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Sample records for age-related hearing loss

  1. [Presbycusis - Age Related Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Fischer, N; Weber, B; Riechelmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to age related degeneration of inner ear structures. It can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder with environmental and genetic factors. The molecular, electrophysiological and histological damage at different levels of the inner ear cause a progressive hearing loss, which usually affects the high frequencies of hearing. The resulting poor speech recognition has a negative impact on cognitive, emotional and social function in older adults. Recent investigations revealed an association between hearing impairment and social isolation, anxiety, depression and cognitive decline in elderly. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosis and treating hearing loss in the elderly population. Hearing aids are the most commonly used devices for treating presbycusis. The technical progress of implantable hearing devices allows an effective hearing rehabilitation even in elderly with severe hearing loss. However, most people with hearing impairments are not treated adequately. PMID:27392191

  2. Age-related hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... is no known single cause of age-related hearing loss. Most commonly, it is caused by changes in the inner ear that occur as you grow older. Your genes and loud noise (from rock concerts or music headphones) may play a large role. The following ...

  3. Age-Related Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing loss. Here are the most common ones: Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Hearing aids ... list of organizations, contact: NIDCD Information Clearinghouse 1 Communication Avenue Bethesda, MD 20892-3456 Toll-free Voice: ( ...

  4. The role of mitochondria in age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hengchao; Tang, Jianguo

    2014-02-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), the hearing loss associated with aging, is a vital problem in present society. The severity of hearing loss is possibly associated with the degeneration of cochlear cells. Mitochondria play a key role in the energy supply, cellular redox homeostasis, signaling, and regulation of programmed cell death. In this review, we focus on the central role of mitochondria in ARHL. The mitochondrial redox imbalance and mitochondrial DNA mutation might collaboratively involve in the process of cochlear senescence in response to the aging stress. Subsequent responses, including alteration of mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, apoptosis and paraptosis, participate in the aging process from different respects. PMID:24202185

  5. The Neural Consequences of Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Wingfield, Arthur

    2016-07-01

    During hearing, acoustic signals travel up the ascending auditory pathway from the cochlea to auditory cortex; efferent connections provide descending feedback. In human listeners, although auditory and cognitive processing have sometimes been viewed as separate domains, a growing body of work suggests they are intimately coupled. Here, we review the effects of hearing loss on neural systems supporting spoken language comprehension, beginning with age-related physiological decline. We suggest that listeners recruit domain general executive systems to maintain successful communication when the auditory signal is degraded, but that this compensatory processing has behavioral consequences: even relatively mild levels of hearing loss can lead to cascading cognitive effects that impact perception, comprehension, and memory, leading to increased listening effort during speech comprehension. PMID:27262177

  6. Age-related hearing impairment and the triad of acquired hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao-Hui; Schrepfer, Thomas; Schacht, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding underlying pathological mechanisms is prerequisite for a sensible design of protective therapies against hearing loss. The triad of age-related, noise-generated, and drug-induced hearing loss displays intriguing similarities in some cellular responses of cochlear sensory cells such as a potential involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic and necrotic cell death. On the other hand, detailed studies have revealed that molecular pathways are considerably complex and, importantly, it has become clear that pharmacological protection successful against one form of hearing loss will not necessarily protect against another. This review will summarize pathological and pathophysiological features of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) in human and animal models and address selected aspects of the commonality (or lack thereof) of cellular responses in ARHI to drugs and noise. PMID:26283913

  7. Neural Alterations in Acquired Age-Related Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Mudar, Raksha A.; Husain, Fatima T.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions in older adults. Growing evidence suggests that hearing loss is associated with reduced cognitive functioning and incident dementia. In this mini-review, we briefly examine literature on anatomical and functional alterations in the brains of adults with acquired age-associated hearing loss, which may underlie the cognitive consequences observed in this population, focusing on studies that have used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and event-related electroencephalography. We discuss structural and functional alterations observed in the temporal and frontal cortices and the limbic system. These neural alterations are discussed in the context of common cause, information-degradation, and sensory-deprivation hypotheses, and we suggest possible rehabilitation strategies. Although, we are beginning to learn more about changes in neural architecture and functionality related to age-associated hearing loss, much work remains to be done. Understanding the neural alterations will provide objective markers for early identification of neural consequences of age-associated hearing loss and for evaluating benefits of intervention approaches. PMID:27313556

  8. Cumulative Lead Exposure and Age-related Hearing Loss: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Elmarsafawy, Sahar; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Huiling; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Although lead has been associated with hearing loss in occupational settings and in children, little epidemiologic research has been conducted on the impact of cumulative lead exposure on age-related hearing loss in the general population. We determined whether bone lead levels, a marker of cumulative lead exposure, are associated with decreased hearing ability in 448 men from the Normative Aging Study, seen between 1962 and 1996 (2,264 total observations). Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured at 0.25 to 8 kHz and pure tone averages (PTA) (mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) were computed. Tibia and patella lead levels were measured using K x-ray fluorescence between 1991 and 1996. In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders including occupational noise, patella lead levels were significantly associated with poorer hearing thresholds at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz and PTA. The odds of hearing loss significantly increased with patella lead levels. We also found significant positive associations between tibia lead and the rate change in hearing thresholds at 1, 2, and 8 kHz and PTA in longitudinal analyses. Our results suggest that chronic low-level lead exposure may be an important risk factor for age-related hearing loss and reduction of lead exposure could help prevent or delay development of age-related hearing loss. PMID:20638461

  9. The role of cognition in age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Craik, Fergus I M

    2007-01-01

    The article presents a commentary on the accompanying six papers from the perspective of a cognitive psychologist. Treisman's (1964, 1969) levels of analysis model of selective attention is suggested as a framework within which the interactions between 'bottom-up' auditory factors and 'top-down' cognitive factors may be understood. The complementary roles of auditory and cognitive aspects of hearing are explored, and their mutually compensatory properties discussed. The findings and ideas reported in the six accompanying papers fit well into such a 'levels of processing' framework, which may therefore be proposed as a model for understanding the effects of aging on speech processing and comprehension. PMID:18236642

  10. Age-Related Hearing Loss: Quality of Care for Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Korotky, Ha-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), known as presbycusis, is characterized by progressive deterioration of auditory sensitivity, loss of the auditory sensory cells, and central processing functions associated with the aging process. ARHL is the third most prevalent chronic condition in older Americans, after hypertension and arthritis, and is a…

  11. Antioxidant-enriched diet does not delay the progression of age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sha, Su-Hua; Kanicki, Ariane; Halsey, Karin; Wearne, Kimberly Anne; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress has been linked to noise- and drug-induced as well as age-related hearing loss. Antioxidants can attenuate the decline of cochlear structure and function after exposure to noise or drugs, but it is debated as to whether they can protect from age-related hearing loss. In a long-term longitudinal study, 10-month-old female CBA/J mice were placed on either a control or antioxidant-enriched diet and monitored through 24 months of age. Supplementation with vitamins A, C, and E, L-carnitine, and α-lipoic acid significantly increased the antioxidant capacity of inner ear tissues. However, by 24 months of age, the magnitude of hearing loss was equal between the two groups. Likewise, there were no significant differences in hair cell loss or degeneration of spiral ganglion cells. We conclude that dietary manipulations can alter cochlear antioxidant capacity but do not ameliorate age-related sensorineural hearing loss in the CBA/J mouse. PMID:22154190

  12. Long-term treatment with aldosterone slows the progression of age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Joshua; Hinton, Ashley S; Frisina, Robert D; Ding, Bo; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P

    2016-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), clinically referred to as presbycusis, is one of the three most prevalent chronic medical conditions of our elderly, with the majority of persons over the age of 60 suffering from some degree of ARHL. The progressive loss of auditory sensitivity and perceptual capability results in significant declines in workplace productivity, quality of life, cognition and abilities to communicate effectively. Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and plays a role in the maintenance of key ion pumps, including the Na-K(+)-Cl co-transporter 1 or NKCC1, which is involved in homeostatic maintenance of the endocochlear potential. Previously we reported that aldosterone (1 μM) increases NKCC1 protein expression in vitro and that this up-regulation of NKCC1 was not dose-dependent (dosing range from 1 nM to 100 μM). In the current study we measured behavioral and electrophysiological hearing function in middle-aged mice following long-term systemic treatment with aldosterone. We also confirmed that blood pressure remained stable during treatment and that NKCC1 protein expression was upregulated. Pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response was used as a functional measure of hearing, and the auditory brainstem response was used as an objective measure of peripheral sensitivity. Long-term treatment with aldosterone improved both behavioral and physiological measures of hearing (ABR thresholds). These results are the first to demonstrate a protective effect of aldosterone on age-related hearing loss and pave the way for translational drug development, using aldosterone as a key component to prevent or slow down the progression of ARHL. PMID:27157488

  13. Oxidative Stresses and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Age-Related Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), the progressive loss of hearing associated with aging, is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly population. The pathology of ARHL includes the hair cells of the organ of Corti, stria vascularis, and afferent spiral ganglion neurons as well as the central auditory pathways. Many studies have suggested that the accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage, the production of reactive oxygen species, and decreased antioxidant function are associated with subsequent cochlear senescence in response to aging stress. Mitochondria play a crucial role in the induction of intrinsic apoptosis in cochlear cells. ARHL can be prevented in laboratory animals by certain interventions, such as caloric restriction and supplementation with antioxidants. In this review, we will focus on previous research concerning the role of the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathology of ARHL in both animal models and humans and introduce concepts that have recently emerged regarding the mechanisms of the development of ARHL. PMID:25110550

  14. Hair Cell Overexpression of Islet1 Reduces Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mingqian; Kantardzhieva, Albena; Scheffer, Deborah; Liberman, M. Charles

    2013-01-01

    Isl1 is a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor that is critical in the development and differentiation of multiple tissues. In the mouse inner ear, Isl1 is expressed in the prosensory region of otocyst, in young hair cells and supporting cells, and is no longer expressed in postnatal auditory hair cells. To evaluate how continuous Isl1 expression in postnatal hair cells affects hair cell development and cochlear function, we created a transgenic mouse model in which the Pou4f3 promoter drives Isl1 overexpression specifically in hair cells. Isl1 overexpressing hair cells develop normally, as seen by morphology and cochlear functions (auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emissions). As the mice aged to 17 months, wild-type (WT) controls showed the progressive threshold elevation and outer hair cell loss characteristic of the age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in the background strain (C57BL/6J). In contrast, the Isl1 transgenic mice showed significantly less threshold elevation with survival of hair cells. Further, the Isl1 overexpression protected the ear from noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL): both ABR threshold shifts and hair cell death were significantly reduced when compared with WT littermates. Our model suggests a common mechanism underlying ARHL and NIHL, and provides evidence that hair cell-specific Isl1 expression can promote hair cell survival and therefore minimize the hearing impairment that normally occurs with aging and/or acoustic overexposure. PMID:24048839

  15. Likely Age-Related Hearing Loss (Presbycusis) in a Stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, was measured. The age of this animal was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a noninvasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. The results showed that the high-frequency hearing cutoff frequency of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of a conspecific younger individual ~13 year old. The lower high-frequency hearing range in the older dolphin was explained as a likely result of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). PMID:26611012

  16. Auditory Perceptual Learning in Adults with and without Age-Related Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Karawani, Hanin; Bitan, Tali; Attias, Joseph; Banai, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : Speech recognition in adverse listening conditions becomes more difficult as we age, particularly for individuals with age-related hearing loss (ARHL). Whether these difficulties can be eased with training remains debated, because it is not clear whether the outcomes are sufficiently general to be of use outside of the training context. The aim of the current study was to compare training-induced learning and generalization between normal-hearing older adults and those with ARHL. Methods : Fifty-six listeners (60–72 y/o), 35 participants with ARHL, and 21 normal hearing adults participated in the study. The study design was a cross over design with three groups (immediate-training, delayed-training, and no-training group). Trained participants received 13 sessions of home-based auditory training over the course of 4 weeks. Three adverse listening conditions were targeted: (1) Speech-in-noise, (2) time compressed speech, and (3) competing speakers, and the outcomes of training were compared between normal and ARHL groups. Pre- and post-test sessions were completed by all participants. Outcome measures included tests on all of the trained conditions as well as on a series of untrained conditions designed to assess the transfer of learning to other speech and non-speech conditions. Results : Significant improvements on all trained conditions were observed in both ARHL and normal-hearing groups over the course of training. Normal hearing participants learned more than participants with ARHL in the speech-in-noise condition, but showed similar patterns of learning in the other conditions. Greater pre- to post-test changes were observed in trained than in untrained listeners on all trained conditions. In addition, the ability of trained listeners from the ARHL group to discriminate minimally different pseudowords in noise also improved with training. Conclusions : ARHL did not preclude auditory perceptual learning but there was little generalization to

  17. Effects of Age and Age-Related Hearing Loss on the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Kelly; Ross, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    It is well documented that aging adversely affects the ability to perceive time-varying acoustic cues. Here we review how physiological measures are being used to explore the effects of aging (and concomitant hearing loss) on the neural representation of temporal cues. Also addressed are the implications of current research findings on the…

  18. Age-related hearing loss: GABA, nicotinic acetylcholine and NMDA receptor expression changes in spiral ganglion neurons of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Zhu, X; Ding, B; Walton, J P; Frisina, R D; Su, J

    2014-02-14

    Age-related hearing loss - presbycusis - is the number one communication disorder and most prevalent neurodegenerative condition of our aged population. Although speech understanding in background noise is quite difficult for those with presbycusis, there are currently no biomedical treatments to prevent, delay or reverse this condition. A better understanding of the cochlear mechanisms underlying presbycusis will help lead to future treatments. Objectives of the present study were to investigate GABAA receptor subunit α1, nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor subunit β2, and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR1 mRNA and protein expression changes in spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) of the CBA/CaJ mouse cochlea, that occur in age-related hearing loss, utilizing quantitative immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. We found that auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds shifted over 40dB from 3 to 48kHz in old mice compared to young adults. DPOAE thresholds also shifted over 40dB from 6 to 49kHz in old mice, and their amplitudes were significantly decreased or absent in the same frequency range. SGN density decreased with age in basal, middle and apical turns, and SGN density of the basal turn declined the most. A positive correlation was observed between SGN density and ABR wave 1amplitude. mRNA and protein expression of GABAAR α1 and AChR β2 decreased with age in SGNs in the old mouse cochlea. mRNA and protein expression of NMDAR NR1 increased with age in SGNs of the old mice. These findings demonstrate that there are functionally-relevant age-related changes of GABAAR, nAChR, NMDAR expression in CBA mouse SGNs reflecting their degeneration, which may be related to functional changes in cochlear synaptic transmission with age, suggesting biological mechanisms for peripheral age-related hearing loss. PMID:24316061

  19. N-acetyl-cysteine prevents age-related hearing loss and the progressive loss of inner hair cells in γ-glutamyl transferase 1 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dalian; Jiang, Haiyan; Chen, Guang-Di; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Muthaiah, Vijaya Prakash Krishnan; Tian, Cong; Sheppard, Adam; Salvi, Richard; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors combined with oxidative stress are major determinants of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), one of the most prevalent disorders of the elderly. Dwarf grey mice, Ggt1dwg/dwg, are homozygous for a loss of function mutation of the γ-glutamyl transferase 1 gene, which encodes an important antioxidant enzyme critical for the resynthesis of glutathione (GSH). Since GSH reduces oxidative damage, we hypothesized that Ggt1dwg/dwg mice would be susceptible to ARHL. Surprisingly, otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonic potentials, which reflect cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) function, were largely unaffected in mutant mice, whereas auditory brainstem responses and the compound action potential were grossly abnormal. These functional deficits were associated with an unusual and selective loss of inner hair cells (IHC), but retention of OHC and auditory nerve fibers. Remarkably, hearing deficits and IHC loss were completely prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which induces de novo synthesis of GSH; however, hearing deficits and IHC loss reappeared when treatment was discontinued. Ggt1dwg/dwgmice represent an important new model for investigating ARHL, therapeutic interventions, and understanding the perceptual and electrophysiological consequences of sensory deprivation caused by the loss of sensory input exclusively from IHC. PMID:26977590

  20. N-acetyl-cysteine prevents age-related hearing loss and the progressive loss of inner hair cells in γ-glutamyl transferase 1 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dalian; Jiang, Haiyan; Chen, Guang-Di; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Muthaiah, Vijaya Prakash Krishnan; Tian, Cong; Sheppard, Adam; Salvi, Richard; Johnson, Kenneth R

    2016-04-01

    Genetic factors combined with oxidative stress are major determinants of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), one of the most prevalent disorders of the elderly. Dwarf grey mice, Ggt1dwg/dwg, are homozygous for a loss of function mutation of the g-glutamyl transferase 1 gene, which encodes an important antioxidant enzyme critical for the resynthesis of glutathione (GSH). Since GSH reduces oxidative damage, we hypothesized that Ggt1dwg/dwg mice would be susceptible to ARHL. Surprisingly, otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonic potentials, which reflect cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) function, were largely unaffected in mutant mice, whereas auditory brainstem responses and the compound action potential were grossly abnormal. These functional deficits were associated with an unusual and selective loss of inner hair cells (IHC), but retention of OHC and auditory nerve fibers. Remarkably, hearing deficits and IHC loss were completely prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which induces de novo synthesis of GSH; however, hearing deficits and IHC loss reappeared when treatment was discontinued. Ggt1dwg/dwg mice represent an important new model for investigating ARHL, therapeutic interventions, and understanding the perceptual and electrophysiological consequences of sensory deprivation caused by the loss of sensory input exclusively from IHC. PMID:26977590

  1. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Hearing Loss What is Hearing Loss? Hearing loss is a common problem caused by ... sec Click to watch this video Types of Hearing Loss Hearing loss comes in many forms. It can ...

  2. Age-Related Benefits of Digital Noise Reduction for Short-Term Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of word learning for children with hearing loss (HL) in quiet and in noise compared to normal-hearing (NH) peers. The effects of digital noise reduction (DNR) were examined for children with HL. Method: Forty-one children with NH and 26 children with HL were grouped by age (8-9 years and 11-12 years). The children…

  3. Sirt1 deficiency protects cochlear cells and delays the early onset of age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Chul; Linser, Paul; Park, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Mi-Jung; White, Karessa; Vann, James M; Ding, Dalian; Prolla, Tomas A; Someya, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Hearing gradually declines with age in both animals and humans, and this condition is known as age-related hearing loss (AHL). Here, we investigated the effects of deficiency of Sirt1, a member of the mammalian sirtuin family, on age-related cochlear pathology and associated hearing loss in C57BL/6 mice, a mouse model of early-onset AHL. Sirt1 deficiency reduced age-related oxidative damage of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons and delayed the early onset of AHL. In cultured mouse inner ear cell lines, Sirt1 knockdown increased cell viability under oxidative stress conditions, induced nuclear translocation of Foxo3a, and increased acetylation status of Foxo3a. This resulted in increased activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. In young wild-type mice, both Sirt1 and Foxo3a proteins resided in the cytoplasm of the supporting cells within the organ of Corti of the cochlea. Therefore, our findings suggest that SIRT1 promotes early-onset AHL through suppressing FOXO3a-mediated oxidative stress resistance in the cochlea of C57BL/6 mice. PMID:27255815

  4. A Comparative Study of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Wild Type and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Raquel; Cediel, Rafael; Contreras, Julio; Lourdes, Rodriguez-de la Rosa; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Hernandez-Sanchez, Catalina; Zubeldia, Jose M.; Cerdan, Sebastian; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1−/− null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1+/+ and null Igf1−/− mice from 2 to 12 months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR) recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1−/− null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1+/+ wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1−/− null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to prevent or

  5. Possible age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) and corresponding change in echolocation parameters in a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin.

