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Sample records for age south africa

  1. The age of the Pretoria Saltpan impact crater, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storzer, Dieter; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    1993-01-01

    The Pretoria Saltpan impact crater, situated about 40 km NNW of Pretoria, South Africa, has a diameter of about 1.13 km. The structure was formed in 2.05 Ga Nebo granite of the Bushveld Complex. The impact origin of the crater was recently established by the discovery of characteristic shock-metamorphic features in breccias found in drill cores at depths greater than 90 m. Impact glass fragments were recovered by standard magnetic separation techniques and handpicking from the melt breccias. As no reliable crater age was known so far, several hundred sub-millimeter-sized glass fragments were studied for fission tracks. The results show that the Saltpan impact crater has an age of 220 +/- 52 ka. This is in agreement with field geological observations.

  2. South Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached ... red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses ...

  3. Coming of Age in the New South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Judith; Midgley, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Describes young adult novels concerned with South Africa, written between 1992 and 1997, as they reflect both the old tensions and the new tensions that result when "apartness" no longer defines the national polity. Concludes that, despite some shortcomings in literary quality and broad authorship, young adult literature flourished there in the…

  4. Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nabukalu, Dorean; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Herbst, Kobus; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo) were determined for females (aged 15–49 years) resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown). Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95% CI) was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1), peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1) and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.4–10.9). Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.2–11.1), accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR), 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05), self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15), and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82); external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, 95% CI: 1.79–3.75). Conclusion HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV

  5. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  6. South Africa.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    The 1983 population of South Africa was estimated at 31.1 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% (0.8% for whites, 1.8% for blacks and "coloreds," 1.8% for Asians, and 2.8% for Africans). The infant mortality rate was 14.9/1000 live births among whites, 80.6/1000 among blacks and coloreds, and 25.3/1000 among Asians. Life expectancy was 70 years for whites, 59 years for blacks and coloreds, 66 years for Asians, and 55 years for Africans. Racial discrimination has become increasingly institutionalized in South Africa since the ruling National Party came to power in 1948. The policy of apartheid calls for separate political institutions for the 4 major racial groups in the population. Africans are considered citizens of the homelands to which their tribal group is assigned, not permanent citizens of the country. Coloreds and Asians are considered citizens and given some political expression. The new political system envisions broad consensus among whites, coloreds, and Indians, and a parliamentary committee is considering possible abolition of laws against multiracial political activity. The work force totals 11 million, 30% of whom are engaged in agriculture, 29% are employed in industry and commerce, 34% work in the services sector, and 7% work in mining. The GNP in 1983 totalled US$75.5 billion and the GDP stood at US$73.2 billion. Per capita GNP was US$5239. PMID:12178120

  7. Magnetostratigraphic and geochronological age constraints on the lowermost Beaufort Group, Karoo Basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, E.; Lanci, L.; Wilson, A.; Flint, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Karoo Basin of South Africa is a classic foreland basin sequence, with sedimentation putatively linked to Gondwanide orogenesis in the Cape Fold Belt. Biostratigraphic data for the fluvial to lacustrine sediments of the Beaufort Group have traditionally assigned a late Permian age to these foreland basin sediments on the basis of Glossopteris flora and Dicynodont fauna findings. This age conflicts with recently published U-Pb zircon age data from below the Beaufort Group that suggested a latest Permian, early Triassic age for those rocks. In order to resolve this discrepancy, we undertook a coupled magnetostratigraphic and geochronological study of the lowermost Beaufort Group of South Africa. Volcanic zircons from various tuffaceous horizons were analyzed for U-Pb age by SHRIMP. The youngest population of late Permian zircons are interpreted as the age of volcanic ashfall and sedimentation, with inheritance from pre-existing crust recognized from the presence of ca. 500 Ma and 1000-1100 Ma zircons. The possibility of Pb loss from these youngest grains will be assessed by CA-TIMS work. Magnetostratigraphic sampling was carried out in two separate sedimentary profiles, 169 m and 549 m thick, that are separated by roughly 85 km across depositional strike. Diagnostic patterns of normal and reversed magnetozones allow for the close correlation of these two sections. This pattern, anchored by the U-Pb zircon ages, can be correlated to the Global Polarity Timescale of Ogg et al. (2008), and supports a late Guadalupian age for these sediments.

  8. Middle Stone Age bedding construction and settlement patterns at Sibudu, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Lyn; Sievers, Christine; Bamford, Marion; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Miller, Christopher

    2011-12-01

    The Middle Stone Age (MSA) is associated with early behavioral innovations, expansions of modern humans within and out of Africa, and occasional population bottlenecks. Several innovations in the MSA are seen in an archaeological sequence in the rock shelter Sibudu (South Africa). At ~77,000 years ago, people constructed plant bedding from sedges and other monocotyledons topped with aromatic leaves containing insecticidal and larvicidal chemicals. Beginning at ~73,000 years ago, bedding was burned, presumably for site maintenance. By ~58,000 years ago, bedding construction, burning, and other forms of site use and maintenance intensified, suggesting that settlement strategies changed. Behavioral differences between ~77,000 and 58,000 years ago may coincide with population fluctuations in Africa. PMID:22158814

  9. U-Pb isotopic age of the StW 573 hominid from Sterkfontein, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Walker, Joanne; Cliff, Robert A; Latham, Alfred G

    2006-12-01

    Sterkfontein cave, South Africa, has yielded an australopith skeleton, StW 573, whose completeness has excited great interest in paleoanthropology. StW 573, or "Little Foot," was found 25 meters below the surface in the Silberberg Grotto. 238U-206Pb measurements on speleothems immediately above and below the fossil remains, corrected for initial 234U disequilibrium, yield ages of 2.17 +/- 0.17 million years ago (Ma) and 2.24(-0.07)(+0.09) Ma, respectively, indicating an age for StW 573 of close to 2.2 Ma. This age is in contrast to an age of approximately 3.3 Ma suggested by magnetochronology and ages of approximately 4 Ma based on 10Be and 26Al, but it is compatible with a faunal age range of 4 to 2 Ma. PMID:17158326

  10. Partner age-disparity and HIV incidence risk for older women in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV amongst young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question amongst older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women aged over 30. Methods To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n=1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a five-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.52–0.76) and a ten-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.35–0.67). This result was neither confounded nor effect-modified by women’s age or socio-demographic factors. Conclusions These findings suggest that existing HIV risk-reduction campaigns warning young women about partnering with older men may be inappropriate for older women. HIV prevention strategies interventions specifically tailored to older women are needed. PMID:25670473

  11. Language in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

    This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

  12. Mössbauer study of two different aged rock types in the Vredefort structure, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Brink, M. C.; Bisschoff, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    The Vredefort Structure in South Africa was recently inscribed into the list of World Heritage sites as the oldest and largest recognised impact structure on earth. Due to upliftment of more than 30 km of the Archaean basement core and subsequent exposure of the deeply eroded central portion of the crater a unique opportunity exists to study rocks of the crust, especially those that have undergone recrystallization due to various thermal metamorphic events over time. Two rock types occurring in the central uplifted part of the impact structure were studied. One was a typical Archaean iron formation of sedimentary origin. The other rock studied, adjacent to this much older rock, is a homogeneous, medium grained recrystallized norite of immediately pre- or post-impact age, indicating a possible mafic igneous activity related to impact. Microscopy, XRD and Mössbauer analyses were performed on both samples.

  13. Kathu Townlands: A High Density Earlier Stone Age Locality in the Interior of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Steven J. H.; Lukich, Vasa; Chazan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Kathu Townlands is a high density Earlier Stone Age locality in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Here we present the first detailed information on this locality based on analysis of a sample of lithic material from excavations by P. Beaumont and field observations made in the course of fieldwork in 2013. The results confirm the remarkably high artefact density at Kathu Townlands and do not provide evidence consistent with high energy transport as a mechanism of site formation, suggesting that Kathu Townlands was the site of intensive exploitation of highly siliceous outcroppings of banded iron formation. The results presented here provide a first step towards understanding this complex locality and point to the need for further research and the importance of preserving this locality in the face of intensive and rapid development. PMID:25058317

  14. Border Cave and the beginning of the Later Stone Age in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Paola; Soriano, Sylvain; Tsanova, Tsenka; Degano, Ilaria; Higham, Thomas F. G.; d’Errico, Francesco; Backwell, Lucinda; Lucejko, Jeannette J.; Colombini, Maria Perla; Beaumont, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    The transition from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) to the Later Stone Age (LSA) in South Africa was not associated with the appearance of anatomically modern humans and the extinction of Neandertals, as in the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Western Europe. It has therefore attracted less attention, yet it provides insights into patterns of technological evolution not associated with a new hominin. Data from Border Cave (KwaZulu-Natal) show a strong pattern of technological change at approximately 44–42 ka cal BP, marked by adoption of techniques and materials that were present but scarcely used in the previous MSA, and some novelties. The agent of change was neither a revolution nor the advent of a new species of human. Although most evident in personal ornaments and symbolic markings, the change from one way of living to another was not restricted to aesthetics. Our analysis shows that: (i) at Border Cave two assemblages, dated to 45–49 and >49 ka, show a gradual abandonment of the technology and tool types of the post-Howiesons Poort period and can be considered transitional industries; (ii) the 44–42 ka cal BP assemblages are based on an expedient technology dominated by bipolar knapping, with microliths hafted with pitch from Podocarpus bark, worked suid tusks, ostrich eggshell beads, bone arrowheads, engraved bones, bored stones, and digging sticks; (iii) these assemblages mark the beginning of the LSA in South Africa; (iv) the LSA emerged by internal evolution; and (v) the process of change began sometime after 56 ka. PMID:22847432

  15. Border Cave and the beginning of the Later Stone Age in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Villa, Paola; Soriano, Sylvain; Tsanova, Tsenka; Degano, Ilaria; Higham, Thomas F G; d'Errico, Francesco; Backwell, Lucinda; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Colombini, Maria Perla; Beaumont, Peter B

    2012-08-14

    The transition from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) to the Later Stone Age (LSA) in South Africa was not associated with the appearance of anatomically modern humans and the extinction of Neandertals, as in the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Western Europe. It has therefore attracted less attention, yet it provides insights into patterns of technological evolution not associated with a new hominin. Data from Border Cave (KwaZulu-Natal) show a strong pattern of technological change at approximately 44-42 ka cal BP, marked by adoption of techniques and materials that were present but scarcely used in the previous MSA, and some novelties. The agent of change was neither a revolution nor the advent of a new species of human. Although most evident in personal ornaments and symbolic markings, the change from one way of living to another was not restricted to aesthetics. Our analysis shows that: (i) at Border Cave two assemblages, dated to 45-49 and >49 ka, show a gradual abandonment of the technology and tool types of the post-Howiesons Poort period and can be considered transitional industries; (ii) the 44-42 ka cal BP assemblages are based on an expedient technology dominated by bipolar knapping, with microliths hafted with pitch from Podocarpus bark, worked suid tusks, ostrich eggshell beads, bone arrowheads, engraved bones, bored stones, and digging sticks; (iii) these assemblages mark the beginning of the LSA in South Africa; (iv) the LSA emerged by internal evolution; and (v) the process of change began sometime after 56 ka. PMID:22847432

  16. Profile of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.; Tonneson, L.C.

    1996-08-01

    A broad overview of the Republic of South Africa`s nuclear energy program is presented. Economic aspects are the main focus of the article, and numerical data is provided for electricity generation and use and uranium production. The role of the molecular laser isotope process for enrichment is discussed. The research reactor program, waste disposal and decommissioning, mining history, uranium production, and nonproliferation policy are other highlighted topics.

  17. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  18. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  19. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has, in…

  20. The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa, and early human exploitation of coastal resources.

    PubMed

    Klein, Richard G; Avery, Graham; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Halkett, David; Parkington, John E; Steele, Teresa; Volman, Thomas P; Yates, Royden

    2004-04-20

    Human fossils and the genetics of extant human populations indicate that living people derive primarily from an African population that lived within the last 200,000 years. Yet it was only approximately 50,000 years ago that the descendants of this population spread to Eurasia, where they swamped or replaced the Neanderthals and other nonmodern Eurasians. Based on archaeological observations, the most plausible hypothesis for the delay is that Africans and Eurasians were behaviorally similar until 50,000 years ago, and it was only at this time that Africans developed a behavioral advantage. The archaeological findings come primarily from South Africa, where they suggest that the advantage involved much more effective use of coastal resources. Until now, the evidence has come mostly from deeply stratified caves on the south (Indian Ocean) coast. Here, we summarize results from recent excavations at Ysterfontein 1, a deeply stratified shelter in a contrasting environment on the west (Atlantic) coast. The Ysterfontein 1 samples of human food debris must be enlarged for a full comparison to samples from other relevant sites, but they already corroborate two inferences drawn from south coast sites: (i) coastal foragers before 50,000 years ago did not fish routinely, probably for lack of appropriate technology, and (ii) they collected tortoises and shellfish less intensively than later people, probably because their populations were smaller. PMID:15007171

  1. The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa, and early human exploitation of coastal resources

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Richard G.; Avery, Graham; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Halkett, David; Parkington, John E.; Steele, Teresa; Volman, Thomas P.; Yates, Royden

    2004-01-01

    Human fossils and the genetics of extant human populations indicate that living people derive primarily from an African population that lived within the last 200,000 years. Yet it was only ≈50,000 years ago that the descendants of this population spread to Eurasia, where they swamped or replaced the Neanderthals and other nonmodern Eurasians. Based on archaeological observations, the most plausible hypothesis for the delay is that Africans and Eurasians were behaviorally similar until 50,000 years ago, and it was only at this time that Africans developed a behavioral advantage. The archaeological findings come primarily from South Africa, where they suggest that the advantage involved much more effective use of coastal resources. Until now, the evidence has come mostly from deeply stratified caves on the south (Indian Ocean) coast. Here, we summarize results from recent excavations at Ysterfontein 1, a deeply stratified shelter in a contrasting environment on the west (Atlantic) coast. The Ysterfontein 1 samples of human food debris must be enlarged for a full comparison to samples from other relevant sites, but they already corroborate two inferences drawn from south coast sites: (i) coastal foragers before 50,000 years ago did not fish routinely, probably for lack of appropriate technology, and (ii) they collected tortoises and shellfish less intensively than later people, probably because their populations were smaller. PMID:15007171

  2. U-Pb zircon ages from the southwestern Karoo Basin, South Africa - Implications for the Permian-Triassic boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fildani, A.; Weislogel, A.; Drinkwater, N.J.; McHargue, T.; Tankard, A.; Wooden, J.; Hodgson, D.; Flint, S.

    2009-01-01

    U-Pb ages determined using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry on 205 single-grain zircons from 16 ash beds within submarine fan deposits of the Ecca Group provide the first evidence of a marine Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary in the Karoo Basin of South Africa. These U-Pb ages provide an objective basis for correlating the deep-marine sediments of the southwest Karoo Basin with fluvial-deltaic deposits in the central and eastern parts of the basin where the P-T boundary is recorded in a diverse macrofauna. Furthermore, these new zircon ages and their correlation imply asymmetric subsidence and variable sedimentation rates across the basin. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  3. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  4. Secondary Teaching Strategies on South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    1987-01-01

    Offers learning activities on South Africa, which help students gain background information on South Africa's culture, history, and geography; examine United States foreign policy toward South Africa; conduct community research on United States involvement with South Africa; confront different life styles of individuals living in South Africa; and…

  5. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children. PMID:11158199

  6. On the age of the Onverwacht Group, Swaziland sequence, South Africa. [radioactive dating of stratified igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, B.-M.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1974-01-01

    Some rocks of the Onverwacht Group, South Africa, have been analyzed for Rb and Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic composition. These rocks include volcanic rocks, layered ultramafic differentiates and cherty sediments. Whole rock data indicate that the Rb-Sr isotopic systems in many samples were open and yield no reasonable isochron relationships. However, the data of mineral separates from a basaltic komatiite define a good isochron of 3.50 (plus or minus .2) b.y. with an initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of 0.70048 plus or minus 5. The orthodox interpretation of this age is the time of the low grade metamorphism. It is reasonable to assume that the age of 3.50 b.y. might also represent the time of initial Onverwacht volcanism and deposition. The initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio obtained above is important to an understanding of the Sr isotopic composition of the Archean upper mantle.

  7. Estuaries of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanson, Brian; Baird, Dan

    1999-05-01

    Estuaries of South Africa presents an authoritative and comprehensive review of the current status of that country's estuarine research and management. Contributors provide information on a wide range of topics, including geological, physical and chemical processes; diversity and productivity of plant and animal communities; interactions among estuarine organisms; and system properties, ecological modeling and current management issues. This broad scope is complemented by a comparative perspective, resulting in a volume that provides a unique contribution to the subject of estuarine ecology. This volume is relevant to all those working in this field throughout the world.

  8. LIMA U-Pb ages link lithospheric mantle metasomatism to Karoo magmatism beneath the Kimberley region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Andrea; Phillips, David; Maas, Roland; Woodhead, Jon D.; Kendrick, Mark A.; Greig, Alan; Armstrong, Richard A.; Chew, David; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Fiorentini, Marco L.

    2014-09-01

    The Karoo igneous rocks (174-185 Ma) of southern Africa represent one of the largest continental flood basalt provinces on Earth. Available evidence indicates that Karoo magmas either originated in the asthenosphere and were extensively modified by interaction with the lithospheric mantle prior to emplacement in the upper crust; or were produced by partial melting of enriched mantle lithosphere. However, no direct evidence of interaction by Karoo melts (or their precursors) with lithospheric mantle rocks has yet been identified in the suites of mantle xenoliths sampled by post-Karoo kimberlites in southern Africa. Here we report U-Pb ages for lindsleyite-mathiasite (LIMA) titanate minerals (crichtonite series) from three metasomatised, phlogopite and clinopyroxene-rich peridotite xenoliths from the ∼84 Ma Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa), located in the southern part of the Karoo magmatic province. The LIMA minerals appear to have formed during metasomatism of the lithospheric mantle by fluids enriched in HFSE (Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb), LILE (K, Ba, Ca, Sr) and LREE. LIMA U-Pb elemental and isotopic compositions were measured in situ by LA-ICP-MS methods, and potential matrix effects were evaluated by solution-mode analysis of mineral separates. LIMA minerals from the three samples yielded apparent U-Pb ages of 177±12 Ma, 178±29 Ma and 190±24 Ma (±2σ). A single zircon grain extracted from the ∼190 Ma LIMA-bearing sample produced a similar U-Pb age of 184±6 Ma, within uncertainty of the LIMA ages. These data provide the first robust evidence of fluid enrichment in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Kimberley region at ∼180-190 Ma, and suggest causation of mantle metasomatism by Karoo melts or their precursor(s). The results further indicate that U-Pb dating of LIMA minerals provides a new, accurate tool for dating metasomatic events in the lithospheric mantle.

  9. HIV Testing Among Young People Aged 16-24 in South Africa: Impact of Mass Media Communication Programs.

    PubMed

    Do, Mai; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Lawrence Kincaid, D

    2016-09-01

    Knowing one's serostatus is critical in the HIV prevention, care and treatment continuum. This study examines the impact of communication programs on HIV testing in South Africa. Data came from 2204 young men and women aged 16-24 who reported to be sexually active in a population based survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test the directions and causal pathways between communication program exposure, HIV testing discussion, and having a test in the last 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate probit regressions provided evidence of exogeneity of communication exposure and the two HIV-related outcomes. One in three sampled individuals had been tested in the last 12 months. Communication program exposure only had an indirect effect on getting tested by encouraging young people to talk about testing. The study suggests that communication programs may create an environment that supports open HIV-related discussions and may have a long-term impact on behavior change. PMID:27102409

  10. Implications for complex cognition from the hafting of tools with compound adhesives in the Middle Stone Age, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wadley, Lyn; Hodgskiss, Tamaryn; Grant, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Compound adhesives made from red ochre mixed with plant gum were used in the Middle Stone Age (MSA), South Africa. Replications reported here suggest that early artisans did not merely color their glues red; they deliberately effected physical transformations involving chemical changes from acidic to less acidic pH, dehydration of the adhesive near wood fires, and changes to mechanical workability and electrostatic forces. Some of the steps required for making compound adhesive seem impossible without multitasking and abstract thought. This ability suggests overlap between the cognitive abilities of modern people and people in the MSA. Our multidisciplinary analysis provides a new way to recognize complex cognition in the MSA without necessarily invoking the concept of symbolism. PMID:19433786

  11. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mbhatsani, Vanessa; Shilote, Kulani O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. Setting The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Aim The main objective was to determine the women’s knowledge on food fortification. Methods The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women’s knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. Results The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0%) of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0%) of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%]) of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Conclusion Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme. PMID:27542291

  12. Re-energizing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Scholand, M.

    1996-09-01

    Bringing modern energy services to South Africa`s deprived majority doesn`t have to mean simply expanding the now obsolete coal-based system built for the nation`s white minority. A partheid still haunts South Africa`s energy economy. The country`s fledgling democracy has inherited two energy systems, as different from each other as California`s is from that of Bangladesh-but less efficient and more polluting than either of those. For the country`s white minority, cheap electricity is available at the flip of a switch. But even though South Africa has 30 percent more generating capacity than it uses, two-thirds of its black citizens have no electricity at all. Dealing with this legacy is essential for the survival of the two-year-old government. Mandela has made ambitious promises to transform the nation`s energy system-providing such basic amenities as lighting and heating to millions of blacks, while reducing pollution. However, conventional development will never reach those goals - the country`s energy system has huge fundamental inefficiencies. To keep its promises, the government will need an array of cutting-edge technologies, including lowcost super-efficient housing, solar electric systems, gas fired cogeneration. South Africa is well positioned with huge solar and wind energy potential, a well capitalized industrial base and millions of aid dollars. This article examines the emerging energy needs/demands of South Africa in light of these factors.

  13. Physical Access to Schooling in South Africa: Mapping Dropout, Repetition and Age-Grade Progression in Two Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Shireen; Dieltiens, Veerle; Sayed, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    The Education for All and Millennium Development Goals commit national governments, international agencies and civil society to ensure that all children are provided with basic education. In South Africa this would mean full attendance in Grades (1-9). The achievement of universal primary education and gender equity across low-income countries are…

  14. Examining the Causes and Consequences of Short-Term Behavioral Change during the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Conard, Nicholas J.; Will, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Sibudu in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) with its rich and high-resolution archaeological sequence provides an ideal case study to examine the causes and consequences of short-term variation in the behavior of modern humans during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). We present the results from a technological analysis of 11 stratified lithic assemblages which overlie the Howiesons Poort deposits and all date to ~58 ka. Based on technological and typological attributes, we conducted inter-assemblage comparisons to characterize the nature and tempo of cultural change in successive occupations. This work identified considerable short-term variation with clear temporal trends throughout the sequence, demonstrating that knappers at Sibudu varied their technology over short time spans. The lithic assemblages can be grouped into three cohesive units which differ from each other in the procurement of raw materials, the frequency in the methods of core reduction, the kind of blanks produced, and in the nature of tools the inhabitants of Sibudu made and used. These groups of assemblages represent different strategies of lithic technology, which build upon each other in a gradual, cumulative manner. We also identify a clear pattern of development toward what we have previously defined as the Sibudan cultural taxonomic unit. Contextualizing these results on larger geographical scales shows that the later phase of the MSA during MIS 3 in KwaZulu-Natal and southern Africa is one of dynamic cultural change rather than of stasis or stagnation as has at times been claimed. In combination with environmental, subsistence and contextual information, our high-resolution data on lithic technology suggest that short-term behavioral variability at Sibudu can be best explained by changes in technological organization and socio-economic dynamics instead of environmental forcing. PMID:26098694

  15. Sexual Behaviour of Men and Women within Age-Disparate Partnerships in South Africa: Implications for Young Women's HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Evans, Meredith; George, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-disparate partnerships are hypothesized to increase HIV-risk for young women. However, the evidence base remains mixed. Most studies have focused only on unprotected sex among women in the partnership. Consequently, little is known about other risky behaviours, such as transactional sex, alcohol use, and concurrency, as well as the behaviours of the men who partner with young women. We therefore examined differences in various sexual behaviours of both young women and their male partners by partnership age difference. Methods We used nationally representative data from South Africa (2012) on partnerships reported by 16–24 year old black African women (n = 818) and by black African men in partnerships with 16–24 year old women (n = 985). We compared sexual behaviours in age-disparate partnerships and age-similar partnerships, using multiple logistic regression to control for potential confounders and to assess rural/urban differences. Results Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to report unprotected sex than young women in similar-aged partnerships (aOR:1.51; p = 0.014; 95%CI:1.09–2.11). Men in partnerships with young women were more likely to report unprotected sex (aOR:1.92; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.31–2.81), transactional sex (aOR:2.73; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.64–4.56), drinking alcohol before sex (aOR:1.60; p = 0.062; 95%CI:0.98–2.61), and concurrency (aOR:1.39; p = 0.097; 95%CI:0.94–2.07) when their partners were five or more years younger. The association between age-disparate partnerships and transactional sex (aOR:4.14; p<0.01; 95%CI: 2.03–8.46) and alcohol use (aOR:2.24; p<0.013; 95%CI:1.20–4.19) was only found in urban areas. Conclusions Results provide evidence that young women’s age-disparate partnerships involve greater sexual risk, particularly through the risky behaviours of their male partners, with the risk amplified for young women in urban areas. PMID:27526116

  16. The relationship between age of coital debut and HIV seroprevalence among women in Durban, South Africa: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of early sexual debut on HIV seroprevalence and incidence rates among a cohort of women. Design Prospective study. Setting KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Participants A total of 3492 sexually active women who consented to screen a HIV prevention trial during September 2002 to September 2005; a total of 1485 of them were followed for approximately 24 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures HIV seroprevalence among those who were screened for the trial and HIV seroconversion among those who seroconverted during the study. Results Lowest quintiles of age at sexual debut, less than high school education, a higher number of lifetime sexual partners and lack of cohabitation, being diagnosed as having herpes simplex virus 2 and other sexually transmitted infections were all significantly associated with prevalent HIV infection in multivariate analysis. During follow-up, 148 (6.8 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 5.8 to 8.0) women seroconverted. Highest seroconversion rate was observed among women who had reported to have had sex 15 years or younger (12.0 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 8.0 to 18.0). Overall, impact of risk factors considered in this study was associated with considerable potential reductions in HIV prevalence and incidence rates (population attributable risk: 85%, 95% CI 84% to 87% and population attributable risk: 77%, 95% CI 72% to 82%, respectively). Conclusions The association of HIV status with younger age at sexual debut may likely due to an increased number of lifetime partners. This increase could result from longer duration of sexual life. Prevention of HIV infection should include efforts to delay age at first sex in young women. Trial registration number NCT00121459. PMID:22223838

  17. Faunal assemblage composition and paleoenvironment of Plovers Lake, a Middle Stone Age locality in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; Brophy, Juliet K; Lewis, Patrick J; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2008-12-01

    Plovers Lake is a dolomitic cave infill located approximately 45km northwest of Johannesburg in the Bloubank Valley, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Excavations between 2002-2004 revealed a rich and diverse fauna, a moderate-sized stone tool assemblage of Middle Stone Age (MSA) character, and human skeletal remains. Two principal depositional units are recognized: 1) a disturbed ex situ component that was likely displaced from 2) an otherwise relatively undisturbed in situ component from which the human skeletal material was recovered. The in situ depositional unit is bracketed by 2 flowstone layers, with U-series dates of 62.9 (+/-1.3)ka for the capping flowstone and 88.7 (+/-1.6)ka for the underlying flowstone. A single isochron ESR date of 75.6 (+/-5.6)ka corroborates the U-series dates. This paper presents an analysis of the mammalian, bird, and reptile faunas recovered from these two units. The two faunal assemblages show close correspondence in taphonomic, taxonomic, and ecological composition, supporting a common origin for both the ex situ and in situ components. Although human skeletal material, cut-marked bone, and stone tools have been recovered, these indications are too rare to consider Plovers Lake a human occupation site. Instead, a high abundance of carnivores, coprolites, and carnivore damaged bones point to brown hyenas as the principal, though not exclusive, bone accumulating agent. In the absence of a significant taphonomic bias relating to accumulating agent, Plovers Lake allows us to document an environment occupied by MSA humans, even if the humans were not resident in the cave itself. We reconstruct the paleoenvironment of Plovers Lake as predominantly grassland, though it was colder, moister, and more wooded than at present. Paleoclimatic conditions appear to have been as different from historic norms as those seen in several fossil localities in the Western Cape, pointing to greater environmental heterogeneity than has previously been

  18. Analysing cross-sectional data with time-dependent covariates: the case of age at first birth in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Amoateng, Acheampong Yaw; Kalule-Sabiti, I; Ditlopo, Prudence

    2003-07-01

    Analysing time-dependent independent variables requires the use of process-oriented statistical models. Yet social scientists--especially those in poor countries--have often had to use data collected at a single point in time, making their task difficult. Making several assumptions about the covariates, the present study uses survival analysis and other statistical techniques to analyse the 1996 South African population census data and examine the effects of selected independent variables on the timing of parenthood in the country. It was found that the onset of parenthood occurs late in South Africa compared with the pattern in most other African societies. While education plays a role in the postponement of parenthood within racial groups, it fails to explain the differences between African and Coloured women on the one hand, and White and Asian women on the other hand, a finding that suggests the existence of two regimes of family formation in South African society. PMID:12887218

  19. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  20. Theme: Education with Production in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Ben; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes " A Bridge Too Far: Democracy, Development and Education in Rural South Africa (Parker); "Khuphuka: A Skills Training and Employment Programme in Durban, South Africa" (Comninos); "Reconstruction and Development Programme and Tertiary Institutions in South Africa"; and "Report on the First Session of the Seminar: Mafeking, September…

  1. Quantification of climate and vegetation from Southern African Middle Stone Age sites - an application using Late Pleistocene plant material from Sibudu, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, A. A.; Sievers, C.; Wadley, L.

    2012-04-01

    The isolated geographical situation of South Africa makes the unraveling of various parameters that influence its regional climate in time challenging. If the South African climate does not exhibit a linear correlation with global archives as suggested by some authors then the contribution of independent local data that provides direct information on the environment at a certain place and time is crucial. Fossil plant remains provide valuable information on past environmental conditions. Although few paleobotanical data are available from Southern Africa, some sites reveal rich and diverse fossil floras, most notably, Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with its numerous fruits, seeds, pollen and charcoal flora. Such plant remains not only provide information on past vegetation, but also serve as a sound base for paleoclimate quantification with the Coexistence Approach (CA). Sibudu Cave has pulses of Middle Stone Age occupation separated by hiatuses that are as long as 10 ka. Pre-Still Bay, Still Bay, Howiesons Poort, post-Howiesons Poort and late and final Middle Stone Age industries are present. Variations in vegetation and the animals preyed on through time suggest that subtle environmental changes could have occurred during MIS4 and MIS3 in the Sibudu area. Whilst always semi-forested, the region may have comprised a mosaic of uneven and changeable patches of coastal forest and savanna. These in turn might have influenced the numbers of forest versus plains animals in the area. Cultural factors could also have played a part in the faunal variability observed in Sibudu. Preliminary analyses of Sibudu Cave material confirm the potential of the CA for its application on Late Pleistocene African floras. In the future, comparison with other contemporaneous sites will help quantify spatial differences in the climate of the Late Pleistocene in South Africa, and may answer if environmental changes effected the cultural development from Still Bay to late MSA

  2. Toward the "New South Africa."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Examines, in the light of political reforms in South Africa, the prime concerns of geographers. Discusses the future of the Bantustans; questions of land redistribution, tenure systems, production levels, and support systems; spatial economic policies; land and housing; and regional relations. Argues that, to realize its potential, southern Africa…

  3. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  4. Monitoring Optimism in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mari

    2007-01-01

    An article with exactly this same title was published in Social Indicators Research (41:279-304, 1997). The purpose of the current article is to update the findings discussed in that first article. Therefore the abstract published previously is still relevant: The last few decades have been the most crucial and eventful ones in South Africa's…

  5. Human fascioliasis in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Black, J; Ntusi, N; Stead, P; Mayosi, B; Mendelson, M

    2013-09-01

    Human fascioliasis has the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution of any vector-borne disease, yet only 3 cases have been reported from South Africa, the last in 1964. We report 2 cases from the same geographic area associated with local consumption of watercress, suggesting an endemic focus.  PMID:24300687

  6. Conservation Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…

  7. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and spectacular beauty. For the…

  8. Biotechnology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cloete, Thomas E; Nel, Louis H; Theron, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    Since adopting the National Biotechnology Strategy in 2001, the South African government has established several regional innovation centres and has put in place initiatives to encourage international partnerships that can spur internal development of life science ventures. This strategy seeks to capitalize on the high quality of research carried out in public research institutions and universities but is hampered, somewhat, by the lack of entrepreneurial culture among South African researchers due to, among other reasons, the expenses involved in registering foreign patents. Although private sector development is still relatively embryonic, start-ups are spinning out of universities and pre-existing companies. These represent a vital source of innovations for commercialization in the future, provided that the challenges facing the emerging South African biotechnology industry can be overcome. PMID:17070947

  9. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. PPP insights in South Africa.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals. PMID:12743881

  11. South Africa/Time Running Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the book, "South Africa: Time Running Out," a report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa, this 10-20 day unit of study is designed to help high school students learn about the history, geography, and present situation in South Africa and its relationship to the United States. The first of four sections provides…

  12. South Africa: a toxicologist's goldmine.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    The emerging nation of South Africa, in common with some other countries, notably Eastern Europe, is heir to decades of neglect with regards to the exposure of the majority of its population to toxic materials. In this short review, the major toxic health hazards are described. For most of these risks there are now programs in place to improve the situation, but co-ordination and financial constraints, along with the fact that the majority of the population neither live, nor work, in a controlled environment, mean that much remains to be done. The recent formation of a South African Toxicology society, which strives to bring together environmental, industrial, forensic and clinical toxicology should assist in an improvement, both in the epidemiology of toxicity in South Africa and in improved measures to reduce the incidence of preventable noncommunicable diseases related to both acute and chronic exposure to toxins. The South African scene also provides a "window' of opportunity to study the more fundamental aspects of exposure in human subjects and to couple these to animal and in vitro studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms where these are unknown. PMID:11805740

  13. Country watch: South Africa.

    PubMed

    Everett, K; Schaay, N

    1994-01-01

    Photo-comics are an ideal format for education of South African youth about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) given their low literacy rate and the widespread popularity of comic books. An example of the success of this strategy is "Roxy: Life, Love, and Sex in the Nineties," a comic produced as part of a school-based AIDS prevention program run by the National AIDS Research Program. The comic tells the story of an adolescent girl who learns her friend committed suicide because she was infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Roxy learns about AIDS and discusses the risk factors with her friends. Focus group discussions were used to generate story ideas and pretesting of the comic book took place among several student groups. By July 1993, 30,000 copies of "Roxy" had been distributed to students, churches, youth groups, civic associations, and organizations working with street children. In addition, the comic was reproduced in a magazine, "Upbeat," that is popular among out-of-school youth. Qualitative evaluation through 8 student focus groups revealed that young people from various cultural backgrounds strongly identify with the themes, characters, and situations depicted in "Roxy." Of particular significance were the realistic portrayals of romantic and sexual relationships, relationships with parents, and dilemmas posed by pressures to use drugs and alcohol. The comic includes a sex education chart with concise condom use instructions. PMID:12287665

  14. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  15. Newly discovered fossil- and artifact-bearing deposits, uranium-series ages, and Plio-Pleistocene hominids at Swartkrans cave, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Morris B; Pickering, Travis Rayne; Pickering, Robyn; Brain, C K; Clarke, Ronald J; Heaton, Jason L; Kuman, Kathleen

    2009-12-01

    We report on new research at Swartkrans Cave, South Africa, that provides evidence of two previously unrealized artifact- and fossil-bearing deposits. These deposits underlie a speleothem dated by the uranium-thorium disequilibrium technique to 110,000+/-1,980 years old, the first tightly constrained, geochronological date available for the site. Recovered fauna from the two underlying deposits-including, prominently, the dental remains of Paranthropus (Australopithecus) robustus from the uppermost layer (Talus Cone Deposit)-indicate a significantly older, late Pliocene or early Pleistocene age for these units. The lowest unit (LB East Extension) is inferred to be an eastward extension of the well-known Lower Bank of Member 1, the earliest surviving infill represented at the site. The date acquired from the speleothem also sets the maximum age of a rich Middle Stone Age lithic assemblage. PMID:19683788

  16. Conscientious Objectives: Campuses Respond to South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexter, Holly

    1985-01-01

    In the wake of political pressures and deteriorating conditions in South Africa, many campuses are reviewing their investment policies and considering other contributions. The rising interest in educational initiatives is discussed including establishment of scholarships for South African students. (MLW)

  17. Typhoid fever and invasive nontyphoid salmonellosis, Malawi and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Feasey, Nicholas A; Archer, Brett N; Heyderman, Robert S; Sooka, Arvinda; Dennis, Brigitte; Gordon, Melita A; Keddy, Karen H

    2010-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of invasive nontyphoid salmonellosis and typhoid fever in Malawi and South Africa, we compared case frequency and patient age distribution. Invasive nontyphoid salmonellosis showed a clear bimodal age distribution; the infection developed in women at a younger age than in men. Case frequency for typhoid fever was lower than for salmonellosis. PMID:20735930

  18. Typhoid Fever and Invasive Nontyphoid Salmonellosis, Malawi and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Feasey, Nicholas A.; Archer, Brett N.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Sooka, Arvinda; Dennis, Brigitte; Keddy, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of invasive nontyphoid salmonellosis and typhoid fever in Malawi and South Africa, we compared case frequency and patient age distribution. Invasive nontyphoid salmonellosis showed a clear bimodal age distribution; the infection developed in women at a younger age than in men. Case frequency for typhoid fever was lower than for salmonellosis. PMID:20735930

  19. [Tobacco control in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Van Walbeek, Corné

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to briefly describe South Africa's experience in tobacco control, and to highlight some of the lessons that are applicable to other developing countries. South Africa's tobacco control strategy is based on two main pillars: (1) rapidly increasing excise taxes on tobacco, and (2) comprehensive legislation, of which the most important features are banning all tobacco advertising and sponsorship, and prohibition of smoking in public and work places. As a result of the increases in the excise tax, the real (inflation-adjusted) price of cigarettes has increased by 115% between 1993 and 2003. Aggregate cigarette consumption has decreased by about a third and per capita consumption has decreased by about 40% since 1993. Despite the decrease in cigarette consumption, real government revenue from tobacco excise taxes has increased by nearly 150% between 1993 and 2003. Some important lessons can be drawn from South Africa's experience in tobacco control. Firstly, strong and consistent lobbying was required to persuade the government to implement an effective tobacco control strategy. Country-specific research, drawn from a variety of disciplines, was used to back up and give credibility to the lobbyists' appeals. Secondly, rapid increases in the excise tax on cigarettes are particularly effective in reducing tobacco consumption. An increase in the excise tax increases the price of cigarettes, which in turn reduces cigarette consumption. In South Africa a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes decreases cigarette consumption by between 6 and 8%. Similar results have been found for many other developing countries. Thirdly, while an increase in the excise tax is generally regarded as the most effective tobacco control measure, tobacco control legislation also plays an important role in a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Bans on tobacco advertising and bans on smoking in public and work places denormalise and deglamorise smoking, and are

  20. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  1. Financing Schools in the New South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschovsky, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In almost every dimension, South Africa has undergone dramatic changes since the end of apartheid. Public education in South Africa has been completely transformed from an amalgam of separate and highly unequal educational systems, defined in terms of the race and place of residence of students, into a unified system based on the principle of…

  2. Majority and Minority Languages in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Neville

    This paper discusses three categories of languages in post-apartheid South Africa: high-status, low-status, and endangered. The first section presents demolinguistic profiles and their representation in the media, offering data on the relative numerical importance of the main languages used in South Africa and the average and proportional…

  3. South Africa Divestiture. Target Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Joel

    This student resource guide prepared by the South Africa Catalyst Project for the United States Student Association (USSA) focuses on the student anti-apartheid movement and divestiture activities of American students. Divestiture of university-held stock in U.S. corporations operating in South Africa is the major focus of the student…

  4. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  5. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  6. Is Younger Really Safer? A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of Age-Disparate Relationships among Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Beauclair, Roxanne; Delva, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on women’s perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore women’s perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive. PMID:24260585

  7. Is younger really safer? A qualitative study of perceived risks and benefits of age-disparate relationships among women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Beauclair, Roxanne; Delva, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on women's perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore women's perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive. PMID:24260585

  8. Multiproxy record of late Quaternary climate change and Middle Stone Age human occupation at Wonderkrater, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backwell, Lucinda R.; McCarthy, Terence S.; Wadley, Lyn; Henderson, Zoë; Steininger, Christine M.; Bonita deKlerk; Barré, Magali; Lamothe, Michel; Chase, Brian M.; Woodborne, Stephan; Susino, George J.; Bamford, Marion K.; Sievers, Christine; Brink, James S.; Rossouw, Lloyd; Pollarolo, Luca; Trower, Gary; Scott, Louis; d'Errico, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Here we provide a multiproxy record of climate change and human occupation at Wonderkrater, a spring and peat mound site situated in the interior of southern Africa. Recently extracted sediment cores yielded a number of Middle Stone Age (MSA) artefacts, prompting exploratory excavation of the sediments to understand better the geomorphology of the site, age of the sediments, cultural lithic sequence, vegetation and faunal remains, and to try to establish whether human use of the site was to some extent climatically driven. Excavations yielded late Pleistocene mammal fauna and flora, and three small MSA lithic assemblages with age estimates of 30 ka, >45 ka and 138.01 ± 7.7 ka. The upper layers comprise peat that preserves macrobotanical and faunal remains, implying local fen conditions in Acacia savanna woodland at 12 ka. Below the upper peat layers, a 1 m-thick layer of white sand yielded two MSA lithic assemblages in association with faunal remains dated to between 30.8 ± 0.7 ka and >45 ka. Clay underlying the sand has an OSL age of 63.1 ± 5.8 ka, and sandy peat below it has an Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) age of 70 ± 10 ka. Faunal remains in the lower sand levels, and dental stable carbon isotope analysis of herbivores, indicate a substantial grassland component in the landscape during late MIS 3 (>45 ka). Charcoal, phytolith and pollen data show a change from moderately warm and dry grassy savanna woodland in the lower sand levels, to cooler and wetter grassland with woody shrubs in the uppermost levels by 30 ka. The conditions that resulted in the deposition of the sand also attracted people to the site, but whether it served as an oasis in an arid landscape, or was occupied during wet phases, is unclear. The composition of the lithic assemblages, which include many tools suitable for cutting, suggest that the peat mound may have been used as a place to harvest reeds, process plant materials and butcher animals that were either deliberately or

  9. Paleoparasitological analysis of coprolites from K2, an Iron Age archaeological site in South Africa: the first finding of Dicrocoelium sp. eggs.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, K; Steyn, M

    2004-02-01

    Until now, Dicrocoelium sp. eggs have only been recorded from European and 1 North American archaeological sites. We present evidence for the first record of Dicrocoelium sp. from an African archaeological site. A paleoparasitological study was conducted on 7 coprolite samples from K2, a Late Iron Age site on the farm Greefswald, in the Northern Province of South Africa. Standard parasitological analysis revealed the presence of Dicrocoelium sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs. Today, the parasite does not occur in this region. Trichurid eggs are a relatively common find in paleoparasitological analysis. The presence of Dicrocoelium sp. provides new clues about the antiquity of this parasite, as well as aspects of ancient environment, climate, and interactions among humans, animals, and parasites. PMID:15040686

  10. From the Cover: Implications for complex cognition from the hafting of tools with compound adhesives in the Middle Stone Age, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Lyn; Hodgskiss, Tamaryn; Grant, Michael

    2009-06-16

    Compound adhesives made from red ochre mixed with plant gum were used in the Middle Stone Age (MSA), South Africa. Replications reported here suggest that early artisans did not merely color their glues red; they deliberately effected physical transformations involving chemical changes from acidic to less acidic pH, dehydration of the adhesive near wood fires, and changes to mechanical workability and electrostatic forces. Some of the steps required for making compound adhesive seem impossible without multitasking and abstract thought. This ability suggests overlap between the cognitive abilities of modern people and people in the MSA. Our multidisciplinary analysis provides a new way to recognize complex cognition in the MSA without necessarily invoking the concept of symbolism. PMID:19433786

  11. New U Pb SHRIMP zircon age for the Schurwedraai alkali granite: Implications for pre-impact development of the Vredefort Dome and extent of Bushveld magmatism, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, I. T.; De Waal, S. A.; Armstrong, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Schurwedraai alkali granite is one of a number of prominent ultramafic-mafic and felsic intrusions in the Neoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic sub-vertical supracrustal collar rocks of the Vredefort Dome, South Africa. The alkali granite intruded the Neoarchaean Witwatersrand Supergroup and has a peralkaline to peraluminous composition. A new zircon SHRIMP crystallization age of 2052 ± 14 Ma for the Schurwedraai alkali granite places it statistically before the Vredefort impact event at 2023 ± 4 Ma and within the accepted emplacement interval of 2050-2060 Ma of the Bushveld magmatic event. The presence of the alkali granite and associated small ultramafic-mafic intrusions in the Vredefort collar rocks extends the southern extremity of Bushveld-related intrusions to some 120 km south of Johannesburg and about 150 km south of the current outcrop area of the Bushveld Complex. The combined effect of these ultramafic-mafic and felsic bodies may have contributed to a pronouncedly steep pre-impact geothermal gradient in the Vredefort area, and to the amphibolite-grade metamorphism observed in the supracrustal collar rocks of the Vredefort Dome.

  12. Relative deprivation and mortality in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Salti, Nisreen

    2010-03-01

    This paper tests the relative income hypothesis by considering the relationship between mortality, income and relative deprivation in South Africa using individual-level data on income and five measures of relative deprivation each with a different reference group. We find that income tends to be protective of, and relative deprivation detrimental to health, but the latter often gives a better account of mortality than does income alone. For some population groups the fit is improved in specifications which include both income and relative deprivation. Overall, there seems to be solid evidence in support of the relative income hypothesis, particularly for the more economically disadvantaged population groups. Relative deprivation is especially significant when age is the reference group, suggesting that the comparison of socio-economic standing that has an impact on health tends to happen within cohorts. The results are robust to splitting the sample into urban/rural subsamples and to looking at the incidence of illness as the health outcome rather than mortality. While little is known about the mechanisms underlying the effect of relative deprivation on health and mortality, the consistent evidence in favor of age as a reference group, particularly in a context like South Africa's suggests that intra-cohort comparisons should be an avenue for more in depth investigation. PMID:20045239

  13. From “sugar daddies” to “sugar babies”: exploring a pathway between age-disparate sexual relationships, condom use, and adolescent pregnancy in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Toska, Elona; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark; Pantelic, Marija; Kuo, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent pregnancy has been linked to adverse outcomes for mothers and children. Most studies proposing potential risk pathways for adolescent pregnancy in South Africa are qualitative, hypothesizing links among age-disparate relationships, reduced condom use and higher pregnancy rates. No known South African studies have quantitatively explored pathways to adolescent pregnancy. Objectives This study aimed to: (i) identify which literature-hypothesized factors were associated with adolescent pregnancy and (ii) explore a hypothesized pathway of risk by assessing whether condom use mediated the relationship between age-disparate sexual relationships (defined as having ever had a sexual partner more than 5 years older than participants) and adolescent pregnancy. Methods A cross-sectional survey in six urban and rural health districts of three South African provinces. 447 sexually-active girls aged 10–19 were interviewed. Analyses used multivariate logistic regressions controlling for confounders. Mediation tests were conducted using Hayes’ bootstrapping methodology. Results Consistent condom use (B=−2.148, OR=8.566, p ≤ 0.001) and school enrolment (B=−1.600, OR=0.202, p ≤ 0.001) were associated with lower rates of adolescent pregnancy. Engaging in age-disparate sex (B=1.093, OR=2.982, p ≤ 0.001) and long-term school absences (B=1.402, OR=4.061, p ≤ 0.001) were associated with higher rates of adolescent pregnancy. The indirect effect of engaging in age-disparate sex on adolescent pregnancy through condom use was significant, irrespective of age, age at sexual initiation, poverty and residential environment (B=0.4466, SE=0.1303, CI 0.2323–0.7428). Conclusion This multi-site cross-sectional survey supports qualitative hypotheses that girls’ inability to negotiate their partners’ condom use in age-disparate sexual relationships may drive adolescent pregnancy. Interventions addressing these relationships, facilitating condom use and

  14. Why Was Silcrete Heat-Treated in the Middle Stone Age? An Early Transformative Technology in the Context of Raw Material Use at Mertenhof Rock Shelter, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    People heat treated silcrete during the Middle Stone Age (MSA) in southern Africa but the spatial and temporal variability of this practice remains poorly documented. This paucity of data in turn makes it difficult to interrogate the motive factors underlying the application of this technique. In this paper we present data on heat treatment of silcrete through the Howiesons Poort and post-Howiesons Poort of the rock shelter site Mertenhof, located in the Western Cape of South Africa. In contrast to other sites where heat treatment has been documented, distance to rock source at Mertenhof can be reasonably well estimated, and the site is known to contain high proportions of a diversity of fine grained rocks including silcrete, hornfels and chert at various points through the sequence. Our results suggest the prevalence of heat treatment is variable through the sequence but that it is largely unaffected by the relative abundance of silcrete prevalence. Instead there is a strong inverse correlation between frequency of heat treatment in silcrete and prevalence of chert in the assemblage, and a generally positive correlation with the proportion of locally available rock. While it is difficult to separate individual factors we suggest that, at Mertenhof at least, heat treatment may have been used to improve the fracture properties of silcrete at times when other finer grained rocks were less readily available. As such, heat treatment appears to have been a component of the MSA behavioural repertoire that was flexibly deployed in ways sensitive to other elements of technological organisation. PMID:26867145

  15. Why Was Silcrete Heat-Treated in the Middle Stone Age? An Early Transformative Technology in the Context of Raw Material Use at Mertenhof Rock Shelter, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Patrick; Mackay, Alex

    2016-01-01

    People heat treated silcrete during the Middle Stone Age (MSA) in southern Africa but the spatial and temporal variability of this practice remains poorly documented. This paucity of data in turn makes it difficult to interrogate the motive factors underlying the application of this technique. In this paper we present data on heat treatment of silcrete through the Howiesons Poort and post-Howiesons Poort of the rock shelter site Mertenhof, located in the Western Cape of South Africa. In contrast to other sites where heat treatment has been documented, distance to rock source at Mertenhof can be reasonably well estimated, and the site is known to contain high proportions of a diversity of fine grained rocks including silcrete, hornfels and chert at various points through the sequence. Our results suggest the prevalence of heat treatment is variable through the sequence but that it is largely unaffected by the relative abundance of silcrete prevalence. Instead there is a strong inverse correlation between frequency of heat treatment in silcrete and prevalence of chert in the assemblage, and a generally positive correlation with the proportion of locally available rock. While it is difficult to separate individual factors we suggest that, at Mertenhof at least, heat treatment may have been used to improve the fracture properties of silcrete at times when other finer grained rocks were less readily available. As such, heat treatment appears to have been a component of the MSA behavioural repertoire that was flexibly deployed in ways sensitive to other elements of technological organisation. PMID:26867145

  16. U. S. Foreign Policy and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierce, Milfred C.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that United States foreign policy toward South Africa has been "found wanting" since 1948. Focuses on the failure of President Reagan's policy of "constructive engagement," and details what must be done to bring about an end to apartheid. (JDH)

  17. BIOSOCIAL CORRELATES OF AGE AT FIRST SEXUAL INTERCOURSE: THE CASE OF GRADE 9 AND GRADE 11 PUPILS IN THE NORTH WEST PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA.

    PubMed

    Amoateng, Acheampong Yaw; Kalule-Sabiti, Ishmael

    2016-01-01

    Survival analysis - specifically the actuarial life-table method and the Cox Proportional Hazards model - was used to assess Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological model with regards to the onset of sexual intercourse in a random sample of 1697 grade 9 and grade 11 pupils in the North West Province of South Africa. Data were collected in July and August 2007. Of the contextual factors examined, only academic performance and community disorganization were found to be statistically significantly associated with age at first sexual intercourse amongst girls. High academic performance by girls is positively associated with age at first sexual intercourse, while girls who live in disorganized communities initiate sexual intercourse earlier than their counterparts in other communities. Age is negatively associated with the timing of first sexual debut among both girls and boys. Males initiate sexual intercourse earlier than females, while youths with at least one sexual partner are much more likely to initiate sexual intercourse earlier than those without sexual partners. PMID:25488144

  18. Rural development update for South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  19. Luminescence- and Infrared-Radiofluorescence dating of the Acheulean- to Middle Stone Age sedimentary sequence at Montagu Cave, Western Cape Provence, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Tobias; Archer, Will; Sumner, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Montagu Cave is an archaeological site located on the edge of the Langeberg mountain range, about 160 km NE of Cape Town, in South Africa. The archaeological and sedimentary units at Montagu Cave comprise two Acheulean sequences which are separated from one another by a substantial archaeological hiatus. There is an additional Middle Stone Age sequence which overlies the Acheulean horizons, and contains layers attributed to the Howiesons Poort, as well as multiple other Middle Stone Age sub-stages. Hence, Montagu Cave provides a unique opportunity to investigate quite complex population level questions concerning the behavioral differences between modern and pre-modern populations in southern Africa. However, thus far, the chronological context of the sediment-layers at the site remains unclear. It is therefore critical to provide a resilient chronological framework for the timing of human activity at the site. This study concerns the potential of luminescence dating for the sedimentary sequence preserved at Montagu cave. The collected samples are tested on their quartz- and feldspar luminescence signal properties. Various optical dating techniques (quartz OSL; pIRIR290) will be applied, and the results of each compared in order to obtain information on the suitability of the material for luminescence dating, and to establish a chronological framework for this important archaeological site. Furthermore, the infrared-radiofluorescence (IR-RF) signal behavior will be tested on potassium feldspars, as IR-RF is a method being able to date back up to > 600 ka. IR-RF therefore has the potential to cover the expected time-frame of the sediments at Montagu-cave.

  20. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Helden, P D; Parsons, S D C; Gey van Pittius, N C

    2009-12-01

    Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus), the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis) the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta), a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly. PMID:20458859

  1. Who Is out of School? Evidence from the Statistics South Africa Community Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisch, Brahm; Shindler, Jennifer; Perry, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Schools Act requires every child to "attend school from the first school day of the year in which such learner reaches the age of seven years until the last day of the year in which such learner reaches the age of 15 years or the ninth grade, whichever comes first" (Republic of South Africa, 1996). This paper addresses three…

  2. South Africa: Challenge and Hope. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Lyle, Ed.

    In South Africa, racial identification determines all facets of a person's life--political, economic, and social. Divided into ten chapters, this book was prepared to increase public awareness of black South Africans' struggle for freedom. Chapter one discusses how the system of apartheid is built on the official identification of all citizens by…

  3. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  4. Evaluating the MBA in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Mala; Lange, Lis; Naidoo, Prem

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Quality Committee of the Council on Higher Education in South Africa recently carried out an evaluation of all MBA programmes offered in the country by South African as well as foreign higher education institutions. The MBA review is located within the context of the implementation of a comprehensive external quality assurance…

  5. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  6. The Politics of Education: South Africa's Lost Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Max

    1991-01-01

    Antiapartheid forces' unleashing of the "liberation before education" revolution among school-age children, coupled with the negative effects of years of apartheid education, resulted in a generation of students losing years of schooling. These young people are a daunting challenge to the new South Africa beginning to emerge. (CJS)

  7. South Africa and the affordable bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-07-01

    F.W. de Klerk`s announcement in March 1993 that South Africa has secretly developed a small nuclear arsenal, and junked it, was starting in its candor. The bedrock question is why South Africa developed and built seven fission weapons in the first place. The scientists, engineers, and policy-makers claim that weapons were never intended for military use or integration into the country`s military forces. Instead they claim that the strategy was bombs for political purposes. The strategy was designed to bring Western governments to South Africa`s aid in the event of an over-whelming attack by Soviet inspired military forces then in southern Africa. Shortly after de Klerk became president in 1989, the ordered a halt to the nuclear weapons program in anticipation of acceding to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). On July 10, 1991, South Africa became a member of the NPT. The program developing the seven nuclear weapons is discussed in some detail for various phases of the project. 13 refs.

  8. Nutritional values of tortoises relative to ungulates from the Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa: implications for foraging and social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jessica C; Henshilwood, Christopher S

    2014-02-01

    The site of Blombos Cave (BBC), Western Cape, South Africa has been a strong contributor to establishing the antiquity of important aspects of modern human behaviour, such as early symbolism and technological complexity. However, many linkages between Middle Stone Age (MSA) behaviour and the subsistence record remain to be investigated. Understanding the contribution of small fauna such as tortoises to the human diet is necessary for identifying shifts in overall foraging strategies as well as the collecting and processing behaviour of individuals unable to participate in large-game hunting. This study uses published data to estimate the number of calories present in tortoises as well as ungulates of different body size classes common at South African sites. A single tortoise (Chersina angulata) provides approximately 3332 kJ (796 kcal) of calories in its edible tissues, which is between 20 and 30% of the daily energetic requirements for an active adult (estimated between 9360 kJ [3327 kcal] and 14,580 kJ [3485 kcal] per day). Because they are easy to process, this would have made tortoises a highly-ranked resource, but their slow growth and reproduction makes them susceptible to over-exploitation. Zooarchaeological abundance data show that during the ca. 75 ka (thousands of years) upper Still Bay M1 phase at BBC, tortoises contributed twice as many calories to the diet relative to ungulates than they did during the ca. 100 ka lower M3 phase. However, in spite of the abundance of their fossils, their absolute caloric contribution relative to ungulates remained modest in both phases. At the end of the site's MSA occupation history, human subsistence strategies shifted to emphasise high-return large hunted mammals, which likely precipitated changes in the social roles of hunters and gatherers during the Still Bay. PMID:24423785

  9. Age-targeted HIV treatment and primary prevention as a ‘ring fence’ to efficiently interrupt the age patterns of transmission in generalized epidemic settings in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bershteyn, Anna; Klein, Daniel J.; Eckhoff, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Generalized HIV epidemics propagate to future generations according to the age patterns of transmission. We hypothesized that future generations could be protected from infection using age-targeted prevention, analogous to the ring-fencing strategies used to control the spread of smallpox. Methods We modeled age-targeted or cohort-targeted outreach with HIV treatment and/or prevention using EMOD-HIV v0·8, an individual-based network model of HIV transmission in South Africa. Results Targeting ages 20 to 30 with intensified outreach, linkage, and eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART) averted 45% as many infections as universal outreach for approximately one-fifth the cost beyond existing HIV services. Though cost-effective, targeting failed to eliminate all infections to those under 20 due to vertical and inter-generational transmission. Cost-effectiveness of optimal prevention strategies included US$6238 per infection averted targeting ages 10–30, US$5031 targeting 20–30, US$4279 targeting 22–27, and US$3967 targeting 25–27, compared to US$10 812 for full-population test-and-treat. Minimizing burden (disability-adjusted life years [DALYs]) rather than infections resulted in older target age ranges because older adults were more likely to receive a direct health benefit from treatment. Conclusions Age-targeted treatment for HIV prevention is unlikely to eliminate HIV epidemics, but is an efficient strategy for reducing new infections in generalized epidemics settings. PMID:27008897

  10. Asbestos-Related Disease in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Lundy; Kisting, Sophia

    2006-01-01

    South Africa was the third largest exporter of asbestos in the world for more than a century. As a consequence of particularly exploitative social conditions, former workers and residents of mining regions suffered—and continue to suffer—from a serious yet still largely undocumented burden of asbestos-related disease. This epidemic has been invisible both internationally and inside South Africa. We examined the work environment, labor policies, and occupational-health framework of the asbestos industry in South Africa during the 20th century. In a changing local context where the majority of workers were increasingly disenfranchised, unorganized, excluded from skilled work, and predominantly rural, mining operations of the asbestos industry not only exposed workers to high levels of asbestos but also contaminated the environment extensively. PMID:16809596

  11. Ovarian cycle activity varies with respect to age and social status in free-ranging elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Elizabeth W.; Meyer, Jordana M.; Putman, Sarah B.; Schulte, Bruce A.; Brown, Janine L.

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging African elephants live in a fission–fusion society, at the centre of which is the matriarch. Matriarchs are generally older females that guide their families to resources and co-ordinate group defense. While much is known about elephant society, knowledge is generally lacking about how age affects the physiology of wild elephants. Investigation of the ovarian activity of free-ranging elephants could provide insight into the reproductive ageing process, with implications for population management. Faecal samples were collected from 46 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 60 years for a 2-year period, and progestagen metabolite analyses were used to examine relationships between social status, age, season, and ovarian activity in female elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Social status was the strongest predictor of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in non-pregnant elephants, with grand matriarchs (n = 6) having the lowest values compared with matriarchs (n = 21) and non-matriarch females (n = 19). Likewise, social status and age were the strongest predictors of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in pregnant elephants (n = 27). The number of years since a non-pregnant female gave birth to her last calf (post-partum duration) was longer for older females with a higher social status, as well as during the dry season. Our results indicate that social standing and age of elephants are related to reproductive function, and that older females exhibit reductions in ovarian capacity. These results expand our understanding of reproduction and fertility throughout an elephant's lifespan, and the factors that impact gonadal function in free-ranging females. Given that possible over-abundance of elephants in areas such as Addo Elephant National Park is fuelling the debate over how best to manage these populations, knowledge about the reproductive potential of high-ranking females can provide managers with

  12. Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Suffla, Shahnaaz; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Arendse, Najuwa

    2008-01-01

    Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic context, suggesting that

  13. The health and wealth of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klopper, J M; Taylor, S P

    1987-12-01

    The per capita gross national product (GNP) in South Africa is examined as it relates to life expectancy and the infant mortality rate. Despite South Africa's relative wealth in per capita GNP terms, life expectancy at birth is 63-65 years and the national infant mortality rate according to Unicef, is unlikely to reach the target of 50/1,000 live births by the year 2000. The distribution of expenditure on health is contrasted between the former provincial administrations, the major local authorities, the national states and the homelands. The health resources allocation distribution is unlikely to ensure health for all by the year 2000. PMID:3120325

  14. A linear Hf isotope-age array despite different granitoid sources and complex Archean geodynamics: Example from the Pietersburg block (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin

    2015-11-01

    Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope data from zircon populations are widely used to constrain Hadean-Archean crustal evolution. Linear Hf isotope-age arrays are interpreted to reflect the protracted, internal reworking of crust derived from the (depleted) mantle during a short-lived magmatic event, and related 176Lu/177Hf ratios are used to constrain the composition of the reworked crustal reservoir. Results of this study, however, indicate that Hf isotope-age arrays can also result from complex geodynamic processes and crust-mantle interactions, as shown by U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of zircons from well characterized granitoids of the Pietersburg Block (PB), northern Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa). Apart from scarce remnants of Paleoarchean crust, most granitoids of the PB with ages between 2.94 and 2.05 Ga (n = 32) define a straight Hf isotope-age array with low 176Lu/177Hf of 0.0022, although they show a wide compositional range, were derived from various sources and emplaced successively in different geodynamic settings. The crustal evolution occurred in five stages: (I) predominately mafic crust formation in an intra-oceanic environment (3.4-3.0 Ga); (II) voluminous TTG crust formation in an early accretionary orogen (3.0-2.92 Ga); (III) internal TTG crust reworking and subduction of TTG-derived sediments in an Andean-type setting (2.89-2.75 Ga); (IV) (post-)collisional high-K magmatism from both mantle and crustal sources (2.71-2.67 Ga); and (V) alkaline magmatism in an intra-cratonic environment (2.05-2.03 Ga). The inferred array results from voluminous TTG crust formation during stage II, and involvement of this crust during all subsequent stages by two different processes: (i) internal crust reworking through both partial melting and assimilation at 2.89-2.75 Ga, leading to the formation of biotite granites coeval with minor TTGs, and (ii) subduction of TTG-derived sediments underneath the PB, causing enrichment of the mantle that subsequently became

  15. South Africa plays down faulty condom scare.

    PubMed

    1999-01-11

    South Africa has one of the highest rates of HIV infection in the world, with 3 million of the country's total population of approximately 40 million estimated to be currently infected with HIV. With 1500 people in South Africa contracting HIV every day, it is projected that more than 25% of the country's population will be infected with HIV by 2010. However, despite the current state of affairs regarding HIV/AIDS in South Africa and the extremely high level of HIV prevalence projected for the future, South Africans don't buy condoms. Free distribution, began in 1992, accounts for 90-95% of all condom use in the country. South Africa's Department of Health distributed more than 140 million free condoms in 1998, although as many as 1 million were defective. In an attempt to quell the resultant public uproar over the distribution of sub-standard condoms, a senior HIV/AIDS specialist with the Department of Health assures the population that from April 1, 1999, South Africa will adhere to the same standards as the World Health Organization, and all procurements will have been batch-by-batch tested. This specialist also stated that only one brand of condom, supplied by a manufacturer in India, was found to be defective and was immediately withdrawn. Assertions that other batches imported from China were also sub-standard were false. The Department of Health plans to sponsor a National Condom Week leading up to Valentine's Day on February 14, 1999, to promote condoms and their correct use. PMID:12294480

  16. AIDS epidemic runs riot in South Africa.

    PubMed

    1997-05-27

    Based on current health surveys in South Africa, the HIV and AIDS epidemic there is spreading faster than health workers can develop a policy to combat it. 120 million male and 90,000 female condoms have been distributed to the areas that are most affected. According to Health Minister Nkosazana Zuma, the percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women in the North-West Province rose from 8.3% in 1995 to 25% in 1997. In June 1996, 1.7 million people were at risk; this number rose to 2.5 million in 1997, 90,000 of whom will develop advanced AIDS by the end of the year. According to independent researchers, 800 people are infected daily, which means that 16% of South Africa's workers are already infected. This figure could rise to 20% by the year 2000 according to Professor Ronald Green-Thompson. At that time, the cost to the South African economy would be between US$25 million and US$2.3 billion. The World Health Organization (WHO) is touring provinces for the first time to select sites for use by assessment teams in July. Dr. Liz Floyd, head of the HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases unit, states that, although US$6.1 million (US$2.3 million more than in 1996) have been designated to fight the epidemic, new measures have to be found to avoid an infection rate of 1 in 5 young women by the end of the year. The unit conducts annual surveys among women attending public prenatal clinics. Infection appears to be linked to poverty, migration, family breakdowns, and prostitution. The greatest increase has been among women aged 20-24 years. According to Floyd, "the supply of condoms is still uneven and unreliable, especially in high density peri-urban settlements and shanty towns. Primary care for the youth and home-based schemes are poorly coordinated and erratic." Zuma believes that schools should be targeted; she hopes to educate children in 7400 secondary and 13,500 primary schools. Donor agencies, churches, workers, and business people have become involved, including

  17. Authoritarianism and Race Attitudes in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Andrew M.; Lambley, Peter

    1970-01-01

    Low correlations were found between authoritarianism and prejudice against non-whites. It is suggested that in South Africa, in comparison to America, prejudice serves a utilitarian rather than an ego-defense function, and is thus more amenable to change. (DB)

  18. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  19. Language and Learning Science in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probyn, Margie

    2006-01-01

    South Africa is a multilingual country with 11 official languages. However, English dominates as the language of access and power and although the Language-in-Education Policy (1997) recommends school language policies that will promote additive bilingualism and the use of learners' home languages as languages of learning and teaching, there has…

  20. Teaching Community Psychology in Postapartheid South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Aaronette M.; Potgieter, Cheryl A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines a community psychology course that stresses community empowerment, the myth of neutrality and objectivity in community psychology, and democratic accountability to the community. The course includes a brief history of race, class, and gender oppression in South Africa and concludes with a unit on converting social theory into practice.…

  1. Science Education as South Africa's Trojan Horse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, John M.; Gray, Brian V.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the story of one nongovernmental organization (NGO) and the role it played in reconceptualizing science education in South Africa. Describes the success of the Science Education Project (SEP) in confronting authoritarian practices of government organizations and those within its own ranks. Science education can become the Trojan horse of…

  2. Ethics in South Africa: new challenges.

    PubMed

    Stulting, A A

    2000-01-01

    One of the reasons why ethics is so much spoken about nowadays is that the moral certainties of previous times no longer exist. Recent events in South Africa have called into question many of the values and principles formerly adhered to. Formerly, we had confidence in the moral consensus that was shared by our families, religious organizations, educational institutions, professional associations and judicial system. Nowadays we have pluralism, and we live in a society with many competing moralities. Whereas in traditional societies, there is considerable agreement on values, in pluralistic societies, such as South Africa, individuals are subject to a clash of values and have the difficult task of deciding which should prevail. Euthanasia and assistance in suicide are currently hot issues in South Africa. Ethical conduct of medical practitioners dealing with cases of AIDS is an ongoing task. New issues like Telemedicine and the ethics involved therein, are a concept in South Africa and will receive much attention in this year. PMID:11143875

  3. South Africa, 2004: Power, Passion, Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckner, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Although the education system in post-apartheid South Africa has its share of serious challenges, the accompanying reforms carried out are inspiring as the ASCD Board of Directors and staff discovered when they visited the country in October 2004. The visit was organized around the theme of the 2005 ASCD Annual Conference: "Voices of Education:…

  4. Thinking strings: additional evidence for personal ornament use in the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Vanhaeren, Marian; d'Errico, Francesco; van Niekerk, Karen L; Henshilwood, Christopher S; Erasmus, Rudolph M

    2013-06-01

    Here we report on newly identified beads recovered from four Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave and, in particular, on a cluster of 24 perforated Nassarius kraussianus shells that probably originate from a single beadwork. Contextual information, morphometric, technological and use-wear analysis of the 68 published beads and those recently found, coupled with experimental reproduction of wear patterns, allow us to reconstruct the most probable way in which the N. kraussianus shells were strung. The results reveal unexpected regularities but also variability through the various levels that we interpret as resulting from changes in beadwork manufacture and design over time. The Blombos Cave beads may document one of the first examples of changes in social norms affecting the production and design of symbolic material culture. PMID:23498114

  5. The Age Pattern of Increases in Mortality Affected by HIV: Bayesian Fit of the Heligman-Pollard Model to Data from the Agincourt HDSS Field Site in Rural Northeast South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sharrow, David J.; Clark, Samuel J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigate the sex-age-specific changes in the mortality of a prospectively monitored rural population in South Africa. We quantify changes in the age pattern of mortality in a parsimonious way by estimating the eight parameters of the Heligman-Pollard (HP) model of age-specific mortality. In its traditional form this model is difficult to fit and does not account for uncertainty. Objective 1. To quantify changes in the sex-age pattern of mortality experienced by a population with endemic HIV. 2. To develop and demonstrate a robust Bayesian estimation method for the HP model that accounts for uncertainty. Methods Bayesian estimation methods are adapted to work with the HP model. Temporal changes in parameter values are related to changes in HIV prevalence. Results Over the period when the HIV epidemic in South Africa was growing, mortality in the population described by our data increased profoundly with losses of life expectancy of ~15 years for both males and females. The temporal changes in the HP parameters reflect in a parsimonious way the changes in the age pattern of mortality. We develop a robust Bayesian method to estimate the eight parameters of the HP model and thoroughly demonstrate it. Conclusions Changes in mortality in South Africa over the past fifteen years have been profound. The HP model can be fit well using Bayesian methods, and the results can be useful in developing a parsimonious description of changes in the age pattern of mortality. Comments The motivating aim of this work is to develop new methods that can be useful in applying the HP eight-parameter model of age-specific mortality. We have done this and chosen an interesting application to demonstrate the new methods. PMID:24453696

  6. Determinants of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among current non-smoking in-school adolescents (aged 11-18 years) in South Africa: results from the 2008 GYTS study.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years) in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents. PMID:22016702

  7. High-resolution geology, petrology and age of a tectonically accreted section of Paleoarchean oceanic crust, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosch, Eugene; Vidal, Olivier; McLoughlin, Nicola; Whitehouse, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The ca. 3.53 to 3.29 Ga Onverwacht Group of the Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa records a rare sequence of exceptionally well-preserved volcanic, intrusive and volcani-clastic Paleaoarchean rocks. Numerous conflicting models exist for the geologic evolution and stratigraphy of this early Archean greenstone belt, ranging from plume-type dynamics to modern-style plate tectonics. Although much work has focussed on the komatiites of the ca. 3.48 Ga Komati Formation since their discovery in 1969, far less petrological attention has been given to the younger oceanic rock sequences of the Kromberg type-section in the mid-Onverwacht Group. In this study, we present new field observations from a detailed re-mapping of the Kromberg type-section, and combine this with high-resolution lithological observations from continuous drill core of the Barberton Scientific Drilling Project [1]. The new mapping and field observations are compared to a recent preliminary study of the Kromberg type-section [2]. A U-Pb detrital provenance study was conducted on a reworked, volcani-clastic unit in the upper Kromberg type-section for the first time. This included U-Pb age determination of 110 detrital zircons by secondary ion microprobe analyses (SIMS), providing constraints on maximum depositional age, provenance of the ocean-floor detritus, and timing for the onset of Kromberg ocean basin formation. These new zircon age data are compared to a previous U-Pb detrital zircon study conducted on the structurally underlying sediments of the ca. 3.43 Ga Noisy formation [3]. A multi-pronged petrological approach has been applied to various rock units across the Kromberg, including thermodynamic modelling techniques applied to metabasalts and metapyroxenites for PT-estimates, bulk- and in-situ isotope geochemistry providing constraints on protolith geochemistry and metamorphic history. Consequently, it is shown that this previously poorly studied Kromberg oceanic rock sequence of the

  8. Tele-Education in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has an extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low, there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programs. The aims of this study were (i) to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa, (ii) describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N) in South Africa, and (iii) review the development of these programs with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation. Method: A literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made. Results: Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health (DOH). Despite initial attempts by the National DOH, there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N, a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 h of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education. Conclusion: Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource constrained

  9. Moral Education in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potgieter, Pieter C.

    1980-01-01

    This overview notes that moral education permeates all school curriculum, especially social studies and religion, since South African law mandates that education for Whites have a Christian character. The code of conduct for White teachers is quoted. Different provisions for Blacks are described and segregated schooling discussed in this context.…

  10. Apartheid and South Africa's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    The policy of apartheid, until recently one of the dominant aspects of South African society, has caused grievous harm to that nation's non-white population, especially black women and children. Most black children have not grown up in stable, two-parent families due to migrant labor policies and low wages. Housing, health care, nutrition, and…

  11. Language Laboratories in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacquiere, Arie

    1992-01-01

    Reviews trends in language instruction and the use of language laboratories in South African higher education from 1962 to 1990, paying particular attention to racial differences and the movement from an audio-lingual method to a communicative language technique. Questions the wisdom of equipping institutions with sophisticated hardware without…

  12. Fluid inclusions in quartz crystals from South-West Africa.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.; Roedder, E.

    1971-01-01

    Quartz crystals from calcite veins of unknown age in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks at Geiaus No. 6 and Aukam farms in South-West Africa contain both primary and secondary inclusions filled with one substance or a combination of substances. These substances include organic liquid, moderately saline aqueous liquid, dark-colored solid, and a vapor. Analysis of these materials by microscopy and by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry shows the presence of constituents of both low and high molecular weights.

  13. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences. PMID:24906348

  14. Lung cancer 1978-1981 in the black peoples of South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    McGlashan, N. D.; Harington, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Mortality data on lung cancer among the black populations of South Africa, newly available from the first ever nation-wide enumerations, are analysed for age-specific rates and significant geographical and intertribal variations. This study finds a higher incidence at younger ages than among whites, an urban excess similar to other population groups in South Africa and a higher incidence among the Xhosa than Zulu. It is suggested that an anti-smoking campaign is urgently required among blacks in South Africa. PMID:4041362

  15. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  16. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  17. Carbon reduction emissions in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Temchin, Jerome

    2002-02-28

    This project is a feasibility study for a control system for existing backup generators in South Africa. The strategy is to install a system to enable backup generators (BGs) to be dispatched only when a large generator fails. Using BGs to provide ''ten minute reserve'' will save energy and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by an estimated nearly 500,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year.

  18. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  19. Hepatogenous photosensitivity diseases in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, T S; Coetzer, J A

    1985-09-01

    Various hepatogenous photosensitivity diseases of ruminants in South Africa, caused by plants, fungi and an alga, are described. Information is given on botanical, mycological, toxicological, clinical and pathological aspects of the diseases. The intoxications were grouped according to the primary site of involvement and type of lesions in the liver. The aetiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of these conditions received special attention and the most important features are illustrated in colour. PMID:3911131

  20. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Brian F; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Berger, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  1. Carnivoran Remains from the Malapa Hominin Site, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Brian F.; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Berger, Lee R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  2. Social capital and health among older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about social capital and health among older adults in South Africa. This study investigates the association between social capital and several health variables, namely: self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning and physical inactivity, among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a national probability sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008 in South Africa. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, cognitive functioning and physical activity. Social capital was assessed with six components, namely: marital status, social action, sociability, trust and solidarity, safety, and civic engagement. Results The social capital assessment revealed that 56% of the respondents were married or cohabiting, 45% reported low (0) social action, 42% reported medium (2–3) sociability, 43% reported high (2) trust and solidarity, 50% reported high (2–4) civic engagement and 42% reported medium (6) psychological resources. In multivariate analysis, self-reported good health was associated with younger age, having secondary education and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity and greater psychological resources). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower social capital (not being married or cohabiting, lack of high trust and solidarity and low psychological resources). Better cognitive functioning was associated with younger age, higher educational level, greater wealth and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity, lack of safety, higher civic engagement and greater psychological resources). Physical inactivity was associated with older age and lower social capital (lower social action, lack of safety, lower civic engagement and poorer psychological resources). Conclusions

  3. Separate Schools and Separate People of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    1972-01-01

    After reviewing the historical and legal background of race relations in South Africa, the author reviews his experiences at a recent conference on Accelerated Development in Southern Africa,'' held in Johannesburg. (JM)

  4. A Multimedia Approach to Music Education in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    le Roux, Irene; Potgieter, H. M.

    The population in South Africa represents a microcosm of the world. The music of various cultural groups and countries is heard daily. A typical South African style is being developed by the blending of these various styles. The Unit for Telematic Teaching and Learning and the Department of Music of the University of Pretoria (South Africa) have…

  5. Television in South Africa: The Research Paradox, Problem and Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Randall; Ekman, Paul

    South Africa, the last urban, industrial, Western-culture society without television, called for television introduction on January 1, 1976. Thus, South Africa represented the last chance to explore certain research questions about the impact of television in modern societies. A study was made of: (1) factors in the South African context which…

  6. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance. PMID:12159261

  7. Fires in South Africa, snow in Lesotho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The precipitation that brought snow fall to the Drakensberg Mountains in Lesotho in southern Africa was not enough to quench the numerous fires (marked with red dots) burning throughout the Republic of South Africa. These Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 18, 2002, and July 2, 2002, show the snowfall in landlocked Lesotho contrasting sharply with the country's brown, mountainous terrain. (In the false-color image, vegetation is bright green, bare soil is brown, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In northeast Republic of South Africa, right along the border with Mozambique, the smooth, gray-brown terrain shows the boundaries of Kruger National Park. The Park was established in the late 1800s to protect game species, such as elephants, antelope, and bison, which were being hunted in great numbers. In this image, dark brown patches reveal the location of previous fires. The vegetation has yet to come back, and the landscape is virtually bare. NASA scientists study fire behavior in Kruger as part of the SAFARI field campaign. Running southward through Mozambique and into the Indian Ocean is the muddy Limpopo River--known to many through Rudyard Kipling's 'Just-so' story about how the elephant got its trunk. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  8. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngoepe, Ernest; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Wandeler, Alex; Sabeta, Claude

    2014-01-01

    There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5%) and Mokola virus (0.5%). Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones. PMID:25685866

  9. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  10. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Richards, Guy A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Blumberg, Lucille H

    2015-09-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) include a diverse array of diseases caused by a broad range of viruses transmitted from various animal hosts and originating from almost all the continents in the world. These are potentially fatal and highly transmissible diseases without specific treatments or prophylactic vaccines. As has been demonstrated during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, the consequences of VHFs are not limited to specific countries - they may become epidemic, and may have considerable economic impact and disrupt local public health and social service structures. Intensive public health intervention is necessary to contain these diseases. Here we provide a concise overview of the VHFs that are of current public health importance to South Africa. PMID:26428973

  11. Middle and late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age lithic technology from Pinnacle Point 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Erin; Williams, Hope M; Minichillo, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Excavations at a complex of caves and open air sites at Pinnacle Point, Mossel Bay, Southern Africa have uncovered rich stratified assemblages of Middle Stone Age materials, including those from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (PP13B) that comprises the first modernly excavated assemblage in southern Africa to be securely dated to the Middle Pleistocene. We report here on the complete excavated lithic artifact assemblage from PP13B. Both technological and typological analyses of the complete assemblage were performed. The assemblage-scale analysis allows for intrasite comparison as well as comparison of the PP13B assemblage with other sites from the region. No size-related pattern of change over time was observed within the PP13B assemblage, although there is significant evidence for varying strategies of lithic reduction between excavation areas within the cave. Comparison with other material from the Southern African MSA suggests that there is significant inter- and intra-site variability in the Southern African Middle Stone Age, even between portions of assemblages that are roughly contemporaneous. PMID:20934091

  12. Telerehabilitation in South Africa - is there a way forward?

    PubMed

    Mars, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa. Future actions are outlined. PMID:25945178

  13. Telerehabilitation In South Africa – Is There A Way Forward?

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa. Future actions are outlined. PMID:25945178

  14. Rights of the Child in South Africa: Violence against Girls in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benninger-Budel, Carin

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of South Africa. Noting that the Convention is the only "mainstream" human rights instrument that explicitly states…

  15. The abortion debate in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rees, H

    1991-01-01

    Before 1975 abortion was illegal in South Africa unless the life of the mother was at risk. The Abortion and Sterilization Act (ASA) of 1975 broadened the scope of legal abortion. The act allows abortion to save the life of the mother, in cases of severe fetal deformity, in cases or rape or incest, or if the woman is mentally incompetent. The procedure to get the abortion includes finding a doctor to recommend the procedure, then finding 2 other doctors to claim, in good faith, that abortion is indicated. At least 1 of these doctors must have been practicing for 4 years and neither can participate in the procedure. The operation must take place in a state controlled institution or an institution specifically designed for abortion. This law is currently not serving the needs of the women of South Africa, even among the women who are legally entitled to have an abortion. Annually only 40% of those that apply for abortion are approved and over 70% of the approved procedures are performed on psychological grounds. It is estimated that there are 200,000-300,000 illegal abortions every year. At Baragwanath there are 15,000 patients admitted for infection related to abortion every year. The ASA has failed to stop illegal abortion and failed to meet the needs of society. The abortion law should be liberalized for a variety of reasons. Women do not have adequate access to contraceptives in South Africa. This results in the birth of many unwanted children which are more likely to be abused and abandoned. Even if contraceptives were universally available, they all have associated failure rates. Since it is assumed that a women using contraceptives does not want to become pregnant, abortion needs to be available as a backup to contraceptives. Since South Africa is a patriarchal society, women must be given control over their reproduction if they are to achieve equal status. Thus for the reasons of preventing unwanted and unwanted and abused children, backing up contraceptives

  16. South Africa: a legacy of family disruption.

    PubMed

    Budlender, Debbie; Lund, Francie

    2011-01-01

    This article draws together unusual characteristics of the legacy of apartheid in South Africa: the state-orchestrated destruction of family life, high rates of unemployment and a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The disruption of family life has resulted in a situation in which many women have to fulfil the role of both breadwinner and care giver in a context of high unemployment and very limited economic opportunities. The question that follows is: given this crisis of care, to what extent can or will social protection and employment-related social policies provide the support women and children need? PMID:22164880

  17. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability Among Young Adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123

  18. Migrants from other African countries in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chimere-dan, O

    1996-02-01

    This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position. PMID:12293724

  19. Developing a wind atlas for South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennard, Chris; Hahman, Andrea; Prinsloo, Eric; Mabile, Eugene; Kruger, Andries

    2013-04-01

    The generation of the first verified Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) has been a joint undertaking between South African and Danish scientists to provide stakeholders with the best possible information about the wind climate over South Africa. The project is funded by the Royal Danish Embassy, the United Nations Development Programme, the South African Wind Energy Programme and the South African National Energy Development Institute. The project has focused on the western and southern regions of the country and includes a number of activities: 1. An observation campaign during which ten 65 metre masts were erected at selected sites with instruments at 4 levels that have recorded 2 years of data so far, this is ongoing. 2. Mesoscale and micro-scale modelling that consists of two phases. The first phase is complete and used the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM) run at 5 km with the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) to generate a wind atlas for the western and southern parts of South Africa. This is a statistical-dynamical method that assumes there is a robust relationship between meteorological situations at the large-scale and meteorological situations at the small-scale. The second phase, to be completed by the end of 2013, will develop a numerical wind atlas using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to develop the mesoscale wind climate (4 km resolution) with a continuous 30 year integration from 1980 to 2010. This is a fully dynamical method. The WAsP model will again be used to develop the micro-scale wind climate. 3. An extreme wind climate assessment has identified extreme wind producing synoptic systems, their seasonal and spatial characteristics as well as regions in South Africa particularly prone to extreme wind conditions. 4. New wind climate assessment techniques have been developed in the production of the wind atlas and new techniques to produce the numerical wind atlas will be formulated. 5. Dissemination of

  20. Private sector health reform in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Den Heever, A M

    1998-06-01

    This paper discusses some of the trends, debates and policy proposals in relation to the financing of the private health sector in South Africa. The public and private sectors in South Africa are of equivalent size in terms of overall expenditure, but cover substantially different population sizes. Within this context the government has reached the unavoidable conclusion that the private sector has to play some role in ensuring that equity, access and efficiency objectives are achieved for the health system as a whole. However, the private sector is some way off from taking on this responsibility. Substantial increases in per capita costs over the past 15 years, coupled with a degree of deregulation by the former government, have resulted in increasing instability and volatility. The development of a very competitive medical scheme (health insurance) market reinforced by intermediaries with commercial interests has accelerated trends toward excluding high health risks from cover. The approach taken by the government has been to define a new environment which leaves the market open for extensive competition, but removes from schemes the ability to compete by discriminating against high health risks. The only alternatives left to the private market, policy makers hope, will be to go out of business, or to survive through productivity improvements. PMID:9683089

  1. Optical/infrared astronomy in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stobie, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    The South African Astronomical Observatory is the national observatory for optical and infrared astronomy in South Africa. It has its headquarters in Cape Town and the main telescopes are located at the Sutherland site about 250 km north-east of Cape Town. The facilities include four telescopes ranging from 1.9 m to 0.5 m and are instrumented for optical spectroscopy, CCD imaging, infrared imaging, and optical and infrared photometry. The research carried out with these facilities covers a wide range of stellar and galactic research, with special emphasis on the Magellanic Clouds, the structure of our own Galaxy, pulsating stars, the distance scale, support of space observatory research, and international campaigns. The future development of optical/infrared astronomy in southern Africa is discussed. In particular, the unique contribution that can be made by a southern hemisphere observatory located on the African continent is stressed. Finally we comment on aspects of international collaboration and the educational importance of astronomy.

  2. Worker Education in South Africa: Lessons and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vally, Salim; Bofelo, Mphutlane Wa; Treat, John

    2013-01-01

    Worker education played a crucial role in the development of the trade union movement in South Africa and in the broader struggle for social transformation. This article reviews key moments and dynamics in the trajectory of worker education in South Africa. We argue that international developments, the rise of neoliberalism, and the negotiated…

  3. Educational Access in South Africa. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, S.; Dieltens, V.; Carrim, N.; Kgobe, P.; Moyo, G.; Rembe, S.

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in South Africa. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides a statistical analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Review on Educational Access in South Africa (Motala et al, 2007) [ED508808]…

  4. Mandatory reporting of child abuse in South Africa: Legislation explored.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Melany Leonie

    2014-08-01

    Legislation concerning mandatory reporting of child abuse in South Africa has been in effect since 2010, with the promulgation of amendment 41 of 2007 to the Children's Act of 2005. This article explores mandatory reporting legislation in an attempt to improve the reporting practices of healthcare professionals in South Africa. PMID:25213842

  5. Expanding Doctoral Education in South Africa: Pipeline or Pipedream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the status of the PhD in South Africa and the feasibility of the country's aspiration to increase by fivefold the production of PhDs by 2025. Based on the first empirical studies on doctoral education in South Africa, it argues that in order to move towards this target, an expanded and coordinated…

  6. Contexts of Educational Policy Change in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda; Chilisa, Bagele

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how different histories and contexts of political and educational change in Botswana and South Africa have shaped the more regular classroom practice observed in Botswana. It does this through an interpretive synthesis and comparison of four key moments of educational change in Botswana and South Africa during the twentieth…

  7. Outcomes-Based Education and Educational Reform in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses outcomes-based education in South Africa, which has been only recently implemented to improve the quality of education and to address the demands for a skilled work force. Addresses the fundamental question: Will OBE improve the quality of education and transform schools in South Africa? (Contains 24 references.) (WFA)

  8. Developing Curriculum Markers for Agricultural Extension Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Sufficient changes have occurred in both the agricultural and educational sectors of South Africa to warrant a careful scrutiny of the agricultural education offerings in South Africa. Agricultural extension is identified as an important part of the intended transformation of the agricultural sector. Further, agricultural extension is essentially…

  9. Education Rights, Education Policies and Inequality in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreen, Carol Anne; Vally, Salim

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore education policy changes in South Africa through a rights-based framework. We situate our analysis in the context of deepening poverty and inequality arguing that progress (or the lack thereof) in schools cannot be divorced from poverty and its consequences. We show that education reform in South Africa has been situated…

  10. Teaching Location and Some Characteristics of Place: Using South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Jesse; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Using South Africa as its focus, outlines a middle school lesson plan for teaching geographic themes and location and place. Provides students practice using geographic skills. Includes instruction about major cultural and ethnic groups living in South Africa along with three maps for classroom use. (NL)

  11. Student Mobility and Doctoral Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility elsewhere, which are…

  12. Investigating Preschool Education and Care in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Berg, Owen C.; Vergnani, Tania

    Recognizing the complexities of apartheid with its implications for conducting systems-related research within the vortex of South Africa, a study investigated the implementation of a national system of preschool provision for South Africa. The investigation began by studying two earlier reports: the Reilly-Hofmeyr report of 1983 and the report of…

  13. Orphanhood and Completion of Compulsory School Education among Young People in South Africa: Findings from a National Representative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; Rees, Helen; MacPhail, Catherine; Pettifor, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    We examined the association of orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa. In South Africa, school attendance is compulsory through grade 9, which should be completed before age 16. However, family and social factors such as orphanhood and poverty can hinder educational attainment. Participants were…

  14. Uranium-series dating of lacustrine limestones from pan deposits with final Acheulian assemblage at Rooidam, Kimberley district, South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Butzer, K.W.

    1979-01-01

    Lacustrine limestone samples from sedimentary pan deposits at Rooidam, near Kimberley, South Africa, that contain late Acheulian (Fauresmith) artifacts have been dated by 230Th 234U and 231Pa 235U methods. Results indicate a minimum age of about 200,000 yr B.P. for the terminal Acheulian in the interior of South Africa. ?? 1979.

  15. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  16. A geodiversity basis for landscape conservation in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jasper; Grab, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the South African landscape exhibits a palimpsest of different geologic and landform assemblages of different ages, and which record at the surface the effects of climate and environmental changes from the late Cretaceous to present. Previous studies have split the country into geomorphic provinces based on large-scale watersheds, uniformity of slope elements within the watersheds, and valley hypsometry. Geology, landforms and their homogeneity or diversity within a single area have not been considered. The existing network of provincial (Provincial Heritage Sites), national (National Parks/Transfrontier Parks), and international (World Heritage Sites, Ramsar sites) landscape conservation measures in South Africa do not explicitly and routinely include site or features of geoheritage or geodiversity interest. This present paper sets out to develop criteria by which landscapes of high geodiversity value can be identified, and provides examples of how these criteria can be applied. The close connection in South Africa between landscape-scale geology and geomorphology, and archaeology and ecosystems, suggests that geodiversity should and can be a key element of all landscape conservation strategies.

  17. South Africa: the new world of disability.

    PubMed

    Coetzer, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, unique business imperatives in South Africa have led to innovative risk product design, some of which are still unfamiliar to the rest of the world. The main drivers are: the unique mix of first- and third-world societies in our country, and an energetic marketing force operating in an already highly saturated insurance market. As a result, new product design has become one of the most effective ways to grow new business volumes in this competitive environment. This article reviews some of the unique products available and their advantages, target markets and disadvantages. The products that are discussed include lump sum total and permanent disability benefits, extended critical illness products, cover for impairment of function as well as risk products for people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:19119593

  18. Successfully controlling malaria in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, L; Frean, J; Moonasar, D

    2014-03-01

    Following major successes in malaria control over the past 75 years, South Africa is now embarking on a malaria elimination campaign with the goal of zero local transmission by the year 2018. The key control elements have been intensive vector control, primarily through indoor residual spraying, case management based on parasitological diagnosis using evidence-based drug policies with artemisinin-based combination therapy since 2001, active health promotion in partnership with communities living in the malaria transmission areas, and cross-border collaborations. Political commitment and long-term funding for the malaria control programme have been a critical component of the programme's success. Breaking the cycle of transmission through strengthening of active surveillance using sensitive molecular tests and field treatment of asymptomatic persons, monitoring for antimalarial drug resistance and insecticide resistance, strengthening cross-border initiatives, and ongoing programme advocacy in the face of a significant decrease in disease burden are key priorities for achieving the elimination goal. PMID:24893497

  19. Free Tropospheric Aerosols Over South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elina, Giannakaki; Pfüller, Anne; Korhonen, Kimmo; Mielonen, Tero; Laakso, Lauri; Vakkari, Ville; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Beukes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter G.; Josipovic, Miroslav; Tiitta, Petri; Chiloane, Kgaugelo; Piketh, Stuart; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lehtinen, Kari

    2016-06-01

    Raman lidar data of one year was been analyzed to obtain information relating aerosol layers in the free troposphere over South Africa, Elandsfontein. In total, 375 layers were observed above the boundary layer during the period 30th January 2010 - 31st January 2011. The seasonal behavior of aerosol layer geometrical characteristics as well as intensive and extensive optical properties were studied. In general, layers were observed at higher altitudes during spring (2520 ± 970 m) while the geometrical layer depth did not show any significant seasonal dependence. The variations of most of the intensive and extensive optical properties analyzed were high during all seasons. Layers were observed at mean altitude of 2100 m ± 1000 m with lidar ratio at 355 nm of 67 ± 25 and extinction-related Ångström exponent between 355 and 532 nm of 1.9 ± 0.8.

  20. South-South Cooperation: Brazilian experiences in South America and Africa.

    PubMed

    Santos, Roberta de Freitas; Cerqueira, Mateus Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years Brazil has played an increasingly active role internationally, the result of its model of integration and its foreign policy directives. The health sector is a valuable and strategic area for Brazilian technical cooperation to achieve various objectives, including its development goals. This article describes the main directives of Brazilian foreign policy, conceptually defining and characterizing South-South Cooperation, illustrated through an analysis of two Brazilian technical cooperation initiatives in healthcare: one in South America, the other in Africa. The study concludes that, irrespective of the interests and power asymmetries existing in South-South Cooperation, the objectives of this cooperation were achieved through the technical work. PMID:25742098

  1. Improving PMTCT Uptake in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, S. M.; Peltzer, K.; Villar-Loubet, O.; Shikwane, M. E.; Cook, R.; Jones, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the widespread availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs, many women in sub-Saharan Africa do not participate in PMTCT. This pilot study aimed to utilize partner participation in an intervention to support PMTCT uptake. Methods Couples (n = 239) were randomized to receive either a comprehensive couples-based PMTCT intervention or the standard of care. Results Compared to the standard of care, participants receiving the intervention increased HIV- and PMTCT-related knowledge (F1,474 = 13.94, p = .004) and uptake of PMTCT, as defined by infant medication dosing (74% vs. 46%, χ2 = 4.69, p = .03). Discussion Results indicate that increasing male attendance at antenatal clinic visits may be “necessary but not sufficient” to increase PMTCT uptake. Increasing HIV knowledge of both partners and encouraging active male participation in the PMTCT process through psychoeducational interventions may be a strategy to increase the uptake of PMTCT in South Africa. PMID:23778240

  2. Perspectives and perils of using U-Pb zircon geochronology to constrain stratigraphic age: lessons from the Permian-Triassic Karoo basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weislogel, A. L.; Mckay, M. P.; Dean, J.; Fildani, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Karoo basin contains an important Carboniferous-Jurassic sedimentary record that chronicles the amalgamation of Pangea, subduction along the southern Panthallasan margin and later opening of the South Atlantic, Southern, and Indian oceans. It also preserves a robust record of the end-Permian extinction, Earth's largest paleobiologic crisis. Fortuitously, this stratigraphic record is interleaved with numerous air-fall volcanic ashes likely derived from a continental magmatic system, part of which is currently exposed in the Choiyoi igneous province of South America. Our U-Pb geochronology of air-fall ash zircon from the Ecca and Beaufort Groups via SHRIMP analysis, along with LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analysis of detrital zircon from interbedded sandstones indicate that magmatic activity of this system likely persisted for at least 50 Ma. Particularly noteworthy is that uppermost Ecca Group detrital zircon signature exhibits few Precambrian ages and abundant Permian-Triassic ages; thus, by the start of marginal marine deposition, Karoo basin clastic influx was primarily sourced by some part of the Permian-Triassic Panthallassic magmatic system (i.e., the Choiyoi igneous province or its southern equivalent). Detrital zircon U-Pb ages suggest initial zircon formed within this magmatic system by ~300 Ma and that the apex of zircon crystallization occurred at ~265-275 Ma, after which, zircon crystallization decreased through time. We hypothesize that over the long duration of magmatic evolution, the melt began to become depleted with respect to zircon, such that by ~260 Ma, the melt became primarily undersaturated with respect to zircon. As a result, zircon was no longer a major accessory phase and ultimately after ~250 Ma was extruded only in scant trace amounts. This interpretation is also supported by U-Pb zircon geochronology on a few dozen Ecca and Beaufort Group ashes from across the Karoo basin. Individual ash ages were determined from statistically-robust, coherent

  3. Heat pulse observations of Eucalyptus grandis transpiration in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, P.J.; Olbrich, B.W.

    1992-12-31

    Forest plantations in South Africa are currently limited to areas experiencing a minimum mean annual rainfall of 800 mm, and cover approximately 1.18 million ha. Of this total area, 37% is planted to Eucalyptus spp., of which 76% comprise E. grandis Hill ex Maiden. Micrometeorological methods of measuring evapotranspiration are impractical in many areas of South African forestry owing to the rugged topography and heterogeneous canopy and boundary layer conditions. The heat pulse velocity (HPV) technique shows great promise as a suitable method of measuring sap flow in even-aged forest plantations. This paper describes the method in detail, as well as the results of comparisons between HPV sap flow estimates and cut-tree uptake rates for two size classes of E. grandis.

  4. Teenage Childbearing and Educational Attainment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Timaeus, Ian M; Moultrie, Tom A

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between teenage childbearing and school attainment is investigated using nationally representative longitudinal data drawn from South Africa's National Income Dynamics Study. The analysis focuses on the outcomes by 2010 of a panel of 673 young women who were aged 15-18 and childless in 2008. Controlling for other factors, girls who went on to give birth had twice the odds of dropping out of school by 2010 and nearly five times the odds of failing to matriculate. Few girls from households in the highest-income quintile gave birth. Girls who attended schools in higher-income areas and were behind at school were much more likely to give birth than those who were in the appropriate grade for their age or were in no-fee schools. New mothers were much more likely to have re-enrolled in school by 2010 if they were rural residents, they belonged to relatively well-off households, or their own mother had attended secondary school. These findings suggest that, in South Africa, interventions that address poor school attainment would also reduce teenage childbearing. PMID:26059987

  5. The social construction of ARVs in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sember, R

    2008-01-01

    An estimated 5.5 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa, 4.9 million of them between the ages of 15-49, 18.8% of the total population in that age bracket (Department of Health, Republic of South Africa 2006). The potential medical and social benefits of anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) would be substantial, but South Africa's leaders have faulted in their response to AIDS from the very beginning, particularly President Thabo Mbeki, who, in concert with the Minister of Health, has questioned the basic science of AIDS, and has condemned ARVs as poisonous. President Mbeki has created a false distinction between social causes and disease agents in his analysis that it is poverty, rather than HIV, that causes AIDS. He has made his arguments using post-colonial rhetoric to condemn pharmaceutical imperialism and medical experimentation on African populations. Opponents, most notably the pro-treatment social movement group, Treatment Action Campaign, claim that because poverty increases the risk of infection, illness and death due to HIV access to anti-retroviral medication is a social justice issue - justice demands the medications be available at all government clinics at no cost. In 2003 a government-sponsored treatment programme was launched, and by mid-2006 it was treating 140 000 persons with HIV/AIDS, less than 25% of the number estimated to require treatment. Treatment access, for all who need it in South Africa, is an ambitious but achievable goal. A new president will be elected in 2008, and many hope that this will result in a national treatment programme unshackled from the "AIDS denialism" of the current leaders. Former deputy president, Jacob Zuma, is likely to be the next president. His record on AIDS, and his patriarchal attitudes towards women, are troubling, however. One can only hope that the provincial health systems, which operate with a fair level of autonomy from the national Department of Health, will not be further hampered

  6. English in South Africa: Expansion and Nativization in Concert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernsten, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses South Africa's adoption of nine indigenous languages to join Afrikaans and English as official languages and the expanding role of English at the expense of these languages. Analyzes studies on South African Englishes, examining the way expanded use and domains for Black South African English (BSAE) speakers will have a significant…

  7. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  8. Undisciplining Knowledge Production: Development Driven Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winberg, Christine

    2006-01-01

    South African higher education institutions are increasingly under scrutiny to produce knowledge that is more relevant to South Africa's social and economic needs, more representative of the diversity of its knowledge producers, and more inclusive of the variety of the sites where knowledge is produced. Only a small percentage of South Africans…

  9. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  10. Early Childhood Development in South Africa--Progress Since the End of Apartheid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In April 1994, South Africa held its historic first democratic election. The African National Congress overwhelmingly triumphed and Nelson Mandela became the first president of a free and democratic South Africa. In this review, the situation of South Africa's young children under apartheid and the context of young children in South Africa in…

  11. Expansion of student activities in Africa: from south to north

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherif, Rim; Ben Salem, Amine; Gueddana, Amor; Zghal, Mourad; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew; Heidt, Alexander M.; Rohwer, Erich G.

    2014-07-01

    Optics and photonics research in Africa has gradually grown in the past ten years with a very active optical community involved in state-of-the-art research. Despite relatively low resources, optics research in the continent is competitive with many international benchmarks and has had a significant impact within the African continent. In the past five years, a group of dynamic students have developed the student chapter network from Tunisia to South Africa. The first student chapters of the optical society of America (OSA) and the international society for optics and photonics (SPIE) were established in South Africa (in the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and in the University of Stellenbosch), followed by a chapter in Tunisia (Engineering school of communications of Tunis, Sup'Com). In this paper, we will present the major activities of the student chapters of Tunisia and South Africa, and how they are promoting optics and photonics in Africa.

  12. Dated rock engravings from Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, A.I.; Thackeray, J.F.; Beaumont, P.B.; Vogel, J.C.

    1981-10-02

    Radiocarbon dates associated with engraved stones from sealed archeological deposits at Wonderwerk Cave in the northern Cape Province indicate that rock engraving in South Africa is at least 10,000 years old.

  13. Gymnanthemum koekemoerae (Compositae, Vernonieae), a new species from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Harold; Funk, Vicki A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Gymnanthemum (Compositae, Vernonieae) from South Africa is described. It can be distinguished from other species in the genus by the five-flowered capitula and widely obtuse leaf blades. PMID:24843294

  14. Oppression or Opportunity? Inside the Black Universities of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Lysle E.

    1976-01-01

    Concludes that within the constrictions of South Africa's inequitable system of separate development, the black universities do provide certain opportunities yet as they now stand, oppression seriously diminishes opportunity. (Author)

  15. Showdown over South Africa: The Second Coming of Student Activism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Marc

    1979-01-01

    Student activists are charging that university investments are helping support South Africa's discriminatory practices. Confrontations between students and administrators and trustees are described, and instances of divestiture are reported. (LBH)

  16. Tinea capitis in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morar, Nilesh; Dlova, Ncoza C; Gupta, Aditya K; Aboobaker, Jamila

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection in children. The hair involvement can be classified as endothrix, ectothrix, or favus, and the clinical appearance is variable. The goal of this study was to determine the demography, etiology, and clinical patterns of tinea capitis in South Africa. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted over a 1-year period. All cases were classified clinically and subject to Wood light examination, microscopy, and culture. One hundred patients were studied. The male:female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age was 4.6 years (range 1-11 years). Trichophyton violaceum was isolated in 90% of positive cultures. Wood light was positive in one patient with Microsporum gypseum. The most common clinical variety was the "black dot" type, seen in 50% of patients. Twenty percent of the children presented with more than one clinical type simultaneously. We concluded that the most common cause of tinea capitis in South Africa is T. violaceum. The presentation is variable. PMID:15283786

  17. The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, B G; Gouws, E

    2001-01-01

    We review the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in South Africa where the prevalence of HIV infection is among the highest in the world. The epidemic reached South Africa relatively recently but the prevalence of infection has increased rapidly and there are significant differences among provinces. Although few 15-year-old people are infected the prevalence increases rapidly with age thereafter, especially among women. The prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 exceeds that of HIV and curable sexually transmitted infections are common. 'Circular migration' may help to explain the high rates and rapid spread of HIV in the region. The incidence of tuberculosis has increased dramatically as a result of the HIV epidemic. Antiretroviral therapy for the prevention of vertical transmission has been shown to be effective in local conditions but transmission through breast-feeding remains problematical. While some epidemiological models have been developed, much more needs to be done in this regard in order to plan, coordinate and evaluate an effective response to the epidemic. We conclude by discussing some of the research that is needed and steps that could be taken to reduce the continued spread of the infection. PMID:11516385

  18. "A man's game": cricket, war and masculinity, South Africa, 1899-1902.

    PubMed

    Allen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    As practitioners of the imperial sport of the Victorian age, cricketers rallied whenever war descended upon England and its colonies. The South African War of 1899-1902 was no different. Adding to existing work on cricket's imperial development within South Africa, this study marks a significant contribution to research on the link between masculinity, war and sport during the Victorian era. A concept emerging from the English public schools of the mid- to late nineteenth century, the masculine ethos of sport and military honour had reached colonial South Africa by the outbreak of war in 1899. In its analysis of cricket and masculinity, this essay examines the events surrounding the war in South Africa and provides an example of the distinct relationship that existed between the military and the masculinity of sport and its organisation during this era. PMID:21280409

  19. Ancylomenes australis sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pontoniinae) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A J

    2013-01-01

    The holotype specimen of Ancylomenes australis, new species, (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pontoniinae) from Sodwana Bay, South Africa, is described and illustrated. It is the only species of the genus reported from south east Africa. It is an associate of cerianthid anemones and has a species specific colour pattern. Closely similar to A. venustus (Bruce, 1990) it is readily distinguished from it and all other species of the genus by its characteristic rostrum and blunt inferior orbital angle. PMID:26171516

  20. Focus on South Africa. Varieties of English Around the World, Volume 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Klerk, Vivian, Ed.

    Essays on English in South Africa and its neighboring countries include: "A History of English in South Africa" (Len Lanham); "English in South African Society: A Preliminary Overview" (Bill Branford); "Black English in South Africa" (David Gough); "Language Contact, Transmission, Shift: South African Indian English" (Rajend Mesthrie); "Afrikaans…

  1. Earth Science Education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tredoux, Marian

    1999-05-01

    Most of the statistics given in this overview of the history and current status of Geoscience Education in South Africa pertain to the more geologically inclined disciplines; while the report does mention the extent to which earth sciences are taught in mining and geography departments, no detailed information about these activities are given. There are 13 active geoscience departments countrywide (eleven at universities and two at technical institutions) teaching a wide range of geological topics, some at a highly specialised level. There are just over 100 academic staff members engaged in teaching, supported by 65 technical and administrative staff. Of the teaching staff, 89% have Ph.D. degrees, and most are engaged in active research. About 150 three-year B.Sc., slightly fewer B.Sc. (Hons.), graduates, plus 10 geological technicians pass through the system every year, with most finding employment in the mining industry. Approximately 120 M.Sc. and 60 Ph.D. candidates are currently registered at the universities, about 40% of whom graduate in any particular year.

  2. Aspects of roaccutane prescription in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Smart, A J; Walters, L

    1994-08-01

    A nationwide postmarketing surveillance study on the use and outcomes of use of isotretinoin has been conducted in South Africa. A representative sample of prescribers of the drug was identified from drug utilisation data and the overall doctor response rate was 90.1%. A total of 766 patients was enrolled in the study, of which 728 were analysable for safety and efficacy. More than half the patients prescribed isotretinoin were women, of whom only 48.25% were practising some form of contraception. The mean overall dosage prescribed was 0.64 mg/kg/day and the mean overall duration of therapy prescribed was 15.5 weeks. The mean dose and duration of therapy prescribed by dermatologists was significantly higher than that prescribed by general practitioners. Potentially dangerous drug interactions involving the concomitant use of isotretinoin with tetracyclines, vitamin A and oral contraceptives together with antibiotics were noted. Mucocutaneous drying effects were the most common adverse events and the incidence of these effects decreased with continuation of therapy. The known effectiveness of the drug was confirmed by the results of the study. PMID:7825086

  3. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law. PMID:15927933

  4. South Africa's AIDS play provokes controversy.

    PubMed

    Lee, N

    1996-03-01

    The European Union (EU) has earmarked a total of 40 million rand (US$12 million) to foster AIDS awareness in South Africa. 14.27 million rand, approximately US$3.45 million, has been allocated by the Department of Health to fund "Sarafina 2," a controversial musical show about AIDS awareness written by Mbongeni Ngema. The allocation of such a large portion of EU funding to this one play has been strongly criticized. The funds could have instead been used to provide essential services. In response, the Department of Health claims that the money had not been subjected to the usual checking processes because the amount had been specifically dedicated to the production of the play. The EU ambassador, however, has reportedly stated that the play was never discussed and was not part of their program. The director of the AIDS directorate was out of the country when Ngema's tender for the play was accepted last August, and it was not until November that she learned about her department's sponsoring of the play. The health department has now forbade its employees from discussing the matter with the media. Minister of Health Nkosazana Zuma should expect a tough time when she goes before Manto Tshabalala's parliamentary portfolio committee on health which has been charged with investigating the matter. The committee will also review some of the accounting related to this issue. PMID:8596329

  5. Sexual power and HIV risk, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pettifor, Audrey E; Measham, Diana M; Rees, Helen V; Padian, Nancy S

    2004-11-01

    Gender power inequities are believed to play a key role in the HIV epidemic through their effects on women's power in sexual relationships. We hypothesized that lack of sexual power, measured with a four-point relationship control scale and by a woman's experience of forced sex with her most recent partner, would decrease the likelihood of consistent condom use and increase the risk for HIV infection among sexually experienced, 15- to 24-year-old women in South Africa. While limited sexual power was not directly associated with HIV, it was associated with inconsistent condom use: women with low relationship control were 2.10 times more likely to use condoms inconsistently (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-3.78), and women experiencing forced sex were 5.77 times more likely to use condoms inconsistently (95% CI 1.86-17.91). Inconsistent condom use was, in turn, significantly associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.10-2.27). PMID:15550214

  6. Perceptions of sugar mommy practices in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Shisana, Olive; Davids, Adlai; Tabane, Cily; Mbelle, Margaret; Matseke, Gladys; Banyini, Mercy; Kekana, Queen

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to explore sugar mommy practices regarding their occurrence, acceptability as well as perceived reasons why older women and younger men enter into sugar mommy relationships. An exploratory qualitative study involving 135 participants from 11 diverse focus groups in terms of age, gender (females=27%) and geotype throughout the nine South African provinces was conducted. Data on the participants’ views, opinions and experiences of sugar mommy practices were collected using focus group interviews. The data were thematically analyzed. The study found that sugar mommy practices were prevalent in South Africa. The perceived reasons for acceptability were: love, survival, and correctness. Perceived reasons why older women have sexual relationships with younger men included: sexual fulfilment, domination, reduction of stress, physical attraction, procreation, lack of self-control, youthful feeling, migrancy, difficulty in finding partners of compatible age and young men being seen as not demanding. Perceived reasons why younger men have sexual relationships with older women included: material gain, reduction of stress, being enticed, rejection by women of compatible age, peer influence and belief that older women are purer. Given the increase in sugar mommy practices, which may have significant implications for the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, it is necessary to understand the underlying perceptions of these practices, in order to develop culturally relevant and socially acceptable intervention programmes. PMID:25431532

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  8. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W.

    1996-11-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country`s infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country`s energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry.

  9. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  10. An Overview of Education Management in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloi, Kholeka; Bush, Tony

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine three main issues, which are directly linked to school management developments in South Africa since 1994: (1) school leadership and management; (2) professionalization of principalship through the South African Standard for Principalship (SASP); and (3) leading and managing the learning school. In exploring these…

  11. Popular Education in Three Organisations in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endresen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    In the past, non-formal education in South Africa was committed to supporting the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM) in opposition to apartheid. Such non-formal political education was concerned with education for democracy. Post 1994, South African adult education policy has exclusively concentrated on vocational training, shifting the focus away…

  12. A Career Advice Helpline: A Case Study from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flederman, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This case study presents the new career guidance helpline managed by the South African Qualifications Authority in South Africa, a middle-income country. The National Qualifications Framework and Career Advice Helpline represent a national equity-driven initiative using technology to expand access. The model has drawn on contemporary international…

  13. Quality of Life in South Africa: Measurement and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, V.; And Others

    Research on the quality of life in South Africa is increasing as a result of a growing concern to improve the living conditions and overall quality of life for many underprivileged South Africans. Perceptions of well-being and basic needs were investigated in a nationwide study conducted in 1982-83. Components of the variable "quality of life"…

  14. Teaching Business Ethically in the "New" South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkomo, Stella M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the author's experience teaching a course on leadership and organizational dynamics to master of business administration students at the Graduate School of Business Leadership, University of South Africa. Considers how the structures of apartheid that permeated all sectors of South African society are only gradually being dismantled. (SG)

  15. Language-Based Social Preferences among Children in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children's language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African…

  16. Analyzing Teaching Quality in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapire, Ingrid; Sorto, M. Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on quantifying the quality of mathematics teaching in 183 randomly selected sixth grade classrooms: 100 from the North West province of South Africa and 83 from South East Botswana. The teaching quality is measured by coding videotaped lessons for three different components: mathematical proficiency, level of cognitive demand,…

  17. The Relationship between Racism and Education in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Ernest F.

    1985-01-01

    The author traces the relationship between racism and education in South Africa in light of the numerous racist policies and practices that the South African government has pursued and continues to implement. Dube describes the introduction of Bantu education and draws attention to the intended and unintended outcomes of this system. (Author/CT)

  18. Professional Counseling in South Africa: A Landscape under Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus G.; van der Westhuizen, Carol N.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the history, status, and trends of the counseling profession in South Africa and on the similarities with the development of the counseling profession in the United States. A need exists for South African professional counselors to refocus their research efforts to reflect the realities of the 21st century and link…

  19. Report on Portfolio Companies with Operations in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities of portfolio companies in South Africa are reviewed in this report from the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility of Harvard University. A brief review of recent South African political and economic events includes a discussion of the nation's leadership, long-term social and political projections, labor policies, and the…

  20. Work Restructuring in Post-Apartheid South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Edward; Omar, Rahmat

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of South African companies (mining, manufacturing, and telephone call centers) reveal a mix of management strategies that converge with and diverge from past practices. South Africa is attempting to balance the demands of efficiency, employee rights, and racial equity, a challenge that requires overcoming the legacy of the apartheid…

  1. Learning and Equitable Access in the Western Cape, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmour, David; Soudien, Crain

    2009-01-01

    Silent exclusion, when children register and attend school but learn little, is a critical feature of educational access in South Africa. Several international studies (e.g. TIMMS, SACMEQ) have shown that despite high levels of investment, South African schools perform poorly in relation to other countries at similar levels of income. Equitable…

  2. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N=84) in South Africa associate higher-status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher-value belongings with White people more often than with multiracial or Black people and with multiracial people more often than with Black people, thus showing sensitivity to the de facto racial hierarchy in their society. There were no age-related changes in children’s tendency to associate racial groups with wealth differences. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the general tendency for people to legitimize and perpetuate the status quo. PMID:22860510

  3. Risk equalisation and voluntary health insurance: The South Africa experience.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Heather; Grobler, Pieter

    2010-11-01

    South Africa intends implementing major reforms in the financing of healthcare. Free market reforms in private health insurance in the late 1980s have been reversed by the new democratic government since 1994 with the re-introduction of open enrolment, community rating and minimum benefits. A system of national health insurance with income cross-subsidies, risk-adjusted payments and mandatory membership has been envisaged in policy papers since 1994. Subsequent work has seen the design of a Risk Equalisation Fund intended to operate between competing private health insurance funds. The paper outlines the South African health system and describes the risk equalisation formula that has been developed. The risk factors are age, gender, maternity events, numbers with certain chronic diseases and numbers with multiple chronic diseases. The Risk Equalisation Fund has been operating in shadow mode since 2005 with data being collected but no money changing hands. The South African experience of risk equalisation is of wider interest as it demonstrates an attempt to introduce more solidarity into a small but highly competitive private insurance market. The measures taken to combat over-reporting of chronic disease should be useful for countries or funders considering adding chronic disease to their risk equalisation formulae. PMID:20619476

  4. Stress Patterns Across South Africa: Something Amiss?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoli, Marco; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Delvaux De Fenffe, Damien; Durrheim, Ray; Fagereng, Ake; Heidbach, Oliver; Van Der Merwe, Nielen; Saalmann, Kerstin; Saunders, Ian; Hodge, Matthew; Logue, Andrew; Malephane, Hlompho; Muaka, Joseph J.

    2013-04-01

    To mitigate the uncertainties in assessing the geohazards and rock conditions that affect the nuclear, mining (including hydrocarbon extraction) and civil engineering activities in South Africa, the authors are working to improve the data coverage concerning the present day stress field. In principle, this implies constraining the principal compressive stresses (σ1>σ2>σ3) or at least the maximum horizontal compressive stress (σH) because knowledge of these parameters may determine the reactivation potential of known faults, or the behaviour of large excavations and wells. By contrast, much of the subcontinent is under-represented in the World Stress Map database. For this reason we have taken a number of steps, firstly by installing a compact Trillium seismic sensor at Stofkloof (Namaqualand; adjacent to the Vaalputs low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility) and 1-sec sensors at Aggeneys and Koffiemeul (Bushmanland). All stations are equipped with Reftek data loggers and powered by solar panels. The data from these stations will be integrated with data from the national network to obtain focal mechanism solutions for seismic events in the Northern Cape - southernmost Namibia region (also known as the Grootvloer cluster). These neotectonic stress tensors are then combined with σH parameters obtained from calliper logs of off-shore wells and from the geometry of joints, faults and sheared fractures in palaeosols (Bushmanland), soils and calcrete (NW Free State) and aeolianites (southern Cape). We also include underground rock engineering phenomenological observations and measurements, and data in the public domain. Our data consistently indicate a NNW-SSE oriented σH (Wegener Stress Anomaly or WSA) that prevails across most of central, southern and western South Africa, Namibia up to the Ruacana hydroelectric power plant at the Angola border. However, in the Congo basin, a few earthquake focal mechanisms suggest rotation of the regional

  5. The Burden of Cryptosporidium Diarrheal Disease among Children < 24 Months of Age in Moderate/High Mortality Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, Utilizing Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS)

    PubMed Central

    Nasrin, Dilruba; Blackwelder, William C.; Wu, Yukun; Farag, Tamer H.; Panchalingam, Sandra; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Saha, Debasish; Adegbola, Richard; Alonso, Pedro L.; Breiman, Robert F.; Bassat, Quique; Tamboura, Boubou; Sanogo, Doh; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Manna, Byomkesh; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Kanungo, Suman; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Qureshi, Shahida; Quadri, Farheen; Hossain, Anowar; Das, Sumon K.; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Mandomando, Inacio; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Acácio, Sozinho; Omore, Richard; Oundo, Joseph O.; Ochieng, John B.; Mintz, Eric D.; O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Berkeley, Lynette Y.; Livio, Sofie; Tennant, Sharon M.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Nataro, James P.; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Mishcherkin, Vladimir; Zhang, Jixian; Liu, Jie; Houpt, Eric R.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of Cryptosporidium as a pediatric enteropathogen in developing countries is recognized. Methods Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), a 3-year, 7-site, case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and GEMS-1A (1-year study of MSD and less-severe diarrhea [LSD]) were analyzed. Stools from 12,110 MSD and 3,174 LSD cases among children aged <60 months and from 21,527 randomly-selected controls matched by age, sex and community were immunoassay-tested for Cryptosporidium. Species of a subset of Cryptosporidium-positive specimens were identified by PCR; GP60 sequencing identified anthroponotic C. parvum. Combined annual Cryptosporidium-attributable diarrhea incidences among children aged <24 months for African and Asian GEMS sites were extrapolated to sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian regions to estimate region-wide MSD and LSD burdens. Attributable and excess mortality due to Cryptosporidium diarrhea were estimated. Findings Cryptosporidium was significantly associated with MSD and LSD below age 24 months. Among Cryptosporidium-positive MSD cases, C. hominis was detected in 77.8% (95% CI, 73.0%-81.9%) and C. parvum in 9.9% (95% CI, 7.1%-13.6%); 92% of C. parvum tested were anthroponotic genotypes. Annual Cryptosporidium-attributable MSD incidence was 3.48 (95% CI, 2.27–4.67) and 3.18 (95% CI, 1.85–4.52) per 100 child-years in African and Asian infants, respectively, and 1.41 (95% CI, 0.73–2.08) and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.66–2.05) per 100 child-years in toddlers. Corresponding Cryptosporidium-attributable LSD incidences per 100 child-years were 2.52 (95% CI, 0.33–5.01) and 4.88 (95% CI, 0.82–8.92) in infants and 4.04 (95% CI, 0.56–7.51) and 4.71 (95% CI, 0.24–9.18) in toddlers. We estimate 2.9 and 4.7 million Cryptosporidium-attributable cases annually in children aged <24 months in the sub-Saharan Africa and India/Pakistan/Bangladesh/Nepal/Afghanistan regions, respectively, and ~202,000 Cryptosporidium

  6. History of Orbivirus research in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, Daniel W

    2012-01-01

    In the early colonial history of South Africa, horses played an important role, both in general transportation and in military operations. Frequent epidemics of African horsesickness (AHS) in the 18th century therefore severely affected the economy. The first scientific research on the disease was carried out by Alexander Edington (1892), the first government bacteriologist of the Cape Colony, who resolved the existing confusion that reigned and established its identity as a separate disease. Bluetongue (BT) was described for the first time by Duncan Hutcheon in 1880, although it was probably always endemic in wild ruminants and only became a problem when highly susceptible Merino sheep were introduced to the Cape in the late 18th century. The filterability of the AHS virus (AHSV) was demonstrated in 1900 by M'Fadyean in London, and that of the BT virus (BTV) in 1905 by Theiler at Onderstepoort, thus proving the viral nature of both agents. Theiler developed the first vaccines for both diseases at Onderstepoort. Both vaccines consisted of infective blood followed by hyper-immune serum, and were used for many years. Subsequent breakthroughs include the adaptation to propagation and attenuation in embryonated eggs in the case of BTV and in mouse brains for AHSV. This was followed by the discovery of multiple serotypes of both viruses, the transmission of both by Culicoides midges and their eventual replication in cell cultures. Molecular studies led to the discovery of the segmented double-stranded RNA genomes, thus proving their genetic relationship and leading to their classification in a genus called Orbivirus. Further work included the molecular cloning of the genes of all the serotypes of both viruses and clarification of their relationship to the viral proteins, which led to much improved diagnostic techniques and eventually to the development of a recombinant vaccine, which unfortunately has so far been unsuitable for mass production. PMID:23327123

  7. Sexual Violence and Youth in South Africa: The Need for Community-Based Prevention Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Inge; Bhana, Arvin; McKay, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: South Africa is reported to have one of the highest rates of sexual violence in the world, with adolescent girls between the ages of 12-17 being particularly at risk. Given that adolescence is considered a critical developmental period for establishing normative sexual behavior, this study explored multiple levels of risk influences…

  8. Developmental Disabilities and Behavioral Problems among School Children in the Western Cape of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giarelli, Ellen; Clarke, Darren L.; Catching, Christopher; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: This descriptive cross-sectional study estimates the frequencies and kinds of potential developmental disabilities (DD) and behavior problems (BP) among children in grades R and 1 who attend a primary public school in rural Western Cape Province, South Africa. Methods: Data were collected on 174 children aged 5.1-8.8 years using the "Ten…

  9. AIDS in South Africa: Therapeutic Interventions to Strengthen Resilience among Orphans and Vulnerable Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Donald, David R.; Theron, Linda C.; Lyon, Rachel Crook

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 10% of the 34.2 million individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are under the age of 18. Additionally, 17.8 million children have experienced one or both parents dying of HIV/AIDS. In comparison to other countries, South Africa has the highest per capita of…

  10. Disempowerment and Psychological Distress in the Lives of Young People in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nduna, Mzikazi; Jewkes, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted in Butterworth, in the rural Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, to explore sources of distress for young people. Semi-structured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 men and 24 women aged 16-22 years. The findings revealed interconnections between structural factors such as death, poverty,…

  11. Education and Skills for Development in South Africa: Reflections on the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, S.; Akoojee, Salim

    2007-01-01

    In July 2005, President Mbeki announced the launch of the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA), a new development strategy designed to help the South African state meet the ANC's 2004 election pledges, namely: (1) halve unemployment; (2) halve poverty; (3) accelerate employment equity; and (4) improve broad-based…

  12. Taming the Cobra: English, Multilingualism, and Language Education in South Africa. A Comparison with Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ruth

    A study investigated (1) the role of English as a language of power, and how it has affected multilingualism in Canada and South Africa, (2) the nature and implementation of South Africa's multilingual policy, (3) how South Africa's language education policy and policy implementation compare to those in Canada, (4) how South African language…

  13. New Insights into Samango Monkey Speciation in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Desiré L.; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S. W.; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M. Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study. PMID:25798604

  14. Gender, ageing & carework in East and Southern Africa: A review

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 58 million persons aged 60-plus live in sub-Saharan Africa; by 2050 that number will rise sharply to 215 million. Older Africans traditionally get care in their old age from the middle generation. But in East and Southern Africa, HIV has hollowed out that generation, leaving many older persons to provide care for their children’s children without someone to care for him or herself in old age. Simultaneously, the burden of disease among older persons is changing in this region. The result is a growing care deficit. This article examines the existing literature on care for and by older persons in this region, highlighting understudied aspects of older persons’ experiences of ageing and care – including the positive impacts of carework, variation in the region, and the role of resilience and pensions. We advance a conceptual framework of gendered identities – for both men and women – and intergenerational social exchange to help focus and understand the complex interdependent relationships around carework, which are paramount in addressing the needs of older persons in the current care deficit in this region, and the Global South more generally. PMID:25947225

  15. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research. PMID:24973022

  16. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa’s springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  17. Does race matter? Children's height in Brazil and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Burgard, Sarah

    2002-11-01

    I examine racial differences in child stunting in mid-1990s South Africa and Brazil, two multiracial societies with different histories of legal support for racial discrimination. Using data from nationally representative household samples linked to community-level measures, the analysis shows that racial inequality in the distribution of socioeconomic resources across households and communities explains much of the racial difference in stunting in both countries. Even after these factors are controlled, however, the results indicate that in South Africa, nonwhite children are still at greater risk of growth faltering than are white children. The nature of socioeconomic and racial differences in children's growth is examined, and major determinants are discussed. These findings suggest that although state-sanctioned racism may help to explain the greater racial inequality in stunting in South Africa than in Brazil, the eradication of a disadvantage for nonwhites will depend on changes in the same fundamental socioeconomic inequalities that characterize both nations. PMID:12471853

  18. Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

  19. Schooling For All In South Africa: Closing The Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindler, Jennifer; Fleisch, Brahm

    2007-03-01

    It has been widely assumed that South Africa has achieved universal basic education. Through an analysis of the 2001 census and two national enrolment datasets rather than statistical projections, this study re-examines this assumption and provides new estimates of enrolment levels in primary, basic and secondary education. Using GER, NER, and ASER indicators, disaggregated by gender and province, the study shows that access to education in South Africa is not as widespread as published sources note. While statistics show that national access levels are lower than prevailing estimates, the relatively high levels of access in some of the most disadvantaged provinces suggest the need to re-evaluate assumptions about targets for universal access for developing regions. In addition, the analysis reveals South Africa's unexpected and provocative gendered patterns of access and participation.

  20. Depression and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Late-life depression is an important public health problem because of its devastating consequences. The study aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported symptom-based depression in a national sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements as well as questions on depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association of socio-demographic factors, health variables, and depression. Results The overall prevalence of symptom-based depression in the past 12 months was 4.0%. In multivariable analysis, functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems) were associated with self-reported depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Conclusions Self-reported depression in older South Africans seems to be a public health problem calling for appropriate interventions to reduce occurrence. Factors identified to be associated with depression, including functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems), can be used to guide interventions. The identified protective and risk factors can help in formulating public health care policies to improve quality of life among older adults. PMID:23336621

  1. Bushveld-aged fluid flow, peak metamorphism, and gold mobilization in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa: Constraints from in situ SHRIMP U-Pb dating of monazite and xenotime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Birger; Fletcher, Ian R.; Muhling, Janet R.; Mueller, Andreas G.; Hall, Greg C.

    2007-10-01

    In situ U-Pb dating of monazite and xenotime in gold reefs and unmineralized greenschist facies sedimentary rocks from the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa, reveals two episodes of tectonothermal activity. A major event between 2.06 and 2.03 Ga is recorded in the Wit-watersrand and Transvaal Supergroups in the northwestern and central basin, and broadly coincides with the ca. 2.06 Ga Bushveld event. In the central and southern basin, a previously unrecognized event has been dated between 2.14 and 2.12 Ga. The widespread geographic and stratigraphic occurrence of Bushveld-aged monazite and xenotime, including both auriferous reefs and unmineralized strata, indicates that metamorphism and fluid flow associated with magmatism was pervasive, affecting most of the succession (>10 km thick) in the central and northern parts of the basin. The metamorphic phosphate dates, which are younger away from the complex, indicate a lag of 20-30 m.y. between emplacement and phosphate growth in the central basin (˜100 km south), suggesting that heat related to magmatism was transferred southward at an average rate of 3-5 mm yr-1. The absence of 2.06-2.03 Ga phosphates in the Welkom goldfield at the southern end of the basin implies that Bushveld-related heating and fluid flow did not affect this part of the basin. The intergrowth of ca. 2.045 Ga monazite with gold in quartz-pebble conglomerate from the West Rand goldfield indicates that fluid flow related to the Bushveld event caused mobilization of gold in the Witwatersrand basin.

  2. Housing conditions and mental health of orphans in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Pappin, Michele; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the developed world suggests that poor housing conditions and housing environments contribute to poor mental health outcomes, although research results are mixed. This study investigates the relationship between housing conditions and the socio-emotional health of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in South Africa. The results of the study are mainly inconclusive, although it is suggested that methodological considerations play a vital role in explaining the mixed results. However, a positive relationship was found between living in informal settlements and better socio-emotional health of the OVC. We speculate that the historical context of informal settlement formation in South Africa helps to explain this unexpected result. PMID:24013088

  3. Housing conditions and mental health of orphans in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Pappin, Michele; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Joe

    2013-11-01

    Literature from the developed world suggests that poor housing conditions and housing environments contribute to poor mental health outcomes, although research results are mixed. This study investigates the relationship between housing conditions and the socio-emotional health of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in South Africa. The results of the study are mainly inconclusive, although it is suggested that methodological considerations play a vital role in explaining the mixed results. However, a positive relationship was found between living in informal settlements and better socio-emotional health of the OVC. We speculate that the historical context of informal settlement formation in South Africa helps to explain this unexpected result. PMID:24013088

  4. Lifelong Learning Within Higher Education in South Africa: Emancipatory Potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Shirley

    1999-11-01

    In South Africa under apartheid higher education was inaccessible to the majority. This article argues that in the new South Africa there is an opportunity to redress this situation and promote equity though lifelong learning. This would involve greatly widening access and providing programmes to develop broadly applicable abilities such as computer literacy and problem-solving skills, which would increase the economic competitiveness and personal empowerment of learners. At the same time, the author argues, new educational approaches are needed to promote active citizenship.

  5. Media Performance in South Africa: A Shift from Vertical to Horizontal Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zyl, John; Kantor, Lara

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Media Monitoring Project (MMP) of South Africa, an organization that monitored the media ahead of and during South Africa's first democratic elections. Describes the MMP's roots and its activities and impact before, during, and after the election. (SR)

  6. 69 FR 11040 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa AGENCY... terminating its antidumping investigations on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland... dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa (investigations Nos. 731-TA-1048 and...

  7. Investment in South Africa: A Challenge to Schools of Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunson, Paul M.

    1980-01-01

    Points out the rift between the non-discrimination ethic of social workers and the apartheid policy in South Africa. University corporate investments in South Africa are questioned, especially those from universities with graduate schools of social work. (LAB)

  8. Woman abuse in South Africa: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dangor, Z; Hoff, L A; Scott, R

    1998-04-01

    This study aims to address the problem of woman abuse in South Africa as a basis for program development for survivors of violence. It also presents documentation for the expansion of social, health, and legal services for abused women and children. Ethnographic interviews were conducted on 37 South African women from various community settings and institutions in the Johannesburg region. Two focus groups discussed issues from the interview data. Two aspects of woman abused in South Africa were revealed in this study, namely, the endemic culture of violence, and the existence of cheap labor of domestic workers. It was observed that women abuse and sexual assault are rampant because of the endemic culture of violence and by customs, culture, and tradition which tends to objectify women and make them feel like male property. Regarding child and elderly abuse, it appears that more cases are being reported in South Africa. This study confirms the need for national survey data and in-depth research with abused women themselves in order to acquire a clearer picture of the personal, familial, and societal costs of violence against women. Furthermore, acknowledgement of domestic violence and its overall burden on community stability and health is vital in implementing reforms in South Africa. PMID:12295438

  9. Demand for antenatal care in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kirigia, J M; Lambo, E; Sambo, L G

    2000-01-01

    On May,24 1994, the then South African president, Mr. Nelson Mandela, declared that all health care for children under the age of 6 years, and pregnant women would be free. Unfortunately, there has been no significant decrease in maternal, perinatal and infant mortality. Thus, there is a need of research into the factors that influence the demand for antenatal services. The objectives of this paper are to (a) establish the determinants of individual pregnant women's choice to seek antenatal care; and (b) deal with potential endogeneity bias in the relationship between the decision to seek pre-natal care and perceived health status. The joint determination of consumption of antenatal care and pregnant woman's health status requires estimation of a simultaneous system. To help mitigate the simultaneity bias and avoid the inconsistency inherent in the application of Ordinary least Squares (OLS) method to simultaneous equations systems, we used Two-Stage Probit Maximum Likelihood Estimator Method. In the antenatal structural-form equation, the coefficients for TOILET, AGE, OCCUPATION, EMPLOYMENT, SMOKER, METHODS and QUALITY were statistically significant at P

  10. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy. PMID:22392794

  11. Single zircon ages for felsic to intermediate rocks from the Pietersburg and Giyani greenstone belts and bordering granitoid orthogneisses, northern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, A.; Jaeckel, P.; Brandl, G.

    2000-05-01

    Previous models for the temporal evolution of greenstone belts and surrounding granitoid gneisses in the northern Kaapvaal Craton can be revised on the basis of new single zircon ages, obtained by conventional UPb dating and PbPb evaporation. In the Pietersburg greenstone belt, zircons from a metaquartz porphyry of the Ysterberg Formation yielded an age of 2949.7±0.2 Ma, while a granite intruding the greenstones, and deformed together with them, has an age of 2853 + 19/-18 Ma. These data show felsic volcanism in this belt to have been coeval with felsic volcanism in the Murchison belt farther east, and the date of ˜2853 Ma provides an older age limit for deformation in the region. In contrast, a meta-andesite of the Giyani greenstone belt has a zircon age of 3203.3±0.2 Ma, while a younger and cross-cutting feldspar porphyry has an emplacement age of 2874.1±0.2 Ma. The meta-andesite is intercalated with various mafic and ultramafic rocks and, therefore, the age of 3.2 Ga appears plausible for the bulk of the Giyani greenstones. Granitoid gneisses surrounding the Pietersburg and Giyani belts vary in composition from tonalite to granite and texturally from well-layered to homogeneous but strongly foliated. These rocks yielded zircon ages between 2811 and 3283 Ma. The pre-3.2 Ga gneisses are polydeformed and may have constituted a basement to the Giyani greenstone sequence, while the younger gneisses are intrusive into the older gneiss assemblage and/or into the greenstones. The Giyani and Pietersburg belts probably define two separate crustal entities that were originally close together but were later displaced by strike-slip movement.

  12. State of Transition: Post-Apartheid Educational Reform in South Africa. Monographs in International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Clive

    This book reviews the major dimensions of post-apartheid educational change and continuity in South Africa since 1994. It sets educational reform in the context of the nature of the anti-apartheid struggle inside South Africa and in the global economic environment in which South Africa re-entered the world stage as a legitimate actor. Recognizing…

  13. ICT-Supported Pedagogical Policies and Practices in South Africa and Chile: Emerging Economies and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa participated in all three of the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES). In the first international study, South Africa was the only developing country, and therefore, stark contrasts were found in the international study between South Africa and the other participating countries. Chile participated in the SITES…

  14. 77 FR 31574 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... Mission to South Africa and Zambia November 26--November 30, 2012, to help U.S. firms find business partners and sell equipment and services in Johannesburg and Cape Town, South Africa, and Lusaka,...

  15. 77 FR 60966 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia. Recruitment for this mission will conclude no...

  16. The Intellectualisation of the Indigenous Languages of South Africa: Challenges and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Rosalie; Madiba, Mbulungeni

    2002-01-01

    Discusses language intellectualization in South Africa with particular reference to the African languages. Provides an overview of the language situation in South Africa and discusses the new language policy of official multilingualism with special reference to the intellectualization of the indigenous languages of South Africa. (VWL)

  17. Human foot bones from Klasies River main site, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rightmire, G Philip; Deacon, H J; Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Tattersall, Ian

    2006-01-01

    The caves at Klasies River contain abundant archaeological evidence relating to human evolution in the late Pleistocene of southern Africa. Along with Middle Stone Age artifacts, animal bones, and other food waste, there are hominin cranial fragments, mandibles with teeth, and a few postcranial remains. Three foot bones can now be added to this inventory. An adult first metatarsal is similar in size and discrete anatomical features to those from Holocene burials in the Cape Province. A complete and well-preserved second metatarsal is especially long and heavy at midshaft in comparison to all Holocene and more recent South African homologues. A large fifth metatarsal is highly distinctive in its morphology. In overall size, these pedal elements resemble specimens from late Pleistocene sites in western Asia, but there are some differences in proportions. The fossils support earlier suggestions concerning a relatively high level of sexual dimorphism in the African Middle Stone Age population. Squatting facets on the two lateral metatarsals appear to indicate a high frequency of kneeling among members of this group. The new postcranial material also underlines the fact that the morphology of particular skeletal elements of some of the 100,000-year-old Klasies River individuals falls outside the range of modern variation. PMID:16242755

  18. Drowning deaths in Mthatha area of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2008-10-01

    Deaths by drowning are a serious public health problem worldwide. They are under-investigated and hence under-estimated. Drowning is an important and preventable cause of death. This paper aims to estimate the deaths by drowning in Mthatha area of South Africa. Records of the medico-legal autopsies in Umtata General Hospital (UGH) were reviewed from 1993 to 2004. All cases of unnatural death are brought by the police to UGH mortuary. Three hundred and forty-three cases of death as a result of drowning were recorded over a period of 12 years (1993-2004). There was an increased trend of drowning from 2.7 per 100, 000 in 1993 to 12 per 100,000 in 2004. Males outnumbered females by 2.6:1. The incidence of drowning declines as age advances. The highest number (96) of victims was under ten years of age. Deaths due to drowning are increasing especially among male children and young adults. PMID:19051671

  19. Increasing Equity in Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RTI International, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The South African government has made significant efforts to overcome the legacy of apartheid education, committing itself to the dual goals of achieving high-quality education with more equitable access for all South Africans. Substantial investments have been made to achieve this vision, however, translating policies into improved school-level…

  20. Safari Sojourns: Exploring South Africa with the New Geography Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labbo, Linda D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Provides a curriculum conceptualization combining the new National Geographic Standards with the national standards developed by the National Council for the Social Studies. Presents a recommended list of seven books with accompanying learning activities for teaching about South Africa in the elementary social studies classroom. (CFR)

  1. Academic Freedom and Racial Injustice: South Africa's Former "Open Universities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Y.; Taylor, R.

    2010-01-01

    The article critically re-interrogates three high profile cases of white racism at South Africa's former "open universities" to highlight the way in which existing debates around academic freedom fail to come to terms with questions of racial injustice after apartheid. The cases covered are the Makgoba affair at Wits, the Mamdani affair at the…

  2. Institutionalising Teacher Clusters in South Africa: Dilemmas and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jita, Loyiso C.; Mokhele, Matseliso L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, teacher clusters are being used as a substitute for the more traditional approaches to the professional development of teachers. With this goal in mind, many provincial education departments in South Africa have sought to institutionalise and encourage the formation of teacher clusters as vehicles for the continuing professional…

  3. Children's Learning in the Diverse Sociocultural Context of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikovore, Jeremiah; Makusha, Tawanda; Muzvidziwa, Irene; Richter, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Children develop in several interlocking systems--in the context of their family, and within the interaction of such settings as home, school, and church (Russell, 2011). In South Africa, children's diverse backgrounds within families, neighborhoods, and sociocultural environments provide them with varied experiences and opportunities to learn.…

  4. Women Principals in South Africa: Gender, Mothering and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on qualitative data from a mixed-method study that analysed women's access to the principal role and their leadership experiences. The paper draws on a subset of interviews with 54 female head teachers in the Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa. Since a mothering style of leadership was self-reported by over half…

  5. Politics and Human Welfare: Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKendrick, B. W.; Leketi, M.

    1990-01-01

    The study found that apartheid impacted the sociopsychological and physical circumstances of 12 African and 11 White people with retinitis pigmentosa in South Africa. Findings are discussed in terms of onset of condition, effects on subjects' lives, knowledge of social services, and needs unmet by existing services. (JDD)

  6. Explaining Mathematics Achievement Gains in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Arends, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test empirically whether and how classroom and school factors contribute to student mathematics learning gains in the border region of North West province, South Africa and Southeastern Botswana. Our results suggest that in both regions, improving teaching quality has an important impact on how much mathematics…

  7. Subjective Well-Being and Household Factors in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwalter, Jeffrey T.; Dalenberg, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a household survey from South Africa to estimate a model of subjective well-being based upon poverty and household characteristics including housing, sanitation, and transportation. Following Sen, we allow for factors in addition to income and we begin to incorporate functionings and capabilities as determinants of well-being. This…

  8. Africa South of the Sahara: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography has been compiled as an introduction to reference resources for college-level African studies and to suggest useful tools for literature searches. It is a guide to materials in the library of McGill University. Call numbers are included. The titles cited refer to Africa South of the Sahara as a whole or to large…

  9. Networking for School Leadership in South Africa: Perceptions and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiggundu, Edith; Moorosi, Pontso

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings from the evaluation of the pilot of a new entry qualification for school principals in South Africa. The programme, Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) School Leadership, had networking as a distinctive feature, and this article examines candidates' perceptions and experiences of networking as a leadership…

  10. Teaching about Heterosexism: Challenging Homophobia in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Dennis; Msibi, Thabo

    2011-01-01

    This article, a critical review of a module on heterosexism and homophobia, sets out the challenges to be overcome if the oppressive conditions for lesbian, gay, and bisexual students and teachers in South Africa are to be changed. It draws on evidence from student assignments, records of participatory discussions and the notes of the authors, who…

  11. The Power of eLearning in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredenkamp, John

    2005-01-01

    South Africa's public education system is going through massive transformation, moving away from limited educational opportunities based on race and poverty levels to social and educational inclusiveness. While there is still work to be done, the country's education officials are committed to increasing access to a quality education for all…

  12. Plant-made therapeutics: an emerging platform in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rybicki, Edward P; Chikwamba, Rachel; Koch, Muffy; Rhodes, James I; Groenewald, Jan-Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    The field of plant-made therapeutics in South Africa is well established in the form of exploitation of the country's considerable natural plant diversity, both in the use of native plants in traditional herbal medicines over many centuries, and in the more modern extraction of pharmacologically-active compounds from plants, including those known to traditional healers. In recent years, this has been added to by the use of plants for the stable or transient expression of pharmaceutically-important compounds, largely protein-based biologics and vaccines. South Africa has a well-developed plant biotechnology community, as well as a comprehensive legislative framework for the regulation of the exploitation of local botanic resources, and of genetically-modified organisms. The review explores the investigation of both conventional and recombinant plants for pharmaceutical use in South Africa, as well as describing the relevant legislative and regulatory frameworks. Potential opportunities for national projects, as well as factors limiting biopharming in South Africa are discussed. PMID:21839824

  13. Challenging Assumptions: Mobile Learning for Mathematics Project in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nicky; Vanska, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the Nokia Mobile Learning for Mathematics Project in South Africa, which made use of mobile technology to support mathematics learning at 30 public secondary schools. It draws on the evaluation of this project from January to June 2010. The article discusses learner access to mobile devices, learner and teacher uptake and…

  14. Competition and Cooperation in South Africa's Biotechnology Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerck, Gilton

    2005-01-01

    This article asserts that the normative, institutional and policy framework of an economy moulds the structure and performance of its innovation system. Three case studies of industry?higher education partnerships in South Africa's biotechnology sector challenge both the notion of a simple convergence within and between national innovation systems…

  15. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…

  16. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  17. The Making of South Africa's National Curriculum Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the social construction of the "Revised National Curriculum Statement (Grades R-9)" in South Africa between 2000-2002. The author, a participant in the process, uses the experience of the insider to tell the story. The paper discusses the relationship of different lobbies, voices, and interests to the curriculum, and argues…

  18. Education Policy Studies in South Africa, 1995-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger; Osman, Ruksana; Buchler, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on findings pertaining to scholarship in education policy drawn from a wider study on all education research in South Africa from 1995 to 2006. This study, which defined education research as broadly pertaining to teaching and/or learning, obtained extensive data from a wide range of sources, including universities, public…

  19. Lifelong Learning in South Africa: Dreams and Delusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, John

    2004-01-01

    The new South Africa has formally embraced the concept of 'lifelong learning' in its education and training policies. But what is the concept of 'lifelong learning' that has informed these policies and what progress has there been in implementing them? Have these new policies brought significant changes to education and training for adults?

  20. "No Fee" Schools in South Africa. Policy Brief Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Shireen; Sayeed, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    40% of schools in South Africa, namely the poorest two-fifths as determined by poverty indicators, were declared to be no fee schools as of 2007. These schools receive larger state allocations per learner than other schools, as well as a higher allocation for non-personnel, non-capital expenditure. In other schools parents may continue to apply…

  1. South Africa's Vocational Colleges Struggle to Do Their Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    With youth unemployment in South Africa hovering around 50 percent and close to half the population living in poverty, a university degree has come to be seen by many as the only way out. And universities are straining under the burden: This admissions cycle, the University of Johannesburg alone rejected more than 70,000 applicants in filling an…

  2. Transforming the Culture of Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaver, Beverley

    2009-01-01

    Stumbling blocks remain on the road to a fully equitable culture in higher education in South Africa. Between 2003 and 2006, the author conducted two research studies that probed the nature of the transformation of higher education institutions in the country. The first study focused specifically on institutional culture; the second examined the…

  3. South Africa's Economic Development Trajectory: Implications for Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Marina J.; Altman, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that skills development in South Africa must be aligned to the economic and political imperatives of reducing unemployment and poverty, while fostering growth and international competitiveness. The legacy of a resource-based economy, overlaid by apartheid policies, has resulted in widespread poverty, inequality and unemployment…

  4. English Teaching in South Africa: Languages, Literacies and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Lesley; Homer, David; Patterson, Annette

    1998-01-01

    Uses three addresses given at a mid-term International Federation for the Teaching of English at the University of Witwatersrand to outline workplace realities for South African teachers. Summarizes the addresses which deal with (1) the role of intellectuals in Africa; (2) the problems of school and social reconstruction; and (3) the political…

  5. Social Justice and Rural Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlalele, Dipane

    2012-01-01

    Social justice is undeniably grounded in efforts at circumventing provisions that seek to uphold ostracism and exclusionary practices which have permeated South Africa and many other societies worldwide for extensive periods of time. Vast incongruities and/or inequalities between better resourced urban communities and neglected rural areas impinge…

  6. The Education Roadmap in South Africa. Policy Brief Number 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    A response to the precarious state of the public education system in South Africa, the Education Roadmap and its 10 Point Programme is a multi-layered policy intervention intended to galvanise educational policymakers and practitioners into action, get schools the support they need, get teachers teaching and learners learning, and ultimately…

  7. Scholarship in Teacher Education in South Africa, 1995-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger; Osman, Ruksana; Buchler, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on findings pertaining to scholarship in teacher education drawn from a wider study on all education research in South Africa from 1995 to 2006. The study, which defined education research as broadly pertaining to teaching and/or learning, obtained extensive data from a wide range of sources: universities, non-government…

  8. To Greener Pastures: Transnational Teacher Migration from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manik, Sadhana

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation of the world economy has intensified migration in the twenty-first century. Professionals are vulnerable to transnational migration and the trend is for professionals from developing countries to fill labour gaps in developed countries. South Africa's (SA) inclusion in the world labour market suggests that she is not immune. She is…

  9. Women Principals in Small Schools in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Azaola, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    South Africa presents a distinctive and varied context in which to explore the experience of women principals. The article draws on a larger data set to explore the interplay of gender and school size in seven schools with 200 students or fewer. From this study, we conclude that gender remains a potent influence on the career and experience of…

  10. Developing Science Process Skills in Special Schools in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sally; Sadeck, Melanie; Hodges, Merle

    2002-01-01

    Teachers were taught "Translation Activities" (TA) to teach science process skills in three special education schools in South Africa. In TA, information and data are provided as text, diagrams, tables, or graphs, and cooperative learning takes place. Teachers indicated the use of TA enabled them to deliver Outcomes Based Education. (Contains…

  11. On Outcomes-Based Education and Creativity in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakier, Mursheed; Waghid, Yusef

    2004-01-01

    This article questions the potential of Outcomes-based education (OBE) in South Africa to be rational and imaginative, that is, creative. Our contention is that the notions of outcomes seems to be trapped in a technicist orientation of deciding in advance what is good and worthwhile for learners to do in education. We argue that OBE is not a…

  12. Recommended Audio-Visual Materials on South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crofts, Marylee

    1984-01-01

    Presents a descriptive list of films, videocassettes, and slide sets available and recommended for teaching about South Africa and Namibia. Organizes cited materials according to the subjects they cover, including resistance to apartheid, the police state, homelands and Bantustans, the struggle of women, labor, the United States role, white rule,…

  13. Elusive Equity in Doctoral Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the drive to expand the quantity and quality of PhD's in South Africa and the impact this has had on under-represented groups, in particular black graduates. Based on both qualitative and quantitative data, the paper argues that while there has been a significant increase in the number of black students in doctoral education,…

  14. Raising Children in a Global Village: Lessons from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsopp, Merle

    2011-01-01

    The title of this presentation speaks to the contradictory notion of the "global village" and the great benefits associated with the sharing of knowledge--a key advantage to our shared globalized context. This "Commentary" seeks to articulate some of the lessons being discovered in South Africa related to children, families and close relations, in…

  15. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  16. Schooling for All in South Africa: Closing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shindler, Jennifer; Fleisch, Brahm

    2007-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that South Africa has achieved universal basic education. Through an analysis of the 2001 census and two national enrolment datasets rather than statistical projections, this study re-examines this assumption and provides new estimates of enrolment levels in primary, basic and secondary education. Using GER, NER, and…

  17. Preventing Juvenile Offending in South Africa: Workshop Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanz, Lorraine, Ed.

    An extensive research project to develop a national strategy to prevent juvenile offending was undertaken in South Africa. The following proceedings of a workshop, which involved representatives of relevant organizations, are reported in this book: "Setting Goals" (Lorraine Glanz); "The Prevention of Juvenile Offending: Problems and Solutions"…

  18. Cultural Astronomy in Africa South of the Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    This chapter examines two foci of cultural astronomy found in Africa south of the Sahara: creation myths and celestial art. The examples highlighted are from the Akan, the Bahima, the Boshongo, the Fon, the Igbo, the Mambila, the Yoruba, and the Zulu people.

  19. Decolonizing Research in Postapartheid South Africa: The Politics of Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2012-01-01

    This article emanates from an in-depth qualitative study that examined ideological beliefs among Indigenous parents regarding school desegregation and school "choice" policies in South Africa. The author discusses the politics of qualitative research design and methodology along two primary dimensions: decolonizing research and the importance of…

  20. Transforming Teacher Education in South Africa: A Space -- Time Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendlebury, Shirley

    1998-01-01

    Offers a critical account of the attempts to transform teacher education and development in South Africa by assessing three conceptions of "space" and related changes in time. Argues that the main direction of change in teacher education is from insulated space and interrupted time to porous space and continuous time. (CMK)

  1. Entrepreneurial Knowledge and Aspirations of Dentistry Students in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brijlal, Pradeep; Brijlal, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the intentions and knowledge of entrepreneurship of final-year university dentistry students is reported, with particular regard to the factors of gender and race. A questionnaire survey was used with final-year dentistry students, over two years, at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The findings show that…

  2. Research at Private Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger; van Vuuren, Rex; Augustyn, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about whether and what kinds of research are being undertaken at private higher education institutions (PHEIs) in South Africa. This article draws on a recent survey of all registered PHEIs undertaken by a group of interested private higher education providers. This survey was facilitated by the Council on Higher Education…

  3. Schooling Citizens: Policy in Practice in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The notion of "student citizen" is implicit in a range of national and provincial policy documents in South Africa, with citizenship promoted as both an expected outcome of schooling and an encouraged practice within schools. This paper provides an account of how policy on student citizenship was translated differently into practice in four…

  4. An Overview of Education and Drama in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Terri Anne

    2016-01-01

    South Africa labours under a bimodal education system in which inequality is deeply entrenched. Approximately 83% of schools are classed as being "dysfunctional" and many learners are not effectively equipped for meaningful futures. Learners who are able to attend the few functional schools are generally able to attain better jobs and…

  5. Lost Horizons: The Humanities in South Africa (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Politics chartered the development of the Humanities in South Africa. Under the apartheid system three separate traditions--English-speaking, Afrikaner and Homeland--co-existed, albeit uneasily, in separate institutional forms. As apartheid crumbled in the 1980s, the Humanities, by drawing the three traditions together, established a growing voice…

  6. School Choice and Inequalities in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the consequences of the new policies of school choice in post-apartheid South Africa and the reasons they have largely failed to achieve greater educational equality--their stated purpose. I argue that the dominant reason for this lies in the continuing inadequate resources of many poor schools and the failure to address them.…

  7. The Dilemma of the Historically Black Universities in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilorah, R.

    2006-01-01

    The historical black universities (HBUs) in South Africa were established by the apartheid government to serve black students banned from attending segregated white-only universities. These universities were poorly funded compared to the white-only universities. The poor funding affected their output (research and postgraduates) adversely. With…

  8. The Legacy of Deaf President Now in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druchen, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The impact of DPN on South Africa is remarkable particularly the profound transformations in the country since 1988. When citizens find that their civil rights are not being granted, they may form movements to claim equal protection for all citizens. They may also call for new laws to stop current discrimination. In 1988 it was the "Deaf…

  9. The Substance Abuse Treatment Workforce of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…

  10. Mathematics Registers in Indigenous Languages: Experiences from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Through reporting on an initiative in South Africa that aimed to provide epistemological access to teachers and learners of mathematics (and science) through translating mathematical concepts into two indigenous languages, this paper argues for the urgent development of mathematical registers in indigenous languages for mathematics and …

  11. Black Teenage Pregnancy in South Africa: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Peter W.; Boult, Brenda E.

    1996-01-01

    Asserts black teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa are at threatening levels. Outlines selected consequences based on the assertion that teenage pregnancy is multi-causational. Hypothesizes teenage pregnancy needs reexamination in terms of the pheronomal climate's impact on prepuberial girls; and nature's way of…

  12. A new species of Caliroa (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) from South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caliroa blanki, n. sp., the first native species of Caliroa from the Afrotropical Region, is described from South Africa. Differences in wing venation from usual Caliroa species, and provisional placement in Caliroa are discussed. Discussion and records for the invasive Caliroa cerasi (L.) in Sou...

  13. 1994: New Academic Profession for a New South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1994, the eyes of the world have been on South Africa, observing with interest the societal reconstruction project, upon which the country had embarked. In this project, higher education is both the terrain and the perceived instrument of change. In this higher education system and its mission, the academic profession is pivotal--especially,…

  14. Student Activism and Student Exclusions in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Charlton; Cele, Mlungisi; Libhaber, Arial

    2006-01-01

    On average, about 25 percent of students leave higher education (HE) institutions annually in South Africa because they are excluded on academic and financial grounds. To resist such putouts, student boycotts and protests are common despite the fact that student organizations were incorporated into decision-making processes at HE institutions…

  15. Education and the Distribution of Income in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marais, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    Provides empirical evidence concerning the education/earnings distribution relationship in South Africa. Investment in education is directly related to earnings across racial groups. An increase in the average education level is associated with a narrower dispersion of earnings. A more equal education distribution is associated with a more equal…

  16. South Africa, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Home: Understanding the Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Zala

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the historical, social, cultural, economic, and political connections that make the struggles of the people of South Africa, Nicaragua, and El Salvador relevant to the lives of Black people in the United States. Considers the U.S. government's role with respect to each of these countries. (DMM)

  17. The epidemiology of child homicides in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe age- and sex-specific rates of child homicide in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional mortuary-based study was conducted in a national sample of 38 medicolegal laboratories operating in 2009. These were sampled in inverse proportion to the number that were operational in each of three strata defined by autopsy volume: < 500, 500–1499 or > 1499 annual autopsies. Child homicide data were collected from mortuary files, autopsy reports and police interviews. Cause of death, evidence of abuse and neglect or of sexual assault, perpetrator characteristics and circumstances surrounding the death were investigated. Findings An estimated 1018 (95% confidence interval, CI: 843–1187) child homicides occurred in 2009, for a rate of 5.5 (95% CI: 4.6–6.4) homicides per 100 000 children younger than 18 years. The homicide rate was much higher in boys (6.9 per 100 000; 95% CI: 5.6–8.3) than in girls (3.9 per 100 000; 95% CI: 3.2–4.7). Child abuse and neglect had preceded nearly half (44.5%) of all homicides, but three times more often among girls than among boys. In children aged 15 to 17 years, the homicide rate among boys (21.7 per 100 000; 95% CI: 14.2–29.2) was nearly five times higher than the homicide rate among girls (4.6 per 100 000; 95% CI: 2.4–6.8). Conclusion South Africa’s child homicide rate is more than twice the global estimate. Since a background of child abuse and neglect is common, improvement of parenting skills should be part of primary prevention efforts. PMID:23940403

  18. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Aran S

    2008-06-01

    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid. PMID:17939024

  19. Reframing Vulnerability: Mozambican Refugees’ Access to State-Funded Pensions in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the South African Medical Research Council/University of the Witwatersrand Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt) fieldsite in rural South Africa consider Mozambican residents more vulnerable than others in the local population. These self-settled refugees, many of whom are still not South African citizens, primarily came to South Africa in the 1980s during the Mozambican Civil War. This perceived economic vulnerability is rooted in their difficulties in accessing social grants, until recently legally available only to those with South African citizenship documentation. This paper focuses on semi-structured interviews with 30 ‘older’ women of Mozambican-descent living in the Agincourt area. These interviews highlight three important aspects of vulnerability; the respondents: (1) perceive a risk of deportation despite their having lived in the country for 20 years, (2) are unable to easily access social grants, namely the state-funded old-age pension, and (3) struggle to make ends meet when faced with daily needs and crisis situations. All three of these vulnerabilities were mediated to some extent by these women’s resourcefulness. They generated ties to South Africa through obtaining identification-documents, used these documents to access pensions, and used the pensions to help them sustain their multigenerational households. PMID:19142721

  20. Language and Social Justice in South Africa's Higher Education: Insights from a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaniki, Munene

    2012-01-01

    The paper interrogates the issue of language and social justice in South Africa's higher education using quantitative and qualitative data collected at the University of the Free State (UFS). Data were collected using questionnaires. Through purposive sampling based on South African and UFS demographics, 120 questionnaires were administered to UFS…

  1. Techno Generation: Social Networking amongst Youth in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basson, Antoinette; Makhasi, Yoliswa; van Vuuren, Daan

    Internet and cell phones can be considered as new media compared to traditional media types and have become a fundamental part of the lives of many young people across the globe. The exploratory research study investigated the diffusion and adoption of new media innovations among adolescents. It was found that new media have diffused at a high rate among South African adolescents who are not only the innovators in this area, but also changing their life styles to adapt to the new media. Social networking grew to prominence in South Africa especially among the youth. The protection of children from potential harmful exposure and other risks remain a concern and adequate measures need to be initiated and implemented for children to enjoy social networks and other forms of new media. The exploratory research study provided worthwhile and interesting insights into the role of the new media, in the lives of adolescents in South Africa.

  2. Food inflation in South Africa: some implications for economic policy.

    PubMed

    Rangasamy, Logan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends in food price movements in South Africa between 1980 and 2008. There are three main results emanating from the analysis in this paper. Firstly, food price movements have played a large role in generating inflationary episodes in South Africa. Secondly, while external influences do matter, South African food price movements are mainly due to domestic influences. This implies that national policy has an important role to play in taming domestic food price inflation. Thirdly, given the strong second round impacts, food price movements warrant special attention in monetary policymaking. Core measures of inflation that exclude food price movements may not accurately reflect the underlying inflationary pressures in the economy and could compromise the attainment of the goal of price stability. PMID:21966701

  3. Medical education in South Africa-exciting times.

    PubMed

    Kent, Athol; de Villiers, Marietjie R

    2007-11-01

    The dramatic political changes of the first ten years of democracy in South Africa have seen major shifts in vested power. Social change and political will have resulted in a new face of our medical student population. Diversity of colour, gender, religion and previously disadvantaged groups make student profiles as different as they could be from a decade ago. The forces of curriculum change, the devolution of power and resources from tertiary centres to primary care facilities and the financial squeeze on university coffers have resulted in enormous challenges for medical educators. South African doctors have been readily accepted in English-speaking countries around the world as they have been well trained, resourceful and usually extensively experienced in clinical situations. Some of these attributes remain. This paper outlines the new prospects facing those who will be educating the future doctors of South Africa. PMID:18158663

  4. Serious, Violent Young Offenders in South Africa: Are They Life-Course Persistent Offenders?

    PubMed

    Souverein, Fleur A; Ward, Catherine L; Visser, Ingmar; Burton, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Life-course persistent offending contributes greatly to violent offending in any country. South Africa has high rates of violence; this study investigated what proportion of young South African offenders might be identified as life-course persistent, and what risk factors identified this group. Offenders aged 12 to 25 years (N = 395) were selected from eight different correctional facilities in four provinces of South Africa. Latent class analysis identified 164 offenders (41.5%) with distinctly earlier starts and more serious offending. These (probably life-course persistent) offenders were distinguished from others by male gender, violence at home, other victimization, familial crime, school performance, violence at school, and alcohol abuse and gang membership. Correctional services should be specifically targeted at this large subgroup of offenders to prevent recidivism. Primary prevention efforts should be targeted at preventing violence at home and school, at promoting school attachment, at substance abuse treatment, and at gang membership. PMID:25711613

  5. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Cognition, Executive Function, and Behavioural Disorders in Primary School-Aged Children in Rural South Africa: A Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rochat, Tamsen J.; Houle, Brian; Stein, Alan; Coovadia, Hoosen; Coutsoudis, Anna; Desmond, Chris; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bland, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is associated with early child health; its longer-term benefits for child development remain inconclusive. We examine the associations between EBF, HIV exposure, and other maternal/child factors and the cognitive and emotional-behavioural development of children aged 7–11 y. Methods and Findings The Vertical Transmission Study (VTS) supported EBF in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women; between 2012 and 2014, HIV-negative VTS children (332 HIV exposed, 574 HIV unexposed) were assessed in terms of cognition (Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Second Edition [KABC-II]), executive function (Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment Second Edition [NEPSY-II]), and emotional-behavioural functioning (parent-reported Child Behaviour Checklist, [CBCL]). We developed population means by combining the VTS sample with 629 same-aged HIV-negative children from the local demographic platform. For each outcome, we split the VTS sample into scores above or at/below each population mean and modelled each outcome using logistic regression analyses, overall and stratified by child sex. There was no demonstrated effect of EBF on overall cognitive functioning. EBF was associated with fewer conduct disorders overall (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.44 [95% CI 0.3–0.7], p ≤ 0.01), and there was weak evidence of better cognition in boys who had been exclusively breastfed for 2–5 mo versus ≤1 mo (Learning subscale aOR 2.07 [95% CI 1.0–4.3], p = 0.05). Other factors associated with better child cognition were higher maternal cognitive ability (aOR 1.43 [95% CI 1.1–1.9], p = 0.02, Sequential; aOR 1.74 [95% CI 1.3–2.4], p < 0.001, Planning subscales) and crèche attendance (aOR 1.96 [95% CI 1.1–3.5], p = 0.02, Sequential subscale). Factors positively associated with executive function were home stimulation (aOR 1.36 [95% CI 1.0–1.8], p = 0.04, Auditory Attention; aOR 1.35 [95% CI 1.0–1.8], p = 0.05, Response Set) and crèche (a

  6. Predictors of Alcohol Use Prior to Pregnancy Recognition among Township Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Tomlinson, Mark; LeRoux, Ingrid M.; Stewart, Jacqueline; Greco, Erin; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    South Africa has the highest prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) in the world. The purpose of this study was to identify high risk factors associated with drinking alcohol prior to pregnancy recognition in 24 neighborhoods in the Cape Flats outside Cape Town, South Africa. An interviewer assessed risk among 619 pregnant Black/African women between the ages of 18 and 41 years. Logistic regression analyses explored factors associated with drinking alcohol post conception but prior to pregnancy recognition. Forced multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that drinking prior to pregnancy recognition was associated with being younger, single, having better living conditions, smoking, having a longer gestation prior to pregnancy recognition, having a greater number of sexual partners, and a higher incidence of intimate partner violence. Depressive symptoms tended to be higher among alcohol users. These risk factors were consistent with other research on the characteristics of South African women having children with a diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and/or of non pregnant women at high risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy. These findings highlight the need for women of child-bearing age to be routinely screened for alcohol use and its associated risk factors. Intervention efforts could be integrated into health initiatives already present in South Africa including the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malnutrition. Preconception care is particularly important since pregnancy recognition often occurs several weeks to months following conception and could be implemented by South African community health workers. These endeavors should facilitate national goals of healthier pregnancies and the elimination of FASDs in South Africa. PMID:21084142

  7. Children and Poverty in South Africa: The Right to Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Pierre; Conley, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of children's rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to…

  8. The Report of the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility with Respect to South Africa Shareholder Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    Issues pertinent to Harvard University's holdings in companies with operations in South Africa are examined in this report to determine if Harvard should adopt any changes in its investment policy regarding U.S. companies in South Africa. The history of U.S. involvement in the South African economy is reviewed and both U.S. and South African…

  9. Meningococcal Disease in South Africa, 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Garry B.; du Plessis, Mignon; Smith, Anthony M.; de Gouveia, Linda; Klugman, Keith P.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in South Africa from August 1999 through July 2002, as reported to a laboratory-based surveillance system. Neisseria meningitidis isolates were further characterized. In total, 854 cases of laboratory-confirmed disease were reported, with an annual incidence rate of 0.64/100,000 population. Incidence was highest in infants <1 year of age. Serogroup B caused 41% of cases; serogroup A, 23%; serogroup Y, 21%; serogroup C, 8%; and serogroup W135, 5%. Serogroup B was the predominant serogroup in Western Cape Province, and disease rates remained stable. Serogroup A was most prevalent in Gauteng Province and increased over the 3 years. On pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, serogroup A strains showed clonality, and serogroup B demonstrated considerable diversity. Selected isolates of serogroup A belonged to sequence type (ST)-1 (subgroup I/II) complex, serogroup B to ST-32/electrophoretic type (ET)-5 complex, and serogroup W135 to ST-11/ET-37 complex. PMID:17479891

  10. Vulture rescue and rehabilitation in South Africa: an urban perspective.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Wolter, K; Espie, I; Kotze, A

    2011-03-01

    South Africa is home to 9 vulture species, of which 7 are endangered. While the cause of the population declines remains largely speculative, a vast amount of effort has been dedicated towards the protection of populations by ensuring sustainable and safe food sources for the various colonies. Limited focus was placed in the past on efforts related to the rescue and/or rehabilitation (R&R) of injured birds and the release of these birds back into the wild. This paper provides an overview of the causes, the impact and success of 3 organisations involved in R&R efforts of vultures in the Magaliesberg mountain range and surrounding areas over a period of 10 years. Study material included 162 Cape griffon (CGV) and 38 African white-backed (AWBV) vultures. Datasets include the number, sex and age of birds received, the reason the vultures were brought in for R&R, surgical interventions performed and outcomes of rescue efforts. The CGV dominated the rehabilitation attempts. Results further show that a large number of apparently healthy birds were presented for veterinary treatment. The R&R data clearly indicate that the major cause of injuries was birds colliding with overhead pylons, as a high number of soft tissue and skeletal injuries were observed. The study also shows that successful releases of rescued birds are possible. It is concluded that urbanisation has had a major negative impact on vultures around the Magaliesberg mountain range. PMID:21826834

  11. New Numbers in Mathematics in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Harding, Ansie

    2009-01-01

    This article is a follow-up of a study conducted in 2000 by the same authors on trends in numbers of mathematics majors at South African universities. Data from 12 universities for the 2000-2007 period is investigated. The previously observed trend of general and dramatic decrease in numbers of mathematics majors appears to have been reversed and…

  12. Democratic Nation-Building in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoodie, Nic, Ed.; Liebenberg, Ian, Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays by 50 eminent experts/analysts representing a broad range of ideological perspectives and interest groups. Its aim is to contribute to the process of democratic nation-building and the creation of a culture of tolerance by educating South Africans about the intricacies of community reconciliation and…

  13. Gender and Empowerment in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide analysis and insight which addresses the over-determined discrimination of so-called coloured and black South African women, not just on the basis of gender but racial hierarchies still prevalent as well in the rainbow nation. Design/methodology/approach: The observations grapple with reconciling the…

  14. Portraits of Black Schooling in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suransky-Dekker, Caroline

    This study offers a portrait of the schooling experiences of black South African student teachers. Approximately 1,000 students were involved in the study, which was conducted over 5 years. The project was designed to help the instructor examine curriculum studies courses for their ability to enable student teachers to reflect on their own…

  15. Illicit Drug Use and Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D.; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance abuse treatment admissions in south africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic and social structures within south africa both before and after apartheid make the country more vulnerable to drug use. based on national surveys current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%) and hallucinogens (0.1%). The primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (Tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC 2.6%. An increase in substance abuse treatment admissions has occurred. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the USA and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review. PMID:21039113

  16. The decline of uranium profitability in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    1989-06-01

    Between 1952 and 1988, the South African uranium industry produced 340 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-some 14 percent of total world production to date. Peak production was 16.1 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in 1980. In 1989, uranium production will have dropped to less than eight million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year, and the prospects for further decreases are high. This once-booming business that has been a major contributor to South Africa`s economy is on the brink of collapse. While the policy of apartheid has caused several countries to restrict or embargo further deliveries, the uranium business has also become much less profitable. Profits from the production of uranium concentrates in South Africa exceeded 1.5 billion rand during the period 1981-1988. The trend of this profitability is shown. Inflation and low prices in combination with stabilizing exchange rates are continuing to restrict profitability. NUEXCO examines these factors and their impact on South African uranium production in detail in this article.

  17. Women in Physics in South Africa: The Story to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diale, M.; Buchner, S. J.; Buthelezi, Z.; Gledhill, I. M. A.; Grayson, D. J.; Kgabi, N. A.

    2009-04-01

    Overall about 40% of South African researchers in science, engineering, and technology are women, but the percentage of women in the physical sciences is significantly lower. In 2006, it appeared that about 16% of the 500 members of the South African Institute of Physics were women. Many of the issues of women in physics in South Africa parallel those of black physicists, including discrimination, both conscious and unconscious, in hiring and in awarding grants. The situation is slowly improving with the advent of policies aimed at redress and with far-reaching joint projects from the South African Department of Science and Technology and the South African Institute of Physics. Women in Physics in South Africa Project (WiPiSA), launched in 2005, aims to stimulate an increased interest in physics among girls and women, and assist in removing or overcoming obstacles to the study of physics and to work in physics-related careers. WiPiSA conducted a baseline survey of women who graduated with postgraduate degrees in physics between 1995 and 2005, and a surprisingly large database of 188 women has been formed. WiPiSA has also overseen a number of additional projects aimed at students, teachers, physics departments, and graduates.

  18. Population policy in South Africa: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Klugman, B

    1991-02-01

    The argument in this article is that population growth and the concept of balancing resources against population growth is flawed when the context, in this case South Africa, is gross inequalities in resource distribution. The fact is that causes of poverty are located in the social and political structures which give people unequal access to existing resources or international aid. Population trends reflect the mode of production of that society. It is argued that the Malthusian law of population and the theory of demographic transition is ahistorical and inaccurate. The theory does not explain why population growth rates change. In South Africa, fertility reflects lack of control over one's life and poverty. Migrant labor in South Africa undermined normal social institutions and disrupted family life. Government has emphasized a fear of a future population crisis because of resource shortages and a fear of the growing black population. The South African population development program is extracted and discussed. Questions are raised about the theory of demographic transition, the way resource allocation is ascertained, the relationship between resources and population in a specific area, and the relationship between population growth and development in general. The theory of demographic transition is examined and the Western influences which contributed to population growth through requests for changes in sexual mores and the effects of colonization. When demographic transition theory postulates that mortality rates decline with industrialization as a result of access to medical care and an improved diet, it doesn't take into account the discriminatory health care allocation under apartheid, or the displacement of rural people from their land and undermining of the rural peasantry. Separate development has led to inferior schooling and lack of access to skilled employment. In discussing the availability of resources in South Africa, the question is raised as to

  19. Health status and its determinants in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Yach, D

    1994-03-01

    South Africa's apartheid policies have had direct and indirect effects on morbidity and death that will likely remain for decades. Since 1964, the economy has largely been deteriorating, while the population has grown at 2.8%/year, both of which have hampered economic development and health. South Africa needs to supply water, sanitation, and housing to 75% of the population. Rural development is needed to stem malnutrition, soil erosion, and overgrazing. Urban development design and planning must include health. Schooling needs to improve educators can emphasize school health education. Electricity and better lighting are needed to reduce chest diseases and paraffin poisoning and to improve literacy and learning. Labor migration has contributed to a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in rural areas. In some cases, industry and the public sector have become partners to improve health. The alcohol industry sponsors drive safe campaigns. South Africans need to address inequalities in health status by race, region, and gender, and to follow a holistic development approach. Infant mortality is just 6.4/1000 for Whites, while it is 66.7/1000 for Blacks. It is 1.5 times lower in the best region than it is in the worst region. 2 of every 25 children die before their first birthday among Africans living in the poorest third of South Africa. 42% of Black men who live to 15 years die before their 60th birthday, while just 17.5% of like White women do. Black children less than 5 years old have an almost 9-fold excess in deaths over White children. The tuberculosis rate is among the highest in the world and is likely to increase as HIV/AIDS spreads. Many other preventable diseases occur among South Africans. 5-8% of the population suffer a disability. South Africa has the highest per capita violence mortality rate worldwide (59.2/100,000 vs. 9.6/100,000 in the US). South Africa is likely to face increases in lung cancer, chronic lung disease, heart disease

  20. The South Ray Crater age paradox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, D. S.; Heiken, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Relative exposure ages based on agglutinate content are calculated for 26 Apollo 16 surface and core samples. These ages increase from the northern part of the traverse to the southern part and are in general agreement with cosmogenic gas ages and particle track ages. An apparent paradox exists in which presumed ray soil from South Ray Crater is much older than the age of South Ray Crater itself as determined by a variety of methods. The most likely explanation for the paradox is that the presumed South Ray Crater soil is not ejecta from South Ray Crater but is pre-existing regolith upon which blocks and fragments from South Ray Crater are scattered.

  1. Nososcomial transmission of viral haemorrhagic fever in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Richards, Guy A

    2015-09-01

    Recent events in West Africa have highlighted the potential for the viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) to cause considerable mortality and morbidity among heathcare workers. However, this is not a new threat as, although the risk is currently increased, it has always been present. In South Africa (SA) the only endemic haemorrhagic fever is Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, transmitted by the Hyalomma tick, which is ubiquitous in cattle farming areas. Johannesburg, the commercial and transport hub of SA, is unusual in that all cases of VHF seen there are imported, either from rural areas in SA or from countries to the north. Johannesburg functions as the gateway to and from the rest of Africa, and as a destination for more affluent residents of neighbouring countries seeking medical attention. Numerous outbreaks of nosocomial infection have occurred in SA, and these are described in the form of brief case reports. PMID:26428962

  2. Mortality of children in the Transkei region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2003-06-01

    This study attempted to unfold, perhaps for the first time, the problem of childhood mortality resulting from trauma in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. This study was carried out in the Umtata and Ngqeleni magisterial districts, which have a combined population of about 400,000. Most people there have very few resources and have historically relied on money repatriated by migrant workers. In the Transkei region, unemployment is at a very high level: 48.5%. Assault on children is very common in this region, and this may result in death. The aim of this study was to establish the state of deaths resulting from pediatric trauma, and to formulate recommendations that could probably help prevent or reduce these deaths. The objective was to gather epidemiologic information on the victims of pediatric trauma. The study was designed as a descriptive study, using reviews of traumatic deaths in pediatric age groups during the period January 1993 to December 1999. This study was carried out on cases that were brought to the medicolegal laboratory at Umtata General Hospital, Umtata, in the Transkei region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. There were 6181 autopsies conducted from 1993 to 1999. All the medicolegal autopsies were divided into two groups: pediatric (15 years of age or younger) and adult (older than 15 years). Of the autopsies, 89.4% (n = 5587) were in the adult group, and 10.6% (n = 594) were in the pediatric group. Of the pediatric deaths, 64% (n = 383) were related to trauma. The highest numbers were in the 11- to 15-year (n = 146, 38%) and the 6- to 10-year (n = 135, 34%) age groups. Of the children who died of trauma, 112 (28%) were aged 0 to 5 years. Unintentional injuries from motor vehicle accidents were the leading cause of death (59%), whereas intentional injuries (41%) were associated with murder. Nearly a quarter (22%) of pediatric traumatic deaths were due to penetrating injuries: stab (12%) and gunshot (10%) wounds. Most of the

  3. Health, wellbeing, and disability among older people infected or affected by HIV in Uganda and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nyirenda, Makandwe; Newell, Marie-Louise; Mugisha, Joseph; Mutevedzi, Portia C.; Seeley, Janet; Scholten, Francien; Kowal, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe and compare the health status, emotional wellbeing, and functional status of older people in Uganda and South Africa who are HIV infected or affected by HIV in their families. Methods Data came from the general population cohort and Entebbe cohort of the Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute, and from the Africa Centre Demographic Information System through cross-sectional surveys in 2009/10 using instruments adapted from the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on Global Ageing and adult health (SAGE). Analysis was based on 932 people aged 50 years or older (510 Uganda, 422 South Africa). Results Participants in South Africa were slightly younger (median age − 60 years in South Africa, 63 in Uganda), and more were currently married, had no formal education, were not working, and were residing in a rural area. Adjusting for socio-demographic factors, older people in South Africa were significantly less likely to have good functional ability [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.72, 95% CI 0.53–0.98] than those in Uganda, but were more likely to be in good subjective wellbeing (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.60–2.90). South Africans were more likely to be obese (aOR 5.26, 95% CI 3.46–8.00) or to be diagnosed with hypertension (aOR 2.77, 95% CI 2.06–3.73). Discussion and conclusions While older people’s health problems are similar in the two countries, marked socio-demographic differences influence the extent to which older people are affected by poorer health. It is therefore imperative when designing policies to improve the health and wellbeing of older people in sub-Saharan Africa that the region is not treated as a homogenous entity. PMID:23364075

  4. Space Weather over South Africa: progress towards a RWC for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Kotze, Pieter; Theron, Herman

    The Hermanus Magnetic Observatory (HMO) in Hermanus, South Africa has recently been appointed as the Regional Warning Center (RWC) for Space Weather in Africa by the International Space Environment Service (ISES). As with other magnetic observatories the HMO's core function is to measure the Earth's magnetic field and to this end HMO operates three INTER- MAGNET field stations. However, in addition to this core function, the HMO also undertakes fundamental space physics research, postgraduate student training, science outreach and provides magnetic related services to various industries. The management of the ionospheric data from the South African ionosondes also falls under the responsibility of the HMO. And during 2008 the fourth South African ionosonde will be commissioned on the grounds of the observatory. Since 2001 the HMO has been a national facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF) and is rapidly building the reputation of being the national facility responsible for space physics in South Africa. For a number of years HMO has being supplying geomagnetic and ionospheric data and models to various users. However, now that HMO has become the RWC for Africa, a concerted effort is being made to package these products into a user friendly way for space weather purposes, and also to increase the number of products available. Several postgraduate projects are under way which will not only increase the number of available products, but also provide relevant expertise to the rest of Africa. A proposal has been submitted for a purpose-built space weather center in Hermanus, and a preliminary website has been set up. This paper will provide a review of what HMO can offer to Space Weather users, what is currently available and what is planned for the future especially in light of the upcoming solar maximum.

  5. Writing a Successful Fulbright Group Projects Abroad Grant: Voices from a Journey to South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Darrell P.; Gandy, S. Kay; Bechard, Amber; Brown, Randy; Williams, Diane

    2009-01-01

    The authors share a successful Fulbright Group Projects Abroad grant award. The purpose of the grant was to enhance American educators' experience and knowledge of South Africa, in particular, and sub-Saharan Africa more generally. Toward that end, participants experienced a multifaceted view of South Africa's geographical diversity, both physical…

  6. The status of fatherhood and fathering in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Makusha, Tawanda

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with estimates of fatherhood in South Africa, in the absence of formal measures of paternity. It highlights several salient features of fatherhood in the country, particularly low rates of marriages and father absence from households, and it traces their roots in colonialism and Apartheid, the political system in South Africa under which Black people were systematically oppressed. We point out that some forms of father absence illustrate the commitment of men to supporting their families by their willingness to seek migrant work far from their homes. Examples are given of government policies to support fathers and some of the major civil society efforts are described. The paper closes with important themes about fatherhood in work with young children. PMID:23864733

  7. Apartheid medicine. Health and human rights in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, E O; Hannibal, K; Geiger, H J; Hartmann, L; Lawrence, R; Spurlock, J

    Human rights and health care under apartheid in South Africa were studied. Human rights violations, such as detention without charge or trial, assault and torture in police custody, and restriction orders, have had devastating effects on the health of persons experiencing them. These violations have occurred in the context of a deliberate policy of discriminatory health care favoring the white minority over the black majority. South Africa's medical societies have had mixed responses to the health problems raised by human rights violations and inequities in the health care system. The amelioration of health care for all and prevention of human rights violations depend on ending apartheid and discrimination and greater government attention to these problems. PMID:2214078

  8. Psychology in South Africa and the end of history.

    PubMed

    Long, Wahbie

    2016-08-01

    Shortly before the end of apartheid rule in South Africa, Kurt Danziger (1994) asked whether the history of psychology had a future. In the 21 years that have since elapsed, the question retains its original significance. In this article, the state of the field in postapartheid South Africa is examined. Several key trends are identified, including a declining historical consciousness and a revival of Whig historiography. It is argued that the resulting lack of a critical history of postapartheid psychology is in keeping with the unassailability of the equivalent period in official state discourse. In view of an emerging consensus that the country is on the brink of another political watershed, it is suggested that the revival of the field may yet be possible. This will require a turn to histories of the present with a focus on the growing problem of co-option. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27442032

  9. Gendered Patterns of Migration in Rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Camlin, Carol S; Snow, Rachel C; Hosegood, Victoria

    2014-08-01

    Gender is increasingly recognized as fundamental to understanding migration processes, causes and consequences. In South Africa, it is intrinsic to the social transformations fueling high levels of internal migration and complex forms of mobility. While female migration in Africa has often been characterized as less prevalent than male migration, and primarily related to marriage, in South Africa a feminization of internal migration is underway, fueled by women's increasing labor market participation. In this paper, we report sex differences in patterns, trends and determinants of internal migration based on data collected in a demographic surveillance system between 2001 and 2006 in rural KwaZulu-Natal. We show that women were somewhat more likely than men to undertake any migration, but sex differences in migration trends differed by migration flow, with women more likely to migrate into the area than men, and men more likely to out-migrate. Out-migration was suppressed by marriage particularly for women, but most women were not married; both men's and women's out-migrations were undertaken mainly for purposes of employment. Over half of female out-migrations (versus 35% of male out-migrations) were to nearby rural areas. The findings highlight the high mobility of this population and the extent to which gender is intimately related to the processes determining migration. We consider the implications of these findings for the measurement of migration and mobility, in particular for health and social policy and research among highly mobile populations in southern Africa. PMID:25332690

  10. Women in physics in South Africa: Progress to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diale, M.; Gledhill, I. M. A.; Buchner, S. J.; Tibane, M.; Grayson, D. J.; Maphanga, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the launch of Women in Physics in South Africa in 2005, the number of women in physics has grown. The growth is noted at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with more women attaining qualifications in physics. Most importantly, there has been a significant increase in the number of women who obtain their PhDs in physics. The progress reported in this paper is based on the findings by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and the database of the South African Institute of Physics. The two sources show an increase in the number of women who obtained their PhDs in physics compared with their male counterparts.

  11. The high frequency of juvenile Huntington's chorea in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, M R; Macgregor, J M; Saffer, D S; Beighton, P H

    1982-01-01

    During a national investigation concerning all patients with Huntington's chorea in South Africa, 17 affected children, comprising 7·7% of the patients in the survey, were identified. Although the frequency of juvenile Huntington's chorea in the white community was equal to that reported from around the world, the frequency was much higher in the population of mixed ancestry. It is possible that this unique situation is related to the genetic constitution of this latter group. PMID:6210776

  12. Catchment Management Agencies for poverty eradication in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Barbara; Van Koppen, Barbara

    This paper discusses the changes in water law in South Africa since the new dispensation. The focus is on the poverty dimensions of the early experiences of implementation of one of the components of the National Water Act: the establishment of Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs). From a diversity of recent experiences in decentralizing integrated water resources management, key areas emerge where future actions by the government are crucial to establish pro-poor, developmental CMAs.

  13. South Africa slashes pebble-bed cash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2010-04-01

    A novel modular technology that promised to make nuclear power cheaper and safer has suffered a serious blow following withdrawal of support from the South African government. It decided not to renew funding for the pebble-bed modular reactor beyond 31 March this year following a lack of interest from other investors and no customers for its product. The company developing the reactor concept - Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Ltd (PBMR) - is to axe three-quarters of its roughly 800 staff and its chief executive has resigned.

  14. Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chetty, M; Stephen, L X G; Roberts, T

    2016-01-01

    The osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome (MIM 259770) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which bone fragility and frequent fractures are associated with serious ocular changes. The skeletal manifestations resemble those of osteogenesis imperfecta while hyperplasia of the vitreous, eye and corneal opacities often mimics the appearance of intraocular glioma. This disorder was previously reported in a South African family of Indian stock as 'the ocular form of osteogenesis imperfecta'. Terminological discussion followed and it was suggested that these individuals had osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome. This article describes and depicts the manifestations of the disorder and discusses the nosology. PMID:27245540

  15. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Elna J; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    Results of a survey and study of the Claviceps purpurea group of species in South Africa are being presented and five new species are described. Morphological descriptions are based on the anamorphs and four nuclear genetic loci. Claviceps fimbristylidis sp. nov. on Fimbristylis complanata was discovered wide-spread across five provinces of the country associated with water and represents the fourth Claviceps species recorded from the Cyperaceae. Claviceps monticola sp. nov. is described from Brachypodium flexum growing in mountain forests in Mpumalanga Province, as well as the northern Drakensberg southwards into the Eastern Cape Province. Claviceps pazoutovae sp. nov. is recorded from Stipa dregeana var. dregeana and Ehrharta erecta var. erecta, also associated with these mountain ranges. Claviceps macroura sp. nov. is recorded from Cenchrus macrourus from the Eastern Cape and Claviceps capensis sp. nov. from Ehrharta villosa var. villosa is recorded from the Western Cape Province. Claviceps cyperi, only recorded from South Africa is included in the study. Ergot alkaloid profiles of all species are provided and showed similarity to C. purpurea. Only C. cyperi and in lesser degree C. capensis, C. macroura, and C. pazoutovae produced ergot alkaloids in clinically significant amounts. Several reported species infect invasive grass species, native to South Africa, and thus represent potentially invasive species. PMID:27521625

  16. The burden of non-communicable diseases in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mayosi, Bongani M; Flisher, Alan J; Lalloo, Umesh G; Sitas, Freddy; Tollman, Stephen M; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2009-09-12

    15 years after its first democratic election, South Africa is in the midst of a profound health transition that is characterised by a quadruple burden of communicable, non-communicable, perinatal and maternal, and injury-related disorders. Non-communicable diseases are emerging in both rural and urban areas, most prominently in poor people living in urban settings, and are resulting in increasing pressure on acute and chronic health-care services. Major factors include demographic change leading to a rise in the proportion of people older than 60 years, despite the negative effect of HIV/AIDS on life expectancy. The burden of these diseases will probably increase as the roll-out of antiretroviral therapy takes effect and reduces mortality from HIV/AIDS. The scale of the challenge posed by the combined and growing burden of HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases demands an extraordinary response that South Africa is well able to provide. Concerted action is needed to strengthen the district-based primary health-care system, to integrate the care of chronic diseases and management of risk factors, to develop a national surveillance system, and to apply interventions of proven cost-effectiveness in the primary and secondary prevention of such diseases within populations and health services. We urge the launching of a national initiative to establish sites of service excellence in urban and rural settings throughout South Africa to trial, assess, and implement integrated care interventions for chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases. PMID:19709736

  17. Rainwater harvesting in South Africa: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Taigbenu, A. E.

    Water paucity remains a major threat to poverty, hunger alleviation as well as sustainable development. Innovative water technologies such as rainwater harvesting (RWH) have the potential to improve rural water supply and contribute to the provision of the first 6 kl of water consumed monthly. RWH can also be the solution to South Africa food security by increasing water productivity of dryland agriculture and enabling homestead gardening. Although used for decades in South Africa, rainwater harvesting (RWH) is still far from being utilised to its full potential as unresolved challenges prevent its wide scale adoption. The paper presents the challenges and opportunities to the upscaling of RWH in South Africa. Key challenges preventing the nationwide expansion of RWH are the current water related legislations, the lack of finances and the absence of a national umbrella body that coordinates. While opportunities lie in the worth of knowledge gathered by research projects, funded over the last two decades, on the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of RWH.

  18. South Africa offers exploratory potential in variety of basins

    SciTech Connect

    Broad, D.S.; Mills, S.R. )

    1993-12-06

    While the future suspension of the oil embargo against South Africa will no doubt help revitalize the region's most powerful economy, a move away from dependence on coal as the major local energy source is also likely. This could be accomplished through regional cooperation and development were it not for the ongoing conflict in Angola, the only producer of oil and gas in the Southern African Development Community. Even with world oil prices in the doldrums, massive foreign exchange savings would result from a domestic source, and in line with world trends the possibility of harnessing the gas resources of the region is increasingly seen as a possibility. For the present, those resources remain to be defined. But ENH of Mozambique is pursuing an appraisal program for Pande field with World Bank funding, while Shell and its partners are considering possibilities of Kudu field in Namiba. And while South Africa's own national oil company, Soekor, has had limited success with its search for oil during the apartheid years, offshore F-A gas field is in production, and the potential for hydrocarbons-gas in particular--requires a great deal more investigation. The colleagues have prepared a series of articles on basins off South Africa. These articles were prepared in anticipation of the completion of political reform and of the start of a licensing round, possibly during 1994. This article draws together summaries of aspects thought to be most pertinent to petroleum exploration.

  19. Detection of Rickettsia africae in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus ticks from the Republic of Botswana, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibáñez, Sonia; Blanco, José R; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2007-08-01

    A total of 53 engorged adult ticks belonging to the species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (N = 9), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (N = 27), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (N = 9), Amblyomma hebraeum (N = 5), and Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (N = 3), were removed from oryx in Botswana (South Africa). They were tested for the presence of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia and Anaplasma phagocytophilum using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seventy-seven percent of R. decoloratus as well as twenty percent of A. hebraeum were positive for ompA, gltA and 16S rRNA SFG Rickettsia PCR assays. All nucleotide sequences were homologous to Rickettsia africae, the agent of African tick-bite fever (ATBF). None of the tested ticks was positive for 16S rRNA A. phagocytophilum PCR assays. These results suggest for the first time that R. decoloratus ticks may be reservoirs of R. africae, and support the ATBF risk in this area. PMID:17690416

  20. Vulnerability of children to gunshot trauma in violence-prone environment: the case of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Sudeshni; Van As, A B

    2011-01-01

    South Africa has a high level of violence, as more people are killed by gunfire each year than in motor vehicle accidents, and the numbers are increasing. Regrettably, children are affected most by this epidemic. During 1997, a total of 142 children aged less than 14 years died from gunshot injuries while many more were injured. Here we present the case of an 11-year-old male street child who sustained a gunshot to the face, and illustrate the magnitude of the problem. The escalating epidemic of firearm-related injuries and deaths among children and adolescents in Cape Town, like in many other parts of the world, calls for concern. Further research is needed to understand firearm-related injuries among children and adolescents in South Africa, and to develop policies and programmes for effective prevention of situations such as this. PMID:21478600

  1. Access to Schooling in a Post-Apartheid South Africa: Linking Concepts to Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fataar, Aslam

    1997-07-01

    This paper focuses on the policy issue of expanding schooling in a post-apartheid South Africa. The Project of placing about two million children of school-going age in school is viewed as central to the rebuilding of South Africa. The paper argues that this project should be located within the peculiar history of this country's educational underdevelopment. Challenging the constraining influence of the New Right context should be central in conceptualising the provision of expanded school access. Access policy should be based on a notion of educational development that is linked to the overall socioeconomic development of this society. The view is promoted in this paper that a policy of quantitative expansion of schooling should not ignore the quality of such schooling.

  2. Perceptions of the Principal's Role in Democratic School Governance in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mncube, Vusi

    2009-01-01

    This article explores governors' perceptions of the role played by school principals in the democratic governance of secondary schools in South Africa. The South African Schools Act No. 84 of 1996 has mandated that all public schools in South Africa must have democratically elected school governing bodies, comprised of the principal (in his or her…

  3. No Easy Road to Freedom: The New South Africa. Classroom Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Diane L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Contends that stereotypical views about South Africa are commonly held by teachers and students. Presents information on South Africa's history, geography, population distribution, and environment. Includes demographic charts, natural resource and population maps, and an annotated chronology of significant events in South African history. (CFR)

  4. Proceedings of the International Best of Both Worlds Conference (Pretoria, South Africa, March 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains the proceedings of the International Best of Both Worlds Conference presented by the University of South Africa, Vista University, and the South African College of Education. Papers include: (1) "A Strategy for the Implementation of Environmental Education in the Intermediate and Secondary School Phases in South Africa"…

  5. ICT Policies and Strategies in Higher Education in South Africa: National and Institutional Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael; Adam, Fatima

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on policy initiatives and strategies used to promote the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education in South Africa. It explores a wider international outlook and current debates in South Africa to map out an emerging South African perspective concerning the integration of ICT in higher…

  6. Teacher Labour Markets in South Africa and Botswana: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article compares key features of the labour markets for teachers across Botswana and South Africa in order to seek possible explanations for the apparently larger teacher shortages in South Africa. It is argued that South African teachers earn relatively lower wages when compared to professionals with comparable qualifications; they have also…

  7. Causes and Consequences of Schooling Outcomes in South Africa: Evidence from Survey Data. PSC Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kermyt G.; Case, Anne; Lam, David

    This paper provides an overview of evidence on education in South Africa provided by household survey data, with a particular focus on large national surveys such as the 1993 South African Living Standards Survey and the annual October Household Survey. These surveys indicate that racial gaps in schooling persist in South Africa, although they…

  8. Moving across boundaries: migration in South Africa, 1950-2000.

    PubMed

    Reed, Holly E

    2013-02-01

    Existing knowledge about historical patterns of black internal migration in South Africa is incomplete, primarily because of the lack of good life course studies as well as the apartheid government's suppression and censoring of data. This article provides a comprehensive picture of historical internal migration patterns with an analysis of a unique individual retrospective life history data set. This sample of the black population, collected in 2000, is the only known nationally representative life history data for South Africa; it includes all residential moves for each individual during his/her lifetime. Various mobility outcomes are analyzed: moves within/across provinces, moves within/across rural and urban areas, forced moves, moves with a nuclear family, and individual moves. The results indicate that migration significantly increased among black South Africans during the last half of the twentieth century, and that this increase began before the Pass Laws were repealed in 1986 and well before the official end of apartheid in 1991 or the first free election in 1994. The timing of this increase in migration rates suggests that migration in defiance of the Pass Laws (albeit a dangerous and desperate proposition) was a way of life for many black South Africans. PMID:22956415

  9. Moving Across Boundaries: Migration in South Africa, 1950–2000

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Existing knowledge about historical patterns of black internal migration in South Africa is incomplete, primarily because of the lack of good life course studies as well as the apartheid government’s suppression and censoring of data. This article provides a comprehensive picture of historical internal migration patterns with an analysis of a unique individual retrospective life history data set. This sample of the black population, collected in 2000, is the only known nationally representative life history data for South Africa; it includes all residential moves for each individual during his/her lifetime. Various mobility outcomes are analyzed: moves within/across provinces, moves within/across rural and urban areas, forced moves, moves with a nuclear family, and individual moves. The results indicate that migration significantly increased among black South Africans during the last half of the twentieth century, and that this increase began before the Pass Laws were repealed in 1986 and well before the official end of apartheid in 1991 or the first free election in 1994. The timing of this increase in migration rates suggests that migration in defiance of the Pass Laws (albeit a dangerous and desperate proposition) was a way of life for many black South Africans. PMID:22956415

  10. Adolescent HIV treatment issues in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dawood, H

    2015-11-01

    Following the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), our knowledge of HIV infection and management has increased rapidly, but implementation of interventions has been slow in resource-limited settings. In particular, interventions such as antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission were hindered owing to lack of access to antiretroviral drugs. This resulted in ongoing HIV transmission, morbidity and mortality associated with opportunistic infections. Notwithstanding the current progress in HIV prevention and treatment, challenges remain in preventing new infections in adolescents and supporting and treating HIV-infected adolescents. Barriers to successful treatment of infection in adolescents include denial of diagnosis, poor understanding or perception of future benefits of treatment and current-orientated thinking that may contribute to non-adherence to ART. Side-effects that lead to stigmatisation, such as lipoatrophy (stavudine, zidovudine), diarrhoea and flatulence (lopinavir/ritonavir) and gynaecomastia (efavirenz), maybe intolerable and prevent adherence to treatment. This article highlights common treatment issues in HIV adolescent care and provides guidance on their management in the South African setting. PMID:26937511

  11. Resilience in perinatal HIV+ adolescents in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bhana, Arvin; Mellins, Claude A.; Small, Latoya; Nestadt, Danielle F.; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Petersen, Inge; Machanyangwa, Sphindile; McKay, Mary

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increasing numbers of perinatally HIV (PHIV+)-infected youth are surviving into adulthood with better access to treatment. However, few studies examine positive outcomes in the face of adversity (resilience) for PHIV+ youth. Social Action Theory (SAT) provided the theoretical framework for this study of PHIV + youth in South Africa (SA), allowing examination of contextual, social, and self-regulatory factors that influence behavioral health. Data were from youth and caregiver baseline interviews, simply pooled from a pilot (N=66) and larger (n=111) randomized control trial (RCT) of the VUKA Family program. For this analysis, outcomes included emotional and behavioral functioning (total difficulties), and prosocial behaviors. Potential SAT correlates included socio-demographics; caregiver health and mental health; parent-child relationship factors; stigma, and child coping, support; and self-esteem. Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, and study revealed significant associations at the contextual, social, and self-regulation level. Lower total child difficulties scores were associated with lower caregiver depression (β = 3.906,p < .001), less caregiver-reported communication about difficult issues (β = 1.882, p = .009) and higher youth self-esteem (β = -0.119, p = .020). Greater prosocial behaviors were associated with greater caregiver-reported communication (β = 0.722, p = .020) and child use of wishful thinking for coping (β = 5.532, p = .009). Less youth depression was associated with higher caregiver education (β =−0.399, p = .010), greater caregiver supervision (β = −1.261, p = .012), more social support seeking (β = −0.453, p = .002), higher youth self-esteem (β = −0.067, p < .001), lower internalized stigma (β = 0.608, p = .040), and child use of resignation for coping (β = 1.152, p = .041). Our data support evidence-based family interventions that also promote youth self-regulation skills to enhance the health and mental

  12. Fluid inclusions in quartz crystals from South-West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Roedder, E.

    1971-01-01

    Quartz crystals from calcite veins of unknown age in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks at Geiaus No. 6 and Aukam farms in South-West Africa contain both primary and secondary inclusions filled with one or a variable combination of: organic liquid, moderately saline aqueous liquid, dark-colored solid, and vapor. Analysis of these materials by microscopy and by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry shows the presence of constituents of both low and high molecular weights. The former include CH4, C2H6, C3H8 and possibly C4H10 as well as CO, CO2, H2O, N2 and H2. High molecular weight components are dominantly n-alkanes and isoprenoid hydrocarbons. The n-alkanes range from at least n-C10 to n-C33. Concentrations of n-alkanes larger than n-C17 decrease regularly with increasing carbon number. An homologous series of isoprenoid hydrocarbons ranging from at least C14 to C20 is present in unusually high concentrations. Pristane (C19) is most abundant, and C17 isoprenoid is least abundant. The molecular composition and distribution of hydrocarbons suggest biological precursors for these components. Consideration of data provided by freezing, crushing and heating experiments suggests that the pressures at the time these in part supercritical fluids were trapped probably exceeded 30-40 atm, and the minimum trapping temperature was about 120-160??C. Both primary and secondary inclusions apparently containing only organic materials were trapped by the growth of the host quartz from aqueous solution. The data obtained neither prove nor preclude Precambrian, Paleozoic or younger sources for the organic materials. ?? 1971.

  13. Resilience in perinatal HIV+ adolescents in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bhana, Arvin; Mellins, Claude A; Small, Latoya; Nestadt, Danielle F; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Petersen, Inge; Machanyangwa, Sphindile; McKay, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Increasing numbers of perinatally HIV (PHIV+)-infected youth are surviving into adulthood with better access to treatment. However, few studies examine positive outcomes in the face of adversity (resilience) for PHIV+ youth. Social Action Theory (SAT) provided the theoretical framework for this study of PHIV + youth in South Africa (SA), allowing examination of contextual, social, and self-regulatory factors that influence behavioral health. Data were from youth and caregiver baseline interviews, simply pooled from a pilot (N=66) and larger (n=111) randomized control trial (RCT) of the VUKA Family program. For this analysis, outcomes included emotional and behavioral functioning (total difficulties), and prosocial behaviors. Potential SAT correlates included socio-demographics; caregiver health and mental health; parent-child relationship factors; stigma, and child coping, support; and self-esteem. Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, and study revealed significant associations at the contextual, social, and self-regulation level. Lower total child difficulties scores were associated with lower caregiver depression (β = 3.906,p < .001), less caregiver-reported communication about difficult issues (β = 1.882, p = .009) and higher youth self-esteem (β = -0.119, p = .020). Greater prosocial behaviors were associated with greater caregiver-reported communication (β = 0.722, p = .020) and child use of wishful thinking for coping (β = 5.532, p = .009). Less youth depression was associated with higher caregiver education (β =-0.399, p = .010), greater caregiver supervision (β = -1.261, p = .012), more social support seeking (β = -0.453, p = .002), higher youth self-esteem (β = -0.067, p < .001), lower internalized stigma (β = 0.608, p = .040), and child use of resignation for coping (β = 1.152, p = .041). Our data support evidence-based family interventions that also promote youth self-regulation skills to enhance the health and mental health of PHIV

  14. Airborne DOAS in South Africa: escaping flatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broccardo, S. P.; Heue, K.; Piketh, S.; Platt, U.

    2010-12-01

    The satellite instruments SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2 show high average tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities over the South African Highveld, a region with a high density of coal-fired power stations and other heavy industries. A pushbroom-imaging DOAS spectrometer was flown over the Highveld and surrounding areas in order to further investigate this feature of the satellite record. The wavelength range of the instrument includes differential absorption structures of gases relevant to air quality such as NO2 and SO2. The high spatial resolution of the instrument allows individual sources to be distinguished, while the mobility of the airborne platform allows larger-scale measurements to be made. Emissions fluxes for individual facilities are calculated. An NO flux for the city of Johannesburg is derived from the nadir DOAS column measurements. Similarly, a flux for the entire Highveld region is derived and compared to a satellite-derived flux. The Highveld provides an excellent outdoor laboratory for development of trace-gas remote sensing instrumentation. The greater Johannesburg conurbation and nearby industrial point sources are surrounded by rural areas for several hundred kilometers on all sides. Flat topography and a stable atmosphere in winter lead to plumes with high trace-gas concentrations that are easy to measure and distinguish from the background. A lightweight scanning multi-axis spectrometer is being built to measure industrial plumes from an ultra-light aircraft. Using a tomographic inversion, this instrument will give a vertical cross-section of the plume, allowing validation of dispersion models and direct comparison with in-situ measurements. Using a suitable flight path, a three dimensional representation of the plume can be built up.

  15. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  16. Transforming Education in South Africa: Comparative Perceptions of a South African Social Work Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen; Millard, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The state of tertiary education in South Africa is not adequately meeting the needs of its populace. The system in place does not effectively nor appropriately target the racial group of students which forms the democratic majority. This paper portrays the reasons why these students are not succeeding on the basis of a mismatch between their…

  17. Quantitative Study of Vulnerability / Damage Curves in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pule, Tebogo

    2014-05-01

    Southern Africa is considered a stable continental region in spite of several cases of reported earthquakes, which caused considerable damage and casualties particularly in the mining industry. Most buildings and structures in South Africa are not designed to resist any intensity of earthquake and most architects, engineers and builders in the country do not consider seismic resistance as a design requirement. This is mainly because the region has not experienced any large and serious destructive earthquake in recent years. The most destructive earthquake recorded in South Africa is the Ceres earthquake of 1969. The earthquake with a magnitude of 6.3 occurred on September 29, 1969 in the Ceres-Tulbagh region of the Western Cape Province about 100 km northeast of Cape Town. Serious damage occurred to certain buildings in the area (amounting to a total of U.S. 24 million). The structural damage varied from almost total destruction of old and poorly constructed buildings to large cracks in the better-built ones, twelve people were killed and many more were injured. Another event that caused severe damage to infrastructure occurred on March 9, 2005 at Stilfontein near Klerksdorp. It is known that up to 40 or more tremors are recorded monthly in Southern Africa, the locations are predominantly in the places surrounding the gold mining areas with many events around the Carletonville and Klerksdorp areas. Recent years have seen at least four mining induced tremors causing significant damage (Welkom 1976, Klerksdorp 1977, Welkom 1989 and Carletonville 1992). Such events show that it is very necessary to take seismic events into account in the design of any infrastructure. Assessing and understanding the risk facing the South African cities as a result of major seismic activity has been paid little attention. The main focus of this study is to use results of a deterministic hazard assessment to develop the most suitable damage curves for twelve of the most common building

  18. Mineral-chemical and isotopic studies of Namaqualand granulites, South Africa: A grenville analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Tom N.; Stumpfl, Eugen F.; Burger, Alwyn J.; McCarthy, Terence S.; Rex, David C.

    1981-10-01

    The northwestern part of South Africa and southern South-West Africa/Namibia is amongst the most extensive granulite terranes in Africa. This work reports the results of electron microprobe studies of minerals from two-pyroxene, cordieriteorthopyroxene (-gedrite) (-sapphirine) and garnet and/or cordierite parageneses from Namaqualand, in the N.W. Cape Province of South Africa. Determined PT conditions of prograde metamorphism based on thermodynamic calculations are 800°-900° C and ca. 6-7 Kb; and it is argued that rocks of unusual composition, notably cordierite-orthopyroxene rocks, are restites after the extraction of granitic liquid from former argillites. This interpretation is consistent with previously published data on similar rocks, and with McCarthy's (1976) suggestion of extensive partial melting in the quartzofeldspathic rocks in the area. U-Pb isotopic studies of some 50 zircon fractions have been carried out and confirm an age of 1,200 m.y. for the high-grade regional metamorphism; but certain zircon populations record inherited ages greater than 1,700 m.y. Garnet-sillimanite rocks that contain retrograde kyanite reflect PT conditions of 550°-650° C and ca. 7-8 Kb; and constituent biotite has yielded a K-Ar age of ca. 950 m.y. These data, the regional stratigraphy and structure, and the mineralisation are compared with data from the Grenville Province of Canada. Notable similarities are the possible basement-cover relationships, and the calendar of tectonothermal events, while differences include the important stratiform base-metal mineralisation in the supracrustal sequence in Namaqualand, and the Cu-mineralisation in hypersthenebearing intrusives, emplaced some 1,100 m.y. ago, that are areally, and believed to be genetically, related to the granulite facies metamorphic regime.

  19. The application of high dose food irradiation in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruyn, Ingrid Nine

    2000-03-01

    During the 1950s to the end of the 1970s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf-stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive "dried cooked" taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The Biogam group at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa is currently producing shelf-stable irradiated meats on a commercial basis. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 45 kGy at a temperature of between -20 and -40°C to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions and can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. Safari operators in remote parts of Africa, mountaineers, yachtsmen, canoeists and geological survey teams currently use shelf-stable irradiated meat products produced in South Africa.

  20. An Archean Geomagnetic Reversal in the Kaap Valley Pluton, South Africa

    PubMed

    Layer; Kroner; McWilliams

    1996-08-16

    The Kaap Valley pluton in South Africa is a tonalite intrusion associated with the Archean Barberton Greenstone Belt. Antipodal paleomagnetic directions determined from the central and marginal parts of the pluton record a geomagnetic reversal that occurred as the pluton cooled. The age of the reversal is constrained by an 40Ar/39Ar plateau age from hornblende at 3214 +/- 4 million years, making it the oldest known reversal. The data presented here suggest that Earth has had a reversing, perhaps dipolar, magnetic field since at least 3.2 billion years ago. PMID:8688075

  1. Antiretroviral Treatment and Sexual Risk Behavior in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Risher, Kathryn; Rehle, Thomas; Simbayi, Leickness; Shisana, Olive; Celentano, David D

    2016-04-01

    The sexual behavior of individuals living with HIV determines the onward transmission of HIV. With the understanding that antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents transmission of HIV, the sexual behaviors of the individuals not on ART with unsuppressed viral loads becomes of the greatest importance in elucidating transmission. We assessed the association between being on ART and sexual risk behavior among those living with HIV in a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey of households in South Africa that was conducted in 2012. Of 2237 adults (aged 15-49) who tested HIV-seropositive, 667 (29.8 %) had detectable antiretroviral drugs in their blood specimens. Among males, 77.7 % of those on ART reported having had sex in the past year contrasted with 88.4 % of those not on ART (p = 0.001); among females, 72.2 % of those on ART reported having had sex in the past year while 80.3 % of those not on ART did (p < 0.001). For males and females, the odds of reporting consistent condom use and condom use at last sex were statistically significantly higher for individuals on ART compared to those not on ART (males: consistent condom use aOR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.6-4.9, condom use at last sex aOR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.5-4.6; females: consistent condom use aOR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.7-3.1, condom use at last sex aOR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.7-3.1), while there were no statistically significant differences in odds of reporting multiple sexual partners in the past year. In this nationally representative population-based survey of South African adults, we found evidence of less risky sexual risk behavior among people living with HIV on ART compared to those not on ART. PMID:26194426

  2. Measuring and Understanding the Well-Being of South Africans: Everyday Quality of Life in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Neil T.

    2007-01-01

    South Africa has a Gini co-efficient of 62, one of the world's highest (Finmark: Project FinScope 2004 and 2005, FinMark Trust, Johannesburg). Hence, measures of wealth are ubiquitous social indicators in South Africa. However, a growing emphasis in government towards measurable service delivery targets and remedial action to redress the…

  3. New Australopithecus robustus fossils and associated U-Pb dates from Cooper's Cave (Gauteng, South Africa).

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; Pickering, Robyn; Steininger, Christine M; Kramers, Jan D; Hancox, Phillip J; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R; Backwell, Lucinda

    2009-05-01

    Australopithecus robustus is one of the best represented hominin taxa in Africa, with hundreds of specimens recovered from six fossil localities in the Bloubank Valley area of Gauteng Province, South Africa. However, precise geochronological ages are presently lacking for these fossil cave infills. In this paper, we provide a detailed geological background to a series of hominin fossils retrieved from the newly investigated deposit of Cooper's D (located partway between Sterkfontein and Kromdraai in the Bloubank Valley), including uranium-lead (U-Pb) ages for speleothem material associated with A. robustus. U-Pb dating of a basal speleothem underlying the entire deposit results in a maximum age of 1.526 (+/-0.088) Ma for Cooper's D. A second U-Pb date of ca. 1.4 Ma is produced from a flowstone layer above this basal speleothem; since this upper flowstone is not a capping flowstone, and fossiliferous sediments are preserved above this layer, some of the hominins might be slightly younger than the calculated age. As a result, we can broadly constrain the age of the hominins from Cooper's D to between 1.5 and approximately 1.4 Ma. Extinct fauna recorded in this comparatively young deposit raise the possibility that the Bloubank Valley region of South Africa represented a more stable environmental refugium for taxa relative to tectonically more active East Africa. The sediments of the deposit likely infilled rapidly during periods when arid conditions prevailed in the paleoenvironment, although it is unclear whether sediment deposition and bone deposition were necessarily contemporaneous occurrences. We reconstruct the paleoenvironment of Cooper's D as predominantly grassland, with nearby woodlands and a permanent water source. The hominin teeth recovered from Cooper's D are all from juveniles and can be confidently assigned to A. robustus. In addition, two juvenile mandibular fragments and an adult thoracic vertebra are tentatively attributed to A. robustus. PMID

  4. IYA2009 in Africa: A South African perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In Africa the stars have always been a part of people's everyday lives, be it in the form of folklore, superstition or even agricultural indicators. Modern astronomy, however, has not been very widespread, with only a few African countries having sufficient facilities or academics to support a modern astronomical community. The International Year of Astronomy serves not only as an opportunity to boost these astronomical communities, but also to celebrate the rich history and culture that has existed for thousands of years. On this, the poorest continent, with so many millions living in rural areas, there is one glaring advantage over other continents - people's abundant access to a dark night sky. We would like to see 2009 as the year that everyone in Africa, no matter what their background or lifestyle, turn their heads to the skies in appreciation of the beauty of the Universe, in celebration of their cultural heritage, and in the hope that they are inspired to overcome harsh challenges that this small planet and its occupants may have placed on them. It is an opportunity not just to promote astronomy, but also to spark curiosity and spur on a culture of learning. The perspective will be given from South Africa, home to a number of major astronomical facilities, and a major player in the development of astronomy across Africa. IYA2009 progress to date and plans for the future will be discussed.

  5. Brief Report: Social and Neighbourhood Correlates of Adolescent Drunkenness--A Pilot Study in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Charles D. H.; Morojele, Neo K.; Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To identify social and neighbourhood correlates of drunkenness among adolescents. Design: A cross-sectional, community study. Participants: A multi-stage cluster sampling strategy was used to select 90 adolescents aged 11-17 years from nine distinct communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The sample was stratified by race, income, and gender.…

  6. "We Must Believe in Ourselves": Attitudes and Experiences of Adult Learners with Disabilities in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Peter; Modipa, Taadi Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Many adults with disabilities in South Africa never had a chance to attend school or dropped out at an early age because of poverty and discrimination. This article investigates the attitudes and experiences of adults with disabilities regarding education. It draws on an interactional model of disability and an embodied understanding of cognition…

  7. Evaluation of influenza vaccine effectiveness and description of circulating strains in outpatient settings in South Africa, 2014

    PubMed Central

    McAnerney, Johanna M; Treurnicht, Florette; Walaza, Sibongile; Cohen, Adam L; Tempia, Stefano; Mtshali, Senzo; Buys, Amelia; Blumberg, Lucille; Cohen, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of the trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine during the 2014 season in South Africa was assessed using a test-negative case–control study design including 472 cases and 362 controls. Influenza A(H3N2) was the dominant strain circulating. The overall vaccine effectiveness estimate, adjusted for age and underlying conditions, was 43·1% (95% CI: −26·8–74·5). 2014 H3N2 viruses from South Africa were mainly in sublineage 3C.3 with accumulation of amino acid changes that differentiate them from the vaccine strain in 3C.1. PMID:25865249

  8. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    the cooler highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. Who would you like to be like? Family, village, and national role models among Black youth in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Crowell, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how Black youth in rural South Africa construct role models and connect them to their own life aspirations. We pay particular attention to individual and group identity development in shaping these perceptions. Based on analysis of qualitative data from 99 Black male and female youth aged 14–22, we find that 1) the choice of role models reflects a balancing strategy to reconcile individual and group identity development; 2) while the reasons they give for choosing role models are aligned with dominant models of upward mobility in the new South Africa (and globally), our respondents are also attuned to the difficulty of attaining such success and 3) the choices underscore the continued importance of close and extended kin amidst an increasingly ego focused life strategy aimed at individual status attainment. These findings can contribute to strengthening the effectiveness of intervention programs aimed at strengthening positive influences in the lives of Black youth in South Africa. PMID:26005284

  10. Negative stereotypes examined through the HIV and AIDS discourse: qualitative findings from white young people in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nduna, Mzikazi; Mendes, Jacky

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies reporting perceptions of HIV and AIDS by white youth in South Africa suggest both explicit and implicit racial stereotypes and negative attitudes. This paper contributes to the literature on the discourse of racial stereotypes found in discussions about HIV and AIDS. The study was conducted in the suburb of Edenvale, north-east of Johannesburg, South Africa. Three focus group discussions were held with mixed-sex, white middle-class participants aged 16 to 24. Key findings show stereotypes related to cultural knowledge and group character of black youth. Participants spoke negatively of ignorance, illiteracy, traditionalism, backwardness and lack of civilisation among black youth. Black youth were negatively represented as relying on ancestors and traditional healers for guidance. Participants reasoned that black young males were sexually irresponsible and promiscuous, and were spreading HIV intentionally. Thus it is imperative that contemporary HIV prevention interventions in South Africa address and dispel stereotypes reproducing racist discourses. PMID:21409301

  11. HIV Vaccine Trial participation in South Africa - an ethical assessment.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Keymanthri

    2002-04-01

    Trial participation in the proposed HIV Vaccine Trials in South Africa is discussed in the context of the ethical tension that exists between international ethical research standards and local standards of care and cultural norms in the Third World. The important concepts of informed consent, risk-benefit ratio and fair treatment of trial participants are interpreted differently in traditional, rural African communities, where a moderate form of communitarianism referred to as "Ubuntu" or "communalism" is still prevalent. Research is an altruistic endeavor that benefits communities and societies as a result of risks taken by individuals. Universal ethical guidelines that are highly individualistic and fail to emphasize communalism may represent serious problems for the sort of research needed in Africa today. PMID:11961697

  12. Skin lighteners, Black consumers and Jewish entrepreneurs in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lynn M

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the rise and decline of South Africa's lucrative and controversial skin-lighteners market through examination of the business history of the largest manufacturers, Abraham and Solomon Krok, and their evolving personas as millionaires and philanthropists. Such examination reveals how the country's skin-lighteners trade emerged as part of the broader growth of a black consumer market after the Second World War and how elements of that market became the target of anti-apartheid protests in subsequent decades. It also demonstrates how the Kroks' experiences as second-generation Jewish immigrants shaped their involvement in the trade and how, later, their self-identification as Jewish philanthropists informed their efforts to rehabilitate their reputations following South Africa's 1990 ban on all skin lighteners. Such efforts include the building of Johannesburg's highly acclaimed Apartheid Museum, modelled after the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. This article explores the profound ironies that some South Africans see in the fact that a museum dedicated to commemorating those who suffered under and, ultimately, triumphed against state racism was financed by a family fortune generated through the sale of skin lighteners to black consumers. PMID:22830098

  13. Perceived Discrimination, Race and Health in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Gonzalez, Hector M; Williams, Stacey; Mohammed, Selina A; Moomal, Hashim; Stein, Dan J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the levels of perceived acute and chronic racial and non-racial discrimination in South Africa, their association with health, and the extent to which they contribute to racial differences in physical and mental health, data were used from a national probability sample of adults, the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH). All Black groups in South Africa (African, Coloured and Indian) were two to four times more likely than Whites to report acute and chronic experiences of racial discrimination. Africans and Coloureds report higher levels of ill health than Whites, but acute and chronic racial discrimination were unrelated to ill health and unimportant in accounting for racial differences in self rated health. In contrast, all Black groups had higher levels of psychological distress than Whites, and perceived chronic discrimination, was positively associated with distress. Moreover, these experiences accounted for some of the residual racial differences in distress after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Our main findings indicate that, in a historically racialized society, perceived chronic racial and especially non-racial discrimination acts independently of demographic factors, other stressors, psychological factors (social desirability, self-esteem and personal mastery), and multiple SES indicators to adversely affect mental health. PMID:18486292

  14. Status of Seismotectonic and seismic hazard studies in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, V.

    2012-04-01

    Though South Africa is considered to lie in a stable continental region, earthquakes are recorded and located daily. Large events have been recorded that resulted in severe damage to infrastructure in nearby towns, farms, underground mines and even death in some circumstances. Therefore, it is necessary that we consider the effects of these events in the design of our infrastructure. This mitigation is done by carrying out reliable seismic hazard and risk studies of our regions using state of the art methodologies. In South Africa, several regional seismic hazard studies have been carried out and published. Continental wide studies that include the South African region were also published by various scientists from the continent (e.g. GSHAP). However, to ensure that we conform to international best practice in such studies, more studies need and are being done to improve data, knowledge and methodologies used in the assessments. We continue to collect and improve collection methods of historical and instrumental seismicity data. Available geological information is being used to identify and characterize active or capable faults.

  15. Social accountability and nursing education in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Susan J.; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is global emphasis on transforming health workforce education in support of universal health coverage. Objective This paper uses a social accountability framework, specifically the World Health Organization's six building blocks for transformative education, to explore key informants’ perspectives on nursing education in South Africa. Methods Using a snowballing sampling technique, 44 key informants were selected purposively on the basis of their expertise or knowledge of the research area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the key informants after informed consent had been obtained. The interviews were analysed using template analysis. Results South Africa has strategic plans on human resources for health and nursing education, training, and practice and has a well-established system of regulation and accreditation of nursing education through the South African Nursing Council (SANC). Key informants criticised the following: the lack of national staffing norms; sub-optimal governance by both the SANC and the Department of Health; outdated curricula that are unresponsive to population and health system needs; lack of preparedness of nurse educators; and the unsuitability of the majority of nursing students. These problems are exacerbated by a perceived lack of prioritisation of nursing, resource constraints in both the nursing education institutions and the health training facilities, and general implementation inertia. Conclusion Social accountability, which is an essential component of transformative education, necessitates that attention be paid to the issues of governance, responsive curricula, educator preparedness, and appropriate student recruitment and selection. PMID:25971402

  16. DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid resistance has been well documented in Anopheles arabiensis, one of the major African malaria vectors, and the predominant malaria vector in South Africa. Methods In this study, the genetic basis of pyrethroid resistance in a selected laboratory strain of An. arabiensis from South Africa was investigated using a custom-made microarray, known as the An. gambiae detoxification chip. Results A large number of P450 genes were over-transcribed, as well as a suite of redox genes and glutathione S-transferases. The five genes that showed the highest level of gene transcription when compared with an insecticide susceptible strain were: CYP6AG2, CYPZ1, TPX2, CYPZ2 and CYP6P1. Conclusions Permethrin resistance in South African An. arabiensis is associated with increased transcription of multiple genes, and a large proportion of these genes were also previously recorded as over-transcribed in another An. arabiensis strain selected for resistance to DDT with cross-resistance to deltamethrin. The deltamethrin resistance developed de novo in the DDT-selected strain and is most likely due to increased transcription of those genes associated with DDT resistance. However, of particular interest was the fact that the strain selected for resistance to pyrethroids did not develop de novo resistance to DDT. These differences are compared and discussed. PMID:23924547

  17. Perceived discrimination, race and health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Gonzalez, Hector M; Williams, Stacey; Mohammed, Selina A; Moomal, Hashim; Stein, Dan J

    2008-08-01

    To assess the levels of perceived acute and chronic racial and non-racial discrimination in South Africa, their association with health, and the extent to which they contribute to racial differences in physical and mental health, data were used from a national probability sample of adults, the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH). All Black groups in South Africa (African, Coloured and Indian) were two to four times more likely than Whites to report acute and chronic experiences of racial discrimination. Africans and Coloureds report higher levels of ill health than Whites, but acute and chronic racial discrimination were unrelated to ill health and unimportant in accounting for racial differences in self-rated health. In contrast, all Black groups had higher levels of psychological distress than Whites, and perceived chronic discrimination was positively associated with distress. Moreover, these experiences accounted for some of the residual racial differences in distress after adjustment for socioeconomic status. Our main findings indicate that, in a historically racialized society, perceived chronic racial and especially non-racial discrimination acts independently of demographic factors, other stressors, psychological factors (social desirability, self-esteem and personal mastery), and multiple SES indicators to adversely affect mental health. PMID:18486292

  18. Gendered Patterns of Migration in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C.; Hosegood, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Gender is increasingly recognized as fundamental to understanding migration processes, causes and consequences. In South Africa, it is intrinsic to the social transformations fueling high levels of internal migration and complex forms of mobility. While female migration in Africa has often been characterized as less prevalent than male migration, and primarily related to marriage, in South Africa a feminization of internal migration is underway, fueled by women’s increasing labor market participation. In this paper, we report sex differences in patterns, trends and determinants of internal migration based on data collected in a demographic surveillance system between 2001 and 2006 in rural KwaZulu-Natal. We show that women were somewhat more likely than men to undertake any migration, but sex differences in migration trends differed by migration flow, with women more likely to migrate into the area than men, and men more likely to out-migrate. Out-migration was suppressed by marriage particularly for women, but most women were not married; both men’s and women’s out-migrations were undertaken mainly for purposes of employment. Over half of female out-migrations (versus 35% of male out-migrations) were to nearby rural areas. The findings highlight the high mobility of this population and the extent to which gender is intimately related to the processes determining migration. We consider the implications of these findings for the measurement of migration and mobility, in particular for health and social policy and research among highly mobile populations in southern Africa. PMID:25332690

  19. An analysis of opinions from veterinarians in South Africa regarding business management skills.

    PubMed

    Krecek, R C; Tobin, P

    2004-03-01

    The changing role of veterinarians in the global market is a current topic of debate and discussion. Few countries including South Africa have formally examined the changing dynamics of this profession. Therefore, the present study addressed 2 objectives. The 1st was to examine basic information about veterinarians in South Africa including their age, gender and distribution across provinces, the percentage whose practice was urban, rural or periurban, the numbers working with specific animal species, and the extent of business management and skills previously gained. The 2nd objective was to obtain opinions and insights from veterinarians in South Africa about the challenges and opportunities facing their business practices to better understand what they considered important dynamics to their businesses today. Several areas of business on which they were questioned and which were included in this study were: marketing, vision, human resources, leadership, financial management, ethics, competition, day-to-day operations, interpersonal skills and information management. This is the 1st known survey to employ a questionnaire to gain insights and opinions from veterinarians about business management skills. PMID:15214691

  20. Reflections on Apartheid in South Africa: Perspectives and an Outlook for the Future. A Curriculum Unit. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (South Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnsley, Johnnye R.

    This curriculum unit is designed for students to achieve a better understanding of the South African society and the numerous changes that have recently occurred. The four-week unit can be modified to fit existing classroom needs. The nine lessons include: (1) "A Profile of South Africa"; (2) "South African Society"; (3) "Nelson Mandela: The…

  1. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  2. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  3. Pneumoconiosis in Chromite Miners in South Africa1

    PubMed Central

    Sluis-Cremer, G. K.; Du Toit, R. S. J.

    1968-01-01

    Ten chromite miners in South Africa have been found to show radiological evidence of a fine nodulation; five of these miners had worked only in chromite mines. These cases occurred in a labour force of some 1,500 persons subjected to regular examination. Clinical evidence and the results of intratracheal injection of chromite suspension into rats indicate that the radiological changes are due not to fibrosis but to a benign deposition of chromite (Cr2O3FeO) dust in the lungs. Images PMID:5642648

  4. The unsuspected killer: Liquefied petroleum gas overexposure in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sampson, L W J; van der Schyff, N; Cupido, C

    2015-02-01

    A 21-year-old woman with no past medical history of note was found unconscious together with five of her family members after prolonged exposure to liquefied petroleum gas. She was admitted to the intensive care unit at Victoria Hospital, Wynberg, Cape Town, South Africa, following resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity. On examination the following was found: coma without focal neurology; shock requiring fluid resuscitation and adrenaline; probable pneumonitis or aspiration pneumonia; acute rhabdomyolysis with severe metabolic acidosis; and raised serum K+. A carboxyhaemoglobin test was unable to confirm or exclude carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26242505

  5. [Van Heerden: the first female doctor in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Lammes, Frits B

    2013-01-01

    Petronella van Heerden (1887-1975) was born in South Africa. She studied medicine in Amsterdam from 1908 to 1915 and then worked as the first female doctor in her native country for 4 years before specialising in gynaecology in London. She then returned to Amsterdam, where she gained a PhD in 1923 on a thesis on endometriosis that was written in Afrikaans. She settled in Cape Town and participated in many political and emancipatory activities alongside her work as a doctor. She wrote two autobiographies. PMID:24103131

  6. Preventing diabetic blindness: a priority for South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Karen Joanne; Cook, Colin; Levitt, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in South Africa is increasing rapidly, and diabetes is a significant cause of blindness. Diabetic complications can induce a cycle of poverty for affected families. Early detection of retinopathy and appropriate management can prevent blindness. Screening for retinopathy using a mobile retinal camera is highly cost-effective, with costs of screening and follow-up treatment being less than the expense of one year of a disability grant. Such a programme is a prime example of a 'best buy' that should be part of the national diabetes care package. PMID:25363046

  7. [The cases of teratology in Mallophaga of South Africa].

    PubMed

    Złotorzycka, J; Modrzejewska, M

    2001-01-01

    The following types ofteratology were found in the collection of 1278 individuals of Mallophaga coming from the birds of South Africa origin: deformity clypeus in Quadraceps kilimandjarensis (KELL.) from Stephanibyx coronatus (BURCH.), partial atrophy of one of the antennae of two males Q. kilimandjarensis and abdomen plates deformity of two females Q. kilimandjarensis, in male and female Quadraceps chorleyi TIMM. from Hoplopterus armatus (BURCH.), in female Saemundssonia africana TIMM. from Stephanibyx coronatus (BODD.) and male Plegadiphilus threskiornis (BEDF.) from Threskiornis aethiopicus (LATH.) the only representative of Amblycera (the other teratology belonged to Ischnocera suborder). Generally teratology was found in 0.70% of the collection. PMID:16888959

  8. Out of (South) Africa: Pretoria`s nuclear weapons experience. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    The primary focus of this paper is the impact of key South African leaders on the successful developments and subsequent rollbacks of South Africa`s nuclear weapons capability. It highlights the key milestones in the development of South Africa`s nuclear weapon capability. It also relates how different groups within South Africa (scientists, politicians, military and technocrats) interacted to successfully produce South Africa`s nuclear deterrent. It emphasizes the pivotal influence of the senior political leadership to pursue nuclear rollback given the disadvantages of its nuclear means to achieve vital national interests. The conclusions drawn from flu`s effort are the South African nuclear program was an extreme response to its own identity Crisis. Nuclear weapons became a means to achieving a long term end of a closer affiliation with the West. A South Africa yearning to be identified as a Western nation and receive guarantees of its security rationalized the need for a nuclear deterrent. The deterrent was intended to draw in Western support to counter a feared total onslaught by Communist forces in the region. Two decades later, that same South Africa relinquished its nuclear deterrent and reformed its domestic policies to secure improved economic and political integration with the West.

  9. Mission, Science, and Race in South Africa; AW Roberts of Lovedale 1883-1938

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I.S.

    2016-02-01

    Book Review: Biography of Alexander William Roberts. Noted educator, variable star observer and politician who represented South African "natives" in the parliament of the Union of South Africa at a time when they had no other representation.

  10. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Businge, Charles Bitamazire; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Mathews, Verona

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol. PMID:26800877

  11. A critical appraisal of clinical trials conducted and subsequent drug approvals in India and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Dnyanesh; Langer, Janka Marisa; Rühling, Tjorben; Fortwengel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relation between the number of clinical trials conducted and respective new drug approvals in India and South Africa. Design Construction and analysis of a comprehensive database of completed randomised controlled clinical trials based on clinicaltrials.gov from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2010 and drug approval data from 2006 until 2013 for India and South Africa. Setting USA, the EU, India and South Africa. Main outcome measures Percentage of completed randomised clinical trials for an Investigational Medicinal Product (IMP) leading to new drug approval in India and South Africa. Results A total of 622 eligible randomised controlled trials were identified as per search criteria for India and South Africa. Clustering them for the same sponsor and the same Investigational New Drug (IND) resulted in 453 eligible trials, that is, 224 for India and 229 for South Africa. The distribution of the market application approvals between the EU/USA as well as India and South Africa revealed that out of clinical trials with the participation of test centres in India and/or South Africa, 39.6% (India) clinical trials and 60.1% (South Africa) clinical trials led to market authorisation in the EU/USA without a New Drug Application (NDA) approval in India or South Africa. Conclusions Despite an increase in clinical trial activities, there is a clear gap between the number of trials conducted and market availability of these new drugs in India and South Africa. Drug regulatory authorities, investigators, institutional review boards and patient groups should direct their efforts to ensuring availability of new drugs in the market that have been tested and researched on their population. PMID:26324720

  12. Linking Life Skills and Norms With Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Mary H.; Graham, John W.; Smith, Edward A.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Bradley, Stephanie A.; Vergnani, Tania; Mathews, Cathy; Wegner, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    We examined factors targeted in two popular prevention approaches with adolescent drug use and delinquency in South Africa. We hypothesized adolescent life skills to be inversely related, and perceived norms to be directly related to later drug use and delinquency. Multiple regression and a relative weights approach were conducted for each outcome using a sample of 714 South African adolescents ages 15 to 19 years (M = 15.8 years, 57% female). Perceived norms predicted gateway drug use. Conflict resolution skills (inversely) and perceived peer acceptability (directly) predicted harder drug use and delinquency. The “culture of violence” within some South African schools may make conflict resolution skills more salient for preventing harder drug use and delinquency. PMID:23559844

  13. Linking Life Skills and Norms With Adolescent Substance Use and Delinquency in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mary H; Graham, John W; Smith, Edward A; Caldwell, Linda L; Bradley, Stephanie A; Vergnani, Tania; Mathews, Cathy; Wegner, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    We examined factors targeted in two popular prevention approaches with adolescent drug use and delinquency in South Africa. We hypothesized adolescent life skills to be inversely related, and perceived norms to be directly related to later drug use and delinquency. Multiple regression and a relative weights approach were conducted for each outcome using a sample of 714 South African adolescents ages 15 to 19 years (M = 15.8 years, 57% female). Perceived norms predicted gateway drug use. Conflict resolution skills (inversely) and perceived peer acceptability (directly) predicted harder drug use and delinquency. The "culture of violence" within some South African schools may make conflict resolution skills more salient for preventing harder drug use and delinquency. PMID:23559844

  14. Sm-Nd dating of Fig Tree clay minerals of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toulkeridis, T.; Goldstein, S. L.; Clauer, N.; Kroner, A.; Lowe, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic data from carbonate-derived clay minerals of the 3.22-3.25 Ga Fig Tree Group, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, form a linear array corresponding to an age of 3102 +/- 64 Ma, making these minerals the oldest dated clays on Earth. The obtained age is 120-160 m.y. younger than the depositional age determined by zircon geochronology. Nd model ages for the clays range from approximately 3.39 to 3.44 Ga and almost cover the age variation of the Barberton greenstone belt rocks, consistent with independent evidence that the clay minerals are derived from material of the belt. The combined isotopic and mineralogical data provide evidence for a cryptic thermal overprint in the sediments of the belt. However, the highest temperature reached by the samples since the time of clay-mineral formation was <300 degrees C, lower than virtually any known early Archean supracrustal sequence.

  15. Sm-Nd dating of Fig Tree clay minerals of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Toulkeridis, T; Goldstein, S L; Clauer, N; Kroner, A; Lowe, D R

    1994-03-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic data from carbonate-derived clay minerals of the 3.22-3.25 Ga Fig Tree Group, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, form a linear array corresponding to an age of 3102 +/- 64 Ma, making these minerals the oldest dated clays on Earth. The obtained age is 120-160 m.y. younger than the depositional age determined by zircon geochronology. Nd model ages for the clays range from approximately 3.39 to 3.44 Ga and almost cover the age variation of the Barberton greenstone belt rocks, consistent with independent evidence that the clay minerals are derived from material of the belt. The combined isotopic and mineralogical data provide evidence for a cryptic thermal overprint in the sediments of the belt. However, the highest temperature reached by the samples since the time of clay-mineral formation was <300 degrees C, lower than virtually any known early Archean supracrustal sequence. PMID:11540244

  16. An effective approach to chronic kidney disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Mohammed Rafique; Meyers, Anthony M; Gottlich, Errol; Naicker, Sarala

    2016-02-01

    Very few patients with end-stage kidney disease in South Africa receive renal replacement treatment (RRT), despite the rapidly growing demand, because of resource constraints. Nephrologists who agonise daily about who to treat and who not to, and have been doing so since the inception of dialysis in this country, welcomed the opportunity to interact with the National Department of Health at a recent summit of stakeholders. The major challenges were identified and recommendations for short- to long-term solutions were made. While the renal community can still improve efficiencies, it is clear that much of the responsibility for improving access to RRT and reducing inequities must be borne by the national government. The summit marks the first step in a process that we hope will ultimately culminate in universal access to RRT for all South Africans. PMID:26821893

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus and migrant labor in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jochelson, K; Mothibeli, M; Leger, J P

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate the impact of the migrant labor system on heterosexual relationships on South African mines and assess the implications for the future transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The migrant labor system has created a market for prostitution in mining towns and geographic networks of relationships within and between urban and rural communities. A section of the migrant workforce and a group of women dependent on prostitution for economic support appear especially vulnerable to contracting HIV infection since they are involved in multiple sexual encounters with different, changing partners, usually without condom protection. Furthermore, sexually transmitted disease morbidity is extensive in the general and mineworker populations. Historically, migration facilitated the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and may act similarly for HIV. Problems of combating the HIV epidemic in South Africa are discussed. PMID:2004869

  18. Triple dividends of water consumption charges in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letsoalo, Anthony; Blignaut, James; de Wet, Theuns; de Wit, Martin; Hess, Sebastiaan; Tol, Richard S. J.; van Heerden, Jan

    2007-05-01

    The South African government is exploring ways to address water scarcity problems by introducing a water resource management charge on the quantity of water used in sectors such as irrigated agriculture, mining, and forestry. It is expected that a more efficient water allocation, lower use, and a positive impact on poverty can be achieved. This paper reports on the validity of these claims by applying a computable general equilibrium model to analyze the triple dividend of water consumption charges in South Africa: reduced water use, more rapid economic growth, and a more equal income distribution. It is shown that an appropriate budget-neutral combination of water charges, particularly on irrigated agriculture and coal mining, and reduced indirect taxes, particularly on food, would yield triple dividends, that is, less water use, more growth, and less poverty.

  19. Childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes: evidence from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Duncan

    2015-07-01

    Many South African children experience maltreatment, but we know little about the effects on long-term child development. Using the only representative dataset that includes a module on childhood maltreatment for a metropolitan city in South Africa, we explore the association between different measures of childhood maltreatment and two educational outcomes (numeracy test scores and dropout). Our study provides an estimate of the association between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes in a developing country where maltreatment is high. We control for potential confounders using a range of statistical techniques and add several robustness checks to evaluate the strength of our findings. Our results indicate that children who are maltreated suffer large adverse consequences in terms of their numeracy test scores and probability of dropout and that the estimated effects of maltreatment are larger and more consistent for the most severe type of maltreatment. PMID:24890398

  20. Redressing dis-advantage: promoting vertical equity within South Africa.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, D; Gilson, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper represents the first attempt to apply vertical equity principles to the South African health sector. A vertical equity approach, which recognises that different groups have different starting points and therefore require differential treatment, appears to offer an appropriate basis for considering how best to redress the vast inequities which exist in post-Apartheid South Africa. Vertical equity principles are applied in critically analysing two areas of recent policy action which are particularly relevant to health sector equity in South Africa, namely public-private sector cross-subsidies and the allocation of government resources between provinces. Despite a strong political commitment to redressing historical inequities, recent government policy actions in these two areas appear to fall short of desirable goals when viewed through a vertical equity lens. In particular, policies since the first democratic elections in 1994 have done little to reduce the extent of government subsidies to the private health sector, which serves a minority of the population. In addition, recent proposals for a Social Health Insurance will allow minimal cross-subsidies between high- and low-income earners and would not adequately redress the currently inequitable public-private cross-subsidies. With respect to the allocation of government resources between provinces, a vertical equity approach would suggest that the most historically dis-advantaged provinces have an even greater claim on government resources than reflected in the current formula, as developed by the Department of Finance. This paper also considers the potential benefits of engaging with societal views in determining what constitutes dis-advantage in the South African context, in order to identify those who should receive priority in resource allocation decisions. It concludes with a review of a number of practical steps that can be taken to draw vertical equity principles into policy action. PMID:11186024

  1. U-Pb ages on single detrital zircon grains from the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa: Constraints on the age of sedimentation and on the evolution of granites adjacent to the basin

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, L.J. ); Davis, D.W.; Kamo, S.L. )

    1990-05-01

    U-Pb ages of single detrital zircon grains from various stratigraphic horizons in the Dominion and Witwatersrand sequences provide constraints on the maximum age of sedimentation as well as indicating the pattern of age distribution in the (granitoid) source area providing detritus into the basin. Zircon ages in the Dominion sediments range from 3,191-3,105 Ma with a geometric mean ({bar X}) t 3,153 Ma. Those from the lower Witwatersrand sediments (West Rand Group) range from 3,305-3,044 Ma with {bar X} = 3,097 Ma, and zircons in the upper Witwatersrand sediments (Central Rand Group) are between 3,207-2,894 Ma old with {bar X} = 3,053 Ma. Ages of detrital zircons generally decrease upward in the stratigraphic record, and <3,000 Ma old zircons are only found in the Central Rand Group. This trend implies that younger granites may have formed at some time subsequent to lower Witwatersrand deposition, or that continued erosion of the hinterland resulted in the unroofing of successively younger granites. The wide spread of zircon ages (411 Ma) evident in the data set indicates that granites formed virtually continuously between circa 3,300-2.900 Ma in the Witwatersrand source area. Of the zircon ages 45% fall within 30 m.y. of the geometric mean of the total data set, suggesting that a major crust-forming event occurred at 3,073 {plus minus} 30 Ma. Granitoids in the source area can be divided into (i) pre-Dominion basement; (ii) Dominion granites, whose emplacement coincided with the extrusion of Dominion volcanics, and (iii) Randian granites, which were emplaced synchronously with Witwatersrand deposition. This sequence of events supports recent tectonic models that view the Witwatersrand sequence as having been deposited in a foreland basin.

  2. Problem drinking and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, K; Phaswana-Mafuya, N

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alcohol abuse poses special risks for increased morbidity and mortality among older adults. Little attention has focused on assessing alcohol use and associated factors among older adults in transitional societies such as South Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors in older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in 2008. Method We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3840 aged 50 years or older in South Africa in 2008. In this study we analysed data from all 2144 participants who were over 60 years old. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol intake as well as comorbidity. Risky drinking was defined in two ways: heavy drinkers (>7 drinks/week) and binge drinkers (>3 drinks/one occasion/week). Results Four percent of participants reported heavy drinking and 3.7% binge drinking. Male gender (Odds Ratio (OR) =3.79, Confidence Interval (CI) =1.38-10.37) and white population group (OR=3.01, CI=1.31-6.89) were associated with risky drinking in multivariate analysis; as well as tobacco use (OR=5.25, CI=2.20-12.52) and not being obese (OR=0.14, CI=0.05-0.35). Hypertension, diabetes and depression were not associated. Conclusion This study reveals moderate rates of risky drinking among older adults (60 years and more) in South Africa that puts them at risk of morbidity. Alcohol problems among older adults are commonly under-recognized, indicating a need for health care worker intervention. PMID:23595529

  3. Respiratory syncytial virus infection: denominator-based studies in Indonesia, Mozambique, Nigeria and South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Susan E.; Roca, Anna; Alonso, Pedro; Simoes, Eric A. F.; Kartasasmita, Cissy B.; Olaleye, David O.; Odaibo, Georgina N.; Collinson, Mark; Venter, Marietjie; Zhu, Yuwei; Wright, Peter F.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated lower respiratory infections (LRI) in children in four developing countries. METHODS: A WHO protocol for prospective population-based surveillance of acute respiratory infections in children aged less than 5 years was used at sites in Indonesia, Mozambique, Nigeria and South Africa. RSV antigen was identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed on nasopharyngeal specimens from children meeting clinical case definitions. FINDINGS: Among children aged < 5 years, the incidence of RSV-associated LRI per 1000 child-years was 34 in Indonesia and 94 in Nigeria. The incidence of RSV-associated severe LRI per 1000 child-years was 5 in Mozambique, 10 in Indonesia, and 9 in South Africa. At all study sites, the majority of RSV cases occurred in infants. CONCLUSION: These studies demonstrate that RSV contributes to a substantial but quite variable burden of LRI in children aged < 5 years in four developing countries. The possible explanations for this variation include social factors, such as family size and patterns of seeking health care; the proportion of children infected by human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV); and differences in clinical definitions used for obtaining samples. The age distribution of cases indicates the need for an RSV vaccine that can protect children early in life. PMID:15654405

  4. Global warming threatens agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Christensen et al 2007) has, with greater confidence than previous reports, warned the international community that the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions will result in global climate change. One of the most direct and threatening impacts it may have on human societies is the potential consequences on global crop production. Indeed agriculture is considered as the most weather-dependent of all human activities (Hansen 2002) since climate is a primary determinant for agricultural productivity. The potential impact of climate change on crop productivity is an additional strain on the global food system which is already facing the difficult challenge of increasing food production to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050 with changing consumption patterns and growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington 2010). In some regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia that are already food insecure and where most of the population increase and economic development will take place, climate change could be the additional stress that pushes systems over the edge. A striking example, if needed, is the work from Collomb (1999) which estimates that by 2050 food needs will more than quintuple in Africa and more than double in Asia. Better knowledge of climate change impacts on crop productivity in those vulnerable regions is crucial to inform policies and to support adaptation strategies that may counteract the adverse effects. Although there is a growing literature on the impact of climate change on crop productivity in tropical regions, it is difficult to provide a consistent assessment of future yield changes because of large uncertainties in regional climate change projections, in the response of crops to environmental change (rainfall, temperature, CO2 concentration), in the coupling between climate models and crop productivity functions, and in the adaptation of

  5. Medical certification of death in South Africa--moving forward.

    PubMed

    Burger, E H; Groenewald, P; Rossouw, A; Bradshaw, D

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements to the Death Notification Form (DNF) used in South Africa (SA), the quality of cause-of-death information remains suboptimal. To address these inadequacies, the government ran a train-the-trainer programme on completion of the DNF, targeting doctors in public sector hospitals. Training materials were developed and workshops were held in all provinces. This article reflects on the lessons learnt from the training and highlights issues that need to be addressed to improve medical certification and cause-of-death data in SA. The DNF should be completed truthfully and accurately, and confidentiality of the information on the form should be maintained. The underlying cause of death should be entered on the lowest completed line in the cause-of-death section, and if appropriate, HIV should be entered here. Exclusion clauses for HIV in life insurance policies with Association of Savings and Investments South Africa companies were scrapped in 2005. Interactive workshops provide a good learning environment, but are logistically challenging. More use should be made of online training resources, particularly with continuing professional development accreditation and helpline support. In addition, training in the completion of the DNF should become part of the curriculum in all medical schools, and part of the orientation of interns and community service doctors in all facilities. PMID:26046158

  6. Helminths of guineafowls in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Boomker, J

    2007-12-01

    Between July 2005 and November 2006 the gastro-intestinal helminths of 15 Helmeted guineafowls and a single Crested guineafowl from Musina, Limpopo Province were examined, and in July and August 2005 helminths were collected from five Helmeted guineafowls from Mokopane in the same province. The acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus gallinarum, the cestodes Abuladzugnia gutterae, Davainea nana, Hymenolepis cantaniana, Numidella numida, Octopetalum numida, Ortleppolepis multiuncinata, Porogynia paronai, Raillietina angusta, Raillietina pintneri, Raillietina steinhardti and Raillietina sp. and the nematodes Ascaridia numidae, Cyrnea parroti, Gongylonema congolense, Hadjelia truncata, Sicarius caudatus, Subulura dentigera, Subulura suctoria, Subulura sp., Tetrameres numida and an unidentified subulurid were recovered. A single trematode species, Dicrocoelium macrostomum, was present in the liver. Mediorhynchus gallinarum, A. gutterae, O. multiuncinata, H. truncata and S. caudatus are recorded for the first time from Helmeted guineafowls, as well as from South Africa. South Africa is a new geographic record for D. macrostomum, G. congolense and D. nana. Subulura suctoria, G. congolense and H. truncata from the Crested guineafowl constitute new host-parasite associations. PMID:18453236

  7. The consequences of drunken driving in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Becker, K

    1994-01-01

    With the increase of alcohol use and abuse in South Africa, there has been an increase in the frequency of drunken driving offences. The community has become increasingly irate at the horrendous damage and loss of life which are occasioned by these offences. The courts have therefore been forced to take not of public opinion, and the penalties have consequently become more stringent and punitive. This article focuses primarily on the recurrent conflict between medical treatment and the imposition of punishment when the court is confronted by a person who has been driving whilst exceeding the legal blood alcohol limit. The courts are faced with having to differentiate between those persons who have an alcohol dependency and those who have merely behaved irresponsibly. What do they do? If the law deals with both cases in the same manner, it would not be achieving anything. The legal system in South Africa needs to differentiate between those persons who have an addiction and subsequently need treatment, and those who need education. The legal system needs, therefore, to make provision for proper independent professional diagnostic assessment. This article suggests alternative options which the courts could adopt in order to deal with these offences in a more flexible and effective manner. PMID:8065239

  8. Implementing AIDS policy in post-apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Stein, J

    2001-03-01

    In common with the rest of the Southern African sub-continent. South Africa is currently experiencing a serious HIV epidemic. When it came into power in 1994, the new, Mandela-led government immediately mobilised funds and adopted a far-reaching AIDS Plan for the country. However, the implementation of AIDS policy in the first four years after 1994 has been characterised by a lack of progress and a breakdown of trust and co-operation, both within government and between government and NGOs. This paper outlines the political context which shaped the development of the AIDS Policy, then examines the difficulties of implementing a comprehensive response to AIDS in a country undergoing restructuring at every level. It questions the notion of "inadequate political will" as an explanation for lack of progress. Involvement by politicians has, in fact, been experienced as a double-edged sword in South Africa, with inappropriate, "quick-fix" actions creating conflict and hampering a more longer-term, effective response. The paper also highlights the importance of groupings outside of government in promoting effective policy actions, and the types of leadership required to mobilise a broad range of actors around a common vision. It concludes by emphasising the need to develop approaches to policy implementation rooted in the possibilities and constraints of the local situation, rather than relying on universal blue-prints developed out of context. PMID:11218176

  9. The lived experiences of street children in Durban, South Africa: Violence, substance use, and resilience

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Frances; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Asante, Kwaku Oppong

    2016-01-01

    South African studies have suggested that street children are resilient but also suicidal, engage in unprotected sex and other high risk sexual behaviour as a means of survival, have high rates of substance abuse and are physically abused and stigmatized due to their state of homelessness. However, few studies have explored in a more holistic manner the lived experiences of street children in South Africa. The main purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the lived experiences of street children living on the street of Durban, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Adolescents (six males and four females) between the ages of 14 and 18 years (average age=16) were purposively selected and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the transcribed data revealed that incidence of violence and drug and alcohol use were common experiences of street life. Yet despite these challenges survival was made possible through personal and emotional strength, cultural values, religious beliefs, supportive peer relationships, and participation in sports activities. These protective, resilience resources should be strengthened in health promotion interventions with a focus on mental health, the prevention of violence, substance use, and daily physical activities that seems to provide meaning and hope. PMID:27291160

  10. The lived experiences of street children in Durban, South Africa: Violence, substance use, and resilience.

    PubMed

    Hills, Frances; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Asante, Kwaku Oppong

    2016-01-01

    South African studies have suggested that street children are resilient but also suicidal, engage in unprotected sex and other high risk sexual behaviour as a means of survival, have high rates of substance abuse and are physically abused and stigmatized due to their state of homelessness. However, few studies have explored in a more holistic manner the lived experiences of street children in South Africa. The main purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the lived experiences of street children living on the street of Durban, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Adolescents (six males and four females) between the ages of 14 and 18 years (average age=16) were purposively selected and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the transcribed data revealed that incidence of violence and drug and alcohol use were common experiences of street life. Yet despite these challenges survival was made possible through personal and emotional strength, cultural values, religious beliefs, supportive peer relationships, and participation in sports activities. These protective, resilience resources should be strengthened in health promotion interventions with a focus on mental health, the prevention of violence, substance use, and daily physical activities that seems to provide meaning and hope. PMID:27291160

  11. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n = 15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1 vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p < 0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention. PMID:24526432

  12. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: Evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A.; Burns, Jonathan K.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n=15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1% vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p<0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR=1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR=3.72, 95% CI = 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR=0.98, 95% CI = 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention. PMID:24526432

  13. Why do families still not receive the child support grant in South Africa? A longitudinal analysis of a cohort of families across South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Child cash transfers are increasingly recognised for their potential to reduce poverty and improve health outcomes. South Africa‘s child support grant (CSG) constitutes the largest cash transfer in the continent. No studies have been conducted to look at factors associated with successful receipt of the CSG. This paper reports findings on factors associated with CSG receipt in three settings in South Africa (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal). Methods This study used longitudinal data from a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF) promoting exclusive breastfeeding by peer-counsellors in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150). 1148 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the study and data on the CSG were collected at infant age 6, 12, 24 weeks and 18–24 months. A stratified cox proportional hazards regression model was fitted to the data to investigate factors associated with CSG receipt. Results Uptake of the CSG amongst eligible children at a median age of 22 months was 62% in Paarl, 64% in Rietvlei and 60% in Umlazi. Possessing a birth certificate was found to be the strongest predictor of CSG receipt (HR 3.1, 95% CI: 2.4 -4.1). Other factors also found to be independently associated with CSG receipt were an HIV-positive mother (HR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) and a household income below R1100 (HR1.7, 95% CI: 1.1 -2.6). Conclusion Receipt of the CSG was sub optimal amongst eligible children showing administrative requirements such as possessing a birth certificate to be a serious barrier to access. In the spirit of promoting and protecting children’s rights, more efforts are needed to improve and ease access to this cash transfer program. PMID:23088827

  14. Injury-related mortality in South Africa: a retrospective descriptive study of postmortem investigations

    PubMed Central

    Prinsloo, Megan; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Gwebushe, Nomonde; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Laubscher, Ria; Abrahams, Naeemah; Msemburi, William; Lombard, Carl; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate injury-related mortality in South Africa using a nationally representative sample and compare the results with previous estimates. Methods We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of medico-legal postmortem investigation data from mortuaries using a multistage random sample, stratified by urban and non-urban areas and mortuary size. We calculated age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates for external causes of death. Findings Postmortem reports revealed 52 493 injury-related deaths in 2009 (95% confidence interval, CI: 46 930–58 057). Almost half (25 499) were intentionally inflicted. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 population were as follows: all injuries: 109.0 (95% CI: 97.1–121.0); homicide 38.4 (95% CI: 33.8–43.0; suicide 13.4 (95% CI: 11.6–15.2) and road-traffic injury 36.1 (95% CI: 30.9–41.3). Using postmortem reports, we found more than three times as many deaths from homicide and road-traffic injury than had been recorded by vital registration for this period. The homicide rate was similar to the estimate for South Africa from a global analysis, but road-traffic and suicide rates were almost fourfold higher. Conclusion This is the first nationally representative sample of injury-related mortality in South Africa. It provides more accurate estimates and cause-specific profiles that are not available from other sources. PMID:26229201

  15. Factors influencing the population pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin in adult epileptic patients in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Valodia, P; Seymour, M A; Miller, R; McFadyen, M L; Folb, P I

    1999-02-01

    The influence of various covariates (including weight, race, smoking, gender, age, mild-to-moderate alcohol intake, and body surface area) on the population pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin in adult epileptic patients in South Africa was investigated. The parameters were the maximum metabolic rate (Vm) and the Michaelis-Menten (MM) constant (Km) of phenytoin. The study population comprised 332 black and colored epileptic patients (note: "black" refers to indigenous people of South Africa, who speak one of the Bantu languages as their native language; "colored" refers to people considered to be of mixed race, classified as such by the apartheid former government of South Africa). The influence of covariates on Vm and Km estimates was determined using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM). Parameter models describing the factors that could potentially influence Vm and Km were tested using the Michaelis-Menten parallel MM and first-order elimination models, to which 853 steady state dose-to-serum concentration pairs were fitted. The results indicated that body weight, smoking, race, and age (65 years or older), in descending order of importance, significantly influenced Vm (p < 0.05). Although a significant difference (p = 0.03) in Km was found between black and colored patients, incorporating the influence of race in Km in the final regression model did not improve the fit of the model to the data, which indicated that the variability in Km was accounted for by Vm. The scaling factors for smoking, colored patients and age (65 years or older) in Vm were 1.16, 1.10, and 0.88, respectively. These factors should be taken into account when adjusting phenytoin dose. PMID:10051055

  16. Students' Engagement with Engagement: The Case of Teacher Education Students in Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Ruksana; Petersen, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Public engagement is one of the three legs which support and underpin a restructured and transformed post-apartheid higher education system in South Africa (along with teaching and research). This third sector role of higher education is widely implemented in South Africa and is described differently by different institutions and entails a diverse…

  17. Parent Involvement in Public School Governance: The United States and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Wayne D.; Colditz, Paul; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    This article explores parent involvement in decision making in the United States and in postapartheid South Africa and highlights similarities and differences in how parents in these two countries participate in public school governance and decision making. Parents' role in public school governance in South Africa is significant and entrenched in…

  18. Skills for Inclusive Growth in South Africa: Promising Tides amidst Perilous Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoojee, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Skills development is critical to South Africa's development. It has been argued that South Africa's twin post-Apartheid challenges, poverty and unemployment requires a level of skills development not undertaken before (RSA, 2008a; ANC, 2007). The creation of a separate ministry, the department of higher education and training (DHET), which has…

  19. Educational Development in South Africa: From Social Reproduction to Capitalist Expansion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughey, Chrissie

    2007-01-01

    At an international level, the peaceful transition to democracy in South Africa has often been lauded as miraculous. While political transformation might have been highly successful, changes in other spheres have proved to be much more problematic. This paper examines the change in higher education in South Africa and, more particularly, the role…

  20. Homeschooling as an Alternative Form of Educational Provision in South Africa and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Waal, Esther; Theron, Tinie

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies homeschooling as an alternative form of educational provision in South Africa and USA to determine what knowledge and experiences from research on homeschooling in the USA may be relevant to the South Africa situation. Homeschooling in the USA has a sound legal foundation and has become an acceptable educational alternative.…

  1. The Influence of John Dewey on Curriculum Development in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentz, Paulus J.

    The influence of John Dewey's educational theory on curriculum development in South Africa is examined in this paper. The two main streams of thinking about curriculum theory in South Africa include the traditional perspective, which is heavily influenced by the national Christianity movement, and the alternative curriculum development…

  2. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  3. Higher Education Research Expenditure in South Africa: A Review of the New Funding Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, Nicholas M.; Ntenga, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    The trends and the trajectory of higher education research expenditure in South Africa since the introduction of the New Funding Formula in 2004 have been analysed. The paper also compares the level of South Africa's total gross expenditure on research and development with those of other selected economies. The findings show that following…

  4. Entrepreneurial Education in a Tertiary Context: A Perspective of the University of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadi-Echendu, Anthea P.; Phillips, Magaret; Chodokufa, Kudakwashe; Visser, Thea

    2016-01-01

    South Africa is characterised by high unemployment levels, a low Total Early Stage Entrepreneurial Activity rate, and a high small business failure rate. Entrepreneurship and small business development is seen as a solution to end unemployment in South Africa. A study to understand how to improve small business support was conducted at the…

  5. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (75 FR 30434... Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty...

  6. 78 FR 65706 - Ferrovanadium From China and South Africa; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... and South Africa (68 FR 4168 and 4169). Following the first five-year reviews by Commerce and the... imports of ferrovanadium from China and South Africa (73 FR 77609). The Commission is now conducting...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with...

  7. A new species of Anacaena Thomson, 1859 from South Africa (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae).

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T; Komarek, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Anacaena namaqua sp. nov. is described from the Northern Cape and Western Cape provinces of South Africa, in an area transitional between the fynbos and succulent karoo biomes. The habitus, aedeagus, femoral pubescence and habitats of the new species are illustrated, together with details of its ecology. A key to all Anacaena confirmed from South Africa to date is also provided. PMID:27470829

  8. Sharing Ownership in Multicultural Music: A Hands-On Approach in Teacher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    South Africa prides itself in a rich and colorful array of the Arts where music plays a significant role in social regeneration, unity and reconciliation. Little research has been undertaken in teacher education courses in South Africa regarding the inclusion of African music within multicultural music practice. Using the theoretical frameworks of…

  9. South Africa on the Move. A Tool Kit for Education and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CUSO Development Education, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This kit provides materials about South Africa for activists and educators and the Canadian public. The materials provide ideas for communicating the information and moving people to action. They include a user's guide with a kit overview and suggestions for its use; an educator's handbook on South Africa, which applies a popular education…

  10. Student Involvement and Empowerment in Quality Assurance in Distance Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Anneke

    2006-01-01

    This article attempts to explore why and how student involvement is a necessary, but under-developed and under-utilised strategy for enhancing quality distance education in South Africa. Any critical analysis of education in South Africa needs to consider the historical and current social contexts, and in this case the analysis needs to explain…

  11. Counseling Psychology in South Africa: Current Political and Professional Challenges and Future Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Mark M.; Akhurst, Jacqueline; Basson, Clive

    2003-01-01

    Counseling psychology in South Africa is undergoing significant changes, much like the country itself. The authors examine the state of counseling psychology in South Africa through discussion of both its racial history and present-day positions. The history of psychology cannot be devoid of its politicized past, and remnants of its history are…

  12. Language Use in a Multilingual Mathematics Classroom in South Africa: A Different Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setati, Mamokgethi

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an argument that language-use in multilingual mathematics classrooms in South Africa is as much a function of politics as it is of cognition and communication. It draws from a wider study focusing on language practices in intermediate multilingual mathematics classrooms in South Africa. In the study the notion of cultural…

  13. Changing Roles for Educational Psychologists within Inclusive Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Petra

    2004-01-01

    Reform in education in a democratic South Africa has inspired commitment to a single, inclusive education system for all. The challenges related to the changing nature of education in South Africa and the relationship of these challenges to the past, and particularly to the legacy of apartheid, have forced educational psychologists to reconsider…

  14. Exploring Important Issues through Keypal Connections: South Africa and the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, Nick; Lester, Olivia

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on a class at Utah State University on race and communication issues in the United States and the New South Africa, which included an "email pen pal" correspondence. Highlights include: setting the stage; analysis and results; race and communication issues; economic and social conditions in South Africa; white privilege; pride in culture;…

  15. Building on Experience: A Formative Evaluation of a Peer Education Sexual Health Project in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In South Africa, as elsewhere in the world, the promise of peer education as a means of promoting sexual health has contributed to its increasing popularity. While structural and organisational constraints can compromise the success of peer education, many of those involved in modest local programmes in South Africa are able to address the sexual…

  16. Perspectives on Learnerships: A Critique of South Africa's Transformation of Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew J.; Jennings, Ross; Solanki, Geetesh

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a critique of South Africa's attempt to transform apprenticeships using data from the 2004 Baseline Survey of the Learnership Programme in South Africa. The data suggests that Learnerships provide important opportunities for those in work to learn new theoretical and practical capabilities and thus deepen the skills base of…

  17. Universities and Adult Literacy in South Africa: An Exploration of Their Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenham, John; French, Edward

    Observations of the relationship between South Africa's universities and adult literacy are offered by a British Council consultant after a visit to South Africa. The purpose was to help university lecturers design and develop an adult literacy course and to give seminars to local literacy groups. Impressions are described on the state of…

  18. Developing Talent Potential in Non-School Settings in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawood, J.

    The paper briefly describes non-school enrichment programs and services for gifted and talented students in South Africa. Preliminary discussion examines the context of non-school interventions, the relevancy of non-formal gifted child education, and categorizing non-school provisions for this population in South Africa. Programs are listed under…

  19. Subjective Well-Being, Poverty and Ethnicity in South Africa: Insights from an Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest inequality levels in the world. In 1993, nearly half of the population were considered poor. These poverty and inequality levels were and still are a legacy of South Africa's colonial and apartheid past. Since the end of apartheid, there has been a strong governmental effort to combat poverty and in this light a…

  20. What the U.S. Could Learn from South Africa about Education and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Books, Sue; Ndlalane, Thembi

    2011-01-01

    Educational policy and practice has resided and continues to reside at the vortex of social and political strife in South Africa, as in the United States. Although school poverty and inequities among schools in the U.S. pale in comparison to conditions in South Africa, the two nations have much in common, including histories of state-sanctioned…

  1. South Africa, the Arts and Youth in Conflict with the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Sheila C.; Sloth-Nielsen, Julia; Mathiti, Vuyisile

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Diversion into Music Education (DIME) youth intervention programme that originated in South Africa in 2001. DIME offers instruction in African marimba and djembe ensemble performance to juvenile offenders. Conceived as community collaboration among organizations in the cities of Cape Town, South Africa and Tampa, United…

  2. Outcomes-Based Education in the English Second Language Classroom in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlebusch, Gawie; Thobedi, Motsamai

    2004-01-01

    The re-birth of South Africa in 1994 has brought the implementation of effective educational policies. Simultaneously, the Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) approach has been introduced to advance the teaching and learning of the Learning areas in schools in South Africa. This article focuses on the learning of English as a Second Language (ESL) in…

  3. A new species of Dialeurolobus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from Protea nitida in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Millar, I M; Dooley, J W

    2013-01-01

    Dialeurolobus proteae sp. nov. is described from Protea nitida (Proteaceae) in South Africa, and from specimens intercepted on protea plants imported into the U.S.A. from South Africa. Its affinities to the other species of Dialeurolobus are discussed, and a diagnostic key is provided to identify the species of this genus. PMID:26312280

  4. Community Service Learning as Democratic Education in South Africa and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel-Reyes, Meta; Weinstein, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    Describes development of the first community service-learning program for democratic education in South Africa, based on the Swarthmore College (Pennsylvania) Democracy Education Project at a black high school near Capetown (South Africa). Notes that successful transposition of the model requires recognition of complex historical and cultural…

  5. Negotiating Indigenous Language Narratives from Canada and South Africa: A Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseke, Judy M.; Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous cultural and language negotiations ongoing in the contexts of South Africa and Canada are documented in two studies, one sharing narratives from Black parents in South Africa and the other sharing narratives of Métis Elders in Canada. Black parents' perspectives on Indigenous language and cultures and the role of education in…

  6. Psychological Distress amongst AIDS-Orphaned Children in Urban South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don

    2007-01-01

    Background: South Africa is predicted to have 2.3 million children orphaned by Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) by 2020 (Actuarial Society of South Africa, 2005). There is little knowledge about impacts of AIDS-related bereavement on children, to aid planning of services. This study aimed to investigate psychological consequences of AIDS…

  7. Critical Issues in Language and Education Planning in Twenty First Century in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook Napier, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Language and education planning issues and democratic policy implementation in the post-apartheid era in South Africa encompass a range of language-related issues and dilemmas that have counterparts in many countries, within the emerging global education system. The issues in South Africa were and continue to be shaped by the historical legacy of…

  8. Optical Astronomy in Post-Apartheid South Africa: 1994 to 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, P. A.

    2004-10-01

    The progress of optical astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the socio-political climate which embraced the idea of a 10-m class telescope as a flagship project that would lead to widespread development in science, technology and education - not only in South Africa, but across the subcontinent.

  9. Analysis of a National Toll Free Suicide Crisis Line in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Broom, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The first national toll free suicide crisis line for South Africa was launched in October 2003 with the aim of providing a service dedicated to the prevention of suicide in this country. The intervention was motivated by South Africa's suicide rate which had risen higher than the global suicide rate, with the majority of attempted suicides…

  10. Financing equitable access to antiretroviral treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While South Africa spends approximately 7.4% of GDP on healthcare, only 43% of these funds are spent in the public system, which is tasked with the provision of care to the majority of the population including a large proportion of those in need of antiretroviral treatment (ART). South Africa is currently debating the introduction of a National Health Insurance (NHI) system. Because such a universal health system could mean increased public healthcare funding and improved access to human resources, it could improve the sustainability of ART provision. This paper considers the minimum resources that would be required to achieve the proposed universal health system and contrasts these with the costs of scaled up access to ART between 2010 and 2020. Methods The costs of ART and universal coverage (UC) are assessed through multiplying unit costs, utilization and estimates of the population in need during each year of the planning cycle. Costs are from the provider’s perspective reflected in real 2007 prices. Results The annual costs of providing ART increase from US$1 billion in 2010 to US$3.6 billion in 2020. If increases in funding to public healthcare only keep pace with projected real GDP growth, then close to 30% of these resources would be required for ART by 2020. However, an increase in the public healthcare resource envelope from 3.2% to 5%-6% of GDP would be sufficient to finance both ART and other services under a universal system (if based on a largely public sector model) and the annual costs of ART would not exceed 15% of the universal health system budget. Conclusions Responding to the HIV-epidemic is one of the many challenges currently facing South Africa. Whether this response becomes a “resource for democracy” or whether it undermines social cohesiveness within poor communities and between rich and poor communities will be partially determined by the steps that are taken during the next ten years. While the introduction of a

  11. Brief communication: Gladysvale: first early hominid site discovered in South Africa since 1948.

    PubMed

    Berger, L R; Keyser, A W; Tobias, P V

    1993-09-01

    We report here the discovery of fossil hominid teeth at Gladysvale, near Johannesburg in the southern Transvaal. This find makes the site the seventh in South Africa to yield australopithecine remains and the first new early hominid-bearing locality to be found in this region since 1948. Apart from the hominid specimens, our excavations at Gladysvale have added appreciably to the abundant Plio-Pleistocene fauna previously recorded from the cave deposit. The fauna indicates that savanna conditions prevailed during deposition of at least part of the fill. Preliminary faunal dating gives an age of deposition of between c1.7 and c2.5 mya. PMID:8238287

  12. Evidence to support a food-based dietary guideline on sugar consumption in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, N. P.; Myburgh, N. G.; Nel, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1997, South Africa has been developing and implementing food-based dietary guidelines for people aged >6 years. The complexity of the population, which contains different ethnic groups, as well as the rapid urbanization that is taking place, means that food-based dietary guidelines need to consider both overnutrition and undernutrition. The initial guidelines did not include guidance on sugar, and the Department of Health was not prepared to approve them until appropriate guidance on sugar was included. This paper summarizes the evidence available for such a guideline and the nature of that evidence. Other low- and middle-income countries, particularly those in Africa, may face a similar dilemma and might learn from our experience. PMID:14576892

  13. Water market transfers in South Africa: Two case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwoudt, W. L.; Armitage, R. M.

    2004-09-01

    Statistical analyses (discriminant, logit, and principal components) of water transfers in the Lower Orange River showed that water rights were transferred to farmers with the highest return per unit of water applied, those producing table grapes, and with high-potential arable "outer land" without water rights. Only unused water (sleeper right) was transferred, while water saved (through adoption of conservation practices) was retained possibly for security purposes. A second study in the Nkwaleni Valley in northern KwaZulu-Natal found that no water market had emerged despite the scarcity of water in the area. No willing sellers of water rights existed. Demand for institutional change to establish tradable water rights may take more time in the second area since crop profitability in this area is similar for potential buyers and nonbuyers. Transaction costs appear larger than benefits from market transactions. Farmers generally use all their water rights in the second area and retain surplus water rights as security against drought because of unreliable river flow. This study indicates that these irrigation farmers are highly risk averse (downside risk). Government policies that increase the level of risk and reduce security of licenses are estimated to have a significant effect on future investment in irrigation. In an investment model the following variables explain future investment: expected profits, liquidity, risk aversion (Arrow-Pratt), and security of water use rights. The study is seen in the light of the New South African Water Act of 1998. According to this act, the ownership of water in South Africa has changed from private to public. This reform may not impede the development of water markets in South Africa since in the well-developed water markets of the United States, western states claim ownership of water within their boundaries. All states in the western United States allow private rights in the use of water to be established and sold.

  14. ART in South Africa: The price to pay

    PubMed Central

    Huyser, C.; Boyd, L.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection together with limited resources adds to the hindrances in becoming a parent. Although the South African’s Bill of Rights proclaim that South Africans can “make decisions concerning reproduction”; access to and the use of Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART) are viewed in general as excessively expensive, accessible only to the privileged few. A dissection of cost-drivers within an ART laboratory, such as procedures; sperm preparations; laboratory supplies including embryo culture media and cryopreservation are discussed in the current overview. Subject to the nature of an ART practice, i.e. private vs. public/tertiary, the structure of a unit will vary with regards to patient demographics, costs and services offered. The average fees per procedure for 20 practices in the private sector in South Africa are: (i) IUI: € 542 ± €159, (ii) IVF: € 3,255 ± € 576 and (iii) ICSI: €3,302 ± € 625. Laboratory costs can contribute between 35 and 48% of ART fees payable in the private sector. Low-cost public ART services are available to citizens of the country at a few tertiary academic units. Some private practices also cater specifically for middle-income citizens. ART procedures need not be propelled towards the must-have and cannot-do without approach, but providers should also reflect on the validity of the techniques and equipment, without compromising treatment virtue. PMID:24753934

  15. Violent oppression: implications for mental health priorities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mkhize, H

    1994-01-01

    This study explores the complex nature of mental health challenges and priorities in a post-apartheid South Africa. Special reference is made to indigenous people's experiences of poverty, racism, sexism and the machinery of political repression as critical bases for determining the priorities in mental health services. Whilst the provision of mental health services for all is sought by mental health professionals and legal systems in Western countries and other African states, South Africa has not developed a coherent sociolegal policy which aims at preventing, alleviating and healing mental health problems for all its citizens. Research gathered through a phenomenological approach amongst the oppressed seeks to define the terrain of people's psychological problems. Although data used are deduced mainly from the 'oppressed' on one white owned farm, questions raised and conclusions drawn address national as opposed to regional solutions, and also facilitate thinking about mental health priorities for all South Africans living under similar conditions. Commonly experienced problems are the effects of organized violence, child and adolescent problems, the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, depression, lack of facilities for the disabled and psychological care for homeless children, families and the youth. Participants were ignorant about mental health services, they experienced them as inaccessible and they were generally suspicious of an lacked faith in mental health workers. The author proposes broad future mental health options, like the restoration of family life in oppressed communities, the training of lay counsellors and the introduction of community mental health programmes. A suggestion is made that health workers in community mental health centres should adopt an advocacy position against all forms of unfair practices and violence and lobby for the protection of human rights. PMID:8065247

  16. [[History of Community Health in Africa. The Swiss Medical Missionaries' Endeavour in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Mabika, Hines

    2015-01-01

    It was not Dutch settlers nor British colonizers who introduced public and community health practice in north-eastern South Africa but medical doctors of the Swiss mission in southern Africa. While the history of medical knowledge transfer into 19th-20th century Africa emphasises colonial powers, this paper shows how countries without colonies contributed to expand western medical cultures, including public health. The Swiss took advantage of the local authorities' negligence, and implemented their own model of medicalization of African societies, understood as the way of improving health standards. They moved from a tolerated hospital-centred medicine to the practice of community health, which was uncommon at the time. Elim hospital's physicians moved back boundaries of segregationist policies, and sometime gave the impression of being involved in the political struggle against Apartheid. Thus, Swiss public health activities could later be seen as sorts of seeds that were planted and would partly reappear in 1994 with the ANC-projected national health policy. PMID:26403059

  17. Impact of national HIV and AIDS communication campaigns in South Africa to reduce HIV risk behaviour.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Parker, Warren; Mabaso, Musawenkosi; Makonko, Elias; Zuma, Khangelani; Ramlagan, Shandir

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa social and behavioural communication interventions are a critical component of HIV/AIDS prevention, and numerous communication campaigns have been implemented intensively across the country through government initiatives and nongovernmental organisations over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to assess the reach of HIV and AIDS communication campaigns in conjunction with contributions to knowledge, attitudes, and HIV risk behaviours in the general population in South Africa. The sample included in this nationally representative cross-sectional survey was 13234 people aged 15-55 years. Overall, the study found that there was high exposure to 18 different HIV communication programmes (median 6 programmes and 14 programmes more than 30%) across different age groups. Most programmes were more often seen or heard by young people aged between 15 and 24 years. In multivariate analysis, greater exposure to HIV mass communication programmes was associated with greater HIV knowledge, condom use at last sex, having tested for HIV in the past 12 months, and less stigmatizing attitude toward PLWHA. PMID:23213285

  18. Impact of National HIV and AIDS Communication Campaigns in South Africa to Reduce HIV Risk Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Parker, Warren; Mabaso, Musawenkosi; Makonko, Elias; Zuma, Khangelani; Ramlagan, Shandir

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa social and behavioural communication interventions are a critical component of HIV/AIDS prevention, and numerous communication campaigns have been implemented intensively across the country through government initiatives and nongovernmental organisations over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to assess the reach of HIV and AIDS communication campaigns in conjunction with contributions to knowledge, attitudes, and HIV risk behaviours in the general population in South Africa. The sample included in this nationally representative cross-sectional survey was 13234 people aged 15–55 years. Overall, the study found that there was high exposure to 18 different HIV communication programmes (median 6 programmes and 14 programmes more than 30%) across different age groups. Most programmes were more often seen or heard by young people aged between 15 and 24 years. In multivariate analysis, greater exposure to HIV mass communication programmes was associated with greater HIV knowledge, condom use at last sex, having tested for HIV in the past 12 months, and less stigmatizing attitude toward PLWHA. PMID:23213285

  19. "My Life in the New South Africa": A Youth Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Ted, Ed.; Moller, Valerie, Ed.; Richards, Robin, Ed.

    This book gives a unique insight into the thoughts and concerns of South Africans under the age of 30. Young people from across the country participated in a letter-writing contest to give their experiences and opinions, and to reveal their lives, hopes, and ambitions. The book uses their own words as they try to make sense of post-Apartheid South…

  20. Raising the Quality of Primary Level Mathematics Teaching and Learning in Schools in American Samoa: A Model for South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthukrishna, Nithi

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of concerns around teaching and learning outcomes in primary school mathematics in South Africa, this article presents two studies conducted in American Samoa and seeks to draw implications for the teaching and learning of mathematics in South Africa. American Samoa has a very similar educational context to South Africa. The…

  1. Physical, emotional and sexual adolescent abuse victimisation in South Africa: prevalence, incidence, perpetrators and locations

    PubMed Central

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Loening-Voysey, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical, emotional and sexual abuse of children is a major problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. To date, no known studies have used data directly obtained from community-based samples of children to investigate prevalence, incidence, locations and perpetrators of child abuse victimisation. This study aims to investigate prevalence and incidence, perpetrators, and locations of child abuse victimisation in South Africa using a multicommunity sample. Methods 3515 children aged 10–17 years (56.6% female) were interviewed from all households in randomly selected census enumeration areas in two South African provinces. Child self-report questionnaires were completed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (96.7% retention). Results Prevalence was 56.3% for lifetime physical abuse (18.2% past-year incidence), 35.5% for lifetime emotional abuse (12.1% incidence) and 9% for lifetime sexual abuse (5.3% incidence). 68.9% of children reported any type of lifetime victimisation and 27.1% reported lifetime multiple abuse victimisation. Main perpetrators of abuse were reported: for physical abuse, primary caregivers and teachers; for emotional abuse, primary caregivers and relatives; and for sexual abuse, girlfriend/boyfriends or other peers. Conclusions This is the first study assessing current self-reported child abuse through a large, community-based sample in South Africa. Findings of high rates of physical, emotional and sexual abuse demonstrate the need for targeted and effective interventions to prevent incidence and re-victimisation. PMID:26962202

  2. The state of psychiatry in South Africa today.

    PubMed

    Dommisse, J

    1987-01-01

    The very idea/philosophy behind the South African government's policy of Apartheid (separation), is insulting and humiliating to the black people and tends to incite arrogance and a sense of superiority, even omnipotence, in the whites. Personality development is skewed along racial lines. The mental effects of malnutrition and certain physical diseases, both of which are widespread in South African blacks, especially among their children, are well known. The torture to which security-police detainees have been subjected has resulted in thousands of cases of mental ill-health, as well as physical ill-health, and about 100 deaths, in the past 30 years. Authoritative reports about the in-patient psychiatric facilities for blacks have shocked the world medical, psychiatric and lay communities, and out-patient services for blacks are only sparsely existent, especially in the rural areas (the so-called 'independent homelands' and 'self-governing national states'). The socio-political climate makes interracial therapy, necessary because of the paucity of trained black professionals, particularly difficult. This fact, and the psychological implications of Apartheid, have, until very recently, hardly ever been addressed by psychiatrists and psychologists practising in South Africa. The United Nations and its agency, the World Health Organization, have taken unequivocally oppositional stands for decades but the (West-oriented) World Medical Association and the (mostly-Western) World Psychiatric Association have yet to speak out on this issue, like they have on those involving the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries. PMID:3603095

  3. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  4. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, V.; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, A.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa), which is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (> 10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anticyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for 1 year. Samples were collected twice a week for 2 h during daytime and 2 h during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median (mean) total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 (0.011) and 3.1 (3.2) ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed the local air quality standard limit, i.e. annual mean of 1.6 ppb. Toluene was the most abundant compound, with an annual median (mean) concentration of 0.63 (0.89) ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found, and no distinct seasonal patterns were

  5. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, V.; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, A.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-02-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  6. Hypertension education and adherence in South Africa: a cost-effectiveness analysis of community health workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine whether training community health workers (CHWs) about hypertension in order to improve adherence to medications is a cost-effective intervention among community members in South Africa. Methods We used an established Markov model with age-varying probabilities of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events to assess the benefits and costs of using CHW home visits to increase hypertension adherence for individuals with hypertension and aged 25–74 in South Africa. Subjects considered for CHW intervention were those with a previous diagnosis of hypertension and on medications but who had not achieved control of their blood pressure. We report our results in incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in US dollars per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. Results The annual cost of the CHW intervention is about $8 per patient. This would lead to over a 2% reduction in CVD events over a life-time and decrease DALY burden. Due to reductions in non-fatal CVD events, lifetime costs are only $6.56 per patient. The CHW intervention leads to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $320/DALY averted. At an annual cost of $6.50 or if the blood pressure reduction is 5 mmHg or greater per patient the intervention is cost-saving. Conclusions Additional training for CHWs on hypertension management could be a cost-effective strategy for CVD in South Africa and a very good purchase according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards. The intervention could also lead to reduced visits at the health centres freeing up more time for new patients or reducing the burden of an overworked staff at many facilities. PMID:24606986

  7. Dating violence and self-efficacy for delayed sex among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Boafo, Isaac M; Dagbanu, Emmanuel A; Asante, Kwaku Oppong

    2014-06-01

    In South Africa, dating violence is known to be widespread among adolescents, and is therefore a major public health issue because of its association with sexual risk behaviours. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between dating violence and self-efficacy for delayed sex among school-going adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa. The study is based on analyses of data from a school-based health education programme targeting sexual and reproductive health issues.The study involved 3,655 school-going adolescents aged between 12 and 17 in Cape Town, South Africa. The data was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire composed of 153 items on sexual and reproductive health, dating violence as well as sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicated that males showed a higher percentage of both dating violence victimization and perpetration, as compared to females. It was also found that adolescents from lower socio-economic backgrounds were more likely to be the victims of dating violence as compared to those from a higher socio-economic background. Female learners showed higher levels of self-efficacy for delayed sex than their male counterparts. Although the result revealed that there was a significant association between self-efficacy for delayed sex and socio-economic status, this link decreased with age. It is concluded that educational programmes aimed solely at improving self-efficacy for delayed sex is insufficient. Such programmes must also aim at preventing dating violence and equipping adolescents with the skills to negotiate their way out of dating violence. PMID:25022141

  8. Population Aging and Its Impact on Elderly Welfare in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darkwa, O. K.; Mazibuko, F. N. M.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the demographic transition and its impact on the welfare of the elderly in Africa. It provides a brief socio-demographic profile on elderly Africans. Also, it addresses challenges brought about by population aging and how it affects the provision of services to address the care giving needs of the elderly. Additionally, it…

  9. An Archeomagnetic Record From Southern Africa and its Bearing on the History of the South Atlantic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigsby, M. R.; Tarduno, J. A.; Cottrell, R. D.; Huffman, T. N.; Watkeys, M. K.; Blackman, E.

    2015-12-01

    The low intensity area in Earth's recent magnetic field that spans the southern Atlantic Ocean, Africa and South America is commonly called the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Many believe the SAA is linked to the dramatic decay of the dipole geomagnetic field intensity during the last 160 years, and the growth of a reversed core flux patch beneath South Africa. The dipole field decay has even motivated speculation that Earth is heading toward a geomagnetic field reversal. But understanding these phenomena within the context of longer-term geomagnetic history has been limited by a lack of Southern Hemisphere archeomagnetic data. We have recently presented the first archeomagnetic data from Iron Age sites of southern Africa (~1000-1650 AD) (Tarduno et al., 2014, 2015). Magnetic data show a sharp intensity drop at ~1300 AD, at a rate comparable to modern field changes in the SAA, (but to lower values). These changes motivated our conceptual model whereby the recurrence of low field values reflects magnetic flux expulsion from the core, promoted by the unusual core-mantle boundary composition and structure beneath southern Africa defined by seismology (specifically the African Large Low Velocity Seismic Province, or LLVSP). Because the African LLVSP is a longstanding structure, we expect this region to be a steady site of flux expulsion, and perhaps the triggering site for reversals, on time scales of millions of years. Here we discuss our ongoing efforts to extend the archeomagnetic record from southern Africa back in time, and further develop the flux expulsion- African LLVSP hypothesis, through new sampling and paleomagnetic analyses of Iron Age burnt huts, grain bins and kraals from South Africa, Zimbabwe and Botswana.

  10. Increasing incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in black South Africans in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (1983-2006).

    PubMed

    Mosam, A; Carrara, H; Shaik, F; Uldrick, T; Berkman, A; Aboobaker, J; Coovadia, H M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the temporal trends in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in black South Africans in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). The study was designed as a retrospective record review. The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma was estimated using administrative records for patients receiving care for KS through public sector oncology clinics in KZN, 1983-2006. Annual age-standardized incidence rates were calculated using provincial census data for the denominator. Age-specific rates were calculated for the pre-AIDS (1983-1989) and for the generalized AIDS epidemic eras (2006). Age-standardized incidence of KS increased in KZN from <1:100,000 in 1990 to at least 15:100,000 in 2006; this increase was observed in both men and women. There was a shift in the peak age-specific incidence rates from the sixth decade of life in the pre-AIDS era to the fourth and fifth decades in the AIDS era. In conclusion, KS is a growing public health problem in KZN, South Africa. These data reinforce the need for comprehensive national access to and roll-out of antiretroviral drugs, given their success in prevention and treatment of KS in first-world settings. PMID:19625587

  11. A Milk and Ochre Paint Mixture Used 49,000 Years Ago at Sibudu, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Paola; Pollarolo, Luca; Degano, Ilaria; Birolo, Leila; Pasero, Marco; Biagioni, Cristian; Douka, Katerina; Vinciguerra, Roberto; Lucejko, Jeannette J.; Wadley, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, proteomic and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analyses of residue on a stone flake from a 49,000 year-old layer of Sibudu (South Africa) indicate a mixture of ochre and casein from milk, likely obtained by killing a lactating wild bovid. Ochre powder production and use are documented in Middle Stone Age South African sites but until now there has been no evidence of the use of milk as a binder. Our analyses show that this ochre-based mixture was neither a hafting adhesive nor a residue left after treating animal skins, but a liquid mixture consisting of a powdered pigment mixed with milk; in other words, a paint medium that could have been applied to a surface or to human skin. The significance of our finds also lies in the fact that it establishes the antiquity of the use of milk as a binder well before the introduction of domestic cattle in South Africa in the first millennium AD. PMID:26125562

  12. A Milk and Ochre Paint Mixture Used 49,000 Years Ago at Sibudu, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Villa, Paola; Pollarolo, Luca; Degano, Ilaria; Birolo, Leila; Pasero, Marco; Biagioni, Cristian; Douka, Katerina; Vinciguerra, Roberto; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Wadley, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, proteomic and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analyses of residue on a stone flake from a 49,000 year-old layer of Sibudu (South Africa) indicate a mixture of ochre and casein from milk, likely obtained by killing a lactating wild bovid. Ochre powder production and use are documented in Middle Stone Age South African sites but until now there has been no evidence of the use of milk as a binder. Our analyses show that this ochre-based mixture was neither a hafting adhesive nor a residue left after treating animal skins, but a liquid mixture consisting of a powdered pigment mixed with milk; in other words, a paint medium that could have been applied to a surface or to human skin. The significance of our finds also lies in the fact that it establishes the antiquity of the use of milk as a binder well before the introduction of domestic cattle in South Africa in the first millennium AD. PMID:26125562

  13. Lead Exposure in Adult Males in Urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the Apartheid Era

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Catherine A.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Smith, Martin J.; Trueman, Clive N.; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country’s late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g−1), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g−1) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead. PMID:23505462

  14. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry Individuals with Diabetes and Prediabetes from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pheiffer, Carmen; Humphries, Stephen E.; Gamieldien, Junaid; Erasmus, Rajiv T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To conduct a genome-wide DNA methylation in individuals with type 2 diabetes, individuals with prediabetes, and control mixed ancestry individuals from South Africa. Methods. We used peripheral blood to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 3 individuals with screen detected diabetes, 3 individuals with prediabetes, and 3 individuals with normoglycaemia from the Bellville South Community, Cape Town, South Africa, who were age-, gender-, body mass index-, and duration of residency-matched. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) was performed by Arraystar Inc. (Rockville, MD, USA). Results. Hypermethylated DMRs were 1160 (81.97%) and 124 (43.20%), respectively, in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes when both were compared to subjects with normoglycaemia. Our data shows that genes related to the immune system, signal transduction, glucose transport, and pancreas development have altered DNA methylation in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes. Pathway analysis based on the functional analysis mapping of genes to KEGG pathways suggested that the linoleic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways are hypomethylated in prediabetes and diabetes. Conclusions. Our study suggests that epigenetic changes are likely to be an early process that occurs before the onset of overt diabetes. Detailed analysis of DMRs that shows gradual methylation differences from control versus prediabetes to prediabetes versus diabetes in a larger sample size is required to confirm these findings. PMID:27555869

  15. The sociologic context of occupational health in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, J E; Macun, I

    1989-01-01

    The early history of the occupational health system in South Africa is outlined up to the early 1970s which mark a political and social transition in the society. Relevant demographic and social data are provided, and the roles and mutual relations of capital, labor, state, and academic sectors are discussed. During the past 15 years there has been heightened occupational health activity. Major legislative activity has included several commissions, the promulgation of new laws and regulations governing the workplace, and deregulatory measures in a contradictory mix. Conflictual relations between social forces are illustrated by two examples involving the introduction of safety representatives in the workplace, and compensation for occupational lung disease. The implications of wider political and economic realities are analyzed, and current and probable future trends in the evolution of the occupational health system are identified. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:2521546

  16. An Energy Overview of the Republic of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is South Africa. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  17. Occurrence of aflatoxins in human foodstuffs in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Loetter, L.H.; Kroehm, H.J.

    1988-02-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of Aspergillus spp and have been reported as contaminants in a number of foodstuffs, namely corn, rice, peanuts, and cereals. In the Republic of South Africa, aflatoxin levels in human foodstuffs are limited to a maximum of 10 ..mu..g/kg for the total and 5 ..mu..g/kg for aflatoxin B/sub 1/. During 1985 and 1986, samples of sorghum beer, sorghum cereal, peanuts, peanut butter and maize meal were purchased from supermarkets in Johannesburg and analyzed for aflatoxins. A total of 414 samples were analyzed during the survey. In 1985, roughly a third of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, with no levels in excess of the legal limit. In 1986 the percentage of contaminated samples rose significantly, but the levels of contamination remained low, with only one sample exceeding the legal maximum.

  18. Gendered perceptions of sexual behaviour in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ndinda, C; Uzodike, U O; Chimbwete, C; Mgeyane, M T M

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses sexual behaviour findings collected through eleven homogenous focus group discussions conducted among women and men in a predominantly Zulu population in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The objective of this paper is to shed light on sexual behaviour in a rural community. The findings suggest that sex is a taboo subject and the discussion around it is concealed in the use of polite language, euphemisms, and gestures. There are gender and generational dimensions to the discussion of sex. The contribution of this paper lies in the identification of what rural people discuss about sex and the influence of cultural practices and urban or global forces on sexual behaviour in rural areas. The paper adds to the growing body of literature on the use of focus groups in understanding sexual behaviour in rural contexts. PMID:22295199

  19. Human brucellosis in South Africa: Public health and diagnostic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Wojno, Justyna Maria; Moodley, Clinton; Pienaar, Jaco; Beylis, Natalie; Jacobsz, Lourens; Nicol, Mark P; Rossouw, Jenny; Bamford, Colleen

    2016-09-01

    Human brucellosis in South Africa (SA) is under-diagnosed and under-reported. This is because many clinicians have little or no experience in managing affected patients, and in part because of the nonspecific and insidious nature of the disease. A case of human brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis in a patient from the Western Cape Province of SA is described, and the resulting exposure of staff members at two medical microbiology laboratories, as well as the public health investigation that was conducted, are discussed. This article aims to highlight the need for strengthening integration between public health, medical and veterinary services and exposing deficiencies in public health, veterinary and laboratory practices. PMID:27601111

  20. Orphanhood and fertility in young adults: Evidence from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bozzoli, Carlos G

    2016-09-01

    I study the relation between orphanhood and fertility patterns in young adults using a longitudinal survey from the city of Cape Town, South Africa. The data set combines two survey waves with a year-by-year life history calendar that records key outcomes (e.g., schooling, work, fertility). It also provides information on so-called 'parental investments' (time and material support), family background, and literacy and numeracy test scores. I find that orphans exhibit significantly higher rates of teenage pregnancy. In particular, teenage motherhood is 19% points more likely among (female) orphans. These results suggest that orphanhood may leave a long-lasting 'imprint' in terms of premature fertility, especially in teenage females. PMID:27239730

  1. Gendered Perceptions of Sexual Behaviour in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ndinda, C.; Uzodike, U. O.; Chimbwete, C.; Mgeyane, M. T. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses sexual behaviour findings collected through eleven homogenous focus group discussions conducted among women and men in a predominantly Zulu population in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The objective of this paper is to shed light on sexual behaviour in a rural community. The findings suggest that sex is a taboo subject and the discussion around it is concealed in the use of polite language, euphemisms, and gestures. There are gender and generational dimensions to the discussion of sex. The contribution of this paper lies in the identification of what rural people discuss about sex and the influence of cultural practices and urban or global forces on sexual behaviour in rural areas. The paper adds to the growing body of literature on the use of focus groups in understanding sexual behaviour in rural contexts. PMID:22295199

  2. Epidemiology and molecular virus characterization of reemerging rabies, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Cheryl; Sartorius, Benn; Sabeta, Claude; Zulu, Gugulethu; Paweska, Janusz; Mogoswane, Mamokete; Sutton, Chris; Nel, Louis H; Swanepoel, Robert; Leman, Patricia A; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Dyason, Edwin; Blumberg, Lucille

    2007-12-01

    The incidence of dog rabies in Limpopo Province, South Africa, increased from 5 cases in 2004 to 100 in 2006. Human rabies had last been confirmed in 1981, but investigations instituted after an index case was recognized in February 2006 identified 21 confirmed, 4 probable, and 5 possible human cases between August 5, 2005, and December 31, 2006. Twelve of these case-patients were identified retrospectively because the diagnosis of rabies was not considered: 6 of these patients consulted a traditional healer, 6 had atypical manifestations with prominent abdominal symptoms, and 6 of 7 patients tested had elevated liver enzyme activity. Molecular genetic analysis indicated that outbreak virus strains were most closely related to recent canine strains from southern Zimbabwe. Delayed recognition of the human cases may have resulted from decreased clinical suspicion after many years of effective control of the disease and the occurrence of atypical clinical presentations. PMID:18258039

  3. Challenges in Exploratory Methods for Tuberculosis Research in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Helen; Abney, Kate; Abrams, Amber; Truyts, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Haunted by a legacy of apartheid governance that left millions in material poverty, South Africa has among the highest tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality rates in the world. Our Social Markers of TB research project shared a vision of working with ethnographic research methods to understand TB-infected persons, their families, care providers, and social networks. We argue that felt and enacted TB stigma and the related HIV-TB stigma impaired our ability to collect the necessary data for a full portrait of TB-infected persons and their lived conditions. To circumvent this limitation, each researcher improvised and augmented conventional anthropological methods with more creative, directed, and at times destabilizing methods. We present three case studies as useful illustrations of the complexities and challenges we encountered in our attempts to conduct ethically sound TB research. We discuss the implications of our call for "improvisation" for the politics of research and ethical oversight. PMID:26443797

  4. Stigma as 'othering' among Christian theology students in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Breda, Adrian D

    2012-11-01

    HIV is a health and developmental crisis that has profoundly challenged the Christian church in sub-Saharan Africa. Responding to stigma and prejudice against HIV and people living with HIV and AIDS has been a major concern of theologians and Christian leaders. However, Christians themselves and the church as a community are equally prone to stigma and prejudice. The author contends that this stigma is grounded in the dynamic of 'othering', which, among Christians, takes on religious or theological overtones. Drawing on qualitative data from theology students in South Africa, the paper assembles a model of AIDS stigma as othering. The central story or axis of the model is the dynamic of othering, comprising three themes, viz. lack of empathic contact, disconnection, and distancing. There are three main dynamics that appear to contribute to or feed into othering, viz. emotions related to sexuality and HIV, theology of health and judgement, and contextualised knowledge of HIV. Finally, the model presents two primary results of othering, viz. disengagement from HIV through passivity and hopelessness, and prejudice against those living with HIV. The paper endeavours to reveal the possible biblical roots of AIDS stigma. Through this, the deep violence embedded in such stigma is exposed and contrasted with a theology of inclusiveness and engagement. PMID:23234346

  5. Deep crustal structures of the Cape Fold Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weckmann, U.; Ritter, O.; Chen, X.; Tietze, K.; de Wit, M.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) soundings along a 100 km segment of the Inkaba yeAfrica Agulhas-Karoo transect through the Cape Fold Belt, South Africa, yield its first electrical conductivity image on a crustal scale. The Cape Fold Belt (CFB) plays an important role to understand the inversion tectonic setting within the accretionary history along the paleo-pacific margin of Gondwana. The MT profile crosses the Swartberg and Outeniqua (Langeberg) mountain ranges, as well as the Oudtshoorn Basin and the Kango and Kaaimans tectonic inliers. Two-dimensional (2D) inversion models of the MT data show generally good correlation with surface geology. We resolve the resistive roots of the both mountain ranges, to depths of approximately 5 and 10 km, respectively. By contrast, the adjacent Kango and Kaaimans inliers are imaged as shallow wedges partly overlain by sediments of the Oudtshoorn Basin and the Pletmos Basin, respectively. The Kango fault has a shallow southward dip, in contrast to more sub-vertical structures south of the Oudtshoorn basin. Based on the conductivity section we estimate the thickness of the Oudtshoorn basin to 2-3 km. A massive conductivity anomaly at a depth of 3-4 km is located in a synclinorium between the anticlinoria of Table Mountain Group rocks in the Swartberg and Outeniqua ranges. From the conductivity image alone we can neither confirm nor rule out the existence of a mega-detachment in the middle crust, as previously suggested. However, if the Kango Fault is rooted in a detachment zone, it is at upper crustal levels.

  6. Scientific Drilling in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, N.; ICDP Barberton Scientific Drilling Team

    2011-12-01

    The Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa, one of the best-preserved successions of mid-Archean (3.5-3.2 Ga) supracrustal rocks in the world, is a remarkable natural laboratory where conditions and processes at the surface of the Archean Earth can be studied in detail. Despite generally good outcrop, complete field sections are not preserved, and crucial features such as the contacts of lava flows and continuous successions of critical sedimentary rock sequences are not exposed. Through diamond drilling we hope to obtain the continuous sections and relatively unaltered samples through the volcano-sedimentary successions. (1) Sedimentary sequences will provide information about erosion and sedimentation on the early Earth, the composition and temperature of Archean seawater, and one possible site where life may have emerged and evolved. Investigation of spherule layers (including impact debris) will provide information about the nature and magnitude of meteorite impact on the early Earth. (2) Successions of ultramafic to mafic volcanic rocks will provide new insights into volcanic processes, dynamics of the crust and mantle, interaction between oceanic volcanic crust and the hydrosphere and biosphere. The sources of hydrothermal fluids on the ocean floor, driven by circulation of seawater through the volcanic pile, constitute a second habitat of early life. A project supported by the International Continental Drilling Program and by scientists from 13 countries in five continents started on 15th July 2011. As of 31st July, two holes have been drilled in komatiites from the Tjakastad locality and another hole has been started in the Buck Reef Chert. Regular updates are available on the ICDP web site < www.icdp-online.org>. The distribution of samples and post-drilling research will be coordinated by a steering committee comprising representatives from all major participating countries. A workshop to decide who does what will be held in South Africa in early 2012

  7. Socioeconomic differentials and availability of domestic water in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungumaro, Esther W.

    The past few decades has seen massive efforts to increasing provision of domestic water. However, water is still unavailable to many people most of them located in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia. Furthermore, availability of water varies greatly both spatially and temporary. While other people pay so dearly for domestic water others have an easy access to adequate clean water and sanitation. Accessibility and affordability of domestic water and sanitation is determined by a great variety of factors including socioeconomic status of households. The main objective of the paper is to inform on factors which need to be taken into account when coming up with projects to provide domestic water. It is more critical when the issue of water pricing comes into the equation. Water pricing has many facets, including equity, willingness to pay and affordability. In this premise, it is deemed important to understand the socioeconomic characteristics of the people before deciding on the amount of money they will have to pay for water consumption. It is argued that understanding people’s socioeconomic situation will greatly help to ensure that principles of sustainability and equity in water allocation and pricing are achieved. To do so, the paper utilized 2002 South Africa General Household Survey (GHS), to analyze socioeconomic variables and availability of domestic water. Analysis was mainly descriptive. However, logistic regression analysis was also utilized to determine the likelihood of living in a household that obtain water from a safe source. The study found that there is a strong relationship between availability of domestic water and socioeconomic conditions. Economic status, household size and to a lesser extent gender of head of household were found to be strong predictors of living in a household which obtained water from a safe source. The paper recommends that needs and priorities for interventions in water provision should take into account

  8. The Survival Benefits of Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    April, Michael D.; Wood, Robin; Berkowitz, Bethany K.; Paltiel, A. David; Anglaret, Xavier; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. We sought to quantify the survival benefits attributable to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa since 2004. Methods. We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications–International model (CEPAC) to simulate 8 cohorts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients initiating ART each year during 2004–2011. Model inputs included cohort-specific mean CD4+ T-cell count at ART initiation (112–178 cells/µL), 24-week ART suppressive efficacy (78%), second-line ART availability (2.4% of ART recipients), and cohort-specific 36-month retention rate (55%–71%). CEPAC simulated survival twice for each cohort, once with and once without ART. The sum of the products of per capita survival differences and the total numbers of persons initiating ART for each cohort yielded the total survival benefits. Results. Lifetime per capita survival benefits ranged from 9.3 to 10.2 life-years across the 8 cohorts. Total estimated population lifetime survival benefit for all persons starting ART during 2004–2011 was 21.7 million life-years, of which 2.8 million life-years (12.7%) had been realized by December 2012. By 2030, benefits reached 17.9 million life-years under current policies, 21.7 million life-years with universal second-line ART, 23.3 million life-years with increased linkage to care of eligible untreated patients, and 28.0 million life-years with both linkage to care and universal second-line ART. Conclusions. We found dramatic past and potential future survival benefits attributable to ART, justifying international support of ART rollout in South Africa. PMID:24307741

  9. Correlates of lifetime trauma exposure among pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Bronwyn; Jones, Hendrée E.; Doherty, Irene A.; Kline, Tracy L.; Key, Mary E.; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 298 pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa was conducted to examine socio-demographic, reproductive health, mental health, and relationship correlates of lifetime trauma exposure and whether these correlates vary as a function of age. Overall, 19.8% of participants reported trauma exposure. We found similarities and differences in correlates of trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood and older women. Prior termination of pregnancy was associated with trauma exposure in both age groups. Difficulties in resolving arguments, lifetime substance use, and a prior sexually transmitted infection were associated with trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood. In contrast, depression and awareness of substance abuse treatment programmes were associated with trauma exposure among older women. These findings highlight the need for interventions that prevent and treat trauma exposure among vulnerable women. Such interventions should be tailored to address the correlates of trauma exposure in each age group. PMID:27087804

  10. Convergence in fertility of South Africans and Mozambicans in rural South Africa, 1993–2009

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jill; Ibisomi, Latifat; Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen; Garenne, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there are significant numbers of people displaced by war in Africa, very little is known about long-term changes in the fertility of refugees. Refugees of the Mozambican civil war (1977–1992) settled in many neighbouring countries, including South Africa. A large number of Mozambican refugees settled within the Agincourt sub-district, underpinned by a Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (AHDSS), established in 1992, and have remained there. The AHDSS data provide a unique opportunity to study changes in fertility over time and the role that the fertility of self-settled refugee populations plays in the overall fertility level of the host community, a highly relevant factor in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives To examine the change in fertility of former Mozambican self-settled refugees over a period of 16 years and to compare the overall fertility and fertility patterns of Mozambicans to host South Africans. Methods Prospective data from the AHDSS on births from 1993 to 2009 were used to compare fertility trends and patterns and to examine socio-economic factors that may be associated with fertility change. Results There has been a sharp decline in fertility in the Mozambican population and convergence in fertility patterns of Mozambican and local South African women. The convergence of fertility patterns coincides with a convergence in other socio-economic factors. Conclusion The fertility of Mozambicans has decreased significantly and Mozambicans are adopting the childbearing patterns of South African women. The decline in Mozambican fertility has occurred alongside socio-economic gains. There remains, however, high unemployment and endemic poverty in the area and fertility is not likely to decrease further without increased delivery of family planning to adolescents and increased education and job opportunities for women. PMID:23364078

  11. An archeomagnetic record from southern Africa and its bearing on the history of the South Atlantic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarduno, John; Cottrell, Rory; Huffman, Thomas; Watkeys, Michael; Grigsby, Miriam; Blackman, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The paucity of Southern Hemisphere archeomagnetic data limits the resolution of paleosecular variation models, while at the same time important changes in the modern and historical field, including the recent dipole decay, appear to originate in this region. We have recently presented the first archeomagnetic data from Iron Age sites of southern Africa (˜1000-1650 AD) (Tarduno et al., Nature Communications, 2015). Magnetic data show a sharp intensity drop at ˜1300 AD, at a rate comparable to modern field changes in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), but to lower values. These changes motivated our conceptual model whereby the recurrence of low field values reflects magnetic flux expulsion from the core, promoted by the unusual core-mantle boundary composition and structure beneath southern Africa as defined by seismology (specifically the African Large Low Velocity Seismic Province, or LLVSP). Because the African LLVSP is a longstanding structure, we expect this region to be a steady site of flux expulsion, and perhaps the triggering site for reversals, on time scales of millions of years. Here we discuss our ongoing efforts to extend the archeomagnetic record from southern Africa back in time, and further develop the flux expulsion- African LLVSP hypothesis, through new sampling and paleomagnetic analyses of Iron Age burnt huts, grain bins and kraals from South Africa, Zimbabwe and Botswana. Our preliminary analyses define a loop in the archeomagnetic curve for southern Africa between ca. 400 and 1000 AD, absent in predictions from available paleosecular variation models, that might record another flux expulsion episode.

  12. Assessing the performance of SIA in the EIA context: A case study of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Pisani, Jacobus A. du . E-mail: gskjadp@puk.ac.za; Sandham, Luke A.

    2006-11-15

    This article, a theoretical perspective based on a literature study, is a critical evaluation of SIA as part of the EIA process in South Africa against the background of international guidelines and best practices. It includes sections on the historical background of the development of SIA in South Africa, the legal status and requirements of SIA in the country, and a critical evaluation of SIA regulation in South Africa. The conclusion reached in the article is that the persistent problems of SIA practice, experienced in other parts of the world, are also evident in South Africa. Apart from institutional, financial and professional constraints, there are also serious problems associated with approach and methods. This conclusion confirms the findings of empirical studies that SIA in South Africa is neglected, that the practice of SIA in South Africa is not yet on a sound footing, and that it does not receive the professional attention it deserves in a country beset by enormous social challenges. To conclude the article recommendations are made to improve the level of SIA practice in South Africa, and the possible significance of this national case study for international practice is indicated.

  13. South Africa youths' higher-risk sexual behaviour: an eco-developmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Makiwane, Monde; Mokomane, Zitha

    2010-04-01

    Despite their high levels of knowledge about HIV and AIDS, young people ages 15-24 years in South Africa remain disproportionately affected by the epidemic. Young people's continued susceptibility to HIV infection has been consistently linked to intractable higher-risk sexual behaviours. This paper uses multivariate techniques and secondary data from two nationally representative surveys to illuminate individual and socio-structural factors that play a significant role in youths' continued engagement in higher-risk behaviour, despite their high awareness about HIV and AIDS. The findings show that notwithstanding progress in terms of increased condom use and reduced incidence of other sexually transmitted infections, the average age of sexual debut remains low, multiple sexual partnerships are prevalent, and inconsistent condom use is widespread among young people. Factors significantly associated with these risk behaviours occur at the individual and structural levels and include issues of race, gender, poverty and susceptibility to peer pressure. The paper concludes by recommending that future HIV-prevention interventions in South Africa should aim at building resilience among youths by promoting affirmative, supportive interventions that emphasize the potentials of young people. PMID:25860409

  14. What motivates use of community-based human immunodeficiency virus testing in rural South Africa?

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Devesh; Moll, Anthony P; Brooks, Ralph P; Friedland, Gerald; Shenoi, Sheela V

    2016-07-01

    Despite substantial progress in implementing HIV testing, challenges remain in achieving widespread uptake particularly in rural resource-limited settings. We sought to understand motivations for HIV testing in a community-based HIV testing programme in rural South Africa. We conducted a questionnaire survey in participants undergoing voluntary HIV testing within an ongoing community-based integrated HIV/tuberculosis intensive case finding programme at congregate rural settings. Participants responded to a six-item non-mutually exclusive motivations survey which included the topics of feeling ill, recent HIV exposure, risky lifestyle, illness in a family member, and pregnancy. Among 2068 respondents completing the survey, 1393 (67.4%) were women, median age was 40 years (IQR 19-56), and 1235 (59.7%) were first-time testers. Among all testers, 142 (6.9%) were HIV-positive with median CD4 count was 346 cells/mm(3) (IQR 218-542). Community-based testing for HIV is acceptable and meets the needs of community members in rural South Africa. Motivations for HIV testing at the community level are complex and differ according to gender, age, site of community testing, and HIV status. These differences can be utilised to improve the focus and yield of community-based HIV screening. PMID:26134323

  15. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    PubMed

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  16. Trauma Exposures and Posttraumatic Stress among Zimbabwean refugees in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Idemudia, Erhabor S.; Williams, John K.; Madu, Sylvester N.; Wyatt, Gail E.

    2014-01-01

    Zimbabwean refugees can be considered a vulnerable group in terms of how they are displaced with many of them having lived through hardships on their way to South Africa and other African countries. Zimbabwe is known to be Africa’s most extraordinary producer of migrants and the biggest producer of refugees in Southern Africa. It is estimated that 3.4 million Zimbabweans, a quarter of the country’s population, have fled the country. Economic collapse, hunger and political repression have been blamed for the mass exodus. The present study examines the impact of trauma exposures (pre- and post-migration stressors and poor mental health) on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among homeless Zimbabwean refugees living in South Africa. Through a guided convenient sampling, in-depth interviews using questionnaires were collected from 125 homeless Zimbabwean refugees in Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study was anchored on the hypothesis that predictor variables (pre- and post- migration stressors, poor mental health) would significantly affect outcomes (PTSD). Participants were assessed on demographic variables, pre- and post-migration difficulties checklists, mental health using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the PTSD Checklist (Civilian Version (PCL). Participants ranged from 18 to 48 years with a mean age of 28.3 years (SD = 6.27). The majority of the sample had at least a secondary education (76.8%) and were employed as unskilled labourers (61.6%) in South Africa. Being married was reported by 54.4% in Zimbabwe but changed to only 19.2% in South Africa. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the overall model significantly predicted PTSD among homeless Zimbabweans (R2 = 0.17, adjusted R2 = 0.11, F (6, 124) = 2.960, p < .01). Thus, the entire set of pre- and post-migration variables (Post total stress, PreThreat to life, Presexabuse, PrePoverty, Postsexabuse, Postpoverty and two mental health symptoms (Anxiety and

  17. Holocene climate variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldeab, S.; Stuut, J.-B. W.; Schneider, R. R.; Siebel, W.

    2013-10-01

    We established a multi-proxy time series comprising analyses of major elements in bulk sediments, Sr and Nd isotopes, grain size of terrigenous fraction, and δ18O and δ13C in tests of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) from a marine sediment sequence recovered off the Orange River. The records reveal coherent patterns of variability that reflect changes in wind strength, precipitation over the river catchments, and upwelling of cold and nutrient-rich coastal waters off western South Africa. The wettest episode of the Holocene in the winter rainfall zone (WRZ) of South Africa occurred during the "Little Ice Age" (700-100 cal years BP) most likely in response to a northward shift of the austral westerlies. Wet phases and strengthened coastal water upwellings are companied by a decrease of Agulhas water leakage into the South Atlantic and a reduced dust incursion over Antarctica, as indicated in previous studies. A continuous aridification trend in the WRZ and a weakening of the southern Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) between 9000 and 5500 cal years BP parallel with increase of dust deposition over Antarctica and an enhanced leakage of warm Agulhas water into the eastern South Atlantic. The temporal relationship between precipitation changes in the WRZ, the thermal state of the coastal surface water, and leakage of warm water in the South Atlantic, and variation of dust incursion over Antarctica suggests a causal link that most likely was related to latitudinal shifts of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies. Our results of the mid-Holocene time interval may serve as an analogue to a possible long-term consequence of the current and future southward shift of the westerlies. Furthermore, warming of the coastal surface water as a result of warm Agulhas water incursion into the southern BUS may affect coastal fog formation.

  18. A Principal's Perspective of School Integration: The First School To Integrate in Cape Town, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Presents the historical context of Cape Town, South Africa, and its struggles against apartheid and apartheid education. It offers a case study of Allen Powell, a white teacher and administrator who worked to integrate Plumstead High School, an act that defied South African commonplace and the views of most white South Africans. Analyzes Powell's…

  19. Distance learning for University Physics in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilliers, J. A.; Basson, I.

    1997-03-01

    The University of South Africa (Unisa) is one of the largest distance education universities in the world. Teaching physics at a distance is a complex and multifaceted problem which is compounded in the South African context by the diversity of educational backgrounds of the learners involved. The fact that students are distributed over a vast geographical area, presents unique problems for the incorporation of the practical component into the curriculum. Current research involves a fundamental evaluation of the aims and objectives of the introductory laboratory. The project is based on the notion that practicals, as they have been used in most physics curricula, are not particularly effective or efficient, although they are costly both financially and logistically. Design, development and delivery of efficient study material imply that there should be agreement between what the student knows and can do, and what the material offers. An in depth profile that takes into account biographic as well as cognitive characteristics of the target group, is therefore being compiled. This paper gives an overview of the specific problems and circumstances that were identified for distance education in physics in a multi-cultural society, and proposes a new model for the incorporation of the introductory laboratory into the curriculum.

  20. Sanctions and the struggle for health in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Coovadia, H M

    1999-10-01

    This commentary describes the role of a major antiapartheid health organization, the National Medical and Dental Association (NAMDA), in reinforcing and maintaining international pressure on the racist South African government. NAMDA was a constituent of the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM), which was at the forefront in the struggle for freedom in South Africa. NAMDA endorsed the programs of the banned African National Congress (ANC), which included a range of sanctions. Debates within NAMDA on enlarging sanctions into an academic boycott are summarized. The development of a policy of selective academic support, which approved academic exchanges in accord with the aims of the MDM, is explained. Indirect evidence shows that international pressures created by specific types of economic sanctions and the forms of academic boycott decided on by NAMDA achieved their objectives. I have highlighted the tension between these strategies, which resulted in the isolation of the apartheid regime, as well as the responsibility to protect the most vulnerable from the burdens that resulted from these policies. PMID:10511831