percutaneous nerve root block. Surgical treatment is indicated if pain control is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit greater than grade 3, if there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or if cauda equina syndrome is present. The latter represents a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces the risk of recurrence over the long term. PMID:27019834

  6. Two-level total lumbar disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bakaloudis, Georgios; Lolli, Francesco; Vommaro, Francesco; Parisini, Patrizio

    2009-01-01

    Total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) has been widely used as a treatment option for 2-level symptomatic degenerative disc disease. However, recent studies have presented conflicting results and some authors concluded that outcome deteriorated when disc replacement was performed bisegmentally, with an increase of complications for bisegmental replacements in comparison with monosegmental disc arthroplasty. The goal of the present retrospective study is to investigate results in a group of patients who have received bisegmental TDR with SB Charitè III artificial disc for degenerative disc disease with a minimum follow-up of 3 years, and to compare the results of 2-level disc replacement versus 1-level patients treated with the same prosthesis. A total of 32 patients had at least 3-years follow-up and were reviewed. The average age of the patients was 38.5 years. There were 11 males and 21 females. About 16 patients received 2-level TDR (SB Charitè III) and 16 received 1-level TDR (SB Charitè III). Both radiographic and functional outcome analysis, including patient’s satisfaction, was performed. There were no signs of degenerative changes of the adjacent segments in any case of the 2- or 1-level TDR. There was no statistically significant difference between 2- and 1-level TDR both at 12 months and at 3-years follow-up on functional outcome scores. There was a statistically insignificant difference concerning the patients satisfaction between 1- and 2-level surgeries at the last follow-up (P = 0.46). In the 2-level TDR patients, there were 5 minor complications (31.25%), whereas major complications occurred in 4 more patients (25%) and required a new surgery in 2 cases (12.5%). In the 1-level cases there were 2 minor complications (12.5%) and 2 major complications (12.5%) and a new revision surgery was required in 1 patient (6.25%). In conclusion, the use of 2-level disc replacement at last follow-up presented a higher incidence of complications than in cases with 1-level replacement. At the same time it was impossible to delineate a clear difference in evaluating the questionnaires between the follow-up results of patients receiving 2- and 1-level TDR: the 2-level group presented slightly lower scores at follow-up, but none was statistically significant. PMID:19399536

  7. Lumbar disc replacement: update.

    PubMed

    Heider, F C; Mayer, H M; Siepe, C J

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decades, fusion of lumbar spinal motion segments has represented the mainstay of treatment of lumbar degenerative conditions which failed to respond adequately to conservative therapy. Increasing demands and expectations from patients as well as the necessity to avoid fusion related negative side effects such as adjacent level disc degeneration, considerable complication and reoperation rates, cranial facet joint violations, pseudarthrosis and others led to the development of motion preserving technologies such as total lumbar disc replacement (TDR). The first and rudimentary attempts to preserve motion of lumbar motion segments can be dated back to the early 1950s. Over the past two to three decades, a variety of new implants with different motion characteristics have been developed and introduced into the market. Despite of the extensive knowledge which has been gained in this field of research, insurers in the United States have refused to reimburse surgeons due to fear of late complications and reoperations as well as unknown secondary costs, which led to a global decline in the numbers of TDR procedures. The current literature review intends to provide a concise summary of the adequate indications for TDR as well as outcome determining factors and delineate the role of TDR in the currently available armamentarium for the treatment of low back pain (LBP) resulting from degenerative disc disease (DDD) without instabilities or deformities. PMID:25649068

  8. Age- and Sex-Dependency of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy Measurements of Optic Nerve Vessel Microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Naoko; Kunikata, Hiroshi; Nitta, Fumihiko; Shiga, Yukihiro; Omodaka, Kazuko; Tsuda, Satoru; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between various characteristics of a normal population and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) measurements of mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH). Methods A total of 189 eyes of 189 normal subjects (93 male, 96 female, mean age 45 ± 14 years old, age range: 20–72) without any history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes were enrolled. ONH microcirculation was measured with LSFG and overall MBR (MA), vessel-area MBR (MV), and tissue-area MBR (MT) were derived from these measurements. The statistical association of these measurements with characteristics such as sex, age, intraocular pressure (IOP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was then determined. Results There was a trend towards decreased IOP and MV and increased SBP with age (P = 0.002, P = 0.035, and P = 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, IOP, MV and SBP were correlated with age (r = -0.23, P = 0.011; r = -0.24, P < 0.001; and r = 0.30, P < 0.001, respectively). Separate multiple regression analyses of independent contributing factors revealed that sex and IOP contributed to MA (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), sex, IOP, and age contributed to MV (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, and P = 0.024, respectively), while only IOP contributed to MT (P = 0.003). Conclusion In a normal population, MBR was affected by IOP in both the large vessel and capillary areas of the ONH, but not by SBP. MV was also affected by age and sex, while MT was stable independent of age or sex. PMID:26872348

  9. Apsidal precession, disc breaking and viscosity in warped discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nealon, Rebecca; Nixon, Chris; Price, Daniel J.; King, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the importance of general relativistic apsidal precession in warped black hole accretion discs by comparing three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations in which this effect is first neglected, and then included. If apsidal precession is neglected, we confirm the results of an earlier magnetohydrodynamic simulation which made this assumption, showing that at least in this case the α viscosity model produces very similar results to those of simulations where angular momentum transport is due to the magnetorotational instability. Including apsidal precession significantly changes the predicted disc evolution. For moderately inclined discs thick enough that tilt is transported by bending waves, we find a disc tilt which is non-zero at the inner disc edge and oscillates with radius, consistent with published analytic results. For larger inclinations, we find disc breaking.

  10. Evolution of Black Carbon Optical Properties during Atmospheric Aging: Comparison Between Theoretical Calculations and Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, C.; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Li, Q.; Yang, P.; Zhang, R.

    2014-12-01

    The optical properties of black carbon (BC) are significantly affected by its aging process in the atmosphere. We have built a conceptual model defining three BC aging stages, including freshly emitted BC aggregates, coating by soluble material and hygroscopic growth. We apply an improved geometric-optics surface-wave approach (Liou et al., 2011; Takano et al., 2013) to calculate the absorption and scattering properties of BC at each stage and compare the theoretical results with those obtained from laboratory experiments (Zhang et al., 2008; Khalizov et al., 2009). Preliminary results show a general agreement between calculated and measured BC absorption cross sections (bias < 10%) and scattering cross sections (bias < 30%) for BC aerosols with mobility diameters of 155, 245 and 320 nm at Stages 1 and 2, where BC is coated by sulfuric acid and its water solution, respectively. We find that the calculated scattering and absorption cross sections for fresh BC aggregates (Stage 0) with different sizes are invariably larger than experimental results partly because of the uncertainty in theoretical calculations for BC with size parameters less than 1. It appears that the uncertainty in the experiment could also contribute to the discrepancy, considering that the measuring instrument missed some scattering in certain angles (0-7° and 170-180°). Finally, we will apply the conceptual model and the single-scattering results to assess the effects of BC aging processes on direct radiative forcing using observed BC vertical profiles.

  11. Changes in quantitative 3D shape features of the optic nerve head associated with age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, Mark; Tang, Li; Fingert, John H.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Abramoff, Michael D.

    2013-02-01

    Optic nerve head (ONH) structure is an important biological feature of the eye used by clinicians to diagnose and monitor progression of diseases such as glaucoma. ONH structure is commonly examined using stereo fundus imaging or optical coherence tomography. Stereo fundus imaging provides stereo views of the ONH that retain 3D information useful for characterizing structure. In order to quantify 3D ONH structure, we applied a stereo correspondence algorithm to a set of stereo fundus images. Using these quantitative 3D ONH structure measurements, eigen structures were derived using principal component analysis from stereo images of 565 subjects from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS). To evaluate the usefulness of the eigen structures, we explored associations with the demographic variables age, gender, and race. Using regression analysis, the eigen structures were found to have significant (p < 0.05) associations with both age and race after Bonferroni correction. In addition, classifiers were constructed to predict the demographic variables based solely on the eigen structures. These classifiers achieved an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.62 in predicting a binary age variable, 0.52 in predicting gender, and 0.67 in predicting race. The use of objective, quantitative features or eigen structures can reveal hidden relationships between ONH structure and demographics. The use of these features could similarly allow specific aspects of ONH structure to be isolated and associated with the diagnosis of glaucoma, disease progression and outcomes, and genetic factors.

  12. Outwards migration for planets in stellar irradiated 3D discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lega, E.; Morbidelli, A.; Bitsch, B.; Crida, A.; Szulágyi, J.

    2015-09-01

    For the very first time we present 3D simulations of planets embedded in stellar irradiated discs. It is well known that thermal effects could reverse the direction of planetary migration from inwards to outwards, potentially saving planets in the inner, optically thick parts of the protoplanetary disc. When considering stellar irradiation in addition to viscous friction as a source of heating, the outer disc changes from a shadowed to a flared structure. Using a suited analytical formula it has been shown that in the flared part of the disc the migration is inwards; planets can migrate outwards only in shadowed regions of the disc, because the radial gradient of entropy is stronger there. In order to confirm this result numerically, we have computed the total torque acting on planets held on fixed orbits embedded in stellar irradiated 3D discs using the hydrodynamical code FARGOCA. We find qualitatively good agreement between the total torque obtained with numerical simulations and the one predicted by the analytical formula. For large masses (>20 M⊕) we find quantitative agreement, and we obtain outwards migration regions for planets up to 60 M⊕ in the early stages of accretional discs. We find nevertheless that the agreement with the analytic formula is quite fortuitous because the formula underestimates the size of the horseshoe region; this error is compensated by imperfect estimates of other terms, most likely the cooling rate and the saturation.

  13. Optical imaging reveals reduced seizure spread and propagation velocities in aged rat brain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, M; Buchheim, K; Siegmund, H; Meierkord, H

    2003-01-01

    Old age is the most common time for patients to develop epileptic seizures, and due to their frequent unusual clinical presentation the diagnosis of epilepsy is often delayed in the elderly. It is as yet unknown if pronounced alterations in the plastic properties of aging nervous tissue contribute to these phenomena. We employed a non-lesional in vitro epilepsy model to study seizure susceptibility, spread pattern, and propagation velocities in combined hippocampal-entorhinal cortex slices of aged rats and controls using electrophysiological methods and imaging of intrinsic optical signals. In aged animals we saw a less extensive spread of seizure-like events into areas adjacent to the region of onset of activity and a decreased spread velocity in various anatomical regions. In addition, both the activity-dependent shrinkage of the extracellular space (ECS)-volume and the extracellular K(+) concentration were significantly reduced compared to controls. The results of this study are consistent with the clinical observation that epileptic seizures in the elderly have a reduced tendency to spread. In addition, our data suggest that in the absence of structural lesions seizure susceptibility in the aging brain is not increased. PMID:12498969

  14. Gas Modelling in the Disc of HD 163296

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilling, I.; Woitke, P.; Meeus, G.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Eiroa, C.; Thi, W. -F.; Isella, A.; Roberge, A.; Martin-Zaidi, C.; Kamp, I.; Pinte, C.; Sandell, G.; Vacca, W. D.; Menard, F.; Mendigutia, I.; Duchene, G.; Dent, W. R. F.; Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present detailed model fits to observations of the disc around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. This well-studied object has an age of approx. 4Myr, with evidence of a circumstellar disc extending out to approx. 540AU. We use the radiation thermo-chemical disc code ProDiMo to model the gas and dust in the circumstellar disc of HD 163296, and attempt to determine the disc properties by fitting to observational line and continuum data. These include new Herschel/PACS observations obtained as part of the open-time key program GASPS (Gas in Protoplanetary Systems), consisting of a detection of the [Oi] 63 m line and upper limits for several other far infrared lines. We complement this with continuum data and ground-based observations of the CO-12 3-2, 2-1 and CO-13 J=1-0 line transitions, as well as the H2 S(1) transition. We explore the effects of stellar ultraviolet variability and dust settling on the line emission, and on the derived disc properties. Our fitting efforts lead to derived gas/dust ratios in the range 9-100, depending on the assumptions made. We note that the line fluxes are sensitive in general to the degree of dust settling in the disc, with an increase in line flux for settled models. This is most pronounced in lines which are formed in the warm gas in the inner disc, but the low excitation molecular lines are also affected. This has serious implications for attempts to derive the disc gas mass from line observations. We derive fractional PAH abundances between 0.007 and 0.04 relative to ISM levels. Using a stellar and UV excess input spectrum based on a detailed analysis of observations, we find that the all observations are consistent with the previously assumed disc geometry

  15. Histology and pathology of the human intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sally; Evans, Helena; Trivedi, Jayesh; Menage, Janis

    2006-04-01

    The intervertebral disc is a highly organized matrix laid down by relatively few cells in a specific manner. The central gelatinous nucleus pulposus is contained within the more collagenous anulus fibrosus laterally and the cartilage end plates inferiorly and superiorly. The anulus consists of concentric rings or lamellae, with fibers in the outer lamellae continuing into the longitudinal ligaments and vertebral bodies. This arrangement allows the discs to facilitate movement and flexibility within what would be an otherwise rigid spine. At birth, the human disc has some vascular supply within both the cartilage end plates and the anulus fibrosus, but these vessels soon recede, leaving the disc with little direct blood supply in the healthy adult. With increasing age, water is lost from the matrix, and the proteoglycan content also changes and diminishes. The disc-particularly the nucleus-becomes less gelatinous and more fibrous, and cracks and fissures eventually form. More blood vessels begin to grow into the disc from the outer areas of the anulus. There is an increase in cell proliferation and formation of cell clusters as well as an increase in cell death. The cartilage end plate undergoes thinning, altered cell density, formation of fissures, and sclerosis of the subchondral bone. These changes are similar to those seen in degenerative disc disease, causing discussion as to whether aging and degeneration are separate processes or the same process occurring over a different timescale. Additional disorders involving the intervertebral disc can demonstrate other changes in morphology. Discs from patients with spinal deformities such as scoliosis have ectopic calcification in the cartilage end plate and sometimes in the disc itself. Cells in these discs and cells from patients with spondylolisthesis have been found to have very long cell processes. Cells in herniated discs appear to have a higher degree of cellular senescence than cells in nonherniated discs and produce a greater abundance of matrix metalloproteinases. The role that abnormalities play in the etiopathogenesis of different disorders is not always clear. Disorders may be caused by a genetic predisposition or a tissue response to an insult or altered mechanical environment. Whatever the initial cause, a change in the morphology of the tissue is likely to alter the physiologic and mechanical functioning of the tissue. PMID:16595436

  16. Disc resonator gyroscope fabrication process requiring no bonding alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of fabricating a resonant vibratory sensor, such as a disc resonator gyro. A silicon baseplate wafer for a disc resonator gyro is provided with one or more locating marks. The disc resonator gyro is fabricated by bonding a blank resonator wafer, such as an SOI wafer, to the fabricated baseplate, and fabricating the resonator structure according to a pattern based at least in part upon the location of the at least one locating mark of the fabricated baseplate. MEMS-based processing is used for the fabrication processing. In some embodiments, the locating mark is visualized using optical and/or infrared viewing methods. A disc resonator gyroscope manufactured according to these methods is described.

  17. Testing the molecular-hydrogen Kennicutt-Schmidt law in the low-density environments of extended ultraviolet disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Linda C.; Martini, Paul; Lisenfeld, Ute; Böker, Torsten; Schinnerer, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Studying star formation beyond the optical radius of galaxies allows us to test empirical relations in extreme conditions with low average gas density and low molecular fraction. Previous studies discovered galaxies with extended ultraviolet (XUV) discs, which often contain star-forming regions with lower Hα-to-far-UV (FUV) flux ratios compared to inner disc star-forming regions. However, most previous studies lack measurements of molecular gas, which is presumably the component of the interstellar medium out of which stars form. We analysed published CO measurements and upper limits for 15 star-forming regions in the XUV or outer disc of three nearby spiral galaxies and a new CO upper limit from the IRAM (Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique) 30 m telescope in one star-forming region at r = 3.4r25 in the XUV disc of NGC 4625. We found that the star-forming regions are in general consistent with the same molecular-hydrogen Kennicutt-Schmidt law that applies within the optical radius, independent of whether we used Hα or FUV as the star formation rate (SFR) tracer. However, a number of the CO detections are significantly offset towards higher SFR surface density for their molecular-hydrogen surface density. Deeper CO data may enable us to use the presence or absence of molecular gas as an evolutionary probe to break the degeneracy between age and stochastic sampling of the initial mass function as the explanation for the low Hα-to-FUV flux ratios in XUV discs.

  18. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  19. Optical Sensing of Polarization States Changes in Meat due to the Ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tománek, Pavel; Mikláš, Jan; Abubaker, Hamed Mohamed; Grmela, Lubomír

    2010-11-01

    Food materials or biological materials display large compositional variations, inhomogeneities, and anisotropic structures. The biological tissues consist of cells which dimensions are bigger than a wavelength of visible light, therefore Mie scattering of transmitted and reflected light occurs and different polarization states arise. The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. The minor importance is still given to the food quality control and inspection during processing operations or storing conditions. The paper presents a quite simple optical method allowing measure the freshness or ageing of products. The principle is to study temporal characteristics of polarization states of forward or backward scattered laser light in the samples in function of meat ageing.

  20. Classification of wet aged related macular degeneration using optical coherence tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Anam; Mir, Fouwad Jamil; Yasin, Ubaid Ullah; Khan, Shoab A.

    2013-12-01

    Wet Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a type of age related macular degeneration. In order to detect Wet AMD we look for Pigment Epithelium detachment (PED) and fluid filled region caused by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This form of AMD can cause vision loss if not treated in time. In this article we have proposed an automated system for detection of Wet AMD in Optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images. The proposed system extracts PED and CNV from OCT images using segmentation and morphological operations and then detailed feature set are extracted. These features are then passed on to the classifier for classification. Finally performance measures like accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are calculated and the classifier delivering the maximum performance is selected as a comparison measure. Our system gives higher performance using SVM as compared to other methods.

  1. Development of fluorescent multilayer disc structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beliak, Ievgen; Butenko, Larisa

    2011-09-01

    The fluorescent multilayer disc (FMD) consists of a substrate and the sandwich-structure of information and intermediate layers. While all the structure of the disc is transparent and homogeneous the parasitic signal will be caused mostly by photoluminescence (PL) and absorption of pits areas where laser light is unfocused. At large number of layers (10 or more) the noise level will get significant value, so it was suggested to derive readout signal as a variable one. Also it was proposed to record information only by the lands, to decrease the absorbance level and thus uncontrolled changing of the noise level. Furthermore in the FMD information layer there are inner and outside peripheral areas which hold a stable level of parasitic signal during readout from the edges of the disc. While the PL readout signal is spatially isotropic the optical head of the FMD drive receives just a part of the probing beam energy. PL quantum yield, absorption factor, receiver systems exposure loss coefficients are other reasons of the low PL signal. Thus the problem of the low SNR in this case is a major one and the only way of its solving is synthesis of the dye with a high PL quantum yield. The PL relaxation time on the other hand is a main feature of the data reading rate and therefore selection of the appropriate recording material will allow to bring this parameter in accordance to parameters of modern optical discs. To achieve this goal the composite organic pyrazoline dyes where synthesized and investigated as effective medium with a PL quantum yield up to 60-70%, relaxation time less than 100 ns, PL wide spectrum and opportunity of two-photon absorption. These parameters were further improved by a method based on the performance of organic dye molecules in the zeolite matrix.

  2. Super-Resolution Readout of 50 nm Read-Only-Memory Pits Using Optics Based on High-Definition Digital Versatile Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Takayuki; Nakano, Takashi; Kurihara, Kazuma; Kim, Jooho; Tominaga, Junji

    2008-07-01

    A super-resolution near-field structure (super-RENS; ZnS-SiO2/Sb75Te25/ZnS-SiO2) and a read-only-memory (ROM) substrate with its pit wide in the radial direction (200 nm) are combined. The readout of 50-nm-long pits was examined, and the pit length is less than one third the resolution limit of the optics (laser wavelength: 405 nm, numerical aperture: 0.65) used. The carrier-to-noise ratio obtained was 39 dB, and it was possible to observe the reproduced waveform clearly. The results indicate that the capacity along the tangential direction can be increased by a factor of 4.

  3. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  4. On the Age and Metallicity Estimation of Spiral Galaxies Using Optical and Near-Infrared Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-chul; Worthey, Guy; Trager, Scott C.; Faber, S. M.

    2007-07-01

    In integrated light, some color-color diagrams that use optical and near-infrared photometry show surprisingly orthogonal grids as age and metallicity are varied, and they are coming into common usage for estimating the average age and metallicity of spiral galaxies. In this paper we reconstruct these composite grids using simple stellar population models from several different groups convolved with some plausible functional forms of star formation histories at fixed metallicity. We find that the youngest populations present (t<2 Gyr) dominate the light, and because of their presence the age-metallicity degeneracy can be partially broken with broadband colors, unlike older populations. The scatter among simple stellar population models by different authors is, however, large at ages t<2 Gyr. The dominant uncertainties in stellar population models arise from convective core overshoot assumptions and the treatment of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase and helium abundance may play a significant role at higher metallicities. Real spiral galaxies are unlikely to have smooth, exponential star formation histories, and burstiness will cause a partial reversion to the single-burst case, which has even larger model-to-model scatter. Finally, it is emphasized that the current composite stellar population models need some implementation of chemical enrichment histories for the proper analysis of the observational data.

  5. Fragmentation of colliding discs

    SciTech Connect

    Kun, F.; Herrmann, H.J. |

    1996-12-01

    We study the phenomena associated with the low-velocity impact of two solid discs of equal size using a cell model of brittle solids. The fragment ejection exhibits a jet-like structure the direction of which depends on the impact parameter. We obtain the velocity and the mass distribution of the debris. Varying the radius and the initial velocity of the colliding particles, the velocity components of the fragments show anomalous scaling. The mass distribution follows a power law in the region of intermediate masses.

  6. Preparation of ormetoprim sulfadimethoxine medicated discs for disc diffusion assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Romet (a blend of ormetoprim and sulfadimethoxine) is a typeA medicated article for the manufacture of medicated feed in the catfish industry. Recently, the commercial manufacture of ormetoprim–sulfadimethoxine susceptibility discs was discontinued. Ormetoprim–sulfadimethoxine discs were prepared at...

  7. Accelerated Aging in Glaucoma: Immunohistochemical Assessment of Advanced Glycation End Products in the Human Retina and Optic Nerve Head

    PubMed Central

    Tezel, Gülgün; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Xiangjun

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to determine the association between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and glaucoma based on the known synergism between oxidative stress with AGEs and the evidence of oxidative stress during glaucomatous neurodegeneration. METHODS The extent and cellular localization of immunolabeling for AGEs and their receptor, RAGE, were determined in histologic sections of the retina and optic nerve head obtained from 38 donor eyes with glaucoma and 30 eyes from age-matched donors without glaucoma. RESULTS The extent of AGE and RAGE immunolabeling was greater in older than in younger donor eyes. However, compared with age-matched controls, an enhanced accumulation of AGEs and an up-regulation of RAGE were detectable in the glaucomatous retina and optic nerve head. Although some retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and glia exhibited intracellular immunolabeling for AGEs, increased AGE immunolabeling in glaucomatous eyes was predominantly extracellular and included laminar cribriform plates in the optic nerve head. Some RAGE immunolabeling was detectable on RGCs; however, increased RAGE immunolabeling in glaucomatous eyes was predominant on glial cells, primarily Müller cells. CONCLUSIONS Given that the generation of AGEs is an age-dependent event, increased AGE accumulation in glaucomatous tissues supports that an accelerated aging process accompanies neurodegeneration in glaucomatous eyes. One of the potential consequences of AGE accumulation in glaucomatous eyes appears to be its contribution to increased rigidity of the lamina cribrosa. The presence of RAGE on RGCs and glia also makes them susceptible to AGE-mediated events through receptor-mediated signaling, which may promote cell death or dysfunction during glaucomatous neurodegeneration. PMID:17325164

  8. First results of the SONS survey: submillimetre detections of debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panić, O.; Holland, W. S.; Wyatt, M. C.; Kennedy, G. M.; Matthews, B. C.; Lestrade, J. F.; Sibthorpe, B.; Greaves, J. S.; Marshall, J. P.; Phillips, N. M.; Tottle, J.

    2013-10-01

    New detections of debris discs at submillimetre wavelengths present highly valuable complementary information to prior observations of these sources at shorter wavelengths. Characterization of discs through spectral energy distribution modelling including the submillimetre fluxes is essential for our basic understanding of disc mass and temperature, and presents a starting point for further studies using millimetre interferometric observations. In the framework of the ongoing SCUBA-2 Observations of Nearby Stars, the instrument SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope was used to provide measurements of 450 and 850 μm fluxes towards a large sample of nearby main-sequence stars with debris discs detected previously at shorter wavelengths. We present the first results from the ongoing survey, concerning 850 μm detections and 450 μm upper limits towards 10 stars, the majority of which are detected at submillimetre wavelengths for the first time. One, or possibly two, of these new detections is likely a background source. We fit the spectral energy distributions of the star+disc systems with a blackbody emission approach and derive characteristic disc temperatures. We use these temperatures to convert the observed fluxes to disc masses. We obtain a range of disc masses from 0.001 to 0.1 M⊕, values similar to the prior dust mass measurements towards debris discs. There is no evidence for evolution in dust mass with age on the main sequence, and indeed the upper envelope remains relatively flat at ≈0.5 M⊕ at all ages. The inferred disc masses are lower than those from disc detections around pre-main-sequence stars, which may indicate a depletion of solid mass. This may also be due to a change in disc opacity, though limited sensitivity means that it is not yet known what fraction of pre-main-sequence stars have discs with dust masses similar to debris disc levels. New, high-sensitivity detections are a path towards investigating the trends in dust mass evolution.

  9. Inflammation in intervertebral disc degeneration and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Molinos, Maria; Almeida, Catarina R.; Caldeira, Joana; Cunha, Carla; Gonçalves, Raquel M.; Barbosa, Mário A.

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is one of the major causes of low back pain, a problem with a heavy economic burden, which has been increasing in prevalence as populations age. Deeper knowledge of the complex spatial and temporal orchestration of cellular interactions and extracellular matrix remodelling is critical to improve current IVD therapies, which have so far proved unsatisfactory. Inflammation has been correlated with degenerative disc disease but its role in discogenic pain and hernia regression remains controversial. The inflammatory response may be involved in the onset of disease, but it is also crucial in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Furthermore, if properly balanced it may contribute to tissue repair/regeneration as has already been demonstrated in other tissues. In this review, we focus on how inflammation has been associated with IVD degeneration by describing observational and in vitro studies as well as in vivo animal models. Finally, we provide an overview of IVD regenerative therapies that target key inflammatory players. PMID:25673296

  10. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank, the rupture disc must— (a) Rupture at a pressure...

  11. Fantastic Disc Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Michael R.; Johnson, Romona; Thomas, Jessica; Spell, Melissa; Popham, John; Croft, Brent; Umpleby, Albert; Verbel, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Disc activities are an excellent elementary content area for both skill and fitness enhancement. They may occur through progressive skill and drill practice, small sided-game examples, modifications of traditional disc activities appropriate to large groups, and with adjustments designed to increase activity and fitness levels. For games in this…

  12. Neurovascular coupling in normal aging: A combined optical, ERP and fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Fabiani, Monica; Gordon, Brian A.; Maclin, Edward L.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Brumback-Peltz, Carrie R.; Low, Kathy A.; McAuley, Edward; Sutton, Bradley P.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Gratton, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Brain aging is characterized by changes in both hemodynamic and neuronal responses, which may be influenced by the cardiorespiratory fitness of the individual. To investigate the relationship between neuronal and hemodynamic changes, we studied the brain activity elicited by visual stimulation (checkerboard reversals at different frequencies) in younger adults and in older adults varying in physical fitness. Four functional brain measures were used to compare neuronal and hemodynamic responses obtained from BA17: two reflecting neuronal activity (the event-related optical signal, EROS, and the C1 response of the ERP), and two reflecting functional hemodynamic changes (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI, and near-infrared spectroscopy, NIRS). The results indicated that both younger and older adults exhibited a quadratic relationship between neuronal and hemodynamic effects, with reduced increases of the hemodynamic response at high levels of neuronal activity. Although older adults showed reduced activation, similar neurovascular coupling functions were observed in the two age groups when fMRI and deoxy-hemoglobin measures were used. However, the coupling between oxy-and deoxy-hemoglobin changes decreased with age and increased with increasing fitness. These data indicate that departures from linearity in neurovascular coupling may be present when using hemodynamic measures to study neuronal function. PMID:23664952

  13. Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, B. D.; Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Willett, Kyle W.; Keel, William C.; Smethurst, R. J.; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Bell, Eric F.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N. A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Häußler, Boris; Jek, Kian J.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-12-01

    The formation of bars in disc galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in discs decreases from the local Universe to z ˜ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature discs should be extremely rare. Here, we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disc galaxies at z ˜ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. From within a sample of 876 disc galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a subsample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5 ≤ z ≤ 2 ( f_{bar} = 10.7^{+6.3}_{-3.5} per cent after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disc galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.

  14. Determination of mechanical stress distribution in Drosophila wing discs using photoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Nienhaus, Ulrike; Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Aegerter, Christof M

    2009-12-01

    Morphogenesis, the process by which all complex biological structures are formed, is driven by an intricate interplay between genes, growth, as well as intra- and intercellular forces. While the expression of different genes changes the mechanical properties and shapes of cells, growth exerts forces in response to which tissues, organs and more complex structures are shaped. This is exemplified by a number of recent findings for instance in meristem formation in Arabidopsis and tracheal tube formation in Drosophila. However, growth not only generates forces, mechanical forces can also have an effect on growth rates, as is seen in mammalian tissues or bone growth. In fact, mechanical forces can influence the expression levels of patterning genes, allowing control of morphogenesis via mechanical feedback. In order to study the connections between mechanical stress, growth control and morphogenesis, information about the distribution of stress in a tissue is invaluable. Here, we applied stress-birefringence to the wing imaginal disc of Drosophila melanogaster, a commonly used model system for organ growth and patterning, in order to assess the stress distribution present in this tissue. For this purpose, stress-related differences in retardance are measured using a custom-built optical set-up. Applying this method, we found that the stresses are inhomogeneously distributed in the wing disc, with maximum compression in the centre of the wing pouch. This compression increases with wing disc size, showing that mechanical forces vary with the age of the tissue. These results are discussed in light of recent models proposing mechanical regulation of wing disc growth. PMID:19748573

  15. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

  16. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Labial Salivary Glands Reveals Age-Related Differences in Women.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jan Krzysztof; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Karnowski, Karol; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2015-12-01

    The labial minor salivary glands (LSGs) play a role in medical research and practice due to their superficial location and involvement in both systemic and localized diseases. Swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive modality that enables in vivo, micrometer resolution, wide-field three-dimensional imaging in seconds. A purpose-built swept-source OCT instrument was employed to acquire three-dimensional datasets covering the area of 2.43 cm(2) of the mucosa of the lower lip to the depth of 3.4 mm in young (n = 14; mean age ± SD: 27 ± 3 years; body mass index [BMI] 20.4 ± 2.3 kg/m(2) ) and middle-aged women (n = 11; 54 ± 6 years; 25.5 ± 3.2 kg/m(2) ). Glandular tissue reflectivity mode (range 0-255; 86 ± 17 vs. 68 ± 12, p = 0.005), average single LSG area in tissue sample (5.26 ± 2.62 mm(2) vs. 2.87 ± 1.26 mm(2) , p = 0.011), and LSG surface filling factor (0.23 ± 0.13 vs. 0.11 ± 0.10, p = 0.027) had higher values in younger than in middle-aged women. A correlation between BMI and glandular tissue reflectivity mode (Spearman's ρ = -0.60) was found (p = 0.002). The results highlight the potential value of LSGs' OCT morphometry in research regarding ageing. PMID:26530049

  17. Intelligent Video Disc as a Major Component of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingalls, Richard E.

    Due to the importance of visual stimuli for learning, the videodisc is expected to have a major impact on education. When combined with the computer, it will greatly expand the capabilities of computer assisted instruction. There are two major types of videodisc equipment: the optical type with a laser beam to read the information from the disc,…

  18. Double-disc gate valve

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, Seth J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to an improvement in a conventional double-disc gate valve having a vertically movable gate assembly including a wedge, spreaders slidably engaged therewtih, a valve disc carried by the spreaders. When the gate assembly is lowered to a selected point in the valve casing, the valve discs are moved transversely outward to close inlet and outlet ports in the casing. The valve includes hold-down means for guiding the disc-and-spreader assemblies as they are moved transversely outward and inward. If such valves are operated at relatively high differential pressures, they sometimes jam during opening. Such jamming has been a problem for many years in gate valves used in gaseous diffusion plants for the separtion of uranium isotopes. The invention is based on the finding that the above-mentioned jamming results when the outlet disc tilts about its horizontal axis in a certain way during opening of the valve. In accordance with the invention, tilting of the outlet disc is maintained at a tolerable value by providing the disc with a rigid downwardly extending member and by providing the casing with a stop for limiting inward arcuate movement of the member to a preselected value during opening of the valve.

  19. Effect of aging on morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalizov, A. F.; Xue, H.; Pagels, J.; McMurry, P. H.; Zhang, R.

    2009-12-01

    Soot from incomplete combustion represents one of the major forms of particulate matter pollution, profoundly impacting human health, air quality, and climate. The direct and indirect radiative effects of soot aerosol depend on particle composition and morphology, which may vary significantly when aerosol is subjected to atmospheric aging. We will present an overview of a comprehensive set of experimental measurements performed in our laboratory at Texas A&M to study the effect of internal mixing with atmospheric species on morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of combustion soot. In our experiments, size-classified soot aerosol was exposed to 0.1 - 1000 ppb (part per billion) mixing ratios of sulfuric acid and dicarboxylic organic acids and resulting changes particle morphology and mixing state under dry and humid conditions were characterized through mass-mobility measurements by aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM) and tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA). Light absorption and scattering cross-sections for well-characterized fresh and coated soot aerosol were derived using a cavity ring-down spectrometer and an integrating nephelometer in order to assess the effect of atmospheric processing on the radiative properties of atmospheric soot. Internally mixed soot shows significant changes in particle morphology, increasing with the mass fraction of the coating material and relative humidity. Restructuring was the strongest for aggregates coated by sulfuric and glutaric acids whereas succinic acid coating did not result in observable morphology change. Sulfuric acid - coated particles experienced large hygroscopic growth at sub-saturated conditions and activated to cloud droplets at atmospherically relevant supersaturations. Furthermore, coating and subsequent hygroscopic growth considerably altered the optical properties of soot aerosol, increasing light scattering and absorption cross-sections. We found that irreversible restructuring of soot aggregates is a major contributor to the enhancement in optical properties for internally mixed soot. Extrapolation of our results to atmospheric conditions shows that condensation of sulfuric acid and organics is likely a major mechanism of soot aging with profound implications atmospheric soot lifetime and direct and indirect climate forcing.

  20. Aging and the perception of slant from optical texture, motion parallax, and binocular disparity.

    PubMed

    Norman, J Farley; Crabtree, Charles E; Bartholomew, Ashley N; Ferrell, Elizabeth L

    2009-01-01

    The ability of younger and older observers to perceive surface slant was investigated in four experiments. The surfaces possessed slants of 20 degrees, 35 degrees, 50 degrees, and 65 degrees, relative to the frontoparallel plane. The observers judged the slants using either a palm board (Experiments 1, 3, and 4) or magnitude estimation (Experiment 2). In Experiments 1-3, physically slanted surfaces were used (the surfaces possessed marble, granite, pebble, and circle textures), whereas computer-generated 3-D surfaces (defined by motion parallax and binocular disparity) were utilized in Experiment 4. The results showed that the younger and older observers' performance was essentially identical with regard to accuracy. The younger and older age groups, however, differed in terms of precision in Experiments 1 and 2: The judgments of the older observers were more variable across repeated trials. When taken as a whole, the results demonstrate that older observers (at least through the age of 83 years) can effectively extract information about slant in depth from optical patterns containing texture, motion parallax, or binocular disparity. PMID:19304602

  1. Optical Disks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, John C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This four-article section focuses on information storage capacity of the optical disk covering the information workstation (uses microcomputer, optical disk, compact disc to provide reference information, information content, work product support); use of laser videodisc technology for dissemination of agricultural information; encoding databases…

  2. Enlivening Physics, a Local Video Disc Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how to make and use an inexpensive video disc of physics demonstrations. Discusses the background, production of the disc, subject of the disc including angular momentum, "monkey and the hunter" experiment, Doppler shift, pressure of a constant volume of gas thermometer, and wave effects, and using the disc in classroom. (YP)

  3. Disc Golf: Teaching a Lifetime Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastham, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Disc golf is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed by students of varying skill levels and abilities. Disc golf follows the principles of ball golf but is generally easier for students to play and enjoy success. The object of disc golf is similar to ball golf and involves throwing a disc from the teeing area to the target in as few throws as…

  4. A Focussing Disc DIRC design for particle identification in PANDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föhl, Klaus

    2009-11-01

    A Focussing Disc DIRC with dispersion correction is a novel Cherenkov detector design which is proposed for the PANDA experiment at FAIR. Cherenkov photons travel inside a circular disc towards the edge and then enter into one of circa hundred optical elements around the rim that correct the chromatic dispersion of the Cherenkov light and focus the photon onto the element readout plane. This design can achieve positive kaon identification in the momentum range of up to 4 ÷ 6 GeV/ c in the confined space and high magnetic field of the PANDA target spectrometer endcap.

  5. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence in accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent `wave' temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, radiation viscous dissipation is suppressed, and the evolution of local photon spectra can be understood in terms of compression and expansion of the strongly coupled photon and gas fluids. We discuss the consequences of these effects for self-consistently resolving and interpreting turbulent Comptonization in spectral calculations in radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of high luminosity accretion flows.

  6. Tissue engineering: A live disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hukins, David W. L.

    2005-12-01

    A material-cell hybrid device that mimics the anatomic shape of the intervertebral disc has been made and successfully implanted into mice to show that tissue engineering may, in the future, benefit sufferers from back pain.

  7. Disc Golf, a Growing Sport

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Joseph T.; Jones, Richard E.; Runstrom, Michael; Hardy, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    Background Disc golf is a sport played much like traditional golf, but rather than using a ball and club, players throw flying discs with various throwing motions. It has been played by an estimated 8 to 12 million people in the United States. Like all sports, injuries sustained while playing disc golf are not uncommon. Although formalized in the 1970s, it has grown at a rapid pace; however, disc golf–related injuries have yet to be described in the medical literature. Purpose To describe the most common injuries incurred by disc golf players while comparing the different types of throwing styles. Study Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods The data in this study were collected from 883 disc golf players who responded to an online survey collected over a 1-month period. Respondents answered 49 questions related to demographics, experience, style of play, and injury details. Using a chi-square analysis, common injuries sustained in players using backhand and forehand throwing styles were compared. Results More than 81% of respondents stated that they had sustained an injury playing disc golf, including injuries to the elbow (n = 325), shoulder (n = 305), back (n = 218), and knee (n = 199). The injuries were most commonly described as a muscle strain (n = 241), sprain (n = 162), and tendinitis (n = 145). The type of throw primarily used by players varied, with 86.2% using backhand, 12.7% using forehand, and 1.1% using an overhead throw. Players using a forehand throw were more likely to sustain an elbow injury (P = .014). Many players (n = 115) stated they had undergone surgery due to a disc golf–related injury, with the most common surgeries including meniscal, shoulder, spine, and foot/ankle surgeries. Conclusion The majority of surveyed disc golfers sustained at least 1 injury while playing disc golf, with many requiring surgery. The types of injuries sustained by players varied by the types of throw primarily used. As the sport of disc golf continues to expand, health professionals should be aware of injuries sustained, with future studies focusing on injury prevention and education strategies. PMID:26665099

  8. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power. PMID:25004532

  9. Understanding discs in binary YSOs - detailed modelling of VV CrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scicluna, P.; Wolf, S.; Ratzka, T.; Costigan, G.; Launhardt, R.; Leinert, C.; Ober, F.; Manara, C. F.; Testi, L.

    2016-05-01

    Given that a majority of stars form in multiple systems, in order to fully understand the star- and planet-formation processes we must seek to understand them in multiple stellar systems. With this in mind, we present an analysis of the enigmatic binary T-Tauri system VV Corona Australis, in which both components host discs, but only one is visible at optical wavelengths. We seek to understand the peculiarities of this system by searching for a model for the binary which explains all the available continuum observations of the system. We present new mid-infrared interferometry and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy along with archival millimetre-wave observations, which resolve the binary at 1.3 mm for the first time. We compute a grid of pre-main-sequence radiative transfer models and calculate their posterior probabilities given the observed spectral energy distributions and mid-infrared interferometric visibilities of the binary components, beginning with the assumption that the only differences between the two components are their inclination and position angles. Our best-fitting solution corresponds to a relatively low-luminosity T-tauri binary, with each component's disc having a large scaleheight and viewed at moderate inclination (˜50°), with the infrared companion inclined by ˜5° more than the primary. Comparing the results of our model to evolutionary models suggests stellar masses ˜1.7 M⊙ and an age for the system of 3.5 Myr, towards the upper end of previous estimates. Combining these results with accretion indicators from NIR spectroscopy, we determine an accretion rate of 4.0 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 for the primary. We suggest that future observations of VV Corona Australis and similar systems should prioritize high angular resolution sub-mm and NIR imaging of the discs and high-resolution optical/NIR spectroscopy of the central stars.

  10. Understanding discs in binary YSOs - detailed modelling of VV CrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scicluna, P.; Wolf, S.; Ratzka, T.; Costigan, G.; Launhardt, R.; Leinert, C.; Ober, F.; Manara, C. F.; Testi, L.

    2016-03-01

    Given that a majority of stars form in multiple systems, in order to fully understand the star- and planet-formation processes we must seek to understand them in multiple stellar systems. With this in mind, we present an analysis of the enigmatic binary T-Tauri system VV Corona Australis, in which both components host discs, but only one is visible at optical wavelengths. We seek to understand the peculiarities of this system by searching for a model for the binary which explains all the available continuum observations of the system. We present new mid-infrared interferometry and near-infrared spectroscopy along with archival millimetre-wave observations, which resolve the binary at 1.3 mm for the first time. We compute a grid of pre-main-sequence radiative transfer models and calculate their posterior probabilities given the observed spectral energy distributions and mid-infrared interferometric visibilities of the binary components, beginning with the assumption that the only differences between the two components are their inclination and position angles. Our best-fitting solution corresponds to a relatively low luminosity T-tauri binary, with each component's disc having a large scale height and viewed at moderate inclination (˜50°), with the infrared companion inclined by ˜5° degrees more than the primary. Comparing the results of our model to evolutionary models suggests stellar masses ˜1.7 M⊙ and an age for the system of 3.5 Myr, towards the upper end of previous estimates. Combining these results with accretion indicators from near-IR spectroscopy, we determine an accretion rate of 4.0 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 for the primary. We suggest that future observations of VV CrA and similar systems should prioritise high angular resolution sub-mm and near-IR imaging of the discs and high resolution optical/NIR spectroscopy of the central stars.

  11. Clinical Evaluation of Disc Battery Ingestion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mirshemirani, AliReza; Khaleghnejad-tabari, Ahmad; Kouranloo, Jaefar; Sadeghian, Naser; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Roshanzamir, Fatolah; Razavi, Sajad; Sayary, Ali Akbar; Imanzadeh, Farid

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management, and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of children admitted to Mofid Children’s Hospital due to disc battery ingestion from January 2006 to January 2010. Clear history, clinical symptoms and results of imaging studies revealed diagnosis of disc battery ingestion in suspected patients. The clinical data reviewed included age, gender, clinical manifestation, radiologic findings, location of disc battery, duration of ingestion, endoscopic results and surgical treatment. RESULTS We found 22 cases (11 males and 11 females) of disc battery ingestion with a mean age of 4.3 years (range: 9 months to 12 years). Common symptoms were vomiting, cough, dysphagia, and dyspnea. The mean duration of ingestion was 2.7 days (4 hours to 1.5 months). A total of 19 patients had histories of disc battery ingestion, but three cases referred with the above symptoms, and the batteries were accidentally found by x-ray. Only three cases had batteries impacted in the esophagus. Twelve batteries were removed endoscopically, 6 batteries spontaneously passed through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract within 5 to 7 days, and 4 patients underwent surgery due to complications: 3 due to tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) and 1 due to intestinal perforation. There was no mortality in our study. CONCLUSION Most cases of disc battery ingestion run uneventful courses, but some may be complicated. If the battery lodges in the esophagus, emergency endoscopic management is necessary. However, once in the stomach, it will usually pass through the GI tract. PMID:24829643

  12. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  13. The far-infrared behaviour of Herbig Ae/Be discs: Herschel PACS photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, N.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Mendigutía, I.; Sandell, G.

    2016-02-01

    Herbig Ae/Be objects are pre-main sequence stars surrounded by gas- and dust-rich circumstellar discs. These objects are in the throes of star and planet formation, and their characterisation informs us of the processes and outcomes of planet formation processes around intermediate mass stars. Here we analyse the spectral energy distributions of disc host stars observed by the Herschel open time key programme "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems". We present Herschel/PACS far-infrared imaging observations of 22 Herbig Ae/Bes and 5 debris discs, combined with ancillary photometry spanning ultraviolet to sub-millimetre wavelengths. From these measurements we determine the diagnostics of disc evolution, along with the total excess, in three regimes spanning near-, mid-, and far-infrared wavelengths. Using appropriate statistical tests, these diagnostics are examined for correlations. We find that the far-infrared flux, where the disc becomes optically thin, is correlated with the millimetre flux, which provides a measure of the total dust mass. The ratio of far-infrared to sub-millimetre flux is found to be greater for targets with discs that are brighter at millimetre wavelengths and that have steeper sub-millimetre slopes. Furthermore, discs with flared geometry have, on average, larger excesses than flat geometry discs. Finally, we estimate the extents of these discs (or provide upper limits) from the observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  14. Human Disc Nucleus Properties and Vertebral Endplate Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Azucena G.; Slichter, Chloe K.; Acosta, Frank L.; Rodriguez-Soto, Ana E.; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Lotz, Jeffrey C.

    2010-01-01

    Study of human cadaveric discs quantifying endplate permeability and porosity and correlating these with measures of disc quality: cell density, proteoglycan content, and overall degeneration. Permeability and porosity increased with age and were not correlated with cell density or overall degeneration, suggesting that endplate calcification may not accelerate disc degeneration. Study Design Experimental quantification of relationships between vertebral endplate morphology, permeability, disc cell density, glycosaminoglycan content and degeneration in samples harvested from human cadaveric spines. Objective To test the hypothesis that variation in endplate permeability and porosity contribute to changes in intervertebral disc cell density and overall degeneration. Summary of Background Data Cells within the intervertebral disc are dependent on diffusive exchange with capillaries in the adjacent vertebral bone. Previous findings suggest that blocked routes of transport negatively affect disc quality, yet there are no quantitative relationships between human vertebral endplate permeability, porosity, cell density and disc degeneration. Such relationships would be valuable for clarifying degeneration risk factors, and patient features that may impede efforts at disc tissue engineering. Methods Fifty-one motion segments were harvested from 13 frozen cadaveric human lumbar spines (32 to 85 years) and classified for degeneration using the MRI-based Pfirrmann scale. A cylindrical core was harvested from the center of each motion segment that included vertebral bony and cartilage endplates along with adjacent nucleus tissue. The endplate mobility, a type of permeability, was measured directly using a custom-made permeameter before and after the cartilage endplate was removed. Cell density within the nucleus tissue was estimated using the picogreen method while the nuclear GAG content was quantified using the DMMB technique. Specimens were imaged at 8 μm resolution using microCT, bony porosity was calculated. Analysis of variance, linear regression, and multiple comparison tests were used to analyze the data. Results Nucleus cell density increased as the disc height decreased (R2=0.13; p=0.01) but was not related to subchondral bone porosity (p>0.5), total mobility (p>0.4) or age (p>0.2). When controlling for disc height however, a significant, negative effect of age on cell density was observed (p=0.03). In addition to this, GAG content decreased with age non-linearly (R2=0.83, p<0.0001) and a cell function measurement, GAGs/cell decreased with degeneration (R2=0.24; p<0.0001). Total mobility (R2=0.14; p<0.01) and porosity (R2=0.1, p<0.01) had a positive correlation with age. Conclusion Although cell density increased with degeneration, cell function indicated that GAGs/cell decreased. Since permeability and porosity increase with age and degeneration, this implies that cell dysfunction, rather than physical barriers to transport, accelerate disc disease. PMID:21240044

  15. Planet signatures and Size Segregation in Debris Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébault, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The response of a debris disc to a planetary perturber is the result of the complex interplay between gravitational effects, grain collisions and stellar radiation pressure (Stark & Kuchner (2009). We investigate to what extent this response can depart from the pure gravitational case when including grain collisional production and radiation pressure. We use the DyCoSS code (Thébault (2012), designed to study the coupled effect of collisions and dynamics for systems at steady state with one perturbing body. We focus on two outcomes: the 2D surface density profile of the disc+planet system, and the way the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) is spatially segregated within the disc. We consider two set-ups: 1) a narrow ring with an exterior ``shepherding'' planet, and 2) an extended disc in which a planet is embedded. For each case, the planet mass and orbit are explored as free parameters, and an unperturbed ``no-planet'' case is also considered. Another parameter is the disc's collisional activity, as parameterized by its optical depth τ.

  16. Reoperations Following Cervical Disc Replacement.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Lee, Dong-Ho; Caridi, John Michael; Cho, Samuel Kang-Wook

    2015-06-01

    Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has emerged as an alternative surgical option to cervical arthrodesis. With increasing numbers of patients and longer follow-ups, complications related to the device and/or aging spine are growing, leaving us with a new challenge in the management and surgical revision of CDR. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature regarding reoperations following CDR and to discuss about the approaches and solutions for the current and future potential complications associated with CDR. The published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.0%; range, 0%-3.1%), revision (mean, 0.2%; range, 0%-0.5%), and removal (mean, 1.2%; range, 0%-1.9%) following CDR are low and comparable to the published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.7%; range; 0%-3.4%), revision (mean, 1.5%; range, 0%-4.7%), and removal (mean, 2.0%; range, 0%-3.4%) following cervical arthrodesis. The surgical interventions following CDR range from the repositioning to explantation followed by fusion or the reimplantation to posterior foraminotomy or fusion. Strict patient selection, careful preoperative radiographic review and surgical planning, as well as surgical technique may reduce adverse events and the need for future intervention. Minimal literature and no guidelines exist for the approaches and techniques in revision and for the removal of implants following CDR. Adherence to strict indications and precise surgical technique may reduce the number of reoperations, revisions, and removals following CDR. Long-term follow-up studies are needed, assessing the implant survivorship and its effect on the revision and removal rates. PMID:26097667

  17. Reoperations Following Cervical Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Lee, Dong-Ho; Caridi, John Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has emerged as an alternative surgical option to cervical arthrodesis. With increasing numbers of patients and longer follow-ups, complications related to the device and/or aging spine are growing, leaving us with a new challenge in the management and surgical revision of CDR. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature regarding reoperations following CDR and to discuss about the approaches and solutions for the current and future potential complications associated with CDR. The published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.0%; range, 0%-3.1%), revision (mean, 0.2%; range, 0%-0.5%), and removal (mean, 1.2%; range, 0%-1.9%) following CDR are low and comparable to the published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.7%; range; 0%-3.4%), revision (mean, 1.5%; range, 0%-4.7%), and removal (mean, 2.0%; range, 0%-3.4%) following cervical arthrodesis. The surgical interventions following CDR range from the repositioning to explantation followed by fusion or the reimplantation to posterior foraminotomy or fusion. Strict patient selection, careful preoperative radiographic review and surgical planning, as well as surgical technique may reduce adverse events and the need for future intervention. Minimal literature and no guidelines exist for the approaches and techniques in revision and for the removal of implants following CDR. Adherence to strict indications and precise surgical technique may reduce the number of reoperations, revisions, and removals following CDR. Long-term follow-up studies are needed, assessing the implant survivorship and its effect on the revision and removal rates. PMID:26097667

  18. Clinical Outcomes of Percutaneous Plasma Disc Coagulation Therapy for Lumbar Herniated Disc Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Chul; Cho, Ki Hong

    2012-01-01

    Objective This is prospective study of clinical outcomes of percutaneous plasma disc coagulation Therapy (PDCT) in patients with herniated lumbar disc disease (HLD) to evaluate the safety and efficacy in its clinical application and usefulness as a reliable alternative to microscopic discectomy. Methods Forty-six patients were enrolled in this study from April 2006 to June 2010. All patients had one-level HLD. Disc degeneration was graded on routine T2-weighted magnetic resonance Image (MRI) using the Pfirrmann's grading system and all index levels were grade 3 and grade 4. Indications for surgery were radiculopathy caused by disc protrusion with soft consistency. MRI was done at one month after the procedure in all patients to check post-PDCT change. The clinical outcomes were evaluated using Visual Analog Scales (VAS) score and MacNab's criteria. Results This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our institution. The age of the study population ranged from 16 to 59 years with a mean age of 37.2 years. There were 29 males and 17 females in this study. The mean period of clinical follow-up was 21 months. The average preoperative VAS score for radiculopathy was 7.4±1.4, while the final follow-up VAS score was 1.4±0.7 (p<0.001). In MacNab's criteria, 41 patients (89.1%) had achieved favorable improvement (excellent and good) until later follow-up. There were one patient from infection and two patients who needed to convert to open discectomy. Conclusion PDCT is a safe and efficient treatment modality in a selective patient with HLD. PMID:22396836

  19. Characterization of Choroidal Layers in Normal Aging Eyes Using Enface Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Robert F.; Baumal, Caroline R.; Mohler, Kathrin J.; Kraus, Martin F.; Liu, Jonathan; Badaro, Emmerson; Alasil, Tarek; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.; Waheed, Nadia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize qualitative and quantitative features of the choroid in normal eyes using enface swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods Fifty-two eyes of 26 consecutive normal subjects were prospectively recruited to obtain multiple three-dimensional 12x12mm volumetric scans using a long-wavelength high-speed SS-OCT prototype. A motion-correction algorithm merged multiple SS-OCT volumes to improve signal. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was segmented as the reference and enface images were extracted at varying depths every 4.13μm intervals. Systematic analysis of the choroid at different depths was performed to qualitatively assess the morphology of the choroid and quantify the absolute thicknesses as well as the relative thicknesses of the choroidal vascular layers including the choroidal microvasculature (choriocapillaris, terminal arterioles and venules; CC) and choroidal vessels (CV) with respect to the subfoveal total choroidal thickness (TC). Subjects were divided into two age groups: younger (<40 years) and older (≥40 years). Results Mean age of subjects was 41.92 (24-66) years. Enface images at the level of the RPE, CC, CV, and choroidal-scleral interface were used to assess specific qualitative features. In the younger age group, the mean absolute thicknesses were: TC 379.4μm (SD±75.7μm), CC 81.3μm (SD±21.2μm) and CV 298.1μm (SD±63.7μm). In the older group, the mean absolute thicknesses were: TC 305.0μm (SD±50.9μm), CC 56.4μm (SD±12.1μm) and CV 248.6μm (SD±49.7μm). In the younger group, the relative thicknesses of the individual choroidal layers were: CC 21.5% (SD±4.0%) and CV 78.4% (SD±4.0%). In the older group, the relative thicknesses were: CC 18.9% (SD±4.5%) and CV 81.1% (SD±4.5%). The absolute thicknesses were smaller in the older age group for all choroidal layers (TC p=0.006, CC p=0.0003, CV p=0.03) while the relative thickness was smaller only for the CC (p=0.04). Conclusions Enface SS-OCT at 1050nm enables a precise qualitative and quantitative characterization of the individual choroidal layers in normal eyes. Only the CC is relatively thinner in the older eyes. In-vivo evaluation of the choroid at variable depths may be potentially valuable in understanding the natural history of age-related posterior segment disease. PMID:26172550

  20. Measurement mark profiles of digital versatile disc and multilevel read-only disc with atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hailong; Pei, Jing; Ni, Yi; Pan, Longfa

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the profile measurement method for recording marks in signal waveform modulation multilevel (SWM) read-only disc. In SWM disc, multilevel is realized with the combined varying size and position of inserted subpit/ sub-land in an original recording land/pit. The micro-patterns of the recording marks are key identifier for level of run-lengths. In mastering process, the mark profile is shaped with timing duration variation of the power of laser beam recorder (LBR). To form ideal SWM recording pit microstructure, atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to measure the pit profile, which is feedback and used to adjust the writing strategy. The measured parameters including depth, height and position, etc. 6T land and pit are selected as examples to describe the relationship between the variation of these parameters and levels of run-lengths. The recording symbol microstructures of DVD and signal amplitude modulation (SAM) multilevel optical disc are also measured with AFM, which are compared with the mark profile of SWM disc. The experimental results show that the AFM measurement for SWM recording marks is an effective method. These quantitative measurement results provide theoretical basis for SWM stamper disc manufacturing process.

  1. Chondrule transport in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Aaron Z.; Owen, James E.; Jacquet, Emmanuel

    2015-10-01

    Chondrule formation remains one of the most elusive early Solar system events. Here, we take the novel approach of employing numerical simulations to investigate chondrule origin beyond purely cosmochemical methods. We model the transport of generically produced chondrules and dust in a 1D viscous protoplanetary disc model in order to constrain the chondrule formation events. For a single formation event we are able to match analytical predictions of the memory they retain of each other (complementarity), finding that a large mass accretion rate (≳10-7 M⊙ yr-1) allows for delays on the order of the disc's viscous time-scale between chondrule formation and chondrite accretion. Further, we find older discs to be severely diminished of chondrules, with accretion rates ≲10-9 M⊙ yr-1 for nominal parameters. We then characterize the distribution of chondrule origins in both space and time, as functions of disc parameters and chondrule formation rates, in runs with continuous chondrule formation and both static and evolving discs. Our data suggest that these can account for the observed diversity between distinct chondrite classes, if some diversity in accretion time is allowed for.

  2. Preclinical and clinical experience with a viscoelastic total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Rischke, Burkhard; Ross, Raymond S.; Jollenbeck, Boris A.; Zimmers, Kari B.; Defibaugh, Neal D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to describe the mechanical durability and the clinical and radiographic outcomes of a viscoelastic total disc replacement (VTDR). The human intervertebral disc is a complex, viscoelastic structure, permitting and constraining motion in 3 axes, thus providing stability. The ideal disc replacement should be viscoelastic and deformable in all directions, and it should restore disc height and angle. Methods Mechanical testing was conducted to validate the durability of the VTDR, and a clinical study was conducted to evaluate safety and performance. Fifty patients with single-level, symptomatic lumbar degenerative disc disease at L4-5 or L5-S1 were enrolled in a clinical trial at 3 European sites. Patients were assessed clinically and radiographically for 2 years by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), a visual analog scale (VAS), and independent radiographic analyses. Results The VTDR showed a fatigue life in excess of 50 million cycles (50-year equivalent) and a physiologically appropriate level of stiffness, motion, geometry, and viscoelasticity. We enrolled 28 men and 22 women in the clinical study, with a mean age of 40 years. Independent quantitative radiographic assessment indicated that the VTDR restored and maintained disc height and lordosis while providing physiologic motion. Mean ODI scores decreased from 48% preoperatively to 23% at 2 years’ follow-up. Mean VAS low-back pain scores decreased from 7.1 cm to 2.9 cm. Median scores indicated that half of the patient population had ODI scores below 10% and VAS low-back pain scores below 0.95 cm at 2 years. Conclusions The VTDR has excellent durability and performs clinically and radiographically as intended for the treatment of symptomatic lumbar degenerative disc disease. Clinical Relevance The VTDR is intended to restore healthy anatomic properties and stability characteristics to the spinal segment. This study is the first to evaluate a VTDR in a 50-patient, multicenter European study. PMID:25802675

  3. Mechanobiology of the intervertebral disc and relevance to disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Setton, Lori A; Chen, Jun

    2006-04-01

    Mechanical loading of the intervertebral disc may contribute to disc degeneration by initiating degeneration or by regulating cell-mediated remodeling events that occur in response to the mechanical stimuli of daily activity. This article is a review of the current knowledge of the role of mechanical stimuli in regulating intervertebral disc cellular responses to loading and the cellular changes that occur with degeneration. Intervertebral disc cells exhibit diverse biologic responses to mechanical stimuli, depending on the loading type, magnitude, duration, and anatomic zone of cell origin. The innermost cells respond to low-to-moderate magnitudes of static compression, osmotic pressure, or hydrostatic pressure with increases in anabolic cell responses. Higher magnitudes of loading may give rise to catabolic responses marked by elevated protease gene or protein expression or activity. The key regulators of these mechanobiologic responses for intervertebral disc cells will be the micromechanical stimuli experienced at the cellular level, which are predicted to differ from that measured for the extracellular matrix. Large hydrostatic pressures, but little volume change, are predicted to occur for cells of the nucleus pulposus during compression, while the highly oriented cells of the anulus fibrosus may experience deformations in tension or compression during matrix deformations. In general, the pattern of biologic response to applied loads suggests that the cells of the nucleus pulposus and inner portion of the anulus fibrosus experience comparable micromechanical stimuli in situ and may respond more similarly than cells of the outer portion of the anulus fibrosus. Changes in these features with degeneration are critically understudied, particularly degeneration-associated changes in cell-level mechanical stimuli and the associated mechanobiology. Little is known of the mechanisms that regulate cellular responses to intervertebral mechanobiology, nor is much known with regard to the precise mechanical stimuli experienced by cells during loading. Mechanical factors appear to regulate responses of the intervertebral disc cells through mechanisms involving intracellular Ca(2+) transients and cytoskeletal remodeling that may regulate downstream effects such as gene expression and posttranslational biosynthesis. Future studies should address the broader biologic responses to mechanical stimuli in intervertebral disc mechanobiology, the involved signaling mechanisms, and the apparently important interactions among mechanical factors, genetic factors, cytokines, and inflammatory mediators that may be critical in the regulation of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:16595444

  4. Optical and electrical properties of nonstoichiometric a-Ge1-xCx films prepared by magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. Q.; Jiang, C. Z.; Han, J. C.; Yu, H. L.; Wang, J. Z.; Jia, Z. C.; Chen, R. R.

    2012-02-01

    Amorphous non-hydrogenated germanium carbide (a-Ge1-xCx) films have been prepared by magnetron co-sputtering method in a discharge of Ar. The dependence of structural and chemical bonding properties on the Ge/C ratio (R) has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The relationship between the chemical bonding and the optical and electrical properties of the a-Ge1-xCx films has also been explored. It has been shown that the refractive index of the films increases from 2.9 to 4.4 and the optical gap decreases from 1.55 to 1.05 eV as R increases from 1.22 to 5.67. Moreover, the conductivity σ increases clearly and the activation energy Ea decreases with the increasing R owing to the reduction of sp3 Csbnd Ge bonds. The a-Ge1-xCx films exhibit refractive index and optical gap values changing with x in a wide range, which may make a-Ge1-xCx films good candidates in the fields of protection coatings for IR windows and electronic devices.

  5. A SCUBA-2 850-μm survey of protoplanetary discs in the IC 348 cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieza, L.; Williams, J.; Kourkchi, E.; Andrews, S.; Casassus, S.; Graves, S.; Schreiber, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present 850-μm observations of the 2-3 Myr cluster IC 348 in the Perseus molecular cloud using the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Our SCUBA-2 map has a diameter of 30 arcmin and contains ˜370 cluster members, including ˜200 objects with IR excesses. We detect a total of 13 discs. Assuming standard dust properties and a gas-to-dust-mass ratio of 100, we derive disc masses ranging from 1.5 to 16 MJUP. We also detect six Class 0/I protostars. We find that the most massive discs (MD > 3 MJUP; 850-μm flux > 10 mJy) in IC 348 tend to be transition objects according to the characteristic `dip' in their infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). This trend is also seen in other regions. We speculate that this could be an initial conditions effect (e.g. more massive discs tend to form giant planets that result in transition disc SEDs) and/or a disc evolution effect (the formation of one or more massive planets results in both a transition disc SED and a reduction of the accretion rate, increasing the lifetime of the outer disc). A stacking analysis of the discs that remain undetected in our SCUBA-2 observations suggests that their median 850-μm flux should be ≲1 mJy, corresponding to a disc mass ≲0.3 MJUP (gas plus dust) or ≲1 M⊕ of dust. While the available data are not deep enough to allow a meaningful comparison of the disc luminosity functions between IC 348 and other young stellar clusters, our results imply that disc masses exceeding the minimum-mass solar nebula are very rare (≲1per cent) at the age of IC 348, especially around very low-mass stars.

  6. Clinical Impact of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters on Disc Degeneration in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young-Min; Eun, Jong-Pil

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The sagittal balance plays an important role in the determination of shear and compressive forces applied on the anterior (vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs) and posterior (facet joints) elements of the lumbar vertebral column. Many studies have also examined the effect of structural changes in the disc on the biomechanical characteristics of the spinal segment. Nevertheless, the relationship between sagittal balance and the degree of disc degeneration has not been extensively explored. Thus, here we investigated the relationships between various sagittal spinopelvic parameters and the degree of disc degeneration in young adults. A total of 278 young adult male patients were included in this study (age range: 18–24 years old). Multiple sagittal spinopelvic parameters, including pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), sacral inclination (SI), lumbosacral angle (LSA), and sacral table angle (STA), were measured from standing lateral lumbosacral radiographs. The degree of intervertebral disc degeneration was classified using a modified Pfirrmann scale. To assess the pain intensity of each patient, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score for low back pain (LBP) was obtained from all the patients. Finally, the relationships between these spinopelvic parameters and the degree of disc degeneration in young adults were analyzed. Also, we performed multiple logistic regression study. Out of all the spinopelvic parameters measured in this study, a low STA and a low SI were the only significant risk factors that were associated with disc degeneration in young adults. It means that patients with disc degeneration tend to have more severe sacral kyphosis and vertical sacrum. We found that patients with disc degeneration showed a lower SI and lower STA compared with patients without disc degeneration in young adults. Therefore, we suggest that the patients with disc degeneration tend to have more vertical sacrum, more sacral kyphosis, and more severe LBP, and that SI and STA measurements should be carefully considered to predict or prevent further disc degeneration and LBP. PMID:26496324

  7. Association between visual degeneration of intervertebral discs and the apparent diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed

    Niinimäki, Jaakko; Korkiakoski, Arto; Ojala, Outi; Karppinen, Jaro; Ruohonen, Jyrki; Haapea, Marianne; Korpelainen, Raija; Natri, Antero; Tervonen, Osmo

    2009-06-01

    The value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in intervertebral disc has been studied because ADC provides an estimate of free diffusion of unbound water and could be used as a quantitative tool to estimate degenerative changes. However, the challenging nature of diffusion imaging of spine and limited numbers of subjects in earlier studies has produced contradictory findings. We aimed to determine the relation between ADC and visual degenerative changes in lumbar intervertebral discs in a sufficiently large homogeneous study group. Lumbar spines of 228 volunteer middle-aged men were MR imaged at 1.5 T including anatomic and diffusion-weighted imaging. ADC values, T2 signal intensity and height, and width of the three lowest lumbar intervertebral discs were measured and disc degeneration visually graded. The calculated average ADC of 530 measured discs was 2.01 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s+/-0.29 (+/-S.D.). The reduction in ADC between visually normal and moderately degenerated discs was 4%. Severely degenerated discs showed 5% larger ADC values than normal discs, presumably due to free water in cracks and fissures of those discs. T2 signal intensity of the disc was significantly correlated with the ADC values, whereas other measured parameters did not show correlation. There was no evident difference in ADC between the studied anatomic lumbar levels. Because there is considerable overlap between ADC values of normal and degenerated discs, we conclude that ADC measurements of intervertebral discs, at least with current technology, have limited clinical value. PMID:19106025

  8. Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yali; Bailey, Steven T.; Wilson, David J.; Tan, Ou; Klein, Michael L.; Flaxel, Christina J.; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan J.; Lu, Chen D.; Kraus, Martin F.; Fujimoto, James G.; Huang, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To detect and quantify choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Design Observational, cross-sectional study. Participants Five normal subjects and five neovascular AMD patients were included. Methods Five eyes with neovascular AMD and five normal age-matched controls were scanned by a high-speed (100,000 A-scans/sec) 1050 nm wavelength swept-source OCT. The macular angiography scan covered a 3×3 mm area and comprised 200×200×8 A-scans acquired in 3.5 sec. Flow was detected using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm. Motion artifacts were removed by three dimensional (3D) orthogonal registration and merging of 4 scans. The 3D angiography was segmented into 3 layers: inner retina (to show retinal vasculature), outer retina (to identify CNV), and choroid. En face maximum projection was used to obtain 2D angiograms from the 3 layers. CNV area and flow index were computed from the en face OCT angiogram of the outer retinal layer. Flow (decorrelation) and structural data were combined in composite color angiograms for both en face and cross-sectional views. Main Outcome Measurements CNV angiogram, CNV area, and CNV flow index. Results En face OCT angiograms of CNVs showed sizes and locations that were confirmed by fluorescein angiography. OCT angiography provided more distinct vascular network patterns that were less obscured by subretinal hemorrhage. The en face angiograms also showed areas of reduced choroidal flow adjacent to the CNV in all cases and significantly reduced retinal flow in one case. Cross-sectional angiograms were used to visualize CNV location relative to the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s layer and classify type I and type II CNV. A feeder vessel could be identified in one case. Higher flow indexes were associated with larger CNV and type II CNV. Conclusions OCT angiography provides depth-resolved information and detailed images of CNV in neovascular AMD. Quantitative information regarding CNV flow and area can be obtained. Further studies are needed to assess the role of quantitative OCT angiography in the evaluation and treatment of neovascular AMD. PMID:24679442

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography grading reproducibility during the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials

    PubMed Central

    DeCroos, Francis Char; Toth, Cynthia A.; Stinnett, Sandra S.; Heydary, Cynthia S.; Burns, Russell; Jaffe, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To report Reading Center reproducibility during grading of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California) images obtained during the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). DESIGN Prospective clinical trial PARTICIPANTS Independent reading teams reevaluated 270 OCT scans randomly sampled from the first 2 years of CATT enrollment. To assess temporal drift, a cohort of 23 scans submitted during the initial portion of the CATT study was longitudinally followed with serial reproducibility analysis. INTERVENTION CATT readers performed standardized grading on OCT images. A reader team, composed of two independent readers and a Senior Reader, evaluated each scan. Grading included the CATT OCT endpoints of total thickness at the foveal center point and intraretinal fluid, subretinal fluid, and sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluid. Independent reading teams masked to the results of initial grading reevaluated scans to determine reproducibility of qualitative grading and measurements. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Categorical grading agreement was reported using percent agreement and kappa statistic and measurement agreement was reported using intraclass correlations and paired differences. RESULTS Reading Center teams reproducibly graded intraretinal fluid (percent agreement = 73%, kappa = 0.48, 95% confidence interval or CI 0.38 to 0.58), subretinal fluid (percent agreement = 90%, kappa = 0.80, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.87), and sub-RPE fluid (percent agreement 88%, kappa = 0.75, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). For independent Reading Center team measurements of total thickness at the foveal center point, the intraclass correlation was 0.99 (95% CI 0.99 to 0.99, and the mean paired difference between Reading Center teams was −4 micrometers (95% limits of agreement −55 to 47 micrometers). There was no qualitative or quantitative grading drift. CONCLUSIONS The standardized protocols used to evaluate OCT scans from the CATT study were reproducible. The methods used are suitable to monitor OCT imaging data from a large neovascular age related macular degeneration interventional multicenter study. PMID:22939114

  10. Acute disc swelling in juvenile diabetes. Clinical profile and natural history of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Barr, C C; Glaser, J S; Blankenship, G

    1980-12-01

    Acute disc swelling was documented in 21 eyes of 12 patients with long-standing juvenile diabetes. All but one patient were in the second or third decade of life, with a 13-year average duration of diabetes. Seventeen eyes had initial acuity of 20/50 or better, including nine eyes with 20/25 or better; disc swelling was asymptomatic in six eyes. Simultaneous bilateral disc swelling occurred in seven patients. With no specific therapy, vision generally recovered to normal levels within a few weeks, but a few patients retained arcuate, nerve fiber bundle, field defects and optic atrophy. There was no positive correlation with the degree of diabetic retinopathy, and disc swelling did not seem to be a harbinger of progressive retinopathy or proliferation at the nerve head. Disc swelling in juvenile diabetics represents a distinct clinical entity that must be distinguished from other causes of acquired nerve head elevation, especially papilledema of increased intracranial pressure. PMID:7447771

  11. Significance of the disc damage likelihood scale objectively measured by a non-mydriatic fundus camera in preperimetric glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pahlitzsch, Milena; Torun, Necip; Erb, Carl; Bruenner, Jeanette; Maier, Anna Karina B; Gonnermann, Johannes; Bertelmann, Eckart; Klamann, Matthias K J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the correlation between the disc damage likelihood scale (DDLS) objectively measured by a non-mydriatic fundus camera, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3, and optic coherence tomography in preperimetric glaucoma. Methods One-hundred-twenty-five patients with preperimetric primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (n=30) were included (mean age 58.9±15.9 years). All three devices graded the optic disc topography: Diagnosis 1 was defined as “outside normal limits”, while Diagnosis 2 as “borderline or outside normal limits”. Results For Diagnosis 1, a significant correlation was shown between DDLS and Moorfields regression analysis (P=0.022), and for Diagnosis 2 with glaucoma probability score analysis (P=0.024), in POAG. In pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, DDLS did not correlate significantly with Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 and optic coherence tomography. Regarding the area under the curve the highest predictive power was demonstrated by the objective DDLS (0.513–0.824) compared to Burk (0.239–0.343) and Mikelberg (0.093–0.270) coefficients. Conclusions The DDLS showed a significant correlation to the Moorfields regression analysis in preperimetric POAG. The objective DDLS showed the highest predictive power and thus is an additive tool in diagnosing preperimetric glaucoma. PMID:26640365

  12. Laser engineering of spine discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, E.; Zakharkina, O.; Baskov, A.; Shekhter, A.; Borschenko, I.; Guller, A.; Baskov, V.; Omelchenko, A.; Sviridov, A.

    2009-04-01

    The laser engineering of intervertebral discs is one of the branch of medical physics aimed at the development of minimally invasive laser medical techniques based on the effect of the controlled (time- and space-modulated) laser radiation on the structure and the field of mechanical stress of biological tissues. A new method for the laser engineering of the intervertebral discs and the differences of this approach from the existing physical methods of medical treatment are considered. The newly formed tissues of animals and humans are hystologically studied. Possible regeneration processes are discussed. A control system that provides for the treatment efficiency and safety is developed. The new laser medical equipment that is designed for the laser engineering of intervertebral discs is described, and the corresponding results of the clinical application are presented.

  13. Signs of a faint disc population at polluted white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergfors, C.; Farihi, J.; Dufour, P.; Rocchetto, M.

    2014-11-01

    Observations of atmospheric metals and dust discs around white dwarfs provide important clues to the fate of terrestrial planetary systems around intermediate-mass stars. We present Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of 15 metal polluted white dwarfs to investigate the occurrence and physical properties of circumstellar dust created by the disruption of planetary bodies. We find subtle infrared excess emission consistent with warm dust around KUV 15519+1730 and HS 2132+0941, and weaker excess around the DZ white dwarf G245-58, which, if real, makes it the coolest white dwarf known to exhibit a 3.6 μm excess and the first DZ star with a bright disc. All together our data corroborate a picture where (1) discs at metal-enriched white dwarfs are commonplace and most escape detection in the infrared (possibly as narrow rings), (2) the discs are long lived, having lifetimes on the order of 106 yr or longer and (3) the frequency of bright, infrared detectable discs decreases with age, on a time-scale of roughly 500 Myr, suggesting large planetesimal disruptions decline on this same time-scale.

  14. Temporomandibular joint sounds and disc dislocations incidence after orotracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Estela T; Suazo, Iván C; Guimarães, Antonio S

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement and articular sounds incidence after orotracheal intubation. A prospective cohort study was conducted in the Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná (HUOP), in Cascavel, Brazil. 100 patients (aged 14–74 years, mean 44 years), 34 male and 66 female, in need of surgical procedure with orotracheal intubation were evaluated. The anterior disc displacement with reduction incidence and the nonclassifiable sounds incidence by the Research Diagnostic Criteria Axis I was evaluated in all patients after orotracheal intubation. The patients was evaluated one day before and until two days after the procedure. Eight percent present with anterior disc displacement with reduction and 10% presented nonclassifiable sounds after the orotracheal intubation. There was no correlation of any kind regarding gender related influence in the incidence of disc dislocations (P = 0.2591) and TMJ sounds (P = 0.487). Although anterior disc dislocations and TMJ sounds after anesthetic with orotracheal intubation presented a low incidence (8%–10%), it is recommended that the evaluation of TMJ signs and symptoms be done before the anesthetic procedure to take care with susceptible patients manipulation. PMID:23674907

  15. Complications of artificial disc replacement: a report of 27 patients with the SB Charit disc.

    PubMed

    van Ooij, Andr; Oner, F Cumhur; Verbout, Ab J

    2003-08-01

    Disc prosthesis surgery is rapidly becoming an option in treating patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease. Only short-term and midterm results are described in the literature. Most operated patients belong to the age group of 30-50 years. In these active patients, complications can be expected to increase with longer follow-up, similar to total joint replacements in the extremities. Reported here is a series of 27 patients from another institution, who presented with unsatisfactory results or complications after SB Charit disc replacement. The objective of this work was to describe the possible short- and long-term unsatisfactory results of disc prosthesis surgery. Twenty-seven patients were seen in a tertiary university referral center with persisting back and leg complaints after having received a Charit disc prosthesis. All patients were operated on in a neighboring hospital. Most patients were operated on at the L4-L5 and /or the L5-S1 vertebral levels. The patients were evaluated with plain radiography, some with flexion-extension x-rays, and most of them with computed tomography scans. The group consisted of 15 women and 12 men. Their mean age was 40 years (range 30-67 years) at the time of operation. The patients presented to us a mean of 53 months (range 11-127 months) following disc replacement surgery. In two patients, an early removal of a prosthesis was required and in two patients a late removal. In 11 patients, a second spinal reconstructive salvage procedure was performed. Mean follow-up for 26 patients with mid- and long-term evaluation was 91 months (range 15-157 months). Early complications were the following: In one patient, an anterior luxation of the prosthesis after 1 week necessitated removal and cage insertion, which failed to unite. In another patient with prostheses at L4-L5 and L5-S1, the prosthesis at L5-S1 dislocated anteriorly after 3 months and was removed after 12 months. Abdominal wall hematoma occurred in four cases. Retrograde ejaculation with loss of libido was seen in one case and erection weakness in another case. A temporary benefit was experienced by 12 patients, while 14 patients reported no benefit at all. Main causes of persistent complaints were degeneration at another level in 14, subsidence of the prosthesis in 16, and facet joint arthrosis in 11. A combination of pathologies was often present. Slow anterior migration was present in two cases, with compression on the iliac vessels in one case. Polyethylene wear was obvious in one patient 12 years after operation. In eight cases, posterior fusion with pedicle screws was required. In two cases, the prosthesis was removed and the segment was circumferentially fused. These procedures resulted in suboptimal long-term results. In this relatively small group of patients operated on with a Charit disc prosthesis, most problems arose from degeneration of other lumbar discs, facet joint arthrosis at the same or other levels, and subsidence of the prosthesis. It is to be expected that many more patients will be seen with late problems some years after this operation as the survivorship will decrease with time. PMID:12902953

  16. Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility

    MedlinePlus

    Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility February 18, 2009 From PinnacleHealth, Harrisburg, PA Welcome to this “OR ... this new technology with the use of an artificial disc has some significant benefits over the previous ...

  17. Dust trapping by spiral arms in gravitationally unstable protostellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipierro, Giovanni; Pinilla, Paola; Lodato, Giuseppe; Testi, Leonardo

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the influence of gravitational instabilities in massive protostellar discs on the dynamics of dust grains. Starting from a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation, we have computed the evolution of the dust in a quasi-static gas density structure typical of self-gravitating disc. For different grain size distributions, we have investigated the capability of spiral arms to trap particles. We have run 3D radiative transfer simulations in order to construct maps of the expected emission at (sub-)millimetre and near-infrared wavelengths. Finally, we have simulated realistic observations of our disc models at (sub-)millimetre and near-infrared wavelengths as they may appear with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) and the High-Contrast Coronographic Imager for Adaptive Optics (HiCIAO) in order to investigate whether there are observational signatures of the spiral structure. We find that the pressure inhomogeneities induced by gravitational instabilities produce a non-negligible dynamical effect on centimetre-sized particles leading to significant overdensities in spiral arms. We also find that the spiral structure is readily detectable by ALMA over a wide range of (sub-)millimetre wavelengths and by HiCIAO in near-infrared scattered light for non-face-on discs located in the Ophiuchus star-forming region. In addition, we find clear spatial spectral index variations across the disc, revealing that the dust trapping produces a migration of large grains that can be potentially investigated through multiwavelength observations in the (sub-)millimetric. Therefore, the spiral arms observed to date in protoplanetary disc might be interpreted as density waves induced by the development of gravitational instabilities.

  18. 21 CFR 866.1620 - Antimicrobial susceptibility test disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of antimicrobic-impregnated paper discs used to measure by a disc-agar diffusion technique or a disc... antimicrobial agents. In the disc-agar diffusion technique, bacterial susceptibility is ascertained by...

  19. 21 CFR 866.1620 - Antimicrobial susceptibility test disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of antimicrobic-impregnated paper discs used to measure by a disc-agar diffusion technique or a disc... antimicrobial agents. In the disc-agar diffusion technique, bacterial susceptibility is ascertained by...

  20. 21 CFR 866.1620 - Antimicrobial susceptibility test disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of antimicrobic-impregnated paper discs used to measure by a disc-agar diffusion technique or a disc... antimicrobial agents. In the disc-agar diffusion technique, bacterial susceptibility is ascertained by...

  1. 21 CFR 866.1620 - Antimicrobial susceptibility test disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of antimicrobic-impregnated paper discs used to measure by a disc-agar diffusion technique or a disc... antimicrobial agents. In the disc-agar diffusion technique, bacterial susceptibility is ascertained by...

  2. 21 CFR 866.1620 - Antimicrobial susceptibility test disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of antimicrobic-impregnated paper discs used to measure by a disc-agar diffusion technique or a disc... antimicrobial agents. In the disc-agar diffusion technique, bacterial susceptibility is ascertained by...

  3. Morphological evolution in situ: disc-dominated cluster red sequences at z 1.25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Propris, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Phillipps, Steven

    2015-06-01

    We have carried out a joint photometric and structural analysis of red sequence galaxies in four clusters at a mean redshift of 1.25 using optical and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging reaching to at least three magnitudes fainter than M*. As expected, the photometry and overall galaxy sizes imply purely passive evolution of stellar populations in red sequence cluster galaxies. However, the morphologies of red sequence cluster galaxies at these redshifts show significant differences to those of local counterparts. Apart from the most massive galaxies, the high-redshift red sequence galaxies are significantly discier than their low-redshift analogues. These galaxies also show significant colour gradients, again not present in their low-redshift equivalents, most straightforwardly explained by radial age gradients. A clear implication of these findings is that red sequence cluster galaxies originally arrive on the sequence as disc-dominated galaxies whose discs subsequently fade or evolve secularly to end up as high Srsic index early-type galaxies (classical S0s or possibly ellipticals) at lower redshift. The apparent lack of growth seen in a comparison of high- and low-redshift red sequence galaxies implies that any evolution is internal and is unlikely to involve significant mergers. While significant star formation may have ended at high redshift, the cluster red sequence population continues to evolve (morphologically) for several gigayears thereafter.

  4. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field

  5. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field…

  6. Uncovertebral Anatomic Midline Targeting for Cervical Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bednar, Drew A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Prospective observational cohort. Objective To document the accuracy of uncovertebral anatomic targeting in positioning cervical disc arthroplasty. Summary of Background Data Disc arthroplasty implants depend on midline placement for optimum mechanical function. Fluoroscopy is used to delineate the midline. Anatomic targeting from the uncovertebral joints in the neck may be adequate. We have investigated the efficacy of uncovertebral anatomic targeting for cervical disc arthroplasty. Methods Anatomic uncovertebral midline targeting for disc arthroplasty insertion was performed in 18 male (mean age 51 years, range 27 to 67) and 22 female (mean age 50, range 35 to 70) patients receiving a total of 59 implants over a 5-year period. Device insertion was under only lateral imaging control. Postinsertion operative fluoroscopy with optimized centering was used to record implant position in the anteroposterior plane, and centerline analysis was performed using cursor measurement technology from the GE PACS™ imaging system (GE Medical Systems, Mt. Prospect, IL). Results Analysis found a mean deviation from the ideal midline placement of only 0.7 mm (range, 0 to 2.9 mm). Only three devices were more than 2 mm off the anatomic midline. Conclusion This anatomic technique is effective, safely minimizing imaging resource needs and X-ray exposure to the patient and operating team. PMID:24353946

  7. The imprint of satellite accretion on the chemical and dynamical properties of disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Few, C. G.; Gibson, B. K.; Pérez, I.; Florido, E.; Minchev, I.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: We study the effects of the cosmological assembly history on the chemical and dynamical properties of the discs of spiral galaxies as a function of radius. Methods: We made use of the simulated Milky Way mass, fully-cosmological discs from Ramses Disc Environment Study (RaDES). We analysed their assembly history by examining the proximity of satellites to the galactic disc, instead of their merger trees, to better gauge which satellites impact the disc. We presented stellar age and metallicity profiles, age-metallicity relation (AMR), age-velocity dispersion relation (AVR), and stellar age distribution (SAD) in several radial bins for the simulated galaxies. Results: Assembly histories can be divided into three different stages: i) a merger dominated phase, when a large number of mergers with mass ratios of ~1:1 take place (lasting ~3.2 ± 0.4 Gyr on average); ii) a quieter phase, when ~1:10 mergers take place (lasting ~4.4 ± 2.0 Gyr); and iii) a secular phase where the few mergers that take place have mass ratios below 1:100, which do not affect the disc properties (lasting ~5.5 ± 2.0 Gyr). The first two phases are able to kinematically heat the disc and produce a disc that is chemically mixed over its entire radial extension. Phase 2 ends with a final merger event (at time tjump) marking the onset of important radial differences in the AMR, AVR, and SAD. Conclusions: Inverted AMR trends in the outer parts of discs, for stars younger than tjump, are found as the combined effect of radial motions and star formation in satellites temporarily located in these outer parts. U-shaped stellar age profiles change to an old plateau (~10 Gyr) in the outer discs for the entire RaDES sample. This shape is a consequence of inside-out growth of the disc, radial motions of disc stars (inwards and outwards), and the accretion of old stars from satellites. We see comparable age profiles even when ignoring the influence of stellar migration due to the presence of early in situ star formation in the outer regions of the galaxy.

  8. In vitro biomechanics of cervical disc arthroplasty with the ProDisc-C total disc implant.

    PubMed

    DiAngelo, Denis J; Foley, Kevin T; Morrow, Brian R; Schwab, John S; Song, Jung; German, John W; Blair, Eve

    2004-09-15

    An in vitro biomechanical study was conducted to compare the effects of disc arthroplasty and anterior cervical fusion on cervical spine biomechanics in a multilevel human cadaveric model. Three spine conditions were studied: harvested, single-level cervical disc arthroplasty, and single-level fusion. A programmable testing apparatus was used that replicated physiological flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Measurements included vertebral motion, applied load, and bending moments. Relative rotations at the superior, treated, and inferior motion segment units (MSUs) were normalized with respect to the overall rotation of those three MSUs and compared using a one-way analysis of variance with Student-Newman-Keuls test (p < 0.05). Simulated fusion decreased motion across the treated site relative to the harvested and disc arthroplasty conditions. The reduced motion at the treated site was compensated at the adjacent segments by an increase in motion. For all modes of testing, use of an artificial disc prosthesis did not alter the motion patterns at either the instrumented level or adjacent segments compared with the harvested condition, except in extension. PMID:15636563

  9. Combining Information from Three Anatomic Regions in the Diagnosis of Glaucoma with Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingwu; Lu, Ake Tzu-Hui; Varma, Rohit; Schuman, Joel S.; Greenfield, David S.; Huang, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To improve the diagnosis of glaucoma by combining time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) measurements of the optic disc, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and macular retinal thickness. Patients and Methods Ninety-six age-matched normal and 96 perimetric glaucoma participants were included in this observational, cross-sectional study. Or-logic, support vector machine (SVM), relevance vector machine (RVM), and linear discrimination function (LDF) were used to analyze the performances of combined TD-OCT diagnostic variables. Results The area under the receiver operating curve (AROC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and to compare the diagnostic performance of single and combined anatomic variables. The best RNFL thickness variables were the inferior (AROC=0.900), overall (AROC=0.892), and superior quadrants (AROC=0.850). The best optic disc variables were horizontal integrated rim width (AROC=0.909), vertical integrated rim area (AROC=0.908), and cup/disc vertical ratio (AROC=0.890). All macular retinal thickness variables had AROCs of 0.829 or less. Combining the top 3 RNFL and optic disc variables in optimizing glaucoma diagnosis, SVM had the highest AROC, 0.954, followed by or-logic (AROC=0.946), LDF (AROC=0.946), and RVM (AROC=0.943). All combination diagnostic variables had significantly larger AROCs than any single diagnostic variable. There are no significant differences among the combination diagnostic indices. Conclusions With TD-OCT, RNFL and optic disc variables had better diagnostic accuracy than macular retinal variables. Combining top RNFL and optic disc variables significantly improved diagnostic performance. Clinically, or-logic classification was the most practical analytical tool with sufficient accuracy to diagnose early glaucoma. PMID:22828002

  10. An irradiated accretion disc in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 RE J1034+396?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, R.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.

    2002-01-01

    We model the optical to X-ray continuum spectrum of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396. We show that the flat optical spectrum is consistent with emission from an irradiated accretion disc. The X-ray emission can be modelled with a disc blackbody and a Comptonized component. The temperature at the inner edge of the disc Tin=(0.12+/-0.02)keV. Using this constraint, we show that the flat optical spectrum is consistent with emission from the irradiatively heated outer part of the accretion disc. We constrain the outer radius of the optically thick disc (R>~5×1016cm) and the inner radius of the irradiation-dominated region (R>~5×1012cm). Our optical and X-ray spectral fits indicate a mass 0.6<~M<~3×106Msolar, and do not rule out a low (i.e. face-on) inclination angle for the system.

  11. Profile and Determinants of Retinal Optical Intensity in Normal Eyes with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haoyu; Yang, Jianling; Shi, Fei; Zheng, Ce; Zhu, Weifang; Xiang, Dehui; Chen, Xinjian; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the profile and determinants of retinal optical intensity in normal subjects using 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Methods A total of 231 eyes from 231 healthy subjects ranging in age from 18 to 80 years were included and underwent a 3D OCT scan. Forty-four eyes were randomly chosen to be scanned by two operators for reproducibility analysis. Distribution of optical intensity of each layer and regions specified by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) were investigated by analyzing the OCT raw data with our automatic graph-based algorithm. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed between retinal optical intensity and sex, age, height, weight, spherical equivalent (SE), axial length, image quality, disc area and rim/disc area ratio (R/D area ratio). Results For optical intensity measurements, the intraclass correlation coefficient of each layer ranged from 0.815 to 0.941, indicating good reproducibility. Optical intensity was lowest in the central area of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer and photoreceptor layer, except for the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Optical intensity was positively correlated with image quality in all retinal layers (0.553<β<0.851, p<0.01), and negatively correlated with age in most retinal layers (-0.362<β<-0.179, p<0.01), except for the RPE (β = 0.456, p<0.01), outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor layer (p>0.05). There was no relationship between retinal optical intensity and sex, height, weight, SE, axial length, disc area and R/D area ratio. Conclusions There was a specific pattern of distribution of retinal optical intensity in different regions. The optical intensity was affected by image quality and age. Image quality can be used as a reference for normalization. The effect of age needs to be taken into consideration when using OCT for diagnosis. PMID:26863010

  12. Modelling spikes in quasar accretion disc temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, P. B.; Noordeh, E. S.; Chajet, L. S.; Weiss, E.; Nixon, C. J.

    2014-08-01

    Microlensing observations indicate that quasar accretion discs have half-light radii larger than standard theories predict. The observations of Blackburne and colleagues suggest that these half-light radii may have a weak wavelength dependence. We consider disc temperature profiles that might match these observations. Nixon and colleagues have suggested that misaligned discs around spinning black holes can have annuli torn off them at radii where the Lense-Thirring torque overcomes the disc's viscosity. These annuli precess, spread radially, and intersect with the remaining disc, heating the disc at potentially large radii. However, unless the intersections occur at an angle of <1°, highly supersonic collisions will shock heat intersecting gas to T ˜ 107 K. Discs with such shock-heated regions have significantly larger half-light radii, but are overluminous in X-rays. If instead heating occurs through intermittent weak shocks, the X-ray luminosities are consistent with observations but the half-light radii are not significantly larger. We also study two phenomenological disc temperature profiles. Discs with a temperature spike at relatively large radii and lowered temperatures at radii inside the spike yield improved and acceptable fits to microlensing sizes in most cases. Such temperature profiles could in principle occur in sub-Keplerian discs partially supported by magnetic pressure. However, such discs overpredict the fluxes from quasars studied with microlensing except in the limit of negligible continuum emission from radii inside the temperature spike.

  13. Galactic archaeology of a thick disc: Excavating ESO 533-4 with VIMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, S.; Salo, H.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Yoachim, P.

    2015-12-01

    The disc of galaxies is made of the superposition of a thin and a thick disc. Star formation is hosted in the thin discs and contributes to their growth. Thick discs are formed of old stars. The formation mechanisms of thick discs are under discussion. Thick discs might have formed either at high redshift on a short timescale or might have been built slowly over a Hubble-Lemaître time. They may have an internal or an external origin. Here we adopt a galactic archaeology approach to study the thick disc of ESO 533-4, i.e. we study the kinematics and the stellar populations of this galaxy in detail. ESO 533-4 is a Southern, nearby, and almost bulgeless galaxy. We present the first ever Integral Field Unit spectroscopy of an edge-on galaxy with enough depth and quality to study the thick disc. We exposed ESO 533-4 with the blue grism of the VIMOS instrument of the VLT for 6.5 h. The field of view covered an axial extent from ~ 0.1 r25 to ~ 0.7 r25, where r25 is the 25 mag arcsec-2 isophotal radius. This corresponds to the range from ~1 kpc to ~7 kpc. We used pPXF and the MILES library to obtain velocity and stellar population maps. We compared our kinematic data with simple GADGET-2 models. The apparent rotational lag of the thick disc of ESO 533-4 is compatible with that expected from the combinations of two effects: differential asymmetric drift and the projection effects arising from studying a disc a few degrees (2-3°) away from edge-on. Thus, ESO 533-4 contains little or no counter-rotating material. This is compatible with three formation scenarios: the secular dynamical heating of an initially thin disc, the formation of the thick disc at high redshift in an early turbulent disc phase, and the creation of a thick disc in a major merger event. If this last mechanism occurred in all galaxies, it would cause retrograde thick discs in half of them. These retrograde discs have not been observed in the five massive disc galaxies (circular velocity vc ≳ 120 km s-1) for which the kinematics of the thick disc is known. The stellar populations map indicates that the populations of the thin and the thick discs of ESO 533-4 are possibly separated in the Age-log (Z/Z⊙) plane. This would imply that thin and thick discs are formed of two distinct stellar populations. The stellar population results are not fully conclusive because of the high dust extinction in ESO 533-4 and because recovering stellar populations is a difficult inverse problem. Having said that, the stellar population results do not favour a secular evolution origin for the thick disc. Hence, we suggest that the thick disc of ESO 533-4 formed in a relatively short event. Based on observations made at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope under programme 091.B-0228(A).

  14. Correlation of Choroidal Thickness and Volume Measurements with Axial Length and Age Using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Michalewski, Janusz; Nawrocka, Zofia; Bednarski, Maciej; Nawrocki, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To report choroidal thickness and volume in healthy eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods. A prospective observational study of 122 patients examined with swept source OCT (DRI-OCT, Topcon, Japan). In each eye, we performed 256 horizontal scans, 12 mm in length and centered on the fovea. We calculated choroidal thickness manually with a built-in caliper and automatically using DRI-OCT mapping software. Choroidal volume was also automatically calculated. We measured axial length with optical low-coherence reflectometry (Lenstar LS 900, Haag-Streit, Switzerland). Results. The choroid has focally increased thickness under the fovea. Choroid was thinnest in the outer nasal quadrant. In stepwise regression analysis, age was estimated as the most significant factor correlating with decreased choroidal thickness (F = 23.146, P < 0.001) followed by axial length (F = 4.902, P = 0.03). Refractive error was not statistically significant (F = 1.16, P = 0.28). Conclusions. SS-OCT is the first commercially available system that can automatically create choroidal thickness and volume maps. Choroidal thickness is increased at the fovea and is thinnest nasally. Age and axial length are critical for the estimation of choroidal thickness and volume. Choroidal measurements derived from SS-OCT images have potential value for objectively documenting disease-related choroidal thickness abnormalities and monitoring progressive changes over time. PMID:25013793

  15. Exploring the method of optical dating and comparison of optical and 14C ages of Late Weichselian coversands in the southern Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, D.; Kasse, C.; Hossain, S. M.; de Corte, F.; van den Haute, P.; Fuchs, M.; Murray, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    A study was made of the applicability of three different techniques for equivalent dose (De) determination in the optical dating of quartz: the single-aliquot regenerative-dose technique (SAR), the single-aliquot additive-dose technique (SAAD) and the multiple-aliquot additive-dose technique (MAAD). For this purpose, quartz grains were extracted from a sequence of Upper Pleniglacial to Late-glacial coversands exposed at the locality of Ossendrecht in the southwestern Netherlands, a site for which both radiocarbon and earlier luminescence dates are available, providing independent age control.Upon testing the different assumptions underlying each of the three OSL techniques investigated, the SAR protocol was found to be the technique of choice. The optical ages obtained with this protocol were in good agreement with the chronostratigraphical position of the sediments investigated and with the available chronostratigraphical information on the same and equivalent deposits. This confirms the suitability of the SAR technique for dating coversands. Furthermore, a small laboratory intercomparison of SAR-based De determinations yielded results that were in fair overall agreement. Copyright

  16. Witelo--Polish vision scientist of the middle ages: father of physiological optics.

    PubMed

    Fryczkowski, A W; Bieganowski, L; Nye, C N

    1996-01-01

    Unknown to the Western hemisphere, a Polish scientist, naturalist, anatomist, physiologist, philosopher and optician, Witelo, wrote an important ten volume manuscript, Peri-Optikes, usually cited in the literature as Perspectiva. This classic textbook was first published in 1535 in Nuremberg under the title: Vitellionis mathematici doctissimi ... vulgo Perspectivam vocant libri X, which is translated to English as Perspectiva. It was a vital source of information for such scientists as Leonardo da Vinci, Keppler and others in the next few centuries. Although many of his ideas were similar to Alhazan's, who earlier had written a significant optical manuscript De aspectibus, Witelo developed his own interpretation of many optical issues. He was one of the first scientists to discover spherical aberration of concave lenses and concave mirrors. He was also first to point out "that deflection of the light ray increases with the angle in which they approach two different optical substances and each increase is smaller than the previous one." Until recently, Witelo's achievements and contributions to the understanding of optical and anatomical aspects of the eye and visual function have remained unknown in western literature. Undoubtedly, Witelo should be recognized as the father of physiological optics. PMID:8970240

  17. Carbon, nitrogen and α-element abundances determine the formation sequence of the Galactic thick and thin discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masseron, T.; Gilmore, G.

    2015-10-01

    Using the DR12 public release of APOGEE data, we show that the thin and thick discs separate very well in the space defined by [α/Fe], [Fe/H] and [C/N]. Thick disc giants have both higher [C/N] and higher [α/Fe] than do thin disc stars with similar [Fe/H]. We deduce that the thick disc is composed of lower mass stars than the thin disc. Considering the fact that at a given metallicity there is a one-to-one relation between stellar mass and age, we are then able to infer the chronology of disc formation. Both the thick and the thin discs - defined by [α/Fe] - converge in their dependence on [C/N] and [C+N/Fe] at [Fe/H]≈-0.7. We conclude that (1) the majority of thick disc stars formed earlier than did the thin disc stars, (2) the formation histories of the thin and thick discs diverged early on, even when the [Fe/H] abundances are similar and (3) that the star formation rate in the thin disc has been lower than in the thick disc, at all metallicities. Although these general conclusions remain robust, we also show that current stellar evolution models cannot reproduce the observed C/N ratios for thick disc stars. Unexpectedly, reduced or inhibited canonical extra mixing is very common in field stars. While subject to abundance calibration zero-point uncertainties, this implies a strong dependence of non-canonical extra mixing along the red giant branch on the initial composition of the star and in particular on the α-elemental abundance.

  18. Correlation of Aging and Segmental Choroidal Thickness Measurement using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Wakatsuki, Yu; Shinojima, Ari; Kawamura, Akiyuki; Yuzawa, Mitsuko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess and compare choroidal thickness changes related to aging, we determined whether changes are due to thinning of the choriocapillaris plus Sattler's (CS) layer and/or the large vessel layer in healthy eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at a wavelength of 1,050-nm. Methods We studied 115 normal eyes of 115 healthy volunteers, all with refractive errors of less than -6 diopters. All 115 eyes underwent analysis of choroidal thickness at the fovea, the CS layer and the large choroidal vessel layer. In 68 of the 115 eyes, choroidal thickness was determined at five sites (the fovea, and superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal sites) using SS-OCT with an Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy grid scan. Results Total choroidal thicknesses at each of the five sites were related to subject age (P<0.0001). The choroid was thinnest at the nasal site, followed by the temporal, inferior, superior and finally the subfoveal site itself. The total choroidal thickness at the nasal site was significantly less than those at the other four sites (p<0.05). The CS layer showed thinning which correlated with age (P<0.0001). The thickness of the choroidal large vessel layer also decreased with age (p = 0.02). Subfoveal choroidal thickness was calculated as follows: 443.89–2.98×age (μm) (P<0.0001). Conclusion Subfoveal choroidal thickness decreases by 2.98 μm each year. Total choroidal thickness diminishes with age. The CS and large vessel layers of the choroid at the subfovea showed significant decreases, though only the former correlated strongly with age. PMID:26632821

  19. Optical density of the aging human ocular media in the visible and the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Kraats, Jan; van Norren, Dirk

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the literature on the absorption in the young and aging human eye media. Five templates were derived to provide an adequate description of the spectra from 300 to 700 nm for the lens, cornea, aqueous, and vitreous. Two templates were found in all media. They stand for Rayleigh scatter and the absorbance of tryptophan. Three additional templates for the lens represent absorbance in kynurenine derivatives, such as 3-hydroxykynurenine glucoside (3HKG), and absorbance in two substances found at older age. Except for Rayleigh scatter, all templates have a Gaussian shape. Aging-trend functions were derived that show a linear slope on an age-squared scale. The result can be used to correct for media losses in visual perception tasks, in fundus reflectometry, and in studies on light damage.

  20. Anisotropic radiation from accretion disc coronae in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ya-Di

    2015-05-01

    In the unification scheme for active galactic nuclei, type 1 Seyfert galaxies and type 2 Seyfert galaxies are thought to be intrinsically the same but viewed at different angles. However, the Fe Kα emission line luminosity of type 1 Seyfert galaxies was found on average to be about twice that of type 2 Seyfert galaxies for a given X-ray continuum luminosity in previous work. We construct an accretion disc-corona model in which a fraction of the energy dissipated in the disc is extracted to heat the corona above the disc. The radiation transfer equation with Compton scattering processes is an integro-differential equation, which is solved numerically for the corona with a parallel plane geometry. We find that the specific intensity of X-ray radiation from the corona changes little with the viewing angle θ when θ is small (nearly face-on), and it is sensitive to θ if the viewing angle is large (θ ≳ 40°). The radiation from the cold disc, mostly in infrared, optical and UV bands, is almost proportional to cos θ when θ ≲ 40°, while it decreases more rapidly than cos θ when θ ≳ 40° because of strong absorption in the corona in this case. For Seyfert galaxies, the Fe Kα line may probably be emitted from the disc irradiated by the X-ray continuum emission. The observed equivalent width difference between type 1 Seyfert galaxies and type 2 Seyfert galaxies can be reproduced by our model calculations, provided the type 1 Seyfert galaxies are observed nearly face-on and the average inclination angle of type 2 Seyfert galaxies is ˜65°.

  1. Optically stimulated luminescence age controls on late Pleistocene and Holocene coastal lithosomes, North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallinson, D.; Burdette, K.; Mahan, S.; Brook, G.

    2008-01-01

    Luminescence ages from a variety of coastal features on the North Carolina Coastal Plain provide age control for shoreline formation and relative sea-level position during the late Pleistocene. A series of paleoshoreline ridges, dating to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a and MIS 3 have been defined. The Kitty Hawk beach ridges, on the modern Outer Banks, yield ages of 3 to 2??ka. Oxygen-isotope data are used to place these deposits in the context of global climate and sea-level change. The occurrence of MIS 5a and MIS 3 shorelines suggests that glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) of the study area is large (ca. 22 to 26??m), as suggested and modeled by other workers, and/or MIS 3 sea level was briefly higher than suggested by some coral reef studies. Correcting the shoreline elevations for GIA brings their elevation in line with other sea-level indicators. The age of the Kitty Hawk beach ridges places the Holocene shoreline well west of its present location at ca. 3 to 2??ka. The age of shoreline progradation is consistent with the ages of other beach ridge complexes in the southeast USA, suggesting some regionally contemporaneous forcing mechanism. ?? 2007 University of Washington.

  2. Intermediate-mass black holes in AGN discs - II. Model predictions and observational constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKernan, B.; Ford, K. E. S.; Kocsis, B.; Lyra, W.; Winter, L. M.

    2014-06-01

    If intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) grow efficiently in gas discs around supermassive black holes, their host active galactic nucleus (AGN) discs should exhibit myriad observational signatures. Gap-opening IMBHs in AGN discs can exhibit spectral features and variability analogous to gapped protoplanetary discs. A gap-opening IMBH in the innermost disc imprints ripples and oscillations on the broad Fe Kα line which may be detectable with future X-ray missions. A non-gap-opening IMBH will accrete and produce a soft X-ray excess relative to continuum emission. An IMBH on a retrograde orbit in an AGN disc will not open a gap and will generate soft X-rays from a bow-shock `headwind'. Accreting IMBH in a large cavity can generate ULX-like X-ray luminosities and LINER-like optical line ratios from local ionized gas. We propose that many LINERs house a weakly accreting MBH binary in a large central disc cavity and will be luminous sources of gravitational waves (GW). IMBHs in galactic nuclei may also be detected via intermittent observational signatures including: UV/X-ray flares due to tidal disruption events, asymmetric X-ray intensity distributions as revealed by AGN transits, quasi-periodic oscillations and underluminous Type Ia supernovae. GW emitted during IMBH inspiral and collisions may be detected with eLISA and LIGO, particularly from LINERs. We summarize observational signatures and compare to current data where possible or suggest future observations.

  3. Inward radial transport in differentially rotated plasma discs formed in z-pinch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergey; Bennett, M.; Swadling, G. F.; Suttle, L.; Blackman, E.; Burdiak, G.; Chittenden, J. P.; Ciardi, A.; Drake, R. P.; Frank, A.; Hall, G. N.; Hare, J.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.

    2014-10-01

    We will present experimental results showing the development of instabilities and an inward transport of matter in a differentially rotating supersonic plasma disc with dimensionless parameters relevant to modeling physics of astrophysical discs. The converging off-axis plasma flow forming the disc is produced by ablation of wires in a cylindrical wire array z-pinch (1.4 MA, 250 ns) combined with a cusp magnetic field, and the rotating disc is supported in equilibrium by the ram pressure of the flow. The radial profile of rotation velocity in the disc is measured using Doppler shifts of the ion feature of Thomson scattering spectra, while the broadening of the spectra yields the plasma temperature. The evolution of the disc structure is observed with multi-frame XUV and optical cameras, and the plasma density is measured using end-on laser interferometry. The Reynolds number in the disc is sufficiently large (>105) to allow development of turbulence on the time-scale of the experiment, and the observed inward transport of matter with the growth of small scale structures suggests that turbulence is responsible for the transport.

  4. Magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmeron, Raquel; Wardle, Mark

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the linear growth and vertical structure of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in weakly ionized, stratified accretion discs. The magnetic field is initially vertical and dust grains are assumed to have settled towards the mid-plane, so charges are carried by electrons and ions only. Solutions are obtained at representative radial locations from the central protostar for different choices of the initial magnetic field strength, sources of ionization, disc structure and configuration of the conductivity tensor. The MRI is active over a wide range of magnetic field strengths and fluid conditions in low-conductivity discs. Moreover, no evidence was found of a low-limit field strength below which unstable modes do not exist. For the minimum-mass solar nebula model, incorporating cosmic ray ionization, perturbations grow at 1 au for B<~ 8 G. For a significant subset of these strengths (200mG <~B<~ 5G), the maximum growth rate is of the order of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) rate (0.75Ω). Hall conductivity modifies the structure and growth rate of global unstable modes at 1 au for all magnetic field strengths that support MRI. As a result, at this radius, modes obtained with a full conductivity tensor grow faster and are active over a more extended cross-section of the disc than perturbations in the ambipolar diffusion limit. For relatively strong fields (e.g. B>~ 200 mG), ambipolar diffusion alters the envelope shapes of the unstable modes, which peak at an intermediate height, instead of being mostly flat as modes in the Hall limit are in this region of parameter space. Similarly, when cosmic rays are assumed to be excluded from the disc by the winds emitted by the magnetically active protostar, unstable modes grow at this radius for B<~ 2 G. For strong fields, perturbations exhibit a kink at the height where X-ray ionization becomes active. Finally, for R= 5 au (10 au), unstable modes exist for B<~ 800 mG (B<~ 250 mG) and the maximum growth rate is close to the ideal-MHD rate for 20 <~B<~ 500 mG (2 <~B<~ 50 mG). Similarly, perturbations incorporating Hall conductivity have a higher wavenumber and grow faster than solutions in the ambipolar diffusion limit for B<~ 100 mG (B<~ 10 mG). Unstable modes grow even at the mid-plane for B>~ 100 mG (B~ 1 mG), but for weaker fields, a small dead region exists. This study shows that, despite the low magnetic coupling, the magnetic field is dynamically important for a large range of fluid conditions and field strengths in protostellar discs. An example of such magnetic activity is the generation of MRI unstable modes, which are supported at 1 au for field strengths up to a few gauss. Hall diffusion largely determines the structure and growth rate of these perturbations for all studied radii. At radii of order 1 au, in particular, it is crucial to incorporate the full conductivity tensor in the analysis of this instability and more generally in studies of the dynamics of astrophysical discs.

  5. High pressures and asymmetrical stresses in the scoliotic disc in the absence of muscle loading

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Adam R; Fairbank, Jeremy CT; Jones, Deborah A; McNally, Donal S; Urban, Jill PG

    2007-01-01

    Background Loads acting on scoliotic spines are thought to be asymmetric and involved in progression of the scoliotic deformity; abnormal loading patterns lead to changes in bone and disc cell activity and hence to vertebral body and disc wedging. At present however there are no direct measurements of intradiscal stresses or pressures in scoliotic spines. The aim of this study was to obtain quantitative measurements of the intradiscal stress environment in scoliotic intervertebral discs and to determine if loads acting across the scoliotic spine are asymmetric. We performed in vivo measurements of stresses across the intervertebral disc in patients with scoliosis, both parallel (termed horizontal) and perpendicular (termed vertical) to the end plate, using a side mounted pressure transducer (stress profilometry) Methods Stress profilometry was used to measure horizontal and vertical stresses at 5 mm intervals across 25 intervertebral discs of 7 scoliotic patients during anterior reconstructive surgery. A state of hydrostatic pressure was defined by identical horizontal and vertical stresses for at least two consecutive readings. Results were compared with similar stress profiles measured during surgery across 10 discs of 4 spines with no lateral curvature and with data from the literature. Results Profiles across scoliotic discs were very different from those of normal, young, healthy discs of equivalent age previously presented in the literature. Hydrostatic pressure regions were only seen in 14/25 discs, extended only over a short distance. Non-scoliotic discs of equivalent age would be expected to show large centrally placed hydrostatic nuclear regions in all discs. Mean pressures were significantly greater (0.25 MPa) than those measured in other anaesthetised patients (<0.07 MPa). A stress peak was seen in the concave annulus in 13/25 discs. Stresses in the concave annulus were greater than in the convex annulus indicating asymmetric loading in these anaesthetised, recumbent patients. Conclusion Intradiscal pressures and stresses in scoliotic discs are abnormal, asymmetrical and high in magnitude even in the absence of significant applied muscle loading. The origin of these abnormal stresses is unclear. PMID:17319969

  6. Proto-planetary disc evolution and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosotti, Giovanni Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Planets form from gas and dust discs in orbit around young stars. The timescale for planet formation is constrained by the lifetime of these discs. The properties of the formed planetary systems depend thus on the evolution and final dispersal of the discs, which is the main topic of this thesis. Observations reveal the existence of a class of discs called "transitional", which lack dust in their inner regions. They are thought to be the last stage before the complete disc dispersal, and hence they may provide the key to understanding the mechanisms behind disc evolution. X-ray photoevaporation and planet formation have been studied as possible physical mechanisms responsible for the final dispersal of discs. However up to now, these two phenomena have been studied separately, neglecting any possible feedback or interaction. In this thesis we have investigated what is the interplay between these two processes. We show that the presence of a giant planet in a photo-evaporating disc can significantly shorten its lifetime, by cutting the inner regions from the mass reservoir in the exterior of the disc. This mechanism produces transition discs that for a given mass accretion rate have larger holes than in models considering only X-ray photo-evaporation, constituting a possible route to the formation of accreting transition discs with large holes. These discs are found in observations and still constitute a puzzle for the theory. Inclusion of the phenomenon called "thermal sweeping", a violent instability that can destroy a whole disc in as little as 10 4 years, shows that the outer disc left can be very short-lived (depending on the X-ray luminosity of the star), possibly explaining why very few non accreting transition discs are observed. However the mechanism does not seem to be efficient enough to reconcile with observations. In this thesis we also show that X-ray photo-evaporation naturally explains the observed correlation between stellar masses and accretion rates and is therefore the ideal candidate for driving disc evolution. Another process that can influence discs is a close encounter with another star. In this thesis we develop a model to study the effect of stellar dynamics in the natal stellar cluster on the discs, following for the first time at the same time the stellar dynamics together with the evolution of the discs. We find that, although close encounters with stars are unlikely to change significantly the mass of a disc, they can change substantially its size, hence imposing an upper limit on the observed disc radii. Finally, we investigated in this thesis whether discs can be reformed after their dispersal. If a star happens to be in a region that is currently forming stars, it can accrete material from the interstellar medium. This mechanism may result in the production of "second generation" discs such that in a given star forming region a few percent of stars may still possess a disc, in tentative agreement with observations of so called "old accretors", which are difficult to explain within the current paradigm of disc evolution and dispersal.

  7. Reading disc-based bioassays with standard computer drives.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Zhong; Li, Yunchao; Ou, Lily M-L

    2013-02-19

    Traditional methods of disease diagnosis are both time-consuming and labor-intensive, and many tests require expensive instrumentation and trained professionals, which restricts their use to biomedical laboratories. Because patients can wait several days (even weeks) for the results, the consequences of delayed treatment could be disastrous. Therefore, affordable and simple point-of-care (POC) biosensor devices could fill a diagnostic niche in the clinic or even at home, as personal glucose meters do for diabetics. These devices would allow patients to check their own health conditions and enable physicians to make prompt treatment decisions, which could improve the chances for rapid recovery and cure. Compact discs (CDs) provide inexpensive substrate materials for the preparation of microarray biochips, and conventional computer drives/disc players can be adapted as precise optical reading devices for signal processing. Researchers can employ the polycarbonate (PC) base of a CD as an alternative substrate to glass slides or silicon wafers for the preparation of microanalytical devices. Using the characteristic optical phenomena occurring on the metal layer of a CD, researchers can develop biosensors based on advanced spectroscopic readout (interferometry or surface plasmon resonance). If researchers integrate microfluidic functions with CD mechanics, they can control fluid transfer through the spinning motion of the disc, leading to "lab-on-a-CD" devices. Over the last decade, our laboratory has focused on the construction of POC biosensor devices from off-the-shelf CDs or DVDs and standard computer drives. Besides the initial studies of the suitability of CDs for surface and materials chemistry research (fabrication of self-assembled monolayers and oxide nanostructures), we have demonstrated that an ordinary optical drive, without modification of either the hardware or the software driver, can function as the signal transducing element for reading disc-based bioassays quantitatively. In this Account, we first provide a brief introduction to CD-related materials chemistry and microfluidics research. Then we describe the mild chemistry developed in our laboratory for the preparation of computer-readable biomolecular screening assays: photochemical activation of the polycarbonate (PC) disc surface and immobilization and delivery of probe and target biomolecules. We thoroughly discuss the analysis of the molecular recognition events: researchers can "read" these devices quantitatively with an unmodified optical drive of any personal computer. Finally, and critically, we illustrate our digitized molecular diagnosis approach with three trial systems: DNA hybridization, antibody-antigen binding, and ultrasensitive lead detection with a DNAzyme assay. These examples demonstrate the broad potential of this new analytical/diagnostic tool for medical screening, on-site food/water safety testing, and remote environmental monitoring. PMID:23025412

  8. The pseudo-photosphere model for the continuum emission of gaseous discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, R. G.; Carciofi, A. C.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the continuum emission of viscous decretion discs around Be stars in this paper. The results obtained from non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) radiative transfer models show two regimes in the disc surface brightness profile: an inner optically thick region, which behaves as a pseudo-photosphere with a wavelength-dependent size, and an optically thin tenuous outer part, which contributes with about a third of the total flux. The isophotal shape of the surface brightness is well described by elliptical contours with an axial ratio b/a = cos i for inclinations i < 75. Based on these properties, a semi-analytical model was developed to describe the continuum emission of gaseous discs. It provides fluxes and spectral slopes at the infrared within an accuracy of 10 and 5 per cent, respectively, when compared to the numerical results. The model indicates that the infrared spectral slope is mainly determined by both the density radial slope and the disc flaring exponent, being practically independent of disc inclination and base density. As a first application, the density structure of 15 Be stars was investigated, based on the infrared flux excess, and the results compared to previous determinations in the literature. Our results indicate that the decretion rates are in the range of 10-12-10-9 M? yr-1, which is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous outflowing disc model predictions.

  9. Factors regulating viable cell density in the intervertebral disc: blood supply in relation to disc height

    PubMed Central

    Boubriak, Olga A; Watson, Natasha; Sivan, Sarit S; Stubbens, Naomi; Urban, Jill P G

    2013-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is an avascular tissue, maintained by a small population of cells that obtain nutrients mainly by diffusion from capillaries at the disc–vertebral body interface. Loss of this nutrient supply is thought to lead to disc degeneration, but how nutrient supply influences viable cell density is unclear. We investigated two factors that influence nutrient delivery to disc cells and hence cell viability: disc height and blood supply. We used bovine caudal discs as our model as these show a gradation in disc height. We found that although disc height varied twofold from the largest to the smallest disc studied, it had no significant effect on cell density, unlike the situation found in articular cartilage. The density of blood vessels supplying the discs was markedly greater for the largest disc than the smallest disc, as was the density of pores allowing capillary penetration through the bony endplate. Results indicate that changes in blood vessels in the vertebral bodies supplying the disc, as well as changes in endplate architecture appear to influence density of cells in intervertebral discs. PMID:23311982

  10. A miniature fiber optic pressure sensor for intradiscal pressure measurements of rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesson, Silas; Yu, Miao; Hsieh, Adam H.

    2007-04-01

    Lower back pain continues to be a leading cause of disability in people of all ages, and has been associated with degenerative disc disease. It is well accepted that mechanical stress, among other factors, can play a role in the development of disc degeneration. Pressures generated in the intervertebral disc have been measured both in vivo and in vitro for humans and animals. However, thus far it has been difficult to measure pressure experimentally in rodent discs due to their small size. With the prevalent use of rodent tail disc models in mechanobiology, it is important to characterize the intradiscal pressures generated with externally applied stresses. In this paper, a miniature fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometric pressure sensor with an outer diameter of 360 μm was developed to measure intradiscal pressures in rat caudal discs. A low coherence interferometer based optical system was used, which includes a broadband light source, a high-speed spectrometer, and a Fabry-Perot sensor. The sensor employs a capillary tube, a flexible, polymer diaphragm coated with titanium as a partial mirror, and a fiber tip as another mirror. The pressure induced deformation of the diaphragm results in a cavity length change of the Fabry-Perot interferometer which can be calculated from the wavelength shift of interference fringes. The sensor exhibited good linearity with small applied pressures. Our validation experiments show that owing to the small size, inserting the sensor does not disrupt the annulus fibrosus and will not alter intradiscal pressures generated. Measurements also demonstrate the feasibility of using this sensor to quantify external load intradiscal pressure relationships in small animal discs.

  11. A SCUBA-2 850-μm survey of protoplanetary discs in the σ Orionis cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan P.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Coulson, Iain M.; Barger, Amy J.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Cowie, Lennox L.; Koss, Michael; Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, David B.

    2013-10-01

    We present the results from a large 850-μm survey of the σ Orionis cluster using the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The 0.5° diameter circular region we surveyed contains 297 young stellar objects with an age estimated at about 3 Myr. We detect nine of these objects, eight of which have infrared excesses from an inner disc. We also serendipitously detect three non-stellar sources at >5σ that are likely background submillimetre galaxies. The nine detected stars have inferred disc masses ranging from 5 to about 17 MJup, assuming similar dust properties as Taurus discs and an interstellar medium gas-to-dust ratio of 100. There is a net positive signal towards the positions of the individually undetected infrared excess sources indicating a mean disc mass of 0.5 MJup. Stacking the emission towards those stars without infrared excesses constrains their mean disc mass to less than 0.3 MJup, or an equivalent Earth mass in dust. The submillimetre luminosity distribution is significantly different from that in the younger Taurus region, indicating disc mass evolution as star-forming regions age and the infrared excess fraction decreases. Submillimetre Array observations reveal CO emission towards four sources demonstrating that some, but probably not much, molecular gas remains in these relatively evolved discs. These observations provide new constraints on the dust and gas mass of protoplanetary discs during the giant planet building phase and provide a reference level for future studies of disc evolution.

  12. Searching for signatures of planet formation in stars with circumstellar debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Eiroa, C.; Villaver, E.; Montesinos, B.; Mora, A.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Tentative correlations between the presence of dusty circumstellar debris discs and low-mass planets have recently been presented. In parallel, detailed chemical abundance studies have reported different trends between samples of planet and non-planet hosts. Whether these chemical differences are indeed related to the presence of planets is still strongly debated. Aims: We aim to test whether solar-type stars with debris discs show any chemical peculiarity that could be related to the planet formation process. Methods: We determine in a homogeneous way the metallicity, [Fe/H], and abundances of individual elements of a sample of 251 stars including stars with known debris discs, stars harbouring simultaneously debris discs and planets, stars hosting exclusively planets, and a comparison sample of stars without known discs or planets. High-resolution échelle spectra (R ~ 57 000) from 2-3 m class telescopes are used. Our methodology includes the calculation of the fundamental stellar parameters (Teff, log g, microturbulent velocity, and metallicity) by applying the iron ionisation and equilibrium conditions to several isolated Fe i and Fe ii lines, as well as individual abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. Results: No significant differences have been found in metallicity, individual abundances or abundance-condensation temperature trends between stars with debris discs and stars with neither debris nor planets. Stars with debris discs and planets have the same metallicity behaviour as stars hosting planets, and they also show a similar ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC trend. Different behaviour in the ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC trends is found between the samples of stars without planets and the samples of planet hosts. In particular, when considering only refractory elements, negative slopes are shown in cool giant planet hosts, whilst positive ones are shown in stars hosting low-mass planets. The statistical significance of the derived slopes is low, however, probably because of the wide range of stellar parameters of our samples. Stars hosting exclusively close-in giant planets behave in a different way, showing higher metallicities and positive ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC slope. A search for correlations between the ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC slopes and the stellar properties reveals a moderate but significant correlation with the stellar radius and a weak correlation with the stellar age, which remain even if Galactic chemical evolution effects are considered. No correlation between the ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC slopes and the disc/planet properties are found. Conclusions: The fact that stars with debris discs and stars with low-mass planets do not show either metal enhancement or a different ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC trend might indicate a correlation between the presence of debris discs and the presence of low-mass planets. We extend results from previous works based mainly on solar analogues with reported differences in the ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC trends between planet hosts and non-hosts to a wider range of parameters. However, these differences tend to be present only when the star hosts a cool distant planet and not in stars hosting exclusively low-mass planets. The interpretation of these differences as a signature of planetary formation should be considered with caution since moderate correlations between the TC-slopes with the stellar radius and the stellar age are found, suggesting that an evolutionary effect might be at work. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC); observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica); observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias; observations made at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community; and data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility.Full Tables 2 and 3, Table 11, and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org .

  13. Effect of Slow Aging Reactions on Optical Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol Prepared by Oxidation of Selected Monoterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizkorodov, S. A.; Bones, D. L.; Henricksen, D. K.; Mang, S. A.; Bateman, A. P.; Pan, X.; Nguyen, T. B.; Gonsior, M.; Cooper, W.; Laskin, J.; Laskin, A.

    2009-05-01

    Organic particulate matter (PM) has a major impact on atmospheric chemistry, climate, and human health. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a rather significant fraction of organic PM; this includes SOA produced by oxidation of biogenically emitted monoterpenes. Once such SOA is formed, it is believed to undergo slow aging processes, which may have large effects on the physical and chemical properties of the particles. This presentation focuses on the effect of slow chemical aging on optical properties of SOA formed from the ozone-induced oxidation of limonene, myrcene, and other selected monoterpenes. Several complementary techniques including high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, FTIR spectroscopy, UV/vis spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy, and photodissociation spectroscopy are used to probe the aging-induced changes in physical properties and chemical composition of laboratory generated SOA. Limonene SOA appears to undergo a dramatic change in its absorption spectrum on a time scale of hours; it develops strong visible bands in the 400-500 nm region, and becomes fluorescent. This transformation is catalyzed by ammonium sulfate and certain amino acids. This rather unusual aging process can potentially contribute to the formation of brown carbon in biogenic SOA.

  14. Effects of age and blood pressure on the retinal arterial wall, analyzed using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Arichika, Shigeta; Uji, Akihito; Ooto, Sotaro; Muraoka, Yuki; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-01-01

    The wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) of the vasculature is a promising early marker of retinal microvascular changes. Recently, adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) enabled direct and noninvasive visualization of the arterial wall. Using AOSLO, we analyzed the correlation between age and WLR in 51 normal subjects. In addition, correlations between blood pressure and WLR were analyzed in 73 subjects (51 normal subjects and 22 hypertensive patients). WLR showed a strong correlation with age (r = 0.68, P < 0.0001), while outer diameter and inner diameter did not show significant correlation with age in the normal group (r = 0.13, P = 0.36 and r = −0.12, P = 0.41, respectively). In the normal and hypertensive groups, WLR showed a strong correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.65, P < 0.0001, respectively). In conclusion, AOSLO provided noninvasive and reproducible arterial measurements. WLR is an early marker of morphological changes in the retinal arteries due to age and blood pressure. PMID:26192115

  15. Eddy current braking experiment using brake disc from aluminium series of A16061 and A17075

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharom, M. Z.; Nuawi, M. Z.; Priyandoko, G.; Harris, S. M.

    2012-09-01

    The electromagnetic braking using eddy current was studied, focused on two series of aluminium as the brake disc which are A16061 and A17075. This paper presents the comparison for both series in a few varied parameters related to eddy current braking such as air-gap, number of turns and brake disc thickness. Optical tachometer has been used along with PULSE analyzer to capture the speed (rpm) and time (s). The findings shows that the smaller the air-gap, the larger of electromagnet turns and the thicker disc thickness is, will generate higher braking torque to stop the rotational motion of disc brake and give great performance for eddy current braking. Thos parameters that been evaluated also addressed a potential on expanding this knowledge to develop an electromagnetic braking system to replace the conventional braking system.

  16. An Accretion-Disc Model for the Algol-Type Eclipsing Binary System AV Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoreyshi, S. M. R.; Ghanbari, J.; Salehi, F.

    2011-01-01

    This study inspects the light and radial-velocity curves of the eclipsing binary AV Del. In comparison with other studies already done, the study shows that the absolute elements, fundamental orbital and physical parameters of the system can be determined using the Wilson-Devinney code. Using these parameters, the configuration of the system is presented. Then, an accretion disc model for the system is introduced by using the shellspec code. The results indicate that AV Del is a semi-detached system in which an optically thick accretion disc is surrounding the primary star. The outer radius of the disc is 8.0 Rsolar, corresponding to a distance of 1.1 Rsolar from the surface of the secondary. Also, the temperature of the disc is calculated to be T=5700K.

  17. Effect of phlorizin on sugar uptake by broadbean leaf discs. [Vica faba L

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine, R.; Delrot, S.

    1986-04-01

    Phlorizin is a competitive inhibitor of Na/sup +//glucose symport in animal cells and of H/sup +//3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MeG) symport in liverworts. The effects of this compound on the uptake of (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose and of (/sup 14/C) 3-O-MeG by broadbean (Vicia faba L.) leaf discs were studied. Leaf discs without lower epidermis were preincubated in the dark for 30 min (fresh discs) or for 12 h (aged discs) on a medium buffered at pH 5.0 containing mannitol as an osmoticum. They were then incubated for 30 min in the light on a similar solution added with 1 mM (/sup 14/C) sucrose or (/sup 14/C) 3-O-MeG and 5 mM phlorizin. Phlorizin inhibited uptake of 3-O-MeG by 37 and 50% respectively in fresh and aged discs. Sucrose uptake was more sensitive to the inhibitor than 3-O-MeG uptake and was also more inhibited in aged than in fresh discs (76% inhibition vs 54%). Kinetic studies showed that the inhibition exerted by phlorizin in fresh material is of competitive type both for sucrose and for 3-O-MeG uptake. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the inhibitor did not affect the transmembrane potential difference of parenchyma cells within 30 min. The data suggest that phlorizin can be recognized by the hexose and by the sucrose carrier of leaf cells.

  18. On the Absolute Age of the Metal-rich Globular M71 (NGC 6838). I. Optical Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cecco, A.; Bono, G.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Tognelli, E.; Allard, F.; Stetson, P. B.; Buonanno, R.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Pulone, L.

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the absolute age of the Galactic globular cluster M71 (NGC 6838) using optical ground-based images (u\\prime ,g\\prime ,r\\prime ,i\\prime ,z\\prime ) collected with the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). We performed a robust selection of field and cluster stars by applying a new method based on the 3D (r\\prime ,u\\prime -g\\prime ,g\\prime -r\\prime ) color-color-magnitude diagram. A comparison between the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of the candidate cluster stars and a new set of isochrones at the locus of the main sequence turn-off (MSTO) suggests an absolute age of 12 ± 2 Gyr. The absolute age was also estimated using the difference in magnitude between the MSTO and the so-called main sequence knee, a well-defined bending occurring in the lower main sequence. This feature was originally detected in the near-infrared bands and explained as a consequence of an opacity mechanism (collisionally induced absorption of molecular hydrogen) in the atmosphere of cool low-mass stars. The same feature was also detected in the r‧, u\\prime -g\\prime , and in the r\\prime ,g\\prime -r\\prime CMD, thus supporting previous theoretical predictions by Borysow et al. The key advantage in using the {{{Δ }}}{TO}{Knee} as an age diagnostic is that it is independent of uncertainties affecting the distance, the reddening, and the photometric zero point. We found an absolute age of 12 ± 1 Gyr that agrees, within the errors, with similar age estimates, but the uncertainty is on average a factor of two smaller. We also found that the {{{Δ }}}{TO}{Knee} is more sensitive to the metallicity than the MSTO, but the dependence vanishes when using the difference in color between the MSK and the MSTO.

  19. Accretion in giant planet circumplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Sarah L.; Wardle, Mark

    2014-05-01

    During the final growth phase of giant planets, accretion is thought to be controlled by a surrounding circumplanetary disc. Current astrophysical accretion disc models rely on hydromagnetic turbulence or gravitoturbulence as the source of effective viscosity within the disc. However, the magnetically coupled accreting region in these models is so limited that the disc may not support inflow at all radii, or at the required rate. Here, we examine the conditions needed for self-consistent accretion, in which the disc is susceptible to accretion driven by magnetic fields or gravitational instability. We model the disc as a Shakura-Sunyaev α disc and calculate the level of ionization, the strength of coupling between the field and disc using Ohmic, Hall and Ambipolar diffusevities for both a magnetorotational instability (MRI) field and vertical field, and the strength of gravitational instability. We find that the standard constant-α disc is only coupled to the field by thermal ionization within 30 RJ with strong magnetic diffusivity prohibiting accretion through the bulk of the mid-plane. In light of the failure of the constant-α disc to produce accretion consistent with its viscosity, we drop the assumption of constant-α and present an alternate model in which α varies radially according to the level magnetic turbulence or gravitoturbulence. We find that a vertical field may drive accretion across the entire disc, whereas MRI can drive accretion out to ˜ 200 RJ, beyond which Toomre's Q = 1 and gravitoturbulence dominates. The discs are relatively hot (T ≳ 800 K), and consequently massive (Mdisc ˜ 0.5 MJ).

  20. Vertebral height growth predominates over intervertebral disc height growth in adolescents with scoliosis.

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Ian A.F.; Windisch, Luke

    2006-01-01

    Study Design A cross sectional study of spinal stereo radiographs of adolescents with scoliosis to measure growth. Objective To determine the relative contributions of the vertebral bodies and the intervertebral discs to the increase in spinal length between T5 to L5 over the age range 7.5 to 20 years. Summary of Background Data The progression of spinal deformity (scoliosis) is associated with skeletal growth, but the relative roles of asymmetrical growth and remodelling of the vertebrae and discs during adolescent growth is unclear. Methods An existing database of 406 spinal stereo radiographic studies of 188 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, aged between 7.5 and 20 years was used to measure the heights of vertebral bodies and of intervertebral discs and the summation of both (spinal length). Results Spinal length was observed to increase from about 250 mm to 350 mm over this range of ages. Spinal growth was associated with increase in vertebral height after age 10 years, with minimal if any increase in disc height. The contribution of vertebral and discal height was estimated to be about 17 and 8 mm per year respectively at age 7.5 years, but discal height growth was estimated to be effectively zero after age 12. Conclusion Spinal growth of patients with scoliosis aged between 10 and 20 years occurs almost exclusively by height increases in the vertebrae, not the discs. Mini-Abstract Spinal length over the range T5 to L5, and its components due to vertebral height and discal height were measured from 406 spinal stereo radiographic studies of 188 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, aged between 7.5 and 20 years. This cross-sectional analysis indicated that after age 10 years spinal growth was associated with increase in vertebral height, with minimal if any increase in disc height. PMID:16778695

  1. High-Resolution Imaging of the Optic Nerve and Retina in Optic Nerve Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pilat, Anastasia; Sibley, Daniel; McLean, Rebecca J.; Proudlock, Frank A.; Gottlob, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the optic nerve and macular morphology in patients with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Design Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Subjects A total of 16 participants with ONH (10 female and 6 male; mean age, 17.2 years; 6 bilateral involvement) and 32 gender-, age-, ethnicity-, and refraction-matched healthy controls. Methods High-resolution SD OCT (Copernicus [Optopol Technology S.A., Zawiercie, Poland], 3 ?m resolution) and handheld SD OCT (Bioptigen Inc [Research Triangle Park, NC], 2.6 ?m resolution) devices were used to acquire horizontal scans through the center of the optic disc and macula. Main Outcome Measures Horizontal optic disc/cup and rim diameters, cup depth, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and thickness of individual retinal layers in participants with ONH and in controls. Results Patients with ONH had significantly smaller discs (P < 0.03 and P < 0.001 compared with unaffected eye and healthy controls, respectively), horizontal cup diameter (P < 0.02 for both), and cup depth (P<0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively). In the macula, significantly thinner RNFL (nasally), ganglion cell layer (GCL) (nasally and temporally), inner plexiform layer (IPL) (nasally), outer nuclear layer (ONL) (nasally), and inner segment (centrally and temporally) were found in patients with ONH compared with the control group (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Continuation of significantly thicker GCL, IPL, and outer plexiform layer in the central retinal area (i.e., foveal hypoplasia) was found in more than 80% of patients with ONH. Clinically unaffected fellow eyes of patients with ONH showed mild features of underdevelopment. Visual acuity and presence of septo-optic dysplasia were associated with changes in GCL and IPL. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of ONH based on disc and retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters were >80%. Conclusions Our study provides evidence of retinal changes in ONH. In addition to thinning of retina layers mainly involving the RNFL and GCL, signs reminiscent of foveal hypoplasia were observed in patients with ONH. Optic nerve and foveal parameters measured using OCT showed high sensitivity and specificity for detecting ONH, demonstrating their useful for clinical diagnosis. PMID:25939636

  2. Total Disc Replacement in Lumbar Degenerative Disc Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    More than 10 years have passed since lumbar total disc replacement (LTDR) was introduced for the first time to the world market for the surgical management of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). It seems like the right time to sum up the relevant results in order to understand where LTDR stands on now, and is heading forward to. The pathogenesis of DDD has been currently settled, but diagnosis and managements are still controversial. Fusion is recognized as golden standard of surgical managements but has various kinds of shortcomings. Lately, LTDR has been expected to replace fusion surgery. A great deal of LTDR reports has come out. Among them, more than 5-year follow-up prospective randomized controlled studies including USA IDE trials were expected to elucidate whether for LTDR to have therapeutic benefit compared to fusion. The results of these studies revealed that LTDR was not inferior to fusion. Most of clinical studies dealing with LTDR revealed that there was no strong evidence for preventive effect of LTDR against symptomatic degenerative changes of adjacent segment disease. LTDR does not have shortcomings associated with fusion. However, it has a potentiality of the new complications to occur, which surgeons have never experienced in fusion surgeries. Consequently, longer follow-up should be necessary as yet to confirm the maintenance of improved surgical outcome and to observe any very late complications. LTDR still may get a chance to establish itself as a substitute of fusion both nominally and virtually if it eases the concerns listed above. PMID:26713139

  3. Total Disc Replacement in Lumbar Degenerative Disc Diseases.

    PubMed

    Park, Chun Kun

    2015-11-01

    More than 10 years have passed since lumbar total disc replacement (LTDR) was introduced for the first time to the world market for the surgical management of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). It seems like the right time to sum up the relevant results in order to understand where LTDR stands on now, and is heading forward to. The pathogenesis of DDD has been currently settled, but diagnosis and managements are still controversial. Fusion is recognized as golden standard of surgical managements but has various kinds of shortcomings. Lately, LTDR has been expected to replace fusion surgery. A great deal of LTDR reports has come out. Among them, more than 5-year follow-up prospective randomized controlled studies including USA IDE trials were expected to elucidate whether for LTDR to have therapeutic benefit compared to fusion. The results of these studies revealed that LTDR was not inferior to fusion. Most of clinical studies dealing with LTDR revealed that there was no strong evidence for preventive effect of LTDR against symptomatic degenerative changes of adjacent segment disease. LTDR does not have shortcomings associated with fusion. However, it has a potentiality of the new complications to occur, which surgeons have never experienced in fusion surgeries. Consequently, longer follow-up should be necessary as yet to confirm the maintenance of improved surgical outcome and to observe any very late complications. LTDR still may get a chance to establish itself as a substitute of fusion both nominally and virtually if it eases the concerns listed above. PMID:26713139

  4. On the evolution of the protolunar disc.

    PubMed

    Ward, William R

    2014-09-13

    The structure and viscous evolution of a post-impact, protolunar disc is examined. The equations for a silicate disc in two-phase (vapour-liquid) equilibrium are employed to derive an analytical solution to vertical structure. Both a vertically mixed phase disc and a stratified disc, where a magma layer exists in the mid-plane surrounded by a vapour reservoir, are considered. The former largely reproduces the low gas mass fraction, x≪1, profiles of the disc described in earlier literature that proposed that the disc would hover on the brink of gravitational instability. In the latter, the vapour layer has x∼1 and is generally gravitationally stable, while the magma layer is vigorously unstable. The viscous evolution of the stratified model is then explored. Initially, the disc quickly settles to a quasi-steady state with a vapour reservoir containing the majority of the disc mass. The magma layer viscously spreads on a time scale of approximately 3-4 years, during which vapour continuously condenses into droplets that settle to the mid-plane, maintaining the magma surface density in spite of disc spreading. Material flowing inwards is accreted by the Earth; material flowing outwards past the Roche boundary can become incorporated into accreting moonlets. This evolution persists until the vapour reservoir is depleted in approximately 50-100 years, depending on its initial mass. PMID:25114314

  5. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama Desert, in Chile, as well as several other telescopes, including STFC's UKIRT. The standard picture of the accretion disc is therefore vindicated. The authors believe that further measurements could eventually provide valuable insight into how and where the disc ends, and how material is being supplied to the disc.

  6. Grain charging in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgner, M.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Recent work identified a growth barrier for dust coagulation that originates in the electric repulsion between colliding particles. Depending on its charge state, dust material may have the potential to control key processes towards planet formation such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and grain growth, which are coupled in a two-way process. Aims: We quantify the grain charging at different stages of disc evolution and differentiate between two very extreme cases: compact spherical grains and aggregates with fractal dimension Df = 2. Methods: Applying a simple chemical network that accounts for collisional charging of grains, we provide a semi-analytical solution. This allowed us to calculate the equilibrium population of grain charges and the ionisation fraction efficiently. The grain charging was evaluated for different dynamical environments ranging from static to non-stationary disc configurations. Results: The results show that the adsorption/desorption of neutral gas-phase heavy metals, such as magnesium, effects the charging state of grains. The greater the difference between the thermal velocities of the metal and the dominant molecular ion, the greater the change in the mean grain charge. Agglomerates have more negative excess charge on average than compact spherical particles of the same mass. The rise in the mean grain charge is proportional to N1/6 in the ion-dust limit. We find that grain charging in a non-stationary disc environment is expected to lead to similar results. Conclusions: The results indicate that the dust growth and settling in regions where the dust growth is limited by the so-called "electro-static barrier" do not prevent the dust material from remaining the dominant charge carrier.

  7. Kilovoltage stereotactic radiosurgery for age-related macular degeneration: assessment of optic nerve dose and patient effective dose.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Justin; Lee, Choonsik; Chell, Erik; Gertner, Michael; Hansen, Steven; Howell, Roger W; Bolch, Wesley E

    2009-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause for vision loss for people over the age of 65 in the United States and a major health problem worldwide. Research for new treatments of the wet form of the disease using kilovoltage stereotactic radiosurgery is currently underway at Oraya Therapeutics, Inc. In the present study, the authors extend their previous computational stylized model of a single treated eye [Med. Phys. 35, 5151-5160 (2008)] to include full NURBS-based reference head phantoms of the adult male and female using anatomical data from ICRP Publication 89. The treatment was subsequently modeled in MCNPX 2.5 using a 1 x 1 x 1 mm3 voxelized version of the NURBS models. These models incorporated several organs of interest including the brain, thyroid, salivary glands, cranium, mandible, and cervical vertebrae. A higher resolution eye section at 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm3 voxel resolution was extracted from the head phantoms to model smaller eye structures including the macula target, cornea, lens, vitreous humor, sclera/retina layer, and optic nerve. Due to lack of literature data on optic nerve pathways, a CT imaging study was undertaken to quantify the anatomical position of the optic nerve. The average absorbed doses to the organs of interest were below generally accepted thresholds for radiation safety. The estimated effective dose was 0.28 mSv which is comparable to diagnostic procedures such as a head radiograph and a factor of 10 lower than a head CT scan. PMID:19746800

  8. Extending the upper age limit for luminescence dating using the thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence signal from quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duller, Geoff A. T.; Wintle, Ann G.

    2010-05-01

    The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal from quartz has been exploited for the last 20 years to date heated and unheated materials. While methods based on this signal have been extremely successful and are now widely adopted in laboratories around the world, growth of the signal with dose is affected by saturation and this commonly limits application to samples with equivalent doses of ~100 to 300 Gy. In most environments this limits application of the method to the last 100-150 ka. Studies of OSL from quartz in the late 1980's showed that if the OSL signal from a sample was reduced to background level by measurement, and the sample then heated, further optical stimulation gave a significant signal. This recuperated OSL was viewed as a problem to be avoided, particularly for young samples. Three years ago papers were published showing that this recuperated signal has the potential to be valuable in dosimetry, and in particular that the signal continues to grow to doses in excess of 10,000 Gy offering the possibility of extending the age range over which quartz can be used to as much as 1 Ma. The first work on this signal was undertaken on fine grain quartz extracted from Chinese loess, and ages back to the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary were obtained. The signal is now commonly referred to as thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL). Intense research on the signal has focussed on a number of areas, including, (a) understanding the origin of the charge measured in TT-OSL, (b) improving methods for measuring the TT-OSL signal, and (c) developing protocols for using TT-OSL in dose estimation, and these are reviewed in this presentation.

  9. Crown Gall Tumor Disc Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Galsky, Alan G.; Wilsey, James P.; Powell, Richard G.

    1980-01-01

    Seventeen samples consisting of purified compounds and various ethanol extracts from plant sources were tested for activity on the initiation of crown gall tumors on potato discs. The results demonstrated definite correlation between the ability of these samples to inhibit the formation of crown gall tumors and their activity on the P388 leukemia system in mice. Samples showing only cytotoxic effects in KB cell cultures did not affect tumor initiation in our system. The active materials had no effects on bacterial viability or on the ability of the bacteria to attach to a tumorbinding site. PMID:16661157

  10. Use of adipose stem cells and polylactide discs for tissue engineering of the temporomandibular joint disc

    PubMed Central

    Mäenpää, Katja; Ellä, Ville; Mauno, Jari; Kellomäki, Minna; Suuronen, Riitta; Ylikomi, Timo; Miettinen, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    There is currently no suitable replacement for damaged temporomandibular joint (TMJ) discs after discectomy. In the present study, we fabricated bilayer biodegradable polylactide (PLA) discs comprising a non-woven mat of poly(L/D)lactide (P(L/D)LA) 96/4 and a P(L/DL)LA 70/30 membrane plate. The PLA disc was examined in combination with adipose stem cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering of the fibrocartilaginous TMJ disc in vitro. ASCs were cultured in parallel in control and chondrogenic medium for a maximum of six weeks. Relative expression of the genes, aggrecan, type I collagen and type II collagen present in the TMJ disc extracellular matrix increased in the ASC-seeded PLA discs in the chondrogenic medium. The hypertrophic marker, type X collagen, was moderately induced. Alcian blue staining showed accumulation of sulphated glycosaminoglycans. ASC differentiation in the PLA discs was close to that observed in pellet cultures. Comparison of the mRNA levels revealed that the degree of ASC differentiation was lower than that in TMJ disc-derived cells and tissue. The pellet format supported the phenotype of the TMJ disc-derived cells under chondrogenic conditions and also enhanced their hyalinization potential, which is considered part of the TMJ disc degeneration process. Accordingly, the combination of ASCs and PLA discs has potential for the development of a tissue-engineered TMJ disc replacement. PMID:19474082

  11. Radiation thermo-chemical models of protoplanetary discs. IV. Modelling CO ro-vibrational emission from Herbig Ae discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Woitke, P.; van der Plas, G.; Bertelsen, R.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2013-03-01

    Context. The carbon monoxide (CO) ro-vibrational emission from discs around Herbig Ae stars and T Tauri stars with strong ultraviolet emissions suggests that fluorescence pumping from the ground X1Σ+ to the electronic A1Π state of CO should be taken into account in disc models. Aims: We wish to understand the excitation mechanism of CO ro-vibrational emission seen in Herbig Ae discs, in particular in transitions involving highly excited rotational and vibrational levels. Methods: We implemented a CO model molecule that includes up to 50 rotational levels within nine vibrational levels for the ground and A-excited states in the radiative-photochemical code ProDiMo. We took CO collisions with hydrogen molecules (H2), hydrogen atoms (H), helium (He), and electrons into account. We estimated the missing collision rates using standard scaling laws and discussed their limitations. We tested the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence pumping for the population of high-vibrational levels (v = 1-9, J = 1-50) for four Herbig Ae disc models (disc mass Mdisc = 10-2, 10-4 and inner radius Rdisc = 1, 20 AU). We tested the effect of infrared (IR) pumping on the CO vibrational temperature and the rotational population in the ground vibrational level. Results: UV fluorescence and IR pumping impact on the population of ro-vibrational v > 1 levels. The v = 1 rotational levels are populated at rotational temperatures between the radiation temperature around 4.6 μm and the gas kinetic temperature. The UV pumping efficiency increases with decreasing disc mass. The consequence is that the vibrational temperatures Tvib, which measure the relative populations between the vibrational levels, are higher than the disc gas kinetic temperatures (suprathermal population of the vibrational levels). The effect is more important for low-density gases because of lower collisional de-excitations.The UV pumping is more efficient for low-mass (Mdisc < 10-3 M⊙) than high-mass (Mdisc > 10-3 M⊙) discs. Rotational temperatures from fundamental transitions derived using optically thick 12CO v = 1 - 0 lines do not reflect the gas kinetic temperature. Uncertainties in the rate coefficients within an order of magnitude result in variations in the CO line fluxes up to 20%. CO pure rotational levels with energies lower than 1000 K are populated in local thermodynamic equilibrium but are sensitive to a number of vibrational levels included in the model. The 12CO pure rotational lines are highly optically thick for transition from levels up to Eupper = 2000 K. The model line fluxes are comparable with the observed line fluxes from typical Herbig Ae low- and high-mass discs. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Laser microbeams for DNA damage induction, optical tweezers for the search on blood pressure relaxing drugs: contributions to ageing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigaravicius, P.; Monajembashi, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Altenberg, B.; Greulich, K. O.

    2009-08-01

    One essential cause of human ageing is the accumulation of DNA damages during lifetime. Experimental studies require quantitative induction of damages and techniques to visualize the subsequent DNA repair. A new technique, the "immuno fluorescent comet assay", is used to directly visualize DNA damages in the microscope. Using DNA repair proteins fluorescently labeled with green fluorescent protein, it could be shown that the repair of the most dangerous DNA double strand breaks starts with the inaccurate "non homologous end joining" pathway and only after 1 - 1 ½ minutes may switch to the more accurate "homologous recombination repair". One might suggest investigating whether centenarians use "homologous recombination repair" differently from those ageing at earlier years and speculate whether it is possible, for example by nutrition, to shift DNA repair to a better use of the error free pathway and thus promote healthy ageing. As a complementary technique optical tweezers, and particularly its variant "erythrocyte mediated force application", is used to simulate the effects of blood pressure on HUVEC cells representing the inner lining of human blood vessels. Stimulating one cell induces in the whole neighbourhood waves of calcium and nitric oxide, known to relax blood vessels. NIFEDIPINE and AMLODIPINE, both used as drugs in the therapy of high blood pressure, primarily a disease of the elderly, prolong the availability of nitric oxide. This partially explains their mode of action. In contrast, VERAPAMILE, also a blood pressure reducing drug, does not show this effect, indicating that obviously an alternative mechanism must be responsible for vessel relaxation.

  13. Nuclear discs as clocks for the assembly history of early-type galaxies: the case of NGC 4458

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarzi, M.; Ledo, H. R.; Coccato, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Dotti, M.; Khochfar, S.; Maraston, C.; Morelli, L.; Pizzella, A.

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 20 per cent of early-type galaxies host small nuclear stellar discs that are tens to a few hundred parsecs in size. Such discs are expected to be easily disrupted during major galactic encounters, hence their age serve to constrain their assembly history. We use VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph integral-field spectroscopic observations for the intermediate-mass E0 galaxy NGC 4458 and age-date its nuclear disc via high-resolution fitting of various model spectra. We find that the nuclear disc is at least 6 Gyr old. A clue to gain narrow limits to the stellar age is our knowledge of the nuclear disc contribution to the central surface brightness. The presence of an old nuclear disc, or the absence of disruptive encounters since z ˜ 0.6, for a small galaxy such as NGC 4458 which belongs to the Virgo cluster, may be consistent with a hierarchical picture for galaxy formation where the smallest galaxies assembles earlier and the crowded galactic environments reduce the incidence of galaxy mergers. On the other hand, NGC 4458 displays little or no bulk rotation except for a central kpc-scale kinematically decoupled core. Slow rotation and decoupled core are usually explained in terms of mergers. The presence and age of the nuclear disc constraint these mergers to have happened at high redshift.

  14. The properties of discs around planets and brown dwarfs as evidence for disc fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatellos, Dimitris; Herczeg, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    Direct imaging searches have revealed many very low mass objects, including a small number of planetary-mass objects, as wide-orbit companions to young stars. The formation mechanism of these objects remains uncertain. In this paper, we present the predictions of the disc fragmentation model regarding the properties of the discs around such low-mass objects. We find that the discs around objects that have formed by fragmentation in discs hosted by Sun-like stars (referred to as parent discs and parent stars) are more massive than expected from the Mdisc-M* relation (which is derived for stars with masses M* > 0.2 M?). Accordingly, the accretion rates on to these objects are also higher than expected from the dot{M}_*-M_* relation. Moreover, there is no significant correlation between the mass of the brown dwarf or planet with the mass of its disc nor with the accretion rate from the disc on to it. The discs around objects that form by disc fragmentation have larger than expected masses as they accrete gas from the disc of their parent star during the first few kyr after they form. The amount of gas that they accrete and therefore their mass depend on how they move in their parent disc and how they interact with it. Observations of disc masses and accretion rates on to very low mass objects are consistent with the predictions of the disc fragmentation model. Future observations (e.g. by Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) of disc masses and accretion rates on to substellar objects that have even lower masses (young planets and young, low-mass brown dwarfs), where the scaling relations predicted by the disc fragmentation model diverge significantly from the corresponding relations established for higher mass stars, will test the predictions of this model.

  15. Quantitative Pfirrmann Disc Degeneration Grading System to Overcome the Limitation of Pfirrmann Disc Degeneration Grade

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade is one of morphologic disc degeneration grading system and it was reliable on routine T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade, and check the alternative technique of disc degeneration grading system. Methods Fifteen volunteers (4 medical doctors related to spinal disease, 2 medical doctors not related to spinal disease, 6 nurses in spinal hospital, and 3 para-medicines) were included in this study. Three different digitalized MR images were provided all volunteers, and they checked Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade of each disc levels after careful listening to explanation. Indeed, all volunteers checked the signal intensity of disc degeneration at the points of nucleus pulposus (NP), disc membrane, ligaments, fat, and air to modify the quantitative Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade. Results Total 225 grade results of Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade and 405 signal intensity results of quantitative Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade were analyzed. Average interobserver agreement was "moderate (mean±standard deviation, 0.575±0.251)" from poor to excellent. Completely agreed levels of Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade were only 4 levels (26.67%), and the disagreement levels were observed in 11 levels; two different grades in 8 levels (53.33%) and three different grades in 3 levels (20%). Quantitative Pfirrmann disc degeneration showed relatively cluster distribution with the interobserver deviations of 0.41-1.56 at the ratio of NP and disc membrane, and it showed relatively good cluster and distribution indicating that the proposed grading system has good discrimination ability. Conclusion Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade showed the limitation of different interobserver results, but this limitation could be overcome by using quantitative techniques of MR signal intensity. Further evaluation is needed to access its advantage and reliabilities. PMID:27123023

  16. Stirring in massive, young debris discs from spatially resolved Herschel images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moór, A.; Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Apai, D.; Balog, Z.; Grady, C.; Henning, Th.; Juhász, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Krivov, A. V.; Pawellek, N.; Szabó, Gy. M.

    2015-02-01

    A significant fraction of main-sequence stars are encircled by dusty debris discs, where the short-lived dust particles are replenished through collisions between planetesimals. Most destructive collisions occur when the orbits of smaller bodies are dynamically stirred up, either by the gravitational effect of locally formed Pluto-sized planetesimals (self-stirring scenario), or via secular perturbation caused by an inner giant planet (planetary stirring). The relative importance of these scenarios in debris systems is unknown. Here, we present new Herschel Space Observatory imagery of 11 discs selected from the most massive and extended known debris systems. All discs were found to be extended at far-infrared wavelengths, five of them being resolved for the first time. We evaluated the feasibility of the self-stirring scenario by comparing the measured disc sizes with the predictions of the model calculated for the ages of our targets. We concluded that the self-stirring explanation works for seven discs. However, in four cases, the predicted pace of outward propagation of the stirring front, assuming reasonable initial disc masses, was far too low to explain the radial extent of the cold dust. Therefore, for HD 9672, HD 16743, HD 21997, and HD 95086, another explanation is needed. We performed a similar analysis for β Pic and HR 8799, reaching the same conclusion. We argue that planetary stirring is a promising possibility to explain the disc properties in these systems. In HR 8799 and HD 95086, we may already know the potential perturber, since their known outer giant planets could be responsible for the stirring process. Interestingly, the discs around HD 9672, HD 21997, and β Pic are also unique in harbouring detectable amount of molecular CO gas. Our study demonstrates that among the largest and most massive debris discs self-stirring may not be the only active scenario, and potentially planetary stirring is responsible for destructive collisions and debris dust production in a number of systems.

  17. Nonlinear finite element analysis of anular lesions in the L4/5 intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Little, J P; Adam, C J; Evans, J H; Pettet, G J; Pearcy, M J

    2007-01-01

    Degenerate intervertebral discs exhibit both material and structural changes. Structural defects (lesions) develop in the anulus fibrosus with age. While degeneration has been simulated in numerous previous studies, the effects of structural lesions on disc mechanics are not well known. In this study, a finite element model (FEM) of the L4/5 intervertebral disc was developed in order to study the effects of anular lesions and loss of hydrostatic pressure in the nucleus pulposus on the disc mechanics. Models were developed to simulate both healthy and degenerate discs. Degeneration was simulated with either rim, radial or circumferential anular lesions and by equating nucleus pressure to zero. The anulus fibrosus ground substance was represented as a nonlinear incompressible material using a second-order polynomial, hyperelastic strain energy equation. Hyperelastic material parameters were derived from experimentation on sheep discs. Endplates were assumed to be rigid, and annulus lamellae were assumed to be vertical in the unloaded state. Loading conditions corresponding to physiological ranges of rotational motion were applied to the models and peak rotation moments compared between models. Loss of nucleus pulposus pressure had a much greater effect on the disc mechanics than the presence of anular lesions. This indicated that the development of anular lesions alone (prior to degeneration of the nucleus) has minimal effect on disc mechanics, but that disc stiffness is significantly reduced by the loss of hydrostatic pressure in the nucleus. With the degeneration of the nucleus, the outer innervated anulus or surrounding osteo-ligamentous anatomy may therefore experience increased strains. PMID:17383659

  18. Immunolocalization of Delta-Giardin within the Ventral Disc in of Trophozoites and in cysts of Giardia duodenalis using the Multiplex Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunolocalization of alpha2-, beta- and delta-giardin in Giardia showed that in the trophozoites and cysts delta-giardin it strictly associated with the ventral disc. Optical sectioning of the ventral discs, together with quantitative colocalization of the immunoreactivity for delta- and beta-giard...

  19. Lumbar disc herniation in three patients with cystic fibrosis: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction To date, lumbar disc herniation has not been reported in the context of cystic fibrosis even though back pain and musculoskeletal problems are very common in patients with cystic fibrosis. Case presentation We report on three patients with cystic fibrosis who experienced lumbar disc herniation in the course of their disease at ages 19 to 21 years (a 22-year-old Caucasian man, a 23-year-old Caucasian man, and a 21-year-old Caucasian woman). Our third patient eventually died because of her deteriorated pulmonary situation, which was influenced by the lumbar disc herniation as it was not possible for her to perform pulmonary drainage techniques properly because of the pain. Conclusions Lumbar disc herniation can lead to a vicious cycle for patients with cystic fibrosis as it may promote pulmonary infections. This report highlights the need to investigate patients correctly. PMID:21896180

  20. 26 CFR 1.992-1 - Requirements of a DISC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of a DISC constitutes debt described in this subdivision is made without regard to the proportion of debt of the DISC held by any of its shareholders, to the ratio of the outstanding debt of the DISC...

  1. Use NASA GES DISC Data in ArcGIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Wenli; Pham, Long B.; Kempler, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes GIS relevant data at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), GES DISC Services and Support for GIS Users, and use cases of GES DISC data in ArcGIS.

  2. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  3. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  4. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  5. The inner cavity of the circumnuclear disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, M.; Morris, M. R.; Frank, A.; Carroll-Nellenback, J. J.; Duschl, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    The circumnuclear disc (CND) orbiting the Galaxy's central black hole is a reservoir of material that can ultimately provide energy through accretion, or form stars in the presence of the black hole, as evidenced by the stellar cluster that is presently located at the CND's centre. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study of the dynamics of the CND. The results lead us to question two paradigms that are prevalent in previous research on the Galactic Centre. The first is that the disc's inner cavity is maintained by the interaction of the central stellar cluster's strong winds with the disc's inner rim, and secondly, that the presence of unstable clumps in the disc implies that the CND is a transient feature. Our simulations show that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the interaction of the wind with the inner disc rim actually leads to a filling of the inner cavity within a few orbital time-scales, contrary to previous expectations. However, including the effects of magnetic fields stabilizes the inner disc rim against rapid inward migration. Furthermore, this interaction causes instabilities that continuously create clumps that are individually unstable against tidal shearing. Thus the occurrence of such unstable clumps does not necessarily mean that the disc is itself a transient phenomenon. The next steps in this investigation are to explore the effect of the magnetorotational instability on the disc evolution and to test whether the results presented here persist for longer time-scales than those considered here.

  6. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  7. The inner cavity of the circumnuclear disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, M.; Morris, M. R.; Frank, A.; Carroll-Nellenback, J. J.; Duschl, W. J.

    2016-04-01

    The circumnuclear disc (CND) orbiting the Galaxy's central black hole is a reservoir of material that can ultimately provide energy through accretion, or form stars in the presence of the black hole, as evidenced by the stellar cluster that is presently located at the CND's centre. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study of the dynamics of the CND. The results lead us to question two paradigms that are prevalent in previous research on the Galactic Centre. The first is that the disc's inner cavity is maintained by the interaction of the central stellar cluster's strong winds with the disc's inner rim, and second, that the presence of unstable clumps in the disc implies that the CND is a transient feature. Our simulations show that, in the absence of a magnetic field, the interaction of the wind with the inner disc rim actually leads to a filling of the inner cavity within a few orbital time-scales, contrary to previous expectations. However, including the effects of magnetic fields stabilizes the inner disc rim against rapid inward migration. Furthermore, this interaction causes instabilities that continuously create clumps that are individually unstable against tidal shearing. Thus the occurrence of such unstable clumps does not necessarily mean that the disc is itself a transient phenomenon. The next steps in this investigation are to explore the effect of the magnetorotational instability on the disc evolution and to test whether the results presented here persist for longer time-scales than those considered here.

  8. Rapid radiative clearing of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Thomas J.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Owen, James E.

    2016-04-01

    The lack of observed transition discs with inner gas holes of radii greater than ˜50 au implies that protoplanetary discs dispersed from the inside out must remove gas from the outer regions rapidly. We investigate the role of photoevaporation in the final clearing of gas from low mass discs with inner holes. In particular, we study the so-called `thermal sweeping' mechanism which results in rapid clearing of the disc. Thermal sweeping was originally thought to arise when the radial and vertical pressure scalelengths at the X-ray heated inner edge of the disc match. We demonstrate that this criterion is not fundamental. Rather, thermal sweeping occurs when the pressure maximum at the inner edge of the dust heated disc falls below the maximum possible pressure of X-ray heated gas (which depends on the local X-ray flux). We derive new critical peak volume and surface density estimates for rapid radiative clearing which, in general, result in rapid dispersal happening less readily than in previous estimates. This less efficient clearing of discs by X-ray driven thermal sweeping leaves open the issue of what mechanism (e.g. far-ultraviolet heating) can clear gas from the outer disc sufficiently quickly to explain the non-detection of cold gas around weak line T Tauri stars.

  9. Potential regenerative treatment strategies for intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pain due to spontaneous intervertebral disc (IVD) disease is common in dogs. In chondrodystrophic (CD) dogs, IVD disease typically develops in the cervical or thoracolumbar spine at about 3–7 years of age, whereas in non-chondrodystrophic (NCD) dogs, it usually develops in the caudal cervical or lumbosacral spine at about 6–8 years of age. IVD degeneration is characterized by changes in the biochemical composition and mechanical integrity of the IVD. In the degenerated IVD, the content of glycosaminoglycan (GAG, a proteoglycan side chain) decreases and that of denatured collagen increases. Dehydration leads to tearing of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and/or disc herniation, which is clinically characterized by pain and/or neurological signs. Current treatments (physiotherapy, anti-inflammatory/analgesic medication, surgery) for IVD disease may resolve neurological deficits and reduce pain (although in many cases insufficient), but do not lead to repair of the degenerated disc. For this reason, there is interest in new regenerative therapies that can repair the degenerated disc matrix, resulting in restoration of the biomechanical function of the IVD. CD dogs are considered a suitable animal model for human IVD degeneration because of their spontaneous IVD degeneration, and therefore studies investigating cell-, growth factor-, and/or gene therapy-based regenerative therapies with this model provide information relevant to both human and canine patients. The aim of this article is to review potential regenerative treatment strategies for canine IVD degeneration, with specific emphasis on cell-based strategies. PMID:24387033

  10. The history of stellar metallicity in a simulated disc galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snaith, O. N.; Bailin, J.; Gibson, B. K.; Bell, E. F.; Stinson, G.; Valluri, M.; Wadsley, J.; Couchman, H.

    2016-03-01

    We explore the chemical distribution of stars in a simulated galaxy. Using simulations of the same initial conditions but with two different feedback schemes (McMaster Unbiased Galaxy Simulations - MUGS - and Making Galaxies in a Cosmological Context - MaGICC), we examine the features of the age-metallicity relation (AMR), and the three-dimensional age-[Fe/H]-[O/Fe] distribution, both for the galaxy as a whole and decomposed into disc, bulge, halo and satellites. The MUGS simulation, which uses traditional supernova feedback, is replete with chemical substructure. This substructure is absent from the MaGICC simulation, which includes early feedback from stellar winds, a modified initial mass function and more efficient feedback. The reduced amount of substructure is due to the almost complete lack of satellites in MaGICC. We identify a significant separation between the bulge and disc AMRs, where the bulge is considerably more metal-rich with a smaller spread in metallicity at any given time than the disc. Our results suggest, however, that identifying the substructure in observations will require exquisite age resolution, of the order of 0.25 Gyr. Certain satellites show exotic features in the AMR, even forming a `sawtooth' shape of increasing metallicity followed by sharp declines which correspond to pericentric passages. This fact, along with the large spread in stellar age at a given metallicity, compromises the use of metallicity as an age indicator, although alpha abundance provides a more robust clock at early times. This may also impact algorithms that are used to reconstruct star formation histories from resolved stellar populations, which frequently assume a monotonically increasing AMR.

  11. Signal processing for 35GB on a single-layer Blu-ray disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padiy, Alexander V.; Yin, Bin; Verschuren, Coen A.; Lee, Julian I.; Vlutters, Ruud; Jansen, Theo P.

    2004-09-01

    We report on the technical progress in increasing the recording density of optical storage systems by means of improved read-channel signal processing and write-channel optimisation. The recording density increase is realized by employing PRML (Viterbi) bit detection in combination with improved timing recovery and adaptive equalisation algorithms, and by using a signal quality characterisation scheme which enables a proper control of the write process in the considered range of storage densities. The Blu-ray Disc (BD) optical disc system employing blue-violet laser with the wavelength of 405nm, objective lens with numerical aperture of 0.85 and disc cover layer thickness of 0.1mm is used as an experimental platform in our present study. Multi-track experimental results for both single-layer read-only (BD-ROM) and single-layer rewritable (BD-RE) media are presented to show the feasibility of the increased-density BD.

  12. The Actual Level of Symptomatic Soft Disc Herniation in Patients with Cervical Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Su Yong; Kim, Woo Kyung; Son, Seong; Jeong, Tae Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to predict the relationship between the symptomatic disc herniation level and the osteophyte level or decreased disc height in patients with cervical disc herniation. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, 69 patients with an osteophyte of the cervical spine underwent surgery at a single center due to soft cervical disc herniation. Data including soft disc herniation level, osteophyte level in the posterior vertebral margin, Cobb's angle, and symptom duration were retrospectively assessed. The patients were divided into three groups according to the relationship between the degenerative change level and the level of reported symptoms. Results Among the 69 patients, 48 (69.6%) showed a match between osteophyte level and soft disc herniation level. Disc herniation occurred at the adjacent segment to degenerative osteophyte level in 12 patients (17.4%) and at both the adjacent and the osteophyte level in nine (13.0%). There was no significant difference in Cobb's angle or duration among the three groups. Osteophyte type was not significant. The mean disc height of the prominent degenerative change level group was lower than the adjacent segment level, but this was not significant. Conclusion Soft cervical disc herniation usually occurs at the level an osteophyte forms. However, it may also occur at segments adjacent to that of the osteophyte level. Therefore, in patients with cervical disc herniation, although a prominent osteophyte alone may appear on plain radiography, we must suspect the presence of soft disc herniation at other levels. PMID:26512266

  13. Cervical arthroplasty using ProDisc-C case report.

    PubMed

    Nica, D A; Copaciu, R

    2013-03-15

    Cervical disc replacement is an emerging motion-preserving technology in the surgical treatment of the cervical degenerative disc disorders used as an alternative to the classic interbody fusion. We present a case report of a patient diagnosed with C6-7 right disc herniation who underwent anterior discectomy and received a total disc replacement using ProDisc C artificial disc prosthesis. PMID:23599830

  14. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  15. Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Bernhard; Götzinger, Erich; Pircher, Michael; Sattmann, Harald; Schütze, Christopher; Schlanitz, Ferdinand; Ahlers, Christian; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2010-11-01

    We present polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for quantitative assessment of retinal pathologies in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). On the basis of the polarization scrambling characteristics of the retinal pigment epithelium, novel segmentation algorithms were developed that allow one to segment pathologic features such as drusen and atrophic zones in dry AMD as well as to determine their dimensions. Results from measurements in the eyes of AMD patients prove the ability of PS-OCT for quantitative imaging based on the retinal features polarizing properties. Repeatability measurements were performed in retinas diagnosed with drusen and geographic atrophy in order to evaluate the performance of the described methods. PS-OCT appears as a promising imaging modality for three-dimensional retinal imaging and ranging with additional contrast based on the structures' tissue-inherent polarization properties.

  16. Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Bernhard; Götzinger, Erich; Pircher, Michael; Sattmann, Harald; Schütze, Christopher; Schlanitz, Ferdinand; Ahlers, Christian; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2011-01-01

    We present polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for quantitative assessment of retinal pathologies in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). On the basis of the polarization scrambling characteristics of the retinal pigment epithelium, novel segmentation algorithms were developed that allow one to segment pathologic features such as drusen and atrophic zones in dry AMD as well as to determine their dimensions. Results from measurements in the eyes of AMD patients prove the ability of PS-OCT for quantitative imaging based on the retinal features polarizing properties. Repeatability measurements were performed in retinas diagnosed with drusen and geographic atrophy in order to evaluate the performance of the described methods. PS-OCT appears as a promising imaging modality for three-dimensional retinal imaging and ranging with additional contrast based on the structures’ tissue-inherent polarization properties. PMID:21198152

  17. Fully automated detection of diabetic macular edema and dry age-related macular degeneration from optical coherence tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Pratul P.; Kim, Leo A.; Mettu, Priyatham S.; Cousins, Scott W.; Comer, Grant M.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel fully automated algorithm for the detection of retinal diseases via optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Our algorithm utilizes multiscale histograms of oriented gradient descriptors as feature vectors of a support vector machine based classifier. The spectral domain OCT data sets used for cross-validation consisted of volumetric scans acquired from 45 subjects: 15 normal subjects, 15 patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and 15 patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Our classifier correctly identified 100% of cases with AMD, 100% cases with DME, and 86.67% cases of normal subjects. This algorithm is a potentially impactful tool for the remote diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases. PMID:25360373

  18. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Understanding the wavelength dependence of galaxy structure with bulge-disc decompositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Rebecca; Bamford, Steven P.; Häußler, Boris; Baldry, Ivan; Bremer, Malcolm; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Driver, Simon; Duncan, Kenneth; Graham, Alister W.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Lange, Rebecca; Phillipps, Steven; Vika, Marina; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2016-05-01

    With a large sample of bright, low-redshift galaxies with optical-near-IR imaging from the GAMA survey we use bulge-disc decompositions to understand the wavelength-dependent behavior of single-Sérsic structural measurements. We denote the variation in single-Sérsic index with wavelength as N, likewise for effective radius we use R. We find that most galaxies with a substantial disc, even those with no discernable bulge, display a high value of N. The increase in Sérsic index to longer wavelengths is therefore intrinsic to discs, apparently resulting from radial variations in stellar population and/or dust reddening. Similarly, low values of R (< 1) are found to be ubiquitous, implying an element of universality in galaxy colour gradients. We also study how bulge and disc colour distributions vary with galaxy type. We find that, rather than all bulges being red and all discs being blue in absolute terms, both components become redder for galaxies with redder total colours. We even observe that bulges in bluer galaxies are typically bluer than discs in red galaxies, and that bulges and discs are closer in colour for fainter galaxies. Trends in total colour are therefore not solely due to the colour or flux dominance of the bulge or disc.

  19. Galaxies that shine: radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosdahl, Joakim; Schaye, Joop; Teyssier, Romain; Agertz, Oscar

    2015-07-01

    Radiation feedback is typically implemented using subgrid recipes in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies. Very little work has so far been performed using radiation-hydrodynamics (RHD), and there is no consensus on the importance of radiation feedback in galaxy evolution. We present RHD simulations of isolated galaxy discs of different masses with a resolution of 18 pc. Besides accounting for supernova feedback, our simulations are the first galaxy-scale simulations to include RHD treatments of photoionization heating and radiation pressure, from both direct optical/UV radiation and multiscattered, re-processed infrared (IR) radiation. Photoheating smooths and thickens the discs and suppresses star formation about as much as the inclusion of (`thermal dump') supernova feedback does. These effects decrease with galaxy mass and are mainly due to the prevention of the formation of dense clouds, as opposed to their destruction. Radiation pressure, whether from direct or IR radiation, has little effect, but for the IR radiation we show that its impact is limited by our inability to resolve the high optical depths for which multiscattering becomes important. While artificially boosting the IR optical depths does reduce the star formation, it does so by smoothing the gas rather than by generating stronger outflows. We conclude that although higher resolution simulations, and potentially also different supernova implementations, are needed for confirmation, our findings suggest that radiation feedback is more gentle and less effective than is often assumed in subgrid prescriptions.

  20. An overview of the Blu-ray disc application format for HD-movie distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Young; Wang, Michelle; Kelly, Declan; Leibbrandt, Wouter

    2005-09-01

    Blu-ray Disc (BD) is the next generation optical disc format, currently being standardized by a large consortium of leading CE, PC, authoring companies and major movie studios. BD offers more than five times the capacity of DVD at 25 GB and 50 GB (dual layer). The BD application format addresses the limitations of DVD-Video by providing a complete user experience. The high storage capacity guarantees the best quality HD video available to the consumer. BD standardizes how content publishers can include executable applications on the disc to realize fully enhanced interactivity. By using a programming platform like Java, the standard need not define the allowable set of features, instead it defines the playback platform and disc publishers are free to implement any features they desire. Furthermore, BD supports seamless integration of Internet content with disc content, allowing synchronized presentation of updated content from the Internet with disc content. With this combination of features, highest quality HD video, enhanced interactivity and Internet connectivity, BD offers consumers a compelling experience. This paper will present an overview of the features that will be supported by the BD application format and the technical solutions used to realize these features.

  1. Real-time loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification in compact disc micro-reactors.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Felipe, Sara; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A; Carrascosa, Javier; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2016-05-15

    An integrated device composed of micro-reactors embedded onto compact discs is proposed for real-time targeted DNA determination. The method principle is based on in-disc loop-mediated isothermal amplification (iD-LAMP) and quantitative optical read-out by a disc drive. In the presence of a target, the turbidimetric or colorimetric properties of reaction solution change, and the transmitted intensity of the disc drive laser modifies according to reaction yield. Monitoring real-time curves allowed the quantitative determination of DNA template amounts. The best amplification/detection results were obtained with micro-reactors (2mm diameter and 1.1mm in depth) drilled on a digital video disc (DVD) and detection based on the colorimetric mode. As proof-of-concept, the assay was applied to detect pathogenic bacteria Salmonella spp. and to identify bovine meat in food samples. Ninety-six samples were simultaneously analysed in 15 min, with high selectivity and sensitivity (5 CFU/mL and 10 µg/g for bacteria and meat, respectively). The in-disc results were comparable to those obtained by conventional LAMP or qPCR approaches. The developed device allows low sample and reagent consumption (3 µL of reaction), portability, ease-of-use, and rapid low-cost high-throughput analyses. PMID:26716424

  2. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Teresa C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that video-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) can qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) glaucomatous structural changes. To correlate quantitative SDOCT parameters with disc photography and visual fields. Methods: SDOCT images from 4 glaucoma eyes (4 patients) with varying stages of open-angle glaucoma (ie, early, moderate, late) were qualitatively contrasted with 2 age-matched normal eyes (2 patients). Of 61 other consecutive patients recruited in an institutional setting, 53 eyes (33 patients) met inclusion/exclusion criteria for quantitative studies. Images were obtained using two experimental SDOCT systems, one utilizing a superluminescent diode and the other a titanium:sapphire laser source, with axial resolutions of about 6 μm and 3 μm, respectively. Results: Classic glaucomatous ONH and RNFL structural changes were seen in SDOCT images. An SDOCT reference plane 139 μm above the retinal pigment epithelium yielded cup-disc ratios that best correlated with masked physician disc photography cup-disc ratio assessments. The minimum distance band, a novel SDOCT neuroretinal rim parameter, showed good correlation with physician cup-disc ratio assessments, visual field mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation (P values range, .0003–.024). RNFL and retinal thickness maps correlated well with disc photography and visual field testing. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this thesis presents the first comprehensive qualitative and quantitative evaluation of SDOCT images of the ONH and RNFL in glaucoma. This pilot study provides basis for developing more automated quantitative SDOCT-specific glaucoma algorithms needed for future prospective multicenter national trials. PMID:20126502

  3. [Physiotherapy in lumbar disc herniation ].

    PubMed

    Stoll, T; Germann, D; Hagmann, H

    2001-08-01

    Physiotherapy is the treatment of choice in patients with symptoms caused by a lumbar disc herniation. In clinical practice a broad range of physiotherapeutic modalities has been revealed to be helpful. During the acute stage the efficacy of the McKenzie-concept, mobilisation therapies and traction has been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials with a blind assessor. In addition, pain reducing physical therapies such as cold or electrotherapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics and/or muscle relaxants are sensible initial accompanying treatments. The effectiveness of active physiotherapies such as training of local strength endurance of back and abdominal muscles has been proven in patients during the chronic stage. The indications for a in-patient rehabilitation programme, for surgery and the danger of developing chronic low back pain are discussed. PMID:11552355

  4. Study of the stellar population properties in the discs of ten spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Coccato, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the properties of the stellar populations in the discs of a sample of 10 spiral galaxies. Our analysis focused on the galaxy region where the disc contributes more than 95 per cent of total surface brightness in order to minimize the contamination of the bulge and bar. The luminosity-weighted age and metallicity were obtained by fitting the galaxy spectra with a linear combination of stellar population synthesis models, while the total overabundance of α-elements over iron was derived by measuring the line-strength indices. Most of the sample discs display a bimodal age distribution and they are characterized by a total [α/Fe] enhancement ranging from solar and supersolar. We interpreted the age bimodality as due to the simultaneous presence of both a young (Age ≤ 4 Gyr) and an old (Age > 4 Gyr) stellar population. The old stellar component usually dominates the disc surface brightness and its light contribution is almost constant within the observed radial range. For this reason, no age gradient is observed in half of the sample galaxies. The old component is slightly more metal poor than the young one. The metallicity gradient is negative and slightly positive in the old and young components, respectively. These results are in agreement with an inside-out scenario of disc formation and suggest a reduced impact of the radial migration on the stellar populations of the disc. The young component could be the result of a second burst of star formation in gas captured from the environment.

  5. A Herschel PACS survey of brown dwarfs in IC 2391: limits on primordial and debris disc fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, B.; Kennedy, G. M.

    2014-08-01

    We present results from a Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) survey of eight brown dwarfs in the IC 2391 cluster. Our aim was to determine the brown dwarf disc fraction at ages of ˜40-50 Myr. None of the eight brown dwarfs observed were detected in the PACS 70 or 160 μm bands. We have determined the detection limits of our survey using the 1σ flux upper limits in the PACS far-infrared and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope mid-infrared bands. The sensitivity of our observations would only allow for the detection of debris discs with exceptionally large fractional luminosities (≥1 per cent). Considering that only the most extreme and rare debris discs have such high fractional luminosities, it can be hypothesized that Vega-like debris discs, as observed around ˜30 per cent of low-mass stars at similar ages, could exist around the targeted IC 2391 brown dwarfs. Most primordial discs similar to the ones observed for the younger 1-10 Myr brown dwarfs would be within the detection sensitivities of our survey, and could have been detected. The non-detection for all targets then suggests that brown dwarf discs have transitioned to the debris phase by ˜40-50 Myr ages. We also present the sensitivity limits for detecting brown dwarf discs with future SPICA observations.

  6. Environmentally benign manufacturing of compact disc stampers [Final Phase II report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-08

    Optical data storage is currently a $10B/yr. business. With the introduction of the high capacity Digital Versatile Disc (D/D) as well as the continued growth of CD-Audio and CD-ROM worldwide sales of optical data products as a whole are growing at rate of more than 10% per year. In North America, more than 2.5 billion optical discs will be sold in 1998. By 1999, the numbers of optical discs produced for the North American market will grow to almost three billion. The optical disc manufacturing industry is dominated by Asian and European companies (e.g. Sony of Japan and Philips of Netherlands). Prism Corporation has created a process that could significantly improve US competitiveness in the business of optical disc production. The objectives of the Phase II STTR project were to build and test an ion machining system (IMS) for stamper fabrication, prove overall manufacturing system feasibility by fabrication stampers and replicas, and evaluate alternative materials and alternative process parameters to optimize the process. During tie period of the Phase II project Prism Corporation was able to meet these objectives. In the course of doing so, adjustments had been made to better the project and in turn the final product. An ion machining system was designed and built that produced stampers ready for the molding process. Also, many control steps in the manufacturing process were studied to improve the current process and make it even more compatible with the industry standards, fitting seamlessly into current manufacturing lines.

  7. IRAS 19135+3937: an SRd variable as interacting binary surrounded by a circumbinary disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlova, N.; Van Winckel, H.; Ikonnikova, N. P.; Burlak, M. A.; Komissarova, G. V.; Jorissen, A.; Gielen, C.; Debosscher, J.; Degroote, P.

    2015-08-01

    Semi-regular (SR) variables are not a homogeneous class and their variability is often explained due to pulsations and/or binarity. This study focuses on IRAS 19135+3937, an SRd variable with an infrared excess indicative of a dusty disc. A time series of high-resolution spectra, UBV photometry as well as a very accurate light curve obtained by the Kepler satellite, allowed us to study the object in unprecedented detail. We discovered it to be a binary with a period of 127 d. The primary has a low surface gravity and an atmosphere depleted in refractory elements. This combination of properties unambiguously places IRAS 19135+3937 in the subclass of post-asymptotic giant branch stars with dusty discs. We show that the light variations in this object cannot be due to pulsations, but are likely caused by the obscuration of the primary by the circumbinary disc during orbital motion. Furthermore, we argue that the double-peaked Fe emission lines provide evidence for the existence of a gaseous circumbinary Keplerian disc inside the dusty disc. A secondary set of absorption lines has been detected near light minimum, which we attribute to the reflected spectrum of the primary on the disc wall, which segregates due to the different Doppler shift. This corroborates the recent finding that reflection in the optical by this type of discs is very efficient. The system also shows a variable H α profile indicating a collimated outflow originating around the companion. IRAS 19135+3937 thus encompasses all the major emergent trends about evolved disc systems, that will eventually help to place these objects in the evolutionary context.

  8. Revealing the accretion disc corona in Mrk 335 with multi-epoch X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keek, L.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2016-03-01

    Active galactic nuclei host an accretion disc with an X-ray producing corona around a supermassive black hole. In bright sources, such as the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 335, reflection of the coronal emission off the accretion disc has been observed. Reflection produces spectral features such as an Fe Kα emission line, which allow for properties of the inner accretion disc and the corona to be constrained. We perform a multi-epoch spectral analysis of all XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR observations of Mrk 335, and we optimize our fitting procedure to unveil correlations between the Eddington ratio and the spectral parameters. We find that the disc's ionization parameter correlates strongly with the Eddington ratio: the inner disc is more strongly ionized at higher flux. The slope of the correlation is less steep than previously predicted. Furthermore, the cut-off of the power-law spectrum increases in energy with the Eddington ratio, whereas the reflection fraction exhibits a decrease. We interpret this behaviour as geometrical changes of the corona as a function of the accretion rate. Below ˜10 per cent of the Eddington limit, the compact and optically thick corona is located close to the inner disc, whereas at higher accretion rates the corona is likely optically thin and extends vertically further away from the disc surface. Furthermore, we find a soft excess that consists of two components. In addition to a contribution from reflection in low ionization states, a second component is present that traces the overall flux.

  9. Interactive Visualization of a Thin Disc around a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Thomas; Frauendiener, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    In a first course in general relativity, the Schwarzschild spacetime is the most discussed analytic solution to Einstein's field equations. Unfortunately, there is rarely enough time to study the optical consequences of the bending of light for some advanced examples. In this paper, we present how the visual appearance of a thin disc around a

  10. Interactive Visualization of a Thin Disc around a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Thomas; Frauendiener, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    In a first course in general relativity, the Schwarzschild spacetime is the most discussed analytic solution to Einstein's field equations. Unfortunately, there is rarely enough time to study the optical consequences of the bending of light for some advanced examples. In this paper, we present how the visual appearance of a thin disc around a…

  11. Disc nucleus fortification for lumbar degenerative disc disease: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Derrick A; Cook, Daniel J; Brad Bellotte, J; Oh, Michael Y; Whiting, Donald; Cheng, Boyle C

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Spinal stability is attributed in part to osteoligamentous structures, including the vertebral body, facets, intervertebral discs, and posterior elements. The materials in this study provide an opportunity to augment the degenerated nucleus without removing native disc material, a procedure introduced here as "fortification." The objective of this study was to determine the effect of nucleus fortification on lumbar disc biomechanics. METHODS The authors performed in vitro analysis of human cadaveric functional spinal units (FSUs), along with characterization and quantification of movement of the units using biomechanical data in intact, disc-only, and fortified specimens. The units underwent removal of all posterior elements and annulus and were fortified by injecting a biogel into the nucleus pulposus. Each specimen was subjected to load testing, range of motion (ROM) quantification, and disc bulge measurements. Optoelectric tracking was used to quantify disc bulge. These criteria were assessed in the intact, disc-only, and fortified treatments. RESULTS Disc-only FSUs resulted in increased ROM when compared with intact and fortified conditions. Fortification of the FSU resulted in partial restoration of normal ROM in the treatment groups. Analysis of hysteresis loops showed more linear response in the fortified groups when compared with the intact and disc-only groups. CONCLUSIONS Disc nucleus fortification increases linearity and decreases ROM. PMID:26771371

  12. Effect of sustained loading on the water content of intervertebral discs: implications for disc metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, D W; Garbutt, G; Adams, M A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine regional changes in the fluid content of human intervertebral discs by comparing sagittal plane "profiles" of hydration before and after mechanical loading. METHODS: Cadaveric lumbar intervertebral discs were loaded to simulate a typical day's loading in vivo. Ten motion segments were subjected to a 1500 N compressive load for a period of 6 h with the superior vertebrae inclined by 4-8 degrees to simulate a slightly flexed posture. Immediately after loading the discs were frozen at -80 degrees C. Subsequently they were cut into slices perpendicular to the sagittal midline of the disc, and each slice was weighed before and after freeze drying. This enabled a profile of fluid content across the disc to be constructed. Fluid loss due to loading was estimated by comparing the water content of each loaded disc with that of an adjacent unloaded disc from the same spine. RESULTS: After 6 h of creep loading, disc height approached, but did not quite reach, an equilibrium. The mean fluid loss from all discs was 18%. All regions except the outer 2 mm experienced a significant loss of fluid (P < 0.01). The posterior mid-annulus showed the greatest fluid loss (30%), while the nucleus lost 15%. CONCLUSIONS: A comparison with previously published work suggests that fluid exchange of this magnitude will have a considerable effect on disc cell metabolism and on metabolite transport. PMID:9014581

  13. Autologous adipose stem cells and polylactide discs in the replacement of the rabbit temporomandibular joint disc

    PubMed Central

    Ahtiainen, Katja; Mauno, Jari; Ellä, Ville; Hagström, Jaana; Lindqvist, Christian; Miettinen, Susanna; Ylikomi, Timo; Kellomäki, Minna; Seppänen, Riitta

    2013-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc lacks functional replacement after discectomy. We investigated tissue-engineered bilayer polylactide (PLA) discs and autologous adipose stem cells (ASCs) as a potential replacement for the TMJ disc. These ASC discs were pre-cultured either in control or in differentiation medium, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 for one week. Prior to implantation, expression of fibrocartilaginous genes was measured by qRT-PCR. The control and differentiated ASC discs were implanted, respectively, in the right and left TMJs of rabbits for six (n = 5) and 12 months (n = 5). Thereafter, the excised TMJ areas were examined with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and histology. No signs of infection, inflammation or foreign body reactions were detected at histology, whereas chronic arthrosis and considerable condylar hypertrophy were observed in all operated joints at CBCT. The left condyle treated with the differentiated ASC discs appeared consistently smoother and more sclerotic than the right condyle. The ASC disc replacement resulted in dislocation and morphological changes in the rabbit TMJ. The ASC discs pre-treated with TGF-β1 enhanced the condylar integrity. While adverse tissue reactions were not shown, the authors suggest that with improved attachment and design, the PLA disc and biomaterial itself would hold potential for TMJ disc replacement. PMID:23720535

  14. The Absolute Age of the Globular Cluster M15 Using Near-infrared Adaptive Optics Images from PISCES/LBT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monelli, M.; Testa, V.; Bono, G.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Fiorentino, G.; Arcidiacono, C.; Massari, D.; Boutsia, K.; Briguglio, R.; Busoni, L.; Carini, R.; Close, L.; Cresci, G.; Esposito, S.; Fini, L.; Fumana, M.; Guerra, J. C.; Hill, J.; Kulesa, C.; Mannucci, F.; McCarthy, D.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Quiros-Pacheco, F.; Ragazzoni, R.; Riccardi, A.; Skemer, A.; Xompero, M.

    2015-10-01

    We present deep near-infrared J, {K}{{s}} photometry of the old, metal-poor Galactic globular cluster M15 obtained with images collected with the LUCI1 and PISCES cameras available at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). We show how the use of First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system coupled with the PISCES camera allows us to improve the limiting magnitude by ˜2 mag in {K}{{s}}. By analyzing archival Hubble Space Telescope data, we demonstrate that the quality of the LBT/PISCES color-magnitude diagram is fully comparable with analogous space-based data. The smaller field of view is balanced by the shorter exposure time required to reach a similar photometric limit. We investigated the absolute age of M15 by means of two methods: (i) by determining the age from the position of the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO), and (ii) by the magnitude difference between the MSTO and the well-defined knee detected along the faint portion of the MS. We derive consistent values of the absolute age of M15, that is, 12.9 ± 2.6 Gyr and 13.3 ± 1.1 Gyr, respectively. Observations were carried out using the Large Binocular Telescope at Mount Graham, AZ. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; the Ohio State University; and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  15. Stem cells sources for intervertebral disc regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vadalà, Gianluca; Russo, Fabrizio; Ambrosio, Luca; Loppini, Mattia; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc regeneration field is rapidly growing since disc disorders represent a major health problem in industrialized countries with very few possible treatments. Indeed, current available therapies are symptomatic, and surgical procedures consist in disc removal and spinal fusion, which is not immune to regardable concerns about possible comorbidities, cost-effectiveness, secondary risks and long-lasting outcomes. This review paper aims to share recent advances in stem cell therapy for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. In literature the potential use of different adult stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration has already been reported. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, adipose tissue derived stem cells, synovial stem cells, muscle-derived stem cells, olfactory neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, disc stem cells, and embryonic stem cells have been studied for this purpose either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, several engineered carriers (e.g., hydrogels), characterized by full biocompatibility and prompt biodegradation, have been designed and combined with different stem cell types in order to optimize the local and controlled delivery of cellular substrates in situ. The paper overviews the literature discussing the current status of our knowledge of the different stem cells types used as a cell-based therapy for disc regeneration.

  16. Shear Mechanics of the TMJ Disc

    PubMed Central

    Juran, C.M.; Dolwick, M.F.; McFetridge, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a complex hinge and gliding joint that induces significant shear loads onto the fibrocartilage TMJ disc during jaw motion. The purpose of this study was to assess regional variation in the disc’s shear loading characteristics under physiologically relevant loads and to associate those mechanical findings with common clinical observations of disc fatigue and damage. Porcine TMJ discs were compressed between an axially translating bottom platen and a 2.5-cm-diameter indenter within a hydrated testing chamber. Discs were cyclically sheared at 0.5, 1, or 5 Hz to 1, 3, or 5% shear strain. Within the anterior and intermediate regions of the disc when sheared in the anteroposterior direction, both shear and compressive moduli experienced a significant decrease from instantaneous to steady state, while the posterior region’s compressive modulus decreased approximately 5%, and no significant loss of shear modulus was noted. All regions retained their shear modulus within 0.5% of instantaneous values when shear was applied in the mediolateral direction. The results of the disc’s regional shear mechanics suggest an observable and predictable link with the common clinical observation that the posterior region of the disc is most often the zone in which fatigue occurs, which may lead to disc damage and perforation. PMID:23166043

  17. Demographic traits of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on leaf discs and whole leaves.

    PubMed

    Kavousi, Aurang; Chi, Hsin; Talebi, Khalil; Bandani, Alireza; Ashouri, Ahmad; Naveh, Vahid Hosseini

    2009-04-01

    Life tables of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were studied on leaf discs and whole leaves of the common bean plant, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Data were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. Durations of deutonymph stage, total preadult stage, and preoviposition period of mites reared on whole leaves (1.22, 7.6, and 0.29 d, respectively) were significantly shorter than those reared on leaf discs (1.73, 8.2, and 0.89 d, respectively). The lifetime fecundities were 22.81 and 12.05 offspring on whole leaves and leaf discs, respectively. Although hooked trichomes on the lower surface of the bean leaf contribute to adult mortality, spider mites successfully survive and reproduce on bean plants. The intrinsic rate of increase on whole leaves (0.235 d(-1)) was higher than that on leaf discs (0.159 d(-1). Higher intrinsic rate and fecundity found in mites reared on whole leaves may be due to the higher nutritional quality of whole leaves over leaf discs. We suggest that whole leaves should be used in future studies to better simulate realistic life history characteristics. The advantages of using age-stage, two-sex life tables over female age-specific life tables are discussed. PMID:19449639

  18. Two groups within the thick disc of the Milky Way?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford, Laura M.; Lambert, David L.

    2012-08-01

    Compositions of F and G dwarf stars in two groups of thick disc stars are presented. The groups identified by Schuster et al. have mean characteristics ([Fe/H], V(rot), Age, σW') of (-0.7 dex, 120 km s-1, 12.5 Gyr, 62 km s-1) and (-0.4, 160, 10.0, 45.8). Abundances for 23 elements obtained from high-resolution spectra are presented for 59 stars in the metal-rich group and 27 stars in the metal-poor group. The run of abundance ratios [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] for the two groups define a single relation for each element (designated as X) with no intrinsic scatter and without a measurable discontinuity at -0.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.5, the metallicity at which the two groups overlap. The relations [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] are those determined previously for thick disc stars. It is suggested that these two groups and the thick disc as a whole have a common origin in terms of prior chemical evolution.

  19. Artificial Discs for Lumbar and Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease –Update

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of artificial disc replacement (ADR) technology for degenerative disc disease (DDD). Clinical Need Degenerative disc disease is the term used to describe the deterioration of 1 or more intervertebral discs of the spine. The prevalence of DDD is roughly described in proportion to age such that 40% of people aged 40 years have DDD, increasing to 80% among those aged 80 years or older. Low back pain is a common symptom of lumbar DDD; neck and arm pain are common symptoms of cervical DDD. Nonsurgical treatments can be used to relieve pain and minimize disability associated with DDD. However, it is estimated that about 10% to 20% of people with lumbar DDD and up to 30% with cervical DDD will be unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments. In these cases, surgical treatment is considered. Spinal fusion (arthrodesis) is the process of fusing or joining 2 bones and is considered the surgical gold standard for DDD. Artificial disc replacement is the replacement of the degenerated intervertebral disc with an artificial disc in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical spine that has been unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments for at least 6 months. Unlike spinal fusion, ADR preserves movement of the spine, which is thought to reduce or prevent the development of adjacent segment degeneration. Additionally, a bone graft is not required for ADR, and this alleviates complications, including bone graft donor site pain and pseudoarthrosis. It is estimated that about 5% of patients who require surgery for DDD will be candidates for ADR. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a computerized search of the literature published between 2003 and September 2005 to answer the following questions: What is the effectiveness of ADR in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical regions of the spine compared with spinal fusion surgery? Does an artificial disc reduce the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) compared with spinal fusion? What is the rate of major complications (device failure, reoperation) with artificial discs compared with surgical spinal fusion? One reviewer evaluated the internal validity of the primary studies using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group Quality Assessment Tool. The quality of concealment allocation was rated as: A, clearly yes; B, unclear; or C, clearly no. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to evaluate the overall quality of the body of evidence (defined as 1 or more studies) supporting the research questions explored in this systematic review. A random effects model meta-analysis was conducted when data were available from 2 or more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and when there was no statistical and or clinical heterogeneity among studies. Bayesian analyses were undertaken to do the following: Examine the influence of missing data on clinical success rates; Compute the probability that artificial discs were superior to spinal fusion (on the basis of clinical success rates); Examine whether the results were sensitive to the choice of noninferiority margin. Summary of Findings The literature search yielded 140 citations. Of these, 1 Cochrane systematic review, 1 RCT, and 10 case series were included in this review. Unpublished data from an RCT reported in the grey literature were obtained from the manufacturer of the device. The search also yielded 8 health technology assessments evaluating ADR that are also included in this review. Six of the 8 health technology assessments concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of either lumbar or cervical ADR. The results of the remaining 2 assessments (one each for lumbar and cervical ADR) led to a National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidance document supporting the safety and effectiveness of lumbar and cervical ADR with the proviso that an ongoing audit of all clinical outcomes be undertaken owing to a lack of long-term outcome data from clinical trials. Regarding lumbar ADR, data were available from 2 noninferiority RCTs to complete a meta-analysis. The following clinical, health systems, and adverse event outcome measures were synthesized: primary outcome of clinical success, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, pain VAS scores, patient satisfaction, duration of surgery, amount of blood loss, length of hospital stay, rate of device failure, and rate of reoperation. The meta-analysis of overall clinical success supported the noninferiority of lumbar ADR compared with spinal fusion at 24-month follow-up. Of the remaining clinical outcome measures (ODI, pain VAS scores, SF-36 scores [mental and physical components], patient satisfaction, and return to work status), only patient satisfaction and scores on the physical component scale of the SF-36 questionnaire were significantly improved in favour of lumbar ADR compared with spinal fusion at 24 months follow-up. Blood loss and surgical time showed statistical heterogeneity; therefore, meta-analysis results are not interpretable. Length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in patients receiving the ADR compared with controls. Neither the number of device failures nor the number of neurological complications at 24 months was statistically significantly different between the ADR and fusion treatment groups. However, there was a trend towards fewer neurological complications at 24 months in the ADR treatment group compared with the spinal fusion treatment group. Results of the Bayesian analyses indicated that the influence of missing data on the outcome measure of clinical success was minimal. The Bayesian model indicated that the probability for ADR being better than spinal fusion was 79%. The probability of ADR being noninferior to spinal fusion using a -10% noninferiority bound was 92%, and using a -15% noninferiority bound was 94%. The probability of artificial discs being superior to spinal fusion in a future trial was 73%. Six case series were reviewed, mainly to characterize the rate of major complications for lumbar ADR. The Medical Advisory Secretariat defined a major complication as any reoperation; device failure necessitating a revision, removal or reoperation; or life-threatening event. The rates of major complications ranged from 0% to 13% per device implanted. Only 1 study reported the rate of ASD, which was detected in 2 (2%) of the 100 people 11 years after surgery. There were no RCT data available for cervical ADR; therefore, data from 4 case series were reviewed for evidence of effectiveness and safety. Because data were sparse, the effectiveness of cervical ADR compared with spinal fusion cannot be determined at this time. The rate of major complications was assessed up to 2 years after surgery. It was found to range from 0% to 8.1% per device implanted. The rate of ASD is not reported in the clinical trial literature. The total cost of a lumbar ADR procedure is $15,371 (Cdn; including costs related to the device, physician, and procedure). The total cost of a lumbar fusion surgery procedure is $11,311 (Cdn; including physicians’ and procedural costs). Conclusions Lumbar Artificial Disc Replacement Since the 2004 Medical Advisory Secretariat health technology policy assessment, data from 2 RCTs and 6 case series assessing the effectiveness and adverse events profile of lumbar ADR to treat DDD has become available. The GRADE quality of this evidence is moderate for effectiveness and for short-term (2-year follow-up) complications; it is very low for ASD. The effectiveness of lumbar ADR is not inferior to that of spinal fusion for the treatment of lumbar DDD. The rates for device failure and neurological complications 2 years after surgery did not differ between ADR and fusion patients. Based on a Bayesian meta-analysis, lumbar ADR is 79% superior to lumbar spinal fusion. The rate of major complications after lumbar ADR is between 0% and 13% per device implanted. The rate of ASD in 1 case series was 2% over an 11-year follow-up period. Outcome data for lumbar ADR beyond a 2-year follow-up are not yet available. Cervical Artificial Disc Replacement Since the 2004 Medical Advisory Secretariat health technology policy assessment, 4 case series have been added to the body of evidence assessing the effectiveness and adverse events profile of cervical ADR to treat DDD. The GRADE quality of this evidence is very low for effectiveness as well as for the adverse events profile. Sparse outcome data are available. Because data are sparse, the effectiveness of cervical ADR compared with spinal fusion cannot be determined at this time. The rate of major complications was assessed up to 2 years after surgery; it ranged from 0% to 8.1% per device implanted. The rate of ASD is not reported in the clinical trial literature. PMID:23074480

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berisha, Fatmire; Hoffmann, Esther M.; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning and optic nerve head cupping are key diagnostic features of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The higher resolution of the recently introduced SD-OCT offers enhanced visualization and improved segmentation of the retinal layers, providing a higher accuracy in identification of subtle changes of the optic disc and RNFL thinning associated with glaucoma.

  1. A debris disc under the influence of a wide planetary-mass companion: the system of HD 106906

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jílková, Lucie; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2015-07-01

    The 13-Myr old star HD 106906 is orbited by a debris disc of at least 0.067 MMoon with inner and outer radii of 20 and 120 au, respectively, and by a planet at a distance of 650 au. We use this curious combination of a close low-mass disc and a wide planet to motivate our simulations of this system. We study the parameter space of the initial conditions to quantify the mass loss from the debris disc and its lifetime under the influence of the planet. We find that when the planet orbits closer to the star than about 50 au and with low inclination relative to the disc (less than about 10°), more disc material is perturbed outside than inside the region constrained by observations on time-scales shorter than 1 Myr. Considering the age of the system, such a short lifetime of the disc is incompatible with the time-scale for planet-planet scattering, which is one of the scenarios suggested to explain the wide separation of the planet. For some configurations, when the planet orbit is inclined with respect to the disc, the latter will start to wobble. We argue that this wobbling is caused by a mechanism similar to Kozai-Lidov oscillations. We also observe various resonant structures (such as rings and spiral arms) induced in the disc by the planet.

  2. DISC1 genetics, biology and psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    THOMSON, Pippa A.; MALAVASI, Elise L.V.; GRÜNEWALD, Ellen; SOARES, Dinesh C.; BORKOWSKA, Malgorzata; MILLAR, J. Kirsty

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are highly heritable, and in many individuals likely arise from the combined effects of genes and the environment. A substantial body of evidence points towards DISC1 being one of the genes that influence risk of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and functional studies of DISC1 consequently have the potential to reveal much about the pathways that lead to major mental illness. Here, we review the evidence that DISC1 influences disease risk through effects upon multiple critical pathways in the developing and adult brain. PMID:23550053

  3. [Lumbar disc herniation and andrological diseases].

    PubMed

    Jin, Bao-fang

    2015-10-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common male disease. In the past, More academic attention was directed to its relationship with lumbago and leg pain than to its association with andrological diseases. Studies show that central lumber intervertebral disc herniation may cause cauda equina injury and result in premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, priapism, and emission. This article presents an overview on the correlation between central lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and andrological diseases, focusing on the aspects of etiology, pathology, and clinical progress, hoping to invite more attention from andrological and osteological clinicians. PMID:26665671

  4. A young hierarchical triple system harbouring a candidate debris disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deacon, N. R.; Schlieder, J. E.; Olofsson, J.; Johnston, K. G.; Henning, Th.

    2013-09-01

    We report the detection of a wide young hierarchical triple system where the primary has a candidate debris disc. The primary, TYC 5241-986-1 A, is a known Tycho star which we classify as a late-K star with emission in the X-ray, near- and far-ultraviolet (UV) and Hα suggestive of youth. Its proper motion, photometric distance (65-105 pc) and radial velocity lead us to associate the system with the broadly defined Local Association of young stars but not specifically with any young moving group. The presence of weak lithium absorption and X-ray and calcium H and K emission support an age in the 20 to ˜125 Myr range. The secondary is a pair of M4.5 ± 0.5 dwarfs with near- and far-UV and Hα emission separated by approximately 1 arcsec (˜65-105 au projected separation) which lie of 145 arcsec (9200-15200 au) from the primary. The primary has a Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 22 μm excess and follow-up Herschel observations also detect an excess at 70 μm. The excess emissions are indicative of a 100-175 K debris disc. We also explore the possibility that this excess could be due to a coincident background galaxy and conclude that this is unlikely. Debris discs are extremely rare around stars older than 15 Myr, hence if the excess is caused by a disc this is an extremely novel system.

  5. The internal mechanical properties of cervical intervertebral discs as revealed by stress profilometry.

    PubMed

    Skrzypiec, Daniel M; Pollintine, Phillip; Przybyla, Andrzej; Dolan, Patricia; Adams, Michael A

    2007-10-01

    Extensive anatomical differences suggest that cervical and lumbar discs may have functional differences also. We investigated human cervical discs using "stress profilometry". Forty-six cadaveric cervical motion segments aged 48-90 years were subjected to a compressive load of 200 N for 20 s, while compressive 'stress' was recorded along the posterior-anterior midline of the disc using a pressure transducer, side-mounted in a 0.9 mm diameter needle. Stress profiles were repeated with the transducer orientated horizontally and vertically, and with the specimen in neutral, flexed and extended postures. Profiles were repeated again following creep loading (150 N, 2 h) which simulated diurnal water loss in vivo. Stress profiles were reproducible, and measured "stress" at each location was proportional to applied load. Stress profiles usually showed a hydrostatic nucleus with regions of higher compressive stress concentrated anteriorly in flexion, and posteriorly in extension. Stress concentrations increased in degenerated discs and following creep. Some features were unique to cervical discs: many showed a stress gradient across their central regions, even though vertical and horizontal stresses were equal to each other, and stress concentrations in the posterior annulus were generally small. Central regions of many cervical discs show the characteristics of a "tethered fluid" which can equalise stress over small distances, but not large. This may be attributable to their fibrous texture. The small radial diameter of the cervical posterior annulus may facilitate buckling and thereby prevent it from sustaining high compressive stresses. PMID:17671801

  6. How Does Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease Affect the Disc Deformation at the Cephalic Levels In Vivo?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaobai; Xia, Qun; Passias, Peter; Li, Weishi; Wood, Kirkham; Li, Guoan

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Case-control study. Objective . To evaluate the effect of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) on the disc deformation at the adjacent level and at the level one above the adjacent level during end ranges of lumbar motion. Summary of Background Data It has been reported that in patients with DDD, the intervertebral discs adjacent to the diseased levels have a greater tendency to degenerate. Although altered biomechanics have been suggested to be the causative factors, few data have been reported on the deformation characteristics of the adjacent discs in patients with DDD. Methods Ten symptomatic patients with discogenic low back pain between L4 and S1 and with healthy discs at the cephalic segments were involved. Eight healthy subjects recruited in our previous studies were used as a reference comparison. The in vivo kinematics of L3–L4 (the cephalic adjacent level to the degenerated discs) and L2–L3 (the level one above the adjacent level) lumbar discs of both groups were obtained using a combined magnetic resonance imaging and dual fluoroscopic imaging technique at functional postures. Deformation characteristics, in terms of areas of minimal deformation (defined as less than 5%), deformations at the center of the discs, and maximum tensile and shear deformations, were compared between the two groups at the two disc levels. Results In the patients with DDD, there were significantly smaller areas of minimal disc deformation at L3–L4 and L2–L3 than the healthy subjects (18% compared with 45% of the total disc area, on average). Both L2–L3 and L3–L4 discs underwent larger tensile and shear deformations in all postures than the healthy subjects. The maximum tensile deformations were higher by up to 23% (of the local disc height in standing) and the maximum shear deformations were higher by approximately 25% to 40% (of the local disc height in standing) compared with those of the healthy subjects. Conclusion Both the discs of the adjacent level and the level one above experienced higher tensile and shear deformations during end ranges of lumbar motion in the patients with DDD before surgical treatments when compared with the healthy subjects. The larger disc deformations at the cephalic segments were otherwise not detectable using conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Future studies should investigate the effect of surgical treatments, such as fusion or disc replacement, on the biomechanics of the adjacent segments during end ranges of lumbar motion. PMID:21245781

  7. Kilonova light curves from the disc wind outflows of compact object mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasen, Daniel; Fernández, Rodrigo; Metzger, Brian D.

    2015-06-01

    We study the radioactively powered transients produced by accretion disc winds following a compact object merger. Based on the outflows found in two-dimensional hydrodynamical disc models, we use wavelength-dependent radiative transfer calculations to generate synthetic light curves and spectra. We show that resulting kilonova transients generally produce both optical and infrared emission, with the brightness and colour carrying information about the merger physics. In those regions of the wind subject to high neutrino irradiation, r-process nucleosynthesis may halt before producing high-opacity, complex ions (the lanthanides). The kilonova light curves thus typically has two distinct components: a brief (˜2 d) blue optical transient produced in the outer lanthanide-free ejecta, and a longer (˜10 d) infrared transient produced in the inner, lanthanide line-blanketed region. Mergers producing a longer lived neutron star, or a more rapidly spinning black hole, have stronger neutrino irradiation, generate more lanthanide-free ejecta and are optically brighter and bluer. At least some optical emission is produced in all disc wind models, which should enhance the detectability of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave sources. However, the presence of even a small amount (10-4 M⊙) of overlying, neutron-rich dynamical ejecta will act as a `lanthanide-curtain', obscuring the optical wind emission from certain viewing angles. Because the disc outflows have moderate velocities (˜10 000 km s-1), numerous resolved line features are discernible in the spectra, distinguishing disc winds from fast-moving dynamical ejecta, and offering a potential diagnostic of the detailed composition of freshly produced r-process material.

  8. Effect of Mechanical Strain on Solute Diffusion in Human TMJ Discs: An Electrical Conductivity Study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gregory J.; Kuo, Jonathan; Shi, Changcheng; Bacro, Thierry H.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Yao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of mechanical strain on solute diffusion in human TMJ discs (mean cadaver age 77.8) using the electrical conductivity method. The electrical conductivity, as well as small ion diffusivity, of male and female TMJ discs was determined under three compressive strains. In the male group, the average disc electrical conductivity (mean ± sd) at 0% strain was 5.14±0.97 mS/cm, decreased to 4.50±0.91 mS/cm (−12.3%) at 10% strain, and 3.93±0.81 mS/cm (−23.5%) at 20% compressive strain. Correspondingly, the average disc relative ion diffusivity at 0% strain was 0.44±0.08, decreased to 0.40±0.08 (−8.9%) at 10% strain, and 0.36±0.08 (−16.7%) at 20% compressive strain. In the female group, the average disc electrical conductivity at 0% strain was 5.84±0.59 mS/cm, decreased to 5.01±0.50 mS/cm (−14.2%) at 10% strain, and 4.33±0.46 mS/cm (−25.8%) at 20% compressive strain. Correspondingly, the average disc relative ion diffusivity at 0% strain was 0.49±0.05, decreased to 0.43±0.04 (−11.3%) at 10% strain, and 0.39±0.04 (−19.9%) at 20% compressive strain. The results indicated that mechanical strain significantly impeded solute diffusion through the disc. This mechanical strain effect was larger in the female than in the male human TMJ disc. This study may provide new insights into TMJ pathophysiology. PMID:23771300

  9. Stirring in Massive, Young Debris Discs from Spatially Resolved Herschel Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moor, A.; Kospal, A.; Abraham, P.; Apai, D.; Balog, Z.; Grady, Carol A.; Henning, Th.; Juhasz, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Krivov, A. V.; Pawellek, N.; Szabo, Gy. M.

    2014-01-01

    A significant fraction of main-sequence stars are encircled by dusty debris discs, where the short-lived dust particles are replenished through collisions between planetesimals. Most destructive collisions occur when the orbits of smaller bodies are dynamically stirred up, either by the gravitational effect of locally formed Pluto-sized planetesimals (self-stirring scenario), or via secular perturbation caused by an inner giant planet (planetary stirring). The relative importance of these scenarios in debris systems is unknown. Here we present new Herschel Space Observatory imagery of 11 discs selected from the most massive and extended known debris systems. All discs were found to be extended at far-infrared wavelengths, five of them being resolved for the first time. We evaluated the feasibility of the self-stirring scenario by comparing the measured disc sizes with the predictions of the model calculated for the ages of our targets. We concluded that the self-stirring explanation works for seven discs. However, in four cases, the predicted pace of outward propagation of the stirring front, assuming reasonable initial disc masses, was far too low to explain the radial extent of the cold dust. Therefore, for HD9672, HD16743, HD21997, and HD95086, another explanation is needed. We performed a similar analysis for Beta Pic and HR8799, reaching the same conclusion. We argue that planetary stirring is a promising possibility to explain the disk properties in these systems. In HR8799 and HD95086 we may already know the potential perturber, since their known outer giant planets could be responsible for the stirring process. Interestingly, the discs around HD9672, HD21997, and Beta Pic are also unique in harbouring detectable amount of molecular CO gas. Our study demonstrates that among the largest and most massive debris discs self-stirring may not be the only active scenario, and potentially planetary stirring is responsible for destructive collisions and debris dust production in a number of systems.

  10. 21 CFR 872.3970 - Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional... disc prosthesis (interpositional implant). (a) Identification. An interarticular disc prosthesis... Food and Drug Administration on or before March 30, 1999, for any interarticular disc...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3970 - Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional... disc prosthesis (interpositional implant). (a) Identification. An interarticular disc prosthesis... Food and Drug Administration on or before March 30, 1999, for any interarticular disc...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3970 - Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional... disc prosthesis (interpositional implant). (a) Identification. An interarticular disc prosthesis... Food and Drug Administration on or before March 30, 1999, for any interarticular disc...

  13. Effect of repetitive laser pulses on the electrical conductivity of intervertebral disc tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Omel'chenko, A I; Sobol', E N

    2009-03-31

    The thermomechanical effect of 1.56-{mu}m fibre laser pulses on intervertebral disc cartilage has been studied using ac conductivity measurements with coaxial electrodes integrated with an optical fibre for laser radiation delivery to the tissue. The observed time dependences of tissue conductivity can be interpreted in terms of hydraulic effects and thermomechanical changes in tissue structure. The laserinduced changes in the electrical parameters of the tissue are shown to correlate with the structural changes, which were visualised using shadowgraph imaging. Local ac conductivity measurements in the bulk of tissue can be used to develop a diagnostic/monitoring system for laser regeneration of intervertebral discs. (laser biology and medicine)

  14. Treatment of lumbar disc herniation by percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) and modified PLDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiao fei; Li, Hong zhi; Wu, Ru zhou; Sui, Yun xian

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To study the micro-invasive operative method and to compare the effect of treatment of PLDD and modified PLDD for Lumbar Disc Herniation. Method: Vaporized part of the nucleus pulposus in single or multiple point after acupuncture into lumbar disc, to reach the purpose of the decompression of the lumbar disc. Result: Among the 19 cases of the regular PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 63.2%, and among the 40 cases of the modified PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 82.5%. Conclusion: The modified PLDD has good effect on the treatment for lumbar disc herniation.

  15. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  16. Mach disc formation in cylindrical recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.E.; McQueen, R.G.; Marsh, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Cylindrical recovery systems have been used to shock-load polymers to pressures exceeding 50 GPa. In order to determine the pressures generated in these recovery systems the formation of the Mach disc on axis and its approach to steady state was monitored. The relation of the Mach disc diameter to the lateral dimension of the high explosive used to compress the polymer samples was also investigated.

  17. Kinematic structures in galactic disc simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Fàbrega, S.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Figueras, F.; Antoja, T.; Valenzuela, O.

    2011-10-01

    N-body and test particle simulations have been used to characterize the stellar streams in the galactic discs of Milky Way type galaxies. Tools such as the second and third order moments of the velocity ellipsoid and clustering methods -EM-WEKA and FoF- allow characterizing these kinematic structures and linking them to the stellar overdensities and to the resonant regions all through the disc.

  18. Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams

    DOEpatents

    Mrochek, John E.; Dinsmore, Stanley R.; Chandler, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    A four-port disc valve for sampling erosive, high temperature process streams. A rotatable disc defining opposed first and second sampling cavities rotates between fired faceplates defining flow passageways positioned to be alternatively in axial alignment with the first and second cavities. Silicon carbide inserts and liners composed of .alpha. silicon carbide are provided in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities to limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation when used under harsh process conditions.

  19. Chondroitin sulphate sulphation motif expression in the ontogeny of the intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A J; Hughes, C E; Ralphs, J R; Caterson, B

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate chains on cell and extracellular matrix proteoglycans play important regulatory roles in developing systems. Specific, developmentally regulated, sulphation motifs within the chondroitin glycosaminoglycan structure may help bind, sequester or present bioactive signalling molecules to cells thus modulating their behaviour. Using monoclonal antibodies 3B3(-), 4C3, 6C3 and 7D4, we have mapped the distribution of different chondroitin sulphation epitopes in a rat intervertebral disc developmental series. The sulphation epitopes had complex, dynamic and specific distributions in the disc and vertebral tissues during their differentiation, growth and ageing. At embryonic day [E]15, prior to disc differentiation, 4C3 and 7D4 occurred within the cellular disc condensations whilst 6C3 was present in the notochordal sheath. At E17, post disc differentiation, 4C3 and 7D4 occurred within the nucleus pulposus, inner annulus and vertebral bodies; 3B3(-) in the nucleus, inner annulus, annulus/vertebral body interface and perichondrium; and 6C3, ventrally, within the perichondrium. At E19, 3B3(-), 4C3 and 7D4 became further restricted to the nucleus, inner annulus, annulus/vertebral body interface and perichondrium. Prior to birth, all four epitopes occurred within the inner annulus and nucleus, with 6C3 and 7D4 also occurring within the future end-plate. Postnatal expression of the sulphation epitopes was more widespread in the disc and also within the growth plate. At 4 months, the epitopes were associated with chondrocyte clusters within the nucleus; and at 24 months, with annular lesions. Overall, our data suggests that differential sulphation of chondroitin correlates with significant events in development, growth and aging of the rat intervertebral disc. PMID:21213210

  20. Stellar wind erosion of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, N. R.; Lovelace, R. V. E.; Romanova, M. M.; Airapetian, V. S.

    2015-04-01

    An analytic model is developed for the erosion of protoplanetary gas discs by high-velocity magnetized stellar winds. The winds are centrifugally driven from the surface of rapidly rotating, strongly magnetized young stars. The presence of the magnetic field in the wind leads to Reynolds numbers sufficiently large to cause a strongly turbulent wind/disc boundary layer which entrains and carries away the disc gas. The model uses the conservation of mass and momentum in the turbulent boundary layer. The time-scale for significant erosion depends on the disc accretion speed, disc accretion rate, the wind mass-loss rate, and the wind velocity. The time-scale is estimated to be ˜2 × 106 yr. The analytic model assumes a steady stellar wind with mass- loss rate dot {M}}_w ˜ 10^{-10} M_{⊙} yr-1 and velocity vw ˜ 103 km s-1. A significant contribution to the disc erosion can come from frequent powerful coronal mass ejections (CMEs) where the average mass-loss rate in CMEs, dot{M}_CME, and velocities, vCME, have values comparable to those for the steady wind.

  1. Tidally distorted accretion discs in binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, G. I.

    2002-03-01

    The non-axisymmetric features observed in the discs of dwarf novae in outburst are usually considered to be spiral shocks, which are the non-linear relatives of tidally excited waves. This interpretation suffers from a number of problems. For example, the natural site of wave excitation lies outside the Roche lobe, the disc must be especially hot, and most treatments of wave propagation do not take into account the vertical structure of the disc. In this paper I construct a detailed semi-analytical model of the non-linear tidal distortion of a thin, three-dimensional accretion disc by a binary companion on a circular orbit. The analysis presented here allows for vertical motion and radiative energy transport, and introduces a simple model for the turbulent magnetic stress. The m=2 inner vertical resonance has an important influence on the amplitude and phase of the tidal distortion. I show that the observed patterns find a natural explanation if the emission is associated with the tidally thickened sectors of the outer disc, which may be irradiated from the centre. According to this hypothesis, it may be possible to constrain the physical parameters of the disc through future observations.

  2. In Vivo Measurement of Age-Related Stiffening in the Crystalline Lens by Brillouin Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scarcelli, Giuliano; Kim, Pilhan; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Abtract The biophysical and biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens (e.g., viscoelasticity) have long been implicated in accommodation and vision problems, such as presbyopia and cataracts. However, it has been difficult to measure such parameters noninvasively. Here, we used in vivo Brillouin optical microscopy to characterize material acoustic properties at GHz frequency and measure the longitudinal elastic moduli of lenses. We obtained three-dimensional elasticity maps of the lenses in live mice, which showed biomechanical heterogeneity in the cortex and nucleus of the lens with high spatial resolution. An in vivo longitudinal study of mice over a period of 2 months revealed a marked age-related stiffening of the lens nucleus. We found remarkably good correlation (log-log linear) between the Brillouin elastic modulus and the Young's modulus measured by conventional mechanical techniques at low frequencies (∼1 Hz). Our results suggest that Brillouin microscopy is potentially useful for basic and animal research and clinical ophthalmology. PMID:21943436

  3. Energy flows in thick accretion discs and their consequences for black hole feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Lasota, Jean-Pierre; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    We study energy flows in geometrically thick accretion discs, both optically thick and thin, using general relativistic, three-dimensional simulations of black hole accretion flows. We find that for non-rotating black holes the efficiency of the total feedback from thick accretion discs is 3 per cent - roughly half of the thin disc efficiency. This amount of energy is ultimately distributed between outflow and radiation, the latter scaling weakly with the accretion rate for super-critical accretion rates, and returned to the interstellar medium. Accretion on to rotating black holes is more efficient because of the additional extraction of rotational energy. However, the jet component is collimated and likely to interact only weakly with the environment, whereas the outflow and radiation components cover a wide solid angle.

  4. The influence of torsion on disc herniation when combined with flexion

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Peter A.; Broom, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    The role of torsion in the mechanical derangement of intervertebral discs remains largely undefined. The current study sought to investigate if torsion, when applied in combination with flexion, affects the internal failure mechanics of the disc wall when exposed to high nuclear pressure. Thirty ovine lumbar motion segments were each positioned in 2° axial rotation plus 7° flexion. Whilst maintained in this posture, the nucleus of each segment was gradually injected with a viscous radio-opaque gel, via an injection screw placed longitudinally within the inferior vertebra, until failure occurred. Segments were then inspected using micro-CT and optical microscopy in tandem. Five motion segments failed to pressurize correctly. Of the remaining 25 successfully tested motion segments, 17 suffered vertebral endplate rupture and 8 suffered disc failure. Disc failure occurred in mature motion segments significantly more often than immature segments. The most common mode of disc failure was a central posterior radial tear involving a systematic annulus–endplate–annulus failure pattern. The endplate portion of these radial tears often propagated contralateral to the direction of applied axial rotation, and, at the lateral margin, only those fibres inclined in the direction of the applied torque were affected. Apart from the 2° of applied axial rotation, the methods employed in this study replicated those used in a previously published study. Consequently, the different outcome obtained in this study can be directly attributed to the applied axial rotation. These inter-study differences show that when combined with flexion, torsion markedly reduces the nuclear pressure required to form clinically relevant radial tears that involve cartilaginous endplate failure. Conversely, torsion appears to increase the disc wall’s resistance to radial tears that do not involve cartilaginous endplate failure, effectively halving the disc wall’s overall risk of rupture. PMID:20437184

  5. Optical ages indicate the southwestern margin of the Green Bay Lobe in Wisconsin, USA, was at its maximum extent until about 18,500 years ago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attig, J.W.; Hanson, P.R.; Rawling, J.E.; Young, A.R.; Carson, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Samples for optical dating were collected to estimate the time of sediment deposition in small ice-marginal lakes in the Baraboo Hills of Wisconsin. These lakes formed high in the Baraboo Hills when drainage was blocked by the Green Bay Lobe when it was at or very near its maximum extent. Therefore, these optical ages provide control for the timing of the thinning and recession of the Green Bay Lobe from its maximum position. Sediment that accumulated in four small ice-marginal lakes was sampled and dated. Difficulties with field sampling and estimating dose rates made the interpretation of optical ages derived from samples from two of the lake basins problematic. Samples from the other two lake basins-South Bluff and Feltz basins-responded well during laboratory analysis and showed reasonably good agreement between the multiple ages produced at each site. These ages averaged 18.2. ka (n= 6) and 18.6. ka (n= 6), respectively. The optical ages from these two lake basins where we could carefully select sediment samples provide firm evidence that the Green Bay Lobe stood at or very near its maximum extent until about 18.5. ka.The persistence of ice-marginal lakes in these basins high in the Baraboo Hills indicates that the ice of the Green Bay Lobe had not experienced significant thinning near its margin prior to about 18.5. ka. These ages are the first to directly constrain the timing of the maximum extent of the Green Bay Lobe and the onset of deglaciation in the area for which the Wisconsin Glaciation was named. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. DENVER DISC FILTER IN CO91107, SHOWING FIVE DOUBLESIDED DISCS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DENVER DISC FILTER IN CO-91-107, SHOWING FIVE DOUBLE-SIDED DISCS AND DRIVE MOTOR. NOTE FOUR VERTICAL SLURRY FEED PIPES FROM OVERHEAD MANIFOLD AND SUCTION PIPE IN FOREGROUND. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  7. 26 CFR 1.6011-2 - Returns, etc., of DISC's and former DISC's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns, etc., of DISC's and former DISC's. 1.6011-2 Section 1.6011-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6011-2 Returns, etc., of...

  8. Preparation of ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine-medicated discs for disc diffusion assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Romet ( a blend of ormetoprim and sulfadimethoxine) is a type A medicated article for the manufacture of medicated feed in the catfish industry. Recently, the commercial manufacture of ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine susceptibility discs was discontinued. Ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine discs were prepare...

  9. Modeling and optimization of an elastic arthroplastic disc for a degenerated disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouchani, Azadeh; Ravari, Mohammad; Mahmoudi, Farid

    2011-10-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the L3-L4 motion segment using ABAQUS v 6.9 has been developed. The model took into account the material nonlinearities and is imposed different loading conditions. In this study, we validated the model by comparison of its predictions with several sets of experimental data. Disc deformation under compression and segmental rotational motions under moment loads for the normal disc model agreed well with the corresponding in vivo studies. By linking ABAQUS with MATLAB 2010.a, we determined the optimal Young s modulus as well as the Poisson's ratio for the artificial disc under different physiologic loading conditions. The results of the present study confirmed that a well-designed elastic arthroplastic disc preferably has an annulus modulus of 19.1 MPa and 1.24 MPa for nucleus section and Poisson ratio of 0.41 and 0.47 respectively. Elastic artificial disc with such properties can then achieve the goal of restoring the disc height and mechanical function of intact disc under different loading conditions and so can reduce low back pain which is mostly caused due to disc degeneration.

  10. Contradictory ageing behaviour and optical property of iodine doped and H2SO4 doped pulsed DC plasma polymerized aniline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Tapan; Pal, Arup R.

    2013-10-01

    Polymerization of aniline in the presence of H2SO4 and iodine vapour is carried out using pulsed DC glow discharge plasma. The as prepared iodine doped plasma polymerized aniline films are found to be highly crystalline due to some crystal structure formed by the iodine incorporated into the film and the ex-situ H2SO4 doped films are found to be amorphous. However, the structure of the iodine doped films transforms to amorphous one while that of the ex-situ H2SO4 doped films transforms to crystalline one due to the effect of ageing. The optical band gap of the samples decreases depending upon the level of doping and annealing, having minimum optical band gap for iodine doped plasma polymerized aniline. Due to ageing, the optical property of the H2SO4 doped film is found to become superior while for iodine doped films a negligible change of the optical property has been noticed even after six months of ageing.

  11. Accretion discs as regulators of stellar angular momentum evolution in the ONC and Taurus-Auriga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Claire L.; Gregory, Scott G.; Greaves, Jane S.

    2014-10-01

    In light of recent substantial updates to spectral type estimations and newly established intrinsic colours, effective temperatures, and bolometric corrections for pre-main sequence (PMS) stars, we re-address the theory of accretion disc-regulated stellar angular momentum (AM) evolution. We report on the compilation of a consistent sample of fully convective stars within two of the most well-studied and youngest, nearby regions of star formation: the Orion nebula Cluster and Taurus-Auriga. We calculate the average specific stellar AM (j⋆) assuming solid body rotation, using surface rotation periods gathered from the literature and new estimates of stellar radii and ages. We use published Spitzer IRAC fluxes to classify our stars as Class II or Class III and compare their j⋆ evolution. Our results suggest that disc dispersal is a rapid process that occurs at a variety of ages. We find a consistent j⋆ reduction rate between the Class II and Class III PMS stars which we interpret as indicating a period of accretion disc-regulated AM evolution followed by near-constant AM evolution once the disc has dissipated. Furthermore, assuming our observed spread in stellar ages is real, we find that the removal rate of j⋆ during the Class II phase is more rapid than expected by contraction at constant stellar rotation rate. A much more efficient process of AM removal must exist, most likely in the form of an accretion-driven stellar wind or other outflow from the star-disc interaction region or extended disc surface.

  12. Long-term aging with highly stable performances of 1.55-μm DFB lasers for microwave optical links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resneau, Patrick; Krakowski, Michel

    2004-09-01

    At the present time, due to their improved spectral characteristics accompanied by low noise and high linearity of current-light output power features, 1.55 μm DFB lasers are key components of analog microwave fibre optical links. These devices are the most frequently used as both the optical source and RF/optical modulator. Especially in the case of direct intensity modulation links, stringent requirements repose on these devices together in terms of performances and reliability, the latter being a crucial issue for the viability of the optical links. This paper deals with the investigation on the reliability of 1.55 μm strained quantum well ridge DFB lasers. Long term ageing tests were performed during 12,000 hours at 80°C ambient temperature and a constant bias current of 140 mA corresponding to 10 mW output power. These tests ended, none failure or decrease of the optical power was observed. A detailed evaluation based on crucial parameters for direct microwave modulation as static characteristics, emission spectra and relative intensity noise (RIN) has revealed only negligible changes after ageing.

  13. Synthesis of Organic Matter of Prebiotic Chemistry at the Protoplanetary Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snytnikov, Valeriy; Stoynovskaya, Olga; Rudina, Nina

    We have carried out scanning electron microscopic examination of CM carbonaceous chondrites meteorites Migey, Murchison, Staroe Boriskino aged more than 4.56 billion years (about 50 million years from the beginning of the formation of the Solar system). Our study confirmed the conclusion of Rozanov, Hoover and other researchers about the presence of microfossils of bacterial origin in the matrix of all these meteorites. Since the time of the Solar system formation is 60 - 100 million years, the primary biocenosis emerged in the protoplanetary disc of the Solar system before meteorites or simultaneously with them. It means that prebiological processes and RNA world appeared even earlier in the circumsolar protoplanetary disc. Most likely, this appearance of prebiotic chemistry takes place nowday in massive and medium-massive discs of the observed young stellar objects (YSO) class 0 and I. The timescale of the transition from chemical to biological evolution took less than 50 million years for the Solar system. Further evolution of individual biocenosis in a protoplanetary disc associated with varying physico-chemical conditions during the formation of the Solar system bodies. Biocenosis on these bodies could remove or develop under the influence of many cosmic factors and geological processes in the case of Earth. To complete the primary biosphere formation in short evolution time - millions of years - requires highly efficient chemical syntheses. In industrial chemistry for the efficient synthesis of ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, methanol and other organic species, that are the precursors to obtain prebiotic compounds, catalytic reactors of high pressure are used. Thus (1) necessary amount of the proper catalyst in (2) high pressure areas of the disc can trigger these intense syntheses. The disc contains the solids with the size from nanoparticle to pebble. Iron and magnesium is catalytically active ingredient for such solids. The puzzle is a way to provide hydrogen pressure inside the disc from tens to hundred atmospheres. We simulated unsteady processes in massive circumstellar discs around YSO class O and I. In the computational experiments, we have shown that at a certain stage of its evolution the circumstellar discs of gas and solids produces local areas of high pressure. According to the classical heterogeneous catalysis, a wide range of organic and prebiotic compounds could have been synthesized in these areas. Can we capture these areas of high pressure synthesis in observation of circumstellar discs? Due to the small sizes of such areas they can be hardly ever resolved even with the modern telescopes such as ALMA. However, we can try to detect their signatures in the disc, since the gas of the disc keep the set of organic synthesis products. The idea is to define the signature of the process using laboratory experiments. Varying gas temperature and pressure in laboratory setup we can carry out the catalytic high pressure syntheses and specify the set of gaseous products. These sets of organic compounds observed in the discs may serve as indicators of the emergence of high-pressure areas of prebiotic chemistry. Thus, there is a special interest to the study of YSO class 0 and I by means of observational astronomy. For these objects, first data on the presence of individual organic compounds in massive hydrogen-helium component of the discs appear. The origin of the organic compounds that are associated with chemical reactions in the discs should be separated from the set of organic compounds of the initial molecular cloud.

  14. Rotational support of giant clumps in high-z disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Mandelker, Nir; Bournaud, Frederic; Burkert, Andreas; Genzel, Reinhard; Primack, Joel

    2012-03-01

    We address the internal support against total free-fall collapse of the giant clumps that form by violent gravitational instability in high-z disc galaxies. Guidance is provided by an analytic model, where the protoclumps are cut from a rotating disc and collapse to equilibrium while preserving angular momentum. This model predicts prograde clump rotation, which dominates the support if the clump has contracted to a surface density contrast ≳10. This is confirmed in hydro adaptive mesh refinement zoom-in simulations of galaxies in a cosmological context. In most high-z clumps, the centrifugal force dominates the support, ?, where Vrot is the rotation velocity and the circular velocity Vcirc measures the potential well. The clump spin indeed tends to be in the sense of the global disc angular momentum, but substantial tilts are frequent, reflecting the highly warped nature of the high-z discs. Most clumps are in Jeans equilibrium, with the rest of the support provided by turbulence, partly driven by the gravitational instability itself. The general agreement between model and simulations indicates that angular momentum loss or gain in most clumps is limited to a factor of 2. Simulations of isolated gas-rich discs that resolve the clump substructure reveal that the cosmological simulations may overestimate ? by ˜30 per cent, but the dominance of rotational support at high z is not a resolution artefact. In turn, isolated gas-poor disc simulations produce at z= 0 smaller gaseous non-rotating transient clouds, indicating that the difference in rotational support is associated with the fraction of cold baryons in the disc. In our current cosmological simulations, the clump rotation velocity is typically more than twice the disc dispersion, Vrot˜ 100 km s-1, but when beam smearing of ≥0.1 arcsec is imposed, the rotation signal is reduced to a small gradient of ≤30 km s-1 kpc-1 across the clump. The velocity dispersion in the simulated clumps is comparable to the disc dispersion so it is expected to leave only a marginal signal for any beam smearing. Retrograde minor-merging galaxies could lead to massive clumps that do not show rotation even when marginally resolved. A testable prediction of the scenario as simulated is that the mean stellar age and the stellar fraction of the clumps are declining linearly with distance from the disc centre.

  15. The biology behind the human intervertebral disc and its endplates.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, K A; Saganiak, K; Gładysz, T; Walocha, J A

    2015-01-01

    The intervertebral discs (IVDs) are roughly cylindrical, fibrocartilaginous, articulating structures connecting the vertebral bodies, and allowing movement in the otherwise rigid anterior portion of the vertebral column. They also transfer loads and dissipate energy. Macroscopically the intervertebral disc can be divided into an outer annulus fibrosus surrounding a centrally located nucleus pulposus. The endplates surround the IVD from both the cranial and caudal ends, and separate them from the vertebral bodies and prevent the highly hydrated nucleus pulposus from bulging into the adjacent vertebrae. The IVD develop from the mesodermal notochord and receive nutrients mostly through the cartilaginous endplates. Physiologically they are innervated only in the outer annulus fibrosus by sensory and sympathetic perivascular nerve fibres, branches from the sinuvertebral nerve, the ventral rami of spinal nerves or from the grey rami communicantes. The IVD undergo changes with ageing and degeneration, the latter having two types i.e. "endplate-driven" involving endplate defects and inward collapse of the annulus fibrosus and "annulus-driven" involving a radial fissure and/or an IVD prolapse. This review summarises and updates the current state of knowledge on the embryology, structure, and biomechanics of the IVD and its endplates. To further translate this into a more clinical context this review also demonstrates the impact of ageing and degeneration on the above properties of both the IVD and its endplates. PMID:26050801

  16. Adjacent segment disc pressures following two-level cervical disc replacement versus simulated anterior cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Laxer, Eric B; Darden, Bruce V; Murrey, Daniel B; Milam, R Alden; Rhyne, Alfred L; Claytor, Brian; Nussman, Donna S; Powers, Timothy W; Davies, Matthew A; Bryant, S Chad; Larsen, Scott P; Bhatt, Meghal; Brodziak, John; Polic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion (ACF) has been shown to alter the biomechanics of adjacent segments of the cervical spine. The goal of total disc replacement is to address pathology at a given disc with minimal disruption of the operated or adjacent segments. This study compares the pressure within discs adjacent to either a two-level simulated ACDF or a two-level total disc replacement with the ProDisc-C. A special automated motion testing apparatus was constructed. Four fresh cadaveric cervical spine specimens were affixed to the test stand and tested in flexion and extension under specific loads. Intradiscal, miniature strain-gauge-based transducers were placed in the discs above and below the "treated" levels. The specimens were then tested in flexion and extension. Pressure and overall angular displacement were measured. In the most extreme and highest quality specimen the difference at C3/C4 registered 800 kPa and the difference at C6/C7 registered 50 kPa. This same quality specimen treated with the ProDisc reached a flexion angle at much lower moments, 24.3 degrees at 5 N-m, when compared to the the SACF 12.2 degrees at 8.6 N-m. Therefore, the moment needed to achieve 15 degrees of flexion with the SACF treatment was 5.5 N-m and the ProDisc treatment was only 2.9 N-m. This initial data would indicate that adjacent level discs experience substantially lower pressure after two-level disc replacement when compared to two-level SACF. Additional testing to further support these observations is ongoing. PMID:17108473

  17. A Metallurgical Investigation of Large Forged Discs of Low-carbon N-155 Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Howard C; Freeman, J W

    1947-01-01

    Research was undertaken to ascertain the properties of better wrought heat resisting alloys in the form of large discs required for gas turbine rotors. The properties of large discs of low carbon N-155 alloy in both the as-forged and water-quenched and aged conditions were determined by means of stress-rupture and creep tests for time periods up to about 2000 hours at 1200, 1350, and 1500 F. Short-time tensile test, impact test, and time-total deformation characteristics are included. The principle results are given.

  18. Quantitative Classification of Eyes with and without Intermediate Age-related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Farsiu, Sina; Chiu, Stephanie J.; O'Connell, Rachelle V.; Folgar, Francisco A.; Yuan, Eric; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To define quantitative indicators for the presence of intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) via spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging of older adults. Design Evaluation of diagnostic test and technology. Participants and Controls One eye from 115 elderly subjects without AMD and 269 subjects with intermediate AMD from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Ancillary SD-OCT Study. Methods We semiautomatically delineated the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and RPE drusen complex (RPEDC, the axial distance from the apex of the drusen and RPE layer to Bruch's membrane) and total retina (TR, the axial distance between the inner limiting and Bruch's membranes) boundaries. We registered and averaged the thickness maps from control subjects to generate a map of “normal” non-AMD thickness. We considered RPEDC thicknesses larger or smaller than 3 standard deviations from the mean as abnormal, indicating drusen or geographic atrophy (GA), respectively. We measured TR volumes, RPEDC volumes, and abnormal RPEDC thickening and thinning volumes for each subject. By using different combinations of these 4 disease indicators, we designed 5 automated classifiers for the presence of AMD on the basis of the generalized linear model regression framework. We trained and evaluated the performance of these classifiers using the leave-one-out method. Main Outcome Measures The range and topographic distribution of the RPEDC and TR thicknesses in a 5-mm diameter cylinder centered at the fovea. Results The most efficient method for separating AMD and control eyes required all 4 disease indicators. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for this classifier was >0.99. Overall neurosensory retinal thickening in eyes with AMD versus control eyes in our study contrasts with previous smaller studies. Conclusions We identified and validated efficient biometrics to distinguish AMD from normal eyes by analyzing the topographic distribution of normal and abnormal RPEDC thicknesses across a large atlas of eyes. We created an online atlas to share the 38 400 SD-OCT images in this study, their corresponding segmentations, and quantitative measurements. Financial Disclosure(s) Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. PMID:23993787

  19. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: low-mass protoplanetary discs from a SCUBA-2 census of NGC 1333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, P.; Greaves, J. S.; Scholz, A.; Hatchell, J.; Holland, W. S.; JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2015-02-01

    NGC 1333 is a 1-2 Myr old cluster of stars in the Perseus molecular cloud. We used 850 μm data from the Gould Belt Survey with SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to measure or place limits on disc masses for 82 Class II sources in this cluster. Eight disc candidates were detected; one is estimated to have mass of about 9 MJup in dust plus gas, while the others host only 2-4 MJup of circumstellar material. None of these discs exceeds the threshold for the `minimum mass solar nebula' (MMSN). This reinforces previous claims that only a small fraction of Class II sources at an age of 1-2 Myr have discs exceeding the MMSN threshold and thus can form a planetary system like our own. However, other regions with similarly low fractions of MMSN discs (IC 348, UpSco, σ Ori) are thought to be older than NGC 1333. Compared with coeval regions, the exceptionally low fraction of massive discs in NGC 1333 cannot easily be explained by the effects of UV radiation or stellar encounters. Our results indicate that additional environmental factors significantly affect disc evolution and the outcome of planet formation by core accretion.

  20. MMPs and ADAMTSs in intervertebral disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jun; Yu, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Cheng; Yang, Wei; He, Wen-Si; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Yan, Yi-Guo; Zhang, Jian

    2015-08-25

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is the most common diagnosis in patients with low back pain, a leading cause of musculoskeletal disability worldwide. The major components of extracellular matrix (ECM) within the discs are type II collagen (Col II) and aggrecan. Excessive destruction of ECM, especially loss of Col II and aggrecan, plays a critical role in promoting the occurrence and development of IDD. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs) are primary enzymes that degrade collagens and aggrecan. There is a large and growing body of evidence that many members of MMPs and ADAMTSs are highly expressed in degenerative IVD tissue and cells, and are closely involved in ECM breakdown and the process of disc degeneration. In contrast, targeting these enzymes has shown promise for promoting ECM repair and mitigating disc regeneration. In the current review, after a brief description regarding the biology of MMPs and ADAMTSs, we mainly focus on their expression profiles, roles and therapeutic potential in IDD. A greater understanding of the catabolic pathways involved in IDD will help to develop potential prophylactic or regenerative biological treatment for degenerative disc disease in the future. PMID:26162271

  1. Design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Chiara M.; Zweig, Thomas; Ferguson, Stephen; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Lamartina, Claudio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The implantation of lumbar disc prostheses based on different design concepts is widely accepted. This paper reviews currently available literature studies on the biomechanics of TDA in the lumbar spine, and is targeted at the evaluation of possible relationships between the aims of TDA and the geometrical, mechanical and material properties of the various available disc prostheses. Both theoretical and experimental studies were analyzed, by a PUBMED search (performed in February 2007, revised in January 2008), focusing on single level TDA. Both semi-constrained and unconstrained lumbar discs seem to be able to restore nearly physiological IAR locations and ROM values. However, both increased and decreased ROM was stated in some papers, unrelated to the clinical outcome. Segmental lordosis alterations after TDA were reported in most cases, for both constrained and unconstrained disc prostheses. An increase in the load through the facet joints was documented, for both semi-constrained and unconstrained artificial discs, but with some contrasting results. Semi-constrained devices may be able to share a greater part of the load, thus protecting the surrounding biological structure from overloading and possible early degeneration, but may be more susceptible to wear. The next level of development will be the biomechanical integration of compression across the motion segment. All these findings need to be supported by long-term clinical outcome studies. PMID:18946684

  2. Footprint mismatch in lumbar total disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gstoettner, Michaela; Michaela, Gstoettner; Heider, Denise; Denise, Heider; Liebensteiner, Michael; Bach, Christian Michael; Michael, Bach Christian

    2008-11-01

    Lumbar disc arthroplasty has become a popular modality for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The dimensions of the implants are based on early published geometrical measurements of vertebrae; the majority of these were cadaver studies. The fit of the prosthesis in the intervertebral space is of utmost importance. An undersized implant may lead to subsidence, loosening and biomechanical failure due to an incorrect center of rotation. The aim of the present study was to measure the dimensions of lumbar vertebrae based on CT scans and assess the accuracy of match in currently available lumbar disc prostheses. A total of 240 endplates of 120 vertebrae were included in the study. The sagittal and mediolateral diameter of the upper and lower endplates were measured using a digital measuring system. For the levels L4/L5 and L5/S1, an inappropriate size match was noted in 98.8% (Prodisc L) and 97.6% (Charite) with regard to the anteroposterior diameter. Mismatch in the anterior mediolateral diameter was noted