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2013-11-15

    The hearing and echolocation clicks of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, were studied. This animal had been repeatedly observed in the wild before it was stranded and its age was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a non-invasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. Echolocation clicks produced by the dolphin were recorded when the animal was freely swimming in a 7.5 m (width)×22 m (length)×4.8 m (structural depth) pool with a water depth of ~2.5 m. The hearing and echolocation clicks of the studied dolphin were compared with those of a conspecific younger individual, ~13 years of age. The results suggested that the cut-off frequency of the high-frequency hearing of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of the younger individual. The peak and centre frequencies of the clicks produced by the older dolphin were ~16 kHz lower than those of the clicks produced by the younger animal. Considering that the older dolphin was ~40 years old, its lower high-frequency hearing range with lower click peak and centre frequencies could probably be explained by age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). PMID:24172886

  6. Dietary intake of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis H61 delays age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Oike, Hideaki; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako; Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamagishi, Naoko; Tomita, Satoru; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Wakagi, Manabu; Sakurai, Mutsumi; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Suzuki, Chise; Kobori, Masuko

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is a common disorder associated with aging. In this study, we investigated the effect of the intake of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris H61 (strain H61) on AHL in C57BL/6J mice. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) demonstrated that female mice at 9 months of age fed a diet containing 0.05% strain H61 for 6 months maintained a significantly lower ABR threshold than control mice. The age-related loss of neurons and hair cells in the cochlea was suppressed by the intake of strain H61. Faecal analysis of bacterial flora revealed that the intake of strain H61 increased the prevalence of Lactobacillales, which is positively correlated with hearing ability in mice. Furthermore, plasma fatty acid levels were negatively correlated with hearing ability. Overall, the results supported that the intake of heat-killed strain H61 for 6 months altered the intestinal flora, affected plasma metabolite levels, including fatty acid levels, and retarded AHL in mice. PMID:27000949

  7. Dietary intake of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis H61 delays age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Oike, Hideaki; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako; Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamagishi, Naoko; Tomita, Satoru; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Wakagi, Manabu; Sakurai, Mutsumi; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Suzuki, Chise; Kobori, Masuko

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is a common disorder associated with aging. In this study, we investigated the effect of the intake of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris H61 (strain H61) on AHL in C57BL/6J mice. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) demonstrated that female mice at 9 months of age fed a diet containing 0.05% strain H61 for 6 months maintained a significantly lower ABR threshold than control mice. The age-related loss of neurons and hair cells in the cochlea was suppressed by the intake of strain H61. Faecal analysis of bacterial flora revealed that the intake of strain H61 increased the prevalence of Lactobacillales, which is positively correlated with hearing ability in mice. Furthermore, plasma fatty acid levels were negatively correlated with hearing ability. Overall, the results supported that the intake of heat-killed strain H61 for 6 months altered the intestinal flora, affected plasma metabolite levels, including fatty acid levels, and retarded AHL in mice. PMID:27000949

  8. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Can Help? Hearing aids. Hearing aids are electronic, battery-run devices that make sounds louder. There ... to turn up the volume. Cochlear implants. These electronic devices are for people with severe hearing loss. ...

  9. Age-related hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... EH, Katz PR, Malone ML, eds. Practice of Geriatrics . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2007:chap ... Seshamani M, Kashima ML. Special considerations in managing geriatric patients. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, ...

  10. Soybean β-Conglycinin Prevents Age-Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tanigawa, Tohru; Shibata, Rei; Kondo, Kazuhisa; Katahira, Nobuyuki; Kambara, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoko; Nonoyama, Hiroshi; Horibe, Yuichiro; Ueda, Hiromi; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-related complications are associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment. β-Conglycinin (β-CG), one of the main storage proteins in soy, offers multiple health benefits, including anti-obesity and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Here, to elucidate the potential therapeutic application of β-CG, we investigated the effect of β-CG on age-related hearing impairment. Male wild-type mice (age 6 months) were randomly divided into β-CG-fed and control groups. Six months later, the body weight was significantly lower in β-CG-fed mice than in the controls. Consumption of β-CG rescued the hearing impairment observed in control mice. Cochlear blood flow also increased in β-CG-fed mice, as did the expression of eNOS in the stria vascularis (SV), which protects vasculature. β-CG consumption also ameliorated oxidative status as assessed by 4-HNE staining. In the SV, lipofuscin granules of marginal cells and vacuolar degeneration of microvascular pericytes were decreased in β-CG-fed mice, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. β-CG consumption prevented loss of spiral ganglion cells and reduced the frequencies of lipofuscin granules, nuclear invaginations, and myelin vacuolation. Our observations indicate that β-CG ameliorates age-related hearing impairment by preserving cochlear blood flow and suppressing oxidative stress. PMID:26348726

  11. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. PMID:26370651

  12. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  13. Association of Age Related Macular Degeneration and Age Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Hassan; Pourakbari, Malihe Shahidi; Entezari, Morteza; Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and sensory neural hearing impairment (SHI). Methods: In this case-control study, hearing status of 46 consecutive patients with ARMD were compared with 46 age-matched cases without clinical ARMD as a control group. In all patients, retinal involvements were confirmed by clinical examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). All participants were examined with an otoscope and underwent audiological tests including pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech reception threshold (SRT), speech discrimination score (SDS), tympanometry, reflex tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR). Results: A significant (P = 0.009) association was present between ARMD, especially with exudative and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) components, and age-related hearing impairment primarily involving high frequencies. Patients had higher SRT and lower SDS against anticipated presbycusis than control subjects. Similar results were detected in exudative, CNV and scar patterns supporting an association between late ARMD with SRT and SDS abnormalities. ABR showed significantly prolonged wave I and IV latency times in ARMD (P = 0.034 and 0.022, respectively). Average latency periods for wave I in geographic atrophy (GA) and CNV, and that for wave IV in drusen patterns of ARMD were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.030, 0.007 and 0.050, respectively). Conclusion: The association between ARMD and age-related SHI may be attributed to common anatomical components such as melanin in these two sensory organs. PMID:27195086

  14. Age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without occupational noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hederstierna, Christina; Rosenhall, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the pattern of age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without self-reported previous occupational noise exposure. This was a prospective, population-based, longitudinal study of individuals aged 70-75 years, from an epidemiological investigation, comprising three age cohorts. In total there were 1013 subjects (432 men and 581 women). Participants were tested with pure tone audiometry, and they answered a questionnaire to provide information regarding number of years of occupational noise exposure. There were no significant differences in hearing decline, at any frequency, for those aged 70-75 years between the noise-exposed (N= 62 men, 22 women) and the nonexposed groups (N = 96 men, 158 women). This study supports the additive model of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and age-related hearing loss (ARHL). The concept of different patterns of hearing decline between persons exposed and not exposed to noise could not be verified. PMID:26780958

  15. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Fast Facts There are two main types of hearing loss. Permanent hearing loss (called sensorineural) usually involves damage ...

  16. Hearing Loss: Diagnosis and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zazove, Philip; Atcherson, Samuel R; Moreland, Christopher; McKee, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Hearing loss is a common disability in the United States, most frequent among men, elderly individuals, and veterans but is increasingly affecting other younger adults. Types of hearing loss include sensorineural, conductive, and mixed. Hearing loss in children often is related to infections, time spent in a neonatal intensive care unit, and genetic etiologies. Presbycusis (ie, age-related hearing loss) is the most common etiology in adults. Adverse effects of untreated hearing loss include isolation, depression, lower income, and higher unemployment. Hearing aid use reduces levels of disability, cognitive impairment, and psychosocial distress while improving quality of life. At least 75% of individuals with hearing loss are not receiving treatment for it. All infants should be screened for hearing loss, as should children and adults with risk factors. The Joint Commission on Infant Hearing Screening has a 1-3-6 goal for screening: identification by age 1 month, confirmation by age 3 months, and intervention by age 6 months. The presence of an ongoing physician-patient relationship increases the likelihood that a patient will admit to having a hearing loss. Adults can be screened using single-question or standardized instrument screens. All patients with suspected hearing loss should undergo audiometry by an audiology subspecialist. PMID:26161523

  17. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Loss and Older Adults On this page: What is ... about hearing loss and older adults? What is hearing loss? Hearing loss is a sudden or gradual decrease ...

  18. Hearing Loss in Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nelia; Wallhagen, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Age-related hearing loss is remarkably common, affecting more than 60% of adults over the age of 75. Moreover, hearing loss has detrimental effects on quality of life and communication, outcomes that are central to palliative care. Despite its high prevalence, there is remarkably little written on the impact of hearing loss in the palliative care literature. Objective: The objective was to emphasize its importance and the need for further study. We use a case as a springboard for discussing what is known and unknown about the epidemiology, presentation, screening methodologies, and treatment strategies for age-related hearing loss in palliative care. Discussion: The case describes a 65-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) that has progressed despite treatment. No concerns are raised about communication challenges during conversations between the palliative care team and the patient in his quiet room. However, in the midst of a family meeting, shortly after discussing prognosis, the patient reports that he cannot hear what anyone is saying. Conclusion: We describe simple methods of screening patients for hearing loss, and suggest that practical approaches should be used universally in patient encounters. These include facing the patient, pitching one's voice low, using a pocket talker, and creating a hearing-friendly environment when planning a family or group meeting. PMID:25867966

  19. Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss The importance of hearing Hearing allows you to ... surround the soft tissue of the inner ear. Hearing loss occurs when the inner ear is damaged. What ...

  20. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...

  1. Genes and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  2. Living with hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000360.htm Living with hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you are living with hearing loss, you know that it takes extra effort to ...

  3. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... of newborns in the U.S. are screened for hearing loss before they leave the hospital. Research improves the ...

  4. Hearing loss in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, J. C. Jr; Musiek, F. E.; Kline-Schoder, R.; Clark, J. C.; Hart, S.; Havelka, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temporary and, in some cases, permanent hearing loss has been documented after long-duration spaceflights. METHODS: We examined all existing published data on hearing loss after space missions to characterize the losses. RESULTS: Data from Russian missions suggest that the hearing loss, when it occurs, affects mainly mid to high frequencies and that using hearing protection often might prevent the loss. Several significant questions remain about hearing loss in space. While the hearing loss has been presumed to be noise-induced, no clear link has been established between noise exposure and hearing loss during spaceflight. In one documented case of temporary hearing loss from the Shuttle-Mir program, the pattern of loss was atypical for a noise-induced loss. Continuous noise levels that have been measured on the Mir and previous space stations, while above engineering standards, are not at levels usually associated with hearing loss in ground-based studies (which have usually been limited to 8-10 h exposure periods). Attempts to measure hearing in space using threshold-based audiograms have been unsuccessful in both the American and Russian programs due to noise interference with the measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The existing data highlight the need for reliable monitoring of both hearing and noise in long-duration spaceflight.

  5. Deafness and Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This brief overview provides information on the definition, incidence, and characteristics of children with hearing impairments and deafness. The federal definitions of hearing impairment and deafness are provided. The different types of hearing loss are noted, including: (1) conductive (caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle…

  6. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. PMID:27259171

  7. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Noise-Induced Hearing Loss On this page: What is noise-induced hearing ... additional information about NIHL? What is noise-induced hearing loss? Every day, we experience sound in our environment, ...

  8. Hearing Loss and Cytomegalovirus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Melvin

    1997-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common cause of congenital virally induced hearing loss. Maternal infection is most often asymptomatic as is the infection in the newborn. Hearing loss occurs in both clinically apparent infection and in the asymptomatic infection. Current methods of detection, treatment, and prevention and research efforts are…

  9. Hereditary Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, LenhAnh P.; Grundfast, Kenneth M.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses inheritance patterns in hearing loss, epidemiology, clues to genetic causes, locating genes that cause hereditary disorders, genes related to hearing loss disorders in individuals with Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Branchio-oto-renal and Pendred syndromes, and the significance of finding…

  10. Hearing Loss in Children: Types of Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ear to the brain so that our brain pathways are part of our hearing. There are four types of hearing loss: Conductive Hearing Loss Hearing loss caused by something that stops sounds from getting through the outer or middle ear. This type of hearing loss can often ...

  11. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Maggie; Heman-Ackah, Selena E.; Shaikh, Jamil A.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is commonly encountered in audiologic and otolaryngologic practice. SSNHL is most commonly defined as sensorineural hearing loss of 30dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies occurring within a 72-hr period. Although the differential for SSNHL is vast, for the majority of patients an etiologic factor is not identified. Treatment for SSNHL of known etiology is directed toward that agent, with poor hearing outcomes characteristic for discoverable etiologies that cause inner ear hair cell loss. Steroid therapy is the current mainstay of treatment of idiopathic SSNHL in the United States. The prognosis for hearing recovery for idiopathic SSNHL is dependent on a number of factors including the severity of hearing loss, age, presence of vertigo, and shape of the audiogram. PMID:21606048

  12. Pathogenesis of Age-Related Bone Loss in Humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although data from rodent systems are extremely useful in providing insights into possible mechanisms of age-related bone loss, concepts evolving from animal models need to ultimately be tested in humans. Methods. This review provides an update on mechanisms of age-related bone loss in humans based on the author’s knowledge of the field and focused literature reviews. Results. Novel imaging, experimental models, biomarkers, and analytic techniques applied directly to human studies are providing new insights into the patterns of bone mass acquisition and loss as well as the role of sex steroids, in particular estrogen, on bone metabolism and bone loss with aging in women and men. These studies have identified the onset of trabecular bone loss at multiple sites that begins in young adulthood and remains unexplained, at least based on current paradigms of the mechanisms of bone loss. In addition, estrogen appears to be a major regulator of bone metabolism not only in women but also in men. Studies assessing mechanisms of estrogen action on bone in humans have identified effects of estrogen on RANKL expression by several different cell types in the bone microenvironment, a role for TNF-α and IL-1β in mediating effects of estrogen deficiency on bone, and possible regulation of the Wnt inhibitor, sclerostin, by estrogen. Conclusions. There have been considerable advances in our understanding of age-related bone loss in humans. However, there are also significant gaps in knowledge, particularly in defining cell autonomous changes in bone in human studies to test or validate concepts emerging from studies in rodents. Decision Editor: Luigi Ferrucci, MD, PhD PMID:22923429

  13. Occupational hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    Over time, repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss. Sounds above 80 decibels ( ... Airline ground maintenance Construction Farming Jobs involving loud music or machinery In the U.S., laws regulate the ...

  14. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... the United States suffer some form of disordered communication. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ...

  15. Hearing loss and music

    MedlinePlus

    ... iPod or MP3 Player The small ear bud style headphones (inserted into the ears) do not block ... Hearing Loss. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. NIH Pub. No. 14-4233. Updated: March ...

  16. Hearing loss - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... to sounds through play. These tests, known as visual response audiometry and play audiometry, can better determine ... the cause of hearing loss. Treatment may include: Speech therapy Learning sign language Cochlear implant (for those ...

  17. Individual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  18. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Smartphone Sound Apps Music-induced Hearing Loss ... SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Smartphone Sound Apps Music-induced Hearing Loss ...

  19. Diagnosis of Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Seven conference papers from the U.S.S.R., India, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia consider the diagnosis of hearing loss. They are "Examination of Hearing of Children, Aged from 2 to 5, by Means of Playing Audiometry" by A. P. Kossacheva, "A Study of the Etiology and Pattern of Deafness in a School for the Deaf in Madras, South India" by Y.…

  20. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-02-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

  1. [Progressive hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    2000-01-01

    Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is defined as hearing loss of unknown etiology with fairly high-speed progression. Its diagnostic criteria consist of the following: that it is 1) progressive, 2) with bilateral involvement, and 3) of unknown etiology. Due to recent advances in diagnostics, imaging and management, SNHL has gained much interest from otologists in the last few years. They provide new insight into the physiology and pathophysiology of hearing. SNHL which is sudden in onset, fluctuating, and/or progressive complicates medical management, hearing aid selection, and individualized educational planning for a hearing-impaired patient. Existing hypotheses on the etiology of SNHL are judged on experimental, clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence. Cardiovascular and rheologic diseases, hereditary disorders, immunological phenomena, infections, environmental causes like noise, ototoxic drugs and industrial substances and systemic maladies must be included in the diagnostic reflections. Potential concepts of treatment include rheologic medications and corticosteroids. Hearing aids and timely cochlear implant operation are further possible forms of treatment. PMID:10893764

  2. Autism and Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenhall, Ulf; Nordin, Viviann; Sandstrom, Mikael; Ahlsen, Gunilla; Gillberg, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Children and adolescents (N=199) with autistic disorder were audiologically evaluated. Mild to moderate hearing loss was diagnosed in 7.9 percent, with deafness diagnosed in 3.5 percent of all cases, which represented a prevalence considerably above that in the general population and comparable to the prevalence found in populations with mental…

  3. Personal Sound Amplifiers for Adults with Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Sara K; Reed, Nicholas S; Nieman, Carrie L; Oh, Esther S; Lin, Frank R

    2016-03-01

    Age-related hearing loss is highly prevalent and often untreated. Use of hearing aids has been associated with improvements in communication and quality of life, but such treatment is unaffordable or inaccessible for many adults. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical guide for physicians who work with older adults who are experiencing hearing and communication difficulties. Specifically, we review direct-to-consumer amplification products that can be used to address hearing loss in adults. Helping adults with hearing loss navigate hearing loss treatment options ranging from being professionally fitted with hearing aids to using direct-to-consumer amplification options is important for primary care clinicians to understand given our increasing understanding of the impact of hearing loss on cognitive, social, and physical functioning. PMID:26498713

  4. Pediatric Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Kizilay, Ahmet; Koca, Çiğdem Firat

    2016-06-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is defined as sudden unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with at least 30 dB decrease in threshold in 3 contiguous test frequencies occurring over 72 hours or less. It is rare among children. The mechanism of the process and prognosis of the disorder remains unclear. The current incidence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss among pediatric population is unknown. The authors carried out a retrospective chart analysis of patients under 15 years of age from 2004 to 2015, who consulted to the Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department of Inonu University Medical Faculty. Age, sex, number of affected ear and side, audiometric evaluations, medical follow-up, treatment method, duration of treatment recovery, associated complaints; tinnitus and/or vertigo, presence of mumps disease were recorded for each patient. A 4-frequency pure-tone average (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) was calculated for each ear. Complete recovery, defined as some hearing level compared with the nonaffected ear, was observed in 3 patients (21.4 %) and there was no partial hearing recovery. The hearing loss of 11 patient remained unchanged after prednisolone treatment. Two of the 11 patients had bilaterally total sensorineural hearing loss and evaluated as appropriate for cochlear implantation. Sex of patient and laterality of hearing loss were not correlated with hearing recovery. Sensorineural hearing loss among pediatrics has been the issue of otolaryngologists. The incidence, etiology, and treatment methods should be more studied. PMID:27171971

  5. Genes and Syndromic Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keats, Bronya J. B.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a description of the human genome and patterns of inheritance and discusses genes that are associated with some of the syndromes for which hearing loss is a common finding, including: Waardenburg, Stickler, Jervell and Lange-Neilsen, Usher, Alport, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, and sensorineural hearing loss. (Contains…

  6. The Stigma of Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhagen, Margaret I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore dimensions of stigma experienced by older adults with hearing loss and those with whom they frequently communicate to target interventions promoting engagement and positive aging. Design and Methods: This longitudinal qualitative study conducted interviews over 1 year with dyads where one partner had hearing loss. Participants…

  7. Reactive Oxygen Species, Apoptosis, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Chisato

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in several apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways in auditory tissues. These pathways are the major causes of most types of sensorineural hearing loss, including age-related hearing loss, hereditary hearing loss, ototoxic drug-induced hearing loss, and noise-induced hearing loss. ROS production can be triggered by dysfunctional mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increases or decreases in ROS-related enzymes. Although apoptotic cell death pathways are mostly activated by ROS production, there are other pathways involved in hearing loss that do not depend on ROS production. Further studies of other pathways, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress and necrotic cell death, are required. PMID:25874222

  8. Hearing aid fitting in older persons with hearing impairment: the influence of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss on hearing aid benefit

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Hartmut; Rählmann, Sebastian; Walger, Martin; Margolf-Hackl, Sabine; Kießling, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss with clinically assessed hearing aid benefit in older hearing-impaired persons. Methods Hearing aid benefit was assessed using objective measures regarding speech recognition in quiet and noisy environments as well as a subjective measure reflecting everyday situations captured using a standardized questionnaire. A broad range of general cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and intelligence were determined using different neuropsychological tests. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the outcome of the neuropsychological tests as well as age and hearing loss as independent variables and the benefit measures as dependent variables. Thirty experienced older hearing aid users with typical age-related hearing impairment participated. Results Most of the benefit measures revealed that the participants obtained significant improvement with their hearing aids. Regression models showed a significant relationship between a fluid intelligence measure and objective hearing aid benefit. When individual hearing thresholds were considered as an additional independent variable, hearing loss was the only significant contributor to the benefit models. Lower cognitive capacity – as determined by the fluid intelligence measure – was significantly associated with greater hearing loss. Subjective benefit could not be predicted by any of the variables considered. Conclusion The present study does not give evidence that hearing aid benefit is critically associated with cognitive function in experienced hearing aid users. However, it was found that lower fluid intelligence scores were related to higher hearing thresholds. Since greater hearing loss was associated with a greater objective benefit, these results strongly support the advice of using hearing aids regardless of age and cognitive function to counter hearing loss and the adverse effects of age-related hearing impairment. Still

  9. Hearing Loss in Children: Screening and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls NCBDDD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Hearing Loss in Children Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hearing Loss Homepage Facts Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Genetics of ...

  10. Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epidemiology Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss [text version] Note: Higher numbers are better. *This ... 2010 and 2020. The number of persons with hearing loss is calculated based on National Health and Nutrition ...

  11. Vertigo and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Newman-Toker, David E; Della Santina, Charles C; Blitz, Ari M

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms referable to disorders affecting the inner ear and vestibulocochlear nerve (eighth cranial nerve) include dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss, in various combinations. Similar symptoms may occur with involvement of the central nervous system, principally the brainstem and cerebellum, to which the vestibular and auditory systems are connected. Imaging choices should be tailored to patient symptoms and the clinical context. Computed tomography (CT) should be used primarily to assess bony structures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be used primarily to assess soft-tissue structures. Vascular imaging by angiography or venography should be obtained when vascular lesions are suspected. No imaging should be obtained in patients with typical presentations of common peripheral vestibular or auditory disorders. In current clinical practice, neuroimaging is often overused, especially CT in the assessment of acute dizziness and vertigo in the emergency department. Despite low sensitivity for ischemic strokes, CT is often used to rule out neurologic causes. When ischemic stroke is the principal concern in acute vestibular presentations, imaging should almost always be by MRI with diffusion-weighted images, rather than CT. In this chapter, we describe recommended strategies for audiovestibular imaging based on patient symptoms and signs. PMID:27430449

  12. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Catlin, F I

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident. PMID:2938482

  13. Intellectual Disabilities and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herer, Gilbert R.

    2012-01-01

    Undetected/untreated hearing loss imposes significant limitations upon individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). It can interfere with cognitive development, impede communicative and social interactions, and limit vocational aspirations. Over the past decade, the hearing of 9961 people with ID was evaluated at Special Olympics sports…

  14. Noise-induced hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Catlin, F.I.

    1986-03-01

    Hearing loss affects 30 million people in the United States; of these, 21 million are over the age of 65 years. This disorder may have several causes: heredity, noise, aging, and disease. Hearing loss from noise has been recognized for centuries but was generally ignored until some time after the Industrial Revolution. Hearing loss from occupational exposure to hazardous noise was identified as a compensable disability by the United States courts in 1948 to 1959. Development of noisy jet engines and supersonic aircraft created additional claims for personal and property damage in the 1950s and 1960s. These conditions led to legislation for noise control in the form of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Protection of the noise-exposed employee was also an objective of the Hearing Conservation Act of 1971. Subsequent studies have confirmed the benefits of periodic hearing tests for workers exposed to hazardous noise and of otologic evaluation as part of the hearing conservation process. Research studies in laboratory animals, using scanning electron microscopical techniques, have demonstrated that damage to the inner ear and organ of hearing can occur even though subjective (conditioned) response to sound stimuli remains unaffected. Some investigators have employed an epidemiologic approach to identify risk factors and to develop profiles to susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. The need for joint involvement of workers and employers in the reduction and control of occupational noise hazards is evident. 19 references.

  15. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  16. Resounding Facts on Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfel, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    Provides a brief description of the physiology of the human ear. The effect of sustained noise levels on hearing loss is discussed, as well as the establishment of maximum noise levels for American industries. (CP)

  17. Occupational hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... risks connected with recreation such as shooting a gun, driving snowmobiles, or other, similar activities. Learn how ... hearing from recreational activities such as shooting a gun or driving snowmobiles. Do not listen to loud ...

  18. Devices for hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... bring the sound from your TV, radio, or music player directly to your inner ear. Many listening devices now work through a wireless link and can connect directly to your hearing aid. There is also television closed-captioning, which ...

  19. Pigmentary anomalies and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Toriello, Helga V

    2011-01-01

    A number of syndromes that include hearing loss in the phenotype also have pigmentary anomalies as a component manifestation. One of the most common of these is Waardenburg syndrome, which includes hypopigmentation and sensorineural hearing loss in the phenotype. There are four types of Waardenburg syndrome, distinguishable from each other by clinical findings. However, there are several other syndromes which include not only hypopigmentation, but also hyperpigmentation in the phenotype. This paper serves as a review of many of these syndromes. PMID:21358185

  20. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    McReynolds, Michael C

    2005-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a major hazard in many workplaces and in society. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health estimates that more than 30 million workers (almost 1 in 10) are exposed to unsafe noise levels on the job. Helicopter emergency medical services crews work in an environment in which exposure to aviation noise makes the issue of hearing loss and prevention strategies salient. Applying the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard for a regulated hearing conservation program through controlling noise exposure will benefit helicopter emergency medical services professionals. PMID:15741953

  1. Non-organic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Sarah C

    2012-12-01

    Annual hearing tests are compulsory in the British Armed Forces. This case report presents a 24-year old soldier who was found to have severe deterioration on her annual audiogram without any significant noise exposure. After two years of specialist audiological investigations she was diagnosed with non-organic hearing loss; further interrogation of her social circumstances suggested potential psychosocial triggers. This diagnosis should be considered early in military primary care in those with objective hearing loss on audiogram where there has been no exposure to significant noise. PMID:23402072

  2. Occupational hearing loss in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Plakke, B L; Dare, E

    1992-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a great deal of high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss among farmers. The studies have failed, however, to differentiate farmers who have occupational noise exposure only from other potential hearing loss etiologies. This study, through extensive case history information, has isolated a farm noise-exposure group and matched its members by age with persons with no significant noise exposure. Results indicate that farmers exposed only to noise from farming have significantly poorer hearing sensitivity than persons not exposed to noise. PMID:1561302

  3. Progress and Prospects in Human Genetic Research into Age-Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Saiko; Ueda, Hiromi; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a complex, multifactorial disorder that is attributable to confounding intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The degree of impairment shows substantial variation between individuals, as is also observed in the senescence of other functions. This individual variation would seem to refute the stereotypical view that hearing deterioration with age is inevitable and may indicate that there is ample scope for preventive intervention. Genetic predisposition could account for a sizable proportion of interindividual variation. Over the past decade or so, tremendous progress has been made through research into the genetics of various forms of hearing impairment, including ARHI and our knowledge of the complex mechanisms of auditory function has increased substantially. Here, we give an overview of recent investigations aimed at identifying the genetic risk factors involved in ARHI and of what we currently know about its pathophysiology. This review is divided into the following sections: (i) genes causing monogenic hearing impairment with phenotypic similarities to ARHI; (ii) genes involved in oxidative stress, biologic stress responses, and mitochondrial dysfunction; and (iii) candidate genes for senescence, other geriatric diseases, and neurodegeneration. Progress and prospects in genetic research are discussed. PMID:25140308

  4. 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents If ... gov Internet: www.nidcd.nih.gov Read More "Hearing Loss" Articles Managing Hearing Loss / Symptoms, Devices, Prevention & Research / ...

  5. Hearing loss in shipyard employees

    PubMed Central

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Tsouvaltzidou, Thomaella

    2015-01-01

    Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most prevalent occupational illnesses, with a higher incidence in the heavy industry. Objectives of the Study: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of NIHL in Greece and explore its correlations with other job and individual-related factors. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were administered, and audiograms were conducted to 757 employees of a shipyard company in Greece, both white- and blue-collar, during the period 2006–2009. A modification of the 1979' equation of the American Academy of Otolaryngology was used to calculate hearing loss. Statistical analysis was conducted by means of the SPSS v. 17. Results: A 27.1% of the employees were hearing handicap. Hearing loss was correlated with age, past medical history of ear disease (Meniere's disease, acoustic neuroma, otosclerosis) or injury, hyperlipidemia, job title and level of education. A few questions on subjective hearing ability and symptoms showed strong discriminatory power of hearing pathology. Conclusions: The results of this study emphasize the burden of disease in the shipyard industry, and the need for continuous monitoring, implementation of preventive measures and hearing conservation programs. PMID:26023266

  6. Hearing and age-related changes in the gray mouse lemur.

    PubMed

    Schopf, Christian; Zimmermann, Elke; Tünsmeyer, Julia; Kästner, Sabine B R; Hubka, Peter; Kral, Andrej

    2014-12-01

    In order to examine auditory thresholds and hearing sensitivity during aging in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), suggested to represent a model for early primate evolution and Alzheimer research, we applied brainstem-evoked response audiometry (BERA), traditionally used for screening hearing sensitivity in human babies. To assess the effect of age, we determined auditory thresholds in two age groups of adult mouse lemurs (young adults, 1-5 years; old adults, ≥7 years) using clicks and tone pips. Auditory thresholds indicated frequency sensitivity from 800 Hz to almost 50 kHz, covering the species tonal communication range with fundamentals from about 8 to 40 kHz. The frequency of best hearing at 7.9 kHz was slightly lower than that and coincided with the dominant frequencies of communication signals of a predator. Aging shifted auditory thresholds in the range between 2 and 50.4 kHz significantly by 12-27 dB. This mild presbyacusis, expressed in a drop of amplitudes of BERA signals, but not discernible in latencies of responses, suggests a metabolic age-related decrease potentially combined with an accompanying degeneration of the cochlear nerve. Our findings on hearing range of this species support the hypothesis that predation was a driving factor for the evolution of hearing in small ancestral primates. Likewise, results provide the empirical basis for future approaches trying to differentiate peripheral from central factors when studying Alzheimer's disease-like pathologies in the aging brain. PMID:25112886

  7. The Impact of Hearing Loss on Quality of Life in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Dayna S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wiley, Terry L.; Nondahl, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigate the impact of hearing loss on quality of life in a large population of older adults. Design and Methods: Data are from the 5-year follow-up Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, a population-based longitudinal study of age-related hearing impairment conducted in Beaver Dam, WI. Participants (N = 2,688) were 53-97…

  8. Genetics of Hearing Loss: Syndromic.

    PubMed

    Koffler, Tal; Ushakov, Kathy; Avraham, Karen B

    2015-12-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common birth defects in developed countries and is a diverse pathologic condition with different classifications. One of these is based on the association with other clinical features, defined as syndromic hearing loss (SHL). Determining the cause of the HL in these patients is extremely beneficial as it enables a personalized approach to caring for the individual. Early screening can further aid in optimal rehabilitation for a child's development and growth. The advancement of high-throughput sequencing technology is facilitating rapid and low-cost diagnostics for patients with SHL. PMID:26443487

  9. Noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Davis, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English), which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment. PMID:23257577

  10. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing ... learning important speech and language skills. Types of hearing loss Conductive hearing loss is a form of hearing ...

  11. Hearing Loss Signals Need for Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Hearing Loss Signals Need for Diagnosis Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... or serious ear condition and lead to further hearing loss or other complications. “The problem might be as ...

  12. Talking to someone with hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000361.htm Talking to someone with hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, ... It may be hard for a person with hearing loss to understand a conversation with another person. Being ...

  13. Drug Induced Hearing Loss: What Is Ototoxicity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Drug-Induced Hearing Loss What Is Ototoxicity? Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table ... of patients taking these drugs." "Antibiotics Caused My Hearing Loss..." Gulab Lalwani Photo Courtesy of: Gulab Lalwani When ...

  14. 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... exposure and other causes. 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Take the following quiz to help determine if ...

  15. Acoustic Trauma - Hearing Loss in Teenagers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Acoustic Trauma - Hearing Loss in Teenagers Page Content Article ... temporary or permanent hearing loss. This is called acoustic trauma. How loud is 85 decibels? Surprisingly, not ...

  16. Hearing, Cognition, and Healthy Aging: Social and Public Health Implications of the Links between Age-Related Declines in Hearing and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Mick, Paul; Reed, Marilyn

    2015-08-01

    Sensory input provides the signals used by the brain when listeners understand speech and participate in social activities with other people in a range of everyday situations. When sensory inputs are diminished, there can be short-term consequences to brain functioning, and long-term deprivation can affect brain neuroplasticity. Indeed, the association between hearing loss and cognitive declines in older adults is supported by experimental and epidemiologic evidence, although the causal mechanisms remain unknown. These interactions of auditory and cognitive aging play out in the challenges confronted by people with age-related hearing problems when understanding speech and engaging in social interactions. In the present article, we use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Selective Optimization with Compensation models to highlight the importance of adopting a healthy aging perspective that focuses on facilitating active social participation by older adults. First, we examine epidemiologic evidence linking ARHL to cognitive declines and other health issues. Next, we examine how social factors influence and are influenced by auditory and cognitive aging and if they may provide a possible explanation for the association between ARHL and cognitive decline. Finally, we outline how audiologists could reposition hearing health care within the broader context of healthy aging. PMID:27516713

  17. Hearing, Cognition, and Healthy Aging: Social and Public Health Implications of the Links between Age-Related Declines in Hearing and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Mick, Paul; Reed, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Sensory input provides the signals used by the brain when listeners understand speech and participate in social activities with other people in a range of everyday situations. When sensory inputs are diminished, there can be short-term consequences to brain functioning, and long-term deprivation can affect brain neuroplasticity. Indeed, the association between hearing loss and cognitive declines in older adults is supported by experimental and epidemiologic evidence, although the causal mechanisms remain unknown. These interactions of auditory and cognitive aging play out in the challenges confronted by people with age-related hearing problems when understanding speech and engaging in social interactions. In the present article, we use the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the Selective Optimization with Compensation models to highlight the importance of adopting a healthy aging perspective that focuses on facilitating active social participation by older adults. First, we examine epidemiologic evidence linking ARHL to cognitive declines and other health issues. Next, we examine how social factors influence and are influenced by auditory and cognitive aging and if they may provide a possible explanation for the association between ARHL and cognitive decline. Finally, we outline how audiologists could reposition hearing health care within the broader context of healthy aging. PMID:27516713

  18. Radiation Therapy and Hearing Loss

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandare, Niranjan; Jackson, Andrew; Eisbruch, Avraham; Pan, Charlie C.; Flickinger, John C.; Antonelli, Patrick; Mendenhall, William M.

    2010-03-01

    A review of literature on the development of sensorineural hearing loss after high-dose radiation therapy for head-and-neck tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of vestibular schwannoma is presented. Because of the small volume of the cochlea a dose-volume analysis is not feasible. Instead, the current literature on the effect of the mean dose received by the cochlea and other treatment- and patient-related factors on outcome are evaluated. Based on the data, a specific threshold dose to cochlea for sensorineural hearing loss cannot be determined; therefore, dose-prescription limits are suggested. A standard for evaluating radiation therapy-associated ototoxicity as well as a detailed approach for scoring toxicity is presented.

  19. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruoxun; Gong, He; Zhang, Xianbin; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhengbin; Zhu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone. PMID:27403206

  20. Modeling the Mechanical Consequences of Age-Related Trabecular Bone Loss by XFEM Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ruoxun; Zhang, Xianbin; Liu, Jun; Jia, Zhengbin; Zhu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The elderly are more likely to suffer from fracture because of age-related trabecular bone loss. Different bone loss locations and patterns have different effects on bone mechanical properties. Extended finite element method (XFEM) can simulate fracture process and was suited to investigate the effects of bone loss on trabecular bone. Age-related bone loss is indicated by trabecular thinning and loss and may occur at low-strain locations or other random sites. Accordingly, several ideal normal and aged trabecular bone models were created based on different bone loss locations and patterns; then, fracture processes from crack initiation to complete failure of these models were observed by XFEM; finally, the effects of different locations and patterns on trabecular bone were compared. Results indicated that bone loss occurring at low-strain locations was more detrimental to trabecular bone than that occurring at other random sites; meanwhile, the decrease in bone strength caused by trabecular loss was higher than that caused by trabecular thinning, and the effects of vertical trabecular loss on mechanical properties were more severe than horizontal trabecular loss. This study provided a numerical method to simulate trabecular bone fracture and distinguished different effects of the possible occurrence of bone loss locations and patterns on trabecular bone. PMID:27403206

  1. Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Donna L; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Mellon, Nancy K

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric hearing loss changed more in the past two decades than it had in the prior 100 years with children now identified in the first weeks of life and fit early with amplification. Dramatic improvements in hearing technology allow children the opportunity to listen, speak and read on par with typically hearing peers. National laws mandate that public and private schools, workplaces, and anywhere people go must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. In 2015, most children with hearing loss attended mainstream schools with typically hearing peers. Psychosocial skills still present challenges for some children with hearing loss. PMID:26429333

  2. Navigating Your Child's Hearing Loss Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapp Petty, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    For hearing parents, receiving a hearing loss diagnosis for their child can be a shocking event. For some parents, the diagnosis is the fulfillment of a hunch; confirmation of the suspected, but still scary verdict. Recent research finds that the period directly after hearing loss diagnosis is the most stressful and burdensome for parents,…

  3. Hearing loss among high school farm students.

    PubMed Central

    Broste, S K; Hansen, D A; Strand, R L; Stueland, D T

    1989-01-01

    To study the prevalence of hearing loss among teen-aged farm children in central Wisconsin, audiometric threshold testing of 872 vocational agriculture students was carried out over a three-year period. The results indicate an increased prevalence of hearing loss among students actively involved in farm work, as compared to their peers not involved in farm work. Findings also suggest that use of hearing protection may reduce the risk of hearing loss among students who work on the farm, although few students report the use of such devices. These data also suggest that the hearing loss often observed in adult farmers may begin in childhood. PMID:2784948

  4. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss On this page: ... more information about enlarged vestibular aqueducts? What are vestibular aqueducts? The inner ear Credit: NIH Medical Arts ...

  5. Effects of chronic estrogen treatment on modulating age-related bone loss in female mice.

    PubMed

    Syed, Farhan A; Mödder, Ulrike Il; Roforth, Matthew; Hensen, Ira; Fraser, Daniel G; Peterson, James M; Oursler, Merry Jo; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-11-01

    While female mice do not have the equivalent of a menopause, they do undergo reproductive senescence. Thus, to dissociate the effects of aging versus estrogen deficiency on age-related bone loss, we sham-operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized and estrogen-replaced female C57/BL6 mice at 6 months of age and followed them to age 18 to 22 months. Lumbar spines and femurs were excised for analysis, and bone marrow hematopoietic lineage negative (lin-) cells (enriched for osteoprogenitor cells) were isolated for gene expression studies. Six-month-old intact control mice were euthanized to define baseline parameters. Compared with young mice, aged/sham-operated mice had a 42% reduction in lumbar spine bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), and maintaining constant estrogen levels over life in ovariectomized/estrogen-treated mice did not prevent age-related trabecular bone loss at this site. By contrast, lifelong estrogen treatment of ovariectomized mice completely prevented the age-related reduction in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and thickness at the tibial diaphysis present in the aged/sham-operated mice. As compared with cells from young mice, lin- cells from aged/sham-operated mice expressed significantly higher mRNA levels for osteoblast differentiation and proliferation marker genes. These data thus demonstrate that, in mice, age-related loss of cortical bone in the appendicular skeleton, but not loss of trabecular bone in the spine, can be prevented by maintaining constant estrogen levels over life. The observed increase in osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation marker gene expression in progenitor bone marrow cells from aged versus young mice may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to ongoing bone loss. PMID:20499336

  6. Hearing Loss in the Elderly: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Blakley, Brian W.

    1989-01-01

    Loss of hearing is tragic, yet most of those afflicted can be helped. Surgery is sometimes appropriate, but for the majority a hearing aid is the best answer. This article reviews what happens in different hearing losses, and gives an overview of hearing aids for the physician who lacks an extensive technical background but wishes to understand these devices a little better. Simple tips for investigation of hearing-aid complaints are included, as well as some tips for communication with hard-of-hearing persons. PMID:21249000

  7. Familial hearing loss and cisplatin therapy.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, B J; Torkelson, J L

    1998-01-01

    Familial high-tone hearing loss in males is a recessive trait often unrecognized. Cisplatin chemotherapy may be associated with hearing loss. A review was made of audiograms in 85 patients with testicular carcinoma prior to cisplatin chemotherapy to determine the extent of preexisting familial hearing loss. Clinical histories defined patients exposed to high noise levels and other common causes of hearing loss. Audiometric findings were classified according to normal hearing or mild, moderate, and severe hearing impairment. Pretreatment audiograms were normal in 51 patients and abnormal in 19 patients with histories of high-level noise exposure, and in 15 patients with high-frequency hearing loss there was no history of noise exposure, ear infection, or other potential causes of hearing loss. These last 15 patients were judged to have recessive familial hearing loss. Awareness of familial hearing loss is important in male patients in whom cisplatin chemotherapy is planned. Pretreatment hearing assessment, including audiograms, is recommended for such male patients. PMID:9589029

  8. Gulliver meets Descartes: early modern concepts of age-related memory loss.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Age-related memory loss was a marginal issue in medical discussions during early modern times and until well into the second half of the 17th century. There are many possible explanations: the lack of similar traditions in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, insufficient physiological and morphological knowledge of the brain, and the underlying conflict between idealistic and materialistic perspectives on the functions of the soul and the conditions of these in old age. After these boundaries had been pushed back by the influence of Cartesianism and Iatromechanism, the problem of age-related memory loss was increasingly regarded as a physical illness and began to receive more attention. This trend first occurred in medicine, before spreading to the literary world, where the novel "Gulliver's Travels" is one clear and famous example. PMID:12785108

  9. [Steroid-responsive sensorineural hearing loss with low tone loss].

    PubMed

    Toriya, R; Yamashita, H; Hisashi, K; Komune, S; Komiyama, S

    1995-11-01

    Five cases of sensorineural hearing loss of sudden onset were reviewed. They were not responsive to administration of ATP and Vit. B12, but very responsive to steroid administration. All the patients were male and showed hearing loss in low frequencies in pure tone audiogram. Administration of steroid recovered hearing impairment immediately. However, cessation of steroid aggravated the recovered hearing. Serological and immunological examinations did not show any abnormal findings on all the patients. It was considered that these five patients had characteristics of both steroid-sensitive and low tone-loss type sensorineural hearing losses. PMID:8566929

  10. Nutrient-rich meat proteins in offsetting age-related muscle loss.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-11-01

    From a health perspective, an underappreciated consequence of the normal aging process is the impacts that the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass, termed sarcopenia, has on health beyond an effect on locomotion. Sarcopenia, refers to the loss of muscle mass, and associated muscle weakness, which occurs in aging and is thought to proceed at a rate of approximately 1% loss per year. However, periods of inactivity due to illness or recovery from orthopedic procedures such as hip or knee replacement are times of accelerated sarcopenic muscle loss from which it may be more difficult for older persons to recover. Some of the consequences of age-related sarcopenia are easy to appreciate such as weakness and, eventually, reduced mobility; however, other lesser recognized consequences include, due to the metabolic role the skeletal muscle plays, an increased risk for poor glucose control and a predisposition toward weight gain. What we currently know is that two stimuli can counter this age related muscle loss and these are physical activity, specifically resistance exercise (weightlifting), and nutrition. The focus of this paper is on the types of dietary protein that people might reasonably consume to offset sarcopenic muscle loss. PMID:22632883

  11. Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss With Minimal Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chin Saeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics of patients who did not match the audiometric criteria of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) but complained of acute hearing loss. Methods By thorough medical chart reviews, historical cohort study was performed with consecutive data of 589 patients complaining of acute unilateral sensorineural hearing loss without identifiable causes between 2005 and 2013. Those patients demonstrating a hearing loss of at least 30 dB at three consecutive frequencies based on pure tone audiometry were classified as group I; the others were classified as group II. Patients' characteristics, final hearing, and hearing improvement rate (HIR) between the two groups were compared. Results Group II exhibited distinctive characteristics, including an early age of onset of the hearing loss (P<0.01), an absence of accompanying diabetes (P<0.01) and hypertension (P<0.01), and better unaffected hearing and final hearing compared with group I (P<0.001). However, the HIR of the patients in the two groups was not significantly different (P>0.05). Conclusion Patients who did not meet the audiological criteria of SSNHL exhibited distinctive characteristics compared to SSNHL patients. PMID:26622953

  12. Noise and Hearing Loss: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Background: Noise-induced hearing loss is a major cause of deafness and hearing impairment in the United States. Though genetics and advanced age are major risk factors, temporary and permanent hearing impairments are becoming more common among young adults and children especially with the increased exposure to portable music players. Though…

  13. Superoxide Dismutase 1 Loss Disturbs Intracellular Redox Signaling, Resulting in Global Age-Related Pathological Changes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and organ dysfunction, which occur in a progressive and irreversible manner. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) serves as a major antioxidant and neutralizes superoxide radicals throughout the body. In vivo studies have demonstrated that copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1−/−) mice show various aging-like pathologies, accompanied by augmentation of oxidative damage in organs. We found that antioxidant treatment significantly attenuated the age-related tissue changes and oxidative damage-associated p53 upregulation in Sod1−/− mice. This review will focus on various age-related pathologies caused by the loss of Sod1 and will discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in Sod1−/− mice. PMID:25276767

  14. I owe you: age-related similarities and differences in associative memory for gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D; Friedman, Michael C; McGillivray, Shannon; Flores, Cynthia C; Murayama, Kou; Kerr, Tyson; Drolet, Aimee

    2016-09-01

    Older adults often experience associative memory impairments but can sometimes remember important information. The current experiments investigate potential age-related similarities and differences associate memory for gains and losses. Younger and older participants were presented with faces and associated dollar amounts, which indicated how much money the person "owed" the participant, and were later given a cued recall test for the dollar amount. Experiment 1 examined face-dollar amount pairs while Experiment 2 included negative dollar amounts to examine both gains and losses. While younger adults recalled more information relative to older adults, both groups were more accurate in recalling the correct value associated with high-value faces compared to lower-value faces and remembered gist-information about the values. However, negative values (losses) did not have a strong impact on recall among older adults versus younger adults, illustrating important associative memory differences between younger and older adults. PMID:26847137

  15. MHCI promotes developmental synapse elimination and aging-related synapse loss at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Tetruashvily, Mazell M; McDonald, Marin A; Frietze, Karla K; Boulanger, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    Synapse elimination at the developing neuromuscular junction (NMJ) sculpts motor circuits, and synapse loss at the aging NMJ drives motor impairments that are a major cause of loss of independence in the elderly. Here we provide evidence that at the NMJ, both developmental synapse elimination and aging-related synapse loss are promoted by specific immune proteins, members of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI). MHCI is expressed at the developing NMJ, and three different methods of reducing MHCI function all disrupt synapse elimination during the second postnatal week, leaving some muscle fibers multiply-innervated, despite otherwise outwardly normal synapse formation and maturation. Conversely, overexpressing MHCI modestly accelerates developmental synapse elimination. MHCI levels at the NMJ rise with aging, and reducing MHCI levels ameliorates muscle denervation in aged mice. These findings identify an unexpected role for MHCI in the elimination of neuromuscular synapses during development, and indicate that reducing MHCI levels can preserve youthful innervation of aging muscle. PMID:26802986

  16. Age-Related Hearing Impairment (ARHI) Associated with GJB2 Single Mutation IVS1+1G>A in the Yakut Population Isolate in Eastern Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Pshennikova, Vera G.; Solovyev, Aisen V.; Klarov, Leonid A.; Solovyeva, Natalya A.; Kozhevnikov, Andrei A.; Vasilyeva, Lena M.; Fedotova, Elvira E.; Pak, Maria V.; Lekhanova, Sargylana N.; Zakharova, Elena V.; Savvinova, Kyunney E.; Gotovtsev, Nyurgun N.; Rafailo, Adyum M.; Luginov, Nikolay V.; Alexeev, Anatoliy N.; Posukh, Olga L.; Dzhemileva, Lilya U.; Khusnutdinova, Elza K.; Fedorova, Sardana A.

    2014-01-01

    Age-Related Hearing Impairment (ARHI) is one of the frequent sensory disorders registered in 50% of individuals over 80 years. ARHI is a multifactorial disorder due to environmental and poor-known genetic components. In this study, we present the data on age-related hearing impairment of 48 heterozygous carriers of mutation IVS1+1G>A (GJB2 gene) and 97 subjects with GJB2 genotype wt/wt in the Republic of Sakha/Yakutia (Eastern Siberia, Russia). This subarctic territory was found as the region with the most extensive accumulation of mutation IVS1+1G>A in the world as a result of founder effect in the unique Yakut population isolate. The GJB2 gene resequencing and detailed audiological analysis in the frequency range 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 kHz were performed in all examined subjects that allowed to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations between the presence of single mutation IVS1+1G>A and hearing of subjects from examined groups. We revealed the linear correlation between increase of average hearing thresholds at speech frequencies (PTA0.5,1.0,2.0,4.0 kHz) and age of individuals with GJB2 genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt (rs = 0.499, p = 0.006860 for males and rs = 0.427, p = 0.000277 for females). Moreover, the average hearing thresholds on high frequency (8.0 kHz) in individuals with genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt (both sexes) were significantly worse than in individuals with genotype wt/wt (p<0.05). Age of hearing loss manifestation in individuals with genotype IVS1+1G>A/wt was estimated to be ∼40 years (rs = 0.504, p = 0.003). These findings demonstrate that the single IVS1+1G>A mutation (GJB2) is associated with age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) of the IVS1+1G>A carriers in the Yakuts. PMID:24959830

  17. Hearing Loss in Children: Data and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing loss is intellectual disability (23%), followed by cerebral palsy (10%), autism spectrum disorder (7%), and/or vision ... without other related conditions (such as intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, or vision loss) were employed. [ Read summary ] ...

  18. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), the leading cause of occupationally induced hearing loss in industrialized countries. It discusses causes of NIHL and compelling evidence that reactive oxygen metabolites and cochlear hypoprefusion are responsible for the destruction of cochlear hair cells. Prevention is also…

  19. Amplification considerations for children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss and unilateral hearing loss.

    PubMed

    McKay, Sarah; Gravel, Judith S; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    2008-03-01

    Children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss and unilateral hearing loss are at higher risk for academic, speech-language, and social-emotional difficulties than their normal hearing peers. The choice to fit infants with moderate or greater degrees of bilateral hearing loss has been standard practice for most clinicians, but for those with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss, the fitting of hearing technology must be based on limited data. Evidence does not yet exist to support all the management decisions that an audiologist must make upon identifying an infant with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss. It is not yet known which children are at the greatest risk for educational problems nor is it known if the provision of early amplification in this population will help a child avoid later difficulties. Some of these considerations and current hearing technology options for children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss are reviewed in this article. PMID:18270178

  20. Understanding the Experience of Age-Related Vestibular Loss in Older Individuals: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Carol; Bridges, John F. P.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Background Inner ear balance (or vestibular) function declines with age and is associated with decreased mobility and an increased risk of falls in older individuals. We sought to understand the lived experience of older adults with vestibular loss in order to improve care in this population. Methods Qualitative data were derived from semi-structured interviews of individuals aged 65 years or older presenting to the Balance and Falls Prevention Clinic from February 1, 2014 to March 30, 2015 for evaluation of age-related vestibular loss. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. We created a taxonomy of overarching superordinate themes based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Framework, and classified key dimensions within each of these themes. Results Sixteen interviews were conducted with individuals (mean age 76.0 years, 75 % female) with age-related vestibular loss. The three superordinate themes and associated key dimensions were (1) body impairment (including depression, fatigue, fear/anxiety, and problems with concentrating and memory); (2) activity limitation and participation restriction (isolation, needing to stop in the middle of activities, reduced participation relative to expectations, reduced ability to drive or travel, and problems with bending/looking up, standing, and walking); and (3) environmental influences (needing help with daily activities). All participants reported difficulty walking. Conclusions Older adults report that vestibular loss impacts their body functioning and restricts their participation in activities. The specific key dimensions uncovered by this qualitative study can be used to evaluate care from the patient's perspective. PMID:26739817

  1. Asymmetric and Unilateral Hearing Loss in Children

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Peter; Lieu, Judith E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric and unilateral hearing losses in children have traditionally been underappreciated, but health care practitioners are now beginning to understand their effect on development and the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. The common wisdom among medical and educational professionals has been that at least one normal hearing or near-normal hearing ear was sufficient for typical speech and language development in children. The objective of this review is to illustrate to the non-otolaryngologist the consequences of asymmetric and unilateral hearing loss in children on developmental and educational outcomes. In the process, etiology, detection, and management are discussed. Lastly, implications for further research are considered. PMID:26004144

  2. Managing Hearing Loss | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain medications, or long-term exposure to loud noises. Sensorineural hearing loss occurs when there is damage ... Many people may have a combination of both noise-induced hearing loss and hearing loss from aging. ...

  3. Sudden hearing loss after dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Kansu, Leyla; Yilmaz, Ismail

    2013-08-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with impaired balance, tinnitus, sensation of blockage, and hearing loss in his left ear, which developed after dental treatment for dental pain 4 days previously. Treatment of the carious left upper second molar tooth had included pulp extirpation, canal expansion, and tooth filling under local anesthesia with articaine and epinephrine. Impaired balance decreased spontaneously within 3 days of dental treatment, but tinnitus and hearing loss persisted. Pure tone audiogram showed profound sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear, with a downslope from 40 to 100 dB, and an abnormal speech discrimination score (50%). Treatment included intravenous prednisolone, intratympanic dexamethasone, and oral betahistine and trimetazidine. The patient had improved hearing and resolution of tinnitus. Sudden hearing loss is rare after dental treatment, and awareness of this complication may prompt early referral for treatment and may improve recovery and prognosis. PMID:23642550

  4. 20 CFR 702.441 - Claims for loss of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Supervision Hearing Loss Claims § 702.441 Claims for loss of hearing. (a) Claims for hearing loss... regulations. (b) An audiogram shall be presumptive evidence of the amount of hearing loss on the date... report must set forth the testing standards used and describe the method of evaluating the hearing...

  5. Aging-related gains and losses associated with word production in connected speech.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Paul A; Hess, Thomas M

    2016-11-01

    Older adults have been observed to use more nonnormative, or atypical, words than younger adults in connected speech. We examined whether aging-related losses in word-finding abilities or gains in language expertise underlie these age differences. Sixty younger and 60 older adults described two neutral photographs. These descriptions were processed into word types, and textual analysis was used to identify interrupted speech (e.g., pauses), reflecting word-finding difficulty. Word types were assessed for normativeness, with nonnormative word types defined as those used by six (5%) or fewer participants to describe a particular picture. Accuracy and precision ratings were provided by another sample of 48 high-vocabulary younger and older adults. Older adults produced more interrupted and, as predicted, nonnormative words than younger adults. Older adults were more likely than younger adults to use nonnormative language via interrupted speech, suggesting a compensatory process. However, older adults' nonnormative words were more precise and trended for having higher accuracy, reflecting expertise. In tasks offering response flexibility, like connected speech, older adults may be able to offset instances of aging-related deficits by maximizing their expertise in other instances. PMID:26963869

  6. Association of Vision Loss in Glaucoma and Age-Related Macular Degeneration with IADL Disability

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Chad; Maul, Eugenio; Chan, Emilie S.; Van Landingham, Suzanne; Ferrucci, Luigi; Friedman, David S.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if glaucoma and/or age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are associated with disability in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Methods. Glaucoma subjects (n = 84) with bilateral visual field (VF) loss and AMD subjects (n = 47) with bilateral or severe unilateral visual acuity (VA) loss were compared with 60 subjects with normal vision (controls). Subjects completed a standard IADL disability questionnaire, with disability defined as an inability to perform one or more IADLs unassisted. Results. Disability in one or more IADLs was present in 18.3% of controls as compared with 25.0% of glaucoma subjects (P = 0.34) and 44.7% of AMD subjects (P = 0.003). The specific IADL disabilities occurring more frequently in both AMD and glaucoma subjects were preparing meals, grocery shopping, and out-of-home travelling (P < 0.05 for both). In multivariate logistic regression models run adjusting for age, sex, mental status, comorbidity, and years of education, AMD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, P = 0.02) but not glaucoma (OR = 1.4, P = 0.45) was associated with IADL disability. However, among glaucoma and control patients, the odds of IADL disability increased 1.6-fold with every 5 dB of VF loss in the better-seeing eye (P = 0.001). Additionally, severe glaucoma subjects (better-eye MD worse than −13.5 dB) had higher odds of IADL disability (OR = 4.2, P = 0.02). Among AMD and control subjects, every Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study line of worse acuity was associated with a greater likelihood of IADL disability (OR = 1.3). Conclusions. VA loss in AMD and severe VF loss in glaucoma are associated with self-reported difficulties with IADLs. These limitations become more likely with increasing magnitude of VA or VF loss. PMID:22491415

  7. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss Part II: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Therapeutic Options].

    PubMed

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    The great majority of hearing disorders generates from pathologies in the inner ear, mainly the outer hair cells, as mentioned in the first part of this review. Very often, however, hearing loss appears suddenly and even without external causes like noise exposure. This sudden hearing loss is mostly unilateral, recovers very often spontaneously and should be treated, if persisting. Only in this acute stage there are therapeutic options available. If the inner ear hearing loss is chronic there is no curative therapy, an effective management of the hearing disorder is only possible through rehabilitation. This is due to the fact, that hair cells of all mammals, incl. humans, have no regenerative capacity and neither pharmaceutic agents nor other means can induce regeneration and recovery of hair cells. Even a gen-therapy is not available yet. In the second part of this review the main focus lies in sudden hearing loss and general therapeutic options for inner ear hearing loss. PMID:27392187

  8. Sporadic Visual Acuity Loss in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Benjamin J.; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Levy, Nicole E.; Maguire, Maureen G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate transient, large visual acuity (VA) decreases, termed sporadic vision loss, during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Cohort within a randomized clinical trial. Methods Setting Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT). Study Population 1185 CATT patients. Main Outcome Measures incidence of sporadic vision loss and odds ratio (OR) for association with patient and ocular factors. Sporadic vision loss was a decline of ≥ 15 letters from the previous visit, followed by a return at the next visit to no more than 5 letters worse than the visit before the VA loss. Results There were 143 sporadic vision loss events in 122/1185 (10.3%) patients. Mean VA at two years for those with and without sporadic vision loss was 58.5 (~20/63) and 68.4 (~20/40) letters, respectively (P < 0.001). Among patients treated pro re nata, no injection was given for 27.6% (27/98) of sporadic vision loss events. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that baseline predictors for sporadic vision loss included worse baseline VA (OR 2.92, 95%CI:1.65–5.17 for ≤ 20/200 compared with ≥ 20/40), scar (OR 2.21, 95%CI:1.22–4.01), intraretinal foveal fluid on optical coherence tomography (OR 1.80, 95%CI:1.11–2.91), and medical history of anxiety (OR 1.90, 95%CI:1.12–3.24) and syncope (OR 2.75, 95%CI:1.45–5.22). Refraction decreased the likelihood of sporadic vision loss (OR 0.62, 95%CI:0.42–0.91). Conclusions Approximately 10% of CATT patients had sporadic vision loss. Baseline predictors included AMD-related factors and factors independent of AMD. These data are relevant for clinicians in practice and those involved in clinical trials. PMID:24727261

  9. Coping with Hearing Loss and High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High school can be a bumpy road for teenagers, especially since most teenagers are trying to fit in and start to define their own individuality and future. Now imagine if a teenager has hearing loss. Besides not being able to hear their instructors or friends as well as their classmates, self image problems can be magnified if they need to wear…

  10. 20 CFR 702.441 - Claims for loss of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Care and Supervision Hearing Loss Claims § 702.441 Claims for loss of hearing. (a) Claims for hearing... regulations. (b) An audiogram shall be presumptive evidence of the amount of hearing loss on the date... report must set forth the testing standards used and describe the method of evaluating the hearing...

  11. 20 CFR 702.441 - Claims for loss of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Care and Supervision Hearing Loss Claims § 702.441 Claims for loss of hearing. (a) Claims for hearing... regulations. (b) An audiogram shall be presumptive evidence of the amount of hearing loss on the date... report must set forth the testing standards used and describe the method of evaluating the hearing...

  12. 20 CFR 702.441 - Claims for loss of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Care and Supervision Hearing Loss Claims § 702.441 Claims for loss of hearing. (a) Claims for hearing... regulations. (b) An audiogram shall be presumptive evidence of the amount of hearing loss on the date... report must set forth the testing standards used and describe the method of evaluating the hearing...

  13. 20 CFR 702.441 - Claims for loss of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Care and Supervision Hearing Loss Claims § 702.441 Claims for loss of hearing. (a) Claims for hearing... regulations. (b) An audiogram shall be presumptive evidence of the amount of hearing loss on the date... report must set forth the testing standards used and describe the method of evaluating the hearing...

  14. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  15. Is the age-related loss in olfactory sensitivity similar for light and heavy molecules?

    PubMed

    Sinding, Charlotte; Puschmann, Laura; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The process of aging affects olfaction quite early and can lead to a major handicap. One may ask whether olfactory loss is general or if it affects some odors more specifically? We investigated whether an age-related increase in olfactory threshold could be more or less specific to heavy or light molecules, based on the idea that these odors would bind differently to olfactory receptors. One group of 30 older subjects (50-70 years) and one group of 30 young adults (18-30 years) were tested for their threshold to 4 odors. Two odorants were light molecules (<150 g/mol) and the 2 others were heavy molecules (>150 g/mol). Both sets contained a single molecule and a binary mixture. Older subjects performed worse than young adults in an odor identification task, confirming a decline in the olfactory function. As a major result, young adults were as sensitive to light and heavy molecules; on the contrary, older subjects were less sensitive to heavy molecules (single molecule and binary mixture). The results suggest that older people present a heterogeneous olfactory loss more specific to heavier molecules. PMID:24803088

  16. Chronic Conductive Hearing Loss Leads to Cochlear Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, M. Charles; Liberman, Leslie D.; Maison, Stéphane F.

    2015-01-01

    Synapses between cochlear nerve terminals and hair cells are the most vulnerable elements in the inner ear in both noise-induced and age-related hearing loss, and this neuropathy is exacerbated in the absence of efferent feedback from the olivocochlear bundle. If age-related loss is dominated by a lifetime of exposure to environmental sounds, reduction of acoustic drive to the inner ear might improve cochlear preservation throughout life. To test this, we removed the tympanic membrane unilaterally in one group of young adult mice, removed the olivocochlear bundle in another group and compared their cochlear function and innervation to age-matched controls one year later. Results showed that tympanic membrane removal, and the associated threshold elevation, was counterproductive: cochlear efferent innervation was dramatically reduced, especially the lateral olivocochlear terminals to the inner hair cell area, and there was a corresponding reduction in the number of cochlear nerve synapses. This loss led to a decrease in the amplitude of the suprathreshold cochlear neural responses. Similar results were seen in two cases with conductive hearing loss due to chronic otitis media. Outer hair cell death was increased only in ears lacking medial olivocochlear innervation following olivocochlear bundle cuts. Results suggest the novel ideas that 1) the olivocochlear efferent pathway has a dramatic use-dependent plasticity even in the adult ear and 2) a component of the lingering auditory processing disorder seen in humans after persistent middle-ear infections is cochlear in origin. PMID:26580411

  17. Cognitive spare capacity in older adults with hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker; Rudner, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) are associated with speech recognition in adverse conditions, reflecting the need to maintain and process speech fragments until lexical access can be achieved. When working memory resources are engaged in unlocking the lexicon, there is less Cognitive Spare Capacity (CSC) available for higher level processing of speech. CSC is essential for interpreting the linguistic content of speech input and preparing an appropriate response, that is, engaging in conversation. Previously, we showed, using a Cognitive Spare Capacity Test (CSCT) that in young adults with normal hearing, CSC was not generally related to WMC and that when CSC decreased in noise it could be restored by visual cues. In the present study, we investigated CSC in 24 older adults with age-related hearing loss, by administering the CSCT and a battery of cognitive tests. We found generally reduced CSC in older adults with hearing loss compared to the younger group in our previous study, probably because they had poorer cognitive skills and deployed them differently. Importantly, CSC was not reduced in the older group when listening conditions were optimal. Visual cues improved CSC more for this group than for the younger group in our previous study. CSC of older adults with hearing loss was not generally related to WMC but it was consistently related to episodic long term memory, suggesting that the efficiency of this processing bottleneck is important for executive processing of speech in this group. PMID:24904409

  18. 76 FR 62093 - Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss: Stakeholder Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss: Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY... hearing loss. Every year, between 20,000 and 25,000 workers suffer from preventable hearing loss due to... occupational hearing loss. DATES: The date for the stakeholder meeting is November 03, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 1...

  19. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention: Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Smartphone Sound Apps Music-induced Hearing Loss ... SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog Smartphone Sound Apps Music-induced Hearing Loss ...

  20. Hearing and hearing loss: Causes, effects, and treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmiedt, Richard A.

    2003-04-01

    Hearing loss can have multiple causes. The outer and middle ears are conductive pathways for acoustic energy to the inner ear (cochlea) and help shape our spectral sensitivity. Conductive hearing loss is mechanical in nature such that the energy transfer to the cochlea is impeded, often from eardrum perforations or middle ear fluid buildup. Beyond the middle ear, the cochlea comprises three interdependent systems necessary for normal hearing. The first is that of basilar-membrane micromechanics including the outer hair cells. This system forms the basis of the cochlear amplifier and is the most vulnerable to noise and drug exposure. The second system comprises the ion pumps in the lateral wall tissues of the cochlea. These highly metabolic cells provide energy to the cochlear amplifier in the form of electrochemical potentials. This second system is particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. The third system comprises the inner hair cells and their associated sensory nerve fibers. This system is the transduction stage, changing mechanical vibrations to nerve impulses. New treatments for hearing loss are on the horizon; however, at present the best strategy is avoidance of cochlear trauma and the proper use of hearing aids. [Work supported by NIA and MUSC.

  1. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    PubMed

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (P<0.1) in rAAV-GFP-treated rats (13.5 months old) compared to baseline control rats (9 months old). Significant differences in cancellous bone or biomarkers of bone turnover were not detected between rAAV-Leptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover. PMID:26487675

  2. [Extensive hearing loss and deafness in adults].

    PubMed

    Laszig, R

    1993-09-01

    Hearing and understanding are two related, yet different processes. Hearing is the perception of sound. It can be of enormous value to patients with severely impaired hearing, as it facilitates acoustic orientation. An understanding of speech, however, remains virtually impossible for most of these patients. Nevertheless, early habituation to their acoustic situation makes lip-reading much easier, thus enabling conversations to be possible in good listening environments. Severely impaired patients, however, are still not in a position to follow conversation in larger groups. Even with hearing aids and the deployment of the latest technology, sufficient help is not always given. Before making a decision on the use of these technical aids, the ENT specialist should discuss the needs of the particular individual with the hearing-aid specialist. Provided that residual hearing can be used to understand speech with the help of a hearing aid, intracochlear implantation of an electronic prosthesis is not indicated. A cochlear implant is indicated when there is a complete hearing loss on both sides. Such a profound loss means that sufficient understanding of speech is no longer possible, even with the assistance of the latest hearing aids. For most adults, deafness is a postlingual phenomenon. Adults who were born deaf or who lost their hearing in childhood tend to be unsuitable for cochlear implantation. Up to the age of six years, however, children born deaf can benefit considerably from a cochlear implant. Children who are provided with a cochlear implant shortly after becoming deaf also have a good chance of being capable of learning and understanding speech. PMID:8273025

  3. Fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    PubMed

    Brookhouser, Patrick E

    2002-08-01

    Childhood sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) that fluctuates or is progressive enhances parental concern and complicates medical management, hearing aid selection, and individualized educational planning for the affected child. Despite intensive multidisciplinary evaluation and intervention, continued threshold fluctuation or a gradual decline in auditory acuity may proceed unabated in a significant percentage of these youngsters. With the adoption of universal newborn hearing screening mandates by an increasing number of states, any challenges to the accurate determination of auditory thresholds must be addressed within the first few months of life. PMID:12487089

  4. Prognostic Factors in Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Atay, Gamze; Kayahan, Bahar; çınar, Betül çiçek; Saraç, Sarp; Sennaroğlu, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is still a complex and challenging process which requires clinical evidence regarding its etiology, treatment and prognostic factors. Therefore, determination of prognostic factors might aid in the selection of proper treatment modality. Aims: The aim of this study is to analyze whether there is correlation between SSNHL outcomes and (1) systemic steroid therapy, (2) time gap between onset of symptoms and initiation of therapy and (3) audiological pattern of hearing loss. Study Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: Patients diagnosed at our clinic with SSNHL between May 2005 and December 2011 were reviewed. A detailed history of demographic features, side of hearing loss, previous SSNHL and/or ear surgery, recent upper respiratory tract infection, season of admission, duration of symptoms before admission and the presence of co-morbid diseases was obtained. Radiological and audiological evaluations were recorded and treatment protocol was assessed to determine whether systemic steroids were administered or not. Treatment started ≤5 days was regarded as “early” and >5 days as “delayed”. Initial audiological configurations were grouped as “upward sloping”, “downward sloping”, “flat” and “profound” hearing loss. Significant recovery was defined as thresholds improved to the same level with the unaffected ear or improved ≥30 dB on average. Slight recovery was hearing improvement between 10–30dB on average. Hearing recovery less than 10 dB was accepted as unchanged. Results: Among the 181 patients who met the inclusion criteria, systemic steroid was administered to 122 patients (67.4%), whereas 59 (32.6%) patients did not have steroids. It was found that steroid administration did not have any statistically significant effect in either recovered or unchanged hearing groups. Early treatment was achieved in 105 patients (58%) and 76 patients (42%) had delayed treatment. Recovery

  5. Childhood hearing health: educating for prevention of hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lacerda, Giselle; Lobato, Diolén Conceição Barros; Santos, Luciana; Moreira, Aline Carlezzo; Ribas, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1%) presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential. PMID:25992146

  6. Childhood Hearing Health: Educating for Prevention of Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lacerda, Giselle; Lobato, Diolén Conceição Barros; Santos, Luciana; Moreira, Aline Carlezzo; Ribas, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1%) presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential. PMID:25992146

  7. Cross-Modal Re-Organization in Clinical Populations with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anu; Glick, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    We review evidence for cross-modal cortical re-organization in clinical populations with hearing loss. Cross-modal plasticity refers to the ability for an intact sensory modality (e.g., vision or somatosensation) to recruit cortical brain regions from a deprived sensory modality (e.g., audition) to carry out sensory processing. We describe evidence for cross-modal changes in hearing loss across the age-spectrum and across different degrees of hearing impairment, including children with profound, bilateral deafness with cochlear implants, single-sided deafness before and after cochlear implantation, and adults with early-stage, mild-moderate, age-related hearing loss. Understanding cross-modal plasticity in the context of auditory deprivation, and the potential for reversal of these changes following intervention, may be vital in directing intervention and rehabilitation options for clinical populations with hearing loss. PMID:26821049

  8. Cross-Modal Re-Organization in Clinical Populations with Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anu; Glick, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    We review evidence for cross-modal cortical re-organization in clinical populations with hearing loss. Cross-modal plasticity refers to the ability for an intact sensory modality (e.g., vision or somatosensation) to recruit cortical brain regions from a deprived sensory modality (e.g., audition) to carry out sensory processing. We describe evidence for cross-modal changes in hearing loss across the age-spectrum and across different degrees of hearing impairment, including children with profound, bilateral deafness with cochlear implants, single-sided deafness before and after cochlear implantation, and adults with early-stage, mild-moderate, age-related hearing loss. Understanding cross-modal plasticity in the context of auditory deprivation, and the potential for reversal of these changes following intervention, may be vital in directing intervention and rehabilitation options for clinical populations with hearing loss. PMID:26821049

  9. Managing Hearing Loss | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the nerve pathways from the ear to the brain. Many people may have a combination of both noise-induced hearing loss and hearing loss from aging. Noise-induced hearing loss can be prevented by lowering the volume, moving away from the noise, or wearing hearing ...

  10. Absence of age-related dopamine transporter loss in current cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Fischman, M.

    1997-05-01

    The brain dopamine (DA) system appears to play a crucial role in the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Using PET we had previously shown significant decreases in DA D2 receptors but no changes in DA transporters (DAT) in detoxified cocaine abusers (>1 month after last cocaine use). This study evaluates DAT availability in current cocaine abusers (15 male and 5 female; age = 36.2{+-}5.3 years old) using PET and [C-11]cocaine, as a DAT ligand, and compares it to that in 18 male and 2 female age matched normal controls. Cocaine abusers had a history of abusing 4.2{+-}2.8 gm /week of cocaine for an average of 11.0{+-}4.9 years and their last use of cocaine was 5.4{+-}8 days prior to PET study. DAT availability was obtained using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, pulamen) to that in cerebellum which is a function of Bmax./Kd.+1. DAT availability in cocaine abusers did not differ to that in normals (N) (C= 1.78{+-}0.14, N= 1.77{+-}0.13). In addition, there were no differences between the groups in the distribution volume or the Kl (plasma to brain transfer constant) measures for [C-11]cocaine. However, in the normals but not in the abusers striatal DAT availability decreased with age (C: r = -0.07, p = 0.76; N: r = -0.55, p < 0.01). Though this study fails to show group differences in DAT availability between normals and current cocaine abusers it indicates a blunting of the age-related decline in DAT availability in the cocaine abusers. Future studies in older cocaine abusers at different time after detoxification arc required in order to assess if cocaine slows the loss of DAT with age or whether these changes reflect compensation to increased DAT blockade and recover with detoxification.

  11. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss; Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Arjun, Dass; Neha, Goel; Surinder K, Singhal; Ravi, Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a frightening and frustrating symptom for the patient as well as the physician. Prognosis is affected by multiple factors including duration of hearing loss, presence of associated vertigo and tinnitus, and co-morbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects presenting to our department with features of sudden hearing loss were included in the study. Detailed otological history and examination, serial audiometric findings and course of disease were studied. Results: Subjects presenting late (in older age), having associated vertigo, hypertension and diabetes had a significantly lower rate of recovery. Conclusion: Only 60–65% of patients experiencing SSNHL recover within a period of 1 month; this rate is further affected by presence of multiple prognostic indicators. PMID:26568939

  12. Sensorineural hearing loss in chronic otitis media.

    PubMed

    MacAndie, C; O'Reilly, B F

    1999-06-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated an association between chronic otitis media (COM) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), there still remains disagreement about the relationship. A retrospective study was conducted to examine the relationship between sensorineural hearing loss and chronic otitis media. Forty-one patients met the following criteria: unilateral COM and no history of head injury, meningitis or previous otological surgery. The differences in preoperative bone conduction threshold between diseased and control (contralateral normal) ear were statistically significant (P < 0.01) and varied from 5.24 to 9.02 dB across the frequency range. The effect of duration of disease on the degree of SNHL was also analysed but no correlation was found. The presence of cholesteatoma and/or ossicular erosion was not associated with a significantly increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:10384849

  13. Genetics of Nonsyndromic Congenital Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Egilmez, Oguz Kadir; Kalcioglu, M. Tayyar

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hearing impairment affects nearly 1 in every 1000 live births and is the most frequent birth defect in developed societies. Hereditary types of hearing loss account for more than 50% of all congenital sensorineural hearing loss cases and are caused by genetic mutations. HL can be either nonsyndromic, which is restricted to the inner ear, or syndromic, a part of multiple anomalies affecting the body. Nonsyndromic HL can be categorised by mode of inheritance, such as autosomal dominant (called DFNA), autosomal recessive (DFNB), mitochondrial, and X-linked (DFN). To date, 125 deafness loci have been reported in the literature: 58 DFNA loci, 63 DFNB loci, and 4 X-linked loci. Mutations in genes that control the adhesion of hair cells, intracellular transport, neurotransmitter release, ionic hemeostasis, and cytoskeleton of hair cells can lead to malfunctions of the cochlea and inner ear. In recent years, with the increase in studies about genes involved in congenital hearing loss, genetic counselling and treatment options have emerged and increased in availability. This paper presents an overview of the currently known genes associated with nonsyndromic congenital hearing loss and mutations in the inner ear. PMID:26989561

  14. Genetics of Nonsyndromic Congenital Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Egilmez, Oguz Kadir; Kalcioglu, M Tayyar

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hearing impairment affects nearly 1 in every 1000 live births and is the most frequent birth defect in developed societies. Hereditary types of hearing loss account for more than 50% of all congenital sensorineural hearing loss cases and are caused by genetic mutations. HL can be either nonsyndromic, which is restricted to the inner ear, or syndromic, a part of multiple anomalies affecting the body. Nonsyndromic HL can be categorised by mode of inheritance, such as autosomal dominant (called DFNA), autosomal recessive (DFNB), mitochondrial, and X-linked (DFN). To date, 125 deafness loci have been reported in the literature: 58 DFNA loci, 63 DFNB loci, and 4 X-linked loci. Mutations in genes that control the adhesion of hair cells, intracellular transport, neurotransmitter release, ionic hemeostasis, and cytoskeleton of hair cells can lead to malfunctions of the cochlea and inner ear. In recent years, with the increase in studies about genes involved in congenital hearing loss, genetic counselling and treatment options have emerged and increased in availability. This paper presents an overview of the currently known genes associated with nonsyndromic congenital hearing loss and mutations in the inner ear. PMID:26989561

  15. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Primary Care Update.

    PubMed

    Leung, Marcia A; Flaherty, Anna; Zhang, Julia A; Hara, Jared; Barber, Wayne; Burgess, Lawrence

    2016-06-01

    The primary care physician's role in recognizing sudden sensorineural hearing (SSNHL) loss and delivering initial treatment is critical in the management of the syndrome. This role involves recognizing its clinical symptoms, distinguishing it from conductive hearing loss with the Weber tuning fork or the Rauch hum test, and urgent administration of high dose oral corticosteroids. Diagnosis and treatment should not be delayed for audiometric testing or referral to otolaryngology. This paper provides an update on the initial evaluation and treatment of this syndrome based on the literature and clinical guideline recommendations. PMID:27413627

  16. Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Primary Care Update

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Marcia A; Flaherty, Anna; Zhang, Julia A; Hara, Jared; Barber, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The primary care physician's role in recognizing sudden sensorineural hearing (SSNHL) loss and delivering initial treatment is critical in the management of the syndrome. This role involves recognizing its clinical symptoms, distinguishing it from conductive hearing loss with the Weber tuning fork or the Rauch hum test, and urgent administration of high dose oral corticosteroids. Diagnosis and treatment should not be delayed for audiometric testing or referral to otolaryngology. This paper provides an update on the initial evaluation and treatment of this syndrome based on the literature and clinical guideline recommendations. PMID:27413627

  17. Hearing Loss in Children: Treatment and Intervention Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... coordinator to find available services in your state. Technology Many people who are deaf or hard-of- ... of-hearing person has is called "residual hearing". Technology does not "cure" hearing loss, but may help ...

  18. Expression levels of the BAK1 and BCL2 genes highlight the role of apoptosis in age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Falah, Masoumeh; Najafi, Mohammad; Houshmand, Massoud; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a progressive and a common sensory disorder in the elderly and will become an increasingly important clinical problem given the growing elderly population. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment. Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of the genes BAK1 and BCL2 as two arms of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway between patients with ARHI and healthy subjects. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. BAK1 and the BAK1/BCL2 ratio were statistically significantly upregulated in the ARHI subjects. The BAK1/BCL2 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the audiometric tests. Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. PMID:27555755

  19. The European GWAS-identified risk SNP rs457717 within IQGAP2 is not associated with age-related hearing impairment in Han male Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Wu, Hao; Shen, Hailian; Chen, Haifeng; Yang, Tao; Huang, Zhiwu; Jin, Xiaojie; Pang, Xiuhong; Li, Lei; Hu, Xianting; Jiang, Xuemei; Fan, Zhuping; Li, Jiping

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to test the association between the European GWAS-identified risk IQGAP2 SNP rs457717 (A>G) and age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) in a Han male Chinese (HMC) population. A total of 2420 HMC subjects were divided into two groups [group 70+: >70 years (n = 1306), and group 70-: ≤70 years (n = 1114)]. The participants were categorised into case and control groups according to Z high scores for group 70- and the severity of hearing loss and different audiogram shapes identified by K-means cluster analysis for group 70+. The IQGAP2 tagSNP rs457717 was genotyped in accordance with the different ARHI phenotypes. The genotype distributions of IQGAP2 (AA/AG/GG) were not significantly different between the case and control groups (P = 0.613 for group 70-; P = 0.602 for group 70+). Compared with genotype AA, the ORs of genotypes AG and GG for ARHI were not significantly different following adjustment for other environmental risk factors. We demonstrated that the IQGAP2 TagSNP rs457717 (A/G) was not associated with ARHI in HMC individuals. PMID:26187738

  20. Expression levels of the BAK1 and BCL2 genes highlight the role of apoptosis in age-related hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Falah, Masoumeh; Najafi, Mohammad; Houshmand, Massoud; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is a progressive and a common sensory disorder in the elderly and will become an increasingly important clinical problem given the growing elderly population. Apoptosis of cochlear cells is an important factor in animal models of ARHI. As these cells cannot regenerate, their loss leads to irreversible hearing impairment. Identification of molecular mechanisms can facilitate disease prevention and effective treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of the genes BAK1 and BCL2 as two arms of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway between patients with ARHI and healthy subjects. ARHI and healthy subjects were selected after an ear nose throat examination, otoscopic investigation, and pure tone audiometry. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and relative gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. BAK1 and the BAK1/BCL2 ratio were statistically significantly upregulated in the ARHI subjects. The BAK1/BCL2 ratio was positively correlated with the results of the audiometric tests. Our results indicate that BAK-mediated apoptosis may be a core mechanism in the progression of ARHI in humans, similar to finding in animal models. Moreover, the gene expression changes in peripheral blood samples could be used as a rapid and simple biomarker for early detection of ARHI. PMID:27555755

  1. SOX10 mutations mimic isolated hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pingault, V; Faubert, E; Baral, V; Gherbi, S; Loundon, N; Couloigner, V; Denoyelle, F; Noël-Pétroff, N; Ducou Le Pointe, H; Elmaleh-Bergès, M; Bondurand, N; Marlin, S

    2015-10-01

    Ninety genes have been identified to date that are involved in non-syndromic hearing loss, and more than 300 different forms of syndromic hearing impairment have been described. Mutations in SOX10, one of the genes contributing to syndromic hearing loss, induce a large range of phenotypes, including several subtypes of Waardenburg syndrome and Kallmann syndrome with deafness. In addition, rare mutations have been identified in patients with isolated signs of these diseases. We used the recent characterization of temporal bone imaging aspects in patients with SOX10 mutations to identify possible patients with isolated hearing loss due to SOX10 mutation. We selected 21 patients with isolated deafness and temporal bone morphological defects for mutational screening. We identified two SOX10 mutations and found that both resulted in a non-functional protein in vitro. Re-evaluation of the two affected patients showed that both had previously undiagnosed olfactory defects. Diagnosis of anosmia or hyposmia in young children is challenging, and particularly in the absence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), SOX10 mutations can mimic non-syndromic hearing impairment. MRI should complete temporal bones computed tomographic scan in the management of congenital deafness as it can detect brain anomalies, cochlear nerve defects, and olfactory bulb malformation in addition to inner ear malformations. PMID:25256313

  2. Sensorineural hearing loss in Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Varun; Etinger, Veronica; Orjuela, Andres F

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is a common nonspecific vasculitis seen in childhood. The most significant long-term sequela is coronary artery aneurysm. However, the spectrum of complications involves not only the heart, but also other organs such as the eyes, skin, kidneys, gallbladder, liver, and central nervous system. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a relatively unrecognized complication of the disease. Although most of the complications (except coronary artery aneurysm) are self-limiting, SNHL can be persistent. It is, especially important in infants and young children who might not be able to report the hearing deficits and are most likely to have cognitive and speech delays if this hearing loss is not addressed in a timely manner. We report a child with Kawasaki disease who had SNHL during the 2(nd) week of the illness. The aim of this article is to briefly review the pathophysiology behind this hearing loss and strongly emphasize the importance of universal hearing evaluation in all children diagnosed with Kawasaki disease. This screening in children with Kawasaki disease may provide some timely intervention if needed. Since most Kawasaki disease patients will be seen by cardiologists, we hope to create more awareness about this complication to the cardiology community as well. PMID:27011703

  3. Alcohol use among students with and without hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P

    2015-01-01

    We compared alcohol use among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Adolescents with hearing loss reported consuming less alcohol, less binge drinking, fewer episodes of drunkenness, and a higher age at first drunkenness than their hearing peers. Alcohol use did not vary between students who were deaf or hard of hearing or between students with congenital versus acquired hearing loss. Although higher age, male gender, and larger friend networks predicted higher alcohol consumption among adolescents with and without hearing loss, worse grades at school were associated only with alcohol use among hearing students. Lower alcohol use among students with hearing loss when compared with hearing peers was, in part, explained by their lower level of peer-group integration. Although alcohol use is a less serious problem among students with hearing loss, a minority with risky consumption would benefit from interventions aimed at reducing alcohol use. PMID:25318927

  4. Survey of commercial airline pilots' hearing loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Tran, L. L.; Anderson, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    64 commercial airline pilots (ages 35-64 yr, Mdn: 53) were surveyed regarding hearing loss and tinnitus. Within specific age groups, the proportions responding positively exceed the corresponding proportions in the general population reported by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  5. Screening for Hearing Loss in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alice E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The results of an auditory screening protocol administered to 342 adolescents (ages 10-20) suggest a high level of noise exposure in the adolescent population. Overall failure rate was 25%. Significant correlations were found between firearm use and hearing loss at 6000 Hertz. Screening and education efforts are urged. (Author/CR)

  6. Alcohol Use among Students with and without Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2015-01-01

    We compared alcohol use among adolescents with and without hearing loss. Adolescents with hearing loss reported consuming less alcohol, less binge drinking, fewer episodes of drunkenness, and a higher age at first drunkenness than their hearing peers. Alcohol use did not vary between students who were deaf or hard of hearing or between students…

  7. Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Lund, Emily; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Measures of print knowledge were compared across preschoolers with hearing loss and normal hearing. Alphabet knowledge did not differ between groups, but preschoolers with hearing loss performed lower on measures of print concepts and concepts of written words than preschoolers with normal hearing. Further study is needed in this area.

  8. Relationship Between Hair Cell Loss and Hearing Loss in Fishes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to intense sound or ototoxic chemicals can damage the auditory hair cells of vertebrates, resulting in hearing loss. Although the relationship between such hair cell damage and auditory function is fairly established for terrestrial vertebrates, there are limited data available to understand this relationship in fishes. Although investigators have measured either the morphological damage of the inner ear or the functional deficits in the hearing of fishes, very few have directly measured both in an attempt to find a relationship between the two. Those studies that have examined both auditory hair cell damage in the inner ear and the resulting hearing loss in fishes are reviewed here. In general, there is a significant linear relationship between the number of hair cells lost and the severity of hearing threshold shifts, although this varies between species and different hair cell-damaging stimuli. After trauma to the fish ear, auditory hair cells are able to regenerate to control level densities. With this regeneration also comes a restoration of hearing. Thus there is also a significant relationship between hair cell recovery and hearing recovery in fishes. PMID:26611069

  9. Molecular Mechanism for Age-Related Memory Loss: The Histone-Binding Protein RbAp48

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Elias; Jones, Sidonie; Kosmidis, Stylianos; Close, Maggie; Kim, Carla; Kovalerchik, Olga; Small, Scott A.; Kandel, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    To distinguish age-related memory loss more explicitly from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), we have explored its molecular underpinning in the dentate gyrus (DG), a subregion of the hippocampal formation thought to be targeted by aging. We carried out a gene expression study in human postmortem tissue harvested from both DG and entorhinal cortex (EC), a neighboring subregion unaffected by aging and known to be the site of onset of AD. Using expression in the EC for normalization, we identified 17 genes that manifested reliable age-related changes in the DG. The most significant change was an age-related decline in RbAp48, a histone-binding protein that modifies histone acetylation. To test whether the RbAp48 decline could be responsible for age-related memory loss, we turned to mice and found that, consistent with humans, RbAp48 was less abundant in the DG of old than in young mice. We next generated a transgenic mouse that expressed a dominant-negative inhibitor of RbAp48 in the adult forebrain. Inhibition of RbAp48 in young mice caused hippocampus-dependent memory deficits similar to those associated with aging, as measured by novel object recognition and Morris water maze tests. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that within the hippocampal formation, dysfunction was selectively observed in the DG, and this corresponded to a regionally selective decrease in histone acetylation. Up-regulation of RbAp48 in the DG of aged wild-type mice ameliorated age-related hippocampus-based memory loss and age-related abnormalities in histone acetylation. Together, these findings show that the DG is a hippocampal subregion targeted by aging, and identify molecular mechanisms of cognitive aging that could serve as valid targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23986399

  10. Molecular mechanism for age-related memory loss: the histone-binding protein RbAp48.

    PubMed

    Pavlopoulos, Elias; Jones, Sidonie; Kosmidis, Stylianos; Close, Maggie; Kim, Carla; Kovalerchik, Olga; Small, Scott A; Kandel, Eric R

    2013-08-28

    To distinguish age-related memory loss more explicitly from Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have explored its molecular underpinning in the dentate gyrus (DG), a subregion of the hippocampal formation thought to be targeted by aging. We carried out a gene expression study in human postmortem tissue harvested from both DG and entorhinal cortex (EC), a neighboring subregion unaffected by aging and known to be the site of onset of AD. Using expression in the EC for normalization, we identified 17 genes that manifested reliable age-related changes in the DG. The most significant change was an age-related decline in RbAp48, a histone-binding protein that modifies histone acetylation. To test whether the RbAp48 decline could be responsible for age-related memory loss, we turned to mice and found that, consistent with humans, RbAp48 was less abundant in the DG of old than in young mice. We next generated a transgenic mouse that expressed a dominant-negative inhibitor of RbAp48 in the adult forebrain. Inhibition of RbAp48 in young mice caused hippocampus-dependent memory deficits similar to those associated with aging, as measured by novel object recognition and Morris water maze tests. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that within the hippocampal formation, dysfunction was selectively observed in the DG, and this corresponded to a regionally selective decrease in histone acetylation. Up-regulation of RbAp48 in the DG of aged wild-type mice ameliorated age-related hippocampus-based memory loss and age-related abnormalities in histone acetylation. Together, these findings show that the DG is a hippocampal subregion targeted by aging, and identify molecular mechanisms of cognitive aging that could serve as valid targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23986399

  11. The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

  12. Insulin-like growth factor 2 rescues aging-related memory loss in rats.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Adam B; Johnson, Sarah A; Iannitelli, Dylan E; Pollonini, Gabriella; Alberini, Cristina M

    2016-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by declines in memory performance, and particularly affects memories that rely on hippocampal-cortical systems, such as episodic and explicit. With aged populations significantly increasing, the need for preventing or rescuing memory deficits is pressing. However, effective treatments are lacking. Here, we show that the level of the mature form of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2), a peptide regulated in the hippocampus by learning, required for memory consolidation and a promoter of memory enhancement in young adult rodents, is significantly reduced in hippocampal synapses of aged rats. By contrast, the hippocampal level of the immature form proIGF-2 is increased, suggesting an aging-related deficit in IGF-2 processing. In agreement, aged compared to young adult rats are deficient in the activity of proprotein convertase 2, an enzyme that likely mediates IGF-2 posttranslational processing. Hippocampal administration of the recombinant, mature form of IGF-2 rescues hippocampal-dependent memory deficits and working memory impairment in aged rats. Thus, IGF-2 may represent a novel therapeutic avenue for preventing or reversing aging-related cognitive impairments. PMID:27318130

  13. Observations From a Musician With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Extensive personal experience with professional recording and audio signal processing technology has enabled the author to continue his music career after experiencing sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The iPhone™ is one such device that has been found useful for many music and general listening situations that would otherwise be intractable. Additional techniques and technologies are described that the author has found useful for specific situations, including music composition, rehearsal, and enjoyment. PMID:23203415

  14. Spermidine feeding decreases age-related locomotor activity loss and induces changes in lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Minois, Nadège; Rockenfeller, Patrick; Smith, Terry K; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac

    2014-01-01

    Spermidine is a natural polyamine involved in many important cellular functions, whose supplementation in food or water increases life span and stress resistance in several model organisms. In this work, we expand spermidine's range of age-related beneficial effects by demonstrating that it is also able to improve locomotor performance in aged flies. Spermidine's mechanism of action on aging has been primarily related to general protein hypoacetylation that subsequently induces autophagy. Here, we suggest that the molecular targets of spermidine also include lipid metabolism: Spermidine-fed flies contain more triglycerides and show altered fatty acid and phospholipid profiles. We further determine that most of these metabolic changes are regulated through autophagy. Collectively, our data suggests an additional and novel lipid-mediated mechanism of action for spermidine-induced autophagy. PMID:25010732

  15. Hearing Loss in HIV-Infected Children in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Hrapcak, Susan; Kuper, Hannah; Bartlett, Peter; Devendra, Akash; Makawa, Atupele; Kim, Maria; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4–14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014. Data was collected through pediatric quality of life and sociodemographic questionnaires, electronic medical record review, and detailed audiologic testing. Hearing loss was defined as >20 decibels hearing level (dBHL) in either ear. Predictors of hearing loss were explored by regression analysis generating age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Children with significant hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids. Results Of 380 patients, 24% had hearing loss: 82% conductive, 14% sensorineural, and 4% mixed. Twenty-one patients (23% of those with hearing loss) were referred for hearing aid fitting. There was a higher prevalence of hearing loss in children with history of frequent ear infections (OR 7.4, 4.2–13.0) and ear drainage (OR 6.4, 3.6–11.6). Hearing loss was linked to history of WHO Stage 3 (OR 2.4, 1.2–4.5) or Stage 4 (OR 6.4, 2.7–15.2) and history of malnutrition (OR 2.1, 1.3–3.5), but not to duration of ART or CD4. Only 40% of caregivers accurately perceived their child’s hearing loss. Children with hearing impairment were less likely to attend school and had poorer emotional (p = 0.02) and school functioning (p = 0.04). Conclusions There is an urgent need for improved screening tools, identification and treatment of hearing problems in HIV-infected children, as hearing loss was common in this group and affected school functioning and quality of life. Clear strategies were identified for prevention and treatment, since most

  16. Designer aminoglycosides prevent cochlear hair cell loss and hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Huth, Markus E.; Han, Kyu-Hee; Sotoudeh, Kayvon; Hsieh, Yi-Ju; Effertz, Thomas; Vu, Andrew A.; Verhoeven, Sarah; Hsieh, Michael H.; Greenhouse, Robert; Cheng, Alan G.; Ricci, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections represent a rapidly growing challenge to human health. Aminoglycosides are widely used broad-spectrum antibiotics, but they inflict permanent hearing loss in up to ~50% of patients by causing selective sensory hair cell loss. Here, we hypothesized that reducing aminoglycoside entry into hair cells via mechanotransducer channels would reduce ototoxicity, and therefore we synthesized 9 aminoglycosides with modifications based on biophysical properties of the hair cell mechanotransducer channel and interactions between aminoglycosides and the bacterial ribosome. Compared with the parent aminoglycoside sisomicin, all 9 derivatives displayed no or reduced ototoxicity, with the lead compound N1MS 17 times less ototoxic and with reduced penetration of hair cell mechanotransducer channels in rat cochlear cultures. Both N1MS and sisomicin suppressed growth of E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with N1MS exhibiting superior activity against extended spectrum β lactamase producers, despite diminished activity against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Moreover, systemic sisomicin treatment of mice resulted in 75% to 85% hair cell loss and profound hearing loss, whereas N1MS treatment preserved both hair cells and hearing. Finally, in mice with E. coli–infected bladders, systemic N1MS treatment eliminated bacteria from urinary tract tissues and serially collected urine samples, without compromising auditory and kidney functions. Together, our findings establish N1MS as a nonototoxic aminoglycoside and support targeted modification as a promising approach to generating nonototoxic antibiotics. PMID:25555219

  17. Is Body Mass Index Associated With the Development of Age-Related Hearing Impairment in Koreans? The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da Jung; Jang, Jeong Hun; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate whether body mass index (BMI) is associated with age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in the Asian elderly population. Methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2012 were used for the analyses. The pure tones at 0.5 and 1 kHz of both ears of each subject were averaged to obtain the low-frequency, those at 2 and 3 kHz were averaged to obtain the mid-frequency, and those at 4 and 6 kHz were averaged to obtain the high-frequency. The average hearing threshold (AHT) was calculated as pure tone average at 4 frequencies in the better ear. ARHL was defined as the AHT >25 dB. Results Univariate analyses revealed an increase in the BMI tertile in men was associated with a decreased low-frequency threshold, while an increase in the BMI tertile in women was associated with decreased mid- and high-frequency thresholds. Multivariate analyses adjusted for confounders show no significant differences in low-, mid-, or high-frequency. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of ARHL by BMI tertiles. Linear regression analyses show no association between BMI and low-, mid-, and high-frequency or AHTs. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values for AHT was 0.515 in men and 0.522 in women. The logistic regression analyses showed no association between BMI and ARHL in either sex. Conclusion BMI is not advantageous for the prediction of ARHL. In future epidemiological studies, BMI as a covariate of obesity may be replaced by other active metabolic parameters that have better predictive ability of ARHL than BMI. PMID:27090278

  18. Vision loss and hearing loss in painting and musical composition.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    This article considers the impact of vision and hearing loss on great painters and musical composers. The visual work of Mary Cassatt, Georgia O'Keeffe, Edgar Degas, and Claude Monet all showed alterations as their vision failed. In contrast, Gabriel Fauré, Bedřich Smetana, and Ludwig von Beethoven wrote many of their best compositions while totally deaf, and Georg Friedrich Handel and Frederick Delius struggled to compose late in life when they lost their vision (although their hearing remained excellent). There are 2 major distinctions between the role of vision and hearing for these artistic disciplines. First, there is a surrogate means of "hearing" music, through the musical score, which allows composers to write and edit music while totally deaf. The greatest problem with deafness for a skilled composer is interference from internal noise (tinnitus). There is no surrogate for vision to allow a painter to work when the subject is a blur or the colors on the canvas cannot be distinguished. Second, although the appreciation of art is visual and that of music is auditory, the transcription of both art and musical composition is visual. Thus, visual loss does pose a problem for a composer accustomed to working with good sight, because it disrupts habitual methods of writing and editing music. PMID:24565744

  19. Introduction to auditory perception in listeners with hearing losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florentine, Mary; Buus, Søren

    2003-04-01

    Listeners with hearing losses cannot hear low-level sounds. In addition, they often complain that audible sounds do not have a comfortable loudness, lack clarity, and are difficult to hear in the presence of other sounds. In particular, they have difficulty understanding speech in background noise. The mechanisms underlying these complaints are not completely understood, but hearing losses are known to alter many aspects of auditory processing. This presentation highlights alterations in audibility, loudness, pitch, spectral and temporal processes, and binaural hearing that may result from hearing losses. The changes in these auditory processes can vary widely across individuals with seemingly similar amounts of hearing loss. For example, two listeners with nearly identical thresholds can differ in their ability to process spectral and temporal features of sounds. Such individual differences make rehabilitation of hearing losses complex. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.

  20. Reiter's syndrome and hearing loss: a possible association?

    PubMed Central

    Monsanto, Rafael C; Neto, Arlindo C L; Lorenzetti, Fábio T M

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Patient complained of hearing loss and tinnitus after the onset of Reiter's syndrome. Audiometry confirmed the hearing loss on the left ear; blood work showed increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C3 fraction of the complement. Genotyping for HLA-B27 was positive. Treatment with prednisolone did not improve the hearing levels. PMID:25548635

  1. Musical hallucination associated with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Rocha, Savya Cybelle Milhomem; Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Kii, Márcia Akemi; Santos, Rosa Maria Rodrigues dos; Pereira, Cristiana Borges

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that musical hallucination have a significant impact on patients' lives, they have received very little attention of experts. Some researchers agree on a combination of peripheral and central dysfunctions as the mechanism that causes hallucination. The most accepted physiopathology of musical hallucination associated to hearing loss (caused by cochlear lesion, cochlear nerve lesion or by interruption of mesencephalon or pontine auditory information) is the disinhibition of auditory memory circuits due to sensory deprivation. Concerning the cortical area involved in musical hallucination, there is evidence that the excitatory mechanism of the superior temporal gyrus, as in epilepsies, is responsible for musical hallucination. In musical release hallucination there is also activation of the auditory association cortex. Finally, considering the laterality, functional studies with musical perception and imagery in normal individuals showed that songs with words cause bilateral temporal activation and melodies activate only the right lobe. The effect of hearing aids on the improvement of musical hallucination as a result of the hearing loss improvement is well documented. It happens because auditory hallucination may be influenced by the external acoustical environment. Neuroleptics, antidepressants and anticonvulsants have been used in the treatment of musical hallucination. Cases of improvement with the administration of carbamazepine, meclobemide and donepezil were reported, but the results obtained were not consistent. PMID:21625772

  2. Gap-Junction Channels Dysfunction in Deafness and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Figueroa, Vania; Maripillan, Jaime; Nicholson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Gap-junction channels connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells, allowing the diffusion of ions and small metabolites. They are formed at the appositional plasma membranes by a family of related proteins named connexins. Mutations in connexins 26, 31, 30, 32, and 43 have been associated with nonsyndromic or syndromic deafness. The majority of these mutations are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, but a few of them have been associated with dominantly inherited hearing loss. Mutations in the connexin26 gene (GJB2) are the most common cause of genetic deafness. This review summarizes the most relevant and recent information about different mutations in connexin genes found in human patients, with emphasis on GJB2. The possible effects of the mutations on channel expression and function are discussed, in addition to their possible physiologic consequences for inner ear physiology. Finally, we propose that connexin channels (gap junctions and hemichannels) may be targets for age-related hearing loss induced by oxidative damage. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 309–322. PMID:18837651

  3. Computer Simulations of Loss of Organization of Neurons as a Model for Age-related Cognitive Decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Luis; Fengometidis, Elene; Jones, Frank; Jampani, Srinivas

    2011-03-01

    In normal aging, brains suffer from progressive cognitive decline not linked with loss of neurons common in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. However, in some brain areas neurons have lost positional organization specifically within microcolumns: arrays of interconnected neurons which may constitute fundamental computational units in the brain. This age-related loss of organization, likely a result of micron-sized random displacements in neuronal positions, is hypothesized to be a by-product of the loss of support from the surrounding medium, including dendrites. Using a dynamical model applied to virtual 3D representation of neuronal arrangements, that previously showed loss of organization in brains of cognitively tested rhesus monkeys, the relationship between these displacements and changes to the surrounding dendrite network are presented. The consequences of these displacements on the structure of the dendritic network, with possible disruptions in signal synchrony important to cognitive function, are discussed. NIH R01AG021133.

  4. Dietary Polyphenols, Berries, and Age-Related Bone Loss: A Review Based on Human, Animal, and Cell Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Patrice A.; Lee, Sang Gil; Lee, Sun-Kyeong; Chun, Ock K.

    2014-01-01

    Bone loss during aging has become an increasing public health concern as average life expectancy has increased. One of the most prevalent forms of age-related bone disease today is osteoporosis in which the body slows down bone formation and existing bone is increasingly being resorbed by the body to maintain the calcium balance. Some causes of this bone loss can be attributed to dysregulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity mediated by increased oxidative stress through the aging process. Due to certain serious adverse effects of the currently available therapeutic agents that limit their efficacy, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has garnered interest as a natural means for the prevention of this debilitating disease. Natural antioxidant supplementation, a type of CAM, has been researched to aid in reducing bone loss caused by oxidative stress. Naturally occurring polyphenols, such as anthocyanins rich in berries, are known to have anti-oxidative properties. Several studies have been reviewed to determine the impact polyphenol intake—particularly that of berries—has on bone health. Studies reveal a positive association of high berry intake and higher bone mass, implicating berries as possible inexpensive alternatives in reducing the risk of age related bone loss. PMID:26784669

  5. Age-Related Loss of Calcium Buffering and Selective Neuronal Vulnerability in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Riascos, David; de Leon, Dianne; Baker-Nigh, Alaina; Nicholas, Alexander; Yukhananov, Rustam; Bu, Jing; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Geula, Changiz

    2011-01-01

    The reasons for the selective vulnerability of distinct neuronal populations in neurodegenerative disorders are unknown. The cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain are vulnerable to pathology and loss early in Alzheimer’s disease and in a number of other neurodegenerative disorders of the elderly. In the primate, including man, these neurons are rich in the calcium buffer calbindin-D28K. Here we confirm that these neurons undergo a substantial loss of calbindin in the course of normal aging and report a further loss of calbindin in Alzheimer’s disease both at the level of RNA and protein. Significantly, cholinergic neurons that had lost their calbindin in the course of normal aging were those that selectively degenerated in Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, calbindin containing neurons were virtually resistant to the process of tangle formation, a hallmark of the disease. We conclude that the loss of calcium buffering capacity in these neurons and the resultant pathological increase in intracellular calcium are permissive to tangle formation and degeneration. PMID:21874328

  6. Independent impacts of age and hearing loss on spatial release in a complex auditory environment

    PubMed Central

    Gallun, Frederick J.; Diedesch, Anna C.; Kampel, Sean D.; Jakien, Kasey M.

    2013-01-01

    Listeners in complex auditory environments can benefit from the ability to use a variety of spatial and spectrotemporal cues for sound source segregation. Probing these abilities is an essential part of gaining a more complete understanding of why listeners differ in navigating the auditory environment. Two fundamental processes that can impact the auditory systems of individual listeners are aging and hearing loss. One difficulty with uncovering the independent effects of age and hearing loss on spatial release is the commonly observed phenomenon of age-related hearing loss. In order to reveal the effects of aging on spatial hearing, it is essential to develop testing methods that reduce the influence of hearing loss on the outcomes. The statistical power needed for such testing generally requires a larger number of participants than can easily be tested using traditional behavioral methods. This work describes the development and validation of a rapid method by which listeners can be categorized in terms of their ability to use spatial and spectrotemporal cues to separate competing speech streams. Results show that when age and audibility are not covarying, age alone can be shown to substantially reduce spatial release from masking. These data support the hypothesis that aging, independent of an individual's hearing threshold, can result in changes in the cortical and/or subcortical structures essential for spatial hearing. PMID:24391535

  7. Reported Causes of Hearing Loss for Hearing Impaired Students; United States 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Augustine; Rambin, J. Bentley

    Reported are causes of hearing loss for 41,109 hearing impaired students enrolled in 555 special educational programs as part of a national annual survey during the 1970-71 school year. Data is provided on the relationship between hearing loss etiology and the following variables: age and sex of students, additional handicapping conditions, family…

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of Age-Related Sleep Loss in the Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Meagan; Keene, Alex C.

    2013-01-01

    Across phyla, aging is associated with reduced sleep duration and efficiency. Both aging and sleep involve complex genetic architecture and diverse cell types and are heavily influenced by diet and environment. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of age-dependent changes in sleep will require integrative approaches that go beyond examining these two processes independently. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, provides a genetically amenable system for dissecting the molecular basis of these processes. In this review, we examine the role of metabolism and circadian rhythms in age-dependent sleep loss. PMID:23594925

  9. Aging-related chromatin defects via loss of the NURD complex

    PubMed Central

    Pegoraro, Gianluca; Kubben, Nard; Wickert, Ute; Göhler, Heike; Hoffmann, Katrin; Misteli, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Physiological and premature aging are characterized by multiple defects in chromatin structure and accumulation of persistent DNA damage. Here we identify the NURD remodeling complex as a key modulator of these aging-associated chromatin defects. We demonstrate loss of several NURD components during premature and normal aging and we find aging-associated reduction of HDAC1 activity. Silencing of individual NURD subunits recapitulates some chromatin defects associated with aging and we provide evidence that structural chromatin defects precede DNA damage accumulation. These results outline a molecular mechanism for chromatin defects during aging. PMID:19734887

  10. Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Loy, Betty A.; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = − .60, p < .0001). No significant correlations emerged between self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. PMID:25755025

  11. Self-esteem in children and adolescents with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Warner-Czyz, Andrea D; Loy, Betty A; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = - .60, p < .0001). No significant correlations emerged between self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. PMID:25755025

  12. Normative data for the Attitudes towards Loss of Hearing Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Gabrielle H; Cienkowski, Kathleen M; Forsline, Anna; Fausti, Stephen

    2005-10-01

    Investigations have shown that patient attitudes toward hearing loss and hearing aids impact self-reported handicap and disability, hearing aid benefit, and hearing aid use. The Attitudes towards Loss of Hearing Questionnaire (ALHQ) was developed by Saunders and Cienkowski (1996) to examine some of the psychosocial factors underlying the use and acquisition of hearing aids. Here we report data from a new version of questionnaire (ALHQ v2.1), which examines attitudes towards hearing loss and hearing aids on five scales: Denial of Hearing Loss, Negative Associations, Negative Coping Strategies, Manual Dexterity and Vision, and Hearing-Related Esteem. Reliability values, internal consistency values, and cut points for typical and atypical scores are provided, along with comparison of the scores of women, men, current hearing aid users, non-hearing aid users, and paying versus nonpaying individuals. The ALHQ takes about ten minutes to complete and identifies for the clinician some of the issues that might jeopardize successful hearing aid outcome. PMID:16515136

  13. Course of hearing recovery according to frequency in patients with acute acoustic sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Harada, Hirofumi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Imamura, Akihide

    2008-01-01

    Through pure-tone audiometry, we studied the course of hearing recovery in 24 ears of 20 men (ages 18-48 years) who had acute acoustic sensorineural hearing loss (ASHL). All subjects were members of the Japanese Self-Defense Force. The hearing level in 5 ears returned to normal, the hearing level of 13 ears recovered but was not within the normal range, and the hearing level of 6 ears was unchanged. The time from noise exposure to presentation was longer in patients with unchanged hearing than in other patients. Recovery of hearing was poorest at 4,000 Hz, followed by 8,000 and 2,000 Hz. We concluded that hearing in patients with acute ASHL is likely to return to normal when the hearing level at 4,000 Hz recovers gradually; partial recovery of hearing is expected when the hearing level at 4,000 Hz reaches an early plateau. PMID:18616091

  14. Structural basis of growth-related gain and age-related loss of bone strength

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    If bone strength was the only requirement of skeleton, it could be achieved with bulk, but bone must also be light. During growth, bone modelling and remodelling optimize strength, by depositing bone where it is needed, and minimize mass, by removing it from where it is not. The population variance in bone traits is established before puberty and the position of an individual's bone size and mass tracks in the percentile of origin. Larger cross-sections have a comparably larger marrow cavity, which results in a lower volumetric BMD (vBMD), thereby avoiding bulk. Excavation of a marrow cavity thus minimizes mass and shifts the cortex radially, increasing rigidity. Smaller cross-sections are assembled by excavating a smaller marrow cavity leaving a relatively thicker cortex producing a higher vBMD, avoiding the fragility of slenderness. Variation in cellular activity around the periosteal and endocortical envelopes fashions the diverse shapes of adjacent cross-sections. Advancing age is associated with a decline in periosteal bone formation, a decline in the volume of bone formed by each basic multicellular unit (BMU), continued resorption by each BMU, and high remodelling after menopause. Bone loss in young adulthood has modest structural and biomechanical consequences because the negative BMU balance is driven by reduced bone formation, remodelling is slow and periosteal apposition continues shifting the thinned cortex radially. But after the menopause, increased remodelling, worsening negative BMU balance and a decline in periosteal apposition accelerate cortical thinning and porosity, trabecular thinning and loss of connectivity. Interstitial bone, unexposed to surface remodelling becomes more densely mineralized, has few osteocytes and greater collagen cross-linking, and accumulates microdamage. These changes produce the material and structural abnormalities responsible for bone fragility. PMID:18556646

  15. Preliminary comparison of infants speech with and without hearing loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Richard S.; Nittrouer, Susan; Chenausky, Karen

    2005-04-01

    The speech of ten children with hearing loss and ten children without hearing loss aged 12 months is examined. All the children with hearing loss were identified before six months of age, and all have parents who wish them to become oral communicators. The data are from twenty minute sessions with the caregiver and child, with their normal prostheses in place, in semi-structured settings. These data are part of a larger test battery applied to both caregiver and child that is part of a project comparing the development of children with hearing loss to those without hearing loss, known as the Early Development of Children with Hearing Loss. The speech comparisons are in terms of number of utterances, syllable shapes, and segment type. A subset of the data was given a detailed acoustic analysis, including formant frequencies and voice quality measures. [Work supported by NIDCD R01 006237 to Susan Nittrouer.

  16. Wnt16 Is Associated with Age-Related Bone Loss and Estrogen Withdrawal in Murine Bone.

    PubMed

    Todd, Henry; Galea, Gabriel L; Meakin, Lee B; Delisser, Peter J; Lanyon, Lance E; Windahl, Sara H; Price, Joanna S

    2015-01-01

    Genome Wide Association Studies suggest that Wnt16 is an important contributor to the mechanisms controlling bone mineral density, cortical thickness, bone strength and ultimately fracture risk. Wnt16 acts on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and, in cortical bone, is predominantly derived from osteoblasts. This led us to hypothesize that low bone mass would be associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression and that Wnt16 expression would be increased by anabolic factors, including mechanical loading. We therefore investigated Wnt16 expression in the context of ageing, mechanical loading and unloading, estrogen deficiency and replacement, and estrogen receptor α (ERα) depletion. Quantitative real time PCR showed that Wnt16 mRNA expression was lower in cortical bone and marrow of aged compared to young female mice. Neither increased nor decreased (by disuse) mechanical loading altered Wnt16 expression in young female mice, although Wnt16 expression was decreased following ovariectomy. Both 17β-estradiol and the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen increased Wnt16 expression relative to ovariectomy. Wnt16 and ERβ expression were increased in female ERα-/- mice when compared to Wild Type. We also addressed potential effects of gender on Wnt16 expression and while the expression was lower in the cortical bone of aged males as in females, it was higher in male bone marrow of aged mice compared to young. In the kidney, which we used as a non-bone reference tissue, Wnt16 expression was unaffected by age in either males or females. In summary, age, and its associated bone loss, is associated with low levels of Wnt16 expression whereas bone loss associated with disuse has no effect on Wnt16 expression. In the artificially loaded mouse tibia we observed no loading-related up-regulation of Wnt16 expression but provide evidence that its expression is influenced by estrogen receptor signaling. These findings suggest that while Wnt16 is not an obligatory contributor to

  17. Sensorineural hearing loss in otitis media.

    PubMed

    Paparella, M M; Morizono, T; Le, C T; Mancini, F; Sipilä, P; Choo, Y B; Lidén, G; Kim, C S

    1984-01-01

    Additional evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that both acute purulent otitis media (POM) and chronic suppurative otitis media (COM) can cause high frequency sensorineural hearing loss. In selected patients and in animals (chinchillas) in a pilot study using electrophysiological methods, both temporary threshold shifts and permanent threshold shifts of basal cochlear turn involvement were demonstrated in POM. Data of cochlear involvement in 475 ears with bilateral COM, 607 ears with unilateral COM, and 607 ears serving as controls were obtained from six centers in five countries. In group 1 (15 dB or greater), 43% of ears with unilateral COM and 42% of ears with bilateral COM showed losses, for a combined odds ratio eight times that in controls. In group 2 (30 dB or greater), 16% of ears with unilateral COM and 17% of ears with bilateral COM demonstrated, respectively, seven and ten times that in controls. These statistically significant findings influence clinical considerations. PMID:6508134

  18. Is Sudden Hearing Loss Associated with Atherosclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Rajati, Mohsen; Azarpajooh, Mahmoud Reza; Mouhebati, Mohsen; Nasrollahi, Mostafa; Salehi, Maryam; Khadivi, Ehsan; Nourizadeh, Navid; Hashemi, Firoozeh; Bakhshaee, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sudden sensorineural hearing-loss (SSNHL) patients constitute approximately 2–3% of referrals to ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics. Several predisposing factors have been proposed for this condition; one of which is vascular disorders and perfusion compromise. In this research the atherosclerotic changes and their known risk factors are studied in SSNHL patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty SSNHL patients and 30 controls were evaluated with regard to cardiovascular risks including history, heart examination, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, electrocardiogram, blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP); also, carotid artery color Doppler study was undertaken to measure intima media thickness(IMT). Results: IMT and HSCRP showed an increased risk in the case group compared with the controls (P= 0.005 & P=0.001). However, waist circumference, history of smoking, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and electrocardiogram revealed no significant difference between the two groups. Interestingly, blood pressure and body mass index were higher in the controls in this study. Conclusion: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss may be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:27429947

  19. Consanguinity and hereditary hearing loss in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Giorgia; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Abdulhadi, Khalid; Vuckovic, Dragana; Vozzi, Diego; Khalifa Alkowari, Moza; Gasparini, Paolo; Badii, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Qatar is a sovereign state located on the Eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in the Persian Gulf. Its native population consists of 3 major subgroups: people of Arabian origin or Bedouins, those from an Eastern or Persian ancestry and individuals with African admixture. Historically, all types of consanguineous marriages have been and still are common in the Qatari population, particularly among first and double-first cousins. Thus, there is a higher risk for most inherited diseases including hereditary hearing loss (HHL). In particular, a hearing loss prevalence of 5.2% has been reported in Qatar, with parental consanguinity being more common among affected individuals as compared with unaffected ones. Our recent molecular results confirm a high homogeneity and level of inbreeding in Qatari HHL patients. Among all HHL genes, GJB2, the major player worldwide, accounts for a minor proportion of cases and at least 3 additional genes have been found to be mutated in Qatari patients. Interestingly, one gene, BDP1, has been described to cause HHL only in this country. These results point towards an unexpected level of genetic heterogeneity despite the high level of inbreeding. This review provides an up-to-date picture of HHL in Qatar and of the impact of consanguinity on this disease. PMID:25060281

  20. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Hearing Loss and Hearing Aid Use in Korean Elders

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined hearing loss prevalence and hearing aid usage rates among Korean elders by comparing the differences between those with and without hearing loss, and between those who used and did not use hearing aids. Methods: This study was based on data collected during the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012). The study sample consisted of 5,447 Koreans aged ≥60 years who received a hearing assessment. Hearing loss was measured using a pure tone audiometry test and classified according to the World Health Organization’s criteria. Hearing aid use was assessed by self-report. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between hearing loss, hearing aid use, and related variables. Results: Hearing loss was found in 16.8% of the elders and only 15.9% of them used a hearing aid. Male (95% CI: 1.27–2.15), tinnitus (95% CI: 1.58–2.32), dizziness (95% CI: 1.05–1.73), and occupational noise exposure (95% CI: 1.32–2.38) were the variables most strongly associated with hearing loss after multivariate adjustment. Tinnitus (95% CI: 1.34–4.13) and occupational noise exposure (95% CI: 1.01–5.02) were strongly associated with hearing aid use after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion: More than half of South Korean elders aged ≥60 and older have hearing loss but the rate of hearing aid use is very low. An aural public health program should address modifiable risk factors, such as tinnitus and noise exposure, and non-modifiable risk factors associated with hearing loss in the elderly. PMID:25905073

  1. To unite or divide: mitochondrial dynamics in the murine outer retina that preceded age related photoreceptor loss

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Jaimie Hoh; Jeffery, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial function declines with age and is associated with age-related disorders and cell death. In the retina this is critical as photoreceptor energy demands are the greatest in the body and aged cell loss large (~30%). But mitochondria can fuse or divide to accommodate changing demands. We explore ageing mitochondrial dynamics in young (1 month) and old (12 months) mouse retina, investigating changes in mitochondrial fission (Fis1) and fusion (Opa1) proteins, cytochrome C oxidase (COX III), which reflects mitochondrial metabolic status, and heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) that is a mitochondrial chaperon for protein folding. Western blots showed each protein declined with age. However, within this, immunostaining revealed increases of around 50% in Fis1 and Opa1 in photoreceptor inner segments (IS). Electron microscope analysis revealed mitochondrial fragmentation with age and marked changes in morphology in IS, consistent with elevated dynamics. COX III declined by approximately 30% in IS, but Hsp60 reductions were around 80% in the outer plexiform layer. Our results are consistent with declining mitochondrial metabolism. But also with increased photoreceptor mitochondrial dynamics that differ from other retinal regions, perhaps reflecting attempts to maintain function. These changes are the platform for age related photoreceptor loss initiated after 12 months. PMID:26393878

  2. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M.; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L.; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B.; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J.; Blood, Anne J.; Breiter, Hans C.

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task. PMID:25983682

  3. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task. PMID:25983682

  4. Simulated Interventions to Ameliorate Age-Related Bone Loss Indicate the Importance of Timing.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Carole J; Gartland, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Bone remodeling is the continuous process of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, in order to maintain homeostasis. The activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts is regulated by a network of signaling pathways, including Wnt, parathyroid hormone (PTH), RANK ligand/osteoprotegrin, and TGF-β, in response to stimuli, such as mechanical loading. During aging there is a gradual loss of bone mass due to dysregulation of signaling pathways. This may be due to a decline in physical activity with age and/or changes in hormones and other signaling molecules. In particular, hormones, such as PTH, have a circadian rhythm, which may be disrupted in aging. Due to the complexity of the molecular and cellular networks involved in bone remodeling, several mathematical models have been proposed to aid understanding of the processes involved. However, to date, there are no models, which explicitly consider the effects of mechanical loading, the circadian rhythm of PTH, and the dynamics of signaling molecules on bone remodeling. Therefore, we have constructed a network model of the system using a modular approach, which will allow further modifications as required in future research. The model was used to simulate the effects of mechanical loading and also the effects of different interventions, such as continuous or intermittent administration of PTH. Our model predicts that the absence of regular mechanical loading and/or an impaired PTH circadian rhythm leads to a gradual decrease in bone mass over time, which can be restored by simulated interventions and that the effectiveness of some interventions may depend on their timing. PMID:27379013

  5. Simulated Interventions to Ameliorate Age-Related Bone Loss Indicate the Importance of Timing

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Carole J.; Gartland, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Bone remodeling is the continuous process of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, in order to maintain homeostasis. The activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts is regulated by a network of signaling pathways, including Wnt, parathyroid hormone (PTH), RANK ligand/osteoprotegrin, and TGF-β, in response to stimuli, such as mechanical loading. During aging there is a gradual loss of bone mass due to dysregulation of signaling pathways. This may be due to a decline in physical activity with age and/or changes in hormones and other signaling molecules. In particular, hormones, such as PTH, have a circadian rhythm, which may be disrupted in aging. Due to the complexity of the molecular and cellular networks involved in bone remodeling, several mathematical models have been proposed to aid understanding of the processes involved. However, to date, there are no models, which explicitly consider the effects of mechanical loading, the circadian rhythm of PTH, and the dynamics of signaling molecules on bone remodeling. Therefore, we have constructed a network model of the system using a modular approach, which will allow further modifications as required in future research. The model was used to simulate the effects of mechanical loading and also the effects of different interventions, such as continuous or intermittent administration of PTH. Our model predicts that the absence of regular mechanical loading and/or an impaired PTH circadian rhythm leads to a gradual decrease in bone mass over time, which can be restored by simulated interventions and that the effectiveness of some interventions may depend on their timing. PMID:27379013

  6. Immersive simulation of hearing loss and auditory prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Patrick M.; Desloge, Joseph G.

    2001-05-01

    Simulation of hearing loss is useful for demonstrating the communication challenges facing hearing-impaired people. However, current simulations, most of which are only recordings, do not actually elevate thresholds; i.e., they do not simulate hearing loss, per se. The hearing loss simulator described in this talk is immersive; the user's detection thresh- olds for ambient sounds are shifted by a prescribed degree. This threshold shift is achieved through a combination of passive attenuation (from muff-type hearing protectors) and additive masking noise (introduced by within-muff earphones). Acoustic signals picked up by microphones near each ear are processed through bandpass AGC channels and delivered via the earphones to complete the simulation of frequency-dependent hearing loss and loudness recruitment. Preliminary results validating the accuracy of specified threshold shift will be presented, along with speech-reception data comparing simulated with actual hearing losses. Subjective reactions of users engaged in one-on-one conversation suggest that strong feelings of communication disability are engendered by even moderate degrees of simulated hearing loss. The system, which is capable of simulating any degree of recruiting hearing loss along with hearing aids or cochlear implants, can provide effective interactive demonstrations of both auditory communication handicap and rehabilitation options. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  7. Bringing Text Display Digital Radio to Consumers with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Ellyn G.; Starling, Michael; Schwab, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Radio is migrating to digital transmission, expanding its offerings to include captioning for individuals with hearing loss. Text display radio requires a large amount of word throughput with minimal screen display area, making good user interface design crucial to its success. In two experiments, we presented hearing, hard-of-hearing, and deaf…

  8. Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.

    2006-01-01

    These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

  9. Isolated Sensorineural Hearing Loss as a Sequela after Lightning Strike.

    PubMed

    Turan, Mahfuz; Kalkan, Ferhat; Bozan, Nazım; Özçalimli, İsa; Zeki Erdem, Mehmet; Yalınkılıç, Abdülaziz; Garca, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    In most of the surviving patients after a lightning strike, audiovestibular abnormalities have been reported. The most frequently reported type of abnormalities is a tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss and external ear canal burn. However a sensor neural hearing loss and mixed type hearing loss can also occur, but these occur rarely. A nineteen-year-old female patient had, after a lightning strike, serious burns on the left ear, behind the ear, and on the chest and neck. She also had in her left ear 108 dB hearing loss with irregular central perforation and in her right ear 52 dB sensorineural hearing loss. There was no hearing loss before the strike. A hearing aid was recommended for the right ear and good care and follow-up were recommended for the left ear. A lightning strike can cause serious audiological damage. Therefore, it is necessary to make a careful audiovestibular evaluation of the patients. Although there exist rarely healed cases from sensorineural hearing loss after lightning strike in literature, in our case hearing loss occurred bilaterally and then it healed unilaterally. This condition is quite rare in literature. PMID:26161278

  10. Hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Alice

    2001-05-01

    Little attention has been paid to hearing abilities and the effects of noise on the normal adolescent and young adult population. A series of studies will be presented on the prevalence of hearing loss and reported effects of hearing loss and tinnitus in adolescents and young adults from different cultural backgrounds. Adolescents and young adults from different backgrounds may tend to seek or avoid various noise environments that could be detrimental to their hearing and cause tinnitus. Attitudes and exposures to noise environments were evaluated to see if these may be correlated with their hearing losses and/or tinnitus. In addition, these adolescent and young adult subjects reported how often they used hearing protection in various noise environments. Finally, the issues of quality of life and the need for hearing conservation programs with these populations will be presented.

  11. An analysis of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and its significance on osteoarthritis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Je; Ahn, Hee-Yun; Hong, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study was conducted in order to analyze the effects of sarcopenia on age-related osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee in a Korean population. Methods: All the Korean subjects who visited the Yeungnam University Medical Center Health Promotion Center between 2008 and 2012 in order to undergo a routine medical examination were enrolled. A total of 5,723 young, healthy people (2,959 males, 2,764 females) enrolled as normal subjects and 23,473 subjects (13,006 males and 10,467 females) were included for evaluation of the effects of sarcopenia on OA. There were 266 subjects who followed-up bioelectrical impedance analysis at a 4-year interval. Of 327 subjects enrolled in this study, knees with anteroposterior X-rays were assessed according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grade. Results: Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) showed a steady decrease with the advance of age (p < 0.01), but SMI showed strong positive correlation with BMR (r = 0.72, β = 30.96, p < 0.01). During the 4-year interval, BMR showed a significant decrease with aging (p < 0.01), consistently with the decrease of SMI. Knees with normal SMI were prone to be designated as K/L grade 0 or 1; however, subjects with sarcopenia showed a trend toward the higher K/L grade, classified as knee radiological osteoarthritis (ROA) (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results of this study may indicate that sarcopenia as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass is interactively correlated with the presence and severity of age-related OA. PMID:26976151

  12. A case of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss with contralateral psychogenic hearing loss induced by gunshot noise.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young-Ho; Mun, Seog-Kyun

    2011-10-01

    The reasons behind sudden sensorineural hearing loss are mostly unknown, but viral infections, blood disorders, ototoxicity, noise trauma, autoimmune disease, acoustic tumor, and even mental stress may be related to the disease. In cases of hearing loss as a result of psychogenic factors, early diagnosis and adequate treatment under collaboration with the psychiatric department are crucial, since failure to take appropriate measures may result in permanent sequela. We report a case, with a review of the literature, of sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss with contralateral psychogenic hearing loss induced by gunshot noise. PMID:22128658

  13. Hearing loss severity: impaired processing of formant transition duration.

    PubMed

    Coez, A; Belin, P; Bizaguet, E; Ferrary, E; Zilbovicius, M; Samson, Y

    2010-08-01

    Normal hearing listeners exploit the formant transition (FT) detection to identify place of articulation for stop consonants. Neuro-imaging studies revealed that short FT induced less cortical activation than long FT. To determine the ability of hearing impaired listeners to distinguish short and long formant transitions (FT) from vowels of the same duration, 84 mild to severe hearing impaired listeners and 5 normal hearing listeners were asked to detect 10 synthesized stimuli with long (200 ms) or short (40 ms) FT among 30 stimuli of the same duration without FT. Hearing impaired listeners were tested with and without hearing aids. The effect of the difficulty of the task (short/long FT) was analysed as a function of the hearing loss with and without hearing aids. Normal hearing listeners were able to detect every FT (short and long). For hearing impaired listeners, the detection of long FT was better than that of short ones irrespective of their degree of hearing loss. The use of hearing aids improved detection of both kinds of FT; however, the detection of long FT remained much better than the detection of the short ones. The length of FT modified the ability of hearing impaired patients to detect FT. Short FT had access to less cortical processing than long FT and cochlea damages enhanced this specific deficit in short FT brain processing. These findings help to understand the limit of deafness rehabilitation in the time domain and should be taken into account in future devices development. PMID:20600193

  14. [Hearing loss associated with smoking in male workers].

    PubMed

    Takata, Yasumitsu

    2011-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was designed to examine the effect of smoking habit on hearing loss at 1000 and 4000 Hz in the workplace. Among 1,875 male workers, including 287 subjects with occupational noise exposure, the ratio of the number with hearing loss at 1000 or 4000 Hz increased with smoking habits and that relation at 4000 Hz was statistically significant. These hearing losses showed a significant relation with age but not with working- duration under occupational noise exposure by multiple regression analysis. The amount of smoking showed a weak but significant association with hearing loss at 4000 Hz. However, among the 287 male subjects with occupational noise exposure, there was no significant relation between smoking habits and hearing loss. Therefore, both hearing loss induced by occupational noise exposure and that related with smoking habit were well controlled in this workplace. These results indicate that hearing check-ups and education to prevent noise-induced hearing impairment in the workplace might be useful to prevent the hearing loss associated with smoking habit among male workers. PMID:21438339

  15. Mechanisms and Treatment of Blast Induced Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of the basic mechanisms of blast induced hearing loss and review pharmacological treatments or interventions that can reduce or inhibit blast induced hearing loss. The mechanisms of blast induced hearing loss have been studied in experimental animal models mimicking features of damage or injury seen in human. Blast induced hearing loss is characterized by perforation and rupture of the tympanic membrane, ossicular damage, basilar membrane damage, inner and outer hair cell loss, rupture of round window, changes in chemical components of cochlear fluid, vasospasm, ischemia, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, hematoma, and hemorrhage in both animals and humans. These histopathological consequences of blast exposure can induce hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and headache. The pharmacological approaches to block or inhibit some of the auditory pathological consequences caused by blast exposure have been developed with antioxidant drugs such as 2,4-disulfonyl α-phenyl tertiary butyl nitrone (HXY-059, now called HPN-07) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A combination of antioxidant drugs (HPN-07 and NAC) was administered to reduce blast induced cochlear damage and hearing loss. The combination of the antioxidant drugs can prevent or treat blast induced hearing loss by reducing damage to the mechanical and neural component of the auditory system. Although information of the underlying mechanisms and treatment of blast induced hearing loss are provided, further and deep research should be achieved due to the limited and controversial knowledge. PMID:24653882

  16. Unilateral sudden hearing loss: a rare symptom of Moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Gül, Fatih; Berçin, Sami; Müderris, Togay; Yalçıner, Gökhan; Ünal, Özkan; Kırış, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old female patient experienced a sudden onset of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss due to Moyamoya disease. A detailed summary of audiological and neurological findings indicated that the sudden hearing loss might be due to Moyamoya disease resulting in occlusion of posterior and middle cerebral arteries. Intravenous prednisolone and trimetazidine dihydrochloride may improve hearing thresholds and speech understanding. To our knowledge, this is the first article in the literature reporting a case of sudden hearing loss as the first manifestation of Moyamoya disease in a young adult. PMID:26890714

  17. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Hearing Loss Using Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids Compared to Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Most, Tova; Shina-August, Ella; Meilijson, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the profile of pragmatic abilities among 24 children with hearing loss (HL) aged 6.3-9.4 years, 13 using hearing aids (HAs) and 11 using cochlear implants (CIs), in comparison to those of 13 hearing children with similar chronological and language ages. All the children with HL used spoken language, attended regular…

  18. Noise-related hearing loss can be avoided

    SciTech Connect

    Istre, C.O. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    The physiological changes in the auditory organ are described with the protective equipment available for prevention of occupationally related hearing losses. Since most affected employees are unaware of the hearing loss until the damage is irreversible the author stresses that protective equipment usage must be mandatory for supervisory as well as active workers. Mechanical movement, combustion, and high pressure venting are all listed as detrimental to human hearing. (PSB)

  19. Call centers and noise-induced hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Beyan, Ayse Coskun; Demiral, Yucel; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Ergor, Alparslan

    2016-01-01

    Noise is defined as unwelcome sound. It has been estimated that 16% of adult hearing loss in the world is due to noise exposure at the workplace. This report offers a case that diagnosed with hearing loss of whom working as a call center operator at home. Home agent operators should be explored. PMID:26960789

  20. Arts Education: Diminishing Communications Barriers for Students with Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Susan D.

    1996-01-01

    The writer, an individual with progressive hearing loss, describes the isolation and powerlessness experienced by people with hearing loss and comments on the great value that participation in the arts and art education can have in moderating this isolation and empowering individuals to find their own identity. (DB)

  1. A Young Man With Progressive Vision and Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Kung, Nathan H; Bucelli, Robert C; Van Stavern, Renee B; Goebel, Joel A; Van Stavern, Gregory P

    2016-07-01

    A 37-year-old man with a history of progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss presented to a neuro-ophthalmology clinic with an acute left homonymous hemianopsia. In this article, we discuss the clinical approach and differential diagnosis of progressive combined vision and hearing loss and guide the reader to discover the patient's ultimate diagnosis. PMID:27213952

  2. Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Implications for Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstrum, W. June; Biernath, Krista; McKay, Sarah; Ross, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening has become a standard practice in most birthing hospitals in the United States. Historically, the primary target for the identification of hearing loss has been infants with permanent bilateral loss of moderate degree or greater (i.e., greater than 40 dB). However, research indicates that without early identification and…

  3. Effective Identification of Functional Hearing Loss Using Behavioral Threshold Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Koerner, Tess K.; Marshall, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Four functional hearing loss protocols were evaluated. Method: For each protocol, 30 participants feigned a hearing loss first on an audiogram and then for a screening test that began a threshold search from extreme levels (-10 or 90 dB HL). Two-tone and 3-tone protocols compared thresholds for ascending and descending tones for 2 (0.5…

  4. Call centers and noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Beyan, Ayse Coskun; Demiral, Yucel; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Ergor, Alparslan

    2016-01-01

    Noise is defined as unwelcome sound. It has been estimated that 16% of adult hearing loss in the world is due to noise exposure at the workplace. This report offers a case that diagnosed with hearing loss of whom working as a call center operator at home. Home agent operators should be explored. PMID:26960789

  5. Effect of Speaker Age on Speech Recognition and Perceived Listening Effort in Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuliffe, Megan J.; Wilding, Phillipa J.; Rickard, Natalie A.; O'Beirne, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults exhibit difficulty understanding speech that has been experimentally degraded. Age-related changes to the speech mechanism lead to natural degradations in signal quality. We tested the hypothesis that older adults with hearing loss would exhibit declines in speech recognition when listening to the speech of older adults,…

  6. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices

    PubMed Central

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults’ hearing status. A questionnaire and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). The questionnaire contained the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS) and Beliefs about Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss (BAHPHