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Sample records for age optic disc

  1. Imaging of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer: the effects of age, optic disc area, refractive error, and gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowd, Christopher; Zangwill, Linda M.; Blumenthal, Eytan Z.; Vasile, Cristiana; Boehm, Andreas G.; Gokhale, Parag A.; Mohammadi, Kourosh; Amini, Payam; Sankary, Timothy M.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    We cross-sectionally examined the relationship between age, optic disc area, refraction, and gender and optic disc topography and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements, using optical imaging techniques. One eye from each of 155 Caucasian subjects (age range 23.0-80.8 y) without ocular pathology was included. Measurements were obtained by using the Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT), the GDx Nerve Fiber Analyzer, and the Optical Coherence Tomograph (OCT). The effects of age were small (R2<17%) and were limited to specific HRT, GDx, and OCT parameters. Disc area was significantly associated with most HRT parameters and isolated GDx and OCT parameters. Refraction and gender were not significantly associated with any optic disc or RNFL parameters. Although effects of age on the optic disc and RNFL are small, they should be considered in monitoring ocular disease. Optic disc area should be considered when cross-sectionally evaluating disc topography and, to a lesser extent, RNFL thickness.

  2. Optical disc discrimination method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Hironori; Takeshita, Nobuo

    2015-09-01

    We propose a method for identifying the type of a disc inserted into an optical drive. The disc is irradiated with light from an LED light source and the diffracted light from the information recording layer of the disc is detected by using the movement of the disc during disc loading. Results of the optical simulation agree well with the experimental results. A total of 61 discs were measured, and it was confirmed that these discs can be distinguished accurately.

  3. The Chemistry of Optical Discs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkett, David

    2002-01-01

    Explains the chemistry used in compact discs (CD), digital versatile discs (DVD), and magneto-optical (MO) discs focusing on the steps of initial creation of the mold, the molding of the polycarbonate, the deposition of the reflective layers, the lacquering of the CDs, and the bonding of DVDs. (Contains 15 references.) (YDS)

  4. Medical Information on Optical Disc*

    PubMed Central

    Schipma, Peter B.; Cichocki, Edward M.; Ziemer, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    Optical discs may permit a revolutionary change in the distribution and use of medical information. A single compact disc, similar in size to that used for digital audio recording, can contain over 500 million characters of information that is accessible by a Personal Computer. These discs can be manufactured at a cost lower than that of print on paper, at reasonable volumes. Software can provide the health care professional with nearly instantaneous access to the information. Thus, for the first time, the opportunity exists to have large local medical information collections. This paper describes an application of this technology in the field of Oncology.

  5. Optical Disc Applications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Pamela Q. J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a variety of library applications of optical disc storage technology, including CD-ROM, digital videodisc, and WORM. Research and development projects at the Library of Congress, National Library of Medicine, and National Agricultural Library are described, products offered by library networks are reviewed, and activities in academic and

  6. [Optic nerve disc drusen].

    PubMed

    Samoil?, O; C?lug?ru, D; C?lug?ru, M; Emese, Kaucsar

    2006-01-01

    Optic nerve head drusen represents a frequent condition, with unknown pathogenesis, mostly asymptomatic. Here, we present a patient with visual impairment, who has reacted well to anti-inflammatory and vasodilator treatment. PMID:16927754

  7. The Optical Disc Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbreath, Jeremy

    1993-01-01

    Provides an update on optical disk technology as a means of digital media storage and explains why it may become a standard storage technology for telemedia technology. Topics discussed include read-only formats; write-once formats, including WORM and CD-WORM; rewritable formats; videodiscs; and future possibilities. (LRW)

  8. Optical Discs: New Storage Media for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgerson, Linda W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses three new advances in the use of optical disc technology in education. Describes the storage formats and capabilities of the videodisc, the compact disc, and the optical write-once disc. Contrasts the three technologies in terms of their production requirements, the hardware involved, and some projected applications in education. (TW)

  9. Acute visual loss in a patient with optic disc drusen

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Deborah KL; Tow, Sharon LC

    2013-01-01

    Here we report a case of sudden, unilateral, painless visual loss in a middle-aged patient. A 45-year-old gentleman with no known past medical history presented with acute painless left visual impairment. Clinically, he was found to have a left optic neuropathy associated with a swollen and hyperemic left optic disc. The right optic disc was noted to be small and crowded, and both optic discs were noted to have irregular margins. Humphrey perimetry revealed a constricted visual field in the left eye. Fundus autofluorescence imaging revealed autofluorescence, and B-scan ultrasonography showed hyperreflectivity within both nerve heads. Blood investigations for underlying ischemic and inflammatory markers revealed evidence of hyperlipidemia but were otherwise normal. A diagnosis of left nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAAION) was made, with associated optic disc drusen and hyperlipidemia. NAAION typically occurs in eyes with small, structurally crowded optic discs. The coexistence of optic disc drusen and vascular risk factors may further augment the risk of developing NAAION. PMID:23658477

  10. Age-Related Changes in Ocular Blood Velocity in Suspects with Glaucomatous Optic Disc Appearance. Comparison with Healthy Subjects and Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Asejczyk-Widlicka, Magdalena; Krzyzanowska-Berkowska, Patrycja; Sander, Beata P.; Iskander, D. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate retrobulbar blood flow characteristics of glaucoma suspects with glaucomatous optic disc appearance (GODA) in comparison to healthy control group (CG) and primary open angle glaucoma patients (POAG) and assess the effect of age. Methods 145 patients from a single glaucoma clinic were enrolled and classified into two diagnostic groups (GODA and POAG). Third group of subjects consisted of 67 age matched individuals (CG). Retrobulbar blood velocity measurement in central retinal artery was performed using color Doppler imaging (CDI). CDI images were processed in custom software leading a range of parameter estimates from a continuous waveform signal. The effect of age on the estimated parameters was evaluated with the stepwise forward regression and ANCOVA in which age was used as a continuous factor. One-way ANOVA was used to test for the differences in the CDI parameters between the three considered groups. Correlation between restive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) was assessed with a bilinear fitting guaranteeing no discontinuities in RI intercept estimate. Fisher test was used to assess the applicability of a bilinear PI/RI relationship, while the statistics of the RI intercept estimate were evaluated using the bootstrap. Results ANCOVA showed significant interaction between age and group (p<0.05) for five out of nine considered CDI parameters. The RI intercept for CG and GODA groups was 0.6020.047, and 0.5740.044 respectively, while the RI intercept of 0.9340.066 was found for the POAG. Conclusions The observed similarity of CG and GODA group and dissimilarity between GODA and POAG groups in terms of PI/RI relationship is remarkable. Age may play some role in the different mechanisms occurring in blood velocity dynamics in GODA and POAG subjects but it is not a strongly determining factor. PMID:26218249

  11. Archival-grade optical disc design and international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toru; Kojyo, Shinichi; Endo, Akihisa; Kodaira, Takuo; Mori, Fumi; Shimizu, Atsuo

    2015-09-01

    Optical discs currently on the market exhibit large variations in life span among discs, making them unsuitable for certain business applications. To assess and potentially mitigate this problem, we performed accelerated degradation testing under standard ISO conditions, determined the probable disc failure mechanisms, and identified the essential criteria necessary for a stable disc composition. With these criteria as necessary conditions, we analyzed the physical and chemical changes that occur in the disc components, on the basis of which we determined technological measures to reduce these degradation processes. By applying these measures to disc fabrication, we were able to develop highly stable optical discs.

  12. Optic Disc - Fovea Angle: The Beijing Eye Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Rahul A.; Wang, Ya Xing; Yang, Hua; Li, Jian Jun; Xu, Liang; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Jonas, Jost B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the optic disc-fovea angle (defined as angle between the horizontal and the line between the optic disc center and the fovea) and to assess its relationships with ocular and systemic parameters. Methods The population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals. A detailed ophthalmic examination was carried out. Using fundus photographs, we measured the disc-fovea angle. Results Readable fundus photographs were available for 6043 eyes of 3052 (88.0%) individuals with a mean age of 63.6±9.3 years (range: 50–91 years) and a mean axial length of 23.2±1.0 mm (range: 18.96–28.87 mm). Mean disc-fovea angle was 7.76 ± 3.63° (median: 7.65°; range: -6.3° to 28.9°). The mean inter-eye difference was 4.01 ± 2.94° (median: 3.49°; range: 0.00–22.3°). In multivariate analysis, larger disc-fovea angle was associated (regression coefficient r2: 0.08) with older age (P = 0.009; standardized regression coefficient beta: 0.05), thinner RNFL in the nasal superior sector (P<0.001; beta: -0.17), superior sector (P<0.001; beta: -0.10) and temporal superior sector (P<0.001; beta: -0.11) and thicker RNFL in the inferior sector (P<001; beta: 0.13), nasal inferior sector (P<001; beta: 0.13) and nasal sector (P = 0.007; beta: 0.06), higher prevalence of retinal vein occlusion (P = 0.02; beta: 0.04), and with larger cylindrical refractive error (P = 0.04; beta: 0.04). Conclusions The optic disc-fovea angle markedly influences the regional distribution of the RNFL thickness pattern. The disc-fovea angle may routinely be taken into account in the morphological glaucoma diagnosis and in the assessment of structure-function relationship in optic nerve diseases. Future studies may address potential associations between a larger disc-fovea angle and retinal vein occlusions and between the disc-fovea angle and the neuroretinal rim shape. PMID:26545259

  13. Basics of videodisc and optical disc technology

    SciTech Connect

    Paris, J.

    1983-11-01

    The optical videodisc is now being used for archival storage of photographs and for records management. The spacedisc project, co-sponsored by nasa and drew university's center for aerospace education, is a prime example of using a videodisc to store individual photographs, slides, and motion sequences with an accompanying paper index. These discs are also used in schools in an interactive individualized learning carrel under microcomputer control. Museums also are using discs as complements to exhibits as well as in cataloging and in classification, information storage and retrieval systems. Ongoing imaginative applications of the optical videodisc include surrogate travel, job performance aids, simulators, electronic malls, and travelogues. Eventually, one will see the videodisc and computer technology with artificial intelligence programs used by the medical community and others. Optical disc and videodisc technology have opened up new horizons for information processing, storage and retrieval, education and training. Regardless of whether a mass consumer market materializes, optical recording technology will play a major role in the future design and development of information systems in the late 1980s and beyond.

  14. Superresolution technology applied to optical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changhe; Luo, Hongxin

    2005-09-01

    Smaller focal points are essential for the development of the next-generation optical disc. The size of focal point depends on the diffraction effect that is dependant on the numerical aperture of a lens and the wavelength of light. However, increase of the numerical aperture and decrease of the light wavelength will be ultimately limited due to the technical difficulty of fabricating a too-high NA lens and the too-short wavelength laser. In this paper, we report another approach of using the superresolution technology to compress the size of the so-called Airy spot for the next-generation optical disc, which is independent on the wavelength of laser. The superresolution phase plates are designed and fabricated with a microoptics technique. When such a phase plate is inserted into the optical system, the central spot at the focal plane of a lens is decreased to be 0.8 times of the Airy pattern, implying the possibility of reading higher storage density of optical discs. The most attractive feature is that the phase plate can be mass-produced at a very low cost, compared with the high cost of the high-numerical lens and/or the short wavelength laser. The disadvantages are that the inserted phase plate will induce the slight circular sidelobes around the central sport, so that it consumes a little more laser energy. The shortcoming could be overcome with suitable amendment. We have fabricated the phase plates with the surface-relief profile on a normal glass for phase modulation. Experimental results of superresolution effect with a low numerical aperture (NA=0.1) and a high-numerical lens (NA=0.8) are reported, which are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. Superresolution technique should be highly interesting as a novel technique of the next-generation pickup head for reading the high storage of the optical discs.

  15. Study of optical destruction techniques for optical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Taeyoung

    The topic of this dissertation is on the investigation of optical techniques for completely destroying data stored in optical discs. Complete and secure destruction of data is important when disposal of an optical disc containing sensitive and possibly classified information is concerned, since some information can be retrieved even from a fragment of a disc. After several candidate techniques and related systems are examined and fundamental system components are identified, an optical data destruction (ODD) system using a focused high power laser beam is devised, and a prototype system is designed and constructed. The ODD system uses a high power laser diode (HPLD) to expose data marks on optical discs and maintains the focused laser beam on a data layer by a focus servo using a diffractive optical element (DOE). The optical characteristics of the beam emitted from an HPLD are thoroughly investigated, and a few methods of modeling an HPLD beam in an optical system are studied. With the understanding of the HPLD beam properties, a limited-divergence raytracing (LDRT) model is developed to predict the propagation behavior of the HPLD beam in an optical system and shows good agreement with the real HPLD beam. This LDRT method is used to model the HPLD beam in the ODD system and simulate the resultant focus error signal with and without fabrication errors. The DOE focus sensor overcomes the problems in conventional focus sensors associated with the use of an intense line beam. The DOE comprising two angled gratings is designed to use only two weak 3rd order beams for focus sensing and fabricated on a chrome-coated glass substrate using a maskless lithography tool. The constructed ODD system is then used to perform destruction tests on various optical discs, which are examined using static and dynamic methods of data observation and retrieval. The observations show that data marks are optical invisible or completely covered with numerous micro-bubbles. These test results demonstrate that secure and complete destruction of data on optical discs is achieved using an ODD system. Successful destruction, however, depends greatly on exposure conditions and the type of optical media.

  16. Minimal gauge vitrectomy for optic disc pit maculopathy: Our results

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Atul; Gogia, Varun; Nagpal, Ritu; Roy, Sangeeta; Gupta, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the surgical technique and clinical outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy without laser or gas tamponade in cases with optic disc pit maculopathy at our centre. Six eyes of six consecutive patients presenting with unilateral optic disc pit maculopathy were enrolled. Preoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed to determine the presence and extent of schisis and macular detachment. All eyes underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with induction of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and eyes were closed under fluid. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months post-surgery. Median age of patients was 22.5 years. Five of six eyes had neurosensory detachment (NSD) at the presentation; whereas, inner layer schisis was present in all patients. None of the patients had any evidence of vitreomacular or vitreopapillary adhesion or PVD either clinically or on OCT. Inner and outer retinal schisis resolved in all eyes after follow-up of at least 6 months. Resolution of subretinal fluid in eyes with NSD was seen in 4 of 5 eyes. There was a significant visual acuity improvement from mean preoperative visual acuity of 0.79 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units to 0.36 logMAR units at 12 months (P = 0.001). Thus, vitrectomy with ILM peeling and PVD induction alone could achieve good functional outcomes in cases with optic disc pit maculopathy. PMID:26862100

  17. Regression of bilateral optic disc edema after discontinuation of amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Shinder, Roman; Frohman, Larry P; Turbin, Roger E

    2006-09-01

    A 54-year-old non-obese woman treated with amiodarone reported blurred vision and had bilateral optic disc edema with relative preservation of visual function. Neurologic examination, brain imaging, and lumbar puncture opening pressures were normal, effectively ruling out increased intracranial pressure. Amiodarone was discontinued and the optic disc edema completely resolved over 15 months. In the absence of alternative explanations for the optic disc findings, amiodarone toxicity is suggested. PMID:16966939

  18. The optic disc is minimal in children with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shuan; Trimboli, Carmelina; Buncic, J Raymond

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to characterize the optic disc morphology, particularly the cup-to-disc ratio of the optic nerve head in children with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The medical charts and digital optic disc photos of children with confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension were reviewed retrospectively. The optic disc area, cup area, and cup-to-disc ratio were measured digitally using VISUPAC software, and the mean values of those parameters were compared to the published norms. Of children with idiopathic intracranial hypertension, 83% had absence of the physiological cup of the optic disc, compared to 10% of children in the general population of the same age. The median disc area was 2.2 mm(2), and median cup area was 0.0mm(2), compared to the published norms of 2.69 mm(2) and 0.44 mm(2), respectively. There is very significantly high prevalence of small optic disc cups in children with idiopathic intracranial hypertension, with the cup being absent on majority of cases in our patient cohort. This may signal an underlying systemic predisposition to the development of intracranial hypertension. PMID:23034982

  19. Reappraisal of the ratio of disc to macula/disc diameter in optic nerve hypoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, S M; Dudgeon, J; Dutton, G N

    1991-01-01

    The ratio of disc to macula/disc diameter is characteristically increased in eyes with optic nerve hypoplasia. We present the largest reported series of patients with a definitive diagnosis of optic nerve hypoplasia for whom this ratio has been determined. All measurements were made by an independent masked observer. Our results are in accordance with previous reports. A ratio of 2.94 provides a one-tailed upper population limit of 95%. An attempt has been made to correlate optic disc size and visual acuity. In 75% of bilateral cases the eye with the relatively smaller optic disc was found to have a better Snellen visual acuity than the fellow eye. This suggests that additional pathogenic mechanism(s) may have determined the eventual visual outcome in such eyes. Such mechanisms include macular hypoplasia, high refractive error, refractive amblyopia, central scotoma, and optic atrophy. Images PMID:1911656

  20. Optic disc detection using ant colony optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Marcy A.; Monteiro, Fernando C.

    2012-09-01

    The retinal fundus images are used in the treatment and diagnosis of several eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper proposes a new method to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically, due to the fact that the knowledge of the OD location is essential to the automatic analysis of retinal images. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behaviour of some ant species that has been applied in image processing for edge detection. Recently, the ACO was used in fundus images to detect edges, and therefore, to segment the OD and other anatomical retinal structures. We present an algorithm for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the Gabor wavelet transform, entropy and ACO algorithm. Forty images of the retina from DRIVE database were used to evaluate the performance of our method.

  1. The Age of Taurus: Environmental Effects on Disc Lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, J. M.; Wilson, T.; Bell, C. P. M.; Jeffries, R. D.; Naylor, T.

    2016-01-01

    Using semi-empirical isochrones, we find the age of the Taurus star-forming region to be 3-4 Myr. Comparing the disc fraction in Taurus to young massive clusters suggests discs survive longer in this low density environment. We also present a method of photometrically de-reddening young stars using iZJH data.

  2. Optic Disc Change during Childhood Myopic Shift: Comparison between Eyes with an Enlarged Cup-To-Disc Ratio and Childhood Glaucoma Compared to Normal Myopic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Kim, Sung Eum; Park, Chan Kee

    2015-01-01

    Background Progressive disc tilting and the development or enlargement of peripapillary atrophy (PPA) are observed during a myopic shift in children. This could be related to the changes around the optic nerve head during eyeball elongation. If the biomechanical properties at or around the optic nerve head are changed after exposure to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma eyes, different response of the disc tilting and PPA changes could take place during eyeball elongation by myopic shift. On the basis of this background, the aim of this study was to compare the morphological changes in the optic disc induced by a myopic shift during childhood between normal control eyes, eyes from disc suspects with an enlarged cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), and eyes with childhood glaucoma. Methods Total of 82 eyes from 82 subjects younger than 14 years of age were included in the study. Serial disc photographs were classified into one of two groups: eyes with an optic nerve head (ONH) or peripapillary atrophy (PPA) change or without an ONH/PPA change. Using ImageJ software, the outlines of the optic disc and PPA were plotted, and the vertical disc diameter (VDD), horizontal disc diameter (HDD), and maximum PPA width (PPW) were measured. The changes in the ratios of these parameters and the relationships between the degree of myopic shift or the ONH/PPA change were analyzed. Results Twenty-five eyes with normal optic disc appearance, 36 eyes with enlarged cup-to-disc ratio, and 21 eyes of glaucoma patients were analyzed. The initial intraocular pressure (IOP) at diagnosis was significantly different among the groups (P<0.001). The degree of myopic shift during follow-up period was not significantly different among the groups (P=0.612). However, the changes in the HDD/VDD and PPW/VDD ratios were significantly greater in the disc suspect group and significantly smaller in the glaucoma group. Among the 42 eyes with an ONH/PPA change, 16 (38.1%) were from the normal control group, 24 (57.1%) were from the disc suspect group, and 2 (4.8%) were from the glaucoma group (P < 0.001). Conclusions and Relevance The optic disc change during childhood myopic shift was different in eyes with various conditions. Eyes of childhood glaucoma showed less change in the disc morphology during myopic shift compared to eyes with normal disc or enlarged cup-to-disc ratio. PMID:26147983

  3. Product and process for manufacturing an optical disc master

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbin, R.B.; Loeppky, D.G.; Norton, J.R.; Del Mar, B.E.

    1994-01-11

    The invention discloses a simplified four step process for making an optical disc master or alternatively a WORM disc by first making or obtaining a transparent polymer disc with a tracking groove of desired geometry molded therein, then spin coating an optically active lamina on the grooved side of the disc, then recording data on said polymer disc with groove controlled and tracked laser means by ablating active lamina, forming pits, the shape of which is determined by the groove geometry and finally depositing a conductive and reflective lamina over the pitted active lamina. To change the OD master to an OD WORM, a protective cover is added to the electrically conductive and optically reflective lamina. 12 figs.

  4. Pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure was first described in 1853. Ever since, there has been a plethora of controversial hypotheses to explain its pathogenesis. I have explored the subject comprehensively by doing basic, experimental and clinical studies. My objective was to investigate the fundamentals of the subject, to test the validity of the previous theories, and finally, based on all these studies, to find a logical explanation for the pathogenesis. My studies included the following issues pertinent to the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure: the anatomy and blood supply of the optic nerve, the roles of the sheath of the optic nerve, of the centripetal flow of fluids along the optic nerve, of compression of the central retinal vein, and of acute intracranial hypertension and its associated effects. I found that, contrary to some previous claims, an acute rise of intracranial pressure was not quickly followed by production of optic disc edema. Then, in rhesus monkeys, I produced experimentally chronic intracranial hypertension by slowly increasing in size space-occupying lesions, in different parts of the brain. Those produced raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and optic disc edema, identical to those seen in patients with elevated CSFP. Having achieved that, I investigated various aspects of optic disc edema by ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic color fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography, and light microscopic, electron microscopic, horseradish peroxidase and axoplasmic transport studies, and evaluated the effect of opening the sheath of the optic nerve on the optic disc edema. This latter study showed that opening the sheath resulted in resolution of optic disc edema on the side of the sheath fenestration, in spite of high intracranial CSFP, proving that a rise of CSFP in the sheath was the essential pre-requisite for the development of optic disc edema. I also investigated optic disc edema with raised CSFP in patients, by evaluating optic disc and fundus changes by stereoscopic fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography. Based on the combined information from all the studies discussed above, it is clear that the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure is a mechanical phenomenon. It is primarily due to a rise of CSFP in the optic nerve sheath, which produces axoplasmic flow stasis in the optic nerve fibers in the surface nerve fiber layer and prelaminar region of the optic nerve head. Axoplasmic flow stasis then results in swelling of the nerve fibers, and consequently of the optic disc. Swelling of the nerve fibers and of the optic disc secondarily compresses the fine, low-pressure venules in that region, resulting in venous stasis and fluid leakage; that leads to the accumulation of extracellular fluid. Contrary to the previous theories, the various vascular changes seen in optic disc edema are secondary and not primary. Thus, optic disc edema in raised CSFP is due to a combination of swollen nerve fibers and the accumulation of extracellular fluid. My studies also provided information about the pathogeneses of visual disturbances in raised intracranial pressure. PMID:26453995

  5. Optic disc size and optic nerve damage in normal pressure glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, J B; Strmer, J; Papastathopoulos, K I; Meier-Gibbons, F; Dichtl, A

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Recent reports indicate that eyes with normal pressure glaucoma have larger optic discs than eyes with primary open angle glaucoma or normal eyes. This study was performed to find whether, in normal pressure glaucoma, a large disc is associated with more optic nerve damage than a small disc. METHODS--Colour optic disc photographs of 74 patients with normal pressure glaucoma were assessed morphometrically. RESULTS--Taking the study group as a whole, the optic disc size decreased significantly (p = 0.04) with increasing visual field defect. In an intraindividual bilateral comparison, the side differences in the disc area of the right minus the left eye of the same individual were not significantly correlated with the side differences in the mean visual field defect. CONCLUSIONS--The results indicate that the eye with the larger optic disc, when compared with the contralateral eye with the smaller optic nerve head, showed neither a significantly more marked nor less pronounced glaucomatous optic nerve damage. It suggests that for a given patient the degree of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy was not markedly associated with the optic disc size. The finding that patients with large visual field defects had smaller discs than patients with moderate perimetric loss may indicate that the results of previous cross sectional studies reporting on an unusually large disc size in normal pressure glaucoma may be due partially to selection. PMID:8562544

  6. Exploring the vertical age structure of the Galactic disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, Luca; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Serenelli, Aldo; Schoenrich, Ralph; Asplund, Martin; Feltzing, Sofia

    2015-08-01

    While in external or high-redshift galaxies we can only measure integrated stellar properties at best, the Milky Way offers us the unique opportunity to study its individual baryonic components, including stars. We use oscillations measured in giant stars by the Kepler satellite to derive stellar ages and explore the vertical age structure across few kpc of the Milky Way disc. We find that old stars dominate at increasing Galactic heights, whereas closer to the plane a rich zoology of ages exists. The age distribution of stars shows a smooth decline over the last 10 Gyr, which together with a flat age-metallicity relation is consistent with a quiescent evolution for the Milky Way disc since a redshift of about two.

  7. Aging and age related stresses: a senescence mechanism of intervertebral disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Cai, F; Shi, R; Wang, X-H; Wu, X-T

    2016-03-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a complicated process that involves both age-related change and tissue damage caused by multiple stresses. In a degenerative IVD, cellular senescence accumulates and is associated with reduced proliferation, compromised self-repair, increased inflammatory response, and enhanced catabolic metabolism. In this review, we decipher the senescence mechanism of IVD degeneration (IVDD) by interpreting how aging coordinates with age-related, microenvironment-derived stresses in promoting disc cell senescence and accelerating IVDD. After chronic and prolonged replication, cell senescence may occur as a natural part of the disc aging process, but can potentially be accelerated by growth factor deficiency, oxidative accumulation, and inflammatory irritation. While acute disc injury, excessive mechanical overloading, diabetes, and chronic tobacco smoking contribute to the amplification of senescence-inducing stresses, the avascular nature of IVD impairs the immune-clearance of the senescent disc cells, which accumulate in cell clusters, demonstrate inflammatory and catabolic phenotypes, deteriorate disc microenvironment, and accelerate IVDD. Anti-senescence strategies, including telomerase transduction, supply of growth factors, and blocking cell cycle inhibitors, have been shown to be feasible in rescuing disc cells from early senescence, but their efficiency for disc regeneration requires more invivo validations. Guidelines dedicated to avoiding or alleviating senescence-inducing stresses might decelerate cellular senescence and benefit patients with IVD degenerative diseases. PMID:26455958

  8. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Optic Disc Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Isaacs, Aaron; Amin, Najaf; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Oostra, Ben A.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hysi, Pirro; Hammond, Christopher J.; Lemij, Hans G.; Vingerling, Johannes R.

    2010-01-01

    The optic nerve head is involved in many ophthalmic disorders, including common diseases such as myopia and open-angle glaucoma. Two of the most important parameters are the size of the optic disc area and the vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR). Both are highly heritable but genetically largely undetermined. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) data to identify genetic variants associated with optic disc area and VCDR. The gene discovery included 7,360 unrelated individuals from the population-based Rotterdam Study I and Rotterdam Study II cohorts. These cohorts revealed two genome-wide significant loci for optic disc area, rs1192415 on chromosome 1p22 (p = 6.72×10−19) within 117 kb of the CDC7 gene and rs1900004 on chromosome 10q21.3-q22.1 (p = 2.67×10−33) within 10 kb of the ATOH7 gene. They revealed two genome-wide significant loci for VCDR, rs1063192 on chromosome 9p21 (p = 6.15×10−11) in the CDKN2B gene and rs10483727 on chromosome 14q22.3-q23 (p = 2.93×10−10) within 40 kbp of the SIX1 gene. Findings were replicated in two independent Dutch cohorts (Rotterdam Study III and Erasmus Rucphen Family study; N = 3,612), and the TwinsUK cohort (N = 843). Meta-analysis with the replication cohorts confirmed the four loci and revealed a third locus at 16q12.1 associated with optic disc area, and four other loci at 11q13, 13q13, 17q23 (borderline significant), and 22q12.1 for VCDR. ATOH7 was also associated with VCDR independent of optic disc area. Three of the loci were marginally associated with open-angle glaucoma. The protein pathways in which the loci of optic disc area are involved overlap with those identified for VCDR, suggesting a common genetic origin. PMID:20548946

  9. Low-cost ultrahigh areal density optical disc system towards 400 Gbyte/disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Kurokawa, Takahiro; Kikukawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi; Chiba, Zenjiro; Takeshima, Hideharu; Matsuda, Isao; Kojyo, Shinichi; Shimomai, Kenichi; Fujii, Toru

    2015-09-01

    We introduce a new 400 Gbyte disc system, which has twice as much areal density as BDXL™ does, retaining the use of the conventional optical head and disc technology. Our proposal is based on the application of code modulations with enlarged minimum run length (d) and land/groove (L/G) geometry to increase linear recording density and track density by 1.5 and 1.33 times, respectively. Also, saw tooth wobble (STW) was introduced for a multilayered L/G disc system to suppress readout signal fluctuations. Here, we demonstrated that the linear recording density increased to 45.5 Gbyte/layer by applying d = 3 to a commercially available BDXL™. Also, we checked that crosstalk, which is a major concern in an L/G disc with a track pitch of 240 nm, was suppressed to below -30 dB by choosing the proper groove depth. Moreover, the investigation of the effect of track width modulation on the write/read performance demonstrated that an adverse influence can be suppressed by employing STW.

  10. High-Density Near-Field Optical Disc Recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Ide, Naoki; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Shimouma, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2005-05-01

    We developed a high-density near-field optical recording disc system using a solid immersion lens. The near-field optical pick-up consists of a solid immersion lens with a numerical aperture of 1.84. The laser wavelength for recording is 405 nm. In order to realize the near-field optical recording disc, we used a phase-change recording media and a molded polycarbonate substrate. A clear eye pattern of 112 GB capacity with 160 nm track pitch and 50 nm bit length was observed. The equivalent areal density is 80.6 Gbit/in2. The bottom bit error rate of 3 tracks-write was 4.5 10-5. The readout power margin and the recording power margin were 30.4% and 11.2%, respectively.

  11. Ultrahigh-Speed Optical Correlation System Using Holographic Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ichikawa, Yuki; Akiyama, Reiko; Kodate, Kashiko

    2008-07-01

    The volume of information we handle is markedly increasing as a result of the change from text data to still and moving image files. In this paper, we propose and describe fabrication of a much higher speed search engine for image and video data using a holographic optical disc system. Preliminary correlation experiments using the holographic optical disc setup show an excellent performance as indicated by high correlation peaks and low error rates at a multiplexing pitch of 10 µm, and a rotational speed of 300 rpm. It is clear that the processing speed of our optical holographic calculation is markedly higher than the conventional digital signal processing architecture. This system can also be applied to various search engine systems.

  12. Familial Disorders of the Optic Disc: Presentation of a Mother and Daughter and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia Lee; Layton, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Optic disc pit and optic nerve coloboma are examples of congenital optic disc abnormalities. Although optic nerve coloboma can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, no conclusive link has been found in the case of optic disc pit as an autosomal dominant disease. We describe two cases: a daughter with an optic disc pit complicated by maculopathy and her mother with a congenitally abnormal optic disc complicated by peripapillary choroidal neovascularisation. PMID:26327911

  13. Familial Disorders of the Optic Disc: Presentation of a Mother and Daughter and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia Lee; Layton, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Optic disc pit and optic nerve coloboma are examples of congenital optic disc abnormalities. Although optic nerve coloboma can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, no conclusive link has been found in the case of optic disc pit as an autosomal dominant disease. We describe two cases: a daughter with an optic disc pit complicated by maculopathy and her mother with a congenitally abnormal optic disc complicated by peripapillary choroidal neovascularisation. PMID:26327911

  14. Optic Disc and Optic Cup Segmentation Methodologies for Glaucoma Image Detection: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Almazroa, Ahmed; Burman, Ritambhar; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of loss of vision in the world. Examining the head of optic nerve (cup-to-disc ratio) is very important for diagnosing glaucoma and for patient monitoring after diagnosis. Images of optic disc and optic cup are acquired by fundus camera as well as Optical Coherence Tomography. The optic disc and optic cup segmentation techniques are used to isolate the relevant parts of the retinal image and to calculate the cup-to-disc ratio. The main objective of this paper is to review segmentation methodologies and techniques for the disc and cup boundaries which are utilized to calculate the disc and cup geometrical parameters automatically and accurately to help the professionals in the glaucoma to have a wide view and more details about the optic nerve head structure using retinal fundus images. We provide a brief description of each technique, highlighting its classification and performance metrics. The current and future research directions are summarized and discussed. PMID:26688751

  15. Optic Disc - Fovea Distance, Axial Length and Parapapillary Zones. The Beijing Eye Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Rahul Arvo; Wang, Ya Xing; Yang, Hua; Li, Jian Jun; Xu, Liang; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Jonas, Jost Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To measure the distance between the optic disc center and the fovea (DFD) and to assess its associations. Methods The population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals aged 50+ years. The DFD was measured on fundus photographs. Results Readable fundus photographs were available for 2836 (81.8%) individuals. Mean DFD was 4.76 ± 0.34mm (median: 4.74 mm; range: 3.76–6.53mm). In multivariate analysis, longer DFD was associated with longer axial length (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta: 0.62), higher prevalence of axially high myopia (P<0.001; beta:0.06), shallower anterior chamber depth (P<0.001; beta:-0.18), thinner lens thickness (P = 0.004; beta: -0.06), smaller optic disc-fovea angle (P = 0.02; beta: -0.04), larger parapapillary alpha zone (P = 0.008; beta: 0.05), larger parapapillary beta/gamma zone (P<0.001; beta: 0.11), larger optic disc area (P<0.001; beta: 0.08), lower degree of cortical cataract (P = 0.002; beta: -0.08), and lower prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (P = 0.001; beta: -0.06). Bruch´s membrane opening-fovea distance (DFD minus disc radius minus parapapillary beta/gamma zone width) in non-glaucomatous eyes was not significantly (P = 0.60) related with axial length in emmetropic or axially myopic eyes (axial length ≥23.5 mm), while it increased significantly (P<0.001; r: 0.32) with longer axial length in eyes with an axial length of <23.5mm. Ratio of mean DFD to disc diameter was 2.65 ± 0.30. If the ratio of disc-fovea distance to disc diameter was considered constant and if the individual disc diameter was calculated as the individual disc-fovea distance divided by the constant factor of 2.65, the resulting calculated disc diameter differed from the directly measured disc diameter by 0.16 ±0.13 mm (median: 0.13 mm, range: 0.00–0.89 mm) or 8.9 ± 7.3% (median: 7.4%; range: 0.00–70%) of the measured disc diameter. Conclusions DFD (mean: 4.76mm) increases with longer axial length, larger parapapillary alpha zone and parapapillary beta/gamma zone, and larger disc area. The axial elongation associated increase in DFD was due to an enlargement of parapapillary beta/gamma zone while the Bruch’s membrane opening-fovea distance did not enlarge with longer axial length. This finding may be of interest for the process of emmetropization and myopization. Due to its variability, the disc-fovea distance has only limited clinical value as a relative size unit for structures at the posterior pole. PMID:26390438

  16. Hemorrhage Within the Optic Nerve From a Cavernous Hemangioma of the Optic Disc.

    PubMed

    Grob, Seanna R; Campbell, Ashley A; Gross, Andrew; Cestari, Dean M

    2015-09-01

    A 49-year-old woman with a known right optic disc cavernous hemangioma experienced pain with eye movements and worsening of a superior visual field defect. While she retained 20/20 visual acuity in each eye, findings on magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a hemorrhage in the anterior portion of the right intraorbital optic nerve. Her visual function stabilized spontaneously. We are unaware of previous reports of hemorrhage into the optic nerve from a cavernous hemangioma of the optic disc. PMID:26132965

  17. A case of bilateral uveitis and optic disc swelling with Chiari I malformation

    PubMed Central

    Eken, Volkan; Nilfer Yal?nda?, F.; Bat?o?lu, Figen; I??kay, Canan Togay

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral uveitis and optic disc swelling with Chiari I malformation. A 16-year-old girl was admitted to our clinic due to conjunctival hyperaemia and blurred vision in her right eye. Ophthalmologic and systemic examinations were performed. Visual acuity was 0.7 (OD) and 1.0 (OS). Bilateral optic disc swelling was observed. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated bilateral retinal vasculitis as well as optic disc hyperflourescence due to leakage. Laboratory examinations were within normal limits. Cranial magnetic resonance venography imaging revealed neither cranial mass nor cerebral venous thrombosis but a Chiari I malformation. The patient was started oral cetazolamid, topical and oral corticosteroids. After six months follow-up, bilateral optic disc swelling was resolved completely and visual acuity was 1.0 in both eyes. Optic disc swelling may be associated with intraocular inflammation; however, patients with bilateral optic disc swelling should be suspected of having an accompanying intracranial pathology. PMID:23961015

  18. Dissecting simulated disc galaxies - II. The age-velocity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martig, Marie; Minchev, Ivan; Flynn, Chris

    2014-09-01

    We study the relation between stellar ages and vertical velocity dispersion (the age-velocity relation, or AVR) in a sample of seven simulated disc galaxies. In our simulations, the shape of the AVR for stars younger than 9 Gyr depends strongly on the merger history at low redshift, with even 1:10-1:15 mergers being able to create jumps in the AVR (although these jumps might not be detectable if the errors on stellar ages are of the order of 30 per cent). For galaxies with a quiescent history at low redshift, we find that the vertical velocity dispersion rises smoothly for ages up to 8-9 Gyr, following a power law with a slope of 0.5, similar to what is observed in the solar neighbourhood by the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey. For these galaxies, we show that the slope of the AVR is not imprinted at birth, but is the result of subsequent heating. By contrast, in all our simulations, the oldest stars form a significantly different population, with a high velocity dispersion. These stars are usually born kinematically hot in a turbulent phase of intense mergers at high redshift, and also include some stars accreted from satellites. This maximum in ?z is strongly decreased when age errors are included, suggesting that observations can easily miss such a jump with the current accuracy of age measurements.

  19. Emerging Digital Optical Disc Technologies: An Opportunity and a Challenge for Educational Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    Description of new applications of digital optical disc storage technologies focuses on CD-ROM (Compact Disc--Read Only Memory); CD-I (Compact Disc--Interactive); and DV-I (Digital Video--Interactive). Features of each technology are described in the context of instructional design and educational technology, and the role of educational research

  20. Optical Disc Utilized As A Data Storage System For Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, Donald G.

    1984-01-01

    Electra-optic and Radar sensing reconnaissance systems have many advantages including remote transmission and image data processing that conventional film camera systems do not have. However, data storage and retrieval that was naturally and easily accomplished with film must now be accommodated by other techniques. The optical disc data storage and retrieval systems offer significant advantage towards fulfilling this need. This paper will provide an overview description of the technology, some of the fundamental alternatives of configuration approach, and some examples of where it may be considered in the reconnaissance system. Silver halide film has been and still is the work horse of the image based reconnaissance field. It will not be replaced in the near future either, but rather a gradual transition to total electronic systems is expected. It is not the intent of this paper to debase film, because in fact it has its advantages. We have learned to optimize its advantages and minimize its disadvantages. However optical disc systems have a definite role to play in the reconnaissance field.

  1. Optic nerve axons and acquired alterations in the appearance of the optic disc.

    PubMed Central

    Wirtschafter, J D

    1983-01-01

    The pathophysiologic events in optic nerve axons have recently been recognized as crucial to an understanding of clinically significant acquired alterations in the ophthalmoscopic appearance of the optic disc. Stasis and related abnormalities of axonal transport appear to explain most aspects of optic nerve head swelling, including optic disc drusen and retinal cottonwool spots. Loss of axoplasm and axonal death can be invoked to interpret optic disc pallor, thinning and narrowing of rim tissue, changes in the size and outline of the optic cup, laminar dots, atrophy of the retinal nerve fiber layer, and acquired demyelination and myelination of the retinal nerve fiber layer. It is speculated that the axons may also play a role in the mechanical support of the lamina cribrosa in resisting the pressure gradient across the pars scleralis of the optic nerve head. Axons and their associated glial cells may be involved in those cases where "reversibility" of cupping of the optic disc has been reported. The structure, physiology, and experimental pathologic findings of the optic nerve head have been reviewed. Many aspects concerning the final anatomic appearance of the optic nerve head have been explained. However, many questions remain concerning the intermediate mechanisms by which increased intracranial pressure retards the various components of axonal transport in papilledema and by which increased IOP causes axonal loss in glaucoma. Investigation of the molecular biology of axonal constituents and their responses to abnormalities in their physical and chemical milieu could extend our understanding of the events that result from mechanical compression and local ischemia. Moreover, we have identified a need to further explore the role of axons in the pathophysiology of optic disc cupping. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:6203209

  2. 78 FR 55292 - Certain Optical Disc Drives, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Optical Disc Drives, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of... ] Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Optical Disc Drives, Components Thereof, and Products... of Optical Devices, LLC on September 3, 2013. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 of...

  3. 78 FR 64009 - Certain Optical Disc Drives, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Optical Disc Drives, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Institution of... Optical Devices, LLC of Peterborough, New Hampshire. A letter supplementing the complaint was filed on... certain optical disc drives, components thereof, and products containing the same by reason...

  4. Optic disc detection in color fundus images using ant colony optimization.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Gonçalves, Luís; Ferreira, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy has been revealed as the most common cause of blindness among people of working age in developed countries. However, loss of vision could be prevented by an early detection of the disease and, therefore, by a regular screening program to detect retinopathy. Due to its characteristics, the digital color fundus photographs have been the easiest way to analyze the eye fundus. An important prerequisite for automation is the segmentation of the main anatomical features in the image, particularly the optic disc. Currently, there are many works reported in the literature with the purpose of detecting and segmenting this anatomical structure. Though, none of them performs as needed, especially when dealing with images presenting pathologies and a great variability. Ant colony optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behavior of some ant species that has been applied in image processing with different purposes. In this paper, this algorithm preceded by anisotropic diffusion is used for optic disc detection in color fundus images. Experimental results demonstrate the good performance of the proposed approach as the optic disc was detected in most of all the images used, even in the images with great variability. PMID:23160896

  5. Lamina Cribrosa Defects and Optic Disc Morphology in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma with High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yugo; Akagi, Tadamichi; Hangai, Masanori; Takayama, Kohei; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Suda, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hideo; Unoki, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether lamina cribrosa (LC) defects are associated with optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes with high myopia. Methods A total of 129 POAG patients and 55 age-matched control subjects with high myopia were evaluated. Three-dimensional scan images obtained by swept source optical coherence tomography were used to detect LC defects. Radial B-scans and infrared images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography were used to measure β-peripapillary atrophy (PPA) lengths with and without Bruch's membrane (BM) (temporal, nasal, superior, and inferior), tilt angle (vertical and horizontal), and disc diameter (transverse and longitudinal). Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations (PICCs), disc area, ovality index, and cyclotorsion of the optic disc were analyzed as well. Results LC defects were found in 70 of 129 (54.2%) POAG eyes and 1 of 55 (1.8%) control eyes (P<0.001). Age, sex, spherical equivalent, axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness were not significantly different among POAG eyes with LC defects, POAG eyes without LC defects, and control eyes. Temporal PPA lengths without BM in all three groups correlated significantly with vertical and horizontal tilt angles, although no PPA length with BM correlated significantly with any tilt angle. PICCs were detected more frequently in POAG eyes with LC defects than those without LC defects (P = 0.01) and control eyes (P = 0.02). POAG eyes with LC defects showed a smaller ovality index (P = 0.004), longer temporal PPA without BM (P<0.001), and larger vertical/horizontal tilt angles (vertical, P<0.001; horizontal, P = 0.01), and transverse diameter (P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis for the presence of LC defects, presence of POAG (P<0.001) and vertical tilt angle (P<0.001) were identified as significant. Conclusions The presence of LC defects was associated with myopic optic disc morphology in POAG eyes with high myopia. PMID:25531656

  6. Retinal nerve fiber layer and optic disc measurements by spectral domain OCT: normative values and associations in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Y M; Li, H; Burlutsky, G; Mitchell, P

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine normative values and associations of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic disc parameters in normal eyes measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods In a population-based setting, 1521 young adults were examined as part of the Sydney Adolescent Vascular and Eye Study (SAVES). Their mean age was 17.30.6 years. RNFL and optic disc parameter measurements were made using Cirrus HD-OCT 4000. Results The average RNFL was found to be 99.49.6??m. RNFL thickness was least for the temporal quadrant (69.911.2??m), followed by the nasal (74.312.8??m), superior (124.715.7??m) and inferior (128.817.1??m) quadrants. The mean disc area in this population was 1.980.38?mm2 with a mean rim area of 1.500.30?mm2 and a mean cup/disc ratio of 0.440.18. Multivariate-adjusted RNFL thickness was marginally greater in East Asian than in white participants (100.1??m vs 99.5??m; P=0.0005). The RNFL was thinner with greater axial length (P<0.0001), less positive spherical equivalent refractions (P<0.0001), smaller disc area and rim area (P<0.0001). Conclusion This study documents normative values for the RNFL and optic disc measured using Cirrus HD-OCT in young adults. The values and associations reported in this study can inform clinicians on the normal variation in RNFL and optic disc parameters. PMID:23079750

  7. Automatic optic disc detection in OCT slices via low-rank reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huazhu; Xu, Dong; Lin, Stephen; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Liu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Optic disc measurements provide useful diagnostic information as they have correlations with certain eye diseases. In this paper, we provide an automatic method for detecting the optic disc in a single OCT slice. Our method is developed from the observation that the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) which bounds the optic disc has a low-rank appearance structure that differs from areas within the disc. To detect the disc, our method acquires from the OCT image an RPE appearance model that is specific to the individual and imaging conditions, by learning a low-rank dictionary from image areas known to be part of the RPE according to priors on ocular anatomy. The edge of the RPE, where the optic disc is located, is then found by traversing the retinal layer containing the RPE, reconstructing local appearance with the low-rank model, and detecting the point at which appearance starts to deviate (i.e., increased reconstruction error). To aid in this detection, we also introduce a geometrical constraint called the distance bias that accounts for the smooth shape of the RPE. Experiments demonstrate that our method outperforms other OCT techniques in localizing the optic disc and estimating disc width. Moreover, we also show the potential usage of our method on optic disc area detection in 3-D OCT volumes. PMID:25438300

  8. Fast localization of optic disc and fovea in retinal images for eye disease screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Barriga, S.; Agurto, C.; Echegaray, S.; Pattichis, M.; Zamora, G.; Bauman, W.; Soliz, P.

    2011-03-01

    Optic disc (OD) and fovea locations are two important anatomical landmarks in automated analysis of retinal disease in color fundus photographs. This paper presents a new, fast, fully automatic optic disc and fovea localization algorithm developed for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening. The optic disc localization methodology comprises of two steps. First, the OD location is identified using template matching and directional matched filter. To reduce false positives due to bright areas of pathology, we exploit vessel characteristics inside the optic disc. The location of the fovea is estimated as the point of lowest matched filter response within a search area determined by the optic disc location. Second, optic disc segmentation is performed. Based on the detected optic disc location, a fast hybrid level-set algorithm which combines the region information and edge gradient to drive the curve evolution is used to segment the optic disc boundary. Extensive evaluation was performed on 1200 images (Messidor) composed of 540 images of healthy retinas, 431 images with DR but no risk of macular edema (ME), and 229 images with DR and risk of ME. The OD location methodology obtained 98.3% success rate, while fovea location achieved 95% success rate. The average mean absolute distance (MAD) between the OD segmentation algorithm and "gold standard" is 10.5% of estimated OD radius. Qualitatively, 97% of the images achieved Excellent to Fair performance for OD segmentation. The segmentation algorithm performs well even on blurred images.

  9. Unusual optic disc infarction in a case of arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AAION)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dawn KA; Shen, Sunny; Jejah, Issam Al; Cullen, James F

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report another case of arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy from Singapore, in which the initial optic disc swelling was extreme and the sequential disease resolved because the patient was already on maximum treatment. As the management of this biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis case was complicated by the presence of a number of other medical conditions, including end-stage renal failure, monitoring of the response to treatment proved problematic. PMID:25820857

  10. Unilateral Acute Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy in a Patient with an Already Established Diagnosis of Bilateral Optic Disc Drusen

    PubMed Central

    Ayhan, Ziya; Yaman, Aylin; Sylev Bajin, Meltem; Saatci, A. Osman

    2015-01-01

    Optic disc drusen (ODD) are calcific deposits that form in the optic nerve head secondary to abnormalities in axonal metabolism and degeneration. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, central retinal artery, and vein occlusion are among the rare vascular complications of disc drusen. We reported the clinical course of a 51-year-old patient with a unilateral acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) who received the diagnosis of bilateral optic disc drusen five years earlier and thereby reiterated the association of ODD and acute NAION. PMID:26550507

  11. Assessment of stereoscopic optic disc images using an autostereoscopic screen – experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Maged S; Lowell, James A; Holliman, Nick S; Hunter, Andrew; Vaideanu, Daniella; Hildreth, Anthony; Steel, David HW

    2008-01-01

    Background Stereoscopic assessment of the optic disc morphology is an important part of the care of patients with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to assess stereoviewing of stereoscopic optic disc images using an example of the new technology of autostereoscopic screens compared to the liquid shutter goggles. Methods Independent assessment of glaucomatous disc characteristics and measurement of optic disc and cup parameters whilst using either an autostereoscopic screen or liquid crystal shutter goggles synchronized with a view switching display. The main outcome measures were inter-modality agreements between the two used modalities as evaluated by the weighted kappa test and Bland Altman plots. Results Inter-modality agreement for measuring optic disc parameters was good [Average kappa coefficient for vertical Cup/Disc ratio was 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–0.91) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.6–0.92) for observer 1 and 2 respectively]. Agreement between modalities for assessing optic disc characteristics for glaucoma on a five-point scale was very good with a kappa value of 0.97. Conclusion This study compared two different methods of stereo viewing. The results of assessment of the different optic disc and cup parameters were comparable using an example of the newly developing autostereoscopic display technologies as compared to the shutter goggles system used. The Inter-modality agreement was high. This new technology carries potential clinical usability benefits in different areas of ophthalmic practice. PMID:18651983

  12. A study of the causes of bilateral optic disc swelling in Japanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Kei; Shimizu, Kimiya; Ichibe, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the etiology of bilateral disc swelling in Japanese. Methods Using Kitasato Universitys Department of Neuro-Ophthalmology medical records and fundus photographs of the period December 1977 through November 2010, we retrospectively identified 121 outpatients who had been initially confirmed with bilateral disc swelling. Results The most common cause of the bilateral disc swelling was increased intracranial pressure (ICP) (59%); followed by pseudopapillitis (16%); uveitis (8%); hypertensive retinopathy (5%); bilateral optic neuritis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and optic disc drusen (all at 2% each); and leukemia (1%). Unknown etiology accounted for 6% of the cases. Conclusion Although increased ICP is the most common etiology for bilateral disc swelling, it can also be triggered by a variety of other causes. Pseudopapillitis is the most important progenitor of bilateral disc swelling in Japanese. PMID:25031527

  13. Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K; Kwon, Young H; Sonka, Milan; Abramoff, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading ocular disease causing blindness due to gradual damage to the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss. Segmentations of the optic disc cup and neuroretinal rim can provide important parameters for detecting and tracking this disease. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate a method that can automatically segment the optic disc cup and rim in spectral-domain 3-D OCT (SD-OCT) volumes. Four intraretinal surfaces were segmented using a fast multiscale 3-D graph search algorithm. After surface segmentation, the retina in each 3-D OCT scan was flattened to ensure a consistent optic nerve head shape. A set of 15 features, derived from the segmented intraretinal surfaces and voxel intensities in the SD-OCT volume, were used to train a classifier that can determine which A-scans in the OCT volume belong to the background, optic disc cup and rim. Finally, prior knowledge about the shapes of the cup and rim was incorporated into the system using a convex hull-based approach. Two glaucoma experts annotated the cup and rim area using planimetry, and the annotations of the first expert were used as the reference standard. A leave-one-subject-out experiment on 27 optic nerve head-centered OCT volumes (14 right eye scans and 13 left eye scans from 14 patients) was performed. Two different types of classification methods were compared, and experimental results showed that the best performing method had an unsigned error for the optic disc cup of 2.52+/-0.87 pixels (0.076+/-0.026 mm) and for the neuroretinal rim of 2.04+/-0.86 pixels (0.061+/-0.026 mm). The interobserver variability as indicated by the unsigned border positioning difference between the second expert observer and the reference standard was 2.54+/-1.03 pixels (0.076+/-0.031 mm for the optic disc cup and 2.14+/-0.80 pixels (0.064+/-0.024 mm for the neuroretinal rim. The unsigned error of the best performing method was not significantly different (p > 0.2) from the interobserver variability. PMID:19758857

  14. Biostereometrics in Ophthalmology: Topographic Analysis of the Optic Disc Cup in Glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamoto, Takenori; Schwartz, Bernard

    1986-07-01

    Glaucoma is a disease characterized by increased ocular pressure with optic nerve atrophy and loss of visual field, or side vision, which eventually leads to blindness. The optic disc becomes more cupped with increasing progress of the disease. We have devised a system for the use of the Donaldson simultaneous stereophotographic fundus camera to obtain optimal reproducibility and sensitivity of measurements from optic disc stereophotographs. Stereomodel deformations caused by eye-to-camera optical variables (photographic magnification, working distance, relative orientation between the camera optical axis and the optic disc, and position of the optic disc image in the film frame) were evaluated. We developed an analytical correction method for stereomodel deformations and evaluated the impact on measurement of optic disc cupping. We have evaluated the reproducibility of new techniques for measurement of cup parameters such as volume, depth, and area of the cup relative to the disc area; slope of the cup floor, wall, and rim; and cup shape using volume profiles in which contour areas were plotted of the cup depth from the top to the bottom.

  15. Biostereometrics In Ophthalmology For Measurement Of The Optic Disc Cup In Glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Bernard; Takamoto, Takenori

    1980-07-01

    Glaucoma is a disease characterized by increased ocular pressure with optic nerve atrophy and loss of visual field or side vision which eventually leads to blindness. The surface of the portion of the optic nerve within the eye, the optic disc, becomes depressed and its contours are altered. The optic disc becomes more cupped with increasing progress of the disease. For measurement of the cup, retinal cameras can provide simultaneous stereo photographs of the optic disc taken through the pupil. However, the photographs have to be obtained at a narrow angle due to the limit of the size of the dilated pupil. Our studies of the geometry of the stereo photographs show a greater error in depth compared to horizontal dimensions because of this biological limit. Similarly, data for the optimal conditions for photography of the optic disc, including aperture size and magnification have been obtained. Since the changes in the optic disc can progress with increase of the desease, photogrammetric techniques for measuring relative changes in the dimensions of the cup have been developed. Both subsequent and initial photographs are measured after being similarly oriented in space. The photogrammetric measurement of changes in the optic disc cup in glaucoma has potential as a useful technique which can have wide clinical application.

  16. The aging mouse partially models the aging human spine: lumbar and coccygeal disc height, composition, mechanical properties, and Wnt signaling in young and old mice

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Rhiannon; Harland, Robin A.; Bomar, Bradley A.; Silva, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Murine lumbar and coccygeal (tail) regions of spines are commonly used to study cellular signaling of age-related disc diseases, but the tissue-level changes of aging intervertebral discs and vertebrae of each spinal region remain unclear. Furthermore, the impact of aging lumbar and coccygeal discs on Wnt/?-catenin signaling, which is putatively involved in the catabolism of intervertebral discs, is also unclear. We compared disc/vertebrae morphology and mechanics and biochemical composition of intervertebral discs from lumbar and coccygeal regions between young (45 mo) and old (2022 mo) female C57BL/6 mice. Center intervertebral disc height from both regions was greater in old discs than young discs. Compared with young, old lumbar discs had a lower early viscous coefficient (a measure of stiffness) by 40%, while conversely old coccygeal discs were stiffer by 53%. Biochemically, old mice had double the collagen content in lumbar and coccygeal discs of young discs, greater glycosaminoglycan in lumbar discs by 37%, but less glycosaminoglycan in coccygeal discs by 32%. Next, we compared Wnt activity of lumbar and coccygeal discs of 4- to 5-mo and 12- to 14-mo TOPGAL mice. Despite the disc-specific changes, aging decreased Wnt signaling in the nucleus pulposus from both spinal regions by ?64%. Compared with young, trabecular bone volume/tissue volume and ultimate force were less in old lumbar vertebrae, but greater in old coccygeal vertebrae. Thus intervertebral discs and vertebrae age in a spinal region-dependent manner, but these differential age-related changes may be uncoupled from Wnt signaling. Overall, lumbar and coccygeal regions are not interchangeable in modeling human aging. PMID:24790018

  17. The comparison of manual vs automated disc margin delineation using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, S M; Sehi, M

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine the impact of manual vs automated disc margin delineation on optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Methods A prospective cohort study consisting of normal, glaucoma suspect (GS) and glaucoma patients who underwent ONH and RNFL measurements using SDOCT technology (RTVue; Optovue Inc.). The retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch's membrane (RPE/BM) complex end points were automatically determined first, and were manually redefined subsequently. Analysis of variance, coefficient of variation (COV), concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and Bland–Altman plots were used for the analyses. Results Ninety-nine eyes of 50 subjects (age 68±10 years) consisting of 36 glaucoma, 56 GS, and 7 normal eyes were included. The RNFL thickness measurements were similar (P>0.05) between the two methods of demarcation, except for the inferior-nasal sector (P=0.04). For the ONH measurements, the cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio and rim area showed significant differences between the two methods (P<0.001). COV/CCC values for the ONH parameters were as follows: cup area 17.6%/0.88; cup volume 7.4%/0.91; average C/D ratio 18.1%/0.78; rim area 25.3%/0.69; and rim volume 42.6%/0.71, respectively. CCC/COV values for the RNFL parameters were as follows: average 2.1%/0.98; inferior-temporal quadrant 8.1%/0.79; inferior-nasal quadrant INQ quadrant 12.6%/0.67; SNQ quadrant 7.8%/0.83; and STQ quadrant 7.8%/0.88, respectively. Conclusion An overall high agreement and moderate–substantial concordance was observed between the demarcation methods. Automated disc margin delineation of SDOCT can be used reliably in clinical practice. PMID:23907624

  18. Morphological Features and Important Parameters of Large Optic Discs for Diagnosing Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Okimoto, Satoshi; Yamashita, Keiko; Shibata, Tetsuo; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the optic disc parameters of glaucomatous eyes to those of non-glaucomatous eyes with large discs. Methods We studied 225 consecutive eyes with large optic discs (>2.82 mm2): 91 eyes with glaucoma and 134 eyes without glaucoma. An eye was diagnosed with glaucoma when visual field defects were detected by the Humphrey Field Analyzer. All of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II (HRT II) parameters were compared between the non-glaucomatous and glaucomatous eyes. A logistic regression analysis of the HRT II parameters was used to establish a new formula for diagnosing glaucoma, and the sensitivity and specificity of the Moorfields Regression Analysis (MRA) was compared to the findings made by our analyses. Results The mean disc area was 3.440.50 mm2 in the non-glaucomatous group and 3.400.52 mm2 in the glaucoma group. The cup area, cup volume, cup-to-disc area ratio, linear cup/disc ratio, mean cup depth, and the maximum cup depth were significantly larger in glaucomatous eyes than in the non-glaucomatous eyes. The rim area, rim volume, cup shape measurement, mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and RFNL cross-sectional area were significantly smaller in glaucomatous eyes than in non-glaucomatous eyes. The cup-to-disc area ratio, the height variation contour (HVC), and the RNFL cross-sectional area were important parameters for diagnosing the early stage glaucoma, and the cup-to-disc area ratio and cup volume were useful for diagnosing advanced stage glaucoma in eyes with a large optic disc. The new formula had higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing glaucoma than MRA. Conclusions The cup-to-disc area ratio, HVC, RNFL cross-sectional area, and cup volume were important parameters for diagnosing glaucoma in eyes with a large optic disc. The important disc parameters to diagnose glaucoma depend on the stage of glaucoma in patients with large discs. PMID:25798580

  19. Optic Disc and Cup Segmentation from Color Fundus Photograph Using Graph Cut with Priors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Stambolian, Dwight; OBrien, Joan; Gee, James C.

    2014-01-01

    For automatic segmentation of optic disc and cup from color fundus photograph, we describe a fairly general energy function that can naturally fit into a global optimization framework with graph cut. Distinguished from most previous work, our energy function includes priors on the shape & location of disc & cup, the rim thickness and the geometric interaction of disc contains cup. These priors together with the effective optimization of graph cut enable our algorithm to generate reliable and robust solutions. Our approach is able to outperform several state-of-the-art segmentation methods, as shown by a set of experimental comparisons with manual delineations and a series of results of correlations with the assessments of a merchant-provided software from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) regarding several cup and disc parameters. PMID:24579126

  20. Structural Glaucomatous Progression Before and After Occurrence of an Optic Disc Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Esther; Demetriades, Anna M.; Christos, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background An optic disc hemorrhage (DH) has been associated with subsequent structural glaucoma progression but it is unknown if there is structural progression prior to a DH. We evaluated a cohort of patients to determine whether structural progression occurs before a DH, after a DH or is simply associated with a DH. Methods Eyes meeting inclusion criteria were placed into two groups. Group 1 included eyes that each had a baseline photograph of the optic nerve and a photograph with a DH at follow-up. Group 2 included eyes that each had a photograph of the optic nerve with a DH at baseline and a photograph at follow-up. Flicker images were created and graded by two ophthalmologists for structural glaucomatous change. We compared the proportion of structural progressors between Groups 1 and 2. Patient characteristics were also compared between the two groups. Results 49 patients and 51 unique eyes were included. Group 1 and Group 2 had 28 and 38 sets of photographs respectively. The proportion of global progression in Groups 1 and 2 were 21.4% and 39.5% respectively (p=0.12). No significant differences in any structural progression feature and patient characteristics (besides age at time of DH (p=0.04) between the two groups were found. Conclusions Patients show structural glaucomatous progression both before and after the event of a disc hemorrhage without significant differences. This suggests that a DH is an ongoing structural progression in glaucoma and may not be a discrete event that leads to subsequent progression. PMID:25057184

  1. Associations between Optic Cup-to-disc Ratio and Systemic Factors in the Healthy Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yang Jae; Shim, Seong Hee; Bae, Jeong Hun; Park, Ki Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the relationships between optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) and age, sex, and other demographic and health characteristics in the healthy Korean population. Methods The study design was retrospective and population-based. A total of 28,377 subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2011 were enrolled in this study. Participants underwent structured interviews as well as systemic and ophthalmic examinations. Patients with glaucoma who were diagnosed using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology classification were excluded. Changes in vertical CDR were examined by age in relation to systemic variables on multiple regression analysis. Results The mean vertical CDR was 0.34 ± 0.12. The vertical CDR increased with age from subjects in their 20s to those in their 80s (p < 0.001). The mean CDR in males was significantly higher than that of females (p < 0.001). On multiple regression analysis, the vertical CDR was positively associated with age (p < 0.001), male sex (p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.009), and intraocular pressure (p < 0.001) but was negatively associated with body mass index (p < 0.001). Conclusions Greater vertical CDR was related to age, male sex, higher diastolic blood pressure, higher intraocular pressure, and lower body mass index in healthy Koreans. PMID:26457040

  2. Optic Disc Localization in Retinal Images Based on Cumulative Sum Fields.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ivo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Pinheiro, Antonio M G

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes an automatic method for the optic disc localization in retinal images, which is effective and reliable with multiple datasets. Particularly, the described method reveals very effective dealing with retinal images with large pathological signs. The algorithm begins with a new vessel enhancement method based on a modified corner detector. Subsequently, a weighted version of the vessel enhancement is combined with morphological operators, to detect the four main vessels orientations {0(°), 45(°), 90(°), 135(°) }. These four image functions have all the necessary information to determine an initial optic disc localization, resulting in two images that are respectively divided along the vertical or horizontal orientations with different division sizes. Each division is averaged creating a 2-D step function, and a cumulative sum of the different sizes step functions is calculated in the vertical and horizontal orientations, resulting in an initial optic disc position. The final optic disc localization is determined by a vessel convergence algorithm using its two most relevant features; high vasculature convergence and high intensity values. The proposed method was evaluated in eight publicly available datasets, including the STARE and DRIVE datasets. The optic disc was localized correctly in 1752 out of the 1767 retinal images (99.15%) with an average computation time of 18.34 s. PMID:25594989

  3. Application of Principal Component Analysis in Automatic Localization of Optic Disc and Fovea in Retinal Images

    PubMed Central

    Mudassar, Asloob Ahmad; Butt, Saira

    2013-01-01

    A retinal image has blood vessels, optic disc, fovea, and so forth as the main components of an image. Segmentation of these components has been investigated extensively. Principal component analysis (PCA) is one of the techniques that have been applied to segment the optic disc, but only a limited work has been reported. To our knowledge, fovea segmentation problem has not been reported in the literature using PCA. In this paper, we are presenting the segmentation of optic disc and fovea using PCA. The PCA was trained on optic discs and foveae using ten retinal images and then applied on seventy retinal images with a success rate of 97% in case of optic discs and 94.3% in case of fovea. Conventional algorithms feed one patch at a time from a test retinal image, and the next patch separated by one pixel part is fed. This process is continued till the full image area is covered. This is time consuming. We are suggesting techniques to cut down the processing time with the help of binary vessel tree of a given test image. Results are presented to validate our idea.

  4. Measuring the vertical age structure of the Galactic disc using asteroseismology and SAGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, L.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Schlesinger, K. J.; Stello, D.; Huber, D.; Serenelli, A. M.; Schnrich, R.; Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Hodgkin, S.; Milone, A. P.; Feltzing, S.; Asplund, M.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a vertical age gradient in the Milky Way disc has been indirectly known for long. Here, we measure it directly for the first time with seismic ages, using red giants observed by Kepler. We use Strmgren photometry to gauge the selection function of asteroseismic targets, and derive colour and magnitude limits where giants with measured oscillations are representative of the underlying population in the field. Limits in the 2MASS system are also derived. We lay out a method to assess and correct for target selection effects independent of Galaxy models. We find that low-mass, i.e. old red giants dominate at increasing Galactic heights, whereas closer to the Galactic plane they exhibit a wide range of ages and metallicities. Parametrizing this as a vertical gradient returns approximately 4 Gyr kpc-1 for the disc we probe, although with a large dispersion of ages at all heights. The ages of stars show a smooth distribution over the last ?10 Gyr, consistent with a mostly quiescent evolution for the Milky Way disc since a redshift of about 2. We also find a flat age-metallicity relation for disc stars. Finally, we show how to use secondary clump stars to estimate the present-day intrinsic metallicity spread, and suggest using their number count as a new proxy for tracing the ageing of the disc. This work highlights the power of asteroseismology for Galactic studies; however, we also emphasize the need for better constraints on stellar mass-loss, which is a major source of systematic age uncertainties in red giant stars.

  5. The Spectrum of Optic Disc Ischemia in Patients Younger than 50 Years (An Amercian Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Anthony C.; Costa, Roberta M. S.; Dumitrascu, Oana M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the spectrum of clinical and fluorescein angiographic features of optic disc ischemia in patients younger than 50 years. Methods: This retrospective comparative case series from a university consultative neuro-ophthalmology practice consisted of two phases. The first compared 108 cases of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in patients younger than 50 years (NAIONy) to a cohort of 108 cases in patients 50 years or older (NAIONo). Predisposing risk factors, fluorescein angiographic features, and clinical course were compared. In the second phase, 12 cases of diabetic papillopathy under age 50 were assessed by fluorescein angiographic criteria for evidence of optic disc ischemia and compared to patients with NAIONy. Results: NAIONy comprised 108 (12.7%) of 848 NAION cases reviewed. Chronic renal failure with dialysis and migraine were more common in NAIONy. Fellow eye involvement rate was significantly higher for NAIONy patients (46/108, 42.6%) than for NAIONo patients (32/108, 29.6%). Fluorescein angiographic features of ischemia were documented in 44 (81.5%) of 54 eyes studied. In one case, these features were documented in pre-NAION edema. Diabetic papillopathy demonstrated delayed filling consistent with ischemia in 7 of 10 (70.0%), without significant visual field loss. Conclusions: Ischemic optic neuropathy in patients younger than 50 years is not rare. Fellow eye involvement is more frequent in younger patients. Fluorescein angiography confirmation of impaired perfusion in multiple syndromes of optic neuropathy corroborates a spectrum of optic disc ischemia ranging from perfusion delay without visual loss to severely impaired perfusion and visual loss and incorporates optic neuropathies previously considered nonischemic. PMID:24167327

  6. A new approach to optic disc detection in human retinal images using the firefly algorithm.

    PubMed

    Rahebi, Javad; Hardalaç, Fırat

    2016-03-01

    There are various methods and algorithms to detect the optic discs in retinal images. In recent years, much attention has been given to the utilization of the intelligent algorithms. In this paper, we present a new automated method of optic disc detection in human retinal images using the firefly algorithm. The firefly intelligent algorithm is an emerging intelligent algorithm that was inspired by the social behavior of fireflies. The population in this algorithm includes the fireflies, each of which has a specific rate of lighting or fitness. In this method, the insects are compared two by two, and the less attractive insects can be observed to move toward the more attractive insects. Finally, one of the insects is selected as the most attractive, and this insect presents the optimum response to the problem in question. Here, we used the light intensity of the pixels of the retinal image pixels instead of firefly lightings. The movement of these insects due to local fluctuations produces different light intensity values in the images. Because the optic disc is the brightest area in the retinal images, all of the insects move toward brightest area and thus specify the location of the optic disc in the image. The results of implementation show that proposed algorithm could acquire an accuracy rate of 100 % in DRIVE dataset, 95 % in STARE dataset, and 94.38 % in DiaRetDB1 dataset. The results of implementation reveal high capability and accuracy of proposed algorithm in the detection of the optic disc from retinal images. Also, recorded required time for the detection of the optic disc in these images is 2.13 s for DRIVE dataset, 2.81 s for STARE dataset, and 3.52 s for DiaRetDB1 dataset accordingly. These time values are average value. PMID:26093773

  7. Glaucoma detection using novel optic disc localization, hybrid feature set and classification techniques.

    PubMed

    Akram, M Usman; Tariq, Anam; Khalid, Shehzad; Javed, M Younus; Abbas, Sarmad; Yasin, Ubaid Ullah

    2015-12-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic and irreversible neuro-degenerative disease in which the neuro-retinal nerve that connects the eye to the brain (optic nerve) is progressively damaged and patients suffer from vision loss and blindness. The timely detection and treatment of glaucoma is very crucial to save patient's vision. Computer aided diagnostic systems are used for automated detection of glaucoma that calculate cup to disc ratio from colored retinal images. In this article, we present a novel method for early and accurate detection of glaucoma. The proposed system consists of preprocessing, optic disc segmentation, extraction of features from optic disc region of interest and classification for detection of glaucoma. The main novelty of the proposed method lies in the formation of a feature vector which consists of spatial and spectral features along with cup to disc ratio, rim to disc ratio and modeling of a novel mediods based classier for accurate detection of glaucoma. The performance of the proposed system is tested using publicly available fundus image databases along with one locally gathered database. Experimental results using a variety of publicly available and local databases demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach as compared to the competitors. PMID:26399880

  8. Optical effects related to Keplerian discs orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate possible optical signatures of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) naked singularity spacetimes representing a spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the modified Hořava gravity. In such spacetimes, accretion structures significantly different from those present in standard black hole spacetimes occur due to the ‘antigravity’ effect, which causes an internal static sphere surrounded by Keplerian discs. We focus our attention on the optical effects related to the Keplerian accretion discs, constructing the optical appearance of the Keplerian discs, the spectral continuum due to their thermal radiation, and the spectral profiled lines generated in the innermost parts of such discs. The KS naked singularity signature is strongly encoded in the characteristics of predicted optical effects, especially in cases where the spectral continuum and spectral lines are profiled by the strong gravity of the spacetimes due to the vanishing region of the angular velocity gradient influencing the effectiveness of the viscosity mechanism. We can conclude that optical signatures of KS naked singularities can be well distinguished from the signatures of standard black holes.

  9. Gas tamponade combined with laser photocoagulation therapy for congenital optic disc pit maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lei, L; Li, T; Ding, X; Ma, W; Zhu, X; Atik, A; Hu, Y; Tang, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the long-term clinical efficacy and safety of gas tamponade combined with laser photocoagulation for optic disc pit maculopathy. Methods Seven consecutive patients with unilateral maculopathy associated with optic disc pit and one patient with bilateral optic disc pit maculopathy were given octafluoropropane (C3F8) tamponade combined with focal laser photocoagulation treatment. Patients were followed up for 2162 months after treatment. Main outcomes were determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Results Treatment with C3F8 tamponade followed by laser photocoagulation in ODP maculopathy patients resulted in resolution of sub-retinal and/or intra-retinal fluid in six out of eight patients. The remaining two patients had significant reduction in fluid, as determined by OCT, and funduscopy, as well as an improvement in anatomical architecture. Visual acuity improved obviously in seven eyes and remained stable in two eyes. Central visual field loss after photocoagulation was not clinically appreciable by visual field examination. No post-operative complications of maculopathy occurred during the follow-up period. Conclusions Although repeated treatment was needed in some patients, C3F8 tamponade combined with laser photocoagulation is still a simple, effective, minimally invasive, and economic therapy for optic disc pit maculopathy. PMID:25323852

  10. Experiments with digitally mastered LaserVision optical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, M. A.

    1986-03-01

    Experimental tests in which digital data was mastered onto a LaserVision disc to examine its potential as a source for a new BBC 1 channel logo are described. The logo had been electronically generated on a graphics computer and stored as digitally coded television frames. The tests involved mastering a disc with segments of a short video sequence derived from the data for the new logo, and with pseudo-random data. Conventional pressings from this digital master were then replayed on a domestic player. After minor modification to the replay signal path and to the control system of the player both signal types were successfully recovered and various performance characteristics of the system were measured. From the test it was estimated that replay data rates up to 50 Mbit/s could be achieved and that errors in the replayed data could be corrected with an overhead of about 7%. Although the replay data rates were satisfactory, the current degree of mechanical reliability of the domestic player makes the system unsuitable as a source for animated television logos.

  11. Choosing an Optical Disc System: A Guide for Users and Resellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vane-Tempest, Stewart

    1995-01-01

    Presents a guide for selecting an optional disc system. Highlights include storage hierarchy; standards; data life cycles; security; implementing an optical jukebox system; optimizing the system; performance; quality and reliability; software; cost of online versus near-line; and growing opportunities. Sidebars provide additional information on

  12. Case Report of Optic Disc Drusen with Simultaneous Peripapillary Subretinal Hemorrhage and Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Law, David Zhiwei; Yang, Francine Pei Lin; Teoh, Stephen Charn Beng

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old Chinese gentleman presented with right eye floaters and photopsia over one week. His visual acuities were 20/20 bilaterally. Posterior segment examination showed a right eye swollen optic disc and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) associated with an area of subretinal hemorrhage adjacent to the optic disc. Fundus fluorescein (FA) and indocyanine green angiographies (ICGA) of the right eye did not demonstrate choroidal neovascularization (CNV), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), or retinal ischemia. Ultrasound B-scan revealed optic disc drusen (ODD). In view of good vision and absence of CNV, he was managed conservatively with spontaneous resolution after two months. Commonly, ODD may directly compress and mechanically rupture subretinal vessels at the optic disc, resulting in peripapillary subretinal hemorrhage, as was likely the case in our patient. Mechanical impairment of peripapillary circulation also results in retinal ischemia and may trigger the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and/or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), leading to subretinal haemorrhage. Compromise in central venous outflow with increased retinal central venous pressure from the direct mechanical effects of enlarging ODD results in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Patients with subretinal hemorrhage and CRVO from ODD should be monitored closely for the development of potentially sight-threatening complications. PMID:25544921

  13. Chronic optic disc swelling overlooked in a diabetic patient with a devastating outcome

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Tasanee; Plant, Gordon T

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of asymmetrical but bilateral, progressive, painless visual deterioration over 5 years to no perception of light, in a 61-year-old male diabetic patient referred for a second opinion. The patient had a chronic history of bilateral diabetic maculopathy and unexplained swelling of the optic discs. He was diagnosed with optic atrophy secondary to pseudotumour cerebri (termed idiopathic intracranial hypertension when underlying causes have been excluded), which was associated with obstructive sleep apnoea. The case highlights the critical importance of identifying and investigating chronic papilloedema for reversible causes; the sometimes subtle presentation of pseudotumour cerebri; and the vital role of visual field testing and diagnostic lumbar puncture for timely diagnosis. It also reminds us that chronic bilateral optic disc swelling is not a normal feature of diabetic eye disease, and that alarm bells should sound if reduced visual acuity seems disproportionate to the degree of maculopathy. PMID:22442651

  14. The collagen structure of bovine intervertebral disc studied using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matcher, Stephen J.; Winlove, C. Peter; Gangnus, Sergei V.

    2004-04-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is used to measure the birefringence properties of bovine intervertebral disc and equine flexor tendon. For equine tendon the birefringence Dgrn is (6.0 ± 0.2) × 10-3 at a wavelength of 1.3 µm. This is somewhat larger than the values reported for bovine tendon. The surface region of the annulus fibrosus of a freshly excised intact bovine intervertebral disc displays an identical value of birefringence, Dgrn = (6.0 ± 0.6) × 10-3 at 1.3 µm. The nucleus pulposus does not display birefringence, the measured apparent value of Dgrn = (0.39 ± 0.01) × 10-3 being indistinguishable from the effects of depolarization due to multiple scattering. A clear difference is found between the depth-resolved retardance of equine tendon and that of bovine intervertebral disc. This apparently relates to the lamellar structure of the latter tissue, in which the collagen fibre orientation alternates between successive lamellae. A semi-empirical model based on Jones calculus shows that the measurements are in reasonable agreement with previous optical and x-ray data. These results imply that PS-OCT could be a useful tool to study collagen organization within the intervertebral disc in vitro and possibly in vivo and its variation with applied load and disease.

  15. Optical Disc Technology and the Cooperative Television Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranch, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of individual television film libraries combining film holdings onto optical disks and developing networks that would allow online searching of, access to, and transmission of video images. It is concluded that recent advances in technology would support fast and cost effective image retrieval with no loss in video

  16. The impact of accretion disc winds on the optical spectra of cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. H.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Higginbottom, N.

    2015-07-01

    Many high-state non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs) exhibit blueshifted absorption or P-Cygni profiles associated with ultraviolet (UV) resonance lines. These features imply the existence of powerful accretion disc winds in CVs. Here, we use our Monte Carlo ionization and radiative transfer code to investigate whether disc wind models that produce realistic UV line profiles are also likely to generate observationally significant recombination line and continuum emission in the optical waveband. We also test whether outflows may be responsible for the single-peaked emission line profiles often seen in high-state CVs and for the weakness of the Balmer absorption edge (relative to simple models of optically thick accretion discs). We find that a standard disc wind model that is successful in reproducing the UV spectra of CVs also leaves a noticeable imprint on the optical spectrum, particularly for systems viewed at high inclination. The strongest optical wind-formed recombination lines are H ? and He II ?4686. We demonstrate that a higher density outflow model produces all the expected H and He lines and produces a recombination continuum that can fill in the Balmer jump at high inclinations. This model displays reasonable verisimilitude with the optical spectrum of RW Trianguli. No single-peaked emission is seen, although we observe a narrowing of the double-peaked emission lines from the base of the wind. Finally, we show that even denser models can produce a single-peaked H ? line. On the basis of our results, we suggest that winds can modify, and perhaps even dominate, the line and continuum emission from CVs.

  17. Optic Disc Vascularization in Glaucoma: Value of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Lévêque, Pierre-Maxime; Zéboulon, Pierre; Brasnu, Emmanuelle; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To detect changes in optic nerve head (ONH) vascularization in glaucoma patients using spectral-domain OCT angiography (OCT-A). Material and Method. Fifty glaucoma patients and 30 normal subjects were evaluated with OCT-A (AngioVue®, Optovue). The total ONH vessel density and temporal disc vessel density were measured. Clinical data, visual field (VF) parameters, and spectral-domain OCT evaluation (RNFL: retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, GCC: ganglion cell complex thickness, and rim area) were recorded for glaucoma patients. Correlations among total and temporal ONH vessel density and structural and VF parameters were analyzed. Results. In the glaucoma group, total and temporal ONH vessel density were reduced by 24.7% (0.412 versus 0.547; p < 0.0001) and 22.88% (0.364 versus 0.472; p = 0.001), respectively, as compared with the control group. Univariate analysis showed significant correlation between rim area (mm2) and temporal ONH vessel density (r = 0.623; p < 0.0001) and total ONH vessel density (r = 0.609; p < 0.0001). Significant correlations were found between temporal and total ONH vessel density and RNFL, GCC, VF mean deviation, and visual field index. Conclusion. In glaucoma patients OCT-A might detect reduced ONH blood vessel density that is associated with structural and functional glaucomatous damage. OCT-A might become a useful tool for the evaluation of ONH microcirculation changes in glaucoma.

  18. Automated segmentation of optic disc in SD-OCT images and cup-to-disc ratios quantification by patch searching-based neural canal opening detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Menglin; Leng, Theodore; de Sisternes, Luis; Rubin, Daniel L; Chen, Qiang

    2015-11-30

    Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness worldwide. Early detection of glaucoma is traditionally based on assessment of the cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio, an important indicator of structural changes to the optic nerve head. Here, we present an automated optic disc segmentation algorithm in 3-D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes to quantify this ratio. The proposed algorithm utilizes a two-stage strategy. First, it detects the neural canal opening (NCO) by finding the points with maximum curvature on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) boundary with a spatial correlation smoothness constraint on consecutive B-scans, and it approximately locates the coarse disc margin in the projection image using convex hull fitting. Then, a patch searching procedure using a probabilistic support vector machine (SVM) classifier finds the most likely patch with the NCO in its center in order to refine the segmentation result. Thus, a reference plane can be determined to calculate the C/D radio. Experimental results on 42 SD-OCT volumes from 17 glaucoma patients demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve high segmentation accuracy and a low C/D ratio evaluation error. The unsigned border error for optic disc segmentation and the evaluation error for C/D ratio comparing with manual segmentation are 2.216 1.406 pixels (0.067 0.042 mm) and 0.045 0.033, respectively. PMID:26698750

  19. Unilateral morning glory optic disc anomaly in a case with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This case is unique because it is the first reported case of Down syndrome with morning glory optic disc anomaly in literature. Case presentation A 15-year-old girl with features of Down syndrome presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology for a regular ophthalmologic examination. Her best corrected visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. The fundus examination revealed findings compatible with unilateral morning glory optic disc anomaly in the right eye. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic and systemic evaluation to explore possible associated findings. Conclusion This case report emphasizes the importance of ophthalmic screening-examinations in Down children to rule out any vision relevant pathology. PMID:24725623

  20. Method and system for assigning a confidence metric for automated determination of optic disc location

    DOEpatents

    Karnowski, Thomas P.; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Muthusamy Govindasamy, Vijaya Priya; Chaum, Edward

    2012-07-10

    A method for assigning a confidence metric for automated determination of optic disc location that includes analyzing a retinal image and determining at least two sets of coordinates locating an optic disc in the retinal image. The sets of coordinates can be determined using first and second image analysis techniques that are different from one another. An accuracy parameter can be calculated and compared to a primary risk cut-off value. A high confidence level can be assigned to the retinal image if the accuracy parameter is less than the primary risk cut-off value and a low confidence level can be assigned to the retinal image if the accuracy parameter is greater than the primary risk cut-off value. The primary risk cut-off value being selected to represent an acceptable risk of misdiagnosis of a disease having retinal manifestations by the automated technique.

  1. Application of vascular bundle displacement in the optic disc for glaucoma detection using fundus images.

    PubMed

    Fuente-Arriaga, Jos Abel de la; Felipe-Rivern, Edgardo M; Garduo-Caldern, Eduardo

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a methodology for glaucoma detection based on measuring displacements of blood vessels within the optic disc (vascular bundle) in human retinal images. The method consists of segmenting the region of the vascular bundle in an optic disc to set a reference point in the temporal side of the cup, determining the position of the centroids of the superior, inferior, and nasal vascular bundle segmented zones located within the segmented region, and calculating the displacement from normal position using the chessboard distance metric. The method was successful in 62 images out of 67, achieving 93.02% sensitivity, 91.66% specificity, and 91.34% global accuracy in pre-diagnosis. PMID:24530536

  2. Two-stage feedforward tracking control system with error-based disturbance observer for optical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimura, Naohide; Ohashi, Takahiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Miyazaki, Toshimasa

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the scaling up of the storage capacity and data transfer rate of digital storage media has been required. However, increasing in the storage capacity and transfer rate makes optical head control more difficult. Thus, a tracking control system for optical discs must exhibit a high degree of precision control. Consequently, a new two-stage feedforward control (TSFFC) system for high-precision control is proposed in this paper. The proposed system is constructed using two zero phase error tracking (ZPET) control systems based on error prediction and an error-based disturbance observer (EDOB) that uses a notch filter to suppress non periodic disturbances. The proposed control system is designed for DDU-1000 for digital versatile discs (DVDs). The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system effectively suppresses tracking errors.

  3. Influence of age and gender on thoracic vertebral body shape and disc degeneration: an MR investigation of 169 cases

    PubMed Central

    GOH, S.; TAN, C.; PRICE, R. I.; EDMONDSTON, S. J.; SONG, S.; DAVIS, S.; SINGER, K. P.

    2000-01-01

    There are limited data detailing the pattern of age and gender-related changes to the thoracic vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. A retrospective MR investigation, involving T1-weighted midsagittal images from 169 cases, was undertaken to examine age influences on the anterior wedge (anteroposterior height ratio or Ha/Hp), biconcavity (midposterior height ratio or Hm/Hp), and compression indices (posterior height/anteroposterior diameter or Hp/D) of the thoracic vertebral bodies. Disc degenerative changes in the annulus, nucleus, end-plate and disc margin were noted on T2-weighted sagittal images for the 169 cases, based on a 3-level grading system. A linear age-related decline in the Ha/Hp and Hm/Hp indices was noted. The Hp/D index increased during the first few decades of life, then decreased gradually thereafter. The prevalence of abnormal findings in the annuli, nuclei and disc margins increased with increasing age, particularly in the mid and lower thoracic discs. Greater disc degenerative changes were observed in males. These findings provide further insight into the nature of thoracic vertebral shape changes across the lifespan, and the typical patterns of degeneration of the thoracic intervertebral discs. PMID:11197538

  4. Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kwon, Young H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2013-03-01

    Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One important structural parameter for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma is the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), which tends to become larger as glaucoma progresses. While approaches exist for segmenting the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs, and more recently, within spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes, no approaches have been reported for the simultaneous segmentation of these structures within both modalities combined. In this work, a multimodal pixel-classification approach for the segmentation of the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs and SD-OCT volumes is presented. In particular, after segmentation of other important structures (such as the retinal layers and retinal blood vessels) and fundus-to-SD-OCT image registration, features are extracted from both modalities and a k-nearest-neighbor classification approach is used to classify each pixel as cup, rim, or background. The approach is evaluated on 70 multimodal image pairs from 35 subjects in a leave-10%-out fashion (by subject). A significant improvement in classification accuracy is obtained using the multimodal approach over that obtained from the corresponding unimodal approach (97.8% versus 95.2%; p < 0:05; paired t-test).

  5. Changes in mouse intervertebral-disc proteoglycan synthesis with age. Hereditary kyphoscoliosis is associated with elevated synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Venn, G; Mason, R M

    1986-01-01

    Mice with hereditary kyphoscoliosis (ky/ky) develop intervertebral-disc degeneration at the cervico-thoracic junction. Disc proteoglycans were investigated to determine whether changes in synthesis or structure were associated with this. Elevated 35S-proteoglycan synthesis was found in one or more cervico-thoracic discs in 80-day-old ky/ky mice. The hydrodynamic size and aggregation properties of ky/ky-mouse disc 35S-proteoglycans extracted with 4 M-guanidinium chloride were normal. Increased proportions of small 35S-proteoglycans were extracted with 0.5 M-guanidinium chloride from discs of normal and ky/ky mice with increasing age. PMID:3718480

  6. Design of a fibre-optic disc accelerometer: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongjie; Xiao, Hao; Zhang, Songwei; Li, Fang; Liu, Yuliang

    2007-06-01

    Mechanical principles of fibre-optic disc accelerometers (FODA) different from those assumed in previous calculation methods are presented. An FODA with a high sensitivity of 82 rad/g and a resonance frequency of 360 Hz is designed and tested. In this system, the minimum measurable demodulation phase of the phase-generated carrier (PGC) is 10-5 rad, and the minimum acceleration reaches 120 ng theoretically. This kind of FODA, with its high responsivity, all-optic-fibre configuration, small size, light weight and stiff shell housing, ensures effective performance in practice.

  7. Analysis of the Correlation Among Age, Disc Morphology, Positive Discography and Prognosis in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Min; Lee, Bo-Ram; Hwang, Jeong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation among age, disc morphology, positive discography, and prognosis in patients with chronic low back pain. Methods A total of 183 intervertebral discs in 72 patients with chronic low back pain were studied. Discography was performed using a pressure-controlled manometric technique. The pain reaction during discography at each level was recorded as follows: no pain, dissimilar pain, similar pain, or concordant pain. Discs with similar or concordant pain were classified as positive. All the examined discs were assessed morphologically using axial computed tomography imaging. The grade of general degeneration and annular disruption of the discs were assessed according to the Dallas discogram description (DDD). Intradiscal injection of steroid was tried for patients with symptomatic disc identified during provocative discography and who did not consent to surgical operation. Results There was a higher correlation between general degeneration and age, as compared with annular disruption and age. Higher general degeneration and annular disruption grades had higher positive rates of discography. However, annular disruption alone was independently associated with positive discography. Age and grade of general degeneration did not affect the prognosis. Conclusion The grade of general degeneration was associated with age, but it was not correlated with positive discography and prognosis. In addition, high grade of annular disruption correlated with positive discography. PMID:26161339

  8. Association between optic nerve blood flow and objective examinations in glaucoma patients with generalized enlargement disc type

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Naoki; Omodaka, Kazuko; Yokoyama, Yu; Aizawa, Naoko; Tsuda, Satoru; Yasuda, Masayuki; Otomo, Takaaki; Yokokura, Shunji; Fuse, Nobuo; Nakazawa, Toru

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between microcirculation in the optic disc, average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness cupping parameters, and visual field defects in glaucoma patients with the generalized enlargement disc type. Methods A total of 38 eyes from 38 glaucoma patients with the generalized enlargement disc type were included. The microcirculation of the optic nerve head was examined with laser speckle flow graphy, and the mean blur rate in all areas, in vessel area, and in tissue area were calculated using the laser speckle flow graphy analyzer software. Average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was measured using Stratus optical coherence tomography, and cupping parameters were accessed using the Heidelberg retina tomograph. The mean deviation in the Humphrey field analyzer (30-2 SITA standard) was analyzed. The correlation between these parameters was evaluated using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results The correlation coefficient of mean blur rate in all optic disc area to the average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, vertical C/D, and mean deviation were r = 0.7546 (P < 0.0001), r = ?0.6208 (P < 0.0001), and r = 0.6010 (P = 0.0001), respectively. The mean blur rate in tissue area of the optic disc showed r = 0.7305 (P < 0.0001), r = ?0.6438 (P < 0.0001), and r = 0.6338 (P < 0.0001). Conclusion We found that the mean blur rate in the optic disc was significantly correlated with the average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, vertical C/D, and mean deviation in patients with the generalized enlargement disc type of glaucoma. In particular, the mean blur rate in tissue area was more highly correlated than the vessel area with other results of examination in glaucoma patients with the generalized enlargement disc type. PMID:22125400

  9. Posterior staphyloma is related to optic disc morphology and the location of visual field defect in normal tension glaucoma patients with myopia

    PubMed Central

    Park, H-YL; Jung, Y; Park, C K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the morphologic features of the optic disc and the location of visual field (VF) defect in relation to posterior staphyloma in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes with myopia. Methods One hundred and thirty-four NTG patients with myopia were enrolled. B-scan ultrasonography was performed in enrolled patients. Disc tilt ratio, disc torsion, and area of peripapillary atrophy were measured from disc photographs. Patients were classified according to the presence of posterior staphyloma and its location: staphyloma involving the optic disc, staphyloma involving either the supero-temporal side of the optic disc or the infero-temporal side of the optic disc. The relationship between the location of the posterior staphyloma and that of the VF defect was analyzed. Results Among 134 eyes, 74 eyes (55.2%) had posterior staphyloma on B-scan ultrasonography. Mean torsion degree was significantly greater in eyes with staphyloma involving the temporal side of the optic disc (19.78±18.00°) compared with eyes with staphyloma involving the optic disc (4.65±4.92°, P=0.001). The frequency of the location of VF damage differed significantly between eyes with staphyloma involving the supero-temporal side and those involving the infero-temporal side of the optic disc (P=0.008), which was not significant in eyes with staphyloma involving the optic disc (P=0.813). Conclusions Optic disc torsion was a prominent finding in myopic NTG eyes when posterior staphyloma was located temporal to the optic disc. The location of posterior staphyloma was related to the direction of disc torsion and the location of VF defect. PMID:25376120

  10. ISSLS PRIZE WINNER: INHIBITION OF NF-κB ACTIVITY AMELIORATES AGE-ASSOCIATED DISC DEGENERATION IN A MOUSE MODEL OF ACCELERATED AGING

    PubMed Central

    Nasto, Luigi A.; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Robinson, Andria R.; Tilstra, Jeremy S.; Clauson, Cheryl L.; Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Ngo, Kevin; Dong, Qing; Pola, Enrico; Lee, Joon Y.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Kang, James D.; Robbins, Paul D.; Vo, Nam V.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design NF-κB activity was pharmacologically and genetically blocked in an accelerated aging mouse model to mitigate age-related disc degenerative changes. Objective To study the mediatory role of NF-κB signaling pathway in age-dependent intervertebral disc degeneration. Summary of Background Data Aging is a major contributor to intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD), but the molecular mechanism behind this process is poorly understood. NF-κB is a family of transcription factors which play a central role in mediating cellular response to damage, stress, and inflammation. Growing evidence implicates chronic NF-κB activation as a culprit in many aging-related diseases, but its role in aging-related IDD has not been adequately explored. We studied the effects of NF-κB inhibition on IDD using a DNA repair-deficient mouse model of accelerated aging (Ercc1-/Δ mice) previously been reported to exhibit age-related IDD. Methods Systemic inhibition of NF-κB activation was achieved either genetically by deletion of one allele of the NF-κB subunit p65 (Ercc1-/Δp65+/- mice) or pharmacologically by chronic intra-peritoneal administration of the Nemo Binding Domain (8K-NBD) peptide to block the formation of the upstream activator of NF-κB, IκB Inducible Kinase (IKK), in Ercc1-/Δ mice. Disc cellularity, total proteoglycan content and proteoglycan synthesis of treated mice and untreated controls were assessed. Results Decreased disc matrix proteoglycan content, a hallmark feature of IDD, and elevated disc NF-κB activity were observed in discs of progeroid Ercc1-/Δ mice and naturally aged wild-type compared to young WT mice. Systemic inhibition of NF-κB by the 8K-NBD peptide in Ercc1-/Δ mice increased disc proteoglycan synthesis and ameriolated loss disc cellularity and matrix proteoglycan. These results were confirmed genetically by using the p65 haploinsufficient Ercc1-/Δp65+/- mice. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway is a key mediator of age-dependent IDD and represents a therapeutic target for mitigating disc degenerative diseases associated with aging. PMID:22343279

  11. Quantitative chemical tagging, stellar ages and the chemo-dynamical evolution of the Galactic disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitschang, A. W.; De Silva, G.; Zucker, D. B.; Anguiano, B.; Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.

    2014-03-01

    The early science results from the new generation of high-resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys, such as Galactic Archaeology with HERMES (GALAH) and the Gaia European Southern Observatory survey (Gaia-ESO), will represent major milestones in the quest to chemically tag the Galaxy. Yet this technique to reconstruct dispersed coeval stellar groups has remained largely untested until recently. We build on previous work that developed an empirical chemical tagging probability function, which describes the likelihood that two field stars are conatal, that is, they were formed in the same cluster environment. In this work, we perform the first ever blind chemical tagging experiment, i.e. tagging stars with no known or otherwise discernible associations, on a sample of 714 disc field stars with a number of high-quality high-resolution homogeneous metal abundance measurements. We present evidence that chemical tagging of field stars does identify coeval groups of stars, yet these groups may not represent distinct formation sites, e.g. as in dissolved open clusters, as previously thought. Our results point to several important conclusions, among them that group finding will be limited strictly to chemical abundance space, e.g. stellar ages, kinematics, colours, temperature and surface gravity do not enhance the detectability of groups. We also demonstrate that in addition to its role in probing the chemical enrichment and kinematic history of the Galactic disc, chemical tagging represents a powerful new stellar age determination technique.

  12. Eccentricity Compensation Mechanism for Improving Reliability of Removable Performance in Near-Field Optical Disc Drive System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunmin; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Kawakubo, Osamu

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we propose the eccentricity-compensating actuator mechanism for near-field (NF) optical disc drives. In this proposed dual-stage compensating actuator mechanism, the disc-spindle unit is actuated instead of the solid immersion lens (SIL) along the tracking axis to cancel out an eccentricity less than 20 mpp (pp: peak to peak), which is the required criterion for NF discs of 160 nm track pitch. As a result, the proposed method enables the decrease in the required residual tracking error to lower than the criteria of 4.5 nm in NF optical disc drive (ODD) even when using the tracking servo of moderate performance. The proposed active eccentricity compensation method can be effective and applicable to dealing with the eccentricity problem in NF ODD, which we verified experimentally.

  13. Automatic Detection of the Optic Disc of the Retina: A Fast Method

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, M.; Rabbani, H.; Amini, Z.; Kafieh, R.; Ommani, A.; Lakshminarayanan, V.

    2016-01-01

    Localizing the optic disc (OD) in retinal fundus images is of critical importance and many techniques have been developed for OD detection. In this paper, we present the results obtained from two fast methods, correlation and least square, to approximate the location of optic cup. These methods are simple and are not complex, while most of the OD detection algorithms are. The methods were tested on two groups of data (a total of 100 color fundus images) and were 98% successful in the detection of the optic cup. An algorithm using the vessel mask of fundus images is proposed to be run after correlation to ensure that the localization of OD in all images is successful. It was tested on 40 of the test images and had a 100% rate of success. PMID:27014613

  14. Behaviour of Disc Oedema During and After Amiodarone Optic Neuropathy: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Martnez-Gamero, Bertha O.; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Cavazos-Adame, Med. Humberto; Mohamed-Hamsho, Med. Jess

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old woman with atrial fibrillation treated with Amiodarone presented with Optic Disc oedema in right eye (OD). Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) we describe the impact of this neuropathy on Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer (RNFL). At diagnosis RNFL average was of 188 ?m OD and 77 ?m in the left eye (OS), six months after discontinuation of the drug decreased to 40 ?m in OD and 76 ?m in OS. The RNFL average of OD presented a transient increase during the acute oedema that returned to normal levels during the first month after discontinuation of the drug and fell dramatically to 44 ?m at the second month and 40 ?m at the sixth month. We show there is axonal loss after amiodarone-associated optic neuropathy measured with OCT. The OCT may be used in these patients to document changes in RNFL in the follow-up. PMID:24959500

  15. Bilateral Optic Disc Anomalies Associated with PAX2 Mutation in a Case of Potter Sequence.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Mizuki; Honda, Shigeru; Morioka, Ichiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Negi, Akira

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the ophthalmic findings in the fundus of a Japanese infant with Potter sequence having a mutation in the PAX2 gene. METHODS: A 1-month-old infant diagnosed with Potter sequence who had bilateral renal hypoplasia and a mutation in the PAX2 gene was subjected to detailed ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Funduscopy revealed a megalopapilla with marked excavation in the right eye. The left optic disc showed a similar abnormality, but to a lesser extent. B-mode ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging detected giant cystic lesions occupying the optic nerve head in both eyes. According to these results, we diagnosed this patient as having papillorenal syndrome (PRS) associated with a PAX2 mutation. CONCLUSIONS: This report shows ophthalmic findings in the youngest patient with PRS and PAX2-associated Potter sequence. Optic disc anomalies may be involved in some infants with Potter sequence. We anticipate an increase in opportunities for ophthalmic examinations in infants with diseases such as Potter sequence with previously high mortality rates. PMID:21151632

  16. Design and fabrication of substrates with microstructures for bio-applications through the modified optical disc process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Kuo-Chi; Chang, Sheng-Li; Huang, Chu-Yu; Guan, Hann-Wen

    2011-05-01

    The modified optical disc process has been investigated and demonstrated to enable fast prototyping in fabricating molds and replicating substrates with various microstructures including micro-chambers and micro-channels. A disc-like microfluidic device was created and the testing results showed good performance in bonding and packaging. The switching of the nozzle-like micro-valve was also validated to work well. Furthermore, the relevant procedures of liquid samples loading, separating and mixing were also accomplished through food experiments.

  17. Production of optically thin free-standing oil films from the edge of a rotating disc

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, J.G.; Burch, D.F.; Rodenberg, R.; Cramer, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for forming thin free-standing oil films which are spun from the edge of a sharp-edged rotating disc. The films can be made thin enough to show strong optical interference colors when viewed in white light. The thinnest films have areal densities down to about 10 to 20 ..mu..gm/cm/sup 2/. A stable roughly triangular film with an area of about 10 cm/sup 2/ and fairly uniform thickness can be readily produced. Much larger films having either greater thickness or less stability are also possible. Films have been produced both in air and in vacuum.

  18. Factors Affecting Cirrus-HD OCT Optic Disc Scan Quality: A Review with Case Examples

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Joshua S.; Taibbi, Giovanni; Nelson, Seth C.; Chao, Diana; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2015-01-01

    Spectral-domain OCT is an established tool to assist clinicians in detecting glaucoma and monitor disease progression. The widespread use of this imaging modality is due, at least in part, to continuous hardware and software advancements. However, recent evidence indicates that OCT scan artifacts are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Poor image quality invariably challenges the interpretation of test results, with potential implications for the care of glaucoma patients. Therefore, adequate knowledge of various imaging artifacts is necessary. In this work, we describe several factors affecting Cirrus HD-OCT optic disc scan quality and their effects on measurement variability. PMID:26351574

  19. EVALUATION OF TERMINAL VERTEBRAL PLATE ON CERVICAL SPINE AT DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH INTERVERTEBRAL DISC THICKNESS

    PubMed Central

    Luiz Vieira, Juliano Silveira; da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Nogueira Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, by means of histomorphometry, terminal vertebral plate thickness, intervertebral disc thickness and its correlation on different age groups, seeking to identify its correlation. Methods: C4-C5 and C5-C6 cervical segments removed from human cadavers of both genders were assessed and divided into five groups of 10-year age intervals, from 21 years old. TVP and intervertebral disc thickness evaluation was made by means of histomorphometry of histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosyn. Lower C4 TVP, upper C5 TVP, and upper C6 TVP de were compared between each other and to the interposed intervertebral disc thickness between relevant TVP. Results: The thickness of terminal vertebral plates adjacent to the same ID did not show statistic differences. However, the comparison of upper and lower vertebral plates thickness on the same cervical vertebra (C5), showed statistical difference on all age groups studied. We found a statistical correlation coefficient above 80% between terminal vertebral plate and adjacent intervertebral disc, with a proportional thickness reduction of both structures on the different cervical levels studied, and also on the different age groups assessed. Conclusion: Terminal vertebral plate shows a morphologic correlation with the intervertebral disc next to it, and does not show correlation with the terminal vertebral plate on the same vertebra.

  20. Using pit-depth modulation to increase capacity and data transfer rate in optical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spielman, Stephan; Johnson, Bruce V.; McDermott, Greg A.; O'Neill, Michael P.; Pietrzyk, C.; Shafaat, Tariq; Warland, David K.; Wong, Terrence L.

    1997-07-01

    The technique of pit-depth modulation is applied to optical data storage. Pits of M possible depths are written end-to- end to form a groove encoding log2(M) bits in each mark. Data was encoded onto discs with CD dimensions using standard photoresist mastering and replication methods. Methods for removing inter-symbol interference are demonstrated on pits as short as 0.6 micrometers . A 6-level pattern of 0.6 micrometers pits was read by an optical head from a 6X CD-ROM drive and the original levels were recovered with a standard deviation of approximately 6% of the dynamic range. A system prototype read data encoded as 4-level 0.8 micrometers pits with a raw bit error rate of 3 X 10-4.

  1. Video Discs in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip

    1986-01-01

    This discussion of the use of images in learning processes focuses on recent developments in optical storage disc technology, particularly compact disc read-only (CD-ROM) and optical video discs. Interactive video systems and user interfaces are described, and applications in education and industry in the United Kingdom are reviewed. (Author/LRW)

  2. No direct coupling between bending of galaxy disc stellar age and light profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Pérez, I.; Florido, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husemann, B.; Kehrig, C.; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Papaderos, P.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Zibetti, S.; CALIFA Team

    2016-02-01

    We study the stellar properties of 44 face-on spiral galaxies from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey via full spectrum fitting techniques. We compare the age profiles with the surface brightness distribution in order to highlight differences between profile types (type I, exponential profile; and II, down-bending profile). We observe an upturn (`U-shape') in the age profiles for 17 out of these 44 galaxies with reliable stellar information up to their outer parts. This `U-shape' is not a unique feature for type II galaxies but can be observed in type I as well. These findings suggest that the mechanisms shaping the surface brightness and stellar population distributions are not directly coupled. This upturn in age is only observable in the light-weighted profiles while it flattens out in the mass-weighted profiles. Given recent results on the outer parts of nearby systems and the results presented in this Letter, one of the most plausible explanations for the age upturn is an early formation of the entire disc (˜10 Gyr ago) followed by an inside-out quenching of the star formation.

  3. [EEG data filing system with personal computer and magneto-optical disc].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K; Takizawa, Y; Nishitani, A; Futamata, H; Matsubara, F; Furuta, T; Jibiki, I; Yamaguchi, N

    1991-08-01

    We established a new computerized EEG filing system, in which an EEG machine was connected to an EEG filing unit which consisted of a personal computer with a 32 bit CPU, 18 channel analog -to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, and a magneto-optical disc driver. This system has the following merits. The system was space-saving, the space required to store the EEG data, being only 1/500 of that required for storing EEG record. Though the system had two independent EEG filing units, our original file configuration enabled us to have access to all of the recorded EEG data anytime for more than 10 years. The system enabled us to display EEG data continuously on the high resolution CRT, just as if turning the page of an EEG record paper, and through the quick scanning, enabled us to view the entire EEG pattern. Furthermore, the system enabled us to conduct reliable digital analysis for EEG data by entering the EEG data without artifacts into a data processor after confirmation on the display. In the system, we used data files with the MS-DOS operating system. This enabled us to analyze the data obtained by a personal computer operating on other systems, by transferring the data to a floppy disc operating on our system. Our EEG filing system allows quick access to data as well as mass data storage. PMID:1920882

  4. A Low-Power Laser Driver for the Portable Blue Optical Disc Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Bart M.; van den Homberg, John A. T. M.

    2004-07-01

    A Portable Blue optical disc drive intended for application in portable devices was developed. It uses discs of only 28 mm in diameter having a capacity of 1 GB. To study the power consumption on a system level, a power model was developed, comprising the entire drive electronics. This model shows that a peak power consumption of 1 W and an average power consumption of less than 50 mW are feasible for specific applications, provided that dedicated low-power electronics is used. Therefore, a low-power laser driver was developed, which, moreover, is sufficiently flexible to allow the use of low-power write strategies. The low power consumption of the laser driver is achieved by minimising the amount of circuitry used, the supply voltages and the clock frequencies. Test silicon was produced in a 0.18 ?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The IC, with an area of 0.24 mm2, consumes 19 mW.

  5. Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Novel Loci Associated With Optic Disc Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Mishra, Aniket; Hysi, Pirro G.; Gharahkhani, Puya; Höhn, René; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N.; Luo, Xiaoyan; Ramdas, Wishal D.; Vithana, Eranga; Koh, Victor; Yazar, Seyhan; Xu, Liang; Forward, Hannah; Kearns, Lisa S.; Amin, Najaf; Iglesias, Adriana I.; Sim, Kar-Seng; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Demirkan, Ayse; van der Lee, Sven; Loon, Seng-Chee; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Nag, Abhishek; Sanfilippo, Paul G.; Schillert, Arne; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Oostra, Ben A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zhou, Tiger; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Spector, Timothy D.; Lackner, Karl J.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Teo, Yik-Ying; Pasquale, Louis R.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Lemij, Hans G.; Tai, E-Shyong; Jonas, Jost B.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Aung, Tin; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Craig, Jamie E.; Young, Terri L.; Haines, Jonathan L.; MacGregor, Stuart; Mackey, David A.; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wong, Tien-Yin; Wiggs, Janey L.; Hewitt, Alex W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy and an important cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The optic nerve head or optic disc is divided in two parts: a central cup (without nerve fibers) surrounded by the neuroretinal rim (containing axons of the retinal ganglion cells). The International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies consisting of 17,248 individuals of European ancestry and 6,841 individuals of Asian ancestry. The outcomes of the genome-wide association studies were disc area and cup area. These specific measurements describe optic nerve morphology in another way than the vertical cup-disc ratio, which is a clinically used measurement, and may shed light on new glaucoma mechanisms. We identified 10 new loci associated with disc area (CDC42BPA, F5, DIRC3, RARB, ABI3BP, DCAF4L2, ELP4, TMTC2, NR2F2, and HORMAD2) and another 10 new loci associated with cup area (DHRS3, TRIB2, EFEMP1, FLNB, FAM101, DDHD1, ASB7, KPNB1, BCAS3, and TRIOBP). The new genes participate in a number of pathways and future work is likely to identify more functions related to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. PMID:25631615

  6. Laser-Induced Forward Transfer-printing of focused ion beam pre-machined crystalline magneto-optic yttrium iron garnet micro-discs.

    PubMed

    Sones, C L; Feinaeugle, M; Sposito, A; Gholipour, B; Eason, R W

    2012-07-01

    We present femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer of focused ion beam pre-machined discs of crystalline magneto-optic yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films. Debris-free circular micro-discs with smooth edges and surface uniformity have been successfully printed. The crystalline nature of the printed micro-discs has not been altered by the LIFT printing process, as was confirmed via micro-Raman measurements. PMID:22772215

  7. Optical methods for diagnostics and feedback control in laser-induced regeneration of spine disc and joint cartilages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, Emil; Sviridov, Alexander; Omeltchenko, Alexander; Baum, Olga; Baskov, Andrey; Borchshenko, Igor; Golubev, Vladimir; Baskov, Vladimir

    2011-03-01

    In 1999 we have introduced a new approach for treatment of spine diseases based on the mechanical effect of nondestructive laser radiation on the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. Laser reconstruction of spine discs (LRD) involves puncture of the disc and non-destructive laser irradiation of the nucleus pulposus to activate reparative processes in the disc tissues. In vivo animal study has shown that LRD allows activate the growth of hyaline type cartilage in laser affected zone. The paper considers physical processes and mechanisms of laser regeneration, presents results of investigations aimed to optimize laser settings and to develop feedback control system for laser reparation in cartilages of spine and joints. The results of laser reconstruction of intervertebral discs for 510 patients have shown substantial relief of back pain for 90% of patients. Laser technology has been experimentally tested for reparation of traumatic and degenerative diseases in joint cartilage of 20 minipigs. It is shown that laser regeneration of cartilage allows feeling large (more than 5 mm) defects which usually never repair on one's own. Optical techniques have been used to promote safety and efficacy of the laser procedures.

  8. Pharmacological enhancement of disc diffusion and differentiation of healthy, ageing and degenerated discs : Results from in-vivo serial post-contrast MRI studies in 365 human lumbar discs.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Venkatadass, K; Naresh Babu, J; Ganesh, K; Shetty, Ajoy P

    2008-05-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is still a poorly understood phenomenon because of the lack of availability of precise definition of healthy, ageing and degenerated discs. Decreased nutrition is the final common pathway for DDD and the status of the endplate (EP) plays a crucial role in controlling the extent of diffusion, which is the only source of nutrition. The vascular channels in the subchondral plate have muscarinic receptors but the possibility of enhancing diffusion pharmacologically by dilation of these vessels has not been probed. Although it is well accepted that EP damage will affect diffusion and thereby nutrition, there is no described method to quantify the extent of EP damage. Precise definitions with an objective method of differentiating healthy, ageing and degenerated discs on the basis of anatomical integrity of the disc and physiological basis of altered nutrition will be useful. This information is an urgent necessity for better understanding of DDD and also strategizing prevention and treatment. Seven hundred and thirty endplates of 365 lumbar discs from 73 individuals (26 healthy volunteers and 47 patients) with age ranging from 10-64 years were evaluated by pre-contrast and 10 min, 2, 4, 6 and 12 h post contrast MRI after IV injection of 0.3 mmol/kg of Gadodiamide. End plates were classified according to the extent of damage into six grades and an incremental score was given for each category. A total endplate score (TEPS) was derived by adding the EP score of the two endplates for each concerned disc. The base line value (SI(base)) and the signal intensity at particular time periods were used to derive the enhancement percentage for each time period (Enhancement (%) = SI(tp) - SI(base)/SI(base) x 100). The enhancement percentage for each time period, the time for peak enhancement (T-max) and the time intensity curve (TIC) over 12 h were used to study and compare the diffusion characteristics. The differences in pattern of diffusion were obvious visually at 4 h which was categorized into five patterns-Pattern A representing normal diffusion to Pattern E representing a total abnormality in diffusion. Degeneration was classified according to Pfirrmann's grading and this was correlated to the TEPS and the alterations in diffusion patterns. The relationship of TEPS on the increase in DDD was evaluated by a logistic curve and the cut point for severe DDD was found by ROC curve. The influence of the variables of age, level, Modic changes, instability, annulus fibrosis defect (DEBIT), TEPS and diffusion patterns on DDD was analyzed by multiple and stepwise regression analysis. Oral nimodipine study: Additional forty lumbar end-plates from four young healthy volunteers were studied to document the effect of oral nimodipine. Pre-drug diffusion levels were studied by pre and post contrast MRI (0.3 mmol/kg of gadodiamide) at 10 min, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h. Oral nimodipine was administered (30 mg QID) for 5 days and post-contrast MRI studies were performed similarly. Enhancement was calculated at vertebral body-VB; subchondral bone-SCB; Endplate Zone-EPZ and at superior and inferior peripheral nucleus pulposus-PNP and central nucleus pulposus-CNP, using appropriate cursors by a blinded investigator. Paired sample t test and area under curve (AUC) measurements were done.The incidence of disc degeneration had a significant correlation with increasing TEPS (Trend Chi-square, P < 0.01). Only one out of 83 (1.2%) disc had either Pfirrmann Grade IV or V when the score was 4 or below when compared to 34/190 (17.9%) for scores 5-7; 41 of 72 (56.9%) for scores 8-10 and 18 of 20 (90%) for scores 11 and 12 (P < 0.001 for all groups). Pearson's correlation between TEPS and DDD was statistically significant, irrespective of the level of disc or different age groups (r value was above 0.6 and P < 0.01 for all age groups). Logistic curve fit analysis and ROC curve analysis showed that the incidence of DDD increased abruptly when the TEPS crossed six. With a progressive increase of end plate damage, five different p

  9. Optical Spectroscopic Monitoring of Parachute Yarn Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Tallant, D.R.; Garcia, M.J.; Simpson, R.L.; Behr, V.L.; Whinery, L.D.; Peng, L.W.

    1999-04-01

    Optical spectroscopic techniques were evaluated as nondestructive monitors of the aging of parachutes in nuclear weapons. We analyzed thermally aged samples of nylon and Kevlar webbing by photoluminescence spectroscopy and reflection spectroscopy. Infrared analysis was also performed to help understand the degradation mechanisms of the polymer materials in the webbing. The photoluminescence and reflection spectra were analyzed by chemometric data treatment techniques to see if aged-induced changes in the spectra correlated to changes in measured tensile strength. A correlation was found between the shapes of the photoluminescent bands and the measured tensile strengths. Photoluminescent spectra can be used to predict the tensile strengths of nylon and Kevlar webbing with sufficient accuracy to categorize the webbing sample as above rated tensile strength, marginal or below rated tensile strength. The instrumentation required to perform the optical spectroscopic measurement can be made rugged, compact and portable. Thus, optical spectroscopic techniques offer a means for nondestructive field monitoring of parachutes in the enduring stockpile/

  10. Association of retinal thickness and optic disc-to-fovea angle to axial length of young healthy eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Takehiro; Sakamoto, Taiji; Terasaki, Hiroto; Tanaka, Minoru; Kii, Yuya; Uchino, Eisuke; Hisatomi, Toshio; Nakao, Kumiko

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the relationship between the axial length (AL) and the retinal thickness in the posterior pole and to the optic disc-to-fovea (ODF) angle of healthy eyes. Procedures A prospective, observational cross-sectional study (registration number, UMIN000006040) of 64 healthy right eyes (mean age 26.04.5 years) was performed. The thickness of the 64 areas within the central 24 area were measured in the Spectralis spectral domainoptical coherent tomographic images obtained by posterior pole scans. Each area was 33. The ODF angle was measured in each fundus photograph. The relationships between the AL and the retinal thickness of each of the 64 areas and the ODF angle were investigated by linear regression analyses. Results The mean AL was 25.01.3 mm and the mean ODF angle was 17.21.0. The average retinal thickness of the four areas around the fovea was constant and not significantly correlated with the AL. However, the retinal thicknesses of 54 of the other 60 areas were significantly and negatively correlated with the AL (R=?0.25 to ?0.56, P<0.05). The ODF angle was also constant and not significantly correlated with the AL (R=?0.17, P=0.19). Conclusion The lack of significant correlations between the AL and the retinal thicknesses of the central 6 or the ODF angle suggests that there might be some feedback system to keep the central retinal thickness and ODF angle constant regardless of an elongation of the AL. PMID:26664037

  11. Optic disc drusen demonstrate a hyperechogenic artifact in B mode ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Almog, Yehoshua; Nemet, Achia; Nemet, Arie Y

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new, specific, hyperechogenic artifact spot in B-mode ultrasound (US) in patients diagnosed with optic nerve drusen (OND). This is a retrospective chart review of 34 consecutive patients with OND using B-scan US. The patients underwent full ophthalmic evaluation and neuro-ophthalmic examination. In all cases, a typical hyperechogenic spot was seen within the acoustic shadows on medium or high gain settings. The length between the US probe and the OND, and the distance between the OND and the artifact were recorded for each patient. In all cases, a typical hyperechogenic spot was seen within the acoustic shadows on medium or high gain settings. Sonograms showed a hyperechogenic focus in all eyes. The average ratio between the cornea-OND distance (25.5mm) and the OND-hyperechogenic spot (32.1mm) distance was 1.26. The size of the hyperechogenic spot was proportional to the size of the deposit on the disc, with the most marked attenuation of the beam seen in the largest lesions. B-scan US is a very sensitive and reliable detector of both superficial and buried OND. The described hyperechogenic artifact spot may be an additional mode to support diagnosis of OND. This finding might be helpful for making a differential diagnosis between OND and papilledema. PMID:26412252

  12. An approach to locate optic disc in retinal images with pathological changes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Li; Li, Huiqi

    2016-01-01

    Automatic optic disc (OD) detection is an essential step for screening of eye diseases. An OD localization method is proposed in this paper, which aims to locate OD robustly in retinal image with pathological changes. There are mainly three steps in this approach: region-of-interest (ROI) detection, candidate pixel detection, and confidence score calculation. The features of vessel direction, intensity, OD edges, and size of bright regions were extracted and employed in the proposed OD locating approach. Compared with the OD locating method based on vessel direction only, the proposed method could handle the following cases better: OD partially appears in retinal image, retinal vessels are not obvious in retinal image, or there are bright lesions in retinal images. Four public databases with total 340 retinal images were tested to evaluate the performance of our method. The proposed method can achieve an accuracy of 100%, 95.8%, 99.2%, 97.8% for DRIVE database, STARE database, DIARETDB0 database, DIARETDB1 database respectively. Comparison studies showed that the proposed approach is especially robust in the retinal images with diseases. PMID:26650403

  13. Eyes with Large Disc Cupping and Normal Intraocular Pressure: Using Optical Coherence Tomography to Discriminate Those With and Without Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Tiago S.; Dorairaj, Syril; Trancoso, Luisa; Kanadani, Fabio N.; Biteli, Luis G.; Furlanetto, Rafael; Lopes, Flavio S.; Leite, Mauro T.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of spectral-domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to differentiate large physiological optic disc cupping (LPC) from glaucomatous cupping in eyes with intraocular pressure (IOP) within the normal range. We prospectively enrolled patients with glaucoma or presumed LPC. Participants had optic discs with confirmed or suspected glaucomatous damage (defined as a vertical cup-to-disc ratio?0.6), and all eyes had known untreated IOP<21 mmHg. For glaucomatous eyes, a reproducible glaucomatous visual field (VF) defect was required. LPC eyes required normal VF and no evidence of progressive glaucomatous neuropathy (follow-up?30 months). Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thicknesses were obtained using SD-OCT. For all studied parameters of pRNFL and GCC thicknesses, eyes with glaucoma (n=36) had significantly thinner values compared to eyes with LPC (n=71; P<0.05 for all comparisons). In addition, pRNFL parameters had sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 83.1%, and GCC parameters had sensitivity of 61.2% and specificity of 81.7%. The combination of the two analyses increased the sensitivity to 80.6%. In conclusion, while evaluating patients with large optic disc cupping and IOP in the statistically normal range, SD-OCT had only limited diagnostic ability to differentiate those with and without glaucoma. Although the diagnostic ability of the pRNFL and the GCC scans were similar, these parameters yielded an increase in sensitivity when combined, suggesting that both parameters could be considered simultaneously in these cases. PMID:25741525

  14. Autologous platelet concentrate in surgery for macular detachment associated with congenital optic disc pit

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Jeroni; Figueroa, Marta S; Carreras, Elisa; Pujol, Patricia; Canut, Maria Isabel; Barraquer, Rafael Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the anatomical and functional results obtained with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) plus autologous platelet concentrate (APC) as a treatment for macular detachment associated with optic disc pit (ODP). Methods We performed a prospective interventional study of 19 eyes of 19 consecutive patients with posterior macular detachment due to ODP. All patients underwent PPV, posterior hyaloid peeling, fluid–air exchange, injection of 0.05 mL of APC over the ODP and 15% perfluoropropane (C3F8) endotamponade. Postoperative measures included face-up positioning for 2 hours and then avoidance of the face-up position during the ensuing 10 days. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography preoperatively at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months postoperatively and then annually. Outcome measures were best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) by logMAR, improvement of quality of vision, macular attachment, and resolution of intraretinal schisis-like separation. Results Preoperatively, the median BCVA was 0.70 (range: 0.30–1.70) and all patients showed improved visual acuity after surgery; BCVA was 0.22 (range: 0.07–0.52) at 12 months follow-up. All patients showed complete reabsorption of intraretinal fluid (median time: 3.5 months [range: 2–8 months]) and macular attachment at the end of follow-up (median: 60 months [range: 12–144 months]), with stable or improved visual acuity. No reoperations were needed and no major adverse events were recorded. Conclusion For macular detachment associated with ODP, the combination of PPV, posterior hyaloid peeling, APC, and C3F8 tamponade is a highly effective alternative technique with stable anatomical and functional results. PMID:26543348

  15. Macular and optic disc edema and retinal vascular leakage in familial amyloid polyneuropathy with a transthyretin Val30Met mutation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Familial amyloid polyneuropathy is a group of autosomal dominant disorders characterized by extracellular amyloid deposition in several target organs. This paper aims to report an unusual manifestation of retinal vascular leakage including optic disc and macular edema in a patient with familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Case presentation A 37-year-old Portuguese Caucasian man with Val30Met transthyretin-related familial amyloid polyneuropathy presented with rapidly progressing visual loss in his left eye. He had undergone liver transplantation at the age of 30 with neurologic stabilization. Fundoscopy and fluorescein angiogram revealed optic disc and macular edema as well as vessel wall staining with leakage in the posterior pole and mid-periphery, without vitreous opacities. A diagnostic work-up for infectious, autoimmune and neoplasic conditions was negative. Systemic immunosuppression was increased but without improvement. Sustained resolution of macular edema was observed after intravitreal injection of dexamethasone implant and laser panretinal photocoagulation. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a rare ocular manifestation of familial amyloid polyneuropathy which represents a new therapeutic challenge. Intravitreal injection of sustained release dexamethasone implant and panretinal photocoagulation may be an effective eye-saving therapeutic approach. PMID:25282612

  16. New Edge-Shift Detection Method for Write Strategy Optimization in High-Density Optical Disc Recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Takahiro; Minemura, Hiroyuki; Kikukawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    2011-09-01

    We propose a sophisticated edge-shift detection method based on the partial response maximum likelihood technology for high-density optical disc recordings. One of the major features is the capability of detecting the edge shifts of short marks that cannot be optically resolved. Another feature is that measured values are not affected by the signal-to-noise ratio in a readout signal. This ensures drive compatibility. Furthermore, the edge-shift values are sorted and evaluated corresponding to the write pulse control parameters for simplifying write strategy optimization. These features make write strategy optimization possible under an areal recording density of over 30 Gbyte/layer.

  17. Minimal invasive localization of the germinal disc in ovo for subsequent chicken sexing using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Anke; Geissler, Stefan; Cimalla, Peter; Walther, Julia; Koch, Edmund

    2010-02-01

    Reason for using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to locate the germinal disc is the questionable and ethically alarming killing of male layer chickens because for the layer line only the females are necessary. To avoid this and to protect the animal rights, the sex of the fertilized chicken egg has to be determined as early as possible in the unincubated state. Because the information whether the chick becomes male or female can be found in the germinal disc an accurate localization for sexing is essential. The germinal disc is located somewhere on top of the yolk and has a diameter of approximately 4 - 5 mm. Different imaging methods like ultrasonography, 3D-X-ray micro computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used for localization until now, but found to be impractical. The goal of this study is to prove if OCT can be a moderate approach for the precise in ovo localization. Because the eggshell is an impenetrable barrier for OCT and to minimize the penetration of germs a very small hole is placed in the eggshell and a fan-shaped optical scanning pattern is used.

  18. Analysis of Disturbance on Differential Push-Pull Tracking with Dual-Layer Optical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itonaga, Makoto; Eguchi, Hideharu; Sakurauchi, Kiyoshi; Saito, Toshiya

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we analyze the disturbance of tracking error signal caused by layer cross talk on playback of a dual-layer disc. We will reveal the origin of the disturbance by experiments using a special disc. The origin is the groove of the cross-talk layer. Furthermore, we will investigate other related factors that increase the disturbance. Tangential tilt and variation of space layer thickness in one revolution are such factors.

  19. Central Retinal Venous Pressure in Eyes of Normal-Tension Glaucoma Patients with Optic Disc Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ko Eun; Kim, Dong Myung; Flammer, Josef; Kim, Kyoung Nam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare central retinal venous pressure (CRVP) among eyes with and without optic disc hemorrhage (ODH) in bilateral normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients and NTG eyes without an episode of ODH. Methods In this prospective study, 22 bilateral NTG patients showing a unilateral ODH and 29 bilateral NTG patients without an episode of ODH were included. Eyes were categorized into group A (n = 22, eyes with ODH), group B (n = 22, fellow eyes without ODH), and group C (n = 29, NTG eyes without an episode of ODH). A contact lens ophthalmodynamometer was used to measure CRVP and central retinal arterial pressure (CRAP). Results Intraocular pressure (IOP) measured on the day of contact lens ophthalmodynamometry showed no difference among groups. However, the mean baseline IOP in group A was significantly lower than that in group C (P = .008). The CRVP in group A (29.1 ± 10.8 mmHg) was significantly lower than that in group C (40.1 ± 8.8 mmHg, P = .001), but similar to that in group B (30.5 ± 8.7 mmHg, P = .409). A similar relationship was noted for CRAP. No significant eye-associated variable for ODH was found in group A and B by conditional logistic regression analysis (all P > 0.05). However, multivariate logistic regression analysis in groups A and C revealed that low mean baseline IOP (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.98, P = 0.043) and low CRVP (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.95, P = 0.003) were associated with ODH. Conclusions CRVP was lower in NTG eyes with ODH than in eyes without an episode of ODH, but similar to that of fellow eyes without ODH. These imply less likelihood of association between increased central retinal venous resistance and ODH. PMID:25996599

  20. Detection of the optic disc in fundus images by combining probability models.

    PubMed

    Harangi, Balazs; Hajdu, Andras

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a combination method for the automatic detection of the optic disc (OD) in fundus images based on ensembles of individual algorithms. We have studied and adapted some of the state-of-the-art OD detectors and finally organized them into a complex framework in order to maximize the accuracy of the localization of the OD. The detection of the OD can be considered as a single-object detection problem. This object can be localized with high accuracy by several algorithms extracting single candidates for the center of the OD and the final location can be defined using a single majority voting rule. To include more information to support the final decision, we can use member algorithms providing more candidates which can be ranked based on the confidence ordered by the algorithms. In this case, a spatial weighted graph is defined where the candidates are considered as its nodes, and the final OD position is determined in terms of finding a maximum-weighted clique. Now, we examine how to apply in our ensemble-based framework all the accessible information supplied by the member algorithms by making them return confidence values for each image pixel. These confidence values inform us about the probability that a given pixel is the center point of the object. We apply axiomatic and Bayesian approaches, as in the case of aggregation of judgments of experts in decision and risk analysis, to combine these confidence values. According to our experimental study, the accuracy of the localization of OD increases further. Besides single localization, this approach can be adapted for the precise detection of the boundary of the OD. Comparative experimental results are also given for several publicly available datasets. PMID:26259029

  1. Uveal melanomas near the optic disc or fovea. Visual results after proton beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Seddon, J.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Egan, K.M.; Glynn, R.J.; Munzenrider, J.E.; Austin-Seymour, M.; Goitein, M.; Verhey, L.; Urie, M.; Koehler, A.

    1987-04-01

    Proximity to the disc and fovea is a risk factor for visual loss after proton beam irradiation of uveal melanomas. Of 562 eyes treated over a 10-year period with pretreatment visual acuity of 20/200 or better, 363 (64.6%) contained tumors within 2 disc diameters (DD) of the disc or fovea. Rates of visual loss after treatment to worse than 20/200 and causes of visual decline were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cumulative rates of visual loss among subjects with tumors near the disc or fovea were 33 and 47% 1 and 2 years after treatment compared to 17 and 28%, respectively, for subjects with tumors located farther from both structures. The leading cause of visual loss in the first year among eyes with tumors near the disc or fovea was retinal detachment. Controlling for other predictors of visual loss to worse than 20/200, location near the disc or fovea was independently related to visual loss primarily due to retinal detachment, cataract, and radiation retinopathy. Despite the unfavorable location of these tumors, over half of patients with 20/200 or better pretreatment visual acuity had useful vision 2 years after treatment.

  2. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 10. Variability among academic glaucoma subspecialists in assessing optic disc notching.

    PubMed Central

    Gaasterland, D E; Blackwell, B; Dally, L G; Caprioli, J; Katz, L J; Ederer, F

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: An analysis of data from the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) has found eyes reported to have partial optic disc rim notching (not to the edge) at baseline to have less risk of subsequent visual field loss than eyes with no notching. Because this is counterintuitive and because classification of notching had not been defined in the AGIS protocol, we have assessed AGIS ophthalmologists interobserver and intraobserver agreement on notching. METHODS: Fourteen glaucoma subspecialists classified notching in 26 pairs of stereoscopic disc photographs of eyes with mild to severe glaucomatous optic neuropathy. They classified images as showing either no notching, notching not to the edge, or notching to the edge. Several hours later, 10 of them classified the same images a second time. RESULTS: In an analysis of interobserver agreement, of 26 stereoscopic images, a plurality of ophthalmologists classified notching as absent in 9 (35%), as present but not to the edge in 7 (27%), and as present and not to the edge in 10 (38%). All 14 ophthalmologists (100%) agreed on the classification of 7 (27%) of the images, and 13 of the 14 ophthalmologists (93%) agreed on the classification of 4 additional images (15%). Of these 11 images with at least 93% agreement, notching was reported as absent in 3 (27%) and to the edge in 8 (73%). In the remaining 15 images, there was substantial disagreement about whether notching was present and, if so, whether it was to the edge. In an analysis of intraobserver agreement, none of the 10 ophthalmologists who completed the viewing a second time classified all eyes exactly the same as the first time, though 5 ophthalmologists made 4 or fewer reclassifications. Overall, 80% of the original classifications were reproduced on second reading. Of the initial classifications that were not reproduced, slightly more than half were first classified as having notching not to the edge. CONCLUSION: Without definitions or examples of optic disc rim notching, the glaucoma subspecialists had relatively high intraobserver agreement but were likely to disagree with each other in characterizing the degree of disc rim notching. We recommend development of a standard photographic classification of disc rim notching. The classification should be tested for inter- and intra-observer agreement. PMID:11797305

  3. Anti-Bacterial effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) determined by Disc Diffusion Method against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Saha, S K; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Gomes, R R; Imtiaz, M; Islam, M M; Nahar, H; Begum, S A; Mirza, T T

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to determine the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) against standard strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Antibacterial effect of AGE was determined by disc diffusion method. Sensitivity of AGE determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 4mm, 10mm and 20mm at 25μg/10μl, 50μg/10μl and 100μg/10μl concentrations respectively. From the findings it is clearly determined the extract has definite antibacterial effect upon Escherichia coli. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract as well as detail steps of mechanism responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account. PMID:26931244

  4. The human lumbar intervertebral disc: evidence for changes in the biosynthesis and denaturation of the extracellular matrix with growth, maturation, ageing, and degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, J; Steffen, T; Nelson, F; Winterbottom, N; Hollander, A P; Poole, R A; Aebi, M; Alini, M

    1996-01-01

    Very little is known about the turnover of extracellular matrix in the human intervertebral disc. We measured concentrations of specific molecules reflecting matrix synthesis and degradation in predetermined regions of 121 human lumbar intervertebral discs and correlated them with ageing and Thompson grade of degeneration. Synthesis in intervertebral discs, measured by immunoassay of the content of a putative aggrecan biosynthesis marker (846) and the content of types I and II procollagen markers, is highest in the neonatal and 2-5-yr age groups. The contents of these epitopes/molecules progressively diminished with increasing age. However, in the oldest age group (60-80 yr) and in highly degenerated discs, the type I procollagen epitope level increased significantly. The percentage of denatured type II collagen, assessed by the presence of an epitope that is exposed with cleavage of type II collagen, increased twofold from the neonatal discs to the young 2-5-yr age group. Thereafter, the percentage progressively decreased with increasing age; however, it increased significantly in the oldest group and in highly degenerate discs. We identified three matrix turnover phases. Phase I (growth) is characterized by active synthesis of matrix molecules and active denaturation of type II collagen. Phase II (maturation and ageing) is distinguished by a progressive drop in synthetic activity and a progressive reduction in denaturation of type 11 collagen. Phase III (degeneration and fibrotic) is illustrated by evidence for a lack of increased synthesis of aggrecan and type II procollagen, but also by an increase in collagen type II denaturation and type I procollagen synthesis, both dependent on age and grade of tissue degeneration. PMID:8770872

  5. Characterization of the optic disc in retinal imagery using a probabilistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth W., Jr.; Chaum, Edward; Govindasamy, V. P.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Sezer, Omer

    2006-03-01

    The application of computer based image analysis to the diagnosis of retinal disease is rapidly becoming a reality due to the broad-based acceptance of electronic imaging devices throughout the medical community and through the collection and accumulation of large patient histories in picture archiving and communications systems. Advances in the imaging of ocular anatomy and pathology can now provide data to diagnose and quantify specific diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). Visual disability and blindness have a profound socioeconomic impact upon the diabetic population and DR is the leading cause of new blindness in working-age adults in the industrialized world. To reduce the impact of diabetes on vision loss, robust automation is required to achieve productive computer-based screening of large at-risk populations at lower cost. Through this research we are developing automation methods for locating and characterizing important structures in the human retina such as the vascular arcades, optic nerve, macula, and lesions. In this paper we present results for the automatic detection of the optic nerve using digital red-free fundus photography. Our method relies on the accurate segmentation of the vasculature of the retina along with spatial probability distributions describing the luminance across the retina and the density, average thickness, and average orientation of the vasculature in relation to the position of the optic nerve. With these features and other prior knowledge, we predict the location of the optic nerve in the retina using a two-class, Bayesian classifier. We report 81% detection performance on a broad range of red-free fundus images representing a population of over 345 patients with 19 different pathologies associated with DR.

  6. Image processing based automatic diagnosis of glaucoma using wavelet features of segmented optic disc from fundus image.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore; ParthaSarathi, M; Uher, Vaclav; Burget, Radim

    2016-02-01

    Glaucoma is a disease of the retina which is one of the most common causes of permanent blindness worldwide. This paper presents an automatic image processing based method for glaucoma diagnosis from the digital fundus image. In this paper wavelet feature extraction has been followed by optimized genetic feature selection combined with several learning algorithms and various parameter settings. Unlike the existing research works where the features are considered from the complete fundus or a sub image of the fundus, this work is based on feature extraction from the segmented and blood vessel removed optic disc to improve the accuracy of identification. The experimental results presented in this paper indicate that the wavelet features of the segmented optic disc image are clinically more significant in comparison to features of the whole or sub fundus image in the detection of glaucoma from fundus image. Accuracy of glaucoma identification achieved in this work is 94.7% and a comparison with existing methods of glaucoma detection from fundus image indicates that the proposed approach has improved accuracy of classification. PMID:26574297

  7. Transient accretion disc-like envelope in the symbiotic binary BF Cygni during its 2006-2015 optical outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, N. A.; Tomova, M. T.; Bisikalo, D. V.

    2015-09-01

    The optical light of the symbiotic binary BF Cyg during its last eruption after 2006 shows orbital variations because of an eclipse of the outbursting compact object. The first orbital minimum is deeper than the following ones. Moreover, the Balmer profiles of this system acquired additional satellite components indicating a bipolar collimated outflow at one time between the first and second orbital minima. This behaviour is interpreted in the framework of the model of a collimated stellar wind from the outbursting object. It is supposed that one extended disc-like envelope covering the accretion disc of the compact object and collimating its stellar wind forms in the period between the first and second minima. The uneclipsed part of this envelope is responsible for the decrease of the depth of the orbital minimum. The calculated U BVR_{ C}I_{ C} fluxes of this uneclipsed part are in agreement with the observed residual of the depths of the first and second orbital minima. The parameters of the envelope require that it is the main emitting region of the line H? but the H? profile is less determined from its rotation and mostly from other mechanisms. It is concluded that the envelope is a transient nebular region and its destruction determines the increase of the depth of the orbital minimum with fading of the optical light.

  8. Genome-wide association studies in Asians confirm the involvement of ATOH7 and TGFBR3, and further identify CARD10 as a novel locus influencing optic disc area.

    PubMed

    Khor, Chiea Chuen; Ramdas, Wishal D; Vithana, Eranga N; Cornes, Belinda K; Sim, Xueling; Tay, Wan-Ting; Saw, Seang-Mei; Zheng, Yingfeng; Lavanya, Raghavan; Wu, Renyi; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Uitterlinden, Andr G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Teo, Yik-Ying; Chia, Kee-Seng; Seielstad, Mark; Hibberd, Martin; Vingerling, Johannes R; Klaver, Caroline C W; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien-Yin; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Aung, Tin

    2011-05-01

    Damage to the optic nerve (e.g. from glaucoma) has an adverse and often irreversible impact on vision. Earlier studies have suggested that the size of the optic nerve head could be governed by hereditary factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 4445 Singaporean individuals (n = 2132 of Indian and n = 2313 of Malay ancestry, respectively), with replication in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (n = 9326 individuals of Caucasian ancestry) using the most widely reported parameter for optic disc traits, the optic disc area. We identified a novel locus on chromosome 22q13.1, CARD10, which strongly associates with optic disc area in both Singaporean cohorts as well as in the Rotterdam Study (RS; rs9607469, per-allele change in optic disc area = 0.051 mm(2); P(meta) = 2.7310(-12)) and confirmed the association between CDC7/TGFBR3 (lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1192415, P(meta) = 7.5710(-17)) and ATOH7 (lead SNP rs7916697, P(meta) = 2.00 10(-15)) and optic disc area in Asians. This is the first Asian-based GWAS on optic disc area, identifying a novel locus for the optic disc area, but also confirming the results found in Caucasian persons suggesting that there are general genetic determinants applicable to the size of the optic disc across different ethnicities. PMID:21307088

  9. A novel collinear optical system with annulus mirrors for holographic disc driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye

    2008-12-01

    This paper focus on a novel collinear lens system with annulus mirrors for holographic disc driver, both information beam and reference beam are use same laser beam. The expanded and parallel laser beam, center part of it as the information beam then through Fourier transform lens, the beam around center part as a reference beam. On this axis, the ring reference beam reflected by two annulus shaped mirrors, then became a convergent beam, together with the information beam which through the first Fourier transform lens then produce holographic pattern to be write into the holographic disc behind of them, this lens system with two mirrors made the angle between information beam and reference beam more wide, can improved the multiplex level of holographic storage. Pair of Fourier transform lens with advance performance is designed in this paper.

  10. Retinal Nerve Fiber and Optic Disc Morphology in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Using the Heidelberg Retina Tomography 3

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Kozak, Igor; Grant, Igor; Knudsen, Victoria L.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Lee, Byung Ro; Freeman, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To use novel confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy technology to test hypothesis that HIV-seropositive patients without history of retinitis with a history of a low CD4 count are more likely to have damage to their retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) when compared to patients with high CD4 count. In addition, we compared optic disc morphologic changes with glaucoma. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants and Controls 171 patients were divided into four groups. The control group consisted of 40 eyes of 20 HIV-seronegative patients. The second group consisted of 80 eyes of 41 HIV-positive patients whose CD4 cell count never dropped below 100 (1.0 x 109/L). The third group consisted of 44 eyes of 26 HIV-positive patients with a history of low CD4 counts <100. Fourth group consisted of 79 eyes of 79 patients with confirmed glaucoma who served as positive controls. Testing Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy was performed with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT3) and data were analyzed with HRT3, software (Heyex version 1.5.10.0). Main Outcome Measures Disc area, cup area, cup volume, rim volume, mean cup depth, maximum cup depth, cup-to-disc ration, mean RNFL thickness, and RNFL cross-sectional area. Results Analysis of the global optic nerve and cup parameters showed no difference in disk area among the four groups. There was also no difference in cup, rim volume, mean cup depth, or maximum cup depth among the first three groups but they were all different from glaucoma group. The RNFL was thinner in glaucoma and both HIV-positive groups compared to HIV-seronegative subjects. The cross sectional RNFL area was thinner in both high and low CD4 HIV-positive groups compared to HIV-seronegative group in the nasal and temporal/inferior sectors, respectively. Glaucoma group showed thinning in all sectors. Conclusions HIV retinopathy results in retinal nerve fiber layer loss without structural optic nerve supportive tissue change. RNFL damage may occur early in HIV disease by mechanism different than in glaucoma. PMID:26258547

  11. Study of Interpolated Timing Recovery Phase-Locked Loop with Linearly Constrained Adaptive Prefilter for Higher-Density Optical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yoshiyuki; Shiraishi, Junya; Kobayashi, Shoei; Yamagami, Tamotsu

    2009-03-01

    A digital phase-locked loop (PLL) with a linearly constrained adaptive filter (LCAF) has been studied for higher-linear-density optical discs. LCAF has been implemented before an interpolated timing recovery (ITR) PLL unit in order to improve the quality of phase error calculation by using an adaptively equalized partial response (PR) signal. Coefficient update of an asynchronous sampled adaptive FIR filter with a least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm has been constrained by a projection matrix in order to suppress the phase shift of the tap coefficients of the adaptive filter. We have developed projection matrices that are suitable for Blu-ray disc (BD) drive systems by numerical simulation. Results have shown the properties of the projection matrices. Then, we have designed the read channel system of the ITR PLL with an LCAF model on the FPGA board for experiments. Results have shown that the LCAF improves the tilt margins of 30 gigabytes (GB) recordable BD (BD-R) and 33 GB BD read-only memory (BD-ROM) with a sufficient LMS adaptation stability.

  12. Multimodal Segmentation of Optic Disc and Cup From SD-OCT and Color Fundus Photographs Using a Machine-Learning Graph-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Abrmoff, Michael D; Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Wang, Jui-Kai; Kwon, Young H; Garvin, Mona K

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a multimodal approach is proposed to use the complementary information from fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes in order to segment the optic disc and cup boundaries. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem where the optimal solution is obtained using a machine-learning theoretical graph-based method. In particular, first the fundus photograph is registered to the 2D projection of the SD-OCT volume. Three in-region cost functions are designed using a random forest classifier corresponding to three regions of cup, rim, and background. Next, the volumes are resampled to create radial scans in which the Bruch's Membrane Opening (BMO) endpoints are easier to detect. Similar to in-region cost function design, the disc-boundary cost function is designed using a random forest classifier for which the features are created by applying the Haar Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) to the radial projection image. A multisurface graph-based approach utilizes the in-region and disc-boundary cost images to segment the boundaries of optic disc and cup under feasibility constraints. The approach is evaluated on 25 multimodal image pairs from 25 subjects in a leave-one-out fashion (by subject). The performances of the graph-theoretic approach using three sets of cost functions are compared: 1) using unimodal (OCT only) in-region costs, 2) using multimodal in-region costs, and 3) using multimodal in-region and disc-boundary costs. Results show that the multimodal approaches outperform the unimodal approach in segmenting the optic disc and cup. PMID:25781623

  13. Chemical evolution of the Galactic bulge as traced by microlensed dwarf and subgiant stars. II. Ages, metallicities, detailed elemental abundances, and connections to the Galactic thick disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.; Johnson, J. A.; Gould, A.; Adn, D.; Asplund, M.; Melndez, J.; Gal-Yam, A.; Lucatello, S.; Sana, H.; Sumi, T.; Miyake, N.; Suzuki, D.; Han, C.; Bond, I.; Udalski, A.

    2010-03-01

    Context. The Bulge is the least understood major stellar population of the Milky Way. Most of what we know about the formation and evolution of the Bulge comes from bright giant stars. The underlying assumption that giants represent all the stars, and accurately trace the chemical evolution of a stellar population, is under debate. In particular, recent observations of a few microlensed dwarf stars give a very different picture of the evolution of the Bulge from that given by the giant stars. Aims: We aim to resolve the apparent discrepancy between Bulge metallicity distributions derived from microlensed dwarf stars and giant stars. Additionally, we aim to put observational constraints on the elemental abundance trends and chemical evolution of the Bulge. Methods: We perform a detailed elemental abundance analysis of dwarf stars in the Galactic bulge, based on high-resolution spectra that were obtained while the stars were optically magnified during gravitational microlensing events. The analysis method is the same as for a large sample of F and G dwarf stars in the Solar neighbourhood, enabling a fully differential comparison between the Bulge and the local stellar populations in the Galactic disc. Results: We present detailed elemental abundances and stellar ages for six new dwarf stars in the Galactic bulge. Combining these with previous events, here re-analysed with the same methods, we study a homogeneous sample of 15 stars, which constitute the largest sample to date of microlensed dwarf stars in the Galactic bulge. We find that the stars span the full range of metallicities from [Fe/H] = -0.72 to +0.54, and an average metallicity of < [Fe/H]> = -0.08 0.47, close to the average metallicity based on giant stars in the Bulge. Furthermore, the stars follow well-defined abundance trends, that for [Fe/H]<0 are very similar to those of the local Galactic thick disc. This suggests that the Bulge and the thick disc have had, at least partially, comparable chemical histories. At sub-solar metallicities we find the Bulge dwarf stars to have consistently old ages, while at super-solar metallicities we find a wide range of ages. Using the new age and abundance results from the microlensed dwarf stars we investigate possible formation scenarios for the Bulge. Based on observations made with the European Southern Observatory telescopes, Program IDs 082.B-0453 and 083.B-0265.Table 5 is also available in electronic form at the CDS and full Table 4 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/512/A41

  14. The Palenque Optical Disc Prototype: Design of Multimedia Experiences for Education and Entertainment in a Nontraditional Learning Context. Technical Report No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kathleen S.

    This report describes Palenque, an interactive, multimedia, optical disc research prototype developed for home use by 8- to 14-year-old children and their families. The report begins by providing an overview of the project, which is followed by a discussion of the target audience and context for use of the videodisc. A discussion of learning

  15. Design, Installation and Post-Implementation Assessment of an Optical Disc Based Storage and Retrieval System for Images of Engineering Contract Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, J. H.; Masters, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an image storage system for contract documentation in the Engineering Directorate of Thames Water Utilities (England) which uses optical disc storage and a relational database for indexing and retrieval of nearly 500,000 pages in compressed image format, and provides end user access through 7 workstations. Requirements, feasibility

  16. The Coming of Age of Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    How Ground-Based Astronomers Beat the Atmosphere Adaptive Optics (AO) is the new ``wonder-weapon'' in ground-based astronomy. By means of advanced electro-optical devices at their telescopes, astronomers are now able to ``neutralize'' the image-smearing turbulence of the terrestrial atmosphere (seen by the unaided eye as the twinkling of stars) so that much sharper images can be obtained than before. In practice, this is done with computer-controlled, flexible mirrors which refocus the blurred images up to 100 times per second, i.e. at a rate that is faster than the changes in the atmospheric turbulence. This means that finer details in astronomical objects can be studied and also - because of the improved concentration of light in the telescope's focal plane - that fainter objects can be observed. At the moment, Adaptive Optics work best in the infrared part of spectrum, but at some later time it may also significantly improve observations at the shorter wavelengths of visible light. The many-sided aspects of this new technology and its impact on astronomical instrumentation was the subject of a recent AO conference [1] with over 150 participants from about 30 countries, presenting a total of more than 100 papers. The Introduction of AO Techniques into Astronomy The scope of this meeting was the design, fabrication and testing of AO systems, characterisation of the sources of atmospheric disturbance, modelling of compensation systems, individual components, astronomical AO results, non-astronomical applications, laser guide star systems, non-linear optical phase conjugation, performance evaluation, and other areas of this wide and complex field, in which front-line science and high technology come together in a new and powerful symbiosis. One of the specific goals of the meeting was to develop contacts between AO scientists and engineers in the western world and their colleagues in Russia and Asia. For the first time at a conference of this type, nine Russian scientists were invited to give presentations; this was made possible by a grant from the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD) Following the declassification of much AO technology and the introduction of AO into regular astronomical research several years ago, first at ESO with the ``Come-On'' system at La Silla [2], the fundamental importance of AO to ground-based astronomy has now become widely recognised. Since the last AO meeting that was held in Garching in August 1993, many groups in different countries have been developing such systems and have begun to use them. As Fritz Merkle (Carl Zeiss, Jena) emphasized during a review talk, there has also been an interesting opening of new commercial and industrial AO applications, such as for high power lasers and for laser communications systems. However, the chief field of AO development and application remains astronomy and the vast majority of papers presented at the conference were concerned, directly or indirectly, with this science. Towards Scientific and Technological Maturity According to Martin Cullum (ESO), the organiser of this conference, it is apparent that a certain technological maturity has been reached during the past two years. However, it is also much more widely realised that it is not straightforward to produce good science, even with a high-performance AO system. A detailed characterization of the atmosphere, painstaking system calibrations and a lot of hard work during the astronomical observations and especially at the time of the reduction and interpretation of the voluminous datasets are necessary to obtain reliable results of high quality. Many of the presentations reflected this fact. From the technical standpoint, highlights of the meeting included the significant progress that was reported in the development of adaptive secondary mirrors for the upgrade of the Multi-Mirror-Telescope (MMT) in Arizona, the initial tests of the laser guide-star AO system installed on the Lick 3-metre telescope in California, as well as the development of an advanced visible-light AO system for satellite reconnaissance and astronomy on Mt. Haleakala, Hawaii. On the scientific side, an overview of the adaptive optics observations that have been carried out with ESO's Come-On-Plus AO system at the 3.6-metre telescope on La Silla during the first 4 years of operation was given by Pierre Lena (Paris Observatory) and forcefully illustrated the power of adaptive optics techniques in astronomy. Impressive recent results were also presented by Bernhard Brandl and collaborators (Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching) on the starburst cluster R136, that is located at the centre of the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This was especially interesting, because the scientific results were obtained by combining high-resolution optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope with diffraction-limited infrared images from the Come-On-Plus system. Without either one of these data sources, the exciting, final results could not have been obtained. They include a very thorough characterization of the stellar types in this extremely young cluster whose age is apparently only a few million years, as well as a detailed description of its dynamical state. This demonstrates once again that, far from being competitors, ground-based AO facilities and space instruments are highly complementary. This perhaps provides an insight into the direction modern astronomy is developing. Adaptive Optics at ESO It is now more than five years since the first AO system, developed in collaboration with institutes in France, was installed at the 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla. Since then, much experience has been gained and the state-of the-art ADONIS/Come-On-Plus AO instrumental constellation is now regularly used by visiting astronomers. It employs a flexible silicon-mirror that is supported by 52 computer-controlled supports. The mirror changes its shape one hundred times per second, allowing to achieve very nearly the theoretical image sharpness in the mid-infrared wavelength region. Closer to the visible spectral region, images have been obtained at wavelength 1.5 microns which are only 0.12 arcseconds wide. Under the leadership of Norbert Hubin at the ESO Headquarters in Garching, a team of astronomers and engineers is now in the process of designing the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) that will be used at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will use a mirror with about 250 supports. Following testing in the second half of 1998, it is expected that the first NAOS device will be mounted on the first 8.2-metre VLT unit telescope in early 1999. Notes: [1] The Topical Meeting on Adaptive Optics sponsored by the Optical Society of America and the European Southern Observatory was held on the premises of the Munich Technical University in Garching, on October 2--6, 1995. [2] See ESO Press Releases 06/89 of 24 October 1989 and 05/90 of 25 May 1990.

  17. Comparison of optical and electrical investigations of meat ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopyeva, Elena; Tománek, Pavel; Kocová, Lucie; Palai-Dany, Tomáš; Balík, Zdeněk.; Škarvada, Pavel; Grmela, Lubomír.

    2013-05-01

    Different ultrasonic, electromagnetic, electrical and optical methods are used for meat ageing detection. Muscles are turbid anisotropic media, they exhibit changes in electrical and optical properties according to the direction of the electrical and optical fields in the sample. The work assesses the feasibility of impedance measurements for meat ageing detection and their comparison with optical measurement of scattered light. The pork chop slices were used for their relative homogeneity. An investigation was carried out for the detection of the ageing of unpacked slices exposed directly to the air, and other packed in polyethylene bags. The electrical method is a promising method due to the possibility of getting much information and realizing cheap and fast enough measurement systems. The optical method allows measure the rotation of polarization plane in the range of 95 degrees within considered period. Nevertheless, further work has to be provided to determine closer relationships between optical scattering characteristics, electrical anisotropy in ageing-related tissue structural properties.

  18. Retrobulbar blood flow and visual organ function disturbance in the course of giant cell arteritis coexisting with optic disc drusen a case report

    PubMed Central

    Post, Micha?; Milchert, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    The review presented ophthalmologic syndrome connected with visual organ function disorder in giant cell arteritis patient concomitant with optic nerve disc drusen. Diagnostic difficulties were shown in relation to incidence of both similar ophthalmic symptoms as well as interpretation of specialists examinations results (pattern visual evoked potential test, scanning laser polarimetry, and perimetric tests kinetic and static). Apart from ophthalmic investigations, significant role of radiological examinations was considered, especially color Doppler ultrasonography of retrobulbar circulation optic artery, central retinal artery, long posterior ciliary arteries. Adequate interpretation of results seems to be crucial to establish scheme and timing of treatment in case of co-occurrence of the abovementioned disorders. In the presented case early implementation of steroid therapy resulted in improvement of blood flow parameters and the regression of ophthalmological complaints. Visual field deficiency in kinetic perimetry, reduced wave amplitude p100 in visual evoked potential test as well as decrease in number of optic nerve fibers in optic nerve disc region in scanning laser polarimetry exam can be diagnostic features in diagnosis of visual impairment in the course of giant cell arteritis and optic nerve disc drusen. Evaluation of blood flow velocity parameters in retrobulbar arteries in color Doppler ultrasonography is the most valuable screening in monitoring ophthalmic dysregulation in presented disorders.

  19. CT-guided percutaneous laser disc decompression with Ceralas D, a diode laser with 980-nm wavelength and 200-microm fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Gevargez, A; Groenemeyer, D W; Czerwinski, F

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compact, portable Ceralas-D diode laser (CeramOptec; 980 + 30 nm wavelength, 200-microm optical fiber) concerning clinical usefulness, handling, and clinical results in the CT-guided treatment of herniated lumbar discs. The positioning of the canula in intradiscal space, the placement of the laser fiber into the disc through the lying canula, and the vaporization itself were carried out under CT-guidance. Due to the thin fiber optic, it was possible to use a thin 23-gauge canula. The laser procedure was performed in 0.1- to 1-s shots with 1-s pulse pause and 4-W power output. A total of 1650-2300 J was applied on each percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD). Results in 26 patients were established with a visual-analogue scale (VAS). On the follow-up examinations, 46% of the patients were absolutely pain free ( > 85 % VAS) and fully active in everyday life after 4 postoperative weeks. Thirty-one percent of patients were relieved of the leg pain but had occasional back pain without sensorimotor impairment. Fifteen percent sensed a slight alleviation ( > 50% VAS) of the radiate pain. Eight percent did not experience radicular or pseudo-radicular pain alleviation (< 25% VAS). Cerales-D proves to be an efficient tool for CT-guided PLDD on non-sequestered herniated lumbar discs. PMID:10939481

  20. Percutaneous laser disc decompression.

    PubMed

    Choy, D S

    1995-06-01

    Herniated disc disease has an incidence of 1.7% in the U.S. Heretofore, open operative procedures were the rule for this condition when conservative measures were ineffective. Choy and Ascher introduced this new technique in February 1986 using a Nd:YAG laser introduced into the disc through an optical fiber in a needle. Percutaneous laser disc decompression is based on the principle that in an enclosed hydraulic space, such as an intact disc, a small reduction in volume is associated with a disproportionate fall in pressure. In the disc, this partial vacuum causes the herniated portion to move away from the nerve root back toward the center of the disc. This technique has been taught worldwide and is being performed in most of Europe, Japan, the United States, and Korea. In this special issue devoted to percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD), we will set forth the basic science of PLDD, patient selection, use of the holmium:YAG, and the Nd:YAG lasers, operative technique, and results. PMID:10150634

  1. Optics in the Age of Euler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakfoort, Casper

    1995-01-01

    This book studies the eighteenth-century origins and early phase of a fundamental debate in optics: whether light is a particle or wave. Specifically, it is the first in-depth study of the contents and reception of Leonhard Euler's wave theory of light. The author shows that contrary to what has been assumed, the debate did not start in 1672 with Newton's particle theory of light. Rather, it only really got under way after Euler published his wave theory in 1746. He also corrects the misapprehension that Newton's theory was prevalently held in Germany in the early years of the debate, but really only became dominant around 1795. In his discussion, Professor Hakfoort demonstrates in dramatic fashion the relevance of chemical experiments on physical optics. Finally, in the epilogue, the author reflects on the mathematical, experimental, and metaphysical aspects of physical optics that shaped early modern science.

  2. Optical coherence tomography as approach for the minimal invasive localization of the germinal disc in ovo before chicken sexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Anke; Geissler, Stefan; Koch, Edmund

    2010-04-01

    In most industrial states a huge amount of newly hatched male layer chickens are usually killed immediately after hatching by maceration or gassing. The reason for killing most of the male chickens of egg producing races is their slow growth rate compared to races specialized on meat production. When the egg has been laid, the egg contains already a small disc of cells on the surface of the yolk known as the blastoderm. This region is about 4 - 5 mm in diameter and contains the information whether the chick becomes male or female and hence allows sexing of the chicks by spectroscopy and other methods in the unincubated state. Different imaging methods like sonography, 3D-X-ray micro computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used for localization of the blastoderm until now, but found to be impractical for different reasons. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables micrometer-scale, subsurface imaging of biological tissue and could therefore be a suitable technique for an accurate localization. The intention of this study is to prove if OCT can be an appropriate approach for the precise in ovo localization.

  3. Accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, Marek A.; Straub, Odele

    2014-08-01

    Accretion discs are flattened astronomical objects made of rapidly rotating gas which slowly spirals onto a central gravitating body. The gravitational energy of infalling matter extracted in accretion discs powers stellar binaries, active galactic nuclei, proto-planetary discs and some gamma-ray bursts. The black hole accretion in quasars is the most powerful and efficient stationary engine known in the universe. In accretion discs the high angular momentum of rotating matter is gradually transported outwards by stresses (related to turbulence, viscosity, shear and magnetic fields). This gradual loss of angular momentum allows matter to progressively move inwards, towards the centre of gravity. The gravitational energy of the gaseous matter is thereby converted to heat. A fraction of the heat is converted into radiation, which partially escapes and cools down the accretion disc. Accretion disc physics is thus governed by a non-linear combination of many processes, includ! ing gravity, hydrodynamics, viscosity, radiation and magnetic fields.

  4. Effects of aging and degeneration on the human intervertebral disc during the diurnal cycle: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Massey, Christopher J; van Donkelaar, Corrinus C; Vresilovic, Edward; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Marcolongo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    A significant biochemical change that takes place in intervertebral disc degeneration is the loss of proteoglycans in the nucleus pulposus. Proteoglycans attract fluid, which works to reduce mechanical stresses in the solid matrix of the nucleus and provide a hydrostatic pressure to the annulus fibrosus, whose fibrous nature accommodates this stress. Our goals are to develop an osmo-poroelastic finite element model to study the relationship between proteoglycan content and the stress distribution within the disc and to analyze the effects of degeneration on the disc's diurnal mechanical response. Stress in the annulus increased with degeneration from ?0.2 to 0.4?MPa, and an increase occurred in the center of the nucleus from 1.2 to 1.6?MPa. The osmotic pressure in the central nucleus region decreased the most with degeneration, from ?0.42 to ?0.1?MPa in a severely dehydrated disc. A 3% decrease in diurnal fluid lost with degeneration equated to ?21% decrease in fluid exchange, and hence a decrease in nutrients that require convection to enter the disc. We quantified the increases in internal stresses in the nucleus and annulus throughout the various stages of degeneration, suggesting that these changes lead to further remodeling of the tissue. PMID:21710607

  5. Optical polarimetry and thermal imaging of the disc around Beta Pictoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolstencroft, R. D.; Scarrott, S. M.; Warren-Smith, R. F.; Telesco, C. M.; Decher, R.

    1989-01-01

    The dust disk around the main-sequence A5 star Beta Pic is characterized on the basis of recently obtained data. Optical polarimetry indicates that the disk has polarization of about 15 percent and polarization vectors normal to the scattering plane, indicating that the features observed are indeed a dust disk made visible by scattering. Thermal images of the central 13-arcsec-diameter region, obtained at 10 and 20 microns by Telesco et al. (1988) using the NASA Marshall 20-pixel bolometer array, suggest that the dust grains in the disk have a mean diameter of 1 micron or smaller. Also discussed are (1) unsuccessful searches for other nearby stars with disks and (2) the potential value of Hubble Space Telescope images for understanding the structure of Beta Pic.

  6. Free space optical communications: coming of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotts, Larry B.; Stadler, Brian; Lee, Gary

    2008-04-01

    Information superiority, where for the military or business, is the decisive advantage of the 21st Century. While business enjoys the information advantage of robust, high-bandwidth fiber optic connectivity that heavily leverages installed commercial infrastructure and service providers, mobile military forces need the wireless equivalent to leverage that advantage. In other words, an ability to deploy anywhere on the globe and maintain a robust, reliable communications and connectivity infrastructure, equivalent to that enjoyed by a CONUS commercial user, will provide US forces with information superiority. Assured high-data-rate connectivity to the tactical user is the biggest gap in developing and truly exploiting the potential of the information superiority weapon. Though information superiority is much discussed and its potential is well understood, a robust communications network available to the lowest military echelons is not yet an integral part of the force structure, although high data rate RF communications relays, e.g., Tactical Common Data Link, and low data SATCOM, e.g, Ku Spread Spectrum, are deployed and used by the military. This may change with recent advances in laser communications technologies created by the fiber optic communications revolution. This paper will provide a high level overview of the various laser communications programs conducted over the last 30 plus years, and proposed efforts to get these systems finally deployed.

  7. The aging process of optical couplers by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Lukas; Marcinka, Ondrej; Perecar, Frantisek; Papes, Martin; Hajek, Lukas; Nedoma, Jan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2015-08-01

    Scientists have recently discovered that the ageing process of optical elements is faster than it was originally anticipated. It is mostly due to the multiple increases of the optical power in optical components, the introduction of wavelength division multiplexers and, overall, the increased flow of traffic in optical communications. This article examines the ageing process of optical couplers and it focuses on their performance parameters. It describes the measurement procedure followed by the evaluation of the measurement results. To accelerate the ageing process, gamma irradiation from 60Co was used. The results of the measurements of the optical coupler with one input and eight outputs (1:8) were summarized. The results gained by measuring of the optical coupler with one input and four outputs (1:4) as well as of the optical couplers with one input and two outputs (1:2) with different split ratios were also processed. The optical powers were measured on the input and the outputs of each branch of each optical coupler at the wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm. The parameters of the optical couplers were subsequently calculated according to the appropriate formulas. These parameters were the insertion loss of the individual branches, split ratio, total losses, homogeneity of the losses and directionalities alias cross-talk between the individual output branches. The gathered data were summarized before and after the first irradiation when the configuration of the couplers was 1:8 and 1:4. The data were summarized after the third irradiation when the configuration of the couplers was 1:2.

  8. A computational analysis on the implications of age-related changes in the expression of cellular signals on the role of IGF-1 in intervertebral disc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Asfour, Shihab; Travascio, Francesco; Elmasry, Shady; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-21

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a well-known anabolic agent in intervertebral discs (IVD), promoting both proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis and cell proliferation. Accordingly, it is believed that IGF-1 plays a central role in IVD homeostasis. The IGF-mediated anabolic activity in IVD occurs when the growth factor, free from binding proteins (IGFBP), binds to IGF cell surface receptors (IGF-1R). Previous studies reported that, with aging, cellular expression of IGFBP increases, while that of IGF-1R decreases. Both changes in cellular signals are thought to be among the factors that are responsible for the age-related decline in IGF-mediated PG biosynthesis, which ultimately leads to disc degeneration. In this study, a computational model describing the role of IGF-1 in the homeostasis of IVD was deployed in a parametric analysis to investigate the effects of age-related changes in expression of IGF-1R and IGFBP on the IGF-mediated upregulation of PG biosynthesis and cellular proliferation. It was found that changes in the expression of IGF-1R and IGFBP mostly affected the nucleus pulposus, while in the most external disc regions (annulus fibrosus and cartilage endplates) the IVD homeostatic balance was unaltered. It was shown that a decrease of IGF-1R expression caused reduction of both PG levels and cell density in the tissue. In contrast, increase in IGFBP expression increased both PG and cell concentration, suggesting that such change in cellular signaling may be a plausible defense mechanism from age-related IVD degeneration. PMID:25488135

  9. Polarimetric microlensing of circumstellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajadian, Sedighe; Rahvar, Sohrab

    2015-12-01

    We study the benefits of polarimetry observations of microlensing events to detect and characterize circumstellar discs around the microlensed stars located at the Galactic bulge. These discs which are unresolvable from their host stars make a net polarization effect due to their projected elliptical shapes. Gravitational microlensing can magnify these signals and make them be resolved. The main aim of this work is to determine what extra information about these discs can be extracted from polarimetry observations of microlensing events in addition to those given by photometry ones. Hot discs which are closer to their host stars are more likely to be detected by microlensing, owing to more contributions in the total flux. By considering this kind of discs, we show that although the polarimetric efficiency for detecting discs is similar to the photometric observation, but polarimetry observations can help to constraint the disc geometrical parameters e.g. the disc inner radius and the lens trajectory with respect to the disc semimajor axis. On the other hand, the time-scale of polarimetric curves of these microlensing events generally increases while their photometric time-scale does not change. By performing a Monte Carlo simulation, we show that almost four optically thin discs around the Galactic bulge sources are detected (or even characterized) through photometry (or polarimetry) observations of high-magnification microlensing events during 10-yr monitoring of 150 million objects.

  10. Have protoplanetary discs formed planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, J. S.; Rice, W. K. M.

    2010-09-01

    It has recently been noted that many discs around T Tauri stars appear to comprise only a few Jupiter masses of gas and dust. Using millimetre surveys of discs within six local star formation regions, we confirm this result, and find that only a few per cent of young stars have enough circumstellar material to build gas giant planets, in standard core accretion models. Since the frequency of observed exoplanets is greater than this, there is a `missing-mass' problem. As alternatives to simply adjusting the conversion of dust flux to disc mass, we investigate three other classes of solution. Migration of planets could hypothetically sweep up the disc mass reservoir more efficiently, but trends in multiplanet systems do not support such a model, and theoretical models suggest that the gas accretion time-scale is too short for migration to sweep the disc. Enhanced inner-disc mass reservoirs are possible, agreeing with predictions of disc evolution through self-gravity, but not adding to millimetre dust flux as the inner disc is optically thick. Finally, the incidence of massive discs is shown to be higher at the protostellar stages, Classes 0 and I, where discs substantial enough to form planets via core accretion are abundant enough to match the frequency of exoplanets. Gravitational instability may also operate in the Class 0 epoch, where half the objects have potentially unstable discs of >~30 per cent of the stellar mass. However, recent calculations indicate that forming gas giants inside 50 au by instability is unlikely, even in such massive discs. Overall, the results presented suggest that the canonically `protoplanetary' discs of Class II T Tauri stars have globally low masses in dust observable at millimetre wavelengths, and conversion to larger bodies (anywhere from small rocks up to planetary cores) must already have occurred.

  11. Pathophysiology of Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is characterized by a tension-resisting annulus fibrosus and a compression-resisting nucleus pulposus composed largely of proteoglycan. The most important function of the annulus and nucleus is to provide mechanical stability to the disc. Degenerative disc disease in the lumbar spine is a serious health problem. Although the three joint complex model of the degenerative process is widely accepted, the etiological basis of this degeneration is poorly understood. With the recent progress in molecular biology and modern biological techniques, there has been dramatic improvement in the understanding of aging and degenerative changes of the disc. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disc degeneration can help in the appropriate choice of treatment and to develop tissue engineering for biological restoration of degenerated discs. PMID:20404946

  12. Accelerated optical polymer aging studies for LED luminaire applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estupiñán, Edgar; Wendling, Peter; Kostrun, Marijan; Garner, Richard

    2013-09-01

    There is a need in the lighting industry to design and implement accelerated aging methods that accurately simulate the aging process of LED luminaire components. In response to this need, we have built a flexible and reliable system to study the aging characteristics of optical polymer materials, and we have employed it to study a commercially available LED luminaire diffuser made of PMMA. The experimental system consists of a "Blue LED Emitter" and a working surface. Both the temperatures of the samples and the optical powers of the LEDs are appropriately characterized in the system. Several accelerated aging experiments are carried out at different temperatures and optical powers over a 90 hour period and the measured transmission values are used as inputs to a degradation model derived using plausibility arguments. This model seems capable of predicting the behavior of the material as a function of time, temperature and optical power. The model satisfactorily predicts the measured transmission values of diffusers aged in luminaires at two different times and thus can be used to make application recommendations for this material. Specifically, at 35000 hours (the manufacturer's stated life of the luminaire) and at the typical operational temperature of the diffuser, the model predicts a transmission loss of only a few percent over the original transmission of the material at 450 nm, which renders this material suitable for this application.

  13. MRI Evaluation of Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rupal; Mehta, Chetan; Patel, Narrotam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lower back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease is a condition that affects young to middle-aged persons with peak incidence at approximately 40 y. MRI is the standard imaging modality for detecting disc pathology due to its advantage of lack of radiation, multiplanar imaging capability, excellent spinal soft-tissue contrast and precise localization of intervertebral discs changes. Aims and Objective: To evaluate the characterization, extent, and changes associated with the degenerative lumbar disc disease by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Study Design: Cross-sectional and observational study. Materials and Methods: A total 109 patients of the lumbar disc degeneration with age group between 17 to 80 y were diagnosed & studied on 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging machine. MRI findings like lumbar lordosis, Schmorls nodes, decreased disc height, disc annular tear, disc herniation, disc bulge, disc protrusion and disc extrusion were observed. Narrowing of the spinal canal, lateral recess and neural foramen with compression of nerve roots observed. Ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was observed. Result: Males were more commonly affected in Degenerative Spinal Disease & most of the patients show loss of lumbar lordosis. Decreased disc height was common at L5-S1 level. More than one disc involvement was seen per person. L4 L5 disc was the most commonly involved. Annular disc tear, disc herniation, disc extrusion, narrowing of spinal canal, narrowing of lateral recess, compression of neural foramen, ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was common at the L4 L5 disc level. Disc buldge was common at L3 L4 & L4 L5 disc level. Posterior osteophytes are common at L3 - L4 & L5 S1 disc level. L1- L2 disc involvement and spondylolisthesis are less common. Conclusion: Lumbar disc degeneration is the most common cause of low back pain. Plain radiograph can be helpful in visualizing gross anatomic changes in the intervertebral disc. But, MRI is the standard imaging modality for detecting disc pathology due to its advantage of lack of radiation, multiplanar imaging capability, excellent spinal soft-tissue contrast and precise localization of intervertebral discs changes. PMID:26023617

  14. Learning Language on Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Norman

    1995-01-01

    Presents a comparison of two types of compact disc (CD-ROM) foreign language tutorials: (1) those made by publishers who favor an immersion approach; and (2) those made by publishers who use grammar-based approaches. Both types of CD-ROMs address various age groups, skill levels, and learning styles. (JMV)

  15. Structural and optical properties of CuO layered hexagonal discs synthesized by a low-temperature hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaker, M.; Umar, Ahmad; Baskoutas, S.; Kim, S. H.; Hwang, S. W.

    2011-04-01

    Layered hexagonal discs of CuO were synthesized on a large scale via low-temperature hydrothermal growth process at 130 C using copper nitrate, hexamethylenediamine and NH4OH. The detailed morphological investigations by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) clearly revealed that the synthesized CuO structures are made by the well layer-by-layer accumulation of several sheets which arranged themselves in such a special manner that they exhibit the hexagonal discs of CuO. The detailed structural characterizations of the hexagonal CuO discs were done by high-resolution TEM and x-ray diffraction which confirmed that the synthesized structures possessing well nanocrystalline nature and monoclinic structure. The purity and composition of the synthesized products were examined using energy dispersive spectroscopy, elemental mapping and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Using UV-Vis spectroscopy at room temperature we obtained indirect and direct band gap values slightly blue shifted to the bulk values. Finally, a plausible growth mechanism has been proposed for the formation of CuO layered hexagonal discs.

  16. Heidelberg Retina Tomograph Measurements of the Optic Disc and Parapapillary Retina for Detecting Glaucoma Analyzed by Machine Learning Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Zangwill, Linda M.; Chan, Kwokleung; Bowd, Christopher; Hao, Jicuang; Lee, Te-Won; Weinreb, Robert N.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Goldbaum, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether topographical measurements of the parapapillary region analyzed by machine learning classifiers can detect early to moderate glaucoma better than similarly processed measurements obtained within the disc margin and to improve methods for optimization of machine learning classifier feature selection. Methods One eye of each of 95 patients with early to moderate glaucomatous visual field damage and of each of 135 normal subjects older than 40 years participating in the longitudinal Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study (DIGS) were included. Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT; Heidelberg Engineering, Dossenheim, Germany) mean height contour was measured in 36 equal sectors, both along the disc margin and in the parapapillary region (at a mean contour line radius of 1.7 mm). Each sector was evaluated individually and in combination with other sectors. Gaussian support vector machine (SVM) learning classifiers were used to interpret HRT sector measurements along the disc margin and in the parapapillary region, to differentiate between eyes with normal and glaucomatous visual fields and to compare the results with global and regional HRT parameter measurements. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to measure diagnostic performance of the HRT parameters and to evaluate the cross-validation strategies and forward selection and backward elimination optimization techniques that were used to generate the reduced feature sets. Results The area under the ROC curve for mean height contour of the 36 sectors along the disc margin was larger than that for the mean height contour in the parapapillary region (0.97 and 0.85, respectively). Of the 36 individual sectors along the disc margin, those in the inferior region between 240 and 300, had the largest area under the ROC curve (0.850.91). With SVM Gaussian techniques, the regional parameters showed the best ability to discriminate between normal eyes and eyes with glaucomatous visual field damage, followed by the global parameters, mean height contour measures along the disc margin, and mean height contour measures in the parapapillary region. The area under the ROC curve was 0.98, 0.94, 0.93, and 0.85, respectively. Cross-validation and optimization techniques demonstrated that good discrimination (99% of peak area under the ROC curve) can be obtained with a reduced number of HRT parameters. Conclusions Mean height contour measurements along the disc margin discriminated between normal and glaucomatous eyes better than measurements obtained in the parapapillary region. PMID:15326133

  17. A trifurcated fiber-optic-probe-based optical system designed for AGEs measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yikun; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Ling; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Gong; Wang, An

    2011-11-01

    Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) are biochemical end-products of non-enzymatic glycation and are formed irreversibly in human serum and skin tissue. AGEs are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and corresponding complications. All conventional methods for measuring AGEs must take sampling and measure in vitro. These methods are invasive and have the problem of relatively time-consuming. AGEs have fluorescent characteristics. Skin AGEs can be assessed noninvasively by collecting the fluorescence emitted from skin tissue when excited with proper light. However, skin tissue has absorption and scattering effects on fluorescence of AGEs, it is not reliable to evaluate the accumulation of AGEs according the emitted fluorescence but not considering optical properties of skin tissue. In this study, a portable system for detecting AGEs fluorescence and skin reflectance spectrum simultaneously has been developed. The system mainly consists of an ultraviolet light source, a broadband light source, a trifurcated fiber-optic probe, and a compact charge coupled device (CCD) spectrometer. The fiber-optic probe consists of 36 optical fibers which are connected to the ultraviolet light source, 6 optical fibers connected to the broadband light source, and a core fiber connected to the CCD spectrometer. Demonstrative test measurements with the system on skin tissue of 40 healthy subjects have been performed. Using parameters that are calculated from skin reflectance spectrum, the distortion effects caused by skin absorption and scattering can be eliminated, and the integral intensity of corrected fluorescence has a strong correlation with the accumulation of AGEs. The system looks very promising for both laboratory and clinical applications to monitor AGEs related diseases, especially for chronic diabetes and complications.

  18. A trifurcated fiber-optic-probe-based optical system designed for AGEs measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yikun; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Ling; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Gong; Wang, An

    2012-03-01

    Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) are biochemical end-products of non-enzymatic glycation and are formed irreversibly in human serum and skin tissue. AGEs are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and corresponding complications. All conventional methods for measuring AGEs must take sampling and measure in vitro. These methods are invasive and have the problem of relatively time-consuming. AGEs have fluorescent characteristics. Skin AGEs can be assessed noninvasively by collecting the fluorescence emitted from skin tissue when excited with proper light. However, skin tissue has absorption and scattering effects on fluorescence of AGEs, it is not reliable to evaluate the accumulation of AGEs according the emitted fluorescence but not considering optical properties of skin tissue. In this study, a portable system for detecting AGEs fluorescence and skin reflectance spectrum simultaneously has been developed. The system mainly consists of an ultraviolet light source, a broadband light source, a trifurcated fiber-optic probe, and a compact charge coupled device (CCD) spectrometer. The fiber-optic probe consists of 36 optical fibers which are connected to the ultraviolet light source, 6 optical fibers connected to the broadband light source, and a core fiber connected to the CCD spectrometer. Demonstrative test measurements with the system on skin tissue of 40 healthy subjects have been performed. Using parameters that are calculated from skin reflectance spectrum, the distortion effects caused by skin absorption and scattering can be eliminated, and the integral intensity of corrected fluorescence has a strong correlation with the accumulation of AGEs. The system looks very promising for both laboratory and clinical applications to monitor AGEs related diseases, especially for chronic diabetes and complications.

  19. Optical sensing system based on wireless paired emitter detector diode device and ionogels for lab-on-a-disc water quality analysis.

    PubMed

    Czugala, Monika; Gorkin, Robert; Phelan, Thomas; Gaughran, Jennifer; Curto, Vincenzo Fabio; Ducre, Jens; Diamond, Dermot; Benito-Lopez, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    This work describes the first use of a wireless paired emitter detector diode device (PEDD) as an optical sensor for water quality monitoring in a lab-on-a-disc device. The microfluidic platform, based on an ionogel sensing area combined with a low-cost optical sensor, is applied for quantitative pH and qualitative turbidity monitoring of water samples at point-of-need. The autonomous capabilities of the PEDD system, combined with the portability and wireless communication of the full device, provide the flexibility needed for on-site water testing. Water samples from local fresh and brackish sources were successfully analysed using the device, showing very good correlation with standard bench-top systems. PMID:23070147

  20. Heterozygous triplication of upstream regulatory sequences leads to dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19) in patients with cavitary optic disc anomaly (CODA)

    PubMed Central

    Hazlewood, Ralph J.; Roos, Benjamin R.; Solivan-Timpe, Frances; Honkanen, Robert A.; Jampol, Lee M.; Gieser, Stephen C.; Meyer, Kacie J.; Mullins, Robert F.; Kuehn, Markus H.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Kwon, Young H.; Alward, Wallace L.M.; Stone, Edwin M.; Fingert, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a congenital optic nerve disease, cavitary optic disc anomaly (CODA), are born with profound excavation of the optic nerve resembling glaucoma. We previously mapped the gene that causes autosomal dominant CODA in a large pedigree to a chromosome 12q locus. Using comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative PCR analysis of this pedigree, we report identifying a 6Kbp heterozygous triplication upstream of the matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19) gene, present in all 17 affected family members and no normal members. Moreover, the triplication was not detected in 78 control subjects or in the Database of Genomic Variants. We further detected the same 6Kbp triplication in 1 of 24 unrelated CODA patients and in none of 172 glaucoma patients. Analysis with a luciferase assay showed that the 6Kbp sequence has transcription enhancer activity. A 773bp fragment of the 6Kbp DNA segment increased downstream gene expression 8-fold, suggesting that triplication of this sequence may lead to dysregulation of the downstream gene, MMP19, in CODA patients. Lastly, immunohistochemical analysis of human donor eyes revealed strong expression of MMP19 in optic nerve head. These data strongly suggest that triplication of an enhancer may lead to overexpression of MMP19 in the optic nerve which causes CODA. PMID:25581579

  1. On the reliability of protostellar disc mass measurements and the existence of fragmenting discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Arce, Hctor G.

    2014-10-01

    We couple non-magnetic, hydrodynamical simulations of collapsing protostellar cores with radiative transfer evolutionary models to generate synthetic observations. We then use these synthetic observations to investigate the extent to which a simple method for measuring protostellar disc masses used in the literature recovers the intrinsic masses of the discs formed in the simulations. We evaluate the effects of contamination from the surrounding core, partially resolving out the disc, optical depth, fixed assumed dust temperatures, inclination, and the dust opacity law. We show that the combination of these effects can lead to disc mass underestimates by up to factors of 2-3 at millimetre wavelengths and up to an order of magnitude or larger at submillimetre wavelengths. The optically thin portions of protostellar discs are generally cooler in the Class I stage than the Class 0 stage since Class I discs are typically larger and more optically thick, and thus more shielded. The observed disc mass distribution closely resembles the intrinsic distribution if this effect is taken into account, especially at millimetre wavelengths where optical depth effects are minimized. Approximately 50-70 per cent of protostellar discs observed to date with this method are consistent with the masses of the gravitationally unstable discs formed in the simulations, suggesting that at least some protostellar discs are likely sufficiently massive to fragment. We emphasize key future work needed to confirm these results, including assembling larger, less biased samples, and using molecular line observations to distinguish between rotationally supported, Keplerian discs and magnetically supported pseudodiscs.

  2. Chemical and optical changes to black carbon during aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, E. C.; Franklin, J. P.; Kroll, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the second most important contributor to global warming. Due to its short atmospheric lifetime (~days), reductions in BC may be one of the fastest mechanisms to reduce warming. Recent field measurements indicate that BC is a chemically and physically dynamic atmospheric constituent, suggesting that radiative forcing effects of BC may evolve quickly (on the timescale of hours) in the atmosphere. The specifics of how (and even if) the radiative forcing potential of BC changes as it ages, however, is currently under debate, thus leading to significant uncertainties on the magnitude of BC contribution to radiative forcing. We attempt to help constrain this uncertainty using a series of laboratory measurements that systematically study the aging process of BC. These laboratory measurements are carried out using a photo-oxidation chamber and an extensive suite of measurements including an Aerodyne Soot-Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) and measurements of aerosol optical properties. Using this instrument suite, we characterize how the chemical and optical properties of BC change as it is aged heterogeneously (by OH and ozone) and as it is coated by organic material.

  3. An Analysis of Burst Disc Pressure Instability

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Robinson; B. C. Odegard, Jr.; N. r. Moody; S. H. Goods

    2000-06-01

    During the development stage of the 1X Acorn burst disc, burst pressure test results exhibited an unexpected increase of 8 to 14% over times of 90--100 days from initial fabrication. This increase is a concern where design constraints require stability. The disc material, 316L stainless steel sheet, is formed to a dome-like geometry and scored to produce a thin-walled, high-strength ligament. The fracture events controlling burst occur in that ligament. Thus it has been characterized both for tensile properties and microstructure through nanoindentation, magnetic measurements, optical and transmission electron microscopy. These results compare favorably with finite element simulation of the properties of the ligament. The ligament exhibits a highly heterogeneous microstructure; its small volume and microstructural heterogeneity make it difficult to identify which microstructural feature controls fracture and hence burst pressure. Bulk mechanical test specimens were fabricated to emulate mid-ligament properties, and aged at both room and elevated temperatures to characterize and accelerate the temporal behavior of the burst disc. Property changes included yield and ultimate tensile strength increases, and fracture strain decreases with aging. Specimens were subjected to a reversion anneal identical to that given the burst disc to eliminate the martensite phase formed during rolling. Reversion-annealed samples exhibited no change in properties in room temperature or accelerated aging, showing that the reversion-anneal eliminated the aging phenomenon. Aging was analyzed in terms of diffusion controlled precipitate growth kinetics, showing that carbon migration to dislocations is consistent with the strength increases. A vacancy-assisted diffusion mechanism for carbon transport is proposed, giving rise to rapid aging, which replaces interstitial carbon diffusion until excess vacancies from deformation are consumed. Mechanical activation parameters in stress relaxation were measured, indicating that the deformation structures formed at high strains typical of the score ligament are resistant to annealing, and mimic the behavior of a thermal obstacles. This model also qualitatively explains the different rates of aging resulting from a range of levels of cold work.

  4. Artificial Disc Replacement

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the annulus, and an inner portion, called the nucleus (Figure 1). In most cases, the disc is ... two general types: total disc replacement and disc nucleus replacement. As the names imply, with a total ...

  5. Optical characters and texture maps of skin and the aging mechanism by use of multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoman; Huang, Yudian; Xu, Xiaohui

    2012-03-01

    Cutaneous aging is a complicated biological process affecting different constituents of skin, which can be divided into two types: the chronological aging and the photo-aging. The two cutaneous aging processes often co-exist accompanying with each other. The effects are often overlapped including changes in epithelium and dermis. The degeneration of collagen is a major factor in dermal alteration with aging. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) with its high resolution imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) with its depth resolved imaging were used to study the anti-aging dermatology in vivo. It was attempted to make the optical parameter and texture feature to evaluate the process of aging skin using mathematical image processing. The links among optical parameter, spectrum and texture feature in collagen with aging process were established to uncover mechanism of aging skin.

  6. Fast and automatic algorithm for optic disc extraction in retinal images using principle-component-analysis-based preprocessing and curvelet transform.

    PubMed

    Shahbeig, Saleh; Pourghassem, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Optic disc or optic nerve (ON) head extraction in retinal images has widespread applications in retinal disease diagnosis and human identification in biometric systems. This paper introduces a fast and automatic algorithm for detecting and extracting the ON region accurately from the retinal images without the use of the blood-vessel information. In this algorithm, to compensate for the destructive changes of the illumination and also enhance the contrast of the retinal images, we estimate the illumination of background and apply an adaptive correction function on the curvelet transform coefficients of retinal images. In other words, we eliminate the fault factors and pave the way to extract the ON region exactly. Then, we detect the ON region from retinal images using the morphology operators based on geodesic conversions, by applying a proper adaptive correction function on the reconstructed image's curvelet transform coefficients and a novel powerful criterion. Finally, using a local thresholding on the detected area of the retinal images, we extract the ON region. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on available images of DRIVE and STARE databases. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm obtains an accuracy rate of 100% and 97.53% for the ON extractions on DRIVE and STARE databases, respectively. PMID:23455998

  7. Redundant disc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barack, W. N.; Domas, P. A.; Beekman, S. W. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    A rotatable disc is described that consists of parallel plates tightly joined together for rotation about a hub. Each plate is provided with several angularly projecting spaced lands. The lands of each plate are interposed in alternating relationship between the lands of the next adjacent plate. In this manner, circumferential displacement of adjacent sectors in any one plate is prevented in the event that a crack develops. Each plate is redundantly sized so that, in event of structural failure of one plate, the remaining plates support a proportionate share of the load of the failed plate. The plates are prevented from separating laterally through the inclusion of generally radially extending splines which are inserted to interlock cooperating, circumferentially adjacent lands.

  8. Alteration of lunar optical properties: age and composition effects.

    PubMed

    Adams, J B; McCord, T B

    1971-02-12

    A model for lunar surface processes is presented which explains the main albedo and color contrasts and the temporal changes in these optical properties. Evidence from Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 samples and telescopic spectral reflectivity measurements indicates that the maria are similar in mineralogy on a regional scale and that the highlands are consistent with an anorthositic-gabbro composition. Bright craters and rays in both regions expose materials that are relatively crystalline compared with their backgrounds, which are richer in dark glass. With age, bright craters and rays in the maria darken in place by meteorite impact-induced vitrification and mixing with the surrounding material. Highland bright craters and rays may, however, darken primarily through regional contamination by iron- and titanium-rich mare material. PMID:17734782

  9. Percutaneous diode laser disc nucleoplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menchetti, P. P.; Longo, Leonardo

    2004-09-01

    The treatment of herniated disc disease (HNP) over the years involved different miniinvasive surgical options. The classical microsurgical approach has been substituted over the years both by endoscopic approach in which is possible to practice via endoscopy a laser thermo-discoplasty, both by percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty. In the last ten years, the percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty have been done worldwide in more than 40000 cases of HNP. Because water is the major component of the intervertebral disc, and in HNP pain is caused by the disc protrusion pressing against the nerve root, a 980 nm Diode laser introduced via a 22G needle under X-ray guidance and local anesthesia, vaporizes a small amount of nucleous polposus with a disc shrinkage and a relief of pressure on nerve root. Most patients get off the table pain free and are back to work in 5 to 7 days. Material and method: to date, 130 patients (155 cases) suffering for relevant symptoms therapy-resistant 6 months on average before consulting our department, have been treated. Eightyfour (72%) males and 46 (28%) females had a percutaneous laser disc nucleoplasty. The average age of patients operated was 48 years (22 - 69). The level of disc removal was L3/L4 in 12 cases, L4/L5 in 87 cases and L5/S1 in 56 cases. Two different levels were treated at the same time in 25 patients. Results: the success rate at a minimum follow-up of 6 months was 88% with a complication rate of 0.5%.

  10. Compact Disc Recordable with Substrate of Biomass Plastic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Kodama, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Hiroto; Ohno, Minoru; Osugi, Satomi; Maeno, Yoshiaki; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2006-08-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biomass material made of starch. Compact disc recordable (CD-R) discs with a PLA substrate were prepared and their properties were measured. Although the glass transition point of PLA is lower than that of polycarbonate (PC), the PLA substrate is usable for CD-R discs. It was confirmed that the substrate is usable for recordable optical discs at temperatures under 50 °C.

  11. The advantages of Blu-ray disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dayu; Chen, Dianyong; Wang, Bei

    2005-09-01

    Blu-ray Disc format is required by the forthcoming of High Definition TV era which calls for a brand new generation of optical storage after DVD. It is such a technology with wavelength short as 405nm and numerical aperture high as 0.85. The format is designed to have an even wider disc tolerances than those of DVD. Thanks for those more innovative concepts Blu-ray Disc is the most economical storage solution in terms of cost per giga byte. And it is expected to be a long-term optical storage standard rather than an interim solution.

  12. Correlation between the ganglion cell complex and structural measures of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Bresciani-Battilana, Erica; Teixeira, Ivan C; Barbosa, Diego T Q; Caixeta-Umbelino, Cristiano; Paolera, Maurcio D; Kasahara, Niro

    2015-10-01

    To correlate the ganglion cell complex (GCC) parameters with structural measures of the optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) as evaluated by Fourier-Domain optic coherence tomography (OCT). This retrospective study included patients with glaucoma, ocular hypertensive patients and glaucoma suspects who had previously undergone OCT examination with the RTVue-100. The parameters of GCC (average, superior, inferior, focal loss volume [FLV], global loss volume [GLV]) were correlated with the values of the ONH (cup volume, cup area, horizontal cup-to-disk ratio, vertical cup-to-disk ratio, and rim area) and RNFL (average, superior, and inferior) using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The sample included 74 eyes of 37 patients. All correlations between GCC parameters and RNFL were strong (r>0.60). The correlation between GCC parameters and ONH were good for most parameters, except that for FLV and cup volume (r=0.13), GLV and cup volume (r=0.09), and GLV and cup area (r=0.21). The GCC parameters can be used as structural measures of the glaucomatous optic neuropathy. PMID:25183459

  13. Does Posterior Capsule Opacification Affect the Results of Diagnostic Technologies to Evaluate the Retina and the Optic Disc?

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Medina, Jose Javier; del Rio-Vellosillo, Monica; Zanon-Moreno, Vicente; Santos-Bueso, Enrique; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; Ferreras, Antonio; Pinazo-Duran, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    The visual outcome obtained after cataract removal may progressively decline because of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). This condition can be treated by creating an opening in the posterior lens capsule by Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. PCO optical imperfections cause several light reflection, refraction, and diffraction phenomena, which may interfere with the functional and structural tests performed in different ocular locations for the diagnosis and follow-up of ocular disease, like macular and optic nerve diseases. Some parameters measured by visual field examinations, scanning laser polarimetry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have changed after PCO removal. Imaging quality also changes following capsulotomy. Consequently, the results of ancillary tests in pseudophakic eyes for studying ocular diseases like glaucoma or maculopathies should be correlated with other clinical examinations, for example, slit-lamp biomicroscopy or funduscopy. If PCO is clinically significant, a new baseline should be set for future comparisons following capsulotomy when using automated perimetry and scanning laser polarimetry. To perform OCT in the presence of PCO, reliable examinations (considering signal strength) apparently guarantee that measurements are not influenced by PCO. PMID:26167499

  14. A distinct X-linked syndrome involving joint contractures, keloids, large optic cup-to-disc ratio, and renal stones results from a filamin A (FLNA) mutation.

    PubMed

    Lah, Melissa; Niranjan, Tejasvi; Srikanth, Sujata; Holloway, Lynda; Schwartz, Charles E; Wang, Tao; Weaver, David D

    2016-04-01

    We further evaluated a previously reported family with an apparently undescribed X-linked syndrome involving joint contractures, keloids, an increased optic cup-to-disc ratio, and renal stones to elucidate the genetic cause. To do this, we obtained medical histories and performed physical examination on 14 individuals in the family, five of whom are affected males and three are obligate carrier females. Linkage analysis was performed on all but one individual and chromosome X-exome sequencing was done on two affected males. The analysis localized the putative gene to Xq27-qter and chromosome X-exome sequencing revealed a mutation in exon 28 (c.4726G>A) of the filamin A (FLNA) gene, predicting that a conserved glycine had been replaced by arginine at amino acid 1576 (p.G1576R). Segregation analysis demonstrated that all known carrier females tested were heterozygous (G/A), all affected males were hemizygous for the mutation (A allele) and all normal males were hemizygous for the normal G allele. The data and the bioinformatic analysis indicate that the G1576R mutation in the FLNA gene is very likely pathogenic in this family. The syndrome affecting the family shares phenotypic overlap with other syndromes caused by FLNA mutations, but appears to be a distinct phenotype, likely representing a unique genetic syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26804200

  15. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihajoki, P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  16. Intervertebral disc degeneration: evidence for two distinct phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    We review the evidence that there are two types of disc degeneration. Endplate-driven disc degeneration involves endplate defects and inwards collapse of the annulus, has a high heritability, mostly affects discs in the upper lumbar and thoracic spine, often starts to develop before age 30 years, usually leads to moderate back pain, and is associated with compressive injuries such as a fall on the buttocks. Annulus-driven disc degeneration involves a radial fissure and/or a disc prolapse, has a low heritability, mostly affects discs in the lower lumbar spine, develops progressively after age 30 years, usually leads to severe back pain and sciatica, and is associated with repetitive bending and lifting. The structural defects which initiate the two processes both act to decompress the disc nucleus, making it less likely that the other defect could occur subsequently, and in this sense the two disc degeneration phenotypes can be viewed as distinct. PMID:22881295

  17. Study of the shape of an optical window in a super-resolution state by electromagnetic-thermal coupled simulation: Effects of melting of an active layer in an optical disc

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Haruyuki; Shima, Takayuki; Kuwahara, Masashi; Fujita, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Munehisa; Aono, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-21

    We performed a multi-physics simulation for the propagation of electromagnetic waves and heat conduction in a super-resolution optical disc that includes an active layer of InSb. Because the change in the optical constant of InSb due to the phase transition is taken into account, the melting of the active layer can be realistically simulated in our calculation. It was found that in the case of an incident light power (P) of 2 mW, a profile of the electric field intensity transmitted through the InSb layer has an asymmetric shape with a narrow peak. This beam-narrowing was suggested to be an essential mechanism of the super-resolution, because a narrower light beam allows the detection of a smaller pit structure than the optical diffraction limit. This beam-narrowing was found to be originating from a small molten region produced in the InSb layer, which works as a mask for light exposure.

  18. Adaptive optics-assisted optical coherence tomography for imaging of patients with age related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, Kenta; Cense, Barry

    2013-03-01

    We developed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) prototype with a sample arm that uses a 3.4 mm beam, which is considerably larger than the 1.2 to 1.5 mm beam that is used in commercialized OCT systems. The system is equipped with adaptive optics (AO), and to distinguish it from traditional AO-OCT systems with a larger 6 mm beam we have coined this concept AO-assisted OCT. Compared to commercialized OCT systems, the 3.4 mm aperture combined with AO improves light collection efficiency and imaging lateral resolution. In this paper, the performance of the AOa-OCT system was compared to a standard OCT system and demonstrated for imaging of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Measurements were performed on the retinas of three human volunteers with healthy eyes and on one eye of a patient diagnosed with AMD. The AO-assisted OCT system imaged retinal structures of healthy human eyes and a patient eye affected by AMD with higher lateral resolution and a 9 by 9 field of view. This combination of a large isoplanatic patch and high lateral resolution can be expected to fill a gap between standard OCT with a 1.2 mm beam and conventional AO-OCT with a 6 mm beam and a 1.5 by 1.5 isoplanatic patch.

  19. Automotive disc brake squeal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkaid, N. M.; O'Reilly, O. M.; Papadopoulos, P.

    2003-10-01

    Disc brake squeal remains an elusive problem in the automotive industry. Since the early 20th century, many investigators have examined the problem with experimental, analytical, and computational techniques, but there is as yet no method to completely suppress disc brake squeal. This paper provides a comprehensive review and bibliography of works on disc brake squeal. In an effort to make this review accessible to a large audience, background sections on vibrations, contact and disc brake systems are also included.

  20. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  1. The impacts of ageing effects due to radiation burden on optical fiber couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perecar, F.; Marcinka, O.; Bednarek, L.; Lucki, M.; Liner, A.; Hajek, L.; Papes, M.; Jaros, J.; Vasinek, V.

    2015-08-01

    The paper discuss about accelerated ageing of optical fiber elements in their burdened with gamma radiation. In addition to the destruction of coating materials, gamma radiation has its effect on the internal structure of the optical fiber. It is necessary to specify the changes in the optical coupler and find out why these changes occur. This article contains experimental measurement of the impact of gamma radiation Cobalt-60 on the optical couplers of various split performance ratio. The couplers were exposed to gradually increasing doses of 60Co. Measurements are focused on the overall distribution of the energy in the core and cladding various branches of SM optical fiber couplers. This article focuses on applied research and experimental development of resources for safety operation of optical networks since monitoring of ageing substantially contributes to its security. It addresses issues of accelerated ageing of optical fiber elements in their burdened with gamma radiation. How does radiation energy of gamma radiation influence optical network elements? This effect is explored just very little bit and is yet another unanswered question. In addition to the destruction of coating materials, gamma radiation has its effect on the internal structure of the optical fiber. It is necessary to specify the changes in the optical coupler and find out why these changes occur. This article contains experimental measurement of the impact of gamma radiation Cobalt-60 on the optical couplers of various split performance ratio. Optical passive components, couplers, were exposed to gradually increasing doses of 60Co. Measurements are focused on the overall distribution of the energy of LP01 mode in the core and cladding various branches of SM optical fiber couplers. Graphical and mathematical detect changes in the dissemination of energy coupler after single doses of gamma radiation are useful to understand the phenomenon of accelerated ageing elements of optical networks in environments with an increased incidence of radiation energy. Keywords: 2-D view, 3-D view, coupler, gamma radiation, Cobalt-60, ageing, energy

  2. In vivo evaluation of optic nerve aging in adult rhesus monkey by diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yumei; Li, Longchuan; Preuss, Todd M.; Hu, Xiaoping; Herndon, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Aging of the optic nerve can result in reduced visual sensitivity or vision loss. Normal optic nerve aging has been investigated previously in tissue specimens but poorly explored in vivo. In the present study, the normal aging of optic nerve was evaluated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in non-human primates. Adult female rhesus monkeys at the ages of 9 to 13 years old (young group, n=8) and 21 to 27 years old (old group, n=7) were studied using parallel-imaging-based DTI on a clinical 3T scanner. Compared to young adults, the old monkeys showed 26% lower fractional anisotropy (P<0.01), and 44% greater radial diffusivity, although the latter difference was of marginal statistical significance (P=0.058). These MRI findings are largely consistent with published results of light and electron microscopic studies of optic nerve aging in macaque monkeys, which indicate a loss of fibers and degenerative changes in myelin sheaths. PMID:24649434

  3. Counterrotating stars in simulated galaxy discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algorry, David G.; Navarro, Julio F.; Abadi, Mario G.; Sales, Laura V.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Piontek, Franziska

    2014-02-01

    Counterrotating stars in disc galaxies are a puzzling dynamical feature whose origin has been ascribed to either satellite accretion events or to disc instabilities triggered by deviations from axisymmetry. We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of a disc galaxy to show that counterrotating stellar disc components may arise naturally in hierarchically clustering scenarios even in the absence of merging. The simulated disc galaxy consists of two coplanar, overlapping stellar components with opposite spins: an inner counterrotating bar-like structure made up mostly of old stars surrounded by an extended, rotationally supported disc of younger stars. The opposite-spin components originate from material accreted from two distinct filamentary structures which at turn around, when their net spin is acquired, intersect delineating a `V'-like structure. Each filament torques the other in opposite directions; the filament that first drains into the galaxy forms the inner counterrotating bar, while material accreted from the other filament forms the outer disc. Mergers do not play a substantial role and most stars in the galaxy are formed in situ; only 9 per cent of all stars are contributed by accretion events. The formation scenario we describe here implies a significant age difference between the co- and counterrotating components, which may be used to discriminate between competing scenarios for the origin of counterrotating stars in disc galaxies.

  4. Clinical and Radiological Characteristics of Lumbosacral Lateral Disc Herniation in Comparison With Those of Medial Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Lateral disc herniation (foraminal and extra foraminal) has clinical characteristics that are different from those of medial disc herniation (central and subarticular), including older age, more frequent radicular pain, and neurologic deficits. This is supposedly because lateral disc herniation mechanically irritates or compresses the exiting nerve root or dorsal root ganglion inside of a narrow canal more directly than medial disc herniation. The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and radiological characteristics of lateral disc herniation in comparison with medial disc herniation. The 352 subjects diagnosed with localized lumbosacral disc herniation and followed up for at least 12 months after completion of treatment were included and divided into medial and lateral disc herniation groups, according to the anatomical location of the herniated disc in axial plain of magnetic resonance image. Clinical and radiological data were obtained and compared between the two groups. The lateral group included 74 (21%) patients and the medial group included 278 (79%). Mean age of the lateral group was significantly higher than that in the medial group. The lateral group showed a significantly larger proportion of patients with radiating leg pain and multiple levels of disc herniations than the medial group. No significant differences were found in terms of gender, duration of pain, pretreatment numeric rating scale, severity of disc herniation (protrusion and extrusion), and presence of weakness in leg muscles. The proportion of patients who underwent surgery was not significantly different between the 2 groups. However, the proportion of patients who accomplished successful pain reduction after treatment was significantly smaller in the lateral than in the medial group. In conclusion, patients with lateral disc herniation were older and had larger proportion of radiating leg pain than those with medial disc herniation. Lateral disc herniation was more associated with multiple disc herniations and worse clinical outcomes after treatment than medial disc herniation. PMID:26886615

  5. Annulo-nucleoplasty using Disc-FX in the management of lumbar disc pathology: Early results

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Aravind; Siddharth M, Shah; Sambhav P, Shah; Tan, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Background Back pain due to Lumbar Disc Disease is a major clinical problem. The treatment options range from physiotherapy to fusion surgery. A number of minimally invasive procedures have also been developed in the recent past for its management. Disc-FX is a new minimally invasive technique that combines percutaneous discectomy, nuclear ablation and annular modification. Literature on its role in the management of lumbar disc pathology is scarce. Methods We included 24 consecutive patients who underwent the Disc-FX for back pain due to lumbar disc pathology non-responsive to non-operative treatment for a period of at least 6 months. Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) these patients fell into 2 groups those with degenerative disc disease (DDD) (n = 12) and those with a contained lumbar disc herniation (CLDH)(n = 12). They were evaluated using the Visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) scores preoperatively and postoperatively. Results The mean age was 37.9 years (21-53 years). There were 17 males and 7 females. One patient in each subgroup was excluded from the final evaluation. Significant improvement was seen in all outcome measures. The overall rate of reintervention for persistent symptoms was 18.18% (4/22); in the CLDH subgroup, it was 36.36% (4/11). Conclusions and level of evidence Early results after the Disc-FX procedure suggest that it s a reasonable treatment option for patients with back pain due to lumbar disc disease, especially for those with DDD who fail conservative treatment. It could be an alternative to procedures like fusion or disc replacement. This study presents Level IV evidence. Clinical relevance We feel that our study establishes Disc-FX as a modality of treating symptomatic lumbar disc disease due to DDD. However, longer term prospective studies are needed to prove this and to evaluate its role in the treatment of patients with CLDH. PMID:25694914

  6. Long-term monitoring of the archetype Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15: X-ray, optical and near-IR variability of the corona, disc and torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, P.; Arévalo, P.; Uttley, P.; McHardy, I. M. M.; Videla, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present long-term monitoring of MCG-6-30-15 in X-rays, optical and near-IR wavelengths, collected over 5 yr of monitoring. We determine the power spectrum density of all the observed bands and show that after taking into account the host contamination similar power is observed in the optical and near-IR bands. There is evidence for a correlation between the light curves of the X-ray photon flux and the optical B band, but it is not possible to determine a lag with certainty, with the most likely value being around 0 d. Strong correlation is seen between the optical and near-IR bands. Cross-correlation analysis shows some complex probability distributions and lags that range from 10 to 20 d, with the near-IR following the optical variations. Filtering the light curves in frequency space shows that the strongest correlations are those corresponding to the shortest time-scales. We discuss the nature of the X-ray variability and conclude that this is intrinsic and cannot be accounted for by absorption episodes due to material intervening in the line of sight. It is also found that the lags agree with the relation τ ∝ λ4/3, as expected for an optically thick geometrically thin accretion disc, although for a larger disc than that predicted by the estimated black hole mass and accretion rate in MCG-6-30-15. The cross-correlation analysis suggests that the torus is located at ˜20 light-days from the central source and at most at ˜50 light-days from the central region. This implies an active galactic nucleus bolometric luminosity of ˜3 × 1043 erg s-1 cm-2.

  7. A study of axonal degeneration in the optic nerves of aging mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. E., Jr.; Philpott, D. E.; Miquel, J.

    1978-01-01

    The optic nerves of C57BL/6J mice ranging from 3 to 30 months were examined by electron microscopy. At all ages investigated, optic nerve axons contained enlarged mitochondria with abnormal cristae. With increasing age, a large number of necrotic axons were observed and were in the process of being phagocytized. The abnormal mitochondria may represent preliminary changes that eventually lead to necrosis of the axon.

  8. Spectroscopic Parameters of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terbetas, G.; Kozlovskaja, A.; Varanius, D.; Graziene, V.; Vaitkus, J.; Vaitkuviene, A.

    2009-06-01

    There are numerous methods of investigating intervertebral disc. Visualization methods are widely used in clinical practice. Histological, imunohistochemical and biochemical methods are more used in scientific research. We propose that a new spectroscopic investigation would be useful in determining intervertebral disc material, especially when no histological specimens are available. Purpose: to determine spectroscopic parameters of intervertebral disc material; to determine emission spectra common for all intervertebral discs; to create a background for further spectroscopic investigation where no histological specimen will be available. Material and Methods: 20 patients, 68 frozen sections of 20 ?m thickness from operatively removed intervertebral disc hernia were excited by Nd:YAG microlaser STA-01-TH third harmonic 355 nm light throw 0, 1 mm fiber. Spectrophotometer OceanOptics USB2000 was used for spectra collection. Mathematical analysis of spectra was performed by ORIGIN multiple Gaussian peaks analysis. Results: In each specimen of disc hernia were found distinct maximal spectral peaks of 4 types supporting the histological evaluation of mixture content of the hernia. Fluorescence in the spectral regions 370-700 nm was detected in the disc hernias. The main spectral component was at 494 nm and the contribution of the components with the peak wavelength values at 388 nm, 412 nm and 4355 nm were varying in the different groups of samples. In comparison to average spectrum of all cases, there are 4 groups of different spectral signatures in the region 400-500 nm in the patient groups, supporting a clinical data on different clinical features of the patients. Discussion and Conclusion: besides the classical open discectomy, new minimally invasive techniques of treating intervertebral disc emerge (PLDD). Intervertebral disc in these techniques is assessed by needle, no histological specimen is taken. Spectroscopic investigation via fiber optics through the needle can give additional information of needle position, assuring the needle tip is directed into intervertebral disc material. Spectroscopic analysis of intervertebral disc removed during open surgery, creates background for further investigation on intervertebral disc degeneration spectral classification.

  9. The avian intervertebral disc arises from rostral sclerotome and lacks a nucleus pulposus: Implications for evolution of the vertebrate disc

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Bradley J.; Maier, Jennifer A.; Mohiuddin, Yasmin S.; Powers, Rae; Lo, YinTing; Guimarães-Camboa, Nuno; Evans, Sylvia M.; Harfe, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Deterioration of the intervertebral discs is an unfortunate consequence of aging. The intervertebral disc in mammals is composed of three parts: a jelly-like center called the nucleus pulposus, the cartilaginous annulus fibrosus and anterior and posterior endplates that attach the discs to vertebrae. In order to understand the origin of the disc, we have investigated the intervertebral region of chickens. Surprisingly, our comparison of mouse and chicken discs revealed that chicken discs lack nuclei pulposi. In addition, the notochord, which in mice forms nuclei pulposi, was found to persist as a rod-like structure and express Shh throughout chicken embryogenesis. Our fate mapping data indicates that cells originating from the rostral half of each somite are responsible for forming the avian disc while cells in the caudal region of each somite form vertebrae. A histological analysis of mammalian and non-mammalian organisms suggests that nuclei pulposi are only present in mammals. PMID:22354863

  10. Stem Cell Approaches to Intervertebral Disc Regeneration: Obstacles from the Disc Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Shi, Rui; Cai, Feng; Wang, Yun-Tao; Wu, Xiao-Tao

    2015-11-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration results in segmental instability and irritates neural compressive symptoms, such as low back pain and motor deficiency. The transplanting of stem cell into degenerative discs has attracted increasing clinical attention, as a new and proven approach to alleviating disc degeneration and to relieving discogenic pains. Aside from supplementation with stem cells, the IVD itself already contains a pool of stem and progenitor cells. Since the resident disc stem cells are incapable of reversing the pathologic changes that occur during aging and disc degeneration, it has been debated as to whether transplanted stem cells are capable of providing an efficient and durable therapeutic effect, even though there have been positive outcomes in both animal models and in clinical trials. This review aims to decipher the interactions between the stem cell and the disc microenvironment. Within their new niches in the IVD, the exogenous stem cell shows metabolic adaptation to the low-glucose supply, hypoxia, and compressive loadings, but demonstrates little tolerance to the disc-like acidity and hypertonicity. Similarly, the survival of endogenous stem cells is threatened as well by the harsh disc microenvironment, which may exhaust the stem cell resources and restrict the self-repair capacity of a degenerating IVD. To eliminate the intrinsic obstacles within the stressful disc niches, stem cells should be delivered with an injectable scaffold that provides both survival and mechanical support. Quick healing or concretion of the injection injuries, which minimizes stem cell leakage and disturbance to disc homeostasis, is of equal importance toward achieving efficient stem cell-based disc regeneration. PMID:26228642

  11. Chemonucleolysis as Treatment for Herniated Lumbar Disc

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, David I.

    1986-01-01

    Herniated disc, while not the most common cause of low back pain, is the most common reason for surgery to relieve back pain. An alternative to surgery when sciatic pain is the result of disc herniation is chemonucleolysis with chymopapain. Since this enzyme is effective only in very specific circumstances, proper patient selection is crucial. Five criteria for selection are presented, emphasizing that since chemonucleolysis is not conservative treatment, it should be reserved for patients whose pain is unrelieved by conservative methods. There are several important contraindications to chemonucleolysis: allergy to chymopapain, risk of injury to the cauda equina, disc lesions at cord levels, pregnancy, patient's age (not recommended for adolescents) and sequestrated disc. Technique is exacting and should be limited to surgeons with the opportunity for concentrated experience. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21274248

  12. A simple model for the evolution of disc galaxies: the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naab, Thorsten; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2006-03-01

    A simple model for the evolution of disc galaxies is presented. We adopt three numbers from observations of the Milky Way disc, ?d the local surface mass density, rd the stellar scalelength (of the assumed exponential disc), vc, the amplitude of the (assumed flat) rotation curve, and physically, the (local) dynamical Kennicutt star formation prescription, standard chemical evolution equations assuming a Salpeter initial mass function and a model for spectral evolution of stellar populations. We can determine the detailed evolution of the model with only the addition of standard cosmological scalings with the time of the dimensional parameters. A surprising wealth of detailed specifications follows from this prescription including the gaseous infall rate as a function of radius and time, the distribution of stellar ages and metallicities with time and radius, surface brightness profiles at different wavelengths, colours, etc. Some of the detailed properties are as follows: the global gas infall rate and the global star formation rate are almost constant at 2-3 and 2-4 Msolar yr-1 during the evolution of the disc. The present-day total masses in stars and in gas are 2.7 1010 and 9.5 109 Msolar, respectively, and the disc has an absolute K-band magnitude of -23.2. The present-day stellar scalelength (normalized to 3 kpc) in the K band and is larger than at shorter wavelengths. At the solar neighbourhood stars started to form ~10 Gyr ago at an increasing rate, peaking four billion years ago and then slowly declining in good agreement with observations. The mean age of long-lived stars at the solar neighbourhood is about 4 Gyr. The local surface densities of the stars and gas are 35 and 15 Msolar pc-2, respectively. The metallicity distribution of the stars at the solar radius is narrow with a peak at [Z/Zsolar]=-0.1. The present-day metallicity gradient is -0.046 dex kpc-1 and has been significantly steeper in the past. Using a Chabrier initial mass function increases the luminosity of the model and results in a steeper metallicity gradient. The local metallicity distribution is only weakly affected. Different formulations for threshold densities for star formation have been tested and lead to a truncation of the stellar disc at about 12 kpc. Comparisons with the current and local fossil evidence provide support for the model, which can then be used to assess other local disc galaxies, the evolution of disc galaxies in deep optical surveys and also for theoretical investigations such as simulations of merging disc galaxies.

  13. Discovery of 15 Myr Old pre-Main Sequence Stars with Active Accretion and Sizeable Discs in NGC 6611

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, N.; Guarcello, M. G.; Bonito, R.

    2012-01-01

    Attention is given to a population of 110 stars with prominent near-infrared (NIR) excess in the NGC 6611 cluster of the Eagle Nebula that have optical colours typical of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars older than 10 Myr. In principle, their V-I colours would be consistent with those of young PMS objects (< 1 Myr), whose radiation is heavily obscured by a circumstellar disc seen at high inclination and in small part scattered towards the observer by the back side of the disc. However, using theoretical models it is shown here that objects of this type can only account for a few percent of this population. In fact, the spatial distribution of these objects, their X-ray luminosities, their optical brightness and their positions in the colour-magnitude diagram unambiguously indicate that most of these stars are intrinsically older than 10 Myr. Ages range from 8 to 30 Myr with a median value of 15 Myr. This is the largest homogeneous sample to date of Galactic PMS stars considerably older than 10 Myr that are still actively accreting from a circumstellar disc and it allows us to set a lower limit of 5% to the disc frequency at 15 Myr in NGC 6611. These values imply a characteristic exponential lifetime of 5 Myr for disc dissipation.

  14. Chemical derivatization of compact disc polycarbonate surfaces for SNPs detection.

    PubMed

    Bañuls, María-José; García-Piñón, Francisco; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Angel

    2008-03-01

    Compact discs have been proposed as an efficient analytical platform, with potential to develop high-throughput affinity assays for genomics, proteomics, clinics, and health monitoring. Chemical derivatization of CD surfaces is one of the keys to developing highly efficient microarraying-based assays on discs. Approaches for mild chemical modification of polycarbonate (PC) disc surface based on nitration, reduction, and chloromethylation reactions have been developed. Derivatized surfaces as amino and thiol are obtained for PC, maintaining unchanged the mechanical and optical properties of the discs. Studies of covalent attachment of oligonucleotide probes (5' Cy5-labeled, 3' NH 2-ended) on the modified surfaces have been performed to develop microarraying assays based on hybridization of cDNA strands and single nucleotide polymorphism discrimination (SNPs). A demonstration of the applicability to the compact disc audio/video technology for its use as analytical system is performed, including the employment of a commercial CD player to read the results on disc. PMID:18254580

  15. The effectiveness of percutaneous laser disc decompression for the prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Ming Wei; Liu, Wei; Feng, Wei; Ma, Nan

    2009-07-01

    Objective: to investigate the role of associated factors in the effectiveness of laser treatment for prolapsed lumber intervertebral disc. Method: 302 prolapsed lumber intervertebral discs in 212 patients were treated with percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD). Patients were followed up by 12month, the associated factors which affecting the effectiveness of treatment, ie age, duration of illness were analyzed. Results: Punctual Success rate was 100%. After 12 month's follow up, 86% successful outcomes were obtained, in which 93% successful outcomes were obtained in patients less than 50 years old, 92% successful outcomes was obtained in the patients whose duration of illness less than 1 year.

  16. MRI evaluation of spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the alpaca cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Stolworthy, Dean K; Bowden, Anton E; Roeder, Beverly L; Robinson, Todd F; Holland, Jacob G; Christensen, S Loyd; Beatty, Amanda M; Bridgewater, Laura C; Eggett, Dennis L; Wendel, John D; Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Taylor, Meredith D

    2015-12-01

    Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding human pathology, treatment, and healing, but few animals are known to naturally develop intervertebral disc degeneration. The study of degenerative disc disease and its treatment would greatly benefit from a more comprehensive, and comparable animal model. Alpacas have recently been presented as a potential large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration due to similarities in spinal posture, disc size, biomechanical flexibility, and natural disc pathology. This research further investigated alpacas by determining the prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration among an aging alpaca population. Twenty healthy female alpacas comprised two age subgroups (5 young: 2-6 years; and 15 older: 10+ years) and were rated according to the Pfirrmann-grade for degeneration of the cervical intervertebral discs. Incidence rates of degeneration showed strong correlations with age and spinal level: younger alpacas were nearly immune to developing disc degeneration, and in older animals, disc degeneration had an increased incidence rate and severity at lower cervical levels. Advanced disc degeneration was present in at least one of the cervical intervertebral discs of 47% of the older alpacas, and it was most common at the two lowest cervical intervertebral discs. The prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration encourages further investigation and application of the lower cervical spine of alpacas and similar camelids as a large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:26135031

  17. Changes in diffusion path length with old age in diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnéry, Clément; Leclerc, Paul-Olivier; Desjardins, Michèle; Hoge, Rick; Bherer, Louis; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    Diffuse, optical near infrared imaging is increasingly being used in various neurocognitive contexts where changes in optical signals are interpreted through activation maps. Statistical population comparison of different age or clinical groups rely on the relative homogeneous distribution of measurements across subjects in order to infer changes in brain function. In the context of an increasing use of diffuse optical imaging with older adult populations, changes in tissue properties and anatomy with age adds additional confounds. Few studies investigated these changes with age. Duncan et al. measured the so-called diffusion path length factor (DPF) in a large population but did not explore beyond the age of 51 after which physiological and anatomical changes are expected to occur [Pediatr. Res. 39(5), 889-894 (1996)]. With increasing interest in studying the geriatric population with optical imaging, we studied changes in tissue properties in young and old subjects using both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Monte-Carlo simulations and time-domain diffuse optical imaging. Our results, measured in the frontal cortex, show changes in DPF that are smaller than previously measured by Duncan et al. in a younger population. The origin of these changes are studied using simulations and experimental measures.

  18. Optical properties of neonatal skin measured in vivo as a function of age and skin pigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; Mentink, Rosaline; Kok, Joke H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties of neonatal skin is invaluable when developing new, or improving existing optical techniques for use at the neonatal intensive care. In this article, we present in vivo measurements of the absorption ?a and reduced scattering coefficient ?s' of neonatal skin between 450 and 600 nm and assess the influence of age and skin pigmentation on the optical properties. The optical properties were measured using a spatially resolved, steady state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy setup, combined with a modified spatially resolved diffusion model. The method was validated on phantoms with known values for the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient. Values of ?a and ?s' were obtained from the skin at four different body locations (forehead, sternum, hand, and foot) of 60 neonates with varying gestational age, postnatal age, and skin pigmentation. We found that ?a ranged from 0.02 to 1.25 mm-1 and ?s' was in the range of 1 to 2.8 mm-1 (5th to 95th percentile of the patient population), independent of body location. In contrast to previous studies, no to very weak correlation was observed between the optical properties and gestational maturity, but a strong dependency of the absorption coefficient on postnatal age was found for dark skinned patients.

  19. Reconstructing the star formation history of the Milky Way disc(s) from chemical abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snaith, O.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.; Katz, D.; Gómez, A.

    2015-06-01

    We develop a chemical evolution model to study the star formation history of the Milky Way. Our model assumes that the Milky Way has formed from a closed-box-like system in the inner regions, while the outer parts of the disc have experienced some accretion. Unlike the usual procedure, we do not fix the star formation prescription (e.g. Kennicutt law) to reproduce the chemical abundance trends. Instead, we fit the abundance trends with age to recover the star formation history of the Galaxy. Our method enables us to recover the star formation history of the Milky Way in the first Gyrs with unprecedented accuracy in the inner (R < 7-8 kpc) and outer (R > 9-10 kpc) discs, as sampled in the solar vicinity. We show that half the stellar mass formed during the thick-disc phase in the inner galaxy during the first 4-5 Gyr. This phase was followed by a significant dip in star formation activity (at 8-9 Gyr) and a period of roughly constant lower-level star formation for the remaining 8 Gyr. The thick-disc phase has produced as many metals in 4 Gyr as the thin-disc phase in the remaining 8 Gyr. Our results suggest that a closed-box model is able to fit all the available constraints in the inner disc. A closed-box system is qualitatively equivalent to a regime where the accretion rate maintains a high gas fraction in the inner disc at high redshift. In these conditions the SFR is mainly governed by the high turbulence of the interstellar medium. By z ~ 1 it is possible that most of the accretion takes place in the outer disc, while the star formation activity in the inner disc is mostly sustained by the gas that is not consumed during the thick-disc phase and the continuous ejecta from earlier generations of stars. The outer disc follows a star formation history very similar to that of the inner disc, although initiated at z ~ 2, about 2 Gyr before the onset of the thin-disc formation in the inner disc.

  20. A revised burial dose estimation procedure for optical dating of youngand modern-age sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, L.J.; Roberts, R.G.; Galbraith, R.F.; DeLong, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of genuinely zero-age or near-zero-age grains in modern-age and very young samples poses a problem for many existing burial dose estimation procedures used in optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating. This difficulty currently necessitates consideration of relatively simplistic and statistically inferior age models. In this study, we investigate the potential for using modified versions of the statistical age models of Galbraith et??al. [Galbraith, R.F., Roberts, R.G., Laslett, G.M., Yoshida, H., Olley, J.M., 1999. Optical dating of single and multiple grains of quartz from Jinmium rock shelter, northern Australia: Part I, experimental design and statistical models. Archaeometry 41, 339-364.] to provide reliable equivalent dose (De) estimates for young and modern-age samples that display negative, zero or near-zero De estimates. For this purpose, we have revised the original versions of the central and minimum age models, which are based on log-transformed De values, so that they can be applied to un-logged De estimates and their associated absolute standard errors. The suitability of these 'un-logged' age models is tested using a series of known-age fluvial samples deposited within two arroyo systems from the American Southwest. The un-logged age models provide accurate burial doses and final OSL ages for roughly three-quarters of the total number of samples considered in this study. Sensitivity tests reveal that the un-logged versions of the central and minimum age models are capable of producing accurate burial dose estimates for modern-age and very young (<350??yr) fluvial samples that contain (i) more than 20% of well-bleached grains in their De distributions, or (ii) smaller sub-populations of well-bleached grains for which the De values are known with high precision. Our results indicate that the original (log-transformed) versions of the central and minimum age models are still preferable for most routine dating applications, since these age models are better suited to the statistical properties of typical single-grain and multi-grain single-aliquot De datasets. However, the unique error properties of modern-age samples, combined with the problems of calculating natural logarithms of negative or zero-Gy De values, mean that the un-logged versions of the central and minimum age models currently offer the most suitable means of deriving accurate burial dose estimates for very young and modern-age samples. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reliability and accelerated aging of LiNbO3 integrated optic fiber gyro circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchoski, Paul G., Jr.; Boivin, Gary R.

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes various reliability and accelerated aging tests that have been performed on LiNbO3 integrated optical FOG circuits fabricated by annealed proton exchange. Fully packaged devices have been temperature cycled 100 times from -65 to 125 C and subjected to 11 Grms random vibration with less than 0.5 dB variation in insertion loss. Potential failure mechanisms of LiNbO3 integrated optical circuits are discussed. Ten devices with passive 3-dB couplers have been aged at 150 C and tested every 1000 hr with little, if any, change in device performance.

  2. Cone photopigment in older subjects: decreased optical density in early age-related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Ann E.; Burns, Stephen A.; Weiter, John J.

    2002-01-01

    We measured changes to cone photoreceptors in patients with early age-related macular degeneration. The data of 53 patients were compared with normative data for color matching measurements of long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the central macula. A four-parameter model quantified cone photopigment optical density and kinetics. Cone photopigment optical density was on average less for the patients than for normal subjects and was uncorrelated with visual acuity. More light was needed to reduce the photopigment density by 50% in the steady state for patients. These results imply that cone photopigment optical density is reduced by factors other than slowed kinetics.

  3. Moving Groups in the Galactic Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya, P.; Reddy, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    We present results of chemical abundance study of a few representative stellar streams of Galactic thick and thin discs. Arcturus stream, which was proposed to have an extragalactic origin, and a recently detected stream called AF06 were studied. Results show a range of metallicity, age and abundance pattern that are consistent with those of Galactic thick disc component. We found similar results for AF06. The abundance and age results unambiguously rule out the possibility that the member stars are vestiges of open clusters. Abundance results of a sample of stars of Sirius and Hercules streams combined with the kinematics show that both the streams belong to the thin disc component. Also, results rule out these are remnants of open clusters. It is likely these streams formed insitu due to perturbations caused by non-axisymmetric components such as bar or spirals.

  4. Herniated Cervical Disc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your doctor or physical therapist may also use traction, electric stimulation, hot packs, cold packs and manual (" ... point injections do not help heal a herniated cervical disc. For patients whose pain does not improve ...

  5. Herniated Lumbar Disc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 50. A herniated lumbar disc may also cause back pain, although back pain alone (without leg pain) can have many causes ... 90% success); surgery is less effective in relieving back pain. Nonsurgical treatment Your doctor may prescribe nonsurgical treatments ...

  6. Relationship between Initial Telomere Length, Initial Telomerase Activity, Age, and Replicative Capacity of Nucleus Pulposus Chondrocytes in Human Intervertebral Discs: What Is a Predictor of Replicative Potential?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun-Seok; Jeong, Seo-Won; Cho, Sung-Wook; Juhn, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Ki-Won

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA), and age are related to the replicative potential of human nucleus pulposus chondrocytes (NPCs). However, it has not yet been established if any of these factors can serve as predictors of the replicative potential of NPCs. To establish predictors of the replicative potential of NPCs, we evaluated potential relationships between replicative capacity of NPCs, initial TL (telomere length at the first passage), initial TA (telomerase activity at the first passage), and age. Nucleus pulposus specimens were obtained from 14 patients of various ages undergoing discectomy. NPCs were serially cultivated until the end of their replicative lifespans. Relationships among cumulative population doubling level (PDL), initial TL, initial TA, and age were analyzed. Initial TA was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.674, P = 0.008). However, no correlation between initial TL and age was observed. Cumulative PDL was also negatively correlated with age (r = -0.585, P = 0.028). Although the cumulative PDL appeared to increase with initial TL or initial TA, this trend was not statistically significant. In conclusion, age is the sole predictor of the replicative potential of human NPCs, and replicative potential decreases with age. Initial TL and initial TA are not predictors of replicative potential, and can serve only as reference values. PMID:26633809

  7. Optic disc boundary segmentation from diffeomorphic demons registration of monocular fundus image sequences versus 3D visualization of stereo fundus image pairs for automated early stage glaucoma assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Vijay; Hill, Jason; Mitra, Sunanda; Nutter, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Despite the current availability in resource-rich regions of advanced technologies in scanning and 3-D imaging in current ophthalmology practice, world-wide screening tests for early detection and progression of glaucoma still consist of a variety of simple tools, including fundus image-based parameters such as CDR (cup to disc diameter ratio) and CAR (cup to disc area ratio), especially in resource -poor regions. Reliable automated computation of the relevant parameters from fundus image sequences requires robust non-rigid registration and segmentation techniques. Recent research work demonstrated that proper non-rigid registration of multi-view monocular fundus image sequences could result in acceptable segmentation of cup boundaries for automated computation of CAR and CDR. This research work introduces a composite diffeomorphic demons registration algorithm for segmentation of cup boundaries from a sequence of monocular images and compares the resulting CAR and CDR values with those computed manually by experts and from 3-D visualization of stereo pairs. Our preliminary results show that the automated computation of CDR and CAR from composite diffeomorphic segmentation of monocular image sequences yield values comparable with those from the other two techniques and thus may provide global healthcare with a cost-effective yet accurate tool for management of glaucoma in its early stage.

  8. Disc in flames: Roles of TNF-? and IL-1? in intervertebral disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Z I; Schoepflin, Z R; Choi, H; Shapiro, I M; Risbud, M V

    2015-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is an important mechanical structure that allows range of motion of the spinal column. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc--incited by aging, traumatic insult, genetic predisposition, or other factors--is often defined by functional and structural changes in the tissue, including excessive breakdown of the extracellular matrix, increased disc cell senescence and death, as well as compromised biomechanical function of the tissue. Intervertebral disc degeneration is strongly correlated with low back pain, which is a highly prevalent and costly condition, significantly contributing to loss in productivity and health care costs. Disc degeneration is a chronic, progressive condition, and current therapies are limited and often focused on symptomatic pain relief rather than curtailing the progression of the disease. Inflammatory processes exacerbated by cytokines tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) are believed to be key mediators of disc degeneration and low back pain. In this review, we describe the contributions of TNF-? and IL-1? to changes seen during disc degeneration at both cellular and tissue level, as well as new evidence suggesting a link between infection of the spine and low back pain, and the emerging therapeutic modalities aimed at combating these processes. PMID:26388614

  9. Disc in Flames: Roles of TNF-α and IL-1β in Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Zariel I.; Schoepflin, Zachary R.; Choi, Hyowon; Shapiro, Irving M.; Risbud, Makarand V.

    2016-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is an important mechanical structure that allows range of motion of the spinal column. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc, incited by aging, traumatic insult, genetic predisposition, or other factors, is often defined by functional and structural changes in the tissue, including excessive breakdown of the extracellular matrix, increased disc cell senescence and death, and compromised biomechanical function of the tissue. Intervertebral disc degeneration is strongly correlated with low back pain, which is a highly prevalent and costly condition, significantly contributing to loss in productivity and health care costs. Disc degeneration is a chronic, progressive condition, and current therapies are limited and often focused on symptomatic pain relief rather than curtailing the progression of the disease. Inflammatory processes, exacerbated by cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β are believed to be key mediators of disc degeneration and low back pain. In this review, we describe the contributions of TNF-α and IL-1β to changes seen during disc degeneration at the cellular and tissue level, new evidence suggesting a link between infection of the spine and low back pain, and the emerging therapeutic modalities aimed at combating these processes. PMID:26388614

  10. Assessment of fiber optic sensors for aging monitoring of industrial liquid coolants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riziotis, Christos; El Sachat, Alexandros; Markos, Christos; Velanas, Pantelis; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Aggelos

    2015-03-01

    Lately the demand for in situ and real time monitoring of industrial assets and processes has been dramatically increased. Although numerous sensing techniques have been proposed, only a small fraction can operate efficiently under harsh industrial environments. In this work the operational properties of a proposed photonic based chemical sensing scheme, capable to monitor the ageing process and the quality characteristics of coolants and lubricants in industrial heavy machinery for metal finishing processes is presented. The full spectroscopic characterization of different coolant liquids revealed that the ageing process is connected closely to the acidity/ pH value of coolants, despite the fact that the ageing process is quite complicated, affected by a number of environmental parameters such as the temperature, humidity and development of hazardous biological content as for example fungi. Efficient and low cost optical fiber sensors based on pH sensitive thin overlayers, are proposed and employed for the ageing monitoring. Active sol-gel based materials produced with various pH indicators like cresol red, bromophenol blue and chorophenol red in tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), were used for the production of those thin film sensitive layers deposited on polymer's and silica's large core and highly multimoded optical fibers. The optical characteristics, sensing performance and environmental robustness of those optical sensors are presented, extracting useful conclusions towards their use in industrial applications.

  11. Bryan total disc arthroplasty: a replacement disc for cervical disc disease

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Markus; Markwalder, Thomas-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Total disc arthroplasty is a new option in the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease. Several types of cervical disc prostheses currently challenge the gold-standard discectomy and fusion procedures. This review describes the Bryan Cervical Disc System and presents the Bryan prosthesis, its indications, surgical technique, complications, and outcomes, as given in the literature. PMID:22915917

  12. Irradiated Accretion Disc Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, N. J.

    2004-08-01

    Most of the known accretion discs in binary systems are composed of hydrogen rich material. A few years ago, a new type of binary system was discovered, in which the disc is obviously free of hydrogen and helium. Nowadays six systems are known, with an accretion disc mainly composed of C, O, Ne and Mg (Juett, Psaltis & Chakrabarty 2001; Schulz et al. 2001). The most prominent representative of these ultra compact binary systems is the LMXB 4U 1626-67. The system is consisting of a 7.66 s X-ray pulsar as primary component and a 0.02 solar mass white dwarf as secondary (Chakrabarty 1998). Having a binary separation of only 300 0000 km (Schulz et al. 2001) one can not neglect the external irradiation of the accretion disc by the neutron star. The external irradiation dominates the disc spectrum over a wide range. In the UV one sees emission lines of highly ionised elements, like OV or CIV. One of the biggest numerical problems, occurring during the calculation of an irradiated accretion disc model, is the extreme temperature stratification and structure. This causes severe problems with the occupation numbers of some atomic levels. These problems should be solved by implementing the depth dependent model atom, during my thesis work. During his PhD thesis, Nagel (2003) has developed the numeric code package AcDc. Therewith one can calculate the vertical structure and the emergent synthetic spectrum of an accretion disc. During the work presented here the depth dependent model atom (DEPTOM) was developed and implemented in AcDc as a code module. DEPTOM identifies the trouble making ionisation stages and deactivates them. Thus the calculation is numerically more stable and, hence, makes AcDc more powerful.

  13. Far-infrared and sub-millimetre surveys of circumstellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, N. M.

    2011-06-01

    Stars of all ages and evolutionary stages are seen to be surrounded by discs of material. During the formation of a stellar system the stars are orbited by a massive protoplanetary disc composed of interstellar gas and dust, in which planet formation occurs. Between 1 and 10 Myr the protoplanetary disc disperses, leaving behind the newly formed system of planets and smaller bodies. The remaining material which has not formed into planets is referred to as a debris disc. Even though the interstellar dust grains from the protoplanetary disc have long been removed from the system, debris discs can contain large quantities of dust due to collisions between larger bodies and cometary activity. Such dust can be detected by its thermal emission. This thesis focuses on observational studies at far-infrared and sub-millimetre wavelengths of debris discs and the late stages of protoplanetary disc evolution. An overview of surveys for debris discs performed to date is presented, highlighting the limitations and statistical biases. The motivation, design and sample selection for two large surveys for debris discs around nearby stars, with the Herschel space observatory and the SCUBA-2 sub-millimetre camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, are described. The combination of a uniform observational strategy, longer wavelengths than previous surveys, and a large, clearly chosen sample - unbiased by stellar properties - will allow robust statistical conclusions of how the incidence and properties of debris discs depend on system parameters such as stellar mass, age, metallicity, binarity, and the presence of planets. As a precursor to the Herschel and SCUBA-2 surveys, a volume-limited sample of 130 A type star systems was surveyed using observations at 24 and 70 ?m from the Spitzer space telescope. Stellar photosphere fluxes at 24 and 70 ?m, which were required to determine the presence of emission from dust, were predicted by fitting model flux distributions to optical and near-infrared photometry. Debris discs were detected around 46 systems, 12 of which - including the system with the largest dust mass - are new discoveries. This survey adds to the results of previous studies which show that debris disc incidence is not correlated with host star metallicity, despite the well known giant planet - metallicity correlation. This is in accordance with what is predicted from the core accretion theory of planet formation. The most significant result from this survey is that, contrary to results reported in a previous work, debris discs are overall less common around binary stars. Further investigation shows that systems with separations of 3-150 AU are especially deficient of debris, whilst closer binaries and the primaries of wider binaries show debris detection rates consistent with those for single stars. A sample of circumstellar discs around 29 young stellar systems with ages of 5-30 Myr were observed with the LABOCA sub-millimetre instrument on the APEX telescope at 870 ?m, to provide disc masses or mass upper limits in support of a large Herschel programme. These targets included the ? Chamaeleontis cluster and four bright Herbig Ae/Be stars which have not previously been observed at this wavelength. All but the Herbig Ae/Be stars were not detected, and 3? dust mass upper limits of 0.1-3M_? are determined, with corresponding total disc masses of 0.03-1M_{Jup}. These mass limits indicate that there is insufficient remaining material in these discs to form gas giant planets, and add to the prevailing view that protoplanetary discs typically disperse within 10 Myr and that gas giant planet formation must be completed before this time. A search for cold dust emission from two of the Solar System's nearest neighbours - ? Centauri AB and ? Indi - was also performed with LABOCA. In both cases no debris disc emission was detected. A bright resolved feature was detected near ? Centauri AB, however, follow-up observations at a second epoch, two years after the initial observations, showed that the feature is not co-moving w

  14. Aging Related Changes of Retina and Optic Nerve of Uromastyx aegyptia and Falco tinnunculus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a biological phenomenon that involves gradual degradation of the structure and function of the retina and optic nerve. To our knowledge, little is known about the aging-related ocular cell loss in avian (Falco tinnunculus) and reptilian species (Uromastyx aegyptia). A selected 90 animals of pup, middle, and old age U. aegyptia (reptilian) and F. tinnunculus (avian) were used. The retinae and optic nerves were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and assessments of neurotransmitters, antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismustase and glutathione s transferase), caspase-3 and -7, malonadialdhyde, and DNA fragmentation. Light and TEM observations of the senile specimens revealed apparent deterioration of retinal cell layers, especially the pigmented epithelium and photoreceptor outer segments. Their inclusions of melanin were replaced by lipofuscins. Also, vacuolar degeneration and demyelination of the optic nerve axons were detected. Concomitantly, there was a marked increase of oxidative stress involved reduction of neurotransmitters and antioxidant enzymes and an increase of lipid peroxidation, caspase-3 and -7, subG0/G1 apoptosis, and P53. We conclude that aging showed an inverse relationship with the neurotransmitters and antioxidant enzymes and a linear relationship of caspases, malondialdhyde, DNA apoptosis, and P53 markers of cell death. These markers reflected the retinal cytological alterations and lipofuscin accumulation within inner segments. PMID:24215233

  15. The origin of thick discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comern, Sbastien

    2015-03-01

    Thick discs are defined to be disc-like components with a scale height larger than that of the classical discs. They are ubiquitous (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comern et al. 2011a), they are made of mostly old and metal-poor stars and are most easily detected in close to edge-on galaxies. Their origin has been considered mysterious and several formation theories have been proposed: The thick disc being formed secularly by thin disc stars heated by disc overdensities such as giant molecular clouds or spiral arms (Villumsen 1985, ApJ, 290, 75) and by stars moved outwards from their original orbits by radial migration mechanisms (Schnrich & Binney 2009). The thick disc being formed by the heating of the thin disc by satellites (Quinn et al. 1993) and the tidal stripping of them (Abadi et al. 2003). The thick disc being formed fast and already thick at high redshift in an highly unstable disc. Inside that thick disc, a thin disc would form afterwards as suggested by Elemgreen & Elmegreen (2006). The thick disc being formed originally thick at high redshift by the merger of gas-rich protogalactic fragments and a thin disc forming afterwards within it (Brook et al. 2007). The first mechanism is a secular evolution mechanism. The time-scale of the second one is dependent on the merger history of the main galaxy. In the two last mechanisms, the thick disc forms already thick in a short time-scale at high redshift. Recent Milky Way studies, (see, e.g., Bovy et al. 2012), have shown indications that there is no discontinuity between the thin and the thick disc chemical and kinematic properties. Instead, those studies indicate the presence of a monotonic distribution of disc thicknesses. This would suggest a secular origin for the Milky Way thick disc. Studies in external galaxies (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comern et al. 2011b), have shown that low-mass disc galaxies have thick disc relative masses much larger than those found in large-mass galaxies. Because low-mass galaxies are dynamically younger than their larger counterparts, it seems difficult for their thick discs to have a secular evolution origin, but simulations show that their thick disc masses are compatible with those of a thick disc formed at high redshift. Thus, recent studies seem to indicate that large-mass galaxies have their thick discs formed mainly due to secular evolution and that low-mass galaxies have them formed at high redshift.

  16. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ() software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth of the superficial reticular dermis. PMID:26066511

  17. Stem cell horizons in intervertebral disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ciacci, Joseph; Ho, Allen; Ames, Christopher P; Jandial, Rahul

    2009-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration remains a pervasive and intractable disease arising from a combination of aging and stress on the back and spine. The growing field of regenerative medicine brings the promise of stem cells in the treatment of disc disease. Scientists and physicians hope to employ stem cells not only to stop, but also reverse degeneration. However, there are many important outstanding issues, including the hostile avascular, apoptotic physiological environment of the intervertebral disc, and the difficulty of obtaining mesenchymal stem cells, and directing them towards chondrocytic differentiation and integration within the nucleus pulposus of the disc. Given the recent advances in minimally invasive spine surgery, and developing body of work on stem cell manipulation and transplantation, stem cells are uniquely poised to bring about large-scale improvements in treatment and outcomes for degenerative disc disease. In this review we will first discuss the cellular and molecular factors influencing degeneration, and then examine the efficacy and difficulties of stem cell transplantation. PMID:24198503

  18. Herschel-PACS observations of discs in the η Chamaeleontis association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Elliott, P.; Rebollido, I.; Bayo, A.; Ribas, A.; Merín, B.; Kamp, I.; Dent, W. R. F.; Montesinos, B.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Protoplanetary discs are the birthplace of planets. Studying protoplanetary discs is the key to constraining theories of planet formation. By observing dust and gas in associations at different ages we can study the evolution of these discs, their clearing timescales, and their physical and geometrical properties.The stellar association η Cha is peculiar; some members still retain detectable amounts of gas in their discs at the late age of ~7 Myr, making it one of the most interesting young stellar associations in the solar neighbourhood. Aims: We characterise the properties of dust and gas in protoplanetary and transitional discs in the η Cha young cluster, with special emphasis on explaining the peculiarities that lead to the observed high disc detection fraction and prominent IR excesses at an age of ~7 Myr. Methods: We observed 17 members of the η Cha association with Herschel-PACS in photometric mode and line spectroscopic mode. A subset of members were also observed in range spectroscopic mode. The observations trace [OI] and H2O emissions at 63.18 and 63.32 μm, respectively, as well as CO, OH, CH+, and [CII] at different wavelengths for those systems observed in range mode. The photometric observations were used to build complete spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the optical to the far-IR. High-resolution multi-epoch optical spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios were also analysed to study the multiplicity of the sources and look for further gas (accreting) and outflow indicators. Results: We detect four out of fifteen sources observed at 70 μm, four out of six at 100 μm, and six out of sixteen at 160 μm. Only one system shows [OI] emission at 63 μm, namely RECX 15 or J0843.3-7905. None of them shows far-IR line emission at any other wavelength. The [OI] emission toward RECX 15 points to the presence of an outflow; however, the emission is not extended. We study Hα emission among η Cha members and conclude that RECX 4, 5, 9, 11, and 15 are actively accreting in at least one epoch. Conclusions: The SEDs of the discs in η Cha show a variety of shapes, from those in Taurus and in Upper Scorpius to sources showing excess over the Taurus median SED. Furthermore, the SEDs of RECX 3 and RECX 4 are typical of debris discs. The detection fraction for [OI] in η Cha is lower than younger regions like Taurus and Cha II, indicative of an evolutionary trend. The lack of [OI] emission, together with the intermediate values of the IR excess, can be explained by long-lived discs with a flattened geometry or by flared discs with a low UV flux, or by a combination of the two scenarios. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  19. Measuring skin aging using optical coherence tomography in vivo: a validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojahn, Carina; Dobos, Gabor; Richter, Claudia; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Dermal and epidermal structures in human skin change during intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Epidermal thickness is one of the most often reported parameters for the assessment of skin aging in cross-sectional images captured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We aimed to identify further parameters for the noninvasive measurement of skin aging of sun-exposed and sun-protected areas utilizing OCT. Based on a literature review, seven parameters were inductively developed. Three independent raters assessed these parameters using four-point scales on images of female subjects of two age groups. All items could be detected and quantified in our sample. Interrater agreement ranged between 25.0% and 83.3%. The item scores "stratum corneum reflectivity," "upper dermal reflectivity," and "dermoepidermal contrast" showed significant differences between age groups on the volar and dorsal forearm indicating that they were best able to measure changes during skin aging. "Surface unevenness" was associated with the skin roughness parameters, Rz and Rmax, on the inner upper arm and volar forearm supporting the criterion validity of this parameter on sun-protected skin areas. Based on the interrater agreement and the ability to differentiate between age groups, these four parameters are being considered as the best candidates for measuring skin aging in OCT images.

  20. Autonomous Optical Sensor System for the Monitoring of Nitrogen Dioxide from Aging Rocket Propellant

    SciTech Connect

    COX, TRISHA D.; SINGH, SEEMA; HUNTER, JOHN A.; JONES, GARY D.; SINCLAIR, MICHAEL B.; ROHWER, LAUREN E. S.; POHL, PHILLIP I.; ANDRZEJEWSKI, WILLIAM; SASAKI, DARRYL Y.

    2001-09-01

    An optical sensor system has been developed for the autonomous monitoring of NO{sub 2} evolution in energetic material aging studies. The system is minimally invasive, requiring only the presence of a small sensor film within the aging chamber. The sensor material is a perylene/PMMA film that is excited by a blue LED light source and the fluorescence detected with a CCD spectrometer. Detection of NO{sub 2} gas is done remotely through the glass window of the aging chamber. Irreversible reaction of NO{sub 2} with perylene, producing the non-fluorescent nitroperylene, provides the optical sensing scheme. The rate of fluorescence intensity loss over time can be modeled using a numerical solution to the coupled diffusion and a nonlinear chemical reaction problem to evaluate NO{sub 2} concentration levels. The light source, spectrometer, spectral acquisition, and data processing were controlled through a Labivew program run by a laptop PC. Due to the long times involved with materials aging studies the system was designed to turn on, warm up, acquire data, power itself off, then recycle at a specific time interval. This allowed the monitoring of aging HE material over the period of several weeks with minimal power consumption and stable LED light output. Despite inherent problems with gas leakage of the aging chamber they were able to test the sensor system in the field under an accelerated aging study of rocket propellant. They found that the propellant evolved NO{sub 2} at a rate that yielded a concentration of between 10 and 100 ppm. The sensor system further revealed that the propellant, over an aging period of 25 days, evolves NO{sub 2} with cyclic behavior between active and dormant periods.

  1. Total Disc Arthroplasty for Treating Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Lumber disc arthroplasty is a technological advancement that has occurred in the last decade to treat lumbar degenerative disk diseases. Purpose The aim of this retrospective study was to establish the impact and outcomes of managing patients with lumbar degenerative disk disease who have been treated with lumbar total disc arthroplasty (TDA). Overview of Literature Several studies have shown promising results following this surgery. Methods We reviewed the files of 104 patients at the Department of Neurosurgery in Colmar (France) who had been operated on by lumbar spine arthroplasty (Prodisc) between April 2002 and October 2008. Results Among the 104 patients, 67 were female and 37 were male with an average age of 33.1 years. We followed the cases for a mean of 20 months. The most frequent level of discopathy was L4-L5 with 62 patients (59.6%) followed by L5-S1 level with 52 patients (50%). Eighty-three patients suffered from low back pain, 21 of which were associated with radiculopathy. The status of 82 patients improved after surgery according to the Oswestry Disability Index score, and 92 patients returned to work. Conclusions The results indicate that TDA is a good alternative treatment for lumbar spine disk disease, particularly for patients with disabling and chronic low back pain. This technique contributes to improve living conditions with correct patient selection for surgery. PMID:25705336

  2. The DISC Quotient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John R.; Baxter, Stephen

    2012-09-01

    D.I.S.C: Decipherment Impact of a Signal's Content. The authors present a numerical method to characterise the significance of the receipt of a complex and potentially decipherable signal from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI). The purpose of the scale is to facilitate the public communication of work on any such claimed signal, as such work proceeds, and to assist in its discussion and interpretation. Building on a "position" paper rationale, this paper looks at the DISC quotient proposed and develops the algorithmic steps and comprising measures that form this post detection strategy for information dissemination, based on prior work on message detection, decipherment. As argued, we require a robust and incremental strategy, to disseminate timely, accurate and meaningful information, to the scientific community and the general public, in the event we receive an "alien" signal that displays decipherable information. This post-detection strategy is to serve as a stepwise algorithm for a logical approach to information extraction and a vehicle for sequential information dissemination, to manage societal impact. The "DISC Quotient", which is based on signal analysis processing stages, includes factors based on the signal's data quantity, structure, affinity to known human languages, and likely decipherment times. Comparisons with human and other phenomena are included as a guide to assessing likely societal impact. It is submitted that the development, refinement and implementation of DISC as an integral strategy, during the complex processes involved in post detection and decipherment, is essential if we wish to minimize disruption and optimize dissemination.

  3. Thoracic disc herniations.

    PubMed

    Dietze, D D; Fessler, R G

    1993-01-01

    Because of the protean nature of thoracic disc disease, surgeons should maintain a high order of suspicion of a thoracic disc herniation in the patient with unexplained localized back or torso pain and sensorimotor deficits. These patients should have MR imaging performed as a screening test, and, if suspicious for a thoracic disc herniation, confirmatory myelogram and postmyelogram CT imaging. Though the natural history is anecdotal, there appears to be a tendency for myelopathic symptoms and signs to be progressive, warranting surgical intervention. For radicular dysfunction or localized back pain, a conservative therapeutic plan is recommended. If intractable pain is demonstrated, and the diagnosis is certain, then surgical intervention is recommended. Once surgical intervention is recommended the surgical approach needs to be individualized according to the surgeon's skills and experience and the specifics of the patient's pathology. Appropriate surgical decision-making depends on an understanding of the variety of surgical options and their advantages and disadvantages, and an understanding of the biomechanical factors of the spine of the individual patient. Surgical concepts important to successful thoracic disc removal are (1) minimal spinal cord manipulation, (2) preservation of the neurovascular supply whenever possible, (3) minimal manipulation of the intercostal nerve, and (4) preservation of maximal bony and ligamentous attachments allowable for adequate exposure. Lastly it is recommended that the posterior longitudinal ligament be removed to ensure complete spinal cord decompression. PMID:8428158

  4. The Teddy Bears' Disc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurillard, Diana

    1985-01-01

    Reports an evaluation of the Teddy Bear disc, an interactive videodisc developed at the Open University for a second-level course in metallurgy and materials technology. Findings from observation of students utilizing the videodisc are reviewed; successful design features and design problems are considered; and development costs are outlined. (MBR)

  5. Revival of the Jumping Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H-J.

    2009-01-01

    Snap discs made of bimetal have many technical applications as thermostats. Jumping discs are a toy version of such snap discs. Besides giving technical information, we describe physical investigations. We show especially how, through simple measurements and calculations, you can determine the initial speed ([approximately equal to]3.5 m

  6. Color naming, lens aging, and grue: what the optics of the aging eye can teach us about color language.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Joseph L; Frederick, Christina M; Kay, Paul; Werner, John S

    2005-04-01

    Many languages without separate terms for green and blue are or were spoken in locations receiving above-average exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. It has been proposed that this correlation is caused by premature lens aging. This conclusion was supported by an experiment in which younger observers used the term "blue" less often when they described simulated paint chips filtered through the equivalent of an older observer's lens-removing much short-wavelength light-than when they described the unfiltered versions of the same paint chips. Some stimuli that were called "blue" without simulated aging were called "green" when filtered. However, in the experiment reported here, we found that the proportion of "blue" color-name responses did not differ between younger subjects and older observers with known ocular media optical densities. Color naming for stimuli that were nominally green, blue-green, or blue was virtually identical for older and younger observers who viewed the same (unfiltered) stimuli. Our results are inconsistent with the lens-brunescence hypothesis. PMID:15828980

  7. Modeling the Compact Disc Read System in Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinaus, Brad; Veum, Mick

    2009-01-01

    One of the great, engaging aspects of physics is its application to everyday technology. The compact disc player is an example of one such technology that applies fundamental principles from optics in order to efficiently store and quickly retrieve information. We have created a lab in which students use simple optical components to assemble a…

  8. Modeling the Compact Disc Read System in Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinaus, Brad; Veum, Mick

    2009-01-01

    One of the great, engaging aspects of physics is its application to everyday technology. The compact disc player is an example of one such technology that applies fundamental principles from optics in order to efficiently store and quickly retrieve information. We have created a lab in which students use simple optical components to assemble a

  9. An optical age chronology of late Quaternary extreme fluvial events recorded in Ugandan dambo soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahan, S.A.; Brown, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    There is little geochonological data on sedimentation in dambos (seasonally saturated, channel-less valley floors) found throughout Central and Southern Africa. Radiocarbon dating is problematic for dambos due to (i) oxidation of organic materials during dry seasons; and (ii) the potential for contemporary biological contamination of near-surface sediments. However, for luminescence dating the equatorial site and semi-arid climate facilitate grain bleaching, while the gentle terrain ensures shallow water columns, low turbidity, and relatively long surface exposures for transported grains prior to deposition and burial. For this study, we focused on dating sandy strata (indicative of high-energy fluvial events) at various positions and depths within a second-order dambo in central Uganda. Blue-light quartz optically stimulated luminescences (OSL) ages were compared with infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) ages from finer grains in the same sample. A total of 8 samples were dated, with 6 intervals obtained at ???35, 33, 16, 10.4, 8.4, and 5.9 ka. In general, luminescence ages were stratigraphically, geomorphically and ordinally consistent and most blue-light OSL ages could be correlated with well-dated climatic events registered either in Greenland ice cores or Lake Victoria sediments. Based upon OSL age correlations, we theorize that extreme fluvial dambo events occur primarily during relatively wet periods, often preceding humid-to-arid transitions. The optical ages reported in this study provide the first detailed chronology of dambo sedimentation, and we anticipate that further dambo work could provide a wealth of information on the paleohydrology of Central and Southern Africa. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Warp Propagation in Astrophysical Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Chris; King, Andrew

    Astrophysical discs are often warped, that is, their orbital planes change with radius. This occurs whenever there is a non-axisymmetric force acting on the disc, for example the Lense-Thirring precession induced by a misaligned spinning black hole, or the gravitational pull of a misaligned companion. Such misalignments appear to be generic in astrophysics. The wide range of systems that can harbour warped discsprotostars, X-ray binaries, tidal disruption events, quasars and othersallows for a rich variety in the disc's response. Here we review the basic physics of warped discs and its implications.

  11. Infrared variability from circumbinary disc temperature modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodman, Eva H. L.; Quillen, Alice

    2015-11-01

    The temperature of a circumbinary disc edge should undulate due to variations in illumination as a function of binary orbital phase. We explore circumbinary disc temperature variations as a source of broad-band infrared light-curve variability. Approximating the wall of a circumbinary disc edge as a wide optically thick cylinder with surface temperature dependent on its illumination, we find that a binary composed of 1 and 0.5 M? pre-main-sequence stars in a 15.5 d period, would exhibit the largest amplitude variations of 9 per cent at 3.77 and 4.68 ?m as seen by a distant observer. The amplitude of variations and shape of the light curve are sensitive to the luminosity and mass ratios of the stars in the binary, the radius of the circumbinary disc clearing, the binary separation, and the orbital inclination. The light-curve variations are smooth and very red with a non-sinusoidal shape for most of the parameter space explored. Possible morphologies include a single peak with a flat region, two peaks of different heights, or a single dip.

  12. Age- and Sex-Dependency of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy Measurements of Optic Nerve Vessel Microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Naoko; Kunikata, Hiroshi; Nitta, Fumihiko; Shiga, Yukihiro; Omodaka, Kazuko; Tsuda, Satoru; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between various characteristics of a normal population and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) measurements of mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH). Methods A total of 189 eyes of 189 normal subjects (93 male, 96 female, mean age 45 ± 14 years old, age range: 20–72) without any history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes were enrolled. ONH microcirculation was measured with LSFG and overall MBR (MA), vessel-area MBR (MV), and tissue-area MBR (MT) were derived from these measurements. The statistical association of these measurements with characteristics such as sex, age, intraocular pressure (IOP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was then determined. Results There was a trend towards decreased IOP and MV and increased SBP with age (P = 0.002, P = 0.035, and P = 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, IOP, MV and SBP were correlated with age (r = -0.23, P = 0.011; r = -0.24, P < 0.001; and r = 0.30, P < 0.001, respectively). Separate multiple regression analyses of independent contributing factors revealed that sex and IOP contributed to MA (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), sex, IOP, and age contributed to MV (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, and P = 0.024, respectively), while only IOP contributed to MT (P = 0.003). Conclusion In a normal population, MBR was affected by IOP in both the large vessel and capillary areas of the ONH, but not by SBP. MV was also affected by age and sex, while MT was stable independent of age or sex. PMID:26872348

  13. The Origin and Evolution of Transition Discs: Successes, Problems, and Open Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, James E.

    2016-02-01

    Transition discs are protoplanetary discs that show evidence for large holes or wide gaps (with widths comparable to their radii) in their dust component. These discs could be giving us clues about the disc destruction mechanism or hints about the location and time-scales for the formation of planets. However, at the moment there remain key gaps in our theoretical understanding. The vast majority of transition discs are accreting onto their central stars, indicating that-at least close to the star-dust has been depleted from the gas by a very large amount. In this review, we discuss evidence for two distinct populations of transition discs: mm-faint-those with low mm-fluxes, small holes (≲ 10 AU), and low accretion rates (~ 10-10 - 10-9 M⊙ yr-1) and mm-bright-discs with large mm-fluxes, large holes (≳ 20 AU), and high accretion rates ~ 10-8 M⊙ yr-1. MM-faint transition discs are consistent with what would naively be expected from a disc undergoing dispersal; however, mm-bright discs are not, and are likely to be rare and long-lived objects. We discuss the two commonly proposed mechanisms for creating transition discs: photoevaporation and planet-disc interactions, with a particular emphasis on how they would evolve in these models, comparing these predictions to the observed population. More theoretical work on explaining the lack of optically thick, non-accreting transition discs is required in both the photoevaporation and planetary hypothesis, before we can start to use transition discs to constrain models of planet formation. Finally, we suggest that the few discs with primordial looking spectral energy distribution, but serendipitously imaged showing large cavities in the mm (e.g. MWC758 and WSB 60) may represent a hidden population of associated objects. Characterising and understanding how these objects fit into the overall paradigm may allow us to unravel the mystery of transition discs.

  14. Evolution of Black Carbon Optical Properties during Atmospheric Aging: Comparison Between Theoretical Calculations and Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, C.; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Li, Q.; Yang, P.; Zhang, R.

    2014-12-01

    The optical properties of black carbon (BC) are significantly affected by its aging process in the atmosphere. We have built a conceptual model defining three BC aging stages, including freshly emitted BC aggregates, coating by soluble material and hygroscopic growth. We apply an improved geometric-optics surface-wave approach (Liou et al., 2011; Takano et al., 2013) to calculate the absorption and scattering properties of BC at each stage and compare the theoretical results with those obtained from laboratory experiments (Zhang et al., 2008; Khalizov et al., 2009). Preliminary results show a general agreement between calculated and measured BC absorption cross sections (bias < 10%) and scattering cross sections (bias < 30%) for BC aerosols with mobility diameters of 155, 245 and 320 nm at Stages 1 and 2, where BC is coated by sulfuric acid and its water solution, respectively. We find that the calculated scattering and absorption cross sections for fresh BC aggregates (Stage 0) with different sizes are invariably larger than experimental results partly because of the uncertainty in theoretical calculations for BC with size parameters less than 1. It appears that the uncertainty in the experiment could also contribute to the discrepancy, considering that the measuring instrument missed some scattering in certain angles (0-7° and 170-180°). Finally, we will apply the conceptual model and the single-scattering results to assess the effects of BC aging processes on direct radiative forcing using observed BC vertical profiles.

  15. Changes in quantitative 3D shape features of the optic nerve head associated with age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, Mark; Tang, Li; Fingert, John H.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Abramoff, Michael D.

    2013-02-01

    Optic nerve head (ONH) structure is an important biological feature of the eye used by clinicians to diagnose and monitor progression of diseases such as glaucoma. ONH structure is commonly examined using stereo fundus imaging or optical coherence tomography. Stereo fundus imaging provides stereo views of the ONH that retain 3D information useful for characterizing structure. In order to quantify 3D ONH structure, we applied a stereo correspondence algorithm to a set of stereo fundus images. Using these quantitative 3D ONH structure measurements, eigen structures were derived using principal component analysis from stereo images of 565 subjects from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS). To evaluate the usefulness of the eigen structures, we explored associations with the demographic variables age, gender, and race. Using regression analysis, the eigen structures were found to have significant (p < 0.05) associations with both age and race after Bonferroni correction. In addition, classifiers were constructed to predict the demographic variables based solely on the eigen structures. These classifiers achieved an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.62 in predicting a binary age variable, 0.52 in predicting gender, and 0.67 in predicting race. The use of objective, quantitative features or eigen structures can reveal hidden relationships between ONH structure and demographics. The use of these features could similarly allow specific aspects of ONH structure to be isolated and associated with the diagnosis of glaucoma, disease progression and outcomes, and genetic factors.

  16. Biomechanics of Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Palepu, V.; Kodigudla, M.; Goel, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Disc degeneration and associated disorders are among the most debated topics in the orthopedic literature over the past few decades. These may be attributed to interrelated mechanical, biochemical, and environmental factors. The treatment options vary from conservative approaches to surgery, depending on the severity of degeneration and response to conservative therapies. Spinal fusion is considered to be the “gold standard” in surgical methods till date. However, the association of adjacent level degeneration has led to the evolution of motion preservation technologies like spinal arthroplasty and posterior dynamic stabilization systems. These new technologies are aimed to address pain and preserve motion while maintaining a proper load sharing among various spinal elements. This paper provides an elaborative biomechanical review of the technologies aimed to address the disc degeneration and reiterates the point that biomechanical efficacy followed by long-term clinical success will allow these nonfusion technologies as alternatives to fusion, at least in certain patient population. PMID:22745914

  17. LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    Vialle, Luis Roberto; Vialle, Emiliano Neves; Suárez Henao, Juan Esteban; Giraldo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis among the degenerative abnormalities of the lumbar spine (affecting 2 to 3% of the population), and is the principal cause of spinal surgery among the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (four to six weeks). The initial treatment should be conservative, managed through medication and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with percutaneous nerve root block. Surgical treatment is indicated if pain control is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit greater than grade 3, if there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or if cauda equina syndrome is present. The latter represents a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces the risk of recurrence over the long term.

  18. Mechanotransduction in intervertebral discs

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Cheng, Chao-Min; Chen, Chien-Fu; Lai, Po-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Mechanotransduction plays a critical role in intracellular functioningit allows cells to translate external physical forces into internal biochemical activities, thereby affecting processes ranging from proliferation and apoptosis to gene expression and protein synthesis in a complex web of interactions and reactions. Accordingly, aberrant mechanotransduction can either lead to, or be a result of, a variety of diseases or degenerative states. In this review, we provide an overview of mechanotransduction in the context of intervertebral discs, with a focus on the latest methods of investigating mechanotransduction and the most recent findings regarding the means and effects of mechanotransduction in healthy and degenerative discs. We also provide some discussion of potential directions for future research and treatments. PMID:25267492

  19. Optical imaging reveals reduced seizure spread and propagation velocities in aged rat brain in vitro.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, M; Buchheim, K; Siegmund, H; Meierkord, H

    2003-01-01

    Old age is the most common time for patients to develop epileptic seizures, and due to their frequent unusual clinical presentation the diagnosis of epilepsy is often delayed in the elderly. It is as yet unknown if pronounced alterations in the plastic properties of aging nervous tissue contribute to these phenomena. We employed a non-lesional in vitro epilepsy model to study seizure susceptibility, spread pattern, and propagation velocities in combined hippocampal-entorhinal cortex slices of aged rats and controls using electrophysiological methods and imaging of intrinsic optical signals. In aged animals we saw a less extensive spread of seizure-like events into areas adjacent to the region of onset of activity and a decreased spread velocity in various anatomical regions. In addition, both the activity-dependent shrinkage of the extracellular space (ECS)-volume and the extracellular K(+) concentration were significantly reduced compared to controls. The results of this study are consistent with the clinical observation that epileptic seizures in the elderly have a reduced tendency to spread. In addition, our data suggest that in the absence of structural lesions seizure susceptibility in the aging brain is not increased. PMID:12498969

  20. Influence of adhesion promoters on the aging characteristics of optical fibers in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, Jan-Willem; Breuls, Anton H. E.

    1994-09-01

    The role of three different adhesion promoters in the primary coatings of optical fibers on the resistance of fibers to aging in water has been investigated. The use of an acid phosphate ester as adhesion promoter gave fibers higher strength and n-value prior to aging when compared to standard silane adhesion promoters and copolymerizable silane coupling agents. After 6 months of zero stress aging in water of 60 degree(s)C, no change in strength was found for all fibers except for 1 fiber. The high n-value of fibers with the phosphate ester adhesion promoter gave fibers improved resistance (or longer time to failure) to high stresses in the static fatigue test in water of 85 degree(s)C. Tn this test, the time to failure for low applied stresses, where zero stress aging determines lifetime, was not depending on the type of adhesion promoter. other aspects of the coating as the level of adhesion to the glass, the chemical composition and the mechanical characteristics are playing a role as well in the resistance of fibers to stress free aging and static fatigue in water.

  1. Lumbar disc replacement: update.

    PubMed

    Heider, F C; Mayer, H M; Siepe, C J

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decades, fusion of lumbar spinal motion segments has represented the mainstay of treatment of lumbar degenerative conditions which failed to respond adequately to conservative therapy. Increasing demands and expectations from patients as well as the necessity to avoid fusion related negative side effects such as adjacent level disc degeneration, considerable complication and reoperation rates, cranial facet joint violations, pseudarthrosis and others led to the development of motion preserving technologies such as total lumbar disc replacement (TDR). The first and rudimentary attempts to preserve motion of lumbar motion segments can be dated back to the early 1950s. Over the past two to three decades, a variety of new implants with different motion characteristics have been developed and introduced into the market. Despite of the extensive knowledge which has been gained in this field of research, insurers in the United States have refused to reimburse surgeons due to fear of late complications and reoperations as well as unknown secondary costs, which led to a global decline in the numbers of TDR procedures. The current literature review intends to provide a concise summary of the adequate indications for TDR as well as outcome determining factors and delineate the role of TDR in the currently available armamentarium for the treatment of low back pain (LBP) resulting from degenerative disc disease (DDD) without instabilities or deformities. PMID:25649068

  2. Optical age estimates for hyper-arid fluvial deposits at Homeb, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourke, M. C.; Child, A.; Stokes, S.

    2003-05-01

    Two 25 m sequences of slack water facies sediments have been dated in the Kuiseb River in Namibia by optical dating of sand-sized quartz grains. The eight samples indicate the sediments were deposited between 6.3 and 9.8 ka. This revises previous age estimates for the Homeb Silts. According to our criteria, six out of eight samples displayed characteristics of partial bleaching. This result was not unexpected as arid fluvial systems have high suspended sediment concentrations, short flow durations and a tendency for flow peaks to occur at night.

  3. Apsidal precession, disc breaking and viscosity in warped discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nealon, Rebecca; Nixon, Chris; Price, Daniel J.; King, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the importance of general relativistic apsidal precession in warped black hole accretion discs by comparing three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations in which this effect is first neglected, and then included. If apsidal precession is neglected, we confirm the results of an earlier magnetohydrodynamic simulation which made this assumption, showing that at least in this case the α viscosity model produces very similar results to those of simulations where angular momentum transport is due to the magnetorotational instability. Including apsidal precession significantly changes the predicted disc evolution. For moderately inclined discs thick enough that tilt is transported by bending waves, we find a disc tilt which is non-zero at the inner disc edge and oscillates with radius, consistent with published analytic results. For larger inclinations, we find disc breaking.

  4. Outwards migration for planets in stellar irradiated 3D discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lega, E.; Morbidelli, A.; Bitsch, B.; Crida, A.; Szulágyi, J.

    2015-09-01

    For the very first time we present 3D simulations of planets embedded in stellar irradiated discs. It is well known that thermal effects could reverse the direction of planetary migration from inwards to outwards, potentially saving planets in the inner, optically thick parts of the protoplanetary disc. When considering stellar irradiation in addition to viscous friction as a source of heating, the outer disc changes from a shadowed to a flared structure. Using a suited analytical formula it has been shown that in the flared part of the disc the migration is inwards; planets can migrate outwards only in shadowed regions of the disc, because the radial gradient of entropy is stronger there. In order to confirm this result numerically, we have computed the total torque acting on planets held on fixed orbits embedded in stellar irradiated 3D discs using the hydrodynamical code FARGOCA. We find qualitatively good agreement between the total torque obtained with numerical simulations and the one predicted by the analytical formula. For large masses (>20 M⊕) we find quantitative agreement, and we obtain outwards migration regions for planets up to 60 M⊕ in the early stages of accretional discs. We find nevertheless that the agreement with the analytic formula is quite fortuitous because the formula underestimates the size of the horseshoe region; this error is compensated by imperfect estimates of other terms, most likely the cooling rate and the saturation.

  5. Aging studies of LiF-coated optics for use in the far ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Cristina M.; Retherford, Kurt; Conard, Steven J.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Friedman, Scott D.

    1999-10-01

    The FUSE is an astrophysics mission especially designed to access the quite rich spectral region between 90.5 nm and 118.7 nm with a high spectral resolving power. The FUSE instrument contains four identical off-axis paraboloid telescope mirrors and four spherical diffraction gratings. Two mirrors and two gratings are coated with silicon carbide (SiC) and have a bandpass of 90.5 nm to 110.0 nm. The remaining two mirrors and gratings are coated with lithium fluoride (LiF) over aluminum (Al) providing about twice the reflectivity of the SiC at wavelengths larger than 105.0 nm but very little reflectivity below 102.0 nm. The Far UV reflectivity of the Al + LiF coated FUSE optics is very sensitivity to moisture and molecular hydrocarbon contamination. To avoid degradation of the reflectivity all optics testing and handling has been carefully controlled to minimize the exposure of the coating to ambient air. In general the optical surfaces were kept in nitrogen purged enclosures. We report on a simple test program in which small Al + LiF witness mirrors were stored in different relative humidity (RH) environments in order to study the degradation of their reflectivity between 92.7 nm and 121.6 nm as a function of time. The result of this study were used to establish guidelines for storage and test environments for FUSE optics prior to launch. Our methods and results are then compared to a similar aging study performed by the NASA/GSFC Optical Thin Film Laboratory.

  6. Classification of wet aged related macular degeneration using optical coherence tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Anam; Mir, Fouwad Jamil; Yasin, Ubaid Ullah; Khan, Shoab A.

    2013-12-01

    Wet Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a type of age related macular degeneration. In order to detect Wet AMD we look for Pigment Epithelium detachment (PED) and fluid filled region caused by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This form of AMD can cause vision loss if not treated in time. In this article we have proposed an automated system for detection of Wet AMD in Optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images. The proposed system extracts PED and CNV from OCT images using segmentation and morphological operations and then detailed feature set are extracted. These features are then passed on to the classifier for classification. Finally performance measures like accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are calculated and the classifier delivering the maximum performance is selected as a comparison measure. Our system gives higher performance using SVM as compared to other methods.

  7. Optical Sensing of Polarization States Changes in Meat due to the Ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tománek, Pavel; Mikláš, Jan; Abubaker, Hamed Mohamed; Grmela, Lubomír

    2010-11-01

    Food materials or biological materials display large compositional variations, inhomogeneities, and anisotropic structures. The biological tissues consist of cells which dimensions are bigger than a wavelength of visible light, therefore Mie scattering of transmitted and reflected light occurs and different polarization states arise. The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. The minor importance is still given to the food quality control and inspection during processing operations or storing conditions. The paper presents a quite simple optical method allowing measure the freshness or ageing of products. The principle is to study temporal characteristics of polarization states of forward or backward scattered laser light in the samples in function of meat ageing.

  8. Gas Modelling in the Disc of HD 163296

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilling, I.; Woitke, P.; Meeus, G.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Eiroa, C.; Thi, W. -F.; Isella, A.; Roberge, A.; Martin-Zaidi, C.; Kamp, I.; Pinte, C.; Sandell, G.; Vacca, W. D.; Menard, F.; Mendigutia, I.; Duchene, G.; Dent, W. R. F.; Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present detailed model fits to observations of the disc around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. This well-studied object has an age of approx. 4Myr, with evidence of a circumstellar disc extending out to approx. 540AU. We use the radiation thermo-chemical disc code ProDiMo to model the gas and dust in the circumstellar disc of HD 163296, and attempt to determine the disc properties by fitting to observational line and continuum data. These include new Herschel/PACS observations obtained as part of the open-time key program GASPS (Gas in Protoplanetary Systems), consisting of a detection of the [Oi] 63 m line and upper limits for several other far infrared lines. We complement this with continuum data and ground-based observations of the CO-12 3-2, 2-1 and CO-13 J=1-0 line transitions, as well as the H2 S(1) transition. We explore the effects of stellar ultraviolet variability and dust settling on the line emission, and on the derived disc properties. Our fitting efforts lead to derived gas/dust ratios in the range 9-100, depending on the assumptions made. We note that the line fluxes are sensitive in general to the degree of dust settling in the disc, with an increase in line flux for settled models. This is most pronounced in lines which are formed in the warm gas in the inner disc, but the low excitation molecular lines are also affected. This has serious implications for attempts to derive the disc gas mass from line observations. We derive fractional PAH abundances between 0.007 and 0.04 relative to ISM levels. Using a stellar and UV excess input spectrum based on a detailed analysis of observations, we find that the all observations are consistent with the previously assumed disc geometry

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography of the Labial Salivary Glands Reveals Age-Related Differences in Women.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jan Krzysztof; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Karnowski, Karol; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2015-12-01

    The labial minor salivary glands (LSGs) play a role in medical research and practice due to their superficial location and involvement in both systemic and localized diseases. Swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive modality that enables in vivo, micrometer resolution, wide-field three-dimensional imaging in seconds. A purpose-built swept-source OCT instrument was employed to acquire three-dimensional datasets covering the area of 2.43cm(2) of the mucosa of the lower lip to the depth of 3.4 mm in young (n = 14; mean age SD: 27 3years; body mass index [BMI] 20.4 2.3kg/m(2) ) and middle-aged women (n = 11; 54 6years; 25.5 3.2kg/m(2) ). Glandular tissue reflectivity mode (range 0-255; 86 17 vs. 68 12, p = 0.005), average single LSG area in tissue sample (5.26 2.62 mm(2) vs. 2.87 1.26 mm(2) , p = 0.011), and LSG surface filling factor (0.23 0.13 vs. 0.11 0.10, p = 0.027) had higher values in younger than in middle-aged women. A correlation between BMI and glandular tissue reflectivity mode (Spearman's ? = -0.60) was found (p = 0.002). The results highlight the potential value of LSGs' OCT morphometry in research regarding ageing. PMID:26530049

  10. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of sand-dune formed within the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jin-Hua; Wang, Xu-Long

    2014-09-01

    Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating has been intensively used to date the late Quaternary deposits. The Single-Aliquot Regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol was applied to measure coarse quartz grains extracted from Dali sand dunes, central China. It was found that this popular method could not accurately date sand dunes activities that recently happened. This is due to the low OSL sensitivity of quartz grains, leading to a failure in OSL dating that has also been met in other sediments before. To overcome this limitation, quartz grains were heated to 500 C to increase the OSL output for one magnitude. Sensitivity changes could also be corrected by the following test dose OSL responses and has no influence on OSL ages. Thus it is suggested to carry out the SAR protocol for dim and young quartz OSL samples with additional annealing step (e.g. 500 C) after the measurements of natural cycle. The resultant OSL ages proved that the last sand-dune activities happened during the Little Ice Age (?400 years ago), which was further supported by independent age control (?1600 AD) from historical documents.

  11. Testing the molecular-hydrogen Kennicutt-Schmidt law in the low-density environments of extended ultraviolet disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Linda C.; Martini, Paul; Lisenfeld, Ute; Böker, Torsten; Schinnerer, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Studying star formation beyond the optical radius of galaxies allows us to test empirical relations in extreme conditions with low average gas density and low molecular fraction. Previous studies discovered galaxies with extended ultraviolet (XUV) discs, which often contain star-forming regions with lower Hα-to-far-UV (FUV) flux ratios compared to inner disc star-forming regions. However, most previous studies lack measurements of molecular gas, which is presumably the component of the interstellar medium out of which stars form. We analysed published CO measurements and upper limits for 15 star-forming regions in the XUV or outer disc of three nearby spiral galaxies and a new CO upper limit from the IRAM (Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique) 30 m telescope in one star-forming region at r = 3.4r25 in the XUV disc of NGC 4625. We found that the star-forming regions are in general consistent with the same molecular-hydrogen Kennicutt-Schmidt law that applies within the optical radius, independent of whether we used Hα or FUV as the star formation rate (SFR) tracer. However, a number of the CO detections are significantly offset towards higher SFR surface density for their molecular-hydrogen surface density. Deeper CO data may enable us to use the presence or absence of molecular gas as an evolutionary probe to break the degeneracy between age and stochastic sampling of the initial mass function as the explanation for the low Hα-to-FUV flux ratios in XUV discs.

  12. Disc resonator gyroscope fabrication process requiring no bonding alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of fabricating a resonant vibratory sensor, such as a disc resonator gyro. A silicon baseplate wafer for a disc resonator gyro is provided with one or more locating marks. The disc resonator gyro is fabricated by bonding a blank resonator wafer, such as an SOI wafer, to the fabricated baseplate, and fabricating the resonator structure according to a pattern based at least in part upon the location of the at least one locating mark of the fabricated baseplate. MEMS-based processing is used for the fabrication processing. In some embodiments, the locating mark is visualized using optical and/or infrared viewing methods. A disc resonator gyroscope manufactured according to these methods is described.

  13. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Batcheller, Tom A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rindfleisch, J. A. (Arco, ID); Morgan, John M. (Arco, ID)

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  14. Super-Resolution Readout of 50 nm Read-Only-Memory Pits Using Optics Based on High-Definition Digital Versatile Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Takayuki; Nakano, Takashi; Kurihara, Kazuma; Kim, Jooho; Tominaga, Junji

    2008-07-01

    A super-resolution near-field structure (super-RENS; ZnS-SiO2/Sb75Te25/ZnS-SiO2) and a read-only-memory (ROM) substrate with its pit wide in the radial direction (200 nm) are combined. The readout of 50-nm-long pits was examined, and the pit length is less than one third the resolution limit of the optics (laser wavelength: 405 nm, numerical aperture: 0.65) used. The carrier-to-noise ratio obtained was 39 dB, and it was possible to observe the reproduced waveform clearly. The results indicate that the capacity along the tangential direction can be increased by a factor of 4.

  15. Development of fluorescent multilayer disc structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beliak, Ievgen; Butenko, Larisa

    2011-09-01

    The fluorescent multilayer disc (FMD) consists of a substrate and the sandwich-structure of information and intermediate layers. While all the structure of the disc is transparent and homogeneous the parasitic signal will be caused mostly by photoluminescence (PL) and absorption of pits areas where laser light is unfocused. At large number of layers (10 or more) the noise level will get significant value, so it was suggested to derive readout signal as a variable one. Also it was proposed to record information only by the lands, to decrease the absorbance level and thus uncontrolled changing of the noise level. Furthermore in the FMD information layer there are inner and outside peripheral areas which hold a stable level of parasitic signal during readout from the edges of the disc. While the PL readout signal is spatially isotropic the optical head of the FMD drive receives just a part of the probing beam energy. PL quantum yield, absorption factor, receiver systems exposure loss coefficients are other reasons of the low PL signal. Thus the problem of the low SNR in this case is a major one and the only way of its solving is synthesis of the dye with a high PL quantum yield. The PL relaxation time on the other hand is a main feature of the data reading rate and therefore selection of the appropriate recording material will allow to bring this parameter in accordance to parameters of modern optical discs. To achieve this goal the composite organic pyrazoline dyes where synthesized and investigated as effective medium with a PL quantum yield up to 60-70%, relaxation time less than 100 ns, PL wide spectrum and opportunity of two-photon absorption. These parameters were further improved by a method based on the performance of organic dye molecules in the zeolite matrix.

  16. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  17. Near-field optical-beam-induced current spectroscopy as a tool for analyzing aging processes in diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomm, Jens W.; Richter, Alexander; Lienau, Christoph; Elsaesser, Thomas; Luft, Johann

    1997-05-01

    We present a near-field optical beam induced current study of aged high power laser diode arrays (LDA). A near-field scanning optical microscope was used as a light source for creating a photocurrent or a photovoltage in the LDA. Mechanisms generating the signal as well as methodical aspects such as resolution limits and application fields of the technique are discussed. The method is demonstrated to provide insight into the microscopic aging properties of LDAs. Both monitoring of the aging status as well as the localization of defects becomes possible.

  18. Extruded lumbar disc associated with epidural hematoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Giri, Pramod Janardhan; Sharma, Manish Singh; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Behari, Sanjay; Jain, Vijendra Kumar

    2006-04-01

    Lumbar disc herniation and spinal epidural hematomas (SEHs) are highly unusual causes of secondary lumbar canal stenosis in the adolescent population. The authors report a unique concomitant occurrence in a 16-year-old boy who presented with left-sided L-5 radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging T1-weighted sequences revealed a left-sided posterolateral prolapsed L4-5 disc with an isointense extruded fragment lying behind the L-5 body. On T2-weighted sequences a hyperintense area was seen in the region of the extruded disc fragment with thecal compression. At surgery the extradural encapsulated hematoma was removed, together with the extruded disc fragment and the L4-5 disc. The characteristics of the biopsy specimen from the epidural collection were consistent with those of a hematoma. At 6 months' follow up, the patient had returned to his normal activities. An SEH may result from tearing of delicate epidural veins following disc extrusion. It can occur at any age, regardless of whether there is a history of significant trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging allows preoperative characterization of the lesion. Results after surgical evacuation are excellent. Distinguishing between a solitary SEH and one caused by a lumbar disc extrusion has significant implications, as the former may resolve completely with conservative management. PMID:16619642

  19. Constraining the age and formation of stone runs in the Falkland Islands using Optically Stimulated Luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansom, James D.; Evans, David J. A.; Sanderson, David C. W.; Bingham, Robert G.; Bentley, Michael J.

    2008-02-01

    The stone runs of the Falkland Islands are thought to be periglacial blockfields but their age and detailed origin remain enigmatic. We examine the fine sediments that underlie two stone runs in order to establish whether Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating is an appropriate technique to constrain the date of emplacement of the fine sediments and, hence, the stone runs. Six samples were collected from two accessible sections during the Scotia Centenary Antarctic expedition in 2003. All samples were used to explore the main luminescence characteristics of the sediment, followed by quartz SAR dating procedures on four of the samples. Age estimates range from in excess of 54 ka to 16 ka, suggesting that the overlying stone runs remained active until 16 ka or later. Saturation of luminescence from quartz limits age estimates for the oldest samples in the sequences, however these are not critical to define the upper limit to the emplacement age for the overlying stone runs. The sediments also contain feldspars and initial results suggest that these may be useful in extending the timescale further, but require further samples to be obtained from other parts of the sequence. Extending the method to other stone runs in the Port Stanley Formation may allow estimates of the age of stabilisation of the stone runs to be extended into the 1-250 ka timescale. Luminescence dating of the underlying sediments, used in conjunction with cosmogenic isotope dating of the surface boulders from a range of locations along the stone runs, appears to offer a useful route towards decoding the depositional history of these impressive deposits.

  20. Preparation of ormetoprim sulfadimethoxine medicated discs for disc diffusion assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Romet (a blend of ormetoprim and sulfadimethoxine) is a typeA medicated article for the manufacture of medicated feed in the catfish industry. Recently, the commercial manufacture of ormetoprimsulfadimethoxine susceptibility discs was discontinued. Ormetoprimsulfadimethoxine discs were prepared at...

  1. First results of the SONS survey: submillimetre detections of debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panić, O.; Holland, W. S.; Wyatt, M. C.; Kennedy, G. M.; Matthews, B. C.; Lestrade, J. F.; Sibthorpe, B.; Greaves, J. S.; Marshall, J. P.; Phillips, N. M.; Tottle, J.

    2013-10-01

    New detections of debris discs at submillimetre wavelengths present highly valuable complementary information to prior observations of these sources at shorter wavelengths. Characterization of discs through spectral energy distribution modelling including the submillimetre fluxes is essential for our basic understanding of disc mass and temperature, and presents a starting point for further studies using millimetre interferometric observations. In the framework of the ongoing SCUBA-2 Observations of Nearby Stars, the instrument SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope was used to provide measurements of 450 and 850 μm fluxes towards a large sample of nearby main-sequence stars with debris discs detected previously at shorter wavelengths. We present the first results from the ongoing survey, concerning 850 μm detections and 450 μm upper limits towards 10 stars, the majority of which are detected at submillimetre wavelengths for the first time. One, or possibly two, of these new detections is likely a background source. We fit the spectral energy distributions of the star+disc systems with a blackbody emission approach and derive characteristic disc temperatures. We use these temperatures to convert the observed fluxes to disc masses. We obtain a range of disc masses from 0.001 to 0.1 M⊕, values similar to the prior dust mass measurements towards debris discs. There is no evidence for evolution in dust mass with age on the main sequence, and indeed the upper envelope remains relatively flat at ≈0.5 M⊕ at all ages. The inferred disc masses are lower than those from disc detections around pre-main-sequence stars, which may indicate a depletion of solid mass. This may also be due to a change in disc opacity, though limited sensitivity means that it is not yet known what fraction of pre-main-sequence stars have discs with dust masses similar to debris disc levels. New, high-sensitivity detections are a path towards investigating the trends in dust mass evolution.

  2. Systemic blood plasma CCL5 and CXCL6: Potential biomarkers for human lumbar disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Grad, S; Bow, C; Karppinen, J; Luk, K D; Cheung, K M; Alini, M; Samartzis, D

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar disc degeneration severity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with low back pain. Pro-inflammatory chemokines CCL5 and CXCL6 are released by induced degenerative discs, and CCL5 has been associated with discogenic back pain. A case-control study was performed, based on the Hong Kong Disc Degeneration Population-Based Cohort of Southern Chinese, to investigate if systemic levels of CCL5 and CXCL6 were elevated in subjects with disc degeneration compared to non-degenerated individuals. Eighty subjects were selected, 40 with no disc degeneration (control group; DDD score 0) and 40 with moderate/severe disc degeneration (disc degeneration group; DDD score ?5) as noted on MRI. Subjects were matched for age, sex, body mass index and workload. Blood plasma samples were obtained from each individual, and levels of CCL5 and CXCL6 were measured. Secondary phenotypes of lumbar disc displacement and cervical disc changes were also assessed. CCL5 concentrations were significantly increased in the disc degeneration (mean: 19.8ng/mL) compared to the control group (mean: 12.8ng/mL) (p=0.015). The degeneration group demonstrated higher levels of CXCL6 (mean: 56.9pg/mL) compared to the control group (mean: 43.4pg/mL) (p=0.010). There was a trend towards elevated CCL5 levels with disc displacement in the degeneration group (p=0.073). Cervical disc degeneration was not associated with elevated chemokine levels (p>0.05). This is the first study to note that elevated systemic CCL5 and CXCL6 were associated with moderate/severe lumbar disc degeneration, further corroborating tissue studies of painful discs. These chemokines may be systemic biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of disc degeneration. PMID:26728495

  3. Inflammation in intervertebral disc degeneration and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Molinos, Maria; Almeida, Catarina R.; Caldeira, Joana; Cunha, Carla; Gonçalves, Raquel M.; Barbosa, Mário A.

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is one of the major causes of low back pain, a problem with a heavy economic burden, which has been increasing in prevalence as populations age. Deeper knowledge of the complex spatial and temporal orchestration of cellular interactions and extracellular matrix remodelling is critical to improve current IVD therapies, which have so far proved unsatisfactory. Inflammation has been correlated with degenerative disc disease but its role in discogenic pain and hernia regression remains controversial. The inflammatory response may be involved in the onset of disease, but it is also crucial in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Furthermore, if properly balanced it may contribute to tissue repair/regeneration as has already been demonstrated in other tissues. In this review, we focus on how inflammation has been associated with IVD degeneration by describing observational and in vitro studies as well as in vivo animal models. Finally, we provide an overview of IVD regenerative therapies that target key inflammatory players. PMID:25673296

  4. Hydrogen-losing planets in transition discs around young protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayakshin, Sergei

    2013-05-01

    We point out that protoplanets created in the framework of the tidal downsizing (TD) theory for planet formation play a very important role for the evolution of accretion discs hosting them. Since all TD protoplanets are initially as massive as 10MJ, they are able to open very deep gaps in their discs, and even completely isolate the inner disc flows from the outer ones. Furthermore, in contrast to other planet formation theories, TD protoplanets are mass donors for their protostars. One potentially observable signature of planets being devoured by their protostars are FU Ori like outbursts, and episodic protostar accretion more generally, as discussed by a number of authors recently. Here, we explore another observational implication of the TD hypothesis: dust poor inner accretion flows, which we believe may be relevant to some of the observed millimetre-bright transitional discs around protostars. In our model, a massive protoplanet interrupts the flow of the outer dust-rich disc on its protostar, and at the same time loses a part of its dust-poor envelope into the inner disc. This then powers the observed gas-but-no-dust accretion on to the star. Upon a more detailed investigation, we find that this scenario is quite natural for young massive discs but is less so for older discs, e.g., those whose self-gravitating phase has terminated a fraction of a Myr or more ago. This stems from the fact that TD protoplanets of such an age should have contracted significantly, and so are unlikely to lose much mass. Therefore, we conclude that either (i) the population of `transition discs' with large holes and dust-poor accretion is much younger than generally believed, or (ii) there is a poorly understood stage for late removal of dust-poor envelopes from TD planets; (iii) another explanation for the observations is correct.

  5. Variability and stellar populations with deep optical-IR images of the Milky Way disc: matching VVV with VLT/VIMOS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrukowicz, P.; Minniti, D.; Alonso-Garca, J.; Hempel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We have used deep V-band and JHKs-band observations to investigate variability and stellar populations near the Galactic plane in Centaurus, and compared the observations with the Galactic model of Besanon. Methods: By applying image subtraction technique to a series of over 580 V-band frames taken with the ESO VLT/VIMOS instrument during two contiguous nights in April 2005, we have detected 333 variables among 84 734 stars in the brightness range 12.7 < V < 26.0 mag. Infrared data collected in March 2010 with the new ESO VISTA telescope allowed us to construct deep combined optical-IR colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams. Results: All detected variables but four transit candidates are reported for the first time. The majority of the variables are eclipsing/ellipsoidal binaries and ? Scuti-type pulsators. The occurrence rate of eclipsing/ellipsoidal variables reached ~0.28% of all stars. This is very close to the highest fraction of binary systems detected using ground-based data so far (0.30%), but still about four times less than the average occurrence rate recently obtained from the Kepler space mission after 44 days of operation. Comparison of the observed Ks vs. V - Ks diagram with a diagram based on the Besanon model shows significant effects of both distance and reddening in the investigated direction of the sky. We demonstrate that the best model indicates the presence of absorbing clouds at distances 11-13 kpc from the Sun in the minor Carina-Sagittarius arm. Based on observations collected with the VLT and VISTA telescopes at Paranal Observatory (ESO Programmes 075.C-0427(A) and 179.B-2002(B), respectively).Photometry and data table on detected variables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/537/A116

  6. Radicular interdural lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Akhaddar, Ali; Boulahroud, Omar; Elasri, Abad; Elmostarchid, Brahim; Boucetta, Mohammed

    2010-07-01

    Intraradicular lumbar disc herniation is a rare complication of disc disease that is generally diagnosed only during surgery. The mechanism for herniated disc penetration into the intradural space is not known with certainty, but adhesion between the radicular dura and the posterior longitudinal ligament was suggested as the most important condition. The authors report the first case of an intraradicular lumbar disc herniation without subdural penetration; the disc hernia was lodged between the two radicular dura layers. The patient, a 34-year-old soldier, was admitted with a 12-month history of low back pain and episodic left sciatica. Neurologic examination showed a positive straight leg raising test on the left side without sensory, motor or sphincter disturbances. Spinal CT scan and MRI exploration revealed a left posterolateral osteophyte formation at the L5-S1 level with an irregular large disc herniation, which migrated superiorly. An intradural extension was suspected. A left L5 hemilaminectomy and S1 foraminotomy were performed. The exploration revealed a large fragment of disc material located between the inner and outer layers of the left S1 radicular dura. The mass was extirpated without cerebrospinal fluid outflow. The postoperative course was uneventful. Radicular interdural lumbar disc herniation should be suspected when a swollen, hard and immobile nerve root is present intraoperatively. PMID:19888608

  7. Impact of Age on Stent Strut Coverage and Neointimal Remodeling as Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhigang; Feng, Linxing; Du, Hongwei; Sun, Zhao; Hu, Sining; Dai, Jiannan; Sun, Meng; Xing, Lei; Hou, Jingbo; Zhang, Shaosong; Yu, Bo

    2015-12-01

    While older age associates with adverse percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outcomes, detailed information relating age to stent strut coverage and neointimal characteristics is lacking.One hundred nineteen patients with 123 sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs) were divided into 3 groups: group A (?55 years), group B (56-65 years), and group C (>65 years). At 6 and 12 months of follow-up, optical coherence tomography was performed to assess strut coverage and neointimal remodeling.At 6 months, the proportion of uncovered struts increased with age: 6.1% in group A versus 7.3% in group B versus 11.7% in group C (P?age (3.9% vs. 3.3% vs. 4.9 %; P?

  8. Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS barred discs and bar fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, B. D.; Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Willett, Kyle W.; Keel, William C.; Smethurst, R. J.; Cheung, Edmond; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Rutkowski, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Bell, Eric F.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ownsworth, Jamie; Bamford, Steven; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grogin, N. A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Häußler, Boris; Jek, Kian J.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lucas, Ray A.; Peth, Michael; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-12-01

    The formation of bars in disc galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in discs decreases from the local Universe to z ˜ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature discs should be extremely rare. Here, we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disc galaxies at z ˜ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. From within a sample of 876 disc galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a subsample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5 ≤ z ≤ 2 ( f_{bar} = 10.7^{+6.3}_{-3.5} per cent after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disc galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.

  9. Determination of mechanical stress distribution in Drosophila wing discs using photoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Nienhaus, Ulrike; Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Aegerter, Christof M

    2009-12-01

    Morphogenesis, the process by which all complex biological structures are formed, is driven by an intricate interplay between genes, growth, as well as intra- and intercellular forces. While the expression of different genes changes the mechanical properties and shapes of cells, growth exerts forces in response to which tissues, organs and more complex structures are shaped. This is exemplified by a number of recent findings for instance in meristem formation in Arabidopsis and tracheal tube formation in Drosophila. However, growth not only generates forces, mechanical forces can also have an effect on growth rates, as is seen in mammalian tissues or bone growth. In fact, mechanical forces can influence the expression levels of patterning genes, allowing control of morphogenesis via mechanical feedback. In order to study the connections between mechanical stress, growth control and morphogenesis, information about the distribution of stress in a tissue is invaluable. Here, we applied stress-birefringence to the wing imaginal disc of Drosophila melanogaster, a commonly used model system for organ growth and patterning, in order to assess the stress distribution present in this tissue. For this purpose, stress-related differences in retardance are measured using a custom-built optical set-up. Applying this method, we found that the stresses are inhomogeneously distributed in the wing disc, with maximum compression in the centre of the wing pouch. This compression increases with wing disc size, showing that mechanical forces vary with the age of the tissue. These results are discussed in light of recent models proposing mechanical regulation of wing disc growth. PMID:19748573

  10. Cervical total disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A

    2012-06-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

  11. Aging and the perception of slant from optical texture, motion parallax, and binocular disparity.

    PubMed

    Norman, J Farley; Crabtree, Charles E; Bartholomew, Ashley N; Ferrell, Elizabeth L

    2009-01-01

    The ability of younger and older observers to perceive surface slant was investigated in four experiments. The surfaces possessed slants of 20 degrees, 35 degrees, 50 degrees, and 65 degrees, relative to the frontoparallel plane. The observers judged the slants using either a palm board (Experiments 1, 3, and 4) or magnitude estimation (Experiment 2). In Experiments 1-3, physically slanted surfaces were used (the surfaces possessed marble, granite, pebble, and circle textures), whereas computer-generated 3-D surfaces (defined by motion parallax and binocular disparity) were utilized in Experiment 4. The results showed that the younger and older observers' performance was essentially identical with regard to accuracy. The younger and older age groups, however, differed in terms of precision in Experiments 1 and 2: The judgments of the older observers were more variable across repeated trials. When taken as a whole, the results demonstrate that older observers (at least through the age of 83 years) can effectively extract information about slant in depth from optical patterns containing texture, motion parallax, or binocular disparity. PMID:19304602

  12. Intelligent Video Disc as a Major Component of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingalls, Richard E.

    Due to the importance of visual stimuli for learning, the videodisc is expected to have a major impact on education. When combined with the computer, it will greatly expand the capabilities of computer assisted instruction. There are two major types of videodisc equipment: the optical type with a laser beam to read the information from the disc,…

  13. Optical Disks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, John C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This four-article section focuses on information storage capacity of the optical disk covering the information workstation (uses microcomputer, optical disk, compact disc to provide reference information, information content, work product support); use of laser videodisc technology for dissemination of agricultural information; encoding databases

  14. Enlivening Physics, a Local Video Disc Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how to make and use an inexpensive video disc of physics demonstrations. Discusses the background, production of the disc, subject of the disc including angular momentum, "monkey and the hunter" experiment, Doppler shift, pressure of a constant volume of gas thermometer, and wave effects, and using the disc in classroom. (YP)

  15. Disc Golf: Teaching a Lifetime Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastham, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Disc golf is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed by students of varying skill levels and abilities. Disc golf follows the principles of ball golf but is generally easier for students to play and enjoy success. The object of disc golf is similar to ball golf and involves throwing a disc from the teeing area to the target in as few throws as

  16. Tissue engineering: A live disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hukins, David W. L.

    2005-12-01

    A material-cell hybrid device that mimics the anatomic shape of the intervertebral disc has been made and successfully implanted into mice to show that tissue engineering may, in the future, benefit sufferers from back pain.

  17. Understanding discs in binary YSOs - detailed modelling of VV CrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scicluna, P.; Wolf, S.; Ratzka, T.; Costigan, G.; Launhardt, R.; Leinert, C.; Ober, F.; Manara, C. F.; Testi, L.

    2016-03-01

    Given that a majority of stars form in multiple systems, in order to fully understand the star- and planet-formation processes we must seek to understand them in multiple stellar systems. With this in mind, we present an analysis of the enigmatic binary T-Tauri system VV Corona Australis, in which both components host discs, but only one is visible at optical wavelengths. We seek to understand the peculiarities of this system by searching for a model for the binary which explains all the available continuum observations of the system. We present new mid-infrared interferometry and near-infrared spectroscopy along with archival millimetre-wave observations, which resolve the binary at 1.3 mm for the first time. We compute a grid of pre-main-sequence radiative transfer models and calculate their posterior probabilities given the observed spectral energy distributions and mid-infrared interferometric visibilities of the binary components, beginning with the assumption that the only differences between the two components are their inclination and position angles. Our best-fitting solution corresponds to a relatively low luminosity T-tauri binary, with each component's disc having a large scale height and viewed at moderate inclination (˜50°), with the infrared companion inclined by ˜5° degrees more than the primary. Comparing the results of our model to evolutionary models suggests stellar masses ˜1.7 M⊙ and an age for the system of 3.5 Myr, towards the upper end of previous estimates. Combining these results with accretion indicators from near-IR spectroscopy, we determine an accretion rate of 4.0 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 for the primary. We suggest that future observations of VV CrA and similar systems should prioritise high angular resolution sub-mm and near-IR imaging of the discs and high resolution optical/NIR spectroscopy of the central stars.

  18. Disc Golf, a Growing Sport

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Joseph T.; Jones, Richard E.; Runstrom, Michael; Hardy, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    Background Disc golf is a sport played much like traditional golf, but rather than using a ball and club, players throw flying discs with various throwing motions. It has been played by an estimated 8 to 12 million people in the United States. Like all sports, injuries sustained while playing disc golf are not uncommon. Although formalized in the 1970s, it has grown at a rapid pace; however, disc golfrelated injuries have yet to be described in the medical literature. Purpose To describe the most common injuries incurred by disc golf players while comparing the different types of throwing styles. Study Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods The data in this study were collected from 883 disc golf players who responded to an online survey collected over a 1-month period. Respondents answered 49 questions related to demographics, experience, style of play, and injury details. Using a chi-square analysis, common injuries sustained in players using backhand and forehand throwing styles were compared. Results More than 81% of respondents stated that they had sustained an injury playing disc golf, including injuries to the elbow (n = 325), shoulder (n = 305), back (n = 218), and knee (n = 199). The injuries were most commonly described as a muscle strain (n = 241), sprain (n = 162), and tendinitis (n = 145). The type of throw primarily used by players varied, with 86.2% using backhand, 12.7% using forehand, and 1.1% using an overhead throw. Players using a forehand throw were more likely to sustain an elbow injury (P = .014). Many players (n = 115) stated they had undergone surgery due to a disc golfrelated injury, with the most common surgeries including meniscal, shoulder, spine, and foot/ankle surgeries. Conclusion The majority of surveyed disc golfers sustained at least 1 injury while playing disc golf, with many requiring surgery. The types of injuries sustained by players varied by the types of throw primarily used. As the sport of disc golf continues to expand, health professionals should be aware of injuries sustained, with future studies focusing on injury prevention and education strategies. PMID:26665099

  19. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jiri; P?lpn, Petr; Dole?ek, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Ldl, Vt

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 ? to 10 k?, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power. PMID:25004532

  20. Optical coherence tomography-based intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Benjamin J; Barkmeier, Andrew J; Akduman, Levent

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based intravitreal ranibizumab treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the charts of consecutive patients who received intravitreal ranibizumab for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization due to AMD were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with less than 6 months follow-up were excluded. OCT was performed at baseline and at monthly intervals for induction therapy. Injections were given monthly until no improvement was observed between successive OCTs. In the maintenance period, reinjections were performed for any recurrence of macular fluid on OCT. Main outcome measures were visual acuity and number of injections given. Twenty-five eyes of 22 patients with mean follow-up of 16 months [standard deviation (SD) = 3.7 months] had mean improvement of 1.6 lines of Snellen visual acuity (SD 2.9, 95% confidence interval 0.48-2.9, P = 0.008). Visual acuity was stable (< or =3 lines of visual acuity lost) in 22 eyes (88%). Nine eyes (36%) gained > or =3 lines. Three eyes (12%) lost > or =3 lines. A mean of 6.0 (SD 2.7) injections were given over a follow-up period ranging from 8 to 21 months. We conclude that OCT-based intravitreal ranibizumab treatment for neovascular AMD offered excellent visual acuity results and reduced the number of injections compared with monthly dosing. PMID:19730802

  1. Optical near-field photocurrent spectroscopy: A new technique for analyzing microscopic aging processes in optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, A.; Tomm, J. W.; Lienau, Ch.; Luft, J.

    1996-12-01

    The potential of optical near-field photocurrent spectroscopy for analyzing microscopic aging processes in optoelectronic devices is demonstrated. The technique combines the subwavelength spatial resolution of near-field optics with tunable laser excitation, allowing for selective investigation of specific parts of the device structure. Experiments on GaAs/(AlGa)As high power laser diodes before and after accelerated aging provide direct visualization of defect growth within the p-i-n junction and information on aging-enhanced recombination processes close to the laser facet. The effect of wave guiding of the exciting light on the image formation is discussed. The nondestructiveness makes this technique a particularly attractive method for in situ analysis in high power laser diodes.

  2. Planet signatures in collisionally active debris discs: scattered light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebault, P.; Kral, Q.; Ertel, S.

    2012-11-01

    Context. Planet perturbations have been often invoked as a potential explanation for many spatial structures that have been imaged in debris discs. So far this issue has been mostly investigated with pure N-body numerical models, which neglect the crucial effect collisions within the disc can have on the disc's response to dynamical perturbations. Aims: We numerically investigate how the coupled effect of collisions and radiation pressure can affect the formation and survival of radial and azimutal structures in a disc perturbed by a planet. We consider two different set-ups: a planet embedded within an extended disc and a planet exterior to an inner debris ring. One important issue we want to address is under which conditions a planet's signature can be observable in a collisionally active disc. Methods: We use our DyCoSS code, which is designed to investigate the structure of perturbed debris discs at dynamical and collisional steady-state, and derive synthetic images of the system in scattered light. The planet's mass and orbit, as well as the disc's collisional activity (parameterized by its average vertical optical depth ?0) are explored as free parameters. Results: We find that collisions always significantly damp planet-induced spatial structures. For the case of an embedded planet, the planet's signature, mostly a density gap around its radial position, should remain detectable in head-on images if Mplanet ? MSaturn. If the system is seen edge-on, however, inferring the presence of the planet is much more difficult, as only weak asymmetries remain in a collisionally active disc, although some planet-induced signatures might be observable under very favourable conditions. For the case of an inner ring and an external planet, planetary perturbations cannot prevent collision-produced small fragments from populating the regions beyond the ring. The radial luminosity profile exterior to the ring is in most cases close to the one it should have in the absence of the external planet. The most significant signature left by a Jovian planet on a circular orbit are precessing azimutal structures that can be used to indirectly infer its presence. For a planet on an eccentric orbit, we show that the ring becomes elliptic and that the well known pericentre glow effect is visible despite of collisions and radiation pressure, but that detecting such features in observed discs is not an unambiguous indicator of the presence of an outer planet. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Characterization of Choroidal Layers in Normal Aging Eyes Using Enface Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Robert F.; Baumal, Caroline R.; Mohler, Kathrin J.; Kraus, Martin F.; Liu, Jonathan; Badaro, Emmerson; Alasil, Tarek; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.; Waheed, Nadia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize qualitative and quantitative features of the choroid in normal eyes using enface swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods Fifty-two eyes of 26 consecutive normal subjects were prospectively recruited to obtain multiple three-dimensional 12x12mm volumetric scans using a long-wavelength high-speed SS-OCT prototype. A motion-correction algorithm merged multiple SS-OCT volumes to improve signal. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was segmented as the reference and enface images were extracted at varying depths every 4.13μm intervals. Systematic analysis of the choroid at different depths was performed to qualitatively assess the morphology of the choroid and quantify the absolute thicknesses as well as the relative thicknesses of the choroidal vascular layers including the choroidal microvasculature (choriocapillaris, terminal arterioles and venules; CC) and choroidal vessels (CV) with respect to the subfoveal total choroidal thickness (TC). Subjects were divided into two age groups: younger (<40 years) and older (≥40 years). Results Mean age of subjects was 41.92 (24-66) years. Enface images at the level of the RPE, CC, CV, and choroidal-scleral interface were used to assess specific qualitative features. In the younger age group, the mean absolute thicknesses were: TC 379.4μm (SD±75.7μm), CC 81.3μm (SD±21.2μm) and CV 298.1μm (SD±63.7μm). In the older group, the mean absolute thicknesses were: TC 305.0μm (SD±50.9μm), CC 56.4μm (SD±12.1μm) and CV 248.6μm (SD±49.7μm). In the younger group, the relative thicknesses of the individual choroidal layers were: CC 21.5% (SD±4.0%) and CV 78.4% (SD±4.0%). In the older group, the relative thicknesses were: CC 18.9% (SD±4.5%) and CV 81.1% (SD±4.5%). The absolute thicknesses were smaller in the older age group for all choroidal layers (TC p=0.006, CC p=0.0003, CV p=0.03) while the relative thickness was smaller only for the CC (p=0.04). Conclusions Enface SS-OCT at 1050nm enables a precise qualitative and quantitative characterization of the individual choroidal layers in normal eyes. Only the CC is relatively thinner in the older eyes. In-vivo evaluation of the choroid at variable depths may be potentially valuable in understanding the natural history of age-related posterior segment disease. PMID:26172550

  4. The far-infrared behaviour of Herbig Ae/Be discs: Herschel PACS photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, N.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Mendigutía, I.; Sandell, G.

    2016-02-01

    Herbig Ae/Be objects are pre-main sequence stars surrounded by gas- and dust-rich circumstellar discs. These objects are in the throes of star and planet formation, and their characterisation informs us of the processes and outcomes of planet formation processes around intermediate mass stars. Here we analyse the spectral energy distributions of disc host stars observed by the Herschel open time key programme "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems". We present Herschel/PACS far-infrared imaging observations of 22 Herbig Ae/Bes and 5 debris discs, combined with ancillary photometry spanning ultraviolet to sub-millimetre wavelengths. From these measurements we determine the diagnostics of disc evolution, along with the total excess, in three regimes spanning near-, mid-, and far-infrared wavelengths. Using appropriate statistical tests, these diagnostics are examined for correlations. We find that the far-infrared flux, where the disc becomes optically thin, is correlated with the millimetre flux, which provides a measure of the total dust mass. The ratio of far-infrared to sub-millimetre flux is found to be greater for targets with discs that are brighter at millimetre wavelengths and that have steeper sub-millimetre slopes. Furthermore, discs with flared geometry have, on average, larger excesses than flat geometry discs. Finally, we estimate the extents of these discs (or provide upper limits) from the observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  5. High-efficiency high-power semiconductor disc laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brick, Peter; Lutgen, Stephan; Albrecht, Tony; Luft, Johann; Spath, Werner

    2003-06-01

    High efficiency, high power and excellent beam quality has been achieved in optically-pumped semiconductor disc lasers (OPS-disc laser) emitting at 1000nm. Minimizing the thermal resistance between active region and heat-sink, more than 5.5W of continuous wave (cw) output has been obtained at room-temperature. Even more remarkable, the laser characteristics corresponding to this power display differential efficiencies of better than 50% and optical conversion efficiencies of better than 40%. This combination of high power and high efficiency represents the best reported values so far. As such, a highly efficient beam converter has been realized, transforming low-brightness optical pump power into high-brightness laser emission.

  6. Human Disc Nucleus Properties and Vertebral Endplate Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Azucena G.; Slichter, Chloe K.; Acosta, Frank L.; Rodriguez-Soto, Ana E.; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Lotz, Jeffrey C.

    2010-01-01

    Study of human cadaveric discs quantifying endplate permeability and porosity and correlating these with measures of disc quality: cell density, proteoglycan content, and overall degeneration. Permeability and porosity increased with age and were not correlated with cell density or overall degeneration, suggesting that endplate calcification may not accelerate disc degeneration. Study Design Experimental quantification of relationships between vertebral endplate morphology, permeability, disc cell density, glycosaminoglycan content and degeneration in samples harvested from human cadaveric spines. Objective To test the hypothesis that variation in endplate permeability and porosity contribute to changes in intervertebral disc cell density and overall degeneration. Summary of Background Data Cells within the intervertebral disc are dependent on diffusive exchange with capillaries in the adjacent vertebral bone. Previous findings suggest that blocked routes of transport negatively affect disc quality, yet there are no quantitative relationships between human vertebral endplate permeability, porosity, cell density and disc degeneration. Such relationships would be valuable for clarifying degeneration risk factors, and patient features that may impede efforts at disc tissue engineering. Methods Fifty-one motion segments were harvested from 13 frozen cadaveric human lumbar spines (32 to 85 years) and classified for degeneration using the MRI-based Pfirrmann scale. A cylindrical core was harvested from the center of each motion segment that included vertebral bony and cartilage endplates along with adjacent nucleus tissue. The endplate mobility, a type of permeability, was measured directly using a custom-made permeameter before and after the cartilage endplate was removed. Cell density within the nucleus tissue was estimated using the picogreen method while the nuclear GAG content was quantified using the DMMB technique. Specimens were imaged at 8 μm resolution using microCT, bony porosity was calculated. Analysis of variance, linear regression, and multiple comparison tests were used to analyze the data. Results Nucleus cell density increased as the disc height decreased (R2=0.13; p=0.01) but was not related to subchondral bone porosity (p>0.5), total mobility (p>0.4) or age (p>0.2). When controlling for disc height however, a significant, negative effect of age on cell density was observed (p=0.03). In addition to this, GAG content decreased with age non-linearly (R2=0.83, p<0.0001) and a cell function measurement, GAGs/cell decreased with degeneration (R2=0.24; p<0.0001). Total mobility (R2=0.14; p<0.01) and porosity (R2=0.1, p<0.01) had a positive correlation with age. Conclusion Although cell density increased with degeneration, cell function indicated that GAGs/cell decreased. Since permeability and porosity increase with age and degeneration, this implies that cell dysfunction, rather than physical barriers to transport, accelerate disc disease. PMID:21240044

  7. Reoperations Following Cervical Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Lee, Dong-Ho; Caridi, John Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has emerged as an alternative surgical option to cervical arthrodesis. With increasing numbers of patients and longer follow-ups, complications related to the device and/or aging spine are growing, leaving us with a new challenge in the management and surgical revision of CDR. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature regarding reoperations following CDR and to discuss about the approaches and solutions for the current and future potential complications associated with CDR. The published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.0%; range, 0%-3.1%), revision (mean, 0.2%; range, 0%-0.5%), and removal (mean, 1.2%; range, 0%-1.9%) following CDR are low and comparable to the published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.7%; range; 0%-3.4%), revision (mean, 1.5%; range, 0%-4.7%), and removal (mean, 2.0%; range, 0%-3.4%) following cervical arthrodesis. The surgical interventions following CDR range from the repositioning to explantation followed by fusion or the reimplantation to posterior foraminotomy or fusion. Strict patient selection, careful preoperative radiographic review and surgical planning, as well as surgical technique may reduce adverse events and the need for future intervention. Minimal literature and no guidelines exist for the approaches and techniques in revision and for the removal of implants following CDR. Adherence to strict indications and precise surgical technique may reduce the number of reoperations, revisions, and removals following CDR. Long-term follow-up studies are needed, assessing the implant survivorship and its effect on the revision and removal rates. PMID:26097667

  8. Clinical Outcomes of Percutaneous Plasma Disc Coagulation Therapy for Lumbar Herniated Disc Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Chul; Cho, Ki Hong

    2012-01-01

    Objective This is prospective study of clinical outcomes of percutaneous plasma disc coagulation Therapy (PDCT) in patients with herniated lumbar disc disease (HLD) to evaluate the safety and efficacy in its clinical application and usefulness as a reliable alternative to microscopic discectomy. Methods Forty-six patients were enrolled in this study from April 2006 to June 2010. All patients had one-level HLD. Disc degeneration was graded on routine T2-weighted magnetic resonance Image (MRI) using the Pfirrmann's grading system and all index levels were grade 3 and grade 4. Indications for surgery were radiculopathy caused by disc protrusion with soft consistency. MRI was done at one month after the procedure in all patients to check post-PDCT change. The clinical outcomes were evaluated using Visual Analog Scales (VAS) score and MacNab's criteria. Results This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our institution. The age of the study population ranged from 16 to 59 years with a mean age of 37.2 years. There were 29 males and 17 females in this study. The mean period of clinical follow-up was 21 months. The average preoperative VAS score for radiculopathy was 7.41.4, while the final follow-up VAS score was 1.40.7 (p<0.001). In MacNab's criteria, 41 patients (89.1%) had achieved favorable improvement (excellent and good) until later follow-up. There were one patient from infection and two patients who needed to convert to open discectomy. Conclusion PDCT is a safe and efficient treatment modality in a selective patient with HLD. PMID:22396836

  9. Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yali; Bailey, Steven T.; Wilson, David J.; Tan, Ou; Klein, Michael L.; Flaxel, Christina J.; Potsaid, Benjamin; Liu, Jonathan J.; Lu, Chen D.; Kraus, Martin F.; Fujimoto, James G.; Huang, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To detect and quantify choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Design Observational, cross-sectional study. Participants Five normal subjects and five neovascular AMD patients were included. Methods Five eyes with neovascular AMD and five normal age-matched controls were scanned by a high-speed (100,000 A-scans/sec) 1050 nm wavelength swept-source OCT. The macular angiography scan covered a 3×3 mm area and comprised 200×200×8 A-scans acquired in 3.5 sec. Flow was detected using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm. Motion artifacts were removed by three dimensional (3D) orthogonal registration and merging of 4 scans. The 3D angiography was segmented into 3 layers: inner retina (to show retinal vasculature), outer retina (to identify CNV), and choroid. En face maximum projection was used to obtain 2D angiograms from the 3 layers. CNV area and flow index were computed from the en face OCT angiogram of the outer retinal layer. Flow (decorrelation) and structural data were combined in composite color angiograms for both en face and cross-sectional views. Main Outcome Measurements CNV angiogram, CNV area, and CNV flow index. Results En face OCT angiograms of CNVs showed sizes and locations that were confirmed by fluorescein angiography. OCT angiography provided more distinct vascular network patterns that were less obscured by subretinal hemorrhage. The en face angiograms also showed areas of reduced choroidal flow adjacent to the CNV in all cases and significantly reduced retinal flow in one case. Cross-sectional angiograms were used to visualize CNV location relative to the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch’s layer and classify type I and type II CNV. A feeder vessel could be identified in one case. Higher flow indexes were associated with larger CNV and type II CNV. Conclusions OCT angiography provides depth-resolved information and detailed images of CNV in neovascular AMD. Quantitative information regarding CNV flow and area can be obtained. Further studies are needed to assess the role of quantitative OCT angiography in the evaluation and treatment of neovascular AMD. PMID:24679442

  10. Measurement mark profiles of digital versatile disc and multilevel read-only disc with atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hailong; Pei, Jing; Ni, Yi; Pan, Longfa

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the profile measurement method for recording marks in signal waveform modulation multilevel (SWM) read-only disc. In SWM disc, multilevel is realized with the combined varying size and position of inserted subpit/ sub-land in an original recording land/pit. The micro-patterns of the recording marks are key identifier for level of run-lengths. In mastering process, the mark profile is shaped with timing duration variation of the power of laser beam recorder (LBR). To form ideal SWM recording pit microstructure, atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to measure the pit profile, which is feedback and used to adjust the writing strategy. The measured parameters including depth, height and position, etc. 6T land and pit are selected as examples to describe the relationship between the variation of these parameters and levels of run-lengths. The recording symbol microstructures of DVD and signal amplitude modulation (SAM) multilevel optical disc are also measured with AFM, which are compared with the mark profile of SWM disc. The experimental results show that the AFM measurement for SWM recording marks is an effective method. These quantitative measurement results provide theoretical basis for SWM stamper disc manufacturing process.

  11. Amiodarone induced optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Nagra, P K; Foroozan, R; Savino, P J; Castillo, I; Sergott, R C

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To determine the clinical features of amiodarone induced optic neuropathy, which may help distinguish it from non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. Methods: Retrospective observational case series of patients diagnosed with amiodarone induced optic neuropathy at the neuro-ophthalmology service from March 1998 to February 2001. Amiodarone was discontinued after discussion with the patient's cardiologist. Visual acuity, colour vision, automated perimetry, and funduscopy were performed on initial and follow up examinations. Results: Three patients with amiodarone induced optic neuropathy presented with mildly decreased vision, visual field defects, and bilateral optic disc swelling. Upon discontinuing the medication, visual function and optic disc swelling slowly improved in all three patients. Conclusion: Amiodarone induced optic neuropathy can present with visual dysfunction, and is typically a bilateral process. Upon discontinuation of amiodarone, slow resolution of optic disc swelling occurs and visual function improves in some patients. PMID:12642303

  12. Chondrule transport in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Aaron Z.; Owen, James E.; Jacquet, Emmanuel

    2015-10-01

    Chondrule formation remains one of the most elusive early Solar system events. Here, we take the novel approach of employing numerical simulations to investigate chondrule origin beyond purely cosmochemical methods. We model the transport of generically produced chondrules and dust in a 1D viscous protoplanetary disc model in order to constrain the chondrule formation events. For a single formation event we are able to match analytical predictions of the memory they retain of each other (complementarity), finding that a large mass accretion rate (≳10-7 M⊙ yr-1) allows for delays on the order of the disc's viscous time-scale between chondrule formation and chondrite accretion. Further, we find older discs to be severely diminished of chondrules, with accretion rates ≲10-9 M⊙ yr-1 for nominal parameters. We then characterize the distribution of chondrule origins in both space and time, as functions of disc parameters and chondrule formation rates, in runs with continuous chondrule formation and both static and evolving discs. Our data suggest that these can account for the observed diversity between distinct chondrite classes, if some diversity in accretion time is allowed for.

  13. Preclinical and clinical experience with a viscoelastic total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Rischke, Burkhard; Ross, Raymond S.; Jollenbeck, Boris A.; Zimmers, Kari B.; Defibaugh, Neal D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to describe the mechanical durability and the clinical and radiographic outcomes of a viscoelastic total disc replacement (VTDR). The human intervertebral disc is a complex, viscoelastic structure, permitting and constraining motion in 3 axes, thus providing stability. The ideal disc replacement should be viscoelastic and deformable in all directions, and it should restore disc height and angle. Methods Mechanical testing was conducted to validate the durability of the VTDR, and a clinical study was conducted to evaluate safety and performance. Fifty patients with single-level, symptomatic lumbar degenerative disc disease at L4-5 or L5-S1 were enrolled in a clinical trial at 3 European sites. Patients were assessed clinically and radiographically for 2 years by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), a visual analog scale (VAS), and independent radiographic analyses. Results The VTDR showed a fatigue life in excess of 50 million cycles (50-year equivalent) and a physiologically appropriate level of stiffness, motion, geometry, and viscoelasticity. We enrolled 28 men and 22 women in the clinical study, with a mean age of 40 years. Independent quantitative radiographic assessment indicated that the VTDR restored and maintained disc height and lordosis while providing physiologic motion. Mean ODI scores decreased from 48% preoperatively to 23% at 2 years’ follow-up. Mean VAS low-back pain scores decreased from 7.1 cm to 2.9 cm. Median scores indicated that half of the patient population had ODI scores below 10% and VAS low-back pain scores below 0.95 cm at 2 years. Conclusions The VTDR has excellent durability and performs clinically and radiographically as intended for the treatment of symptomatic lumbar degenerative disc disease. Clinical Relevance The VTDR is intended to restore healthy anatomic properties and stability characteristics to the spinal segment. This study is the first to evaluate a VTDR in a 50-patient, multicenter European study. PMID:25802675

  14. Multicolour eclipse studies of UU Aquarii - II. The accretion disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, R.; Steiner, J. E.; Horne, Keith

    1996-09-01

    Maximum-entropy eclipse mapping techniques are used to obtain maps of the surface brightness distribution of the UU Aqr accretion disc in its high (V~=13.5 mag) and low (V~=13.8 mag) brightness states. A two-colour diagram of the pixels of the reconstructed disc shows that the inner disc is optically thick, with colours in between the blackbody and main-sequence relationships. The angular scale of the disc and the distance to UU Aqr are estimated from a colour-magnitude diagram by a method similar to cluster main-sequence fitting. We find D=200+/-30 pc. Temperatures in the disc range from ~6000 K in the outer regions to ~16000 K near the white dwarf at disc centre. The radial temperature profiles in the low-brightness state are consistent with the T~R^-3/4 law for steady mass accretion at a rate of M_solar=10^-9.0+/-0.2 M_ yr^-1. The radial temperature profiles in the high-brightness state are flatter than the T~R^-3/4 law. The inferred mass accretion rate in this case is 10^-9.2+/-0.1 M_ yr^-1 at R=0.1R_L1 and 10^-8.8+/-0.1 M_ yr^-1 at R=0.3R_L1, where R_L1 is the distance from disc centre to the inner Lagrangian point. Together with other observed characteristics, this suggests that UU Aqr is possibly another member of the SW Sex stars. Comparison of narrow-band maps about the H? and HeI 6678 lines with the R-band map reveals that both lines appear in emission at the inner disc (R<~0.2R_L1) but disappear into the continuum emission at larger disc radii. The H? and HeI 6678 net emission profiles are noticeably different from the empirical I~R^-1.5 law inferred from Doppler tomography, suggesting either that the line-emitting regions on the disc surface are not in Keplerian orbits or that a substantial fraction of the H? and HeI 6678 lines do not arise from the accretion disc. This latter hypothesis is supported by the fact that both lines show significant uneclipsed components of 55 and 20 per cent, respectively. The comparison of eclipse maps of the low and high states reveals that the differences are caused by changes in the structure of the outer parts of the disc, the most noticeable effect being the appearance of a conspicuous red, bright spot at the disc rim. Together with the inferred increase in M_solar at the outer disc, this result suggests that the observed brightness changes are caused by variations in the mass transfer rate from the companion star.

  15. Impact of reduced rhodopsin expression on the structure of rod outer segment disc membranes.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Tatini; Park, Paul S-H

    2015-05-12

    Rhodopsin is the light receptor embedded in rod outer segment (ROS) disc membranes of photoreceptor cells that initiates vision via phototransduction. The relationship between rhodopsin expression and the formation of membrane structures in the ROS is unclear but important to better understand both normal function and pathological conditions. To determine the impact of reduced rhodopsin expression on the structure of ROS discs and the supramolecular organization of rhodopsin, ROS disc membrane samples from heterozygous rhodopsin knockout mice were examined by atomic force microscopy. Similar to rhodopsin in wild-type mice, rhodopsin formed nanodomains in ROS disc membranes of heterozygous knockout mice. The reduced rhodopsin expression in heterozygous knockout mice resulted in ROS disc membranes that were smaller compared to those in wild-type mice at all ages tested. Changes in ROS disc membrane properties were observed between 4 and 6 weeks of age in heterozygous knockout mice that were not present in age-matched wild-type mice. In 4 week old mice, the number and density of rhodopsin in ROS disc membranes was lower than that in age-matched wild-type mice. In contrast, 6 and 8 week old mice had more rhodopsin molecules present in disc membranes compared to 4 week old mice, which resulted in rhodopsin densities similar to those found in age-matched wild-type mice. Thus, mechanisms appear to be present that maintain a constant density of rhodopsin within ROS disc membranes even when reducing the expression of the light receptor by about half. These adaptive mechanisms, however, only occur after 4 weeks of age. PMID:25881629

  16. Clinical Impact of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters on Disc Degeneration in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young-Min; Eun, Jong-Pil

    2015-10-01

    The sagittal balance plays an important role in the determination of shear and compressive forces applied on the anterior (vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs) and posterior (facet joints) elements of the lumbar vertebral column. Many studies have also examined the effect of structural changes in the disc on the biomechanical characteristics of the spinal segment. Nevertheless, the relationship between sagittal balance and the degree of disc degeneration has not been extensively explored. Thus, here we investigated the relationships between various sagittal spinopelvic parameters and the degree of disc degeneration in young adults.A total of 278 young adult male patients were included in this study (age range: 18-24 years old). Multiple sagittal spinopelvic parameters, including pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), sacral inclination (SI), lumbosacral angle (LSA), and sacral table angle (STA), were measured from standing lateral lumbosacral radiographs. The degree of intervertebral disc degeneration was classified using a modified Pfirrmann scale. To assess the pain intensity of each patient, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score for low back pain (LBP) was obtained from all the patients. Finally, the relationships between these spinopelvic parameters and the degree of disc degeneration in young adults were analyzed. Also, we performed multiple logistic regression study.Out of all the spinopelvic parameters measured in this study, a low STA and a low SI were the only significant risk factors that were associated with disc degeneration in young adults. It means that patients with disc degeneration tend to have more severe sacral kyphosis and vertical sacrum.We found that patients with disc degeneration showed a lower SI and lower STA compared with patients without disc degeneration in young adults. Therefore, we suggest that the patients with disc degeneration tend to have more vertical sacrum, more sacral kyphosis, and more severe LBP, and that SI and STA measurements should be carefully considered to predict or prevent further disc degeneration and LBP. PMID:26496324

  17. Clinical Impact of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters on Disc Degeneration in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young-Min; Eun, Jong-Pil

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The sagittal balance plays an important role in the determination of shear and compressive forces applied on the anterior (vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs) and posterior (facet joints) elements of the lumbar vertebral column. Many studies have also examined the effect of structural changes in the disc on the biomechanical characteristics of the spinal segment. Nevertheless, the relationship between sagittal balance and the degree of disc degeneration has not been extensively explored. Thus, here we investigated the relationships between various sagittal spinopelvic parameters and the degree of disc degeneration in young adults. A total of 278 young adult male patients were included in this study (age range: 1824 years old). Multiple sagittal spinopelvic parameters, including pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), sacral inclination (SI), lumbosacral angle (LSA), and sacral table angle (STA), were measured from standing lateral lumbosacral radiographs. The degree of intervertebral disc degeneration was classified using a modified Pfirrmann scale. To assess the pain intensity of each patient, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score for low back pain (LBP) was obtained from all the patients. Finally, the relationships between these spinopelvic parameters and the degree of disc degeneration in young adults were analyzed. Also, we performed multiple logistic regression study. Out of all the spinopelvic parameters measured in this study, a low STA and a low SI were the only significant risk factors that were associated with disc degeneration in young adults. It means that patients with disc degeneration tend to have more severe sacral kyphosis and vertical sacrum. We found that patients with disc degeneration showed a lower SI and lower STA compared with patients without disc degeneration in young adults. Therefore, we suggest that the patients with disc degeneration tend to have more vertical sacrum, more sacral kyphosis, and more severe LBP, and that SI and STA measurements should be carefully considered to predict or prevent further disc degeneration and LBP. PMID:26496324

  18. A SCUBA-2 850-μm survey of protoplanetary discs in the IC 348 cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieza, L.; Williams, J.; Kourkchi, E.; Andrews, S.; Casassus, S.; Graves, S.; Schreiber, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present 850-μm observations of the 2-3 Myr cluster IC 348 in the Perseus molecular cloud using the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Our SCUBA-2 map has a diameter of 30 arcmin and contains ˜370 cluster members, including ˜200 objects with IR excesses. We detect a total of 13 discs. Assuming standard dust properties and a gas-to-dust-mass ratio of 100, we derive disc masses ranging from 1.5 to 16 MJUP. We also detect six Class 0/I protostars. We find that the most massive discs (MD > 3 MJUP; 850-μm flux > 10 mJy) in IC 348 tend to be transition objects according to the characteristic `dip' in their infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). This trend is also seen in other regions. We speculate that this could be an initial conditions effect (e.g. more massive discs tend to form giant planets that result in transition disc SEDs) and/or a disc evolution effect (the formation of one or more massive planets results in both a transition disc SED and a reduction of the accretion rate, increasing the lifetime of the outer disc). A stacking analysis of the discs that remain undetected in our SCUBA-2 observations suggests that their median 850-μm flux should be ≲1 mJy, corresponding to a disc mass ≲0.3 MJUP (gas plus dust) or ≲1 M⊕ of dust. While the available data are not deep enough to allow a meaningful comparison of the disc luminosity functions between IC 348 and other young stellar clusters, our results imply that disc masses exceeding the minimum-mass solar nebula are very rare (≲1per cent) at the age of IC 348, especially around very low-mass stars.

  19. Does the thickness of the vertebral subchondral bone reflect the composition of the intervertebral disc?

    PubMed

    Roberts, S; McCall, I W; Menage, J; Haddaway, M J; Eisenstein, S M

    1997-01-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc, seen radiologically as loss of disc height, is often associated with apparent remodelling in the adjacent vertebral body. In contrast, maintenance or apparent increase in disc height is a common finding in osteoporosis, suggesting the properties of the intervertebral disc may be dependent on those of the vertebral body or vice versa. We have investigated this relationship by measuring the radiological thickness of the subchondral bone and comparing it to the chemical composition of the adjacent disc. Sagittal slabs were sampled from lumbar spines obtained at autopsy and X-rayed microfocally. The thickness of the subchondral bone was measured and correlated with the composition of the adjacent intervertebral disc. Eighty-three cadaveric endplates were studied from individuals aged 17-85 years. There was regional variation in thickness of the subchondral bone, being greater adjacent to the annulus than the nucleus, and the endplates cranial to the disc were thicker than those caudal. There was a positive correlation between the thickness of the subchondral bone and the proteoglycan content of the adjacent disc, particularly in the region of the nucleus. A weaker correlation was seen here between water content and thickness, whilst there was no significant correlation at the annulus or between the bone thickness and collagen content. The positive relationship between the radiographic thickness of vertebral subchondral bone and the proteoglycan content of the adjacent disc seen in human cadaveric material could be due to the bone responding to a greater hydrostatic pressure being exerted by discs with higher proteoglycan content than by those with less proteoglycan present. It is suggested that while this is true in "normal" specimens, the relationship becomes altered in disease states, possibly because of changes to the nutritional pathway of the disc, with resultant endplate-bone remodelling affecting the flow of solutes to and from the intervertebral disc. PMID:9455665

  20. Significance of the disc damage likelihood scale objectively measured by a non-mydriatic fundus camera in preperimetric glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pahlitzsch, Milena; Torun, Necip; Erb, Carl; Bruenner, Jeanette; Maier, Anna Karina B; Gonnermann, Johannes; Bertelmann, Eckart; Klamann, Matthias K J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the correlation between the disc damage likelihood scale (DDLS) objectively measured by a non-mydriatic fundus camera, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3, and optic coherence tomography in preperimetric glaucoma. Methods One-hundred-twenty-five patients with preperimetric primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (n=30) were included (mean age 58.9±15.9 years). All three devices graded the optic disc topography: Diagnosis 1 was defined as “outside normal limits”, while Diagnosis 2 as “borderline or outside normal limits”. Results For Diagnosis 1, a significant correlation was shown between DDLS and Moorfields regression analysis (P=0.022), and for Diagnosis 2 with glaucoma probability score analysis (P=0.024), in POAG. In pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, DDLS did not correlate significantly with Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 and optic coherence tomography. Regarding the area under the curve the highest predictive power was demonstrated by the objective DDLS (0.513–0.824) compared to Burk (0.239–0.343) and Mikelberg (0.093–0.270) coefficients. Conclusions The DDLS showed a significant correlation to the Moorfields regression analysis in preperimetric POAG. The objective DDLS showed the highest predictive power and thus is an additive tool in diagnosing preperimetric glaucoma. PMID:26640365

  1. A focussing disc DIRC for PANDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, E. N.; Britting, A.; Clarkson, A.; Dodokhof, V. KH.; Dren, M.; Dutta, D.; Eyrich, W.; Fhl, K.; Glazer, D. I.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Hoek, M.; Hohler, R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Koch, P.; Krck, B.; Lehmann, A.; Lehmann, D.; Lumsden, S.; Marton, J.; Merle, O.; Montgomery, R.; Peters, K.; Reinicke, S.; Rosner, G.; Roy, B.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Seitz, B.; Sfienti, C.; Suzuki, K.; Uhlig, F.; Vodopianov, A. S.; Watts, D. P.; Yu, W.

    2011-05-01

    The PANDA experiment at the FAIR upgrade to GSI, Darmstadt, aims to study modern hadronic physics with unprecedented precision. Excellent particle identification of both charged and neutral particles is necessary to achieve the physics aims of PANDA. Two DIRC detectors are foreseen for charged particle identification, one in a barrel configuration for the central region, and the second in a disc configuration for the forward endcap. The design of the forward disc DIRC centres around the novel application of passive chromatic dispersion correction elements, allied with focussing optics, to achieve excellent resolution of Chernekov angle. A system of comprehensive prototype development will show the feasibility of the system. Key to the success of the prototype is fully understanding the production, transport and detection of the Cherenkov photons within the detector. Photon yield and its dependence on the polar angle of the detector have been measured. Observed photon yield is also the basis for subsequent studies into the benefit of chromatic dispersion correction elements, focussing and overall detector performance.

  2. Phase object imaging inside the airy disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.

    1991-03-01

    The possibility of phase objects superresoluton imaging is theoretically justifieth The measurements with CPM " AIRYSCAN" showed the reality of O structures observations when the Airy disc di ameter i s 0 86 j. . m SUMMARY It has been known that the amount of information contained in the image of any object is mostly determined by the number of points measured i ndependentl y or by spati al resol uti on of the system. From the classic theory of the optical systems it follows that for noncoherent sources the -spatial resolution is limited by the aperture dd 6LX/N. A. ( Rayleigh criterion where X is wave length NA numerical aperture. ) The use of this criterion is equivalent tO the statement that any object inside the Airy disc of radius d that is the difraction image of a point is practical ly unresolved. However at the coherent illumination the intensity distribution in the image plane depends also upon the phase iq (r) of the wave scattered by the object and this is the basis of the Zernike method of phasecontrast microscopy differential interference contrast (DIC) and computer phase microscopy ( CPM ). In theoretical foundation of these methods there was no doubt in the correctness of Rayleigh criterion since the phase information is derived out of intensity distribution and as we know there were no experiments that disproved this

  3. Histological analysis of surgical lumbar intervertebral disc tissue provides evidence for an association between disc degeneration and increased body mass index

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although histopathological grading systems for disc degeneration are frequently used in research, they are not yet integrated into daily care routine pathology of surgical samples. Therefore, data on histopathological changes in surgically excised disc material and their correlation to clinical parameters such as age, gender or body mass index (BMI) is limited to date. The current study was designed to correlate major physico-clinical parameters from a population of orthopaedic spine center patients (gender, age and BMI) with a quantitative histologic degeneration score (HDS). Methods Excised lumbar disc material from 854 patients (529 men/325 women/mean age 56 (15-96) yrs.) was graded based on a previously validated histologic degeneration score (HDS) in a cohort of surgical disc samples that had been obtained for the treatment of either disc herniation or discogenic back pain. Cases with obvious inflammation, tumor formation or congenital disc pathology were excluded. The degree of histological changes was correlated with sex, age and BMI. Results The HDS (0-15 points) showed significantly higher values in the nucleus pulposus (NP) than in the annulus fibrosus (AF) (Mean: NP 11.45/AF 7.87), with a significantly higher frequency of histomorphological alterations in men in comparison to women. Furthermore, the HDS revealed a positive significant correlation between the BMI and the extent of histological changes. No statistical age relation of the degenerative lesions was seen. Conclusions This study demonstrated that histological disc alterations in surgical specimens can be graded in a reliable manner based on a quantitative histologic degeneration score (HDS). Increased BMI was identified as a positive risk factor for the development of symptomatic, clinically significant disc degeneration. PMID:22087871

  4. Debris disc formation induced by planetary growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Lhne, T.

    2014-08-01

    Several hundred stars older than 10 million years have been observed to have infrared excesses. These observations are explained by dust grains formed by the collisional fragmentation of hidden planetesimals. Such dusty planetesimal discs are known as debris discs. In a dynamically cold planetesimal disc, collisional coagulation of planetesimals produces planetary embryos which then stir the surrounding leftover planetesimals. Thus, the collisional fragmentation of planetesimals that results from planet formation forms a debris disc. We aim to determine the properties of the underlying planetesimals in debris discs by numerically modelling the coagulation and fragmentation of planetesimal populations. The brightness and temporal evolution of debris discs depend on the radial distribution of planetesimal discs, the location of their inner and outer edges, their total mass, and the size of planetesimals in the disc. We find that a radially narrow planetesimal disc is most likely to result in a debris disc that can explain the trend of observed infrared excesses of debris discsvvv around G-type stars, for which planet formation occurs only before 100 million years. Early debris disc formation is induced by planet formation, while the later evolution is explained by the collisional decay of leftover planetesimals around planets that have already formed. Planetesimal discs with underlying planetesimals of radii 100 km at ?30 au most readily explain the Spitzer Space Telescope 24 and 70 ?m fluxes from debris discs around G-type stars.

  5. Complications of artificial disc replacement: a report of 27 patients with the SB Charit disc.

    PubMed

    van Ooij, Andr; Oner, F Cumhur; Verbout, Ab J

    2003-08-01

    Disc prosthesis surgery is rapidly becoming an option in treating patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease. Only short-term and midterm results are described in the literature. Most operated patients belong to the age group of 30-50 years. In these active patients, complications can be expected to increase with longer follow-up, similar to total joint replacements in the extremities. Reported here is a series of 27 patients from another institution, who presented with unsatisfactory results or complications after SB Charit disc replacement. The objective of this work was to describe the possible short- and long-term unsatisfactory results of disc prosthesis surgery. Twenty-seven patients were seen in a tertiary university referral center with persisting back and leg complaints after having received a Charit disc prosthesis. All patients were operated on in a neighboring hospital. Most patients were operated on at the L4-L5 and /or the L5-S1 vertebral levels. The patients were evaluated with plain radiography, some with flexion-extension x-rays, and most of them with computed tomography scans. The group consisted of 15 women and 12 men. Their mean age was 40 years (range 30-67 years) at the time of operation. The patients presented to us a mean of 53 months (range 11-127 months) following disc replacement surgery. In two patients, an early removal of a prosthesis was required and in two patients a late removal. In 11 patients, a second spinal reconstructive salvage procedure was performed. Mean follow-up for 26 patients with mid- and long-term evaluation was 91 months (range 15-157 months). Early complications were the following: In one patient, an anterior luxation of the prosthesis after 1 week necessitated removal and cage insertion, which failed to unite. In another patient with prostheses at L4-L5 and L5-S1, the prosthesis at L5-S1 dislocated anteriorly after 3 months and was removed after 12 months. Abdominal wall hematoma occurred in four cases. Retrograde ejaculation with loss of libido was seen in one case and erection weakness in another case. A temporary benefit was experienced by 12 patients, while 14 patients reported no benefit at all. Main causes of persistent complaints were degeneration at another level in 14, subsidence of the prosthesis in 16, and facet joint arthrosis in 11. A combination of pathologies was often present. Slow anterior migration was present in two cases, with compression on the iliac vessels in one case. Polyethylene wear was obvious in one patient 12 years after operation. In eight cases, posterior fusion with pedicle screws was required. In two cases, the prosthesis was removed and the segment was circumferentially fused. These procedures resulted in suboptimal long-term results. In this relatively small group of patients operated on with a Charit disc prosthesis, most problems arose from degeneration of other lumbar discs, facet joint arthrosis at the same or other levels, and subsidence of the prosthesis. It is to be expected that many more patients will be seen with late problems some years after this operation as the survivorship will decrease with time. PMID:12902953

  6. Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility

    MedlinePLUS

    Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Improves Mobility February 18, 2009 From PinnacleHealth, Harrisburg, PA Welcome to this “OR ... this new technology with the use of an artificial disc has some significant benefits over the previous ...

  7. Numerical Simulations of Disc-Planet Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Richard P.; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan

    2011-02-01

    The gravitational interaction between a protoplanetary disc and planetary sized bodies that form within it leads to the exchange of angular momentum, resulting in migration of the planets and possible gap formation in the disc for more massive planets. In this article, we review the basic theory of disc-planet interactions, and discuss the results of recent numerical simulations of planets embedded in protoplanetary discs. We consider the migration of low mass planets and recent developments in our understanding of so-called type I migration when a fuller treatment of the disc thermodynamics is included. We discuss the runaway migration of intermediate mass planets (so-called type III migration), and the migration of giant planets (type II migration) and the associated gap formation in this disc. The availability of high performance computing facilities has enabled global simulations of magnetised, turbulent discs to be computed, and we discuss recent results for both low and high mass planets embedded in such discs.

  8. Dust trapping by spiral arms in gravitationally unstable protostellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipierro, Giovanni; Pinilla, Paola; Lodato, Giuseppe; Testi, Leonardo

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the influence of gravitational instabilities in massive protostellar discs on the dynamics of dust grains. Starting from a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation, we have computed the evolution of the dust in a quasi-static gas density structure typical of self-gravitating disc. For different grain size distributions, we have investigated the capability of spiral arms to trap particles. We have run 3D radiative transfer simulations in order to construct maps of the expected emission at (sub-)millimetre and near-infrared wavelengths. Finally, we have simulated realistic observations of our disc models at (sub-)millimetre and near-infrared wavelengths as they may appear with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) and the High-Contrast Coronographic Imager for Adaptive Optics (HiCIAO) in order to investigate whether there are observational signatures of the spiral structure. We find that the pressure inhomogeneities induced by gravitational instabilities produce a non-negligible dynamical effect on centimetre-sized particles leading to significant overdensities in spiral arms. We also find that the spiral structure is readily detectable by ALMA over a wide range of (sub-)millimetre wavelengths and by HiCIAO in near-infrared scattered light for non-face-on discs located in the Ophiuchus star-forming region. In addition, we find clear spatial spectral index variations across the disc, revealing that the dust trapping produces a migration of large grains that can be potentially investigated through multiwavelength observations in the (sub-)millimetric. Therefore, the spiral arms observed to date in protoplanetary disc might be interpreted as density waves induced by the development of gravitational instabilities.

  9. Measuring system of transient temperature distribution on the brake disc rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Idogaki, T.; Kawai, H.; Harada, H.; Inoue, H.

    1987-01-01

    A system to measure transient temperature distribution on the brake disc rotor at high speed braking has been developed and its measuring principle and configuration are discussed in this paper. This system consists of two revolution sensors and two sets of optical fiber array, photoelectric elements, and microprocessor, which fiber array is so arranged that it faces the brake disc rotor. This new system has the following features: Measuring is made using a visible radiation wavelength range for red hot temperatures higher than 550/sup 0/C. The optical plastic fibers allow non-contact measuring in a narrow space. Ever-changing temperature distribution patterns on the disc rotor surface during high speed braking can be measured for each revolution while the disc is revolving.

  10. Proceedings: Fossil steam turbine disc cracking workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The objectives of the workshop were to review and consolidate the state of the art of cracking in fossil steam turbine discs; to identify further work needed to assist utilities in evaluating fossil turbine discs subject to SCC. Participants included 18 representatives from utilities, 12 representatives from equipment manufacturing organizations, and 5 consultants. Canadian, European, Japanese, and domestic organizations were represented. Topics included: A Review of GE Fossil Shrunk-On Wheel Stress Corrosion Cracking; Effects on Material and Environmental Factors on SCC of NiCrMoV Rotor Steels; SCC Experience of Shrunk On Discs; Studies on SCC For Steam Turbine Rotor and Disc; Advanced Disc-Type LP Turbine Rotors; Recent Experience of Stress Corrosion Cracking in the LP Discs of Fossil-Fired Reheat Turbines; Stress Corrosion of NiCrMoV LP Disc and Shaft Steels Under Cyclic Loading; NYIT'S Focused Approach for Ultrasonically Scanning Steam Turbine Discs; Probabilistic Assessment of Crack Initiation and Growth in Shrunk-On Discs; Low-Pressure Rotor Disc Cracking and Remaining Life Analysis; Assessment of Probability of Survival of Built Up LP Turbine Rotors With Discs Containing Semi-Circular Keyways; Electric Power Research Institute Turbine Disc Inspection Program; Fossil Turbine Disc Inspections--A Utility Dilemma; In-Service Accumulation of Chemicals in the Keyways and Their Effect on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Turbine Discs; Pitting and Compositional Effects on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Turbine Disc Steels; and TVA's Recent Experience With Inspection and Testing of Shrink-On Discs. Individual papers are processed separately for the data bases.

  11. Morphological evolution in situ: disc-dominated cluster red sequences at z 1.25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Propris, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Phillipps, Steven

    2015-06-01

    We have carried out a joint photometric and structural analysis of red sequence galaxies in four clusters at a mean redshift of 1.25 using optical and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging reaching to at least three magnitudes fainter than M*. As expected, the photometry and overall galaxy sizes imply purely passive evolution of stellar populations in red sequence cluster galaxies. However, the morphologies of red sequence cluster galaxies at these redshifts show significant differences to those of local counterparts. Apart from the most massive galaxies, the high-redshift red sequence galaxies are significantly discier than their low-redshift analogues. These galaxies also show significant colour gradients, again not present in their low-redshift equivalents, most straightforwardly explained by radial age gradients. A clear implication of these findings is that red sequence cluster galaxies originally arrive on the sequence as disc-dominated galaxies whose discs subsequently fade or evolve secularly to end up as high Srsic index early-type galaxies (classical S0s or possibly ellipticals) at lower redshift. The apparent lack of growth seen in a comparison of high- and low-redshift red sequence galaxies implies that any evolution is internal and is unlikely to involve significant mergers. While significant star formation may have ended at high redshift, the cluster red sequence population continues to evolve (morphologically) for several gigayears thereafter.

  12. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field…

  13. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field

  14. The imprint of satellite accretion on the chemical and dynamical properties of disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Few, C. G.; Gibson, B. K.; Pérez, I.; Florido, E.; Minchev, I.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: We study the effects of the cosmological assembly history on the chemical and dynamical properties of the discs of spiral galaxies as a function of radius. Methods: We made use of the simulated Milky Way mass, fully-cosmological discs from Ramses Disc Environment Study (RaDES). We analysed their assembly history by examining the proximity of satellites to the galactic disc, instead of their merger trees, to better gauge which satellites impact the disc. We presented stellar age and metallicity profiles, age-metallicity relation (AMR), age-velocity dispersion relation (AVR), and stellar age distribution (SAD) in several radial bins for the simulated galaxies. Results: Assembly histories can be divided into three different stages: i) a merger dominated phase, when a large number of mergers with mass ratios of ~1:1 take place (lasting ~3.2 ± 0.4 Gyr on average); ii) a quieter phase, when ~1:10 mergers take place (lasting ~4.4 ± 2.0 Gyr); and iii) a secular phase where the few mergers that take place have mass ratios below 1:100, which do not affect the disc properties (lasting ~5.5 ± 2.0 Gyr). The first two phases are able to kinematically heat the disc and produce a disc that is chemically mixed over its entire radial extension. Phase 2 ends with a final merger event (at time tjump) marking the onset of important radial differences in the AMR, AVR, and SAD. Conclusions: Inverted AMR trends in the outer parts of discs, for stars younger than tjump, are found as the combined effect of radial motions and star formation in satellites temporarily located in these outer parts. U-shaped stellar age profiles change to an old plateau (~10 Gyr) in the outer discs for the entire RaDES sample. This shape is a consequence of inside-out growth of the disc, radial motions of disc stars (inwards and outwards), and the accretion of old stars from satellites. We see comparable age profiles even when ignoring the influence of stellar migration due to the presence of early in situ star formation in the outer regions of the galaxy.

  15. [Automated imaging of the optic nerve and optic nerve fibers is essential to daily clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2004-06-01

    Chronic open-angle glaucoma is a progressive optical neuropathy. Automated imaging of the optic disc and optic nerve fibers provides reliable analysis of the optic nerve as well as long-term follow-up of neuropathy patients. HRT, GDX-VCC, and OCT, which analyze the optic disc and optical fibers, provide indisputable assistance in improving screening techniques and the follow-up of progressive glaucoma. PMID:15319758

  16. Profile and Determinants of Retinal Optical Intensity in Normal Eyes with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haoyu; Yang, Jianling; Shi, Fei; Zheng, Ce; Zhu, Weifang; Xiang, Dehui; Chen, Xinjian; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the profile and determinants of retinal optical intensity in normal subjects using 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Methods A total of 231 eyes from 231 healthy subjects ranging in age from 18 to 80 years were included and underwent a 3D OCT scan. Forty-four eyes were randomly chosen to be scanned by two operators for reproducibility analysis. Distribution of optical intensity of each layer and regions specified by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) were investigated by analyzing the OCT raw data with our automatic graph-based algorithm. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed between retinal optical intensity and sex, age, height, weight, spherical equivalent (SE), axial length, image quality, disc area and rim/disc area ratio (R/D area ratio). Results For optical intensity measurements, the intraclass correlation coefficient of each layer ranged from 0.815 to 0.941, indicating good reproducibility. Optical intensity was lowest in the central area of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer and photoreceptor layer, except for the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Optical intensity was positively correlated with image quality in all retinal layers (0.553<β<0.851, p<0.01), and negatively correlated with age in most retinal layers (-0.362<β<-0.179, p<0.01), except for the RPE (β = 0.456, p<0.01), outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor layer (p>0.05). There was no relationship between retinal optical intensity and sex, height, weight, SE, axial length, disc area and R/D area ratio. Conclusions There was a specific pattern of distribution of retinal optical intensity in different regions. The optical intensity was affected by image quality and age. Image quality can be used as a reference for normalization. The effect of age needs to be taken into consideration when using OCT for diagnosis. PMID:26863010

  17. Correlation of Choroidal Thickness and Volume Measurements with Axial Length and Age Using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Michalewski, Janusz; Nawrocka, Zofia; Bednarski, Maciej; Nawrocki, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To report choroidal thickness and volume in healthy eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods. A prospective observational study of 122 patients examined with swept source OCT (DRI-OCT, Topcon, Japan). In each eye, we performed 256 horizontal scans, 12 mm in length and centered on the fovea. We calculated choroidal thickness manually with a built-in caliper and automatically using DRI-OCT mapping software. Choroidal volume was also automatically calculated. We measured axial length with optical low-coherence reflectometry (Lenstar LS 900, Haag-Streit, Switzerland). Results. The choroid has focally increased thickness under the fovea. Choroid was thinnest in the outer nasal quadrant. In stepwise regression analysis, age was estimated as the most significant factor correlating with decreased choroidal thickness (F = 23.146, P < 0.001) followed by axial length (F = 4.902, P = 0.03). Refractive error was not statistically significant (F = 1.16, P = 0.28). Conclusions. SS-OCT is the first commercially available system that can automatically create choroidal thickness and volume maps. Choroidal thickness is increased at the fovea and is thinnest nasally. Age and axial length are critical for the estimation of choroidal thickness and volume. Choroidal measurements derived from SS-OCT images have potential value for objectively documenting disease-related choroidal thickness abnormalities and monitoring progressive changes over time. PMID:25013793

  18. Evolution of linear warps in accretion discs and applications to protoplanetary discs in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucart, Francois; Lai, Dong

    2014-12-01

    Warped accretion discs are expected in many protostellar binary systems. In this paper, we study the long-term evolution of disc warp and precession for discs with dimensionless thickness H/r larger than their viscosity parameter ?, such that bending waves can propagate and dominate the warp evolution. For small warps, these discs undergo approximately rigid-body precession. We derive analytical expressions for the warp/twist profiles of the disc and the alignment time-scale for a variety of models. Applying our results to circumbinary discs, we find that these discs align with the orbital plane of the binary on a time-scale comparable to the global precession time of the disc, and typically much smaller than its viscous time-scale. We discuss the implications of our finding for the observations of misaligned circumbinary discs (such as KH 15D) and circumbinary planetary systems (such as Kepler-413); these observed misalignments provide useful constraints on the uncertain aspects of the disc warp theory. On the other hand, we find that circumstellar discs can maintain large misalignments with respect to the plane of the binary companion over their entire lifetime. We estimate that inclination angles larger than 20 can be maintained for typical disc parameters. Overall, our results suggest that while highly misaligned circumstellar discs in binaries are expected to be common, such misalignments should be rare for circumbinary discs. These expectations are consistent with current observations of protoplanetary discs and exoplanets in binaries, and can be tested with future observations.

  19. Association of Abdominal Obesity with Lumbar Disc Degeneration A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Takatalo, Jani; Karppinen, Jaro; Taimela, Simo; Niinimki, Jaakko; Laitinen, Jaana; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Samartzis, Dino; Korpelainen, Raija; Nyh, Simo; Remes, Jouko; Tervonen, Osmo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether midsagittal (abdominal) obesity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage are associated with lumbar disc degeneration in early adulthood. Methods We obtained the lumbar MRI (1.5-T scanner) of 325 females and 233 males at a mean age of 21 years. Lumbar disc degeneration was evaluated using Pfirrmann classification. We analysed the associations of MRI measures of obesity (abdominal diameter (AD), sagittal diameter (SAD), ventral subcutaneous thickness (VST), and dorsal subcutaneous thickness (DST)), WC and body fat percentage with disc degeneration sum scores using ordinal logistic regression. Results A total of 155 (48%) females and 147 (63%) males had disc degeneration. AD and SAD were associated with a disc degeneration sum score of ?3 compared to disc degeneration sum score of 02 (OR 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.202.33 and OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.121.75, respectively) among males, but we found no association among females. WC was also associated with disc degeneration among males (OR 1.03 per one cm; 95% CI 1.001.05), but not among females. Conclusion Measures of abdominal obesity in MRI and waist circumference were associated with disc degeneration among 21-year-old males. PMID:23418543

  20. The Age of Enlightenment: Evolving Opportunities in Brain Research Through Optical Manipulation of Neuronal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Jason; Heck, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Optical manipulation of neuronal activity has rapidly developed into the most powerful and widely used approach to study mechanisms related to neuronal connectivity over a range of scales. Since the early use of single site uncaging to map network connectivity, rapid technological development of light modulation techniques has added important new options, such as fast scanning photostimulation, massively parallel control of light stimuli, holographic uncaging, and two-photon stimulation techniques. Exciting new developments in optogenetics complement neurotransmitter uncaging techniques by providing cell-type specificity and in vivo usability, providing optical access to the neural substrates of behavior. Here we review the rapid evolution of methods for the optical manipulation of neuronal activity, emphasizing crucial recent developments. PMID:22275886

  1. Shear Mechanics of the TMJ Disc

    PubMed Central

    Juran, C.M.; Dolwick, M.F.; McFetridge, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a complex hinge and gliding joint that induces significant shear loads onto the fibrocartilage TMJ disc during jaw motion. The purpose of this study was to assess regional variation in the discs shear loading characteristics under physiologically relevant loads and to associate those mechanical findings with common clinical observations of disc fatigue and damage. Porcine TMJ discs were compressed between an axially translating bottom platen and a 2.5-cm-diameter indenter within a hydrated testing chamber. Discs were cyclically sheared at 0.5, 1, or 5 Hz to 1, 3, or 5% shear strain. Within the anterior and intermediate regions of the disc when sheared in the anteroposterior direction, both shear and compressive moduli experienced a significant decrease from instantaneous to steady state, while the posterior regions compressive modulus decreased approximately 5%, and no significant loss of shear modulus was noted. All regions retained their shear modulus within 0.5% of instantaneous values when shear was applied in the mediolateral direction. The results of the discs regional shear mechanics suggest an observable and predictable link with the common clinical observation that the posterior region of the disc is most often the zone in which fatigue occurs, which may lead to disc damage and perforation. PMID:23166043

  2. Modelling spikes in quasar accretion disc temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, P. B.; Noordeh, E. S.; Chajet, L. S.; Weiss, E.; Nixon, C. J.

    2014-08-01

    Microlensing observations indicate that quasar accretion discs have half-light radii larger than standard theories predict. The observations of Blackburne and colleagues suggest that these half-light radii may have a weak wavelength dependence. We consider disc temperature profiles that might match these observations. Nixon and colleagues have suggested that misaligned discs around spinning black holes can have annuli torn off them at radii where the Lense-Thirring torque overcomes the disc's viscosity. These annuli precess, spread radially, and intersect with the remaining disc, heating the disc at potentially large radii. However, unless the intersections occur at an angle of <1°, highly supersonic collisions will shock heat intersecting gas to T ˜ 107 K. Discs with such shock-heated regions have significantly larger half-light radii, but are overluminous in X-rays. If instead heating occurs through intermittent weak shocks, the X-ray luminosities are consistent with observations but the half-light radii are not significantly larger. We also study two phenomenological disc temperature profiles. Discs with a temperature spike at relatively large radii and lowered temperatures at radii inside the spike yield improved and acceptable fits to microlensing sizes in most cases. Such temperature profiles could in principle occur in sub-Keplerian discs partially supported by magnetic pressure. However, such discs overpredict the fluxes from quasars studied with microlensing except in the limit of negligible continuum emission from radii inside the temperature spike.

  3. Galactic archaeology of a thick disc: Excavating ESO 533-4 with VIMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, S.; Salo, H.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Yoachim, P.

    2015-12-01

    The disc of galaxies is made of the superposition of a thin and a thick disc. Star formation is hosted in the thin discs and contributes to their growth. Thick discs are formed of old stars. The formation mechanisms of thick discs are under discussion. Thick discs might have formed either at high redshift on a short timescale or might have been built slowly over a Hubble-Lemaître time. They may have an internal or an external origin. Here we adopt a galactic archaeology approach to study the thick disc of ESO 533-4, i.e. we study the kinematics and the stellar populations of this galaxy in detail. ESO 533-4 is a Southern, nearby, and almost bulgeless galaxy. We present the first ever Integral Field Unit spectroscopy of an edge-on galaxy with enough depth and quality to study the thick disc. We exposed ESO 533-4 with the blue grism of the VIMOS instrument of the VLT for 6.5 h. The field of view covered an axial extent from ~ 0.1 r25 to ~ 0.7 r25, where r25 is the 25 mag arcsec-2 isophotal radius. This corresponds to the range from ~1 kpc to ~7 kpc. We used pPXF and the MILES library to obtain velocity and stellar population maps. We compared our kinematic data with simple GADGET-2 models. The apparent rotational lag of the thick disc of ESO 533-4 is compatible with that expected from the combinations of two effects: differential asymmetric drift and the projection effects arising from studying a disc a few degrees (2-3°) away from edge-on. Thus, ESO 533-4 contains little or no counter-rotating material. This is compatible with three formation scenarios: the secular dynamical heating of an initially thin disc, the formation of the thick disc at high redshift in an early turbulent disc phase, and the creation of a thick disc in a major merger event. If this last mechanism occurred in all galaxies, it would cause retrograde thick discs in half of them. These retrograde discs have not been observed in the five massive disc galaxies (circular velocity vc ≳ 120 km s-1) for which the kinematics of the thick disc is known. The stellar populations map indicates that the populations of the thin and the thick discs of ESO 533-4 are possibly separated in the Age-log (Z/Z⊙) plane. This would imply that thin and thick discs are formed of two distinct stellar populations. The stellar population results are not fully conclusive because of the high dust extinction in ESO 533-4 and because recovering stellar populations is a difficult inverse problem. Having said that, the stellar population results do not favour a secular evolution origin for the thick disc. Hence, we suggest that the thick disc of ESO 533-4 formed in a relatively short event. Based on observations made at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope under programme 091.B-0228(A).

  4. The clinical study of percutaneous disc decompression of treating herniation of cervical disc with Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dianxue; Cheng, Hefu; Wang, Jindong

    2005-07-01

    Objective: The possibility of PLDD (percutaneous laser disc decompression) and an ideal non-operative method which is long everlasting effect for PLDD was investigated. Methods: 159 patients of Cervical Disc Herniation with PLDD were studied. All the herniated discs were irradiated with 1015J/S Nd:YAG laser quantum through optical-fiber under the supervision of C-arm X-ray. Results: All the patients were followed and reexamined CT or MRI after one to six months of PLDD. The result of cured (67.92%), excellent (24.53%), moderation (5.66%), non-effect (1.88%) was got. The excellent rate was 88.24%. The effective rate was 97.65%. Non-effective rate was 2.35%. Conclusion: When irradiated with Nd:YAG laser, the nucleus pulposus was vapouring, charring and coagulating. The volume and inner-pressure of the disc decreased. So the symptoms and signs improved. The main value of this methods were micro-damage, non-operation, no bleeding, no bone injury, good therapy effect, quick recovery, lesser pain, safety and excellent long everlasting effect. It is an ideal non-operative method of treating PLDD.

  5. Correlation of Aging and Segmental Choroidal Thickness Measurement using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Wakatsuki, Yu; Shinojima, Ari; Kawamura, Akiyuki; Yuzawa, Mitsuko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess and compare choroidal thickness changes related to aging, we determined whether changes are due to thinning of the choriocapillaris plus Sattler's (CS) layer and/or the large vessel layer in healthy eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at a wavelength of 1,050-nm. Methods We studied 115 normal eyes of 115 healthy volunteers, all with refractive errors of less than -6 diopters. All 115 eyes underwent analysis of choroidal thickness at the fovea, the CS layer and the large choroidal vessel layer. In 68 of the 115 eyes, choroidal thickness was determined at five sites (the fovea, and superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal sites) using SS-OCT with an Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy grid scan. Results Total choroidal thicknesses at each of the five sites were related to subject age (P<0.0001). The choroid was thinnest at the nasal site, followed by the temporal, inferior, superior and finally the subfoveal site itself. The total choroidal thickness at the nasal site was significantly less than those at the other four sites (p<0.05). The CS layer showed thinning which correlated with age (P<0.0001). The thickness of the choroidal large vessel layer also decreased with age (p = 0.02). Subfoveal choroidal thickness was calculated as follows: 443.89–2.98×age (μm) (P<0.0001). Conclusion Subfoveal choroidal thickness decreases by 2.98 μm each year. Total choroidal thickness diminishes with age. The CS and large vessel layers of the choroid at the subfovea showed significant decreases, though only the former correlated strongly with age. PMID:26632821

  6. Laminated composite disc flywheel development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmer, R. P.; Torossian, K.; Hickey, J.

    1980-02-01

    A flywheel concept for an electric powered vehicle uses a laminated disc and a filament wound outer ring assembled with an interference fit between these two components. The laminated, central disc is made of S2-glass-epoxy and the outer ring is filament-wound graphite-epoxy. Projections for this particular flywheel design indicate that it will be both practical and relatively inexpensive to produce, and that it will have a high energy density capacity. Two hybrid composite flywheels of 37 cm O.D. were successfully assembled. The spin test data are summarized, the nondestructive test dat are discussed and the fabrication techniques developed for the hybrid flywheel assembly are described.

  7. Aging of rubrene layers in Ni/rubrene heterostructures studied by magneto-optical Kerr effect spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Fronk, Michael; Kupfer, Hartmut; Schulze, Steffen; Hietschold, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich R T; Salvan, Georgeta

    2010-04-28

    Magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy was applied to probe the aging of Ni/rubrene bilayers under ambient atmosphere. A comparison between the simulated MOKE spectra of the heterostructure and the experimental MOKE spectra recorded at several time intervals after the samples were exposed to the ambient atmosphere demonstrates that the organic layer undergoes slow oxidation. The Ni top layer was found to exhibit capping properties, reducing the rate of oxidation of the organic underlayer in comparison with single organic layers. PMID:20356093

  8. Optically stimulated luminescence age controls on late Pleistocene and Holocene coastal lithosomes, North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallinson, D.; Burdette, K.; Mahan, S.; Brook, G.

    2008-01-01

    Luminescence ages from a variety of coastal features on the North Carolina Coastal Plain provide age control for shoreline formation and relative sea-level position during the late Pleistocene. A series of paleoshoreline ridges, dating to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a and MIS 3 have been defined. The Kitty Hawk beach ridges, on the modern Outer Banks, yield ages of 3 to 2??ka. Oxygen-isotope data are used to place these deposits in the context of global climate and sea-level change. The occurrence of MIS 5a and MIS 3 shorelines suggests that glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) of the study area is large (ca. 22 to 26??m), as suggested and modeled by other workers, and/or MIS 3 sea level was briefly higher than suggested by some coral reef studies. Correcting the shoreline elevations for GIA brings their elevation in line with other sea-level indicators. The age of the Kitty Hawk beach ridges places the Holocene shoreline well west of its present location at ca. 3 to 2??ka. The age of shoreline progradation is consistent with the ages of other beach ridge complexes in the southeast USA, suggesting some regionally contemporaneous forcing mechanism. ?? 2007 University of Washington.

  9. Age-related compaction of lens fibers affects the structure and optical properties of rabbit lenses

    PubMed Central

    Al-khudari, Samer; Donohue, Sean T; Al-Ghoul, Walid M; Al-Ghoul, Kristin J

    2007-01-01

    Background The goal of this investigation was to correlate particular age-related structural changes (compaction) to the amount of scatter in rabbit lenses and to determine if significant fiber compaction occurred in the nuclear and inner cortical regions. Methods New Zealand White rabbits at 1620 months old (adult; n = 10) and at 3.54 years old (aged; n = 10) were utilized for this study. Immediately after euthanising, scatter was assessed in fresh lenses by low power helium-neon laser scan analysis. Scatter data was analyzed both for whole lenses and regionally, to facilitate correlation with morphometric data. After functional analysis, lenses were fixed and processed for scanning electron microcopy (SEM; right eyes) and light microscopy (LM; left eyes). Morphometric analysis of SEM images was utilized to evaluate compaction of nuclear fibers. Similarly, measurements from LM images were used to assess compaction of inner cortical fibers. Results Scatter was significantly greater in aged lenses as compared to adult lenses in all regions analyzed, however the difference in the mean was slightly more pronounced in the inner cortical region. The anterior and posterior elliptical angles at 1 mm (inner fetal nucleus) were significantly decreased in aged vs. adult lenses (anterior, p = 0.040; posterior, p = 0.036). However, the average elliptical angles at 2.5 mm (outer fetal nucleus) were not significantly different in adult and aged lenses since all lenses examined had comparable angles to inner fetal fibers of aged lenses, i.e. they were all compacted. In cortical fibers, measures of average cross-sectional fiber area were significantly different at diameters of both 6 and 7 mm as a function of age (p = 0.011 and p = 0.005, respectively). Accordingly, the estimated fiber volume was significantly decreased in aged as compared to adult lenses at both 6 mm diameter (p = 0.016) and 7 mm diameter (p = 0.010). Conclusion Morphometric data indicates that inner cortical fibers undergo a greater degree of age-related compaction than nuclear fibers. Increased scatter appears to be only tentatively correlated with regions of fiber compaction, suggesting that it is simply one of an array of factors that contribute to the overall decreased transparency in aged rabbit lenses. PMID:18096063

  10. The effects of radial migration on the vertical structure of Galactic discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokar, Rok; Debattista, Victor P.; Loebman, Sarah R.

    2013-08-01

    We present evidence that isolated growing discs, subject to internal spiral perturbations, thicken due to both heating and radial migration. We show this by demonstrating that the thickness and vertical velocity dispersions of coeval stars depend on their age as well as the change in their radii. While the disc thickens due to internal processes, we find that this induces only a minor amount of flaring. We further demonstrate the consequences of such thickening on the structural properties of stellar populations and find that they qualitatively agree with recent studies of the Milky Way disc.

  11. Calcification in the ovine intervertebral disc: a model of hydroxyapatite deposition disease

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, D.; Taylor, T. K. F.; Dillon, C. T.; Read, R.; Cake, M.; Little, C. B.

    2009-01-01

    The study design included a multidisciplinary examination of the mineral phase of ovine intervertebral disc calcifications. The objective of the study was to investigate the mineral phase and its mechanisms of formation/association with degeneration in a naturally occurring animal model of disc calcification. The aetiology of dystrophic disc calcification in adult humans is unknown, but occurs as a well-described clinical disorder with hydroxyapatite as the single mineral phase. Comparable but age-related pathology in the sheep could serve as a model for the human disorder. Lumbar intervertebral discs (n=134) of adult sheep of age 6years (n=4), 8years (n=12) and 11years (n=2) were evaluated using radiography, morphology, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, histology, immunohistology and proteoglycan analysis. Half of the 6-year, 84% of the 8-year and 86% of the 11-year-old discs had calcific deposits. These were not well delineated by plain radiography. They were either: (a) punctate deposits in the outer annulus, (b) diffuse deposits in the transitional zone or inner annulus fibrosus with occasional deposits in the nucleus, or (c) large deposits in the transitional zone extending variably into the nucleus. Their maximal incidence was in the lower lumbar discs (L4/5L6/7) with no calcification seen in the lumbosacral or lower thoracic discs. All deposits were hydroxyapatite with large crystallite sizes (8001,300) compared to cortical bone (300600). No type X-collagen, osteopontin or osteonectin were detected in calcific deposits, although positive staining for bone sialoprotein was evident. Calcified discs had less proteoglycan of smaller hydrodynamic size than non-calcified discs. Disc calcification in ageing sheep is due to hydroxyapatite deposition. The variable, but large, crystal size and lack of protein markers indicate that this does not occur by an endochondral ossification-like process. The decrease in disc proteoglycan content and size suggests that calcification may precede or predispose to disc degeneration in ageing sheep. PMID:19165512

  12. Carbon, nitrogen and α-element abundances determine the formation sequence of the Galactic thick and thin discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masseron, T.; Gilmore, G.

    2015-10-01

    Using the DR12 public release of APOGEE data, we show that the thin and thick discs separate very well in the space defined by [α/Fe], [Fe/H] and [C/N]. Thick disc giants have both higher [C/N] and higher [α/Fe] than do thin disc stars with similar [Fe/H]. We deduce that the thick disc is composed of lower mass stars than the thin disc. Considering the fact that at a given metallicity there is a one-to-one relation between stellar mass and age, we are then able to infer the chronology of disc formation. Both the thick and the thin discs - defined by [α/Fe] - converge in their dependence on [C/N] and [C+N/Fe] at [Fe/H]≈-0.7. We conclude that (1) the majority of thick disc stars formed earlier than did the thin disc stars, (2) the formation histories of the thin and thick discs diverged early on, even when the [Fe/H] abundances are similar and (3) that the star formation rate in the thin disc has been lower than in the thick disc, at all metallicities. Although these general conclusions remain robust, we also show that current stellar evolution models cannot reproduce the observed C/N ratios for thick disc stars. Unexpectedly, reduced or inhibited canonical extra mixing is very common in field stars. While subject to abundance calibration zero-point uncertainties, this implies a strong dependence of non-canonical extra mixing along the red giant branch on the initial composition of the star and in particular on the α-elemental abundance.

  13. Disc-associated wobbler syndrome in the Doberman pinscher.

    PubMed

    VanGundy, T E

    1988-05-01

    Disc-associated wobbler syndrome is a subset of the diverse canine wobbler complex. Disc-associated wobbler disease can occur in many large-breed dogs but the vast majority are middle-aged Doberman Pinschers. Dorsal annulus hypertrophy and protrusion is the hallmark lesion with variable association of dorsal ligamentum flavum hypertrophy and bony malformations. Chronic caudal cervical spinal cord compression results in the clinical signs. Instability, primary disc degeneration, and conformational etiologies have been incriminated. The clinical course usually entails chronic progressive paraparesis to tetraparesis with insidious onset. Acute onset or exacerbations are less common. Diagnosis is based upon history, neurologic examination, and radiography/myelography. Long-term conservative therapy is only palliative and usually leads to the demise of the animal. Surgical therapy offers the potential of a cure but at significant risk of morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment consists primarily of decompressive techniques with or without stabilization. The numerous surgical techniques utilized highlight the variability of the lesions and the lack of universal acceptance of any one technique. Decompression is accomplished by surgical access to the vertebral canal to physically remove the abnormal ligament and/or bony material. Alternatively, distraction combined with fusion of the vertebrae adjacent to the offending disc may reduce the hypertrophied/prolapsed dorsal annulus. Regardless of the procedure, postoperative management may be fraught with complications that require special considerations. PMID:3289250

  14. A Novel Organ Culture Model of Mouse Intervertebral Disc Tissues.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengjian; Yin, Liangjun; Wang, Zhongliang; Ye, Jixing; Zhang, Zhonglin; Li, Ruifang; Denduluri, Sahitya K; Wang, Jing; Wei, Qiang; Zhao, Lianggong; Lu, Shun; Wang, Xin; Tang, Shengli; Shi, Lewis L; Lee, Michael J; He, Tong-Chuan; Deng, Zhong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is a fibrocartilaginous joint between two vertebral bodies. An IVD unit consists of a gelatinous central nucleus pulposus, encased by the annulus fibrosus, which is sandwiched between cartilaginous endplates (EPs). The IVD homeostasis can be disrupted by injuries, ageing and/or genetic predispositions, leading to degenerative disc disorders and subsequent lower back pain. The complex structure and distinct characteristics of IVDs warrant the establishment of robust in vitro IVD organ culture for studying the etiology and treatment of disc degeneration. Here, we isolate mouse lumbar IVDs and culture the minimal IVD units in submersion or suspension medium supplemented with 2% bovine serum or 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). We find the minimal IVD units remain healthy for up to 14 days when cultured in submersion culture supplemented with 10% FBS. New bone formation in the EPs of the cultured IVDs can be assessed with calcein labeling. Furthermore, the cultured IVDs can be effectively transduced by recombinant adenovirus, and transgene expression lasts for 2 weeks. Thus, our findings demonstrate that the optimized IVD organ culture system can be used to study IVD biology and screen for biological factors that may prevent, alleviate and/or treat disc degeneration. PMID:26447649

  15. The Aerodynamics of a Flying Sports Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Jonathan R.; Crowther, William J.

    2001-11-01

    The flying sports disc is a spin-stabilised axi-symmetric wing of quite remarkable design. A typical disc has an approximate elliptical cross-section and hollowed out under-side cavity, such as the Frisbee(TM) disc. An experimental study of flying disc aerodynamics, including both spinning and non-spinning tests, has been carried out in the wind tunnel. Load measurements, pressure data and flow visualisation techniques have enabled an explanation of the flow physics and provided data for free-flight simulations. A computer simulation that predicts free-flight trajectories from a given set of initial conditions was used to investigate the dynamics of a flying disc. This includes a six-degree of freedom mathematical model of disc flight mechanics, with aerodynamic coefficients derived from experimental data. A flying sports disc generates lift through forward velocity just like a conventional wing. The lift contributed by spin is insignificant and does not provide nearly enough down force to support hover. Without spin, the disc tumbles ground-ward under the influence of an unstable aerodynamic pitching moment. From a backhand throw however, spin is naturally given to the disc. The unchanged pitching moment now results in roll, due to gyroscopic precession, stabilising the disc in free-flight.

  16. Aggrecan degradation in human intervertebral disc and articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Sztrolovics, R; Alini, M; Roughley, P J; Mort, J S

    1997-01-01

    Aggrecan degradation in human intervertebral disc and articular cartilage has been studied by using anti-neoepitope antibodies specific for the N-terminal degradation products generated by cleavage within the interglobular domain at the metalloproteinase and aggrecanase sites. Immunoblot analysis of extracts of annulus fibrosus, nucleus pulposus and articular cartilage demonstrated age-related patterns in the abundance of both degradation products. In all three tissues the metalloproteinase-generated fragment was present at very low levels in young individuals but increased in abundance with age. In the disc tissues, the abundance of this degradation product levelled off in the juvenile; for cartilage this occurred in early adulthood. Despite these temporal differences, the levels attained in adults were comparable for the three tissues. In contrast, the aggrecanase-generated degradation product exhibited tissue-specific differences in the variation of its abundance with age. Whereas this degradation product increased with age in annulus fibrosus and articular cartilage and had levelled off by adulthood, in nucleus pulposus it was present in greatest abundance in young individuals and decreased to very low levels with age. Examination of discs exhibiting various degrees of degeneration did not reveal any differences in the levels of the metalloproteinase and aggrecanase-generated cleavage products that could not be accounted for by differences in age. In adults the product of aggrecanase action was much more abundant in articular cartilage than in either of the disc tissues, despite the age-related increase also observed for annulus fibrosus. Analysis of tissue extracts with an antibody recognizing the G1 domain of aggrecan identified two major degradation products whose abundance and size were correlated with the fragments detected by the anti-neoepitope antibodies. Taken together, these results indicate that cleavage at the metalloproteinase and aggrecanase sites are quantitatively important events in aggrecan catabolism in both articular cartilage and intervertebral disc in vivo. Moreover the two enzyme systems act independently and exhibit differences in the degree to which they contribute to aggrecan degradation in these tissues. PMID:9337874

  17. Inward radial transport in differentially rotated plasma discs formed in z-pinch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergey; Bennett, M.; Swadling, G. F.; Suttle, L.; Blackman, E.; Burdiak, G.; Chittenden, J. P.; Ciardi, A.; Drake, R. P.; Frank, A.; Hall, G. N.; Hare, J.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.

    2014-10-01

    We will present experimental results showing the development of instabilities and an inward transport of matter in a differentially rotating supersonic plasma disc with dimensionless parameters relevant to modeling physics of astrophysical discs. The converging off-axis plasma flow forming the disc is produced by ablation of wires in a cylindrical wire array z-pinch (1.4 MA, 250 ns) combined with a cusp magnetic field, and the rotating disc is supported in equilibrium by the ram pressure of the flow. The radial profile of rotation velocity in the disc is measured using Doppler shifts of the ion feature of Thomson scattering spectra, while the broadening of the spectra yields the plasma temperature. The evolution of the disc structure is observed with multi-frame XUV and optical cameras, and the plasma density is measured using end-on laser interferometry. The Reynolds number in the disc is sufficiently large (>105) to allow development of turbulence on the time-scale of the experiment, and the observed inward transport of matter with the growth of small scale structures suggests that turbulence is responsible for the transport.

  18. Effect of Slow Aging Reactions on Optical Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol Prepared by Oxidation of Selected Monoterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizkorodov, S. A.; Bones, D. L.; Henricksen, D. K.; Mang, S. A.; Bateman, A. P.; Pan, X.; Nguyen, T. B.; Gonsior, M.; Cooper, W.; Laskin, J.; Laskin, A.

    2009-05-01

    Organic particulate matter (PM) has a major impact on atmospheric chemistry, climate, and human health. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a rather significant fraction of organic PM; this includes SOA produced by oxidation of biogenically emitted monoterpenes. Once such SOA is formed, it is believed to undergo slow aging processes, which may have large effects on the physical and chemical properties of the particles. This presentation focuses on the effect of slow chemical aging on optical properties of SOA formed from the ozone-induced oxidation of limonene, myrcene, and other selected monoterpenes. Several complementary techniques including high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, FTIR spectroscopy, UV/vis spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy, and photodissociation spectroscopy are used to probe the aging-induced changes in physical properties and chemical composition of laboratory generated SOA. Limonene SOA appears to undergo a dramatic change in its absorption spectrum on a time scale of hours; it develops strong visible bands in the 400-500 nm region, and becomes fluorescent. This transformation is catalyzed by ammonium sulfate and certain amino acids. This rather unusual aging process can potentially contribute to the formation of brown carbon in biogenic SOA.

  19. Effects of age and blood pressure on the retinal arterial wall, analyzed using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Arichika, Shigeta; Uji, Akihito; Ooto, Sotaro; Muraoka, Yuki; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-01-01

    The wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) of the vasculature is a promising early marker of retinal microvascular changes. Recently, adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) enabled direct and noninvasive visualization of the arterial wall. Using AOSLO, we analyzed the correlation between age and WLR in 51 normal subjects. In addition, correlations between blood pressure and WLR were analyzed in 73 subjects (51 normal subjects and 22 hypertensive patients). WLR showed a strong correlation with age (r = 0.68, P < 0.0001), while outer diameter and inner diameter did not show significant correlation with age in the normal group (r = 0.13, P = 0.36 and r = -0.12, P =? .41, respectively). In the normal and hypertensive groups, WLR showed a strong correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.65, P < 0.0001, respectively). In conclusion, AOSLO provided noninvasive and reproducible arterial measurements. WLR is an early marker of morphological changes in the retinal arteries due to age and blood pressure. PMID:26192115

  20. Effects of age and blood pressure on the retinal arterial wall, analyzed using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Arichika, Shigeta; Uji, Akihito; Ooto, Sotaro; Muraoka, Yuki; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-01-01

    The wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) of the vasculature is a promising early marker of retinal microvascular changes. Recently, adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) enabled direct and noninvasive visualization of the arterial wall. Using AOSLO, we analyzed the correlation between age and WLR in 51 normal subjects. In addition, correlations between blood pressure and WLR were analyzed in 73 subjects (51 normal subjects and 22 hypertensive patients). WLR showed a strong correlation with age (r = 0.68, P < 0.0001), while outer diameter and inner diameter did not show significant correlation with age in the normal group (r = 0.13, P = 0.36 and r = −0.12, P = 0.41, respectively). In the normal and hypertensive groups, WLR showed a strong correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.65, P < 0.0001, respectively). In conclusion, AOSLO provided noninvasive and reproducible arterial measurements. WLR is an early marker of morphological changes in the retinal arteries due to age and blood pressure. PMID:26192115

  1. On the Absolute Age of the Metal-rich Globular M71 (NGC 6838). I. Optical Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cecco, A.; Bono, G.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Tognelli, E.; Allard, F.; Stetson, P. B.; Buonanno, R.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Pulone, L.

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the absolute age of the Galactic globular cluster M71 (NGC 6838) using optical ground-based images (u\\prime ,g\\prime ,r\\prime ,i\\prime ,z\\prime ) collected with the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). We performed a robust selection of field and cluster stars by applying a new method based on the 3D (r\\prime ,u\\prime -g\\prime ,g\\prime -r\\prime ) color-color-magnitude diagram. A comparison between the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of the candidate cluster stars and a new set of isochrones at the locus of the main sequence turn-off (MSTO) suggests an absolute age of 12 ± 2 Gyr. The absolute age was also estimated using the difference in magnitude between the MSTO and the so-called main sequence knee, a well-defined bending occurring in the lower main sequence. This feature was originally detected in the near-infrared bands and explained as a consequence of an opacity mechanism (collisionally induced absorption of molecular hydrogen) in the atmosphere of cool low-mass stars. The same feature was also detected in the r‧, u\\prime -g\\prime , and in the r\\prime ,g\\prime -r\\prime CMD, thus supporting previous theoretical predictions by Borysow et al. The key advantage in using the {{{Δ }}}{TO}{Knee} as an age diagnostic is that it is independent of uncertainties affecting the distance, the reddening, and the photometric zero point. We found an absolute age of 12 ± 1 Gyr that agrees, within the errors, with similar age estimates, but the uncertainty is on average a factor of two smaller. We also found that the {{{Δ }}}{TO}{Knee} is more sensitive to the metallicity than the MSTO, but the dependence vanishes when using the difference in color between the MSK and the MSTO.

  2. Magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmeron, Raquel; Wardle, Mark

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the linear growth and vertical structure of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in weakly ionized, stratified accretion discs. The magnetic field is initially vertical and dust grains are assumed to have settled towards the mid-plane, so charges are carried by electrons and ions only. Solutions are obtained at representative radial locations from the central protostar for different choices of the initial magnetic field strength, sources of ionization, disc structure and configuration of the conductivity tensor. The MRI is active over a wide range of magnetic field strengths and fluid conditions in low-conductivity discs. Moreover, no evidence was found of a low-limit field strength below which unstable modes do not exist. For the minimum-mass solar nebula model, incorporating cosmic ray ionization, perturbations grow at 1 au for B<~ 8 G. For a significant subset of these strengths (200mG <~B<~ 5G), the maximum growth rate is of the order of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) rate (0.75?). Hall conductivity modifies the structure and growth rate of global unstable modes at 1 au for all magnetic field strengths that support MRI. As a result, at this radius, modes obtained with a full conductivity tensor grow faster and are active over a more extended cross-section of the disc than perturbations in the ambipolar diffusion limit. For relatively strong fields (e.g. B>~ 200 mG), ambipolar diffusion alters the envelope shapes of the unstable modes, which peak at an intermediate height, instead of being mostly flat as modes in the Hall limit are in this region of parameter space. Similarly, when cosmic rays are assumed to be excluded from the disc by the winds emitted by the magnetically active protostar, unstable modes grow at this radius for B<~ 2 G. For strong fields, perturbations exhibit a kink at the height where X-ray ionization becomes active. Finally, for R= 5 au (10 au), unstable modes exist for B<~ 800 mG (B<~ 250 mG) and the maximum growth rate is close to the ideal-MHD rate for 20 <~B<~ 500 mG (2 <~B<~ 50 mG). Similarly, perturbations incorporating Hall conductivity have a higher wavenumber and grow faster than solutions in the ambipolar diffusion limit for B<~ 100 mG (B<~ 10 mG). Unstable modes grow even at the mid-plane for B>~ 100 mG (B~ 1 mG), but for weaker fields, a small dead region exists. This study shows that, despite the low magnetic coupling, the magnetic field is dynamically important for a large range of fluid conditions and field strengths in protostellar discs. An example of such magnetic activity is the generation of MRI unstable modes, which are supported at 1 au for field strengths up to a few gauss. Hall diffusion largely determines the structure and growth rate of these perturbations for all studied radii. At radii of order 1 au, in particular, it is crucial to incorporate the full conductivity tensor in the analysis of this instability and more generally in studies of the dynamics of astrophysical discs.

  3. High pressures and asymmetrical stresses in the scoliotic disc in the absence of muscle loading

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Adam R; Fairbank, Jeremy CT; Jones, Deborah A; McNally, Donal S; Urban, Jill PG

    2007-01-01

    Background Loads acting on scoliotic spines are thought to be asymmetric and involved in progression of the scoliotic deformity; abnormal loading patterns lead to changes in bone and disc cell activity and hence to vertebral body and disc wedging. At present however there are no direct measurements of intradiscal stresses or pressures in scoliotic spines. The aim of this study was to obtain quantitative measurements of the intradiscal stress environment in scoliotic intervertebral discs and to determine if loads acting across the scoliotic spine are asymmetric. We performed in vivo measurements of stresses across the intervertebral disc in patients with scoliosis, both parallel (termed horizontal) and perpendicular (termed vertical) to the end plate, using a side mounted pressure transducer (stress profilometry) Methods Stress profilometry was used to measure horizontal and vertical stresses at 5 mm intervals across 25 intervertebral discs of 7 scoliotic patients during anterior reconstructive surgery. A state of hydrostatic pressure was defined by identical horizontal and vertical stresses for at least two consecutive readings. Results were compared with similar stress profiles measured during surgery across 10 discs of 4 spines with no lateral curvature and with data from the literature. Results Profiles across scoliotic discs were very different from those of normal, young, healthy discs of equivalent age previously presented in the literature. Hydrostatic pressure regions were only seen in 14/25 discs, extended only over a short distance. Non-scoliotic discs of equivalent age would be expected to show large centrally placed hydrostatic nuclear regions in all discs. Mean pressures were significantly greater (0.25 MPa) than those measured in other anaesthetised patients (<0.07 MPa). A stress peak was seen in the concave annulus in 13/25 discs. Stresses in the concave annulus were greater than in the convex annulus indicating asymmetric loading in these anaesthetised, recumbent patients. Conclusion Intradiscal pressures and stresses in scoliotic discs are abnormal, asymmetrical and high in magnitude even in the absence of significant applied muscle loading. The origin of these abnormal stresses is unclear. PMID:17319969

  4. A miniature fiber optic pressure sensor for intradiscal pressure measurements of rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesson, Silas; Yu, Miao; Hsieh, Adam H.

    2007-04-01

    Lower back pain continues to be a leading cause of disability in people of all ages, and has been associated with degenerative disc disease. It is well accepted that mechanical stress, among other factors, can play a role in the development of disc degeneration. Pressures generated in the intervertebral disc have been measured both in vivo and in vitro for humans and animals. However, thus far it has been difficult to measure pressure experimentally in rodent discs due to their small size. With the prevalent use of rodent tail disc models in mechanobiology, it is important to characterize the intradiscal pressures generated with externally applied stresses. In this paper, a miniature fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometric pressure sensor with an outer diameter of 360 μm was developed to measure intradiscal pressures in rat caudal discs. A low coherence interferometer based optical system was used, which includes a broadband light source, a high-speed spectrometer, and a Fabry-Perot sensor. The sensor employs a capillary tube, a flexible, polymer diaphragm coated with titanium as a partial mirror, and a fiber tip as another mirror. The pressure induced deformation of the diaphragm results in a cavity length change of the Fabry-Perot interferometer which can be calculated from the wavelength shift of interference fringes. The sensor exhibited good linearity with small applied pressures. Our validation experiments show that owing to the small size, inserting the sensor does not disrupt the annulus fibrosus and will not alter intradiscal pressures generated. Measurements also demonstrate the feasibility of using this sensor to quantify external load intradiscal pressure relationships in small animal discs.

  5. Proto-planetary disc evolution and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosotti, Giovanni Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Planets form from gas and dust discs in orbit around young stars. The timescale for planet formation is constrained by the lifetime of these discs. The properties of the formed planetary systems depend thus on the evolution and final dispersal of the discs, which is the main topic of this thesis. Observations reveal the existence of a class of discs called "transitional", which lack dust in their inner regions. They are thought to be the last stage before the complete disc dispersal, and hence they may provide the key to understanding the mechanisms behind disc evolution. X-ray photoevaporation and planet formation have been studied as possible physical mechanisms responsible for the final dispersal of discs. However up to now, these two phenomena have been studied separately, neglecting any possible feedback or interaction. In this thesis we have investigated what is the interplay between these two processes. We show that the presence of a giant planet in a photo-evaporating disc can significantly shorten its lifetime, by cutting the inner regions from the mass reservoir in the exterior of the disc. This mechanism produces transition discs that for a given mass accretion rate have larger holes than in models considering only X-ray photo-evaporation, constituting a possible route to the formation of accreting transition discs with large holes. These discs are found in observations and still constitute a puzzle for the theory. Inclusion of the phenomenon called "thermal sweeping", a violent instability that can destroy a whole disc in as little as 10 4 years, shows that the outer disc left can be very short-lived (depending on the X-ray luminosity of the star), possibly explaining why very few non accreting transition discs are observed. However the mechanism does not seem to be efficient enough to reconcile with observations. In this thesis we also show that X-ray photo-evaporation naturally explains the observed correlation between stellar masses and accretion rates and is therefore the ideal candidate for driving disc evolution. Another process that can influence discs is a close encounter with another star. In this thesis we develop a model to study the effect of stellar dynamics in the natal stellar cluster on the discs, following for the first time at the same time the stellar dynamics together with the evolution of the discs. We find that, although close encounters with stars are unlikely to change significantly the mass of a disc, they can change substantially its size, hence imposing an upper limit on the observed disc radii. Finally, we investigated in this thesis whether discs can be reformed after their dispersal. If a star happens to be in a region that is currently forming stars, it can accrete material from the interstellar medium. This mechanism may result in the production of "second generation" discs such that in a given star forming region a few percent of stars may still possess a disc, in tentative agreement with observations of so called "old accretors", which are difficult to explain within the current paradigm of disc evolution and dispersal.

  6. Reading disc-based bioassays with standard computer drives.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Zhong; Li, Yunchao; Ou, Lily M-L

    2013-02-19

    Traditional methods of disease diagnosis are both time-consuming and labor-intensive, and many tests require expensive instrumentation and trained professionals, which restricts their use to biomedical laboratories. Because patients can wait several days (even weeks) for the results, the consequences of delayed treatment could be disastrous. Therefore, affordable and simple point-of-care (POC) biosensor devices could fill a diagnostic niche in the clinic or even at home, as personal glucose meters do for diabetics. These devices would allow patients to check their own health conditions and enable physicians to make prompt treatment decisions, which could improve the chances for rapid recovery and cure. Compact discs (CDs) provide inexpensive substrate materials for the preparation of microarray biochips, and conventional computer drives/disc players can be adapted as precise optical reading devices for signal processing. Researchers can employ the polycarbonate (PC) base of a CD as an alternative substrate to glass slides or silicon wafers for the preparation of microanalytical devices. Using the characteristic optical phenomena occurring on the metal layer of a CD, researchers can develop biosensors based on advanced spectroscopic readout (interferometry or surface plasmon resonance). If researchers integrate microfluidic functions with CD mechanics, they can control fluid transfer through the spinning motion of the disc, leading to "lab-on-a-CD" devices. Over the last decade, our laboratory has focused on the construction of POC biosensor devices from off-the-shelf CDs or DVDs and standard computer drives. Besides the initial studies of the suitability of CDs for surface and materials chemistry research (fabrication of self-assembled monolayers and oxide nanostructures), we have demonstrated that an ordinary optical drive, without modification of either the hardware or the software driver, can function as the signal transducing element for reading disc-based bioassays quantitatively. In this Account, we first provide a brief introduction to CD-related materials chemistry and microfluidics research. Then we describe the mild chemistry developed in our laboratory for the preparation of computer-readable biomolecular screening assays: photochemical activation of the polycarbonate (PC) disc surface and immobilization and delivery of probe and target biomolecules. We thoroughly discuss the analysis of the molecular recognition events: researchers can "read" these devices quantitatively with an unmodified optical drive of any personal computer. Finally, and critically, we illustrate our digitized molecular diagnosis approach with three trial systems: DNA hybridization, antibody-antigen binding, and ultrasensitive lead detection with a DNAzyme assay. These examples demonstrate the broad potential of this new analytical/diagnostic tool for medical screening, on-site food/water safety testing, and remote environmental monitoring. PMID:23025412

  7. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional fibrillar collagen microstructure within the normal, aged and glaucomatous human optic nerve head

    PubMed Central

    Jones, H. J.; Girard, M. J.; White, N.; Fautsch, M. P.; Morgan, J. E.; Ethier, C. R.; Albon, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify connective tissue fibre orientation and alignment in young, old and glaucomatous human optic nerve heads (ONH) to understand ONH microstructure and predisposition to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Transverse (seven healthy, three glaucomatous) and longitudinal (14 healthy) human ONH cryosections were imaged by both second harmonic generation microscopy and small angle light scattering (SALS) in order to quantify preferred fibre orientation (PFO) and degree of fibre alignment (DOFA). DOFA was highest within the peripapillary sclera (ppsclera), with relatively low values in the lamina cribrosa (LC). Elderly ppsclera DOFA was higher than that in young ppsclera (p < 0.00007), and generally higher than in glaucoma ppsclera. In all LCs, a majority of fibres had preferential orientation horizontally across the nasaltemporal axis. In all glaucomatous LCs, PFO was significantly different from controls in a minimum of seven out of 12 LC regions (p < 0.05). Additionally, higher fibre alignment was observed in the glaucomatous inferiortemporal LC (p < 0.017). The differences between young and elderly ONH fibre alignment within regions suggest that age-related microstructural changes occur within the structure. The additional differences in fibre alignment observed within the glaucomatous LC may reflect an inherent susceptibility to glaucomatous optic neuropathy, or may be a consequence of ONH remodelling and/or collapse. PMID:25808336

  8. The pseudo-photosphere model for the continuum emission of gaseous discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, R. G.; Carciofi, A. C.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the continuum emission of viscous decretion discs around Be stars in this paper. The results obtained from non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) radiative transfer models show two regimes in the disc surface brightness profile: an inner optically thick region, which behaves as a pseudo-photosphere with a wavelength-dependent size, and an optically thin tenuous outer part, which contributes with about a third of the total flux. The isophotal shape of the surface brightness is well described by elliptical contours with an axial ratio b/a = cos i for inclinations i < 75. Based on these properties, a semi-analytical model was developed to describe the continuum emission of gaseous discs. It provides fluxes and spectral slopes at the infrared within an accuracy of 10 and 5 per cent, respectively, when compared to the numerical results. The model indicates that the infrared spectral slope is mainly determined by both the density radial slope and the disc flaring exponent, being practically independent of disc inclination and base density. As a first application, the density structure of 15 Be stars was investigated, based on the infrared flux excess, and the results compared to previous determinations in the literature. Our results indicate that the decretion rates are in the range of 10-12-10-9 M? yr-1, which is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous outflowing disc model predictions.

  9. Factors regulating viable cell density in the intervertebral disc: blood supply in relation to disc height

    PubMed Central

    Boubriak, Olga A; Watson, Natasha; Sivan, Sarit S; Stubbens, Naomi; Urban, Jill P G

    2013-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is an avascular tissue, maintained by a small population of cells that obtain nutrients mainly by diffusion from capillaries at the disc–vertebral body interface. Loss of this nutrient supply is thought to lead to disc degeneration, but how nutrient supply influences viable cell density is unclear. We investigated two factors that influence nutrient delivery to disc cells and hence cell viability: disc height and blood supply. We used bovine caudal discs as our model as these show a gradation in disc height. We found that although disc height varied twofold from the largest to the smallest disc studied, it had no significant effect on cell density, unlike the situation found in articular cartilage. The density of blood vessels supplying the discs was markedly greater for the largest disc than the smallest disc, as was the density of pores allowing capillary penetration through the bony endplate. Results indicate that changes in blood vessels in the vertebral bodies supplying the disc, as well as changes in endplate architecture appear to influence density of cells in intervertebral discs. PMID:23311982

  10. A SCUBA-2 850-μm survey of protoplanetary discs in the σ Orionis cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan P.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Coulson, Iain M.; Barger, Amy J.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Cowie, Lennox L.; Koss, Michael; Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, David B.

    2013-10-01

    We present the results from a large 850-μm survey of the σ Orionis cluster using the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The 0.5° diameter circular region we surveyed contains 297 young stellar objects with an age estimated at about 3 Myr. We detect nine of these objects, eight of which have infrared excesses from an inner disc. We also serendipitously detect three non-stellar sources at >5σ that are likely background submillimetre galaxies. The nine detected stars have inferred disc masses ranging from 5 to about 17 MJup, assuming similar dust properties as Taurus discs and an interstellar medium gas-to-dust ratio of 100. There is a net positive signal towards the positions of the individually undetected infrared excess sources indicating a mean disc mass of 0.5 MJup. Stacking the emission towards those stars without infrared excesses constrains their mean disc mass to less than 0.3 MJup, or an equivalent Earth mass in dust. The submillimetre luminosity distribution is significantly different from that in the younger Taurus region, indicating disc mass evolution as star-forming regions age and the infrared excess fraction decreases. Submillimetre Array observations reveal CO emission towards four sources demonstrating that some, but probably not much, molecular gas remains in these relatively evolved discs. These observations provide new constraints on the dust and gas mass of protoplanetary discs during the giant planet building phase and provide a reference level for future studies of disc evolution.

  11. Searching for signatures of planet formation in stars with circumstellar debris discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Eiroa, C.; Villaver, E.; Montesinos, B.; Mora, A.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Tentative correlations between the presence of dusty circumstellar debris discs and low-mass planets have recently been presented. In parallel, detailed chemical abundance studies have reported different trends between samples of planet and non-planet hosts. Whether these chemical differences are indeed related to the presence of planets is still strongly debated. Aims: We aim to test whether solar-type stars with debris discs show any chemical peculiarity that could be related to the planet formation process. Methods: We determine in a homogeneous way the metallicity, [Fe/H], and abundances of individual elements of a sample of 251 stars including stars with known debris discs, stars harbouring simultaneously debris discs and planets, stars hosting exclusively planets, and a comparison sample of stars without known discs or planets. High-resolution échelle spectra (R ~ 57 000) from 2-3 m class telescopes are used. Our methodology includes the calculation of the fundamental stellar parameters (Teff, log g, microturbulent velocity, and metallicity) by applying the iron ionisation and equilibrium conditions to several isolated Fe i and Fe ii lines, as well as individual abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. Results: No significant differences have been found in metallicity, individual abundances or abundance-condensation temperature trends between stars with debris discs and stars with neither debris nor planets. Stars with debris discs and planets have the same metallicity behaviour as stars hosting planets, and they also show a similar ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC trend. Different behaviour in the ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC trends is found between the samples of stars without planets and the samples of planet hosts. In particular, when considering only refractory elements, negative slopes are shown in cool giant planet hosts, whilst positive ones are shown in stars hosting low-mass planets. The statistical significance of the derived slopes is low, however, probably because of the wide range of stellar parameters of our samples. Stars hosting exclusively close-in giant planets behave in a different way, showing higher metallicities and positive ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC slope. A search for correlations between the ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC slopes and the stellar properties reveals a moderate but significant correlation with the stellar radius and a weak correlation with the stellar age, which remain even if Galactic chemical evolution effects are considered. No correlation between the ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC slopes and the disc/planet properties are found. Conclusions: The fact that stars with debris discs and stars with low-mass planets do not show either metal enhancement or a different ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC trend might indicate a correlation between the presence of debris discs and the presence of low-mass planets. We extend results from previous works based mainly on solar analogues with reported differences in the ⟨[ X/Fe ] ⟩ - TC trends between planet hosts and non-hosts to a wider range of parameters. However, these differences tend to be present only when the star hosts a cool distant planet and not in stars hosting exclusively low-mass planets. The interpretation of these differences as a signature of planetary formation should be considered with caution since moderate correlations between the TC-slopes with the stellar radius and the stellar age are found, suggesting that an evolutionary effect might be at work. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC); observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica); observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias; observations made at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community; and data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility.Full Tables 2 and 3, Table 11, and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org .

  12. Kilovoltage stereotactic radiosurgery for age-related macular degeneration: assessment of optic nerve dose and patient effective dose.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Justin; Lee, Choonsik; Chell, Erik; Gertner, Michael; Hansen, Steven; Howell, Roger W; Bolch, Wesley E

    2009-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause for vision loss for people over the age of 65 in the United States and a major health problem worldwide. Research for new treatments of the wet form of the disease using kilovoltage stereotactic radiosurgery is currently underway at Oraya Therapeutics, Inc. In the present study, the authors extend their previous computational stylized model of a single treated eye [Med. Phys. 35, 5151-5160 (2008)] to include full NURBS-based reference head phantoms of the adult male and female using anatomical data from ICRP Publication 89. The treatment was subsequently modeled in MCNPX 2.5 using a 1 x 1 x 1 mm3 voxelized version of the NURBS models. These models incorporated several organs of interest including the brain, thyroid, salivary glands, cranium, mandible, and cervical vertebrae. A higher resolution eye section at 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm3 voxel resolution was extracted from the head phantoms to model smaller eye structures including the macula target, cornea, lens, vitreous humor, sclera/retina layer, and optic nerve. Due to lack of literature data on optic nerve pathways, a CT imaging study was undertaken to quantify the anatomical position of the optic nerve. The average absorbed doses to the organs of interest were below generally accepted thresholds for radiation safety. The estimated effective dose was 0.28 mSv which is comparable to diagnostic procedures such as a head radiograph and a factor of 10 lower than a head CT scan. PMID:19746800

  13. Eddy current braking experiment using brake disc from aluminium series of A16061 and A17075

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baharom, M. Z.; Nuawi, M. Z.; Priyandoko, G.; Harris, S. M.

    2012-09-01

    The electromagnetic braking using eddy current was studied, focused on two series of aluminium as the brake disc which are A16061 and A17075. This paper presents the comparison for both series in a few varied parameters related to eddy current braking such as air-gap, number of turns and brake disc thickness. Optical tachometer has been used along with PULSE analyzer to capture the speed (rpm) and time (s). The findings shows that the smaller the air-gap, the larger of electromagnet turns and the thicker disc thickness is, will generate higher braking torque to stop the rotational motion of disc brake and give great performance for eddy current braking. Thos parameters that been evaluated also addressed a potential on expanding this knowledge to develop an electromagnetic braking system to replace the conventional braking system.

  14. High-Resolution Imaging of the Optic Nerve and Retina in Optic Nerve Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pilat, Anastasia; Sibley, Daniel; McLean, Rebecca J.; Proudlock, Frank A.; Gottlob, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the optic nerve and macular morphology in patients with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Design Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Subjects A total of 16 participants with ONH (10 female and 6 male; mean age, 17.2 years; 6 bilateral involvement) and 32 gender-, age-, ethnicity-, and refraction-matched healthy controls. Methods High-resolution SD OCT (Copernicus [Optopol Technology S.A., Zawiercie, Poland], 3 ?m resolution) and handheld SD OCT (Bioptigen Inc [Research Triangle Park, NC], 2.6 ?m resolution) devices were used to acquire horizontal scans through the center of the optic disc and macula. Main Outcome Measures Horizontal optic disc/cup and rim diameters, cup depth, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and thickness of individual retinal layers in participants with ONH and in controls. Results Patients with ONH had significantly smaller discs (P < 0.03 and P < 0.001 compared with unaffected eye and healthy controls, respectively), horizontal cup diameter (P < 0.02 for both), and cup depth (P<0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively). In the macula, significantly thinner RNFL (nasally), ganglion cell layer (GCL) (nasally and temporally), inner plexiform layer (IPL) (nasally), outer nuclear layer (ONL) (nasally), and inner segment (centrally and temporally) were found in patients with ONH compared with the control group (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Continuation of significantly thicker GCL, IPL, and outer plexiform layer in the central retinal area (i.e., foveal hypoplasia) was found in more than 80% of patients with ONH. Clinically unaffected fellow eyes of patients with ONH showed mild features of underdevelopment. Visual acuity and presence of septo-optic dysplasia were associated with changes in GCL and IPL. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of ONH based on disc and retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters were >80%. Conclusions Our study provides evidence of retinal changes in ONH. In addition to thinning of retina layers mainly involving the RNFL and GCL, signs reminiscent of foveal hypoplasia were observed in patients with ONH. Optic nerve and foveal parameters measured using OCT showed high sensitivity and specificity for detecting ONH, demonstrating their useful for clinical diagnosis. PMID:25939636

  15. Effect of phlorizin on sugar uptake by broadbean leaf discs. [Vica faba L

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine, R.; Delrot, S.

    1986-04-01

    Phlorizin is a competitive inhibitor of Na/sup +//glucose symport in animal cells and of H/sup +//3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MeG) symport in liverworts. The effects of this compound on the uptake of (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose and of (/sup 14/C) 3-O-MeG by broadbean (Vicia faba L.) leaf discs were studied. Leaf discs without lower epidermis were preincubated in the dark for 30 min (fresh discs) or for 12 h (aged discs) on a medium buffered at pH 5.0 containing mannitol as an osmoticum. They were then incubated for 30 min in the light on a similar solution added with 1 mM (/sup 14/C) sucrose or (/sup 14/C) 3-O-MeG and 5 mM phlorizin. Phlorizin inhibited uptake of 3-O-MeG by 37 and 50% respectively in fresh and aged discs. Sucrose uptake was more sensitive to the inhibitor than 3-O-MeG uptake and was also more inhibited in aged than in fresh discs (76% inhibition vs 54%). Kinetic studies showed that the inhibition exerted by phlorizin in fresh material is of competitive type both for sucrose and for 3-O-MeG uptake. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that the inhibitor did not affect the transmembrane potential difference of parenchyma cells within 30 min. The data suggest that phlorizin can be recognized by the hexose and by the sucrose carrier of leaf cells.

  16. Age-Related Differences in Longitudinal Structural Change by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Early Experimental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongli; He, Lin; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Reynaud, Juan; Williams, Galen; Hardin, Christy; Strouthidis, Nicholas G.; Downs, J. Crawford; Fortune, Brad; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize age-related differences in the magnitude of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) structural change in early experimental glaucoma (EG). Methods. Both eyes from four young (1.42.6 years) and four old (18.621.9 years) rhesus monkeys were imaged at least three times at baseline, and then every 2 weeks after laser-induced, chronic, unilateral IOP elevation until the onset of EG (confocal scanning laser tomographic surface change confirmed twice). Two to 20 weeks after EG onset, animals were euthanized and optic nerve axon counts for all eyes were performed. Masked operators delineated retinal and ONH landmarks in 40 radial B-scans from each eye and imaging session to quantify change from baseline in five SD-OCT neural and connective tissue parameters. The effects of EG, age, and EG age interactions on the magnitude, rate (magnitude per postlaser time), and IOP responsiveness (magnitude per cumulative IOP insult) of postlaser parameter change were individually assessed using general estimating equation models. Results. Presac SD-OCT RNFLT and minimum rim width change and postmortem axon loss was not significantly different in old compared with young EG eyes. The rate of change and IOP responsiveness of the parameters anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth relative to Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and BMO depth relative to peripheral Bruch's membrane were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the old compared with the young EG eyes. Conclusions. At similar postlaser times, levels of cumulative IOP insult and axonal damage, SD-OCTdetected ONH connective tissue structural change is greater in young compared with old monkey EG eyes. PMID:25190652

  17. Close-packing of growing discs

    SciTech Connect

    Bursill, L.A.; Xudong, F. . School of Physics)

    1988-12-01

    Spiral lattices are derived by allowing growing discs to aggregate under a close-packing rule. Both Fibonacci and Lucas numbers of visible spirals arise naturally, dependent only on the choice of growth centre. Both the rate of convergence towards an ideal spiral, and chirality, are determined by the initial placement of the first few discs (initial conditions). Thus the appearance of spiral packings is no more or less mysterious than the appearance of hexagonal packed arrays of equal discs.

  18. Application of Optical Diagnosis to Aged Low-Voltage Cable Insulation in Nuclear Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, Junichi; Takezawa, Yoshitaka; Shouji, Hiroshi

    We have developed a novel non-destructive optical diagnosis technique for low-voltage cable insulations used in nuclear power plants. The key features of this diagnosis are the use of two wavelengths to measure the change in reflective absorbance (?AR), the use of polarized light to measure crystallinity and the use of element volatilizing to measure fluorescence. Chemical kinetics is used to predict the lifetimes of the cable insulations. When cable insulations darken and harden by time degradation, the ?AR and depolarization parameters increase. This means that the cross-linking density in the cable insulations increases due to deterioration reactions. When the cross-linking density of insulation increases, its elasticity, corresponding to the material's life, increases. Similarly, as the crystallinity increases due to the change in the high-order structure of the insulating resin caused by irradiation, its elongation property decreases. The elongation property of insulation is one of the most important parameters that can be used to evaluate material lifetimes, because it relates to elasticity. The ?AR correlated with the elongation property, and the correlation coefficient of an accelerated experiment using model pieces was over 0.9. Thus, we concluded that this optical diagnosis should be applied to evaluate the degradation of cable insulations used in nuclear power plants.

  19. Vertebral height growth predominates over intervertebral disc height growth in adolescents with scoliosis.

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Ian A.F.; Windisch, Luke

    2006-01-01

    Study Design A cross sectional study of spinal stereo radiographs of adolescents with scoliosis to measure growth. Objective To determine the relative contributions of the vertebral bodies and the intervertebral discs to the increase in spinal length between T5 to L5 over the age range 7.5 to 20 years. Summary of Background Data The progression of spinal deformity (scoliosis) is associated with skeletal growth, but the relative roles of asymmetrical growth and remodelling of the vertebrae and discs during adolescent growth is unclear. Methods An existing database of 406 spinal stereo radiographic studies of 188 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, aged between 7.5 and 20 years was used to measure the heights of vertebral bodies and of intervertebral discs and the summation of both (spinal length). Results Spinal length was observed to increase from about 250 mm to 350 mm over this range of ages. Spinal growth was associated with increase in vertebral height after age 10 years, with minimal if any increase in disc height. The contribution of vertebral and discal height was estimated to be about 17 and 8 mm per year respectively at age 7.5 years, but discal height growth was estimated to be effectively zero after age 12. Conclusion Spinal growth of patients with scoliosis aged between 10 and 20 years occurs almost exclusively by height increases in the vertebrae, not the discs. Mini-Abstract Spinal length over the range T5 to L5, and its components due to vertebral height and discal height were measured from 406 spinal stereo radiographic studies of 188 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, aged between 7.5 and 20 years. This cross-sectional analysis indicated that after age 10 years spinal growth was associated with increase in vertebral height, with minimal if any increase in disc height. PMID:16778695

  20. A disc inside the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykou, F.; Chesneau, O.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Lagadec, E.; Balick, B.; Smith, N.

    2011-03-01

    Aims: Bipolarity in proto-planetary and planetary nebulae is associated with events occurring in or around their cores. Past infrared observations have revealed the presence of dusty structures around the cores, many in the form of discs. Characterising those dusty discs provides invaluable constraints on the physical processes that govern the final mass expulsion of intermediate mass stars. We focus this study on the famous M2-9 bipolar nebula, where the moving lighthouse beam pattern indicates the presence of a wide binary. The compact and dense dusty core in the centre of the nebula can be studied by means of optical interferometry. Methods: M2-9 was observed with VLTI/MIDI at 39-47 m baselines with the UT2-UT3 and UT3-UT4 baseline configurations. These observations are interpreted using a dust radiative transfer Monte Carlo code. Results: A disc-like structure is detected perpendicular to the lobes, and a good fit is found with a stratified disc model composed of amorphous silicates. The disc is compact, 25 35 mas at 8 ?m and 37 46 mas at 13 ?m. For the adopted distance of 1.2 kpc, the inner rim of the disc is ~15 AU. The mass represents a few percent of the mass found in the lobes. The compactness of the disc puts strong constraints on the binary content of the system, given an estimated orbital period 90-120 yr. We derive masses of the binary components between 0.6-1.0 M? for a white dwarf and 0.6-1.4 M? for an evolved star. We present different scenarios on the geometric structure of the disc accounting for the interactions of the binary system, which includes an accretion disc as well. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, ESO N: 079.D-146.

  1. Total Disc Replacement in Lumbar Degenerative Disc Diseases.

    PubMed

    Park, Chun Kun

    2015-11-01

    More than 10 years have passed since lumbar total disc replacement (LTDR) was introduced for the first time to the world market for the surgical management of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). It seems like the right time to sum up the relevant results in order to understand where LTDR stands on now, and is heading forward to. The pathogenesis of DDD has been currently settled, but diagnosis and managements are still controversial. Fusion is recognized as golden standard of surgical managements but has various kinds of shortcomings. Lately, LTDR has been expected to replace fusion surgery. A great deal of LTDR reports has come out. Among them, more than 5-year follow-up prospective randomized controlled studies including USA IDE trials were expected to elucidate whether for LTDR to have therapeutic benefit compared to fusion. The results of these studies revealed that LTDR was not inferior to fusion. Most of clinical studies dealing with LTDR revealed that there was no strong evidence for preventive effect of LTDR against symptomatic degenerative changes of adjacent segment disease. LTDR does not have shortcomings associated with fusion. However, it has a potentiality of the new complications to occur, which surgeons have never experienced in fusion surgeries. Consequently, longer follow-up should be necessary as yet to confirm the maintenance of improved surgical outcome and to observe any very late complications. LTDR still may get a chance to establish itself as a substitute of fusion both nominally and virtually if it eases the concerns listed above. PMID:26713139

  2. Total Disc Replacement in Lumbar Degenerative Disc Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    More than 10 years have passed since lumbar total disc replacement (LTDR) was introduced for the first time to the world market for the surgical management of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). It seems like the right time to sum up the relevant results in order to understand where LTDR stands on now, and is heading forward to. The pathogenesis of DDD has been currently settled, but diagnosis and managements are still controversial. Fusion is recognized as golden standard of surgical managements but has various kinds of shortcomings. Lately, LTDR has been expected to replace fusion surgery. A great deal of LTDR reports has come out. Among them, more than 5-year follow-up prospective randomized controlled studies including USA IDE trials were expected to elucidate whether for LTDR to have therapeutic benefit compared to fusion. The results of these studies revealed that LTDR was not inferior to fusion. Most of clinical studies dealing with LTDR revealed that there was no strong evidence for preventive effect of LTDR against symptomatic degenerative changes of adjacent segment disease. LTDR does not have shortcomings associated with fusion. However, it has a potentiality of the new complications to occur, which surgeons have never experienced in fusion surgeries. Consequently, longer follow-up should be necessary as yet to confirm the maintenance of improved surgical outcome and to observe any very late complications. LTDR still may get a chance to establish itself as a substitute of fusion both nominally and virtually if it eases the concerns listed above. PMID:26713139

  3. An infinite family of generalized Kalnajs discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzlez, Guillermo A.; Reina, Jerson I.

    2006-10-01

    An infinite family of axially symmetric thin discs of finite radius is presented. The family of discs is obtained by means of a method developed by Hunter and contains, as its first member, the Kalnajs disc. The surface densities of the discs present a maximum at the centre of the disc and then decrease smoothly to zero at the edge, in such a way that the mass distribution of the higher members of the family is more concentrated at the centre. The first member of the family has a circular velocity proportional to the radius, thus representing a uniformly rotating disc. On the other hand, the circular velocities of the other members of the family increase from a value of zero at the centre of the discs to a maximum and then decrease smoothly to a finite value at the edge of the discs, in such a way that, for the higher members of the family, the maximum value of the circular velocity is attained nearest the centre of the discs.

  4. On the evolution of the protolunar disc.

    PubMed

    Ward, William R

    2014-09-13

    The structure and viscous evolution of a post-impact, protolunar disc is examined. The equations for a silicate disc in two-phase (vapour-liquid) equilibrium are employed to derive an analytical solution to vertical structure. Both a vertically mixed phase disc and a stratified disc, where a magma layer exists in the mid-plane surrounded by a vapour reservoir, are considered. The former largely reproduces the low gas mass fraction, x≪1, profiles of the disc described in earlier literature that proposed that the disc would hover on the brink of gravitational instability. In the latter, the vapour layer has x∼1 and is generally gravitationally stable, while the magma layer is vigorously unstable. The viscous evolution of the stratified model is then explored. Initially, the disc quickly settles to a quasi-steady state with a vapour reservoir containing the majority of the disc mass. The magma layer viscously spreads on a time scale of approximately 3-4 years, during which vapour continuously condenses into droplets that settle to the mid-plane, maintaining the magma surface density in spite of disc spreading. Material flowing inwards is accreted by the Earth; material flowing outwards past the Roche boundary can become incorporated into accreting moonlets. This evolution persists until the vapour reservoir is depleted in approximately 50-100 years, depending on its initial mass. PMID:25114314

  5. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama Desert, in Chile, as well as several other telescopes, including STFC's UKIRT. The standard picture of the accretion disc is therefore vindicated. The authors believe that further measurements could eventually provide valuable insight into how and where the disc ends, and how material is being supplied to the disc.

  6. Crown Gall Tumor Disc Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Galsky, Alan G.; Wilsey, James P.; Powell, Richard G.

    1980-01-01

    Seventeen samples consisting of purified compounds and various ethanol extracts from plant sources were tested for activity on the initiation of crown gall tumors on potato discs. The results demonstrated definite correlation between the ability of these samples to inhibit the formation of crown gall tumors and their activity on the P388 leukemia system in mice. Samples showing only cytotoxic effects in KB cell cultures did not affect tumor initiation in our system. The active materials had no effects on bacterial viability or on the ability of the bacteria to attach to a tumorbinding site. PMID:16661157

  7. Laser microbeams for DNA damage induction, optical tweezers for the search on blood pressure relaxing drugs: contributions to ageing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigaravicius, P.; Monajembashi, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Altenberg, B.; Greulich, K. O.

    2009-08-01

    One essential cause of human ageing is the accumulation of DNA damages during lifetime. Experimental studies require quantitative induction of damages and techniques to visualize the subsequent DNA repair. A new technique, the "immuno fluorescent comet assay", is used to directly visualize DNA damages in the microscope. Using DNA repair proteins fluorescently labeled with green fluorescent protein, it could be shown that the repair of the most dangerous DNA double strand breaks starts with the inaccurate "non homologous end joining" pathway and only after 1 - 1 ½ minutes may switch to the more accurate "homologous recombination repair". One might suggest investigating whether centenarians use "homologous recombination repair" differently from those ageing at earlier years and speculate whether it is possible, for example by nutrition, to shift DNA repair to a better use of the error free pathway and thus promote healthy ageing. As a complementary technique optical tweezers, and particularly its variant "erythrocyte mediated force application", is used to simulate the effects of blood pressure on HUVEC cells representing the inner lining of human blood vessels. Stimulating one cell induces in the whole neighbourhood waves of calcium and nitric oxide, known to relax blood vessels. NIFEDIPINE and AMLODIPINE, both used as drugs in the therapy of high blood pressure, primarily a disease of the elderly, prolong the availability of nitric oxide. This partially explains their mode of action. In contrast, VERAPAMILE, also a blood pressure reducing drug, does not show this effect, indicating that obviously an alternative mechanism must be responsible for vessel relaxation.

  8. Radiological follow-up results of untreated anterior disc displacement without reduction in adults.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Z; Cai, X Y

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the radiographic changes in untreated adults with bilateral anterior disc displacement without reduction. A cohort study was designed to compare the bone changes, effusion, disc configuration, and pseudo-disc changes on two magnetic resonance images obtained at least 24 months apart. Twenty-eight patients (22 female, six male) with a mean age of 33.1 years (range 20-57 years) were included. The mean interval between the initial visit and the follow-up visit was 36.2 months. At the initial visit, the frequencies of bone changes, effusion, disc deformation, and pseudo-disc changes were 51.79%, 35.71%, 100%, and 0%, respectively. At follow-up, the frequency of effusion had decreased significantly. The frequency of bone changes had increased significantly to 75%, but newly formed cortical bone was present in five condyles. All discs remained deformed. Pseudo-disc changes were detected in five joints. Over a long period of observation, there was a significant decrease in effusion and a significant increase in bone changes. However, some adaptive changes occurred. PMID:26682646

  9. Use of adipose stem cells and polylactide discs for tissue engineering of the temporomandibular joint disc

    PubMed Central

    Mäenpää, Katja; Ellä, Ville; Mauno, Jari; Kellomäki, Minna; Suuronen, Riitta; Ylikomi, Timo; Miettinen, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    There is currently no suitable replacement for damaged temporomandibular joint (TMJ) discs after discectomy. In the present study, we fabricated bilayer biodegradable polylactide (PLA) discs comprising a non-woven mat of poly(L/D)lactide (P(L/D)LA) 96/4 and a P(L/DL)LA 70/30 membrane plate. The PLA disc was examined in combination with adipose stem cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering of the fibrocartilaginous TMJ disc in vitro. ASCs were cultured in parallel in control and chondrogenic medium for a maximum of six weeks. Relative expression of the genes, aggrecan, type I collagen and type II collagen present in the TMJ disc extracellular matrix increased in the ASC-seeded PLA discs in the chondrogenic medium. The hypertrophic marker, type X collagen, was moderately induced. Alcian blue staining showed accumulation of sulphated glycosaminoglycans. ASC differentiation in the PLA discs was close to that observed in pellet cultures. Comparison of the mRNA levels revealed that the degree of ASC differentiation was lower than that in TMJ disc-derived cells and tissue. The pellet format supported the phenotype of the TMJ disc-derived cells under chondrogenic conditions and also enhanced their hyalinization potential, which is considered part of the TMJ disc degeneration process. Accordingly, the combination of ASCs and PLA discs has potential for the development of a tissue-engineered TMJ disc replacement. PMID:19474082

  10. Maternal immune activation during gestation interacts with Disc1 point mutation to exacerbate schizophrenia-related behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Lipina, Tatiana V; Zai, Clement; Hlousek, Daniela; Roder, John C; Wong, Albert H C

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia is thought to result from interactions between susceptible genotypes and environmental risk factors. DISC1 is an important gene for schizophrenia and mood disorders based on both human and animal studies. In the present study we sought to investigate interactions between two distinct point mutations in the mouse Disc1 gene (L100P and Q31L) and maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (polyI:C). PolyI:C given at 5 mg/kg impaired cognitive and social behavior in both wild-type (WT) and Disc1-Q31L(+/-) offspring, and reduced prepulse inhibition at 16 but not 8 weeks of age. Disc1-L100P(+/-) mutants were more sensitive to MIA than WT or Disc1-Q31L(+/-) mice. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a critical cytokine for mediating the behavioral and transcriptional effects of polyI:C. We found a more pronounced increase of IL-6 in response to polyI:C in fetal brain in Disc1-L100P(+/-) mice compared with WT or Disc1-Q31L(+/-) mice. Coadministration of an anti-IL-6 antibody with polyI:C reversed schizophrenia-related behavioral phenotypes in Disc1-L100P(+/-) mice. In summary, we found specific interactions between discrete genetic (Disc1-L100P(+/-)) and environmental factors (MIA) that exacerbate schizophrenia-related phenotypes. IL-6 may be important in the pathophysiology of this interaction. PMID:23637159

  11. Radiation thermo-chemical models of protoplanetary discs. IV. Modelling CO ro-vibrational emission from Herbig Ae discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Woitke, P.; van der Plas, G.; Bertelsen, R.; Wiesenfeld, L.

    2013-03-01

    Context. The carbon monoxide (CO) ro-vibrational emission from discs around Herbig Ae stars and T Tauri stars with strong ultraviolet emissions suggests that fluorescence pumping from the ground X1Σ+ to the electronic A1Π state of CO should be taken into account in disc models. Aims: We wish to understand the excitation mechanism of CO ro-vibrational emission seen in Herbig Ae discs, in particular in transitions involving highly excited rotational and vibrational levels. Methods: We implemented a CO model molecule that includes up to 50 rotational levels within nine vibrational levels for the ground and A-excited states in the radiative-photochemical code ProDiMo. We took CO collisions with hydrogen molecules (H2), hydrogen atoms (H), helium (He), and electrons into account. We estimated the missing collision rates using standard scaling laws and discussed their limitations. We tested the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence pumping for the population of high-vibrational levels (v = 1-9, J = 1-50) for four Herbig Ae disc models (disc mass Mdisc = 10-2, 10-4 and inner radius Rdisc = 1, 20 AU). We tested the effect of infrared (IR) pumping on the CO vibrational temperature and the rotational population in the ground vibrational level. Results: UV fluorescence and IR pumping impact on the population of ro-vibrational v > 1 levels. The v = 1 rotational levels are populated at rotational temperatures between the radiation temperature around 4.6 μm and the gas kinetic temperature. The UV pumping efficiency increases with decreasing disc mass. The consequence is that the vibrational temperatures Tvib, which measure the relative populations between the vibrational levels, are higher than the disc gas kinetic temperatures (suprathermal population of the vibrational levels). The effect is more important for low-density gases because of lower collisional de-excitations.The UV pumping is more efficient for low-mass (Mdisc < 10-3 M⊙) than high-mass (Mdisc > 10-3 M⊙) discs. Rotational temperatures from fundamental transitions derived using optically thick 12CO v = 1 - 0 lines do not reflect the gas kinetic temperature. Uncertainties in the rate coefficients within an order of magnitude result in variations in the CO line fluxes up to 20%. CO pure rotational levels with energies lower than 1000 K are populated in local thermodynamic equilibrium but are sensitive to a number of vibrational levels included in the model. The 12CO pure rotational lines are highly optically thick for transition from levels up to Eupper = 2000 K. The model line fluxes are comparable with the observed line fluxes from typical Herbig Ae low- and high-mass discs. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Effectiveness of percutaneous laser disc decompression versus conventional open discectomy in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation; design of a prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Patrick A; Peul, Wilco C; Brand, Ronald; Arts, Mark P; Koes, Bart W; Berg, Annette A van den; van Buchem, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Background The usual surgical treatment of refractory sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation, is open discectomy. Minimally invasive procedures, including percutaneous therapies under local anesthesia, are increasingly gaining attention. One of these treatments is Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD). This treatment can be carried out in an outpatient setting and swift recovery and return to daily routine are suggested. Thus far, no randomized trial into cost-effectiveness of PLDD versus standard surgical procedure has been performed. We present the design of a randomized controlled trial, studying the cost-effectiveness of PLDD versus conventional open discectomy in patients with sciatica from lumbar disc herniation. Methods/design The study is a randomized prospective multi-center trial, in which two treatment strategies are compared in a parallel group design. Patients (age 1870 years) visiting the neurosurgery department of the participating hospitals, are considered for inclusion in the trial when sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation has lasted more than 8 weeks. Patients with disc herniation smaller than 1/3 of the spinal canal diameter, without concomitant lateral recess stenosis or sequestration, are eligible for participation, and are randomized into one of two treatment arms; either Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression or conventional discectomy. The functional outcome of the patient, as assessed by the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica at 8 weeks and 1 year after treatment, is the primary outcome measure. The secondary outcome parameters are recovery as perceived by the patient, leg and back pain, incidence of re-intervention, complications, quality of life, medical consumption, absence of work and secondary costs. Discussion Open discectomy is still considered to be the golden standard in the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Whether Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression has at least as much efficacy as the standard surgical procedure, and is more cost-effective, will be determined by this trial. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25884790. PMID:19439098

  13. Theory of Black Hole Accretion Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, Marek A.; Bjrnsson, Gunnlaugur; Pringle, James E.

    2010-08-01

    Part I. Observations of Black Holes: 1. Black holes in our Galaxy: observations P. Charles; 2. Black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei: observations G. M. Madejski; Part II. Physics Close to a Black Hole: 3. Physics of black holes I. D. Novikov; 4. Physics of black hole accretion M. A. Abramowicz; Part III. Turbulence, Viscosity: 5. Disc turbulence and viscosity A. Brandenburg; Part IV. Radiative Processes: 6. The role of electron-positron pairs in accretion flows G. Bjrnsson; 7. Accretion disc-corona models and X/Y-ray spectra of accreting black holes J. Poutanen; 8. Emission lines: signatures of relativistic rotation A. C. Fabian; Part V. Accretion Discs: 9. Spectral tests of models for accretion disks around black holes J. H. Krolik; 10. Advection-dominated accretion around black holes R. Narayan, R. Mahadevan and E. Quataert; 11. Accretion disc instabilities and advection dominated accretion flows J.-P. Lasota; 12. Magnetic field and multi-phase gas in AGN A. Celotti and M. J. Rees; Part V. Discs in Binary Black Holes: 13. Supermassive binary black holes in galaxies P. Artymowicz; Part VI. Stability of Accretion Discs: 14. Large scale perturbation of an accretion disc by a black hole binary companion J. C. B. Papaloizou, C. Terquem and D. N. C. Lin; 15. Stable oscillations of black hole accretion discs M. Nowak and D. Lehr; Part VI. Coherant Structures: 16. Spotted discs A. Bracco, A. Provenzale, E. A. Spiegel and P. Yecko; Self-organized critically in accretion discs P. Wiita and Y. Xiong; Summary: old and new advances in black hole accretion disc theory R. Svensson.

  14. Kinematics and excitation of the molecular hydrogen accretion disc in NGC 1275

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharwchter, J.; McGregor, P. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Beck, T. L.

    2013-03-01

    We report the results of high spatial and spectral resolution integral-field spectroscopy of the central 3 3 arcsec2 of the active galaxy NGC 1275 (Perseus A), based on observations with the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and the ALTitude conjugate Adaptive optics for the InfraRed (ALTAIR) adaptive-optics system on the Gemini North telescope. The circum-nuclear disc in the inner R 50 pc of NGC 1275 is seen in both the H2 and [Fe II] lines. The disc is interpreted as the outer part of a collisionally excited turbulent accretion disc. The kinematic major axis of the disc at a position angle of 68 is oriented perpendicular to the radio jet. A streamer-like feature to the south-west of the disc, detected in H2 but not in [Fe II], is discussed as one of possibly several molecular streamers, presumably falling into the nuclear region. Indications of an ionization structure within the disc are deduced from the He I and Br? emission lines, which may partially originate from the inner portions of the accretion disc. The kinematics of these two lines agrees with the signature of the circum-nuclear disc, but both lines display a larger central velocity dispersion than the H2 line. The ro-vibrational H2 transitions from the core of NGC 1275 are indicative of thermal excitation caused by shocks and agree with excitation temperatures of 1360 and 4290 K for the lower and higher energy H2 transitions, respectively. The data suggest X-ray heating as the dominant excitation mechanism of [Fe II] emission in the core, while fast shocks are a possible alternative. The [Fe II] lines indicate an electron density of 4000 cm-3. The H2 disc is modelled using simulated NIFS data cubes of H2 emission from inclined discs in Keplerian rotation around a central mass. Assuming a disc inclination of 45 10, the best-fitting models imply a central mass of (8 + 7 - 2) 108 M?. Taken as a black hole mass estimate, this value is larger than previous estimates for the black hole mass in NGC 1275, but is in agreement with the M-? relation within the rms scatter. However, the molecular gas mass in the core region is tentatively estimated to be non-negligible, which suggests that the central mass may rather represent an upper limit for the black hole mass. In comparison to other H2-luminous radio galaxies, we discuss the relative role of jet feedback and accretion in driving shocks and turbulence in the molecular gas component.

  15. Nuclear discs as clocks for the assembly history of early-type galaxies: the case of NGC 4458

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarzi, M.; Ledo, H. R.; Coccato, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Dotti, M.; Khochfar, S.; Maraston, C.; Morelli, L.; Pizzella, A.

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 20 per cent of early-type galaxies host small nuclear stellar discs that are tens to a few hundred parsecs in size. Such discs are expected to be easily disrupted during major galactic encounters, hence their age serve to constrain their assembly history. We use VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph integral-field spectroscopic observations for the intermediate-mass E0 galaxy NGC 4458 and age-date its nuclear disc via high-resolution fitting of various model spectra. We find that the nuclear disc is at least 6 Gyr old. A clue to gain narrow limits to the stellar age is our knowledge of the nuclear disc contribution to the central surface brightness. The presence of an old nuclear disc, or the absence of disruptive encounters since z ˜ 0.6, for a small galaxy such as NGC 4458 which belongs to the Virgo cluster, may be consistent with a hierarchical picture for galaxy formation where the smallest galaxies assembles earlier and the crowded galactic environments reduce the incidence of galaxy mergers. On the other hand, NGC 4458 displays little or no bulk rotation except for a central kpc-scale kinematically decoupled core. Slow rotation and decoupled core are usually explained in terms of mergers. The presence and age of the nuclear disc constraint these mergers to have happened at high redshift.

  16. The properties of discs around planets and brown dwarfs as evidence for disc fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatellos, Dimitris; Herczeg, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    Direct imaging searches have revealed many very low mass objects, including a small number of planetary-mass objects, as wide-orbit companions to young stars. The formation mechanism of these objects remains uncertain. In this paper, we present the predictions of the disc fragmentation model regarding the properties of the discs around such low-mass objects. We find that the discs around objects that have formed by fragmentation in discs hosted by Sun-like stars (referred to as parent discs and parent stars) are more massive than expected from the Mdisc-M* relation (which is derived for stars with masses M* > 0.2 M?). Accordingly, the accretion rates on to these objects are also higher than expected from the dot{M}_*-M_* relation. Moreover, there is no significant correlation between the mass of the brown dwarf or planet with the mass of its disc nor with the accretion rate from the disc on to it. The discs around objects that form by disc fragmentation have larger than expected masses as they accrete gas from the disc of their parent star during the first few kyr after they form. The amount of gas that they accrete and therefore their mass depend on how they move in their parent disc and how they interact with it. Observations of disc masses and accretion rates on to very low mass objects are consistent with the predictions of the disc fragmentation model. Future observations (e.g. by Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) of disc masses and accretion rates on to substellar objects that have even lower masses (young planets and young, low-mass brown dwarfs), where the scaling relations predicted by the disc fragmentation model diverge significantly from the corresponding relations established for higher mass stars, will test the predictions of this model.

  17. Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Bernhard; Gtzinger, Erich; Pircher, Michael; Sattmann, Harald; Schtze, Christopher; Schlanitz, Ferdinand; Ahlers, Christian; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2010-11-01

    We present polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for quantitative assessment of retinal pathologies in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). On the basis of the polarization scrambling characteristics of the retinal pigment epithelium, novel segmentation algorithms were developed that allow one to segment pathologic features such as drusen and atrophic zones in dry AMD as well as to determine their dimensions. Results from measurements in the eyes of AMD patients prove the ability of PS-OCT for quantitative imaging based on the retinal features polarizing properties. Repeatability measurements were performed in retinas diagnosed with drusen and geographic atrophy in order to evaluate the performance of the described methods. PS-OCT appears as a promising imaging modality for three-dimensional retinal imaging and ranging with additional contrast based on the structures' tissue-inherent polarization properties.

  18. Fully automated detection of diabetic macular edema and dry age-related macular degeneration from optical coherence tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Pratul P.; Kim, Leo A.; Mettu, Priyatham S.; Cousins, Scott W.; Comer, Grant M.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel fully automated algorithm for the detection of retinal diseases via optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Our algorithm utilizes multiscale histograms of oriented gradient descriptors as feature vectors of a support vector machine based classifier. The spectral domain OCT data sets used for cross-validation consisted of volumetric scans acquired from 45 subjects: 15 normal subjects, 15 patients with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and 15 patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Our classifier correctly identified 100% of cases with AMD, 100% cases with DME, and 86.67% cases of normal subjects. This algorithm is a potentially impactful tool for the remote diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases. PMID:25360373

  19. Immunolocalization of Delta-Giardin within the Ventral Disc in of Trophozoites and in cysts of Giardia duodenalis using the Multiplex Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunolocalization of alpha2-, beta- and delta-giardin in Giardia showed that in the trophozoites and cysts delta-giardin it strictly associated with the ventral disc. Optical sectioning of the ventral discs, together with quantitative colocalization of the immunoreactivity for delta- and beta-giard...

  20. Stirring in massive, young debris discs from spatially resolved Herschel images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, A.; Kspl, .; brahm, P.; Apai, D.; Balog, Z.; Grady, C.; Henning, Th.; Juhsz, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Krivov, A. V.; Pawellek, N.; Szab, Gy. M.

    2015-02-01

    A significant fraction of main-sequence stars are encircled by dusty debris discs, where the short-lived dust particles are replenished through collisions between planetesimals. Most destructive collisions occur when the orbits of smaller bodies are dynamically stirred up, either by the gravitational effect of locally formed Pluto-sized planetesimals (self-stirring scenario), or via secular perturbation caused by an inner giant planet (planetary stirring). The relative importance of these scenarios in debris systems is unknown. Here, we present new Herschel Space Observatory imagery of 11 discs selected from the most massive and extended known debris systems. All discs were found to be extended at far-infrared wavelengths, five of them being resolved for the first time. We evaluated the feasibility of the self-stirring scenario by comparing the measured disc sizes with the predictions of the model calculated for the ages of our targets. We concluded that the self-stirring explanation works for seven discs. However, in four cases, the predicted pace of outward propagation of the stirring front, assuming reasonable initial disc masses, was far too low to explain the radial extent of the cold dust. Therefore, for HD 9672, HD 16743, HD 21997, and HD 95086, another explanation is needed. We performed a similar analysis for ? Pic and HR 8799, reaching the same conclusion. We argue that planetary stirring is a promising possibility to explain the disc properties in these systems. In HR 8799 and HD 95086, we may already know the potential perturber, since their known outer giant planets could be responsible for the stirring process. Interestingly, the discs around HD 9672, HD 21997, and ? Pic are also unique in harbouring detectable amount of molecular CO gas. Our study demonstrates that among the largest and most massive debris discs self-stirring may not be the only active scenario, and potentially planetary stirring is responsible for destructive collisions and debris dust production in a number of systems.

  1. Note: Light ageing with simultaneous colorimetry via fibre optics reflection spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ojewski, Tomasz; Thomas, Jacob; Go?ab, Roman; Kawa?ko, Jakub; ?ojewska, Joanna

    2011-07-01

    In this article, the design and characteristics of a micro-fadeometer is presented. The technique allows for a non-(micro-) destructive evaluation of the light fastness of colorants on various materials and can be used to directly assess valuable materials, such as heritage objects, and develop safer display strategies to promote their preservation. The presented instrument has several benefits over standard light ageing methods - low operating cost, non-damaging, real time measurement of induced changes for kinetics studies, and automated high throughput screening of materials. A selection of data is presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the presented instrument and illustrate how it can be used to evaluate museum lighting and oxygen-free display of heritage objects.

  2. 21 CFR 872.3970 - Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices 872.3970 Interarticular disc prosthesis (interpositional implant). (a) Identification. An interarticular disc...

  3. Use NASA GES DISC Data in ArcGIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Wenli; Pham, Long B.; Kempler, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes GIS relevant data at NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), GES DISC Services and Support for GIS Users, and use cases of GES DISC data in ArcGIS.

  4. Changes in disc herniation after CT-guided Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD): MR findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brat, Hugues G.; Bouziane, Tarik; Lambert, Jean; Divano, Luisa

    2004-09-01

    The aim of Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD) is to vaporize a small portion of the nucleus pulposus. Clinical efficacy of this technique is largely proven. However, time-evolution of intervertebral disc and its hernia after PLDD is not known. This study analyses changes in disc herniation and its native intervertebral disc at a mean follow-up of 7.5 months after PLDD in asymptomatic patients. Main observations at MRI are appearance of a high signal on T2WI in the hernia in 59%, shrinking of the hernia in 66% and overall stability of disc height.

  5. Artificial Cervical Disc Arthroplasty (ACDA): tips and tricks

    PubMed Central

    Khadivi, Masoud; Rahimi Movaghar, Vafa; Abdollahzade, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is currently treatment of choice for managing medical therapy refractory cervical degenerative disc disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of ACDF; patients generally experience rapid recoveries, and dramatic improvement in their pain and quality of life. However, as several studies reported symptomatic adjacent segment disease attributed to fusions altered kinematics, cervical disc arthroplasty emerged as a new motion-sparing alternative to fusion. Fusion at one level increases motion at adjacent levels along with increased intradiscal pressures. This phenomenon can result in symptomatic adjacent level degeneration, which can necessitate reoperation at these levels. The era of cervical arthroplasty began in Europe in the late 1990s. In recent years, artificial cervical disc arthroplasty (ACDA) has been increasingly used by spine surgeons for degenerative cervical disc disease. There have been several reports of safety, efficacy and indications of ACDA. Cervical arthroplasty offers several theoretical advantages over anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in the treatment of selected patients with medically refractory cervical radiculopathy. Preserving motion at the operated level, cervical TDR has the potential to decrease the occurrence of adjacent segment degeneration. There are a few studies on the efficacy and effectiveness of ACDA compared to cervical fusion. However, the true scenery of cervical arthroplasty yet to be identified. Objective: This study is intended to define patients' characteristics and outcomes of ACDA by a single surgeon in Iran. Methods: This retrospective study was performed in two general Hospitals in Tehran, Iran from 2005 To 2010. All patients were operated by one senior neurospine surgeon. One hundred fifty three patients were operated in this period. All patients signed the informed consent form prior to surgery. All patients presented with cervical discopathy who had myelopathy or radiculopathy and failed conservative management, undergoing cervical disc arthroplasty by ACDA were included, consecutively. Patients were followed for at least 2 years. Exclusion criteria was age greater than 60 years, non compliance with the study protocol, osteoporosis, infection, congenital or post traumatic deformity, malignancy metabolic bone disease, and narrow cervical canal (less than 12 mm). Heterotopic ossification and adjacent segment degenerative changes were assessed at 2 years follow up by means of neutral and dynamic xrays and CT/MRI if clinically indicated. Neck and upper extremity pain were assessed before the procedure and in the first post-operative visit and 3 months later by means of visual analogue scale. A standard approach was performed to the anterior cervical spine. Patients were positioned supine while holding neck in neutral position. A combination of sharp and blunt dissection was performed to expose longus coli musculature and anterior cervical vertebrae. Trachea and esophagus were retracted medially and carotid artery and jugular vein laterally. After a thorough discectomy, the intersomatic space is distracted in a parallel way by a vertebral distracter. Followed by Caspar distractor is applied to provide a working channel into posterior disc space. In this stage, any remnant disc materials as well as osteophytes are removed and foraminal decompression is done. Posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) opening and removal, although discouraged by some, is done next. In order to define the size of the prosthesis, multiple trials are tested. It is important not to exceed the height of the healthy adjacent disc to avoid facet joint overdistraction. An specific insertor is applied to plant the prosthesis in disc space. Control X-rays are advised to check the precise positioning of the implant. Results: one hundred-fifty three patients including 87 females and 66 males were included. The mean age was 41 for females and 42 for males. Affected level was C5-C6 in 81 cases, C6-C7 in 72

  6. D-Zero Cryostat Supplemental Rupture Disc

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-03

    The common relief and rupture disc vent line requires a double disc assembly with vented interspace for accurate disc burst pressures. The first disc must take pump and purge vacuum loading, but be set to operate at 110% of the MAWP, 18.3 psig (ASME code). The available solution is 18.3 psig with a burst tolerance of +/- psig. The interspace should be locally vented by a flow limiting vent valve to decouple the vent line backpressure from the vessel rupture disc. The second disc must take the worst case vent line backpressure, the steady state value found in D-Zero engineering note 3740.000-EN-63 with all three cryostats simultaneously venting at the fire condition into the 4-inch x 6-inch and 6-inch x 8-inch sections. This value is less than 2 psid. The maximum rupture value for the second disc must be less than the minimum rupture value for the first disc less 2 psid i.e. < 16.3.

  7. Rapid radiative clearing of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Thomas J.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Owen, James E.

    2016-04-01

    The lack of observed transition discs with inner gas holes of radii greater than ˜50 au implies that protoplanetary discs dispersed from the inside out must remove gas from the outer regions rapidly. We investigate the role of photoevaporation in the final clearing of gas from low mass discs with inner holes. In particular, we study the so-called `thermal sweeping' mechanism which results in rapid clearing of the disc. Thermal sweeping was originally thought to arise when the radial and vertical pressure scalelengths at the X-ray heated inner edge of the disc match. We demonstrate that this criterion is not fundamental. Rather, thermal sweeping occurs when the pressure maximum at the inner edge of the dust heated disc falls below the maximum possible pressure of X-ray heated gas (which depends on the local X-ray flux). We derive new critical peak volume and surface density estimates for rapid radiative clearing which, in general, result in rapid dispersal happening less readily than in previous estimates. This less efficient clearing of discs by X-ray driven thermal sweeping leaves open the issue of what mechanism (e.g. far-ultraviolet heating) can clear gas from the outer disc sufficiently quickly to explain the non-detection of cold gas around weak line T Tauri stars.

  8. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  9. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  10. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  11. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  12. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  13. Potential regenerative treatment strategies for intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pain due to spontaneous intervertebral disc (IVD) disease is common in dogs. In chondrodystrophic (CD) dogs, IVD disease typically develops in the cervical or thoracolumbar spine at about 3–7 years of age, whereas in non-chondrodystrophic (NCD) dogs, it usually develops in the caudal cervical or lumbosacral spine at about 6–8 years of age. IVD degeneration is characterized by changes in the biochemical composition and mechanical integrity of the IVD. In the degenerated IVD, the content of glycosaminoglycan (GAG, a proteoglycan side chain) decreases and that of denatured collagen increases. Dehydration leads to tearing of the annulus fibrosus (AF) and/or disc herniation, which is clinically characterized by pain and/or neurological signs. Current treatments (physiotherapy, anti-inflammatory/analgesic medication, surgery) for IVD disease may resolve neurological deficits and reduce pain (although in many cases insufficient), but do not lead to repair of the degenerated disc. For this reason, there is interest in new regenerative therapies that can repair the degenerated disc matrix, resulting in restoration of the biomechanical function of the IVD. CD dogs are considered a suitable animal model for human IVD degeneration because of their spontaneous IVD degeneration, and therefore studies investigating cell-, growth factor-, and/or gene therapy-based regenerative therapies with this model provide information relevant to both human and canine patients. The aim of this article is to review potential regenerative treatment strategies for canine IVD degeneration, with specific emphasis on cell-based strategies. PMID:24387033

  14. The history of stellar metallicity in a simulated disc galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snaith, O. N.; Bailin, J.; Gibson, B. K.; Bell, E. F.; Stinson, G.; Valluri, M.; Wadsley, J.; Couchman, H.

    2016-03-01

    We explore the chemical distribution of stars in a simulated galaxy. Using simulations of the same initial conditions but with two different feedback schemes (McMaster Unbiased Galaxy Simulations - MUGS - and Making Galaxies in a Cosmological Context - MaGICC), we examine the features of the age-metallicity relation (AMR), and the three-dimensional age-[Fe/H]-[O/Fe] distribution, both for the galaxy as a whole and decomposed into disc, bulge, halo and satellites. The MUGS simulation, which uses traditional supernova feedback, is replete with chemical substructure. This substructure is absent from the MaGICC simulation, which includes early feedback from stellar winds, a modified initial mass function and more efficient feedback. The reduced amount of substructure is due to the almost complete lack of satellites in MaGICC. We identify a significant separation between the bulge and disc AMRs, where the bulge is considerably more metal-rich with a smaller spread in metallicity at any given time than the disc. Our results suggest, however, that identifying the substructure in observations will require exquisite age resolution, of the order of 0.25 Gyr. Certain satellites show exotic features in the AMR, even forming a `sawtooth' shape of increasing metallicity followed by sharp declines which correspond to pericentric passages. This fact, along with the large spread in stellar age at a given metallicity, compromises the use of metallicity as an age indicator, although alpha abundance provides a more robust clock at early times. This may also impact algorithms that are used to reconstruct star formation histories from resolved stellar populations, which frequently assume a monotonically increasing AMR.

  15. Arrays on disc for screening and quantification of pollutants.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Patricia; Morais, Sergi; Gabaldn, Jose A; Prez, Antonio J; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Angel

    2013-06-19

    A rapid compact disc based methodology for screening and quantification of organic pollutants in mandarin juices is presented. The assay is established on the coating conjugate indirect competitive principle and developed under disc-array configuration. The detection is based on the acquisition of attenuated reflective signals that were proportional to optical density of the immunoreaction product. The competitive assay is applied to quantify simultaneously, in a selective manner, non-systemic insecticides in mandarin juices. The detection limits were 0.2 and 0.1 ?g L(-1) and the sensitivity 2.1 and 1.5 ?g L(-1), for chlorpyrifos and fenthion, respectively. Pollutants were directly quantified after sample dilution in a total time of 40 min. Also, the implementation of positive and negative controls into the array configuration served as an automatic quality control test. The effect of thermal treatment on pesticide dissipation was studied and found that it was insignificant under the studied conditions. Recovery intervals ranged from 96-105% to 94-103%, for chlorpyrifos and fenthion, respectively and were similar to those obtained with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. In the current configuration, 64 samples can be simultaneously analyzed on a disc at a very competitive value, demonstrating its potential for high-throughput multiplexed screening applications for controlled monitoring programs in low-level labs or outside the lab setting. PMID:23746409

  16. The Actual Level of Symptomatic Soft Disc Herniation in Patients with Cervical Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Su Yong; Kim, Woo Kyung; Son, Seong; Jeong, Tae Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to predict the relationship between the symptomatic disc herniation level and the osteophyte level or decreased disc height in patients with cervical disc herniation. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, 69 patients with an osteophyte of the cervical spine underwent surgery at a single center due to soft cervical disc herniation. Data including soft disc herniation level, osteophyte level in the posterior vertebral margin, Cobb's angle, and symptom duration were retrospectively assessed. The patients were divided into three groups according to the relationship between the degenerative change level and the level of reported symptoms. Results Among the 69 patients, 48 (69.6%) showed a match between osteophyte level and soft disc herniation level. Disc herniation occurred at the adjacent segment to degenerative osteophyte level in 12 patients (17.4%) and at both the adjacent and the osteophyte level in nine (13.0%). There was no significant difference in Cobb's angle or duration among the three groups. Osteophyte type was not significant. The mean disc height of the prominent degenerative change level group was lower than the adjacent segment level, but this was not significant. Conclusion Soft cervical disc herniation usually occurs at the level an osteophyte forms. However, it may also occur at segments adjacent to that of the osteophyte level. Therefore, in patients with cervical disc herniation, although a prominent osteophyte alone may appear on plain radiography, we must suspect the presence of soft disc herniation at other levels. PMID:26512266

  17. Galaxies that shine: radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosdahl, Joakim; Schaye, Joop; Teyssier, Romain; Agertz, Oscar

    2015-07-01

    Radiation feedback is typically implemented using subgrid recipes in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies. Very little work has so far been performed using radiation-hydrodynamics (RHD), and there is no consensus on the importance of radiation feedback in galaxy evolution. We present RHD simulations of isolated galaxy discs of different masses with a resolution of 18 pc. Besides accounting for supernova feedback, our simulations are the first galaxy-scale simulations to include RHD treatments of photoionization heating and radiation pressure, from both direct optical/UV radiation and multiscattered, re-processed infrared (IR) radiation. Photoheating smooths and thickens the discs and suppresses star formation about as much as the inclusion of (`thermal dump') supernova feedback does. These effects decrease with galaxy mass and are mainly due to the prevention of the formation of dense clouds, as opposed to their destruction. Radiation pressure, whether from direct or IR radiation, has little effect, but for the IR radiation we show that its impact is limited by our inability to resolve the high optical depths for which multiscattering becomes important. While artificially boosting the IR optical depths does reduce the star formation, it does so by smoothing the gas rather than by generating stronger outflows. We conclude that although higher resolution simulations, and potentially also different supernova implementations, are needed for confirmation, our findings suggest that radiation feedback is more gentle and less effective than is often assumed in subgrid prescriptions.

  18. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Teresa C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that video-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) can qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) glaucomatous structural changes. To correlate quantitative SDOCT parameters with disc photography and visual fields. Methods: SDOCT images from 4 glaucoma eyes (4 patients) with varying stages of open-angle glaucoma (ie, early, moderate, late) were qualitatively contrasted with 2 age-matched normal eyes (2 patients). Of 61 other consecutive patients recruited in an institutional setting, 53 eyes (33 patients) met inclusion/exclusion criteria for quantitative studies. Images were obtained using two experimental SDOCT systems, one utilizing a superluminescent diode and the other a titanium:sapphire laser source, with axial resolutions of about 6 ?m and 3 ?m, respectively. Results: Classic glaucomatous ONH and RNFL structural changes were seen in SDOCT images. An SDOCT reference plane 139 ?m above the retinal pigment epithelium yielded cup-disc ratios that best correlated with masked physician disc photography cup-disc ratio assessments. The minimum distance band, a novel SDOCT neuroretinal rim parameter, showed good correlation with physician cup-disc ratio assessments, visual field mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation (P values range, .0003.024). RNFL and retinal thickness maps correlated well with disc photography and visual field testing. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this thesis presents the first comprehensive qualitative and quantitative evaluation of SDOCT images of the ONH and RNFL in glaucoma. This pilot study provides basis for developing more automated quantitative SDOCT-specific glaucoma algorithms needed for future prospective multicenter national trials. PMID:20126502

  19. An overview of the Blu-ray disc application format for HD-movie distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Young; Wang, Michelle; Kelly, Declan; Leibbrandt, Wouter

    2005-09-01

    Blu-ray Disc (BD) is the next generation optical disc format, currently being standardized by a large consortium of leading CE, PC, authoring companies and major movie studios. BD offers more than five times the capacity of DVD at 25 GB and 50 GB (dual layer). The BD application format addresses the limitations of DVD-Video by providing a complete user experience. The high storage capacity guarantees the best quality HD video available to the consumer. BD standardizes how content publishers can include executable applications on the disc to realize fully enhanced interactivity. By using a programming platform like Java, the standard need not define the allowable set of features, instead it defines the playback platform and disc publishers are free to implement any features they desire. Furthermore, BD supports seamless integration of Internet content with disc content, allowing synchronized presentation of updated content from the Internet with disc content. With this combination of features, highest quality HD video, enhanced interactivity and Internet connectivity, BD offers consumers a compelling experience. This paper will present an overview of the features that will be supported by the BD application format and the technical solutions used to realize these features.

  20. Detecting Disc-Like Structures in Early-Type Galaxies with Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mller, Ole; Hewett, Paul; Blain, Andrew

    The most striking difference between late- and early-type galaxies is the presence of pronounced discs in late-type galaxies. This difference is predicted by standard scenarios of galaxy formation. However, the possibility exists that small disc-like structures may also form in early-type galaxies; recent simulations by Naab & Burkert (2001) show that discs of sizes between 1 and 2 times the effective radius and masses up to 20% of that of the bulge may be present in ellipticals as a result of merging processes. Recent optical studies of the member galaxies of CL 1358+62 by Kelson et al. (2000) have shown that the two dimensional light profiles of many early-type galaxies are not fit well by a pure de Vaucouleurs law, and that the fit is improved considerably if an exponential, disc-like structure is included. The strong lensing properties of late-type galaxies are very sensitive to the properties of the disc component (e.g. Maller, Flores & Primack 1997, Mller & Blain 1998, Blain, Mller & Maller 1999). Using a single example, we show here how lensing could be used to detect disc-like structures in early-type galaxies and how their properties can be determined from lens modelling. A much more thorough investigation is presented in Mller, Hewett & Blain (in preparation).

  1. Real-time loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification in compact disc micro-reactors.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Felipe, Sara; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis A; Carrascosa, Javier; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2016-05-15

    An integrated device composed of micro-reactors embedded onto compact discs is proposed for real-time targeted DNA determination. The method principle is based on in-disc loop-mediated isothermal amplification (iD-LAMP) and quantitative optical read-out by a disc drive. In the presence of a target, the turbidimetric or colorimetric properties of reaction solution change, and the transmitted intensity of the disc drive laser modifies according to reaction yield. Monitoring real-time curves allowed the quantitative determination of DNA template amounts. The best amplification/detection results were obtained with micro-reactors (2mm diameter and 1.1mm in depth) drilled on a digital video disc (DVD) and detection based on the colorimetric mode. As proof-of-concept, the assay was applied to detect pathogenic bacteria Salmonella spp. and to identify bovine meat in food samples. Ninety-six samples were simultaneously analysed in 15min, with high selectivity and sensitivity (5CFU/mL and 10µg/g for bacteria and meat, respectively). The in-disc results were comparable to those obtained by conventional LAMP or qPCR approaches. The developed device allows low sample and reagent consumption (3µL of reaction), portability, ease-of-use, and rapid low-cost high-throughput analyses. PMID:26716424

  2. 21 cm absorption by compact hydrogen discs around black holes in radio-loud nuclei of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, Abraham

    2008-05-15

    The clumpy maser discs observed in some galactic nuclei mark the outskirts of the accretion disc that fuels the central black hole and provide a potential site of nuclear star formation. Unfortunately, most of the gas in maser discs is currently not being probed; large maser gains favor paths that are characterized by a small velocity gradient and require rare edge-on orientations of the disc. Here we propose a method for mapping the atomic hydrogen distribution in nuclear discs through its 21 cm absorption against the radio continuum glow around the central black hole. In NGC 4258, the 21 cm optical depth may approach unity for high angular resolution (VLBI) imaging of coherent clumps which are dominated by thermal broadening and have the column density inferred from x-ray absorption data, {approx}10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. Spreading the 21 cm absorption over the full rotation velocity width of the material in front of the narrow radio jets gives a mean optical depth of {approx}0.1. Spectroscopic searches for the 21 cm absorption feature in other galaxies can be used to identify the large population of inclined gaseous discs which are not masing in our direction. Follow-up imaging of 21 cm silhouettes of accelerating clumps within these discs can in turn be used to measure cosmological distances.

  3. The Absolute Age of the Globular Cluster M15 Using Near-infrared Adaptive Optics Images from PISCES/LBT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monelli, M.; Testa, V.; Bono, G.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Fiorentino, G.; Arcidiacono, C.; Massari, D.; Boutsia, K.; Briguglio, R.; Busoni, L.; Carini, R.; Close, L.; Cresci, G.; Esposito, S.; Fini, L.; Fumana, M.; Guerra, J. C.; Hill, J.; Kulesa, C.; Mannucci, F.; McCarthy, D.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Quiros-Pacheco, F.; Ragazzoni, R.; Riccardi, A.; Skemer, A.; Xompero, M.

    2015-10-01

    We present deep near-infrared J, {K}{{s}} photometry of the old, metal-poor Galactic globular cluster M15 obtained with images collected with the LUCI1 and PISCES cameras available at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). We show how the use of First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system coupled with the PISCES camera allows us to improve the limiting magnitude by ˜2 mag in {K}{{s}}. By analyzing archival Hubble Space Telescope data, we demonstrate that the quality of the LBT/PISCES color-magnitude diagram is fully comparable with analogous space-based data. The smaller field of view is balanced by the shorter exposure time required to reach a similar photometric limit. We investigated the absolute age of M15 by means of two methods: (i) by determining the age from the position of the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO), and (ii) by the magnitude difference between the MSTO and the well-defined knee detected along the faint portion of the MS. We derive consistent values of the absolute age of M15, that is, 12.9 ± 2.6 Gyr and 13.3 ± 1.1 Gyr, respectively. Observations were carried out using the Large Binocular Telescope at Mount Graham, AZ. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; the Ohio State University; and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  4. [Physiotherapy in lumbar disc herniation ].

    PubMed

    Stoll, T; Germann, D; Hagmann, H

    2001-08-01

    Physiotherapy is the treatment of choice in patients with symptoms caused by a lumbar disc herniation. In clinical practice a broad range of physiotherapeutic modalities has been revealed to be helpful. During the acute stage the efficacy of the McKenzie-concept, mobilisation therapies and traction has been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials with a blind assessor. In addition, pain reducing physical therapies such as cold or electrotherapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics and/or muscle relaxants are sensible initial accompanying treatments. The effectiveness of active physiotherapies such as training of local strength endurance of back and abdominal muscles has been proven in patients during the chronic stage. The indications for a in-patient rehabilitation programme, for surgery and the danger of developing chronic low back pain are discussed. PMID:11552355

  5. Environmentally benign manufacturing of compact disc stampers [Final Phase II report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-08

    Optical data storage is currently a $10B/yr. business. With the introduction of the high capacity Digital Versatile Disc (D/D) as well as the continued growth of CD-Audio and CD-ROM worldwide sales of optical data products as a whole are growing at rate of more than 10% per year. In North America, more than 2.5 billion optical discs will be sold in 1998. By 1999, the numbers of optical discs produced for the North American market will grow to almost three billion. The optical disc manufacturing industry is dominated by Asian and European companies (e.g. Sony of Japan and Philips of Netherlands). Prism Corporation has created a process that could significantly improve US competitiveness in the business of optical disc production. The objectives of the Phase II STTR project were to build and test an ion machining system (IMS) for stamper fabrication, prove overall manufacturing system feasibility by fabrication stampers and replicas, and evaluate alternative materials and alternative process parameters to optimize the process. During tie period of the Phase II project Prism Corporation was able to meet these objectives. In the course of doing so, adjustments had been made to better the project and in turn the final product. An ion machining system was designed and built that produced stampers ready for the molding process. Also, many control steps in the manufacturing process were studied to improve the current process and make it even more compatible with the industry standards, fitting seamlessly into current manufacturing lines.

  6. Study of the stellar population properties in the discs of ten spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Coccato, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the properties of the stellar populations in the discs of a sample of 10 spiral galaxies. Our analysis focused on the galaxy region where the disc contributes more than 95 per cent of total surface brightness in order to minimize the contamination of the bulge and bar. The luminosity-weighted age and metallicity were obtained by fitting the galaxy spectra with a linear combination of stellar population synthesis models, while the total overabundance of α-elements over iron was derived by measuring the line-strength indices. Most of the sample discs display a bimodal age distribution and they are characterized by a total [α/Fe] enhancement ranging from solar and supersolar. We interpreted the age bimodality as due to the simultaneous presence of both a young (Age ≤ 4 Gyr) and an old (Age > 4 Gyr) stellar population. The old stellar component usually dominates the disc surface brightness and its light contribution is almost constant within the observed radial range. For this reason, no age gradient is observed in half of the sample galaxies. The old component is slightly more metal poor than the young one. The metallicity gradient is negative and slightly positive in the old and young components, respectively. These results are in agreement with an inside-out scenario of disc formation and suggest a reduced impact of the radial migration on the stellar populations of the disc. The young component could be the result of a second burst of star formation in gas captured from the environment.

  7. A Herschel PACS survey of brown dwarfs in IC 2391: limits on primordial and debris disc fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, B.; Kennedy, G. M.

    2014-08-01

    We present results from a Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) survey of eight brown dwarfs in the IC 2391 cluster. Our aim was to determine the brown dwarf disc fraction at ages of 40-50 Myr. None of the eight brown dwarfs observed were detected in the PACS 70 or 160 ?m bands. We have determined the detection limits of our survey using the 1? flux upper limits in the PACS far-infrared and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope mid-infrared bands. The sensitivity of our observations would only allow for the detection of debris discs with exceptionally large fractional luminosities (?1 per cent). Considering that only the most extreme and rare debris discs have such high fractional luminosities, it can be hypothesized that Vega-like debris discs, as observed around 30 per cent of low-mass stars at similar ages, could exist around the targeted IC 2391 brown dwarfs. Most primordial discs similar to the ones observed for the younger 1-10 Myr brown dwarfs would be within the detection sensitivities of our survey, and could have been detected. The non-detection for all targets then suggests that brown dwarf discs have transitioned to the debris phase by 40-50 Myr ages. We also present the sensitivity limits for detecting brown dwarf discs with future SPICA observations.

  8. IRAS 19135+3937: an SRd variable as interacting binary surrounded by a circumbinary disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlova, N.; Van Winckel, H.; Ikonnikova, N. P.; Burlak, M. A.; Komissarova, G. V.; Jorissen, A.; Gielen, C.; Debosscher, J.; Degroote, P.

    2015-08-01

    Semi-regular (SR) variables are not a homogeneous class and their variability is often explained due to pulsations and/or binarity. This study focuses on IRAS 19135+3937, an SRd variable with an infrared excess indicative of a dusty disc. A time series of high-resolution spectra, UBV photometry as well as a very accurate light curve obtained by the Kepler satellite, allowed us to study the object in unprecedented detail. We discovered it to be a binary with a period of 127 d. The primary has a low surface gravity and an atmosphere depleted in refractory elements. This combination of properties unambiguously places IRAS 19135+3937 in the subclass of post-asymptotic giant branch stars with dusty discs. We show that the light variations in this object cannot be due to pulsations, but are likely caused by the obscuration of the primary by the circumbinary disc during orbital motion. Furthermore, we argue that the double-peaked Fe emission lines provide evidence for the existence of a gaseous circumbinary Keplerian disc inside the dusty disc. A secondary set of absorption lines has been detected near light minimum, which we attribute to the reflected spectrum of the primary on the disc wall, which segregates due to the different Doppler shift. This corroborates the recent finding that reflection in the optical by this type of discs is very efficient. The system also shows a variable H α profile indicating a collimated outflow originating around the companion. IRAS 19135+3937 thus encompasses all the major emergent trends about evolved disc systems, that will eventually help to place these objects in the evolutionary context.

  9. Interactive Visualization of a Thin Disc around a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Thomas; Frauendiener, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    In a first course in general relativity, the Schwarzschild spacetime is the most discussed analytic solution to Einstein's field equations. Unfortunately, there is rarely enough time to study the optical consequences of the bending of light for some advanced examples. In this paper, we present how the visual appearance of a thin disc around a

  10. Interactive Visualization of a Thin Disc around a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Thomas; Frauendiener, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    In a first course in general relativity, the Schwarzschild spacetime is the most discussed analytic solution to Einstein's field equations. Unfortunately, there is rarely enough time to study the optical consequences of the bending of light for some advanced examples. In this paper, we present how the visual appearance of a thin disc around a…

  11. Revealing the accretion disc corona in Mrk 335 with multi-epoch X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keek, L.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2016-03-01

    Active galactic nuclei host an accretion disc with an X-ray producing corona around a supermassive black hole. In bright sources, such as the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 335, reflection of the coronal emission off the accretion disc has been observed. Reflection produces spectral features such as an Fe Kα emission line, which allow for properties of the inner accretion disc and the corona to be constrained. We perform a multi-epoch spectral analysis of all XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR observations of Mrk 335, and we optimize our fitting procedure to unveil correlations between the Eddington ratio and the spectral parameters. We find that the disc's ionization parameter correlates strongly with the Eddington ratio: the inner disc is more strongly ionized at higher flux. The slope of the correlation is less steep than previously predicted. Furthermore, the cut-off of the power-law spectrum increases in energy with the Eddington ratio, whereas the reflection fraction exhibits a decrease. We interpret this behaviour as geometrical changes of the corona as a function of the accretion rate. Below ˜10 per cent of the Eddington limit, the compact and optically thick corona is located close to the inner disc, whereas at higher accretion rates the corona is likely optically thin and extends vertically further away from the disc surface. Furthermore, we find a soft excess that consists of two components. In addition to a contribution from reflection in low ionization states, a second component is present that traces the overall flux.

  12. Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berisha, Fatmire; Hoffmann, Esther M.; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning and optic nerve head cupping are key diagnostic features of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The higher resolution of the recently introduced SD-OCT offers enhanced visualization and improved segmentation of the retinal layers, providing a higher accuracy in identification of subtle changes of the optic disc and RNFL thinning associated with glaucoma.

  13. Effect of sustained loading on the water content of intervertebral discs: implications for disc metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, D W; Garbutt, G; Adams, M A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine regional changes in the fluid content of human intervertebral discs by comparing sagittal plane "profiles" of hydration before and after mechanical loading. METHODS: Cadaveric lumbar intervertebral discs were loaded to simulate a typical day's loading in vivo. Ten motion segments were subjected to a 1500 N compressive load for a period of 6 h with the superior vertebrae inclined by 4-8 degrees to simulate a slightly flexed posture. Immediately after loading the discs were frozen at -80 degrees C. Subsequently they were cut into slices perpendicular to the sagittal midline of the disc, and each slice was weighed before and after freeze drying. This enabled a profile of fluid content across the disc to be constructed. Fluid loss due to loading was estimated by comparing the water content of each loaded disc with that of an adjacent unloaded disc from the same spine. RESULTS: After 6 h of creep loading, disc height approached, but did not quite reach, an equilibrium. The mean fluid loss from all discs was 18%. All regions except the outer 2 mm experienced a significant loss of fluid (P < 0.01). The posterior mid-annulus showed the greatest fluid loss (30%), while the nucleus lost 15%. CONCLUSIONS: A comparison with previously published work suggests that fluid exchange of this magnitude will have a considerable effect on disc cell metabolism and on metabolite transport. PMID:9014581

  14. Lifestyle factors and lumbar disc disease: results of a German multi-center case-control study (EPILIFT)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In the large-scale case-control study EPILIFT, we investigated the dose-response relationship between lifestyle factors (weight, smoking amount, cumulative duration of different sports activities) and lumbar disc disease. Methods In four German study regions (Frankfurt am Main, Freiburg, Halle/Saale, Regensburg), 564 male and female patients with lumbar disc herniation and 351 patients with lumbar disc narrowing (chondrosis) aged 25 to 70 years were prospectively recruited. From the regional population registers, 901 population control subjects were randomly selected. In a structured personal interview, we enquired as to body weight at different ages, body height, cumulative smoking amount and cumulative duration of different sports activities. Confounders were selected according to biological plausibility and to the change-in-estimate criterion. Adjusted, gender-stratified odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results The results of this case-control study reveal a positive association between weight and lumbar disc herniation as well as lumbar disc narrowing among men and women. A medium amount of pack-years was associated with lumbar disc herniation and narrowing in men and women. A non-significantly lowered risk of lumbar disc disease was found in men with high levels of cumulative body building and strength training. Conclusions According to our multi-center case-control study, body weight might be related to lumbar disc herniation as well as to lumbar disc narrowing. Further research should clarify the potential protective role of body building or strength training on lumbar disc disease. PMID:20955546

  15. Demographic traits of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on leaf discs and whole leaves.

    PubMed

    Kavousi, Aurang; Chi, Hsin; Talebi, Khalil; Bandani, Alireza; Ashouri, Ahmad; Naveh, Vahid Hosseini

    2009-04-01

    Life tables of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were studied on leaf discs and whole leaves of the common bean plant, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Data were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. Durations of deutonymph stage, total preadult stage, and preoviposition period of mites reared on whole leaves (1.22, 7.6, and 0.29 d, respectively) were significantly shorter than those reared on leaf discs (1.73, 8.2, and 0.89 d, respectively). The lifetime fecundities were 22.81 and 12.05 offspring on whole leaves and leaf discs, respectively. Although hooked trichomes on the lower surface of the bean leaf contribute to adult mortality, spider mites successfully survive and reproduce on bean plants. The intrinsic rate of increase on whole leaves (0.235 d(-1)) was higher than that on leaf discs (0.159 d(-1). Higher intrinsic rate and fecundity found in mites reared on whole leaves may be due to the higher nutritional quality of whole leaves over leaf discs. We suggest that whole leaves should be used in future studies to better simulate realistic life history characteristics. The advantages of using age-stage, two-sex life tables over female age-specific life tables are discussed. PMID:19449639

  16. Two groups within the thick disc of the Milky Way?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford, Laura M.; Lambert, David L.

    2012-08-01

    Compositions of F and G dwarf stars in two groups of thick disc stars are presented. The groups identified by Schuster et al. have mean characteristics ([Fe/H], V(rot), Age, ?W') of (-0.7 dex, 120 km s-1, 12.5 Gyr, 62 km s-1) and (-0.4, 160, 10.0, 45.8). Abundances for 23 elements obtained from high-resolution spectra are presented for 59 stars in the metal-rich group and 27 stars in the metal-poor group. The run of abundance ratios [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] for the two groups define a single relation for each element (designated as X) with no intrinsic scatter and without a measurable discontinuity at -0.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.5, the metallicity at which the two groups overlap. The relations [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] are those determined previously for thick disc stars. It is suggested that these two groups and the thick disc as a whole have a common origin in terms of prior chemical evolution.

  17. Artificial Discs for Lumbar and Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease –Update

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of artificial disc replacement (ADR) technology for degenerative disc disease (DDD). Clinical Need Degenerative disc disease is the term used to describe the deterioration of 1 or more intervertebral discs of the spine. The prevalence of DDD is roughly described in proportion to age such that 40% of people aged 40 years have DDD, increasing to 80% among those aged 80 years or older. Low back pain is a common symptom of lumbar DDD; neck and arm pain are common symptoms of cervical DDD. Nonsurgical treatments can be used to relieve pain and minimize disability associated with DDD. However, it is estimated that about 10% to 20% of people with lumbar DDD and up to 30% with cervical DDD will be unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments. In these cases, surgical treatment is considered. Spinal fusion (arthrodesis) is the process of fusing or joining 2 bones and is considered the surgical gold standard for DDD. Artificial disc replacement is the replacement of the degenerated intervertebral disc with an artificial disc in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical spine that has been unresponsive to nonsurgical treatments for at least 6 months. Unlike spinal fusion, ADR preserves movement of the spine, which is thought to reduce or prevent the development of adjacent segment degeneration. Additionally, a bone graft is not required for ADR, and this alleviates complications, including bone graft donor site pain and pseudoarthrosis. It is estimated that about 5% of patients who require surgery for DDD will be candidates for ADR. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a computerized search of the literature published between 2003 and September 2005 to answer the following questions: What is the effectiveness of ADR in people with DDD of the lumbar or cervical regions of the spine compared with spinal fusion surgery? Does an artificial disc reduce the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) compared with spinal fusion? What is the rate of major complications (device failure, reoperation) with artificial discs compared with surgical spinal fusion? One reviewer evaluated the internal validity of the primary studies using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group Quality Assessment Tool. The quality of concealment allocation was rated as: A, clearly yes; B, unclear; or C, clearly no. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to evaluate the overall quality of the body of evidence (defined as 1 or more studies) supporting the research questions explored in this systematic review. A random effects model meta-analysis was conducted when data were available from 2 or more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and when there was no statistical and or clinical heterogeneity among studies. Bayesian analyses were undertaken to do the following: Examine the influence of missing data on clinical success rates; Compute the probability that artificial discs were superior to spinal fusion (on the basis of clinical success rates); Examine whether the results were sensitive to the choice of noninferiority margin. Summary of Findings The literature search yielded 140 citations. Of these, 1 Cochrane systematic review, 1 RCT, and 10 case series were included in this review. Unpublished data from an RCT reported in the grey literature were obtained from the manufacturer of the device. The search also yielded 8 health technology assessments evaluating ADR that are also included in this review. Six of the 8 health technology assessments concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of either lumbar or cervical ADR. The results of the remaining 2 assessments (one each for lumbar and cervical ADR) led to a National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidance document supporting the safety and effectiveness of lumbar and cervical ADR with the proviso that an ongoing audit of all clinical outcomes be undertaken owing to a lack of long-term outcome data from clinical trials. Regarding lumbar ADR, data were available from 2 noninferiority RCTs to complete a meta-analysis. The following clinical, health systems, and adverse event outcome measures were synthesized: primary outcome of clinical success, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, pain VAS scores, patient satisfaction, duration of surgery, amount of blood loss, length of hospital stay, rate of device failure, and rate of reoperation. The meta-analysis of overall clinical success supported the noninferiority of lumbar ADR compared with spinal fusion at 24-month follow-up. Of the remaining clinical outcome measures (ODI, pain VAS scores, SF-36 scores [mental and physical components], patient satisfaction, and return to work status), only patient satisfaction and scores on the physical component scale of the SF-36 questionnaire were significantly improved in favour of lumbar ADR compared with spinal fusion at 24 months follow-up. Blood loss and surgical time showed statistical heterogeneity; therefore, meta-analysis results are not interpretable. Length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in patients receiving the ADR compared with controls. Neither the number of device failures nor the number of neurological complications at 24 months was statistically significantly different between the ADR and fusion treatment groups. However, there was a trend towards fewer neurological complications at 24 months in the ADR treatment group compared with the spinal fusion treatment group. Results of the Bayesian analyses indicated that the influence of missing data on the outcome measure of clinical success was minimal. The Bayesian model indicated that the probability for ADR being better than spinal fusion was 79%. The probability of ADR being noninferior to spinal fusion using a -10% noninferiority bound was 92%, and using a -15% noninferiority bound was 94%. The probability of artificial discs being superior to spinal fusion in a future trial was 73%. Six case series were reviewed, mainly to characterize the rate of major complications for lumbar ADR. The Medical Advisory Secretariat defined a major complication as any reoperation; device failure necessitating a revision, removal or reoperation; or life-threatening event. The rates of major complications ranged from 0% to 13% per device implanted. Only 1 study reported the rate of ASD, which was detected in 2 (2%) of the 100 people 11 years after surgery. There were no RCT data available for cervical ADR; therefore, data from 4 case series were reviewed for evidence of effectiveness and safety. Because data were sparse, the effectiveness of cervical ADR compared with spinal fusion cannot be determined at this time. The rate of major complications was assessed up to 2 years after surgery. It was found to range from 0% to 8.1% per device implanted. The rate of ASD is not reported in the clinical trial literature. The total cost of a lumbar ADR procedure is $15,371 (Cdn; including costs related to the device, physician, and procedure). The total cost of a lumbar fusion surgery procedure is $11,311 (Cdn; including physicians’ and procedural costs). Conclusions Lumbar Artificial Disc Replacement Since the 2004 Medical Advisory Secretariat health technology policy assessment, data from 2 RCTs and 6 case series assessing the effectiveness and adverse events profile of lumbar ADR to treat DDD has become available. The GRADE quality of this evidence is moderate for effectiveness and for short-term (2-year follow-up) complications; it is very low for ASD. The effectiveness of lumbar ADR is not inferior to that of spinal fusion for the treatment of lumbar DDD. The rates for device failure and neurological complications 2 years after surgery did not differ between ADR and fusion patients. Based on a Bayesian meta-analysis, lumbar ADR is 79% superior to lumbar spinal fusion. The rate of major complications after lumbar ADR is between 0% and 13% per device implanted. The rate of ASD in 1 case series was 2% over an 11-year follow-up period. Outcome data for lumbar ADR beyond a 2-year follow-up are not yet available. Cervical Artificial Disc Replacement Since the 2004 Medical Advisory Secretariat health technology policy assessment, 4 case series have been added to the body of evidence assessing the effectiveness and adverse events profile of cervical ADR to treat DDD. The GRADE quality of this evidence is very low for effectiveness as well as for the adverse events profile. Sparse outcome data are available. Because data are sparse, the effectiveness of cervical ADR compared with spinal fusion cannot be determined at this time. The rate of major complications was assessed up to 2 years after surgery; it ranged from 0% to 8.1% per device implanted. The rate of ASD is not reported in the clinical trial literature. PMID:23074480

  18. Intrinsic disc emission and the soft X-ray excess in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, Chris; Davis, S. W.; Jin, C.; Blaes, O.; Ward, M.

    2012-03-01

    Narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies have low-mass black holes and mass accretion rates close to (or exceeding) Eddington, so a standard blackbody accretion disc should peak in the extreme ultraviolet. However, the lack of true absorption opacity in the disc means that the emission is better approximated by a colour temperature corrected blackbody, and this colour temperature correction is large enough (2.4) that the bare disc emission from a zero spin black hole can extend into the soft X-ray bandpass. Part of the soft X-ray excess seen in these objects must be intrinsic emission from the disc unless the vertical structure is very different to that predicted. None the less, this is not the whole story even for the extreme NLS1 as the shape of the soft excess is much broader than predicted by a bare disc spectrum, indicating some Compton upscattering by warm, optically thick material. We associate this with the disc itself, so it must ultimately be powered by mass accretion. We build an energetically self-consistent model assuming that the emission thermalizes to a (colour temperature corrected) blackbody only at large radii. At smaller radii the gravitational energy is split between powering optically thick Comptonized disc emission (forming the soft X-ray excess) and an optically thin corona above the disc (forming the tail to higher energies). We show examples of this model fit to the extreme NLS1 RE J1034+396, and to the much lower Eddington fraction broad-line Seyfert 1 PG 1048+231. We use these to guide our fits and interpretations of three template spectra made from co-adding multiple sources to track out a sequence of active galactic nucleus (AGN) spectra as a function of L/LEdd. Both the individual objects and template spectra show the surprising result that the Compton upscattered soft X-ray excess decreases in importance with increasing L/LEdd. The strongest soft excesses are associated with low mass accretion rate AGN rather than being tied to some change in disc structure around Eddington. We argue that this suggests a true break in accretion flow properties between stellar and supermassive black holes. The new model is publicly available within the XSPEC spectral fitting package.

  19. Biomechanical properties of human thoracic spine disc segments

    PubMed Central

    Stemper, Brian D.; Board, Derek; Yoganandan, Narayan; Wolfla, Christopher E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The objective was to determine the age-dependent compressive and tensile properties of female and male thoracic spine segments using postmortem human subjects (PMHS). Materials and Methods: Forty-eight thoracic disc segments at T4-5, T6-7, T8-9, and T10-11 levels from 12 PMHS T3-T11 spinal columns were divided into groups A and B based on specimen age and loaded in compression and tension. Stiffness and elastic modulus were computed. Stiffness was defined as the slope in the linear region of the forcedisplacement response. Elastic modulus was defined as the slope of the stress strain curve. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine significant differences (P<0.05) in the disc cross-sectional area, stiffness, and elastic modulus based on gender, spinal level, and group. Results: Specimen ages in group A (28 8 years) were significantly lower than in group B (70 7 years). Male discs had significantly greater area (7.2 2.0 sq cm) than female discs (5.9 1.8 sq cm). Tensile and compressive stiffness values were significantly different between the two age groups, but not between gender and level. Specimens in group A had greater tensile (486 108 N/mm) and compressive (3300 642 N/mm) stiffness values compared to group B specimens (tension: 397 124 N/mm, compression: 2527 734 N/mm). Tensile and compressive elastic modulus values depended upon age group and gender, but not on level. Group A specimens had significantly greater tensile and compressive moduli (2.9 0.8 MPa, 19.5 4.1 MPa) than group B specimens (1.7 0.6 MPa, 10.6 3.4 MPa). Female specimens showed significantly greater tensile and compressive moduli (2.6 1.0 MPa, 16.6 6.4 MPa) than male specimens (2.0 0.7 MPa, 13.7 5.0 MPa). Discussion: Using the two groups to represent "young" and "old" specimens, this study showed that the mechanical response decreases in older specimens, and the decrease is greater in compressive than distractive properties. While the decrease is expected, the relative change between the two modes of loading has not been reported. Another conclusion from the study is that the mechanical properties depend on gender, although not as decisive due to sample size. PMID:20890410

  20. A debris disc under the influence of a wide planetary-mass companion: the system of HD 106906

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jlkov, Lucie; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2015-07-01

    The 13-Myr old star HD 106906 is orbited by a debris disc of at least 0.067 MMoon with inner and outer radii of 20 and 120 au, respectively, and by a planet at a distance of 650 au. We use this curious combination of a close low-mass disc and a wide planet to motivate our simulations of this system. We study the parameter space of the initial conditions to quantify the mass loss from the debris disc and its lifetime under the influence of the planet. We find that when the planet orbits closer to the star than about 50 au and with low inclination relative to the disc (less than about 10), more disc material is perturbed outside than inside the region constrained by observations on time-scales shorter than 1 Myr. Considering the age of the system, such a short lifetime of the disc is incompatible with the time-scale for planet-planet scattering, which is one of the scenarios suggested to explain the wide separation of the planet. For some configurations, when the planet orbit is inclined with respect to the disc, the latter will start to wobble. We argue that this wobbling is caused by a mechanism similar to Kozai-Lidov oscillations. We also observe various resonant structures (such as rings and spiral arms) induced in the disc by the planet.

  1. DISC1 genetics, biology and psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    THOMSON, Pippa A.; MALAVASI, Elise L.V.; GRNEWALD, Ellen; SOARES, Dinesh C.; BORKOWSKA, Malgorzata; MILLAR, J. Kirsty

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are highly heritable, and in many individuals likely arise from the combined effects of genes and the environment. A substantial body of evidence points towards DISC1 being one of the genes that influence risk of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and functional studies of DISC1 consequently have the potential to reveal much about the pathways that lead to major mental illness. Here, we review the evidence that DISC1 influences disease risk through effects upon multiple critical pathways in the developing and adult brain. PMID:23550053

  2. [Lumbar disc herniation and andrological diseases].

    PubMed

    Jin, Bao-fang

    2015-10-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common male disease. In the past, More academic attention was directed to its relationship with lumbago and leg pain than to its association with andrological diseases. Studies show that central lumber intervertebral disc herniation may cause cauda equina injury and result in premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, priapism, and emission. This article presents an overview on the correlation between central lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and andrological diseases, focusing on the aspects of etiology, pathology, and clinical progress, hoping to invite more attention from andrological and osteological clinicians. PMID:26665671

  3. [Volumetric analysis of the optic papilla using laser scanning tomography. Parameter definition and comparison of glaucoma and control papilla].

    PubMed

    Burk, R O; Rohrschneider, K; Noack, H; Vlcker, H E

    1991-06-01

    We performed a three-dimensional structure analysis of the optic disc in 65 eyes of 65 patients (38 glaucoma patients, 27 control-group patients) using laser scanning tomography. Patients classified as glaucoma showed at least 3 points with a relative scotoma of -10 db loss or greater compared to age matched controls on static 30 degrees computerized perimetry. Control-group patients showed no relative scotoma outside the blind spot area compared to age matched controls. One way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant differences between the glaucoma (G) and the control-group (C) for excavation volume (+0.57 +/- 0.37 mm3 G/0.31 +/- 0.27 mm3 C, p less than 0.01), for the 3rd moment of the frequency distribution of excavation depths readings (-0.01 +/- -0.12 G/-0.13 +/- -0.09 C, p less than 0.001), area ratio (0.75 +/- 0.15 G/0.57 +/- 0.16 C, p less than 0.001), depth area ratio (0.35 +/- 0.24 G/0.18 +/- 0.12 C, p less than 0.001). A stepwise discriminant analysis classified 32 of 38 (84.2%) glaucoma discs and 21 of 27 (77.8%) control-group discs by a linear combination of 5 out of 15 topographic parameters. The results suggest that a combination of topographic parameters may provide an objective optic disc classification. PMID:1895722

  4. The internal mechanical properties of cervical intervertebral discs as revealed by stress profilometry.

    PubMed

    Skrzypiec, Daniel M; Pollintine, Phillip; Przybyla, Andrzej; Dolan, Patricia; Adams, Michael A

    2007-10-01

    Extensive anatomical differences suggest that cervical and lumbar discs may have functional differences also. We investigated human cervical discs using "stress profilometry". Forty-six cadaveric cervical motion segments aged 48-90 years were subjected to a compressive load of 200 N for 20 s, while compressive 'stress' was recorded along the posterior-anterior midline of the disc using a pressure transducer, side-mounted in a 0.9 mm diameter needle. Stress profiles were repeated with the transducer orientated horizontally and vertically, and with the specimen in neutral, flexed and extended postures. Profiles were repeated again following creep loading (150 N, 2 h) which simulated diurnal water loss in vivo. Stress profiles were reproducible, and measured "stress" at each location was proportional to applied load. Stress profiles usually showed a hydrostatic nucleus with regions of higher compressive stress concentrated anteriorly in flexion, and posteriorly in extension. Stress concentrations increased in degenerated discs and following creep. Some features were unique to cervical discs: many showed a stress gradient across their central regions, even though vertical and horizontal stresses were equal to each other, and stress concentrations in the posterior annulus were generally small. Central regions of many cervical discs show the characteristics of a "tethered fluid" which can equalise stress over small distances, but not large. This may be attributable to their fibrous texture. The small radial diameter of the cervical posterior annulus may facilitate buckling and thereby prevent it from sustaining high compressive stresses. PMID:17671801

  5. X-ray variability of SS 433: effects of the supercritical accretion disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atapin, Kirill; Fabrika, Sergei; Medvedev, Aleksei; Vinokurov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We study a stochastic variability of SS 433 in the 10-4-5 10-2 Hz frequency range based on RXTE data, and on simultaneous observations with RXTE and optical telescopes. We find that the cross-correlation functions and power spectra depend drastically on the precession phase of the supercritical accretion disc. When the wind funnel of the disc is maximally open to the observer, a flat part emerges in the power spectrum; a break is observed at the frequency 1.7 10-3 Hz, with a power-law index ? ? 1.67 at higher frequencies. The soft emission forming mostly in the jets lags behind the hard and optical emission. When the observer does not see the funnel and jets (the `edge-on' disc), the power spectrum is described by a single power-law with ? ? 1.34 and no correlations between X-ray ranges are detected. We investigated two mechanisms to explain the observed variability at the open disc phase: (1) reflection of radiation at the funnel wall (X-rays and optical) and (2) the gas cooling in the jets (X-rays only). The X-ray variability is determined by the contribution of both mechanisms; however, the contribution of the jets is much higher. We found that the funnel size is (2-2.5) 1012 cm, and the opening angle is ?f 50. X-ray jets may consist of three fractions with different densities: 8 1013, 3 1013 and 5 1011 cm-3, with most of the jet's mass falling within the latter fraction. We suppose that revealed flat part in the power spectrum may be related to an abrupt change in the disc structure and viscous time-scale at the spherization radius, because the accretion disc becomes thick at this radius, h/r 1. The extent of the flat spectrum depends on the variation of viscosity at the spherization radius.

  6. Kilonova light curves from the disc wind outflows of compact object mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasen, Daniel; Fernández, Rodrigo; Metzger, Brian D.

    2015-06-01

    We study the radioactively powered transients produced by accretion disc winds following a compact object merger. Based on the outflows found in two-dimensional hydrodynamical disc models, we use wavelength-dependent radiative transfer calculations to generate synthetic light curves and spectra. We show that resulting kilonova transients generally produce both optical and infrared emission, with the brightness and colour carrying information about the merger physics. In those regions of the wind subject to high neutrino irradiation, r-process nucleosynthesis may halt before producing high-opacity, complex ions (the lanthanides). The kilonova light curves thus typically has two distinct components: a brief (˜2 d) blue optical transient produced in the outer lanthanide-free ejecta, and a longer (˜10 d) infrared transient produced in the inner, lanthanide line-blanketed region. Mergers producing a longer lived neutron star, or a more rapidly spinning black hole, have stronger neutrino irradiation, generate more lanthanide-free ejecta and are optically brighter and bluer. At least some optical emission is produced in all disc wind models, which should enhance the detectability of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave sources. However, the presence of even a small amount (10-4 M⊙) of overlying, neutron-rich dynamical ejecta will act as a `lanthanide-curtain', obscuring the optical wind emission from certain viewing angles. Because the disc outflows have moderate velocities (˜10 000 km s-1), numerous resolved line features are discernible in the spectra, distinguishing disc winds from fast-moving dynamical ejecta, and offering a potential diagnostic of the detailed composition of freshly produced r-process material.

  7. Stochastic angular momentum slews and flips and their effect on discs in galaxy formation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Nelson D.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Contreras, Sergio; Cora, Sofa A.; Ruiz, Andrs N.

    2014-09-01

    The angular momentum of galactic discs in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation is usually updated in time as material is accreted to the disc by adopting a constant dimensionless spin parameter and little attention is paid to the effects of accretion with misaligned angular momenta. These effects are the subject of this paper, where we adopt a Monte Carlo simulation for the changes in the direction of the angular momentum of a galaxy disc as it accretes matter based on accurate measurements from dark-matter haloes in the Millennium II simulation. In our semi-analytic model implementation, the flips seen in the dark-matter haloes are assumed to be the same for the cold baryons; however, we also assume that in the latter the flip also entails a difficulty for the disc to increase its angular momentum which causes the disc to become smaller relative to a no-flip case. This makes star formation to occur faster, especially in low-mass galaxies at all redshifts allowing galaxies to reach higher stellar masses faster. We adopt a new condition for the triggering of starbursts during mergers. As these produce the largest flips it is natural to adopt the disc instability criterion to evaluate the triggering of bursts in mergers instead of one based on mass ratios as in the original model. The new implementation reduces the average lifetimes of discs by a factor of 2, while still allowing old ages for the present-day discs of large spiral galaxies. It also provides a faster decline of star formation in massive galaxies and a better fit to the bright end of the luminosity function at z = 0.

  8. Effect of Mechanical Strain on Solute Diffusion in Human TMJ Discs: An Electrical Conductivity Study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gregory J.; Kuo, Jonathan; Shi, Changcheng; Bacro, Thierry H.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Yao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of mechanical strain on solute diffusion in human TMJ discs (mean cadaver age 77.8) using the electrical conductivity method. The electrical conductivity, as well as small ion diffusivity, of male and female TMJ discs was determined under three compressive strains. In the male group, the average disc electrical conductivity (mean ± sd) at 0% strain was 5.14±0.97 mS/cm, decreased to 4.50±0.91 mS/cm (−12.3%) at 10% strain, and 3.93±0.81 mS/cm (−23.5%) at 20% compressive strain. Correspondingly, the average disc relative ion diffusivity at 0% strain was 0.44±0.08, decreased to 0.40±0.08 (−8.9%) at 10% strain, and 0.36±0.08 (−16.7%) at 20% compressive strain. In the female group, the average disc electrical conductivity at 0% strain was 5.84±0.59 mS/cm, decreased to 5.01±0.50 mS/cm (−14.2%) at 10% strain, and 4.33±0.46 mS/cm (−25.8%) at 20% compressive strain. Correspondingly, the average disc relative ion diffusivity at 0% strain was 0.49±0.05, decreased to 0.43±0.04 (−11.3%) at 10% strain, and 0.39±0.04 (−19.9%) at 20% compressive strain. The results indicated that mechanical strain significantly impeded solute diffusion through the disc. This mechanical strain effect was larger in the female than in the male human TMJ disc. This study may provide new insights into TMJ pathophysiology. PMID:23771300

  9. Stirring in Massive, Young Debris Discs from Spatially Resolved Herschel Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moor, A.; Kospal, A.; Abraham, P.; Apai, D.; Balog, Z.; Grady, Carol A.; Henning, Th.; Juhasz, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Krivov, A. V.; Pawellek, N.; Szabo, Gy. M.

    2014-01-01

    A significant fraction of main-sequence stars are encircled by dusty debris discs, where the short-lived dust particles are replenished through collisions between planetesimals. Most destructive collisions occur when the orbits of smaller bodies are dynamically stirred up, either by the gravitational effect of locally formed Pluto-sized planetesimals (self-stirring scenario), or via secular perturbation caused by an inner giant planet (planetary stirring). The relative importance of these scenarios in debris systems is unknown. Here we present new Herschel Space Observatory imagery of 11 discs selected from the most massive and extended known debris systems. All discs were found to be extended at far-infrared wavelengths, five of them being resolved for the first time. We evaluated the feasibility of the self-stirring scenario by comparing the measured disc sizes with the predictions of the model calculated for the ages of our targets. We concluded that the self-stirring explanation works for seven discs. However, in four cases, the predicted pace of outward propagation of the stirring front, assuming reasonable initial disc masses, was far too low to explain the radial extent of the cold dust. Therefore, for HD9672, HD16743, HD21997, and HD95086, another explanation is needed. We performed a similar analysis for Beta Pic and HR8799, reaching the same conclusion. We argue that planetary stirring is a promising possibility to explain the disk properties in these systems. In HR8799 and HD95086 we may already know the potential perturber, since their known outer giant planets could be responsible for the stirring process. Interestingly, the discs around HD9672, HD21997, and Beta Pic are also unique in harbouring detectable amount of molecular CO gas. Our study demonstrates that among the largest and most massive debris discs self-stirring may not be the only active scenario, and potentially planetary stirring is responsible for destructive collisions and debris dust production in a number of systems.

  10. Effect of repetitive laser pulses on the electrical conductivity of intervertebral disc tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Omel'chenko, A I; Sobol', E N

    2009-03-31

    The thermomechanical effect of 1.56-{mu}m fibre laser pulses on intervertebral disc cartilage has been studied using ac conductivity measurements with coaxial electrodes integrated with an optical fibre for laser radiation delivery to the tissue. The observed time dependences of tissue conductivity can be interpreted in terms of hydraulic effects and thermomechanical changes in tissue structure. The laserinduced changes in the electrical parameters of the tissue are shown to correlate with the structural changes, which were visualised using shadowgraph imaging. Local ac conductivity measurements in the bulk of tissue can be used to develop a diagnostic/monitoring system for laser regeneration of intervertebral discs. (laser biology and medicine)

  11. InVivo Measurement of Age-Related Stiffening in the Crystalline Lens by Brillouin Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scarcelli, Giuliano; Kim, Pilhan; Yun, SeokHyun

    2011-01-01

    Abtract The biophysical and biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens (e.g., viscoelasticity) have long been implicated in accommodation and vision problems, such as presbyopia and cataracts. However, it has been difficult to measure such parameters noninvasively. Here, we used invivo Brillouin optical microscopy to characterize material acoustic properties at GHz frequency and measure the longitudinal elastic moduli of lenses. We obtained three-dimensional elasticity maps of the lenses in live mice, which showed biomechanical heterogeneity in the cortex and nucleus of the lens with high spatial resolution. An invivo longitudinal study of mice over a period of 2months revealed a marked age-related stiffening of the lens nucleus. We found remarkably good correlation (log-log linear) between the Brillouin elastic modulus and the Young's modulus measured by conventional mechanical techniques at low frequencies (?1Hz). Our results suggest that Brillouin microscopy is potentially useful for basic and animal research and clinical ophthalmology. PMID:21943436

  12. Evolution of solids in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornet, K.

    2006-10-01

    1d code designed to track the evolution of solids in protoplanetary discs from an early stage, when all solids are in the dust form, to the stage when most solids are in the form of a planetesimal swarm.

  13. Treatment of lumbar disc herniation by percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) and modified PLDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiao fei; Li, Hong zhi; Wu, Ru zhou; Sui, Yun xian

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To study the micro-invasive operative method and to compare the effect of treatment of PLDD and modified PLDD for Lumbar Disc Herniation. Method: Vaporized part of the nucleus pulposus in single or multiple point after acupuncture into lumbar disc, to reach the purpose of the decompression of the lumbar disc. Result: Among the 19 cases of the regular PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 63.2%, and among the 40 cases of the modified PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 82.5%. Conclusion: The modified PLDD has good effect on the treatment for lumbar disc herniation.

  14. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  15. Mach disc formation in cylindrical recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.E.; McQueen, R.G.; Marsh, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Cylindrical recovery systems have been used to shock-load polymers to pressures exceeding 50 GPa. In order to determine the pressures generated in these recovery systems the formation of the Mach disc on axis and its approach to steady state was monitored. The relation of the Mach disc diameter to the lateral dimension of the high explosive used to compress the polymer samples was also investigated.

  16. Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams

    DOEpatents

    Mrochek, John E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dinsmore, Stanley R. (Norris, TN); Chandler, Edward W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A four-port disc valve for sampling erosive, high temperature process streams. A rotatable disc defining opposed first and second sampling cavities rotates between fired faceplates defining flow passageways positioned to be alternatively in axial alignment with the first and second cavities. Silicon carbide inserts and liners composed of .alpha. silicon carbide are provided in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities to limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation when used under harsh process conditions.

  17. Optical ages indicate the southwestern margin of the Green Bay Lobe in Wisconsin, USA, was at its maximum extent until about 18,500 years ago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attig, J.W.; Hanson, P.R.; Rawling, J.E.; Young, A.R.; Carson, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Samples for optical dating were collected to estimate the time of sediment deposition in small ice-marginal lakes in the Baraboo Hills of Wisconsin. These lakes formed high in the Baraboo Hills when drainage was blocked by the Green Bay Lobe when it was at or very near its maximum extent. Therefore, these optical ages provide control for the timing of the thinning and recession of the Green Bay Lobe from its maximum position. Sediment that accumulated in four small ice-marginal lakes was sampled and dated. Difficulties with field sampling and estimating dose rates made the interpretation of optical ages derived from samples from two of the lake basins problematic. Samples from the other two lake basins-South Bluff and Feltz basins-responded well during laboratory analysis and showed reasonably good agreement between the multiple ages produced at each site. These ages averaged 18.2. ka (n= 6) and 18.6. ka (n= 6), respectively. The optical ages from these two lake basins where we could carefully select sediment samples provide firm evidence that the Green Bay Lobe stood at or very near its maximum extent until about 18.5. ka.The persistence of ice-marginal lakes in these basins high in the Baraboo Hills indicates that the ice of the Green Bay Lobe had not experienced significant thinning near its margin prior to about 18.5. ka. These ages are the first to directly constrain the timing of the maximum extent of the Green Bay Lobe and the onset of deglaciation in the area for which the Wisconsin Glaciation was named. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Tidally distorted accretion discs in binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, G. I.

    2002-03-01

    The non-axisymmetric features observed in the discs of dwarf novae in outburst are usually considered to be spiral shocks, which are the non-linear relatives of tidally excited waves. This interpretation suffers from a number of problems. For example, the natural site of wave excitation lies outside the Roche lobe, the disc must be especially hot, and most treatments of wave propagation do not take into account the vertical structure of the disc. In this paper I construct a detailed semi-analytical model of the non-linear tidal distortion of a thin, three-dimensional accretion disc by a binary companion on a circular orbit. The analysis presented here allows for vertical motion and radiative energy transport, and introduces a simple model for the turbulent magnetic stress. The m=2 inner vertical resonance has an important influence on the amplitude and phase of the tidal distortion. I show that the observed patterns find a natural explanation if the emission is associated with the tidally thickened sectors of the outer disc, which may be irradiated from the centre. According to this hypothesis, it may be possible to constrain the physical parameters of the disc through future observations.

  19. Angular momentum transport in protostellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmeron, Raquel; Knigl, Arieh; Wardle, Mark

    2007-02-01

    Angular momentum transport in protostellar discs can take place either radially, through turbulence induced by the magnetorotational instability (MRI), or vertically, through the torque exerted by a large-scale magnetic field that threads the disc. Using semi-analytic and numerical results, we construct a model of steady-state discs that includes vertical transport by a centrifugally driven wind as well as MRI-induced turbulence. We present approximate criteria for the occurrence of either one of these mechanisms in an ambipolar diffusion-dominated disc. We derive `strong field' solutions in which the angular momentum transport is purely vertical and `weak field' solutions that are the stratified-disc analogues of the previously studied MRI channel modes; the latter are transformed into accretion solutions with predominantly radial angular momentum transport when we implement a turbulent-stress prescription based on published results of numerical simulations. We also analyse `intermediate field strength' solutions in which both modes of transport operate at the same radial location; we conclude, however, that significant spatial overlap of these two mechanisms is unlikely to occur in practice. To further advance this study, we have developed a general scheme that incorporates also the Hall and Ohm conductivity regimes in discs with a realistic ionization structure.

  20. Percutaneous Disc Coagulation Therapy (PDCT) comparing with Automated Percutaneous Lumbar Discectomy (APLD) in Patients of Herniated Lumbar Disc Disease: Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Cheon Wook; Lee, Joo Yong; Choi, Woo Jin

    2012-01-01

    Objective Percutaneous techniques are rapidly replacing traditional open surgery. This is a randomized controlled trial study of clinical outcomes of Percutaneous Plasma Disc Coagulation Therapy (PDCT) in patients with HLD(herniated lumbar disc) as a new percutaneous access in comparison with Automated Percutaneous Lumbar Discectomy (APLD) in its clinical application and usefulness as a reliable alternative method. Methods The authors analyzed 25 patients who underwent PDCT randomized 1:1 to 25 who underwent APLD between June, 2010 and October, 2011. All patients had herniated lumbar disc diseases. The clinical outcomes were evaluated using Visual Analog Scales (VAS) score and MacNab's criteria. Results The age of the patients who underwent PDCT ranged from 29 to 88 years with a mean age of 51.8 years. The age of the APLD undergone patients' population ranged from 30 to 66 with a mean age of 46.0 years. The average preoperative VAS score in PDCT was 7.60 and 1.94 at 7months post-operatively, and in APLD was 7.32, and 3.53 at 7 months post-operatively (p<0.001). In Macnab's criteria, 20 patients (80%) had achieved favorable improvement (excellent and good) in PDCT group. In Macnab's criteria, 16 patients (64%) had achieved favorable improvement in APLD group (p<0.001). Conclusion PDCT can be considered a viable option as a new percutaneous access to herniated lumbar disc. PDCT showed to be more effective than APLD in this study, allowing stable decompression and safe minimally invasive operation to an area desired by the operator in lumbar disc herniation patients, although further long term clinical evaluations are still necessary. PMID:25983808

  1. Spontaneous Regression of a Large Lumbar Disc Extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Sung-Joo

    2010-01-01

    Although the spontaneous disappearance or decrease in size of a herniated disc is well known, that of a large extruded disc has rarely been reported. This paper reports a case of a spontaneous regression of a large lumbar disc extrusion. The disc regressed spontaneously with clinical improvement and was documented on a follow up MRI study 6 months later. The literature is reviewed and the possible mechanisms of spontaneous disc regression are discussed. PMID:21082061

  2. Energy flows in thick accretion discs and their consequences for black hole feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Lasota, Jean-Pierre; Abramowicz, Marek A.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    We study energy flows in geometrically thick accretion discs, both optically thick and thin, using general relativistic, three-dimensional simulations of black hole accretion flows. We find that for non-rotating black holes the efficiency of the total feedback from thick accretion discs is 3 per cent - roughly half of the thin disc efficiency. This amount of energy is ultimately distributed between outflow and radiation, the latter scaling weakly with the accretion rate for super-critical accretion rates, and returned to the interstellar medium. Accretion on to rotating black holes is more efficient because of the additional extraction of rotational energy. However, the jet component is collimated and likely to interact only weakly with the environment, whereas the outflow and radiation components cover a wide solid angle.

  3. Stellar irradiated discs and implications on migration of embedded planets. I. Equilibrium discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsch, B.; Crida, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Kley, W.; Dobbs-Dixon, I.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The strength and direction of migration of embedded low mass planets depends on the disc's thermodynamic state. It has been shown that, in discs where the viscous heating is balanced by radiative transport, the migration can be directed outwards, a process which extends the lifetime of growing planetary embryos. Aims: We investigate the influence of opacity and stellar irradiation on the disc thermodynamics. We focus on equilibrium discs, which have no net mass flux. Utilizing the resulting disc structure, we determine the regions of outward migration in the disc. Methods: We performed two-dimensional numerical simulations of equilibrium discs with viscous heating, radiative cooling, and stellar irradiation. We used the explicit/implicit hydrodynamical code NIRVANA that includes a full tensor viscosity and stellar irradiation, as well as a two temperature solver that includes radiation transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation. The migration of embedded planets was studied by using torque formulae. Results: In the constant opacity case, our code reproduces the analytical results corresponding to a black-body disc: the stellar irradiation dominates in the outer regions - leading to flaring (H/r ? r2/7) - while the viscous heating dominates close to the star. In particular, we find that the inner edge of the disc should not be significantly puffed-up by the stellar irradiation. If the opacity depends on the local density and temperature, the structure of the disc is different, and several bumps in the aspect ratio H/r appear, due to transitions between different opacity regimes. The bumps in the disc structure are very important, as they can shield the outer disc from stellar irradiation. Conclusions: Stellar irradiation is an important factor for determining the disc structure and has dramatic consequences for the migration of embedded planets. Compared to discs with only viscous heating and radiative cooling, a stellar irradiated disc features a much smaller region of outward migration for a range of planetary masses. This suggests that the region where the formation of giant planet cores takes place is smaller, which in turn might lead to a shorter growth phase.

  4. Contradictory ageing behaviour and optical property of iodine doped and H2SO4 doped pulsed DC plasma polymerized aniline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Tapan; Pal, Arup R.

    2013-10-01

    Polymerization of aniline in the presence of H2SO4 and iodine vapour is carried out using pulsed DC glow discharge plasma. The as prepared iodine doped plasma polymerized aniline films are found to be highly crystalline due to some crystal structure formed by the iodine incorporated into the film and the ex-situ H2SO4 doped films are found to be amorphous. However, the structure of the iodine doped films transforms to amorphous one while that of the ex-situ H2SO4 doped films transforms to crystalline one due to the effect of ageing. The optical band gap of the samples decreases depending upon the level of doping and annealing, having minimum optical band gap for iodine doped plasma polymerized aniline. Due to ageing, the optical property of the H2SO4 doped film is found to become superior while for iodine doped films a negligible change of the optical property has been noticed even after six months of ageing.

  5. Markers of lutein and zeaxanthin status in two age groups of men and women: dietary intake, serum concentrations, lipid profile and macular pigment optical density

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in retina (macular pigment). Their nutritional status can be assessed using dietary or biochemical markers and both have been associated with macular pigment optical density. We proposed to assess dietary and status markers of lutein and zeaxanthin in a group of healthy Spanish volunteers, considering the potential influence of age, gender and serum lipids to investigate the predictors of the macular pigment optical density. Methods Serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations, dietary intake and macular pigment optical density were determined in 108 healthy men and women (2035 and 4565 years), using high-performance liquid chromatography, 3-day food records and heterochromic flicker photometry, respectively. MannWhitney U-test, Spearman correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analysis were used for the statistical study. Results Serum concentrations and dietary intake of lutein plus zeaxanthin (p?optical density was lower (p?=?0.038). The highest correlation coefficients between intake and serum were for fruit and serum lutein (??=?0.452, p?optical density correlated with serum xanthophylls (??=?0.223, p?=?0.02) and fruit and vegetable intake (??=?0.350, p?=?0.0002), showing highest correlations when lutein and zeaxanthin were expressed in relation to serum lipids in older subjects (??=?0.262, p?=?0.006). Multivariate regression analysis identified age and serum lutein as major predictors of macular pigment optical density (total sample), and a coefficient of determination of 29.7% for the model including lutein?+?zeaxathin/cholesterol?+?triglycerides, sex and fruit?+?vegetables in the older group. Conclusions The establishment of normal/reference ranges for serum lutein and zeaxanthin should consider age ranges and be expressed in relation to lipid concentrations, at least in subjects over 45years, as this could influence macular pigment optical density. The macular pigment optical density showed age-specific correlations with lutein plus zeaxanthin expressed in relation to serum lipid concentrations as well as with the fruit and vegetable intake. PMID:24889185

  6. Quantitative Classification of Eyes with and without Intermediate Age-related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Farsiu, Sina; Chiu, Stephanie J.; O'Connell, Rachelle V.; Folgar, Francisco A.; Yuan, Eric; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To define quantitative indicators for the presence of intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) via spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging of older adults. Design Evaluation of diagnostic test and technology. Participants and Controls One eye from 115 elderly subjects without AMD and 269 subjects with intermediate AMD from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Ancillary SD-OCT Study. Methods We semiautomatically delineated the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and RPE drusen complex (RPEDC, the axial distance from the apex of the drusen and RPE layer to Bruch's membrane) and total retina (TR, the axial distance between the inner limiting and Bruch's membranes) boundaries. We registered and averaged the thickness maps from control subjects to generate a map of “normal” non-AMD thickness. We considered RPEDC thicknesses larger or smaller than 3 standard deviations from the mean as abnormal, indicating drusen or geographic atrophy (GA), respectively. We measured TR volumes, RPEDC volumes, and abnormal RPEDC thickening and thinning volumes for each subject. By using different combinations of these 4 disease indicators, we designed 5 automated classifiers for the presence of AMD on the basis of the generalized linear model regression framework. We trained and evaluated the performance of these classifiers using the leave-one-out method. Main Outcome Measures The range and topographic distribution of the RPEDC and TR thicknesses in a 5-mm diameter cylinder centered at the fovea. Results The most efficient method for separating AMD and control eyes required all 4 disease indicators. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for this classifier was >0.99. Overall neurosensory retinal thickening in eyes with AMD versus control eyes in our study contrasts with previous smaller studies. Conclusions We identified and validated efficient biometrics to distinguish AMD from normal eyes by analyzing the topographic distribution of normal and abnormal RPEDC thicknesses across a large atlas of eyes. We created an online atlas to share the 38 400 SD-OCT images in this study, their corresponding segmentations, and quantitative measurements. Financial Disclosure(s) Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. PMID:23993787

  7. DENVER DISC FILTER IN CO91107, SHOWING FIVE DOUBLESIDED DISCS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DENVER DISC FILTER IN CO-91-107, SHOWING FIVE DOUBLE-SIDED DISCS AND DRIVE MOTOR. NOTE FOUR VERTICAL SLURRY FEED PIPES FROM OVERHEAD MANIFOLD AND SUCTION PIPE IN FOREGROUND. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  8. Preparation of ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine-medicated discs for disc diffusion assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Romet ( a blend of ormetoprim and sulfadimethoxine) is a type A medicated article for the manufacture of medicated feed in the catfish industry. Recently, the commercial manufacture of ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine susceptibility discs was discontinued. Ormetoprim-sulfadimethoxine discs were prepare...

  9. Modeling and optimization of an elastic arthroplastic disc for a degenerated disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouchani, Azadeh; Ravari, Mohammad; Mahmoudi, Farid

    2011-10-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the L3-L4 motion segment using ABAQUS v 6.9 has been developed. The model took into account the material nonlinearities and is imposed different loading conditions. In this study, we validated the model by comparison of its predictions with several sets of experimental data. Disc deformation under compression and segmental rotational motions under moment loads for the normal disc model agreed well with the corresponding in vivo studies. By linking ABAQUS with MATLAB 2010.a, we determined the optimal Young s modulus as well as the Poisson's ratio for the artificial disc under different physiologic loading conditions. The results of the present study confirmed that a well-designed elastic arthroplastic disc preferably has an annulus modulus of 19.1 MPa and 1.24 MPa for nucleus section and Poisson ratio of 0.41 and 0.47 respectively. Elastic artificial disc with such properties can then achieve the goal of restoring the disc height and mechanical function of intact disc under different loading conditions and so can reduce low back pain which is mostly caused due to disc degeneration.

  10. The Project MACULA Retinal Pigment Epithelium Grading System for Histology and Optical Coherence Tomography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zanzottera, Emma C.; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Ach, Thomas; Smith, R. Theodore; Freund, K. Bailey; Curcio, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To seek pathways of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fate in age-related macular degeneration via a morphology grading system; provide nomenclature, visualization targets, and metrics for clinical imaging and model systems. Methods. Donor eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and one GA eye with previous clinical spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) imaging were processed for histology, photodocumented, and annotated at predefined locations. Retinal pigment epithelial cells contained spindle-shaped melanosomes, apposed a basal lamina or basal laminar deposit (BLamD), and exhibited recognizable morphologies. Thicknesses and unbiased estimates of frequencies were obtained. Results. In 13 GA eyes (449 locations), Shedding, Sloughed, and Dissociated morphologies were abundant; 22.2% of atrophic locations had Dissociated RPE. In 39 CNV eyes (1363 locations), 37.3% of locations with fibrovascular/fibrocellular scar had Entombed RPE; Sloughed, Dissociated, and Bilaminar morphologies were abundant. Of abnormal RPE, CNV and GA both had ?35% Sloughed/Intraretinal, with more Intraretinal in CNV (9.5% vs. 1.8%). Shedding cells associated with granule aggregations in BLamD. The RPE layer did not thin, and BLamD remained thick, with progression. Granule-containing material consistent with three morphologies correlated to SDOCT hyperreflective foci in the previously examined GA patient. Conclusions. Retinal pigment epithelium morphology indicates multiple pathways in GA and CNV. Atrophic/scarred areas have numerous cells capable of transcribing genes and generating imaging signals. Shed granule aggregates, possibly apoptotic, are visible in SDOCT, as are Dissociated and Sloughed cells. The significance of RPE phenotypes is addressable in longitudinal, high-resolution imaging in clinic populations. Data can motivate future molecular phenotyping studies. PMID:25813989

  11. Identification of Drusen Characteristics in Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Schlanitz, Ferdinand G.; Sacu, Stefan; Baumann, Bernhard; Bolz, Matthias; Platzer, Maria; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe qualitative characteristics of drusen in eyes with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients with early to intermediate (nonadvanced) AMD were imaged with polarization-sensitive OCT using macular volume scans. All individual drusen in each B-scan were manually delineated by experts certified by a reading center and graded for 6 different morphologic characteristics based on a defined classification scheme, including the presence of internal depolarizing structures and associated depolarizing foci. With the use of a custom-made software, the central B-scan of each individual druse was selected and used to analyze its location, diameter, and characteristics and assess the prevalence of the different features and relations between them. Results Using the macular volume scans, 6224 individual drusen could be identified, including their position within the retina, their characteristics, and their association with any pigmentary alterations. The most common drusen type was a convex-shaped druse with homogeneous medium internal reflectivity and no depolarizing contents (55.3% of drusen). A total of 30.5% of the drusen exhibited internal depolarizing material; 0.3% presented overlying hyperreflective foci, and in 54.5% the foci were also depolarizing. Significant correlations were found between the diameter of the drusen and their distribution throughout the retina, shape, homogeneity of internal reflectivity, presence of internal depolarizing characteristics, and presence of overlying foci (P < .001 each). Significant relations were found between reflectivity, homogeneity, and polarization-sensitive internal characteristics (P < .001). Conclusions Polarization-sensitive OCT reveals characteristic morphologic features of different druse types highlighting the pathophysiological spectrum of early to intermediate AMD. PMID:25982973

  12. Only marginal alignment of disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrae, Ren; Jahnke, Knud

    2011-12-01

    Testing theories of angular-momentum acquisition of rotationally supported disc galaxies is the key to understanding the formation of this type of galaxies. The tidal-torque theory aims to explain this acquisition process in a cosmological framework and predicts positive autocorrelations of angular-momentum orientation and spiral-arm handedness, i.e. alignment of disc galaxies, on short distance scales of 1 Mpc h-1. This disc alignment can also cause systematic effects in weak-lensing measurements. Previous observations claimed discovering these correlations but are overly optimistic in the reported level of statistical significance of the detections. Errors in redshift, ellipticity and morphological classifications were not taken into account, although they have a significant impact. We explain how to rigorously propagate all the important errors through the estimation process. Analysing disc galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base, we find that positive autocorrelations of spiral-arm handedness and angular-momentum orientations on distance scales of 1 Mpc h-1 are plausible but not statistically significant. Current data appear not good enough to constrain parameters of theory. This result agrees with a simple hypothesis test in the Local Group, where we also find no evidence for disc alignment. Moreover, we demonstrate that ellipticity estimates based on second moments are strongly biased by galactic bulges even for Scd galaxies, thereby corrupting correlation estimates and overestimating the impact of disc alignment on weak-lensing studies. Finally, we discuss the potential of future sky surveys. We argue that photometric redshifts have too large errors, i.e. PanSTARRS and LSST cannot be used. Conversely, the EUCLID project will not cover the relevant redshift regime. We also discuss the potentials and problems of front-edge classifications of galaxy discs in order to improve the autocorrelation estimates of angular-momentum orientation.

  13. Posterior Transpedicular Dynamic Stabilization versus Total Disc Replacement in the Treatment of Lumbar Painful Degenerative Disc Disease: A Comparison of Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Oktenoglu, Tunc; Ozer, Ali Fahir; Sasani, Mehdi; Ataker, Yaprak; Gomleksiz, Cengiz; Celebi, Irfan

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective clinical study. Objective. This study compares the clinical results of anterior lumbar total disc replacement and posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization in the treatment of degenerative disc disease. Summary and Background Data. Over the last two decades, both techniques have emerged as alternative treatment options to fusion surgery. Methods. This study was conducted between 2004 and 2010 with a total of 50 patients (25 in each group). The mean age of the patients in total disc prosthesis group was 37,32 years. The mean age of the patients in posterior dynamic transpedicular stabilization was 43,08. Clinical (VAS and Oswestry) and radiological evaluations (lumbar lordosis and segmental lordosis angles) of the patients were carried out prior to the operation and 3, 12, and 24 months after the operation. We compared the average duration of surgery, blood loss during the surgery and the length of hospital stay of both groups. Results. Both techniques offered significant improvements in clinical parameters. There was no significant change in radiologic evaluations after the surgery for both techniques. Conclusion. Both dynamic systems provided spine stability. However, the posterior dynamic system had a slight advantage over anterior disc prosthesis because of its convenient application and fewer possible complications. PMID:23401784

  14. Accretion discs as regulators of stellar angular momentum evolution in the ONC and Taurus-Auriga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Claire L.; Gregory, Scott G.; Greaves, Jane S.

    2014-10-01

    In light of recent substantial updates to spectral type estimations and newly established intrinsic colours, effective temperatures, and bolometric corrections for pre-main sequence (PMS) stars, we re-address the theory of accretion disc-regulated stellar angular momentum (AM) evolution. We report on the compilation of a consistent sample of fully convective stars within two of the most well-studied and youngest, nearby regions of star formation: the Orion nebula Cluster and Taurus-Auriga. We calculate the average specific stellar AM (j⋆) assuming solid body rotation, using surface rotation periods gathered from the literature and new estimates of stellar radii and ages. We use published Spitzer IRAC fluxes to classify our stars as Class II or Class III and compare their j⋆ evolution. Our results suggest that disc dispersal is a rapid process that occurs at a variety of ages. We find a consistent j⋆ reduction rate between the Class II and Class III PMS stars which we interpret as indicating a period of accretion disc-regulated AM evolution followed by near-constant AM evolution once the disc has dissipated. Furthermore, assuming our observed spread in stellar ages is real, we find that the removal rate of j⋆ during the Class II phase is more rapid than expected by contraction at constant stellar rotation rate. A much more efficient process of AM removal must exist, most likely in the form of an accretion-driven stellar wind or other outflow from the star-disc interaction region or extended disc surface.

  15. Long term preservation of motion with artificial cervical disc implants: A comparison between cervical disc replacement and rigid fusion with cage

    PubMed Central

    Cincu, Rafael; Lorente, Francisco de Asis; Gomez, Joaquin; Eiras, Jose; Agrawal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background: With the advancement of technologies there is more interest in the maintenance of the spine's biomechanical properties focusing on the preservation of the functional motion segment. In present article we describe our experience with 25 cases managed with artificial cervical discs with 28 Solis cage following cervical discectomy with a mean follow-up period of 7.5 year. Materials and Methods: All surgeries were performed by single surgeon from March 2004 to June 2005 with a follow-up till date. Patients with symptomatic single or multiple level diseases that had no prior cervical surgery were candidates for the study. Cohort demographics were comparable. Standardized clinical outcome measures and radiographic examinations were used at prescribed post-operative intervals to compare the treatment groups. Relief in radicular pain, cervical spine motion, and degenerative changes at follow-up were noted. Results: In a total 53 cases, the mean age in prosthesis group was 47 years (age range: 30-63 years) and mean age in cage group was 44 years (32-62 years). Mean hospital stay was 2.7 days in both the groups. At 4 weeks complete cervical movements could be achieved in 19 cases in artificial disc group. Maintenance of movement after 7.5 years was in 76% of these patients. Lordosis was maintained in all cases till date. There was no mortality or wound infection in our series. Conclusions: We conclude that artificial cervical disc could be an alternative to fixed spinal fusion as it represents the most physiological substitute of disc. However, there is need for further studies to support the use of artificial cervical disc prosthesis. PMID:25685218

  16. Synthesis of Organic Matter of Prebiotic Chemistry at the Protoplanetary Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snytnikov, Valeriy; Stoynovskaya, Olga; Rudina, Nina

    We have carried out scanning electron microscopic examination of CM carbonaceous chondrites meteorites Migey, Murchison, Staroe Boriskino aged more than 4.56 billion years (about 50 million years from the beginning of the formation of the Solar system). Our study confirmed the conclusion of Rozanov, Hoover and other researchers about the presence of microfossils of bacterial origin in the matrix of all these meteorites. Since the time of the Solar system formation is 60 - 100 million years, the primary biocenosis emerged in the protoplanetary disc of the Solar system before meteorites or simultaneously with them. It means that prebiological processes and RNA world appeared even earlier in the circumsolar protoplanetary disc. Most likely, this appearance of prebiotic chemistry takes place nowday in massive and medium-massive discs of the observed young stellar objects (YSO) class 0 and I. The timescale of the transition from chemical to biological evolution took less than 50 million years for the Solar system. Further evolution of individual biocenosis in a protoplanetary disc associated with varying physico-chemical conditions during the formation of the Solar system bodies. Biocenosis on these bodies could remove or develop under the influence of many cosmic factors and geological processes in the case of Earth. To complete the primary biosphere formation in short evolution time - millions of years - requires highly efficient chemical syntheses. In industrial chemistry for the efficient synthesis of ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, methanol and other organic species, that are the precursors to obtain prebiotic compounds, catalytic reactors of high pressure are used. Thus (1) necessary amount of the proper catalyst in (2) high pressure areas of the disc can trigger these intense syntheses. The disc contains the solids with the size from nanoparticle to pebble. Iron and magnesium is catalytically active ingredient for such solids. The puzzle is a way to provide hydrogen pressure inside the disc from tens to hundred atmospheres. We simulated unsteady processes in massive circumstellar discs around YSO class O and I. In the computational experiments, we have shown that at a certain stage of its evolution the circumstellar discs of gas and solids produces local areas of high pressure. According to the classical heterogeneous catalysis, a wide range of organic and prebiotic compounds could have been synthesized in these areas. Can we capture these areas of high pressure synthesis in observation of circumstellar discs? Due to the small sizes of such areas they can be hardly ever resolved even with the modern telescopes such as ALMA. However, we can try to detect their signatures in the disc, since the gas of the disc keep the set of organic synthesis products. The idea is to define the signature of the process using laboratory experiments. Varying gas temperature and pressure in laboratory setup we can carry out the catalytic high pressure syntheses and specify the set of gaseous products. These sets of organic compounds observed in the discs may serve as indicators of the emergence of high-pressure areas of prebiotic chemistry. Thus, there is a special interest to the study of YSO class 0 and I by means of observational astronomy. For these objects, first data on the presence of individual organic compounds in massive hydrogen-helium component of the discs appear. The origin of the organic compounds that are associated with chemical reactions in the discs should be separated from the set of organic compounds of the initial molecular cloud.

  17. Growth Factors and Anticatabolic Substances for Prevention and Management of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Franceschetti, Edoardo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is frequent, appearing from the second decade of life and progressing with age. Conservative management often fails, and patients with IVD degeneration may need surgical intervention. Several treatment strategies have been proposed, although only surgical discectomy and arthrodesis have been proved to be predictably effective. Biological strategies aim to prevent and manage IVD degeneration, improving the function and anabolic and reparative capabilities of the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells and inhibiting matrix degradation. At present, clinical applications are still in their infancy. Further studies are required to clarify the role of growth factors and anticatabolic substances for prevention and management of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:25098367

  18. A Metallurgical Investigation of Large Forged Discs of Low-carbon N-155 Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Howard C; Freeman, J W

    1947-01-01

    Research was undertaken to ascertain the properties of better wrought heat resisting alloys in the form of large discs required for gas turbine rotors. The properties of large discs of low carbon N-155 alloy in both the as-forged and water-quenched and aged conditions were determined by means of stress-rupture and creep tests for time periods up to about 2000 hours at 1200, 1350, and 1500 F. Short-time tensile test, impact test, and time-total deformation characteristics are included. The principle results are given.

  19. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: low-mass protoplanetary discs from a SCUBA-2 census of NGC 1333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, P.; Greaves, J. S.; Scholz, A.; Hatchell, J.; Holland, W. S.; JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2015-02-01

    NGC 1333 is a 1-2 Myr old cluster of stars in the Perseus molecular cloud. We used 850 μm data from the Gould Belt Survey with SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to measure or place limits on disc masses for 82 Class II sources in this cluster. Eight disc candidates were detected; one is estimated to have mass of about 9 MJup in dust plus gas, while the others host only 2-4 MJup of circumstellar material. None of these discs exceeds the threshold for the `minimum mass solar nebula' (MMSN). This reinforces previous claims that only a small fraction of Class II sources at an age of 1-2 Myr have discs exceeding the MMSN threshold and thus can form a planetary system like our own. However, other regions with similarly low fractions of MMSN discs (IC 348, UpSco, σ Ori) are thought to be older than NGC 1333. Compared with coeval regions, the exceptionally low fraction of massive discs in NGC 1333 cannot easily be explained by the effects of UV radiation or stellar encounters. Our results indicate that additional environmental factors significantly affect disc evolution and the outcome of planet formation by core accretion.

  20. Gene therapy for degenerative disc disease.

    PubMed

    Sobajima, S; Kim, J S; Gilbertson, L G; Kang, J D

    2004-02-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a chronic process that can become clinically manifest in multiple disorders such as idiopathic low back pain, disc herniation, radiculopathy, myelopathy, and spinal stenosis. The limited available technology for the treatment of these and other pathologic and disabling conditions arising from DDD is highly invasive (eg, surgical discectomy and fusion), manifesting a certain degree of complications and unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. Although the precise pathophysiology of DDD remains to be clearly delineated, the progressive decline in aggrecan, the primary proteoglycan of the nucleus pulposus, appears to be a final common pathway. It has been hypothesized that imbalance in the synthesis and catabolism of certain critical extracellular matrix components can be mitigated by the transfer of genes to intervertebral disc cells encoding factors that modulate synthesis and catabolism of these components. The successful in vivo transfer of therapeutic genes to target cells within the intervertebral disc in clinically relevant animal models of DDD is one example of the rapid progress that is being made towards the development of gene therapy approaches for the treatment of DDD. This chapter reviews the ability of gene therapy to alter biologic processes in the degenerated intervertebral disc and outlines the work needed to be done before human clinical trials can be contemplated. PMID:14724681

  1. Design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Chiara M.; Zweig, Thomas; Ferguson, Stephen; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Lamartina, Claudio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The implantation of lumbar disc prostheses based on different design concepts is widely accepted. This paper reviews currently available literature studies on the biomechanics of TDA in the lumbar spine, and is targeted at the evaluation of possible relationships between the aims of TDA and the geometrical, mechanical and material properties of the various available disc prostheses. Both theoretical and experimental studies were analyzed, by a PUBMED search (performed in February 2007, revised in January 2008), focusing on single level TDA. Both semi-constrained and unconstrained lumbar discs seem to be able to restore nearly physiological IAR locations and ROM values. However, both increased and decreased ROM was stated in some papers, unrelated to the clinical outcome. Segmental lordosis alterations after TDA were reported in most cases, for both constrained and unconstrained disc prostheses. An increase in the load through the facet joints was documented, for both semi-constrained and unconstrained artificial discs, but with some contrasting results. Semi-constrained devices may be able to share a greater part of the load, thus protecting the surrounding biological structure from overloading and possible early degeneration, but may be more susceptible to wear. The next level of development will be the biomechanical integration of compression across the motion segment. All these findings need to be supported by long-term clinical outcome studies. PMID:18946684

  2. MMPs and ADAMTSs in intervertebral disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jun; Yu, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Cheng; Yang, Wei; He, Wen-Si; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Yan, Yi-Guo; Zhang, Jian

    2015-08-25

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is the most common diagnosis in patients with low back pain, a leading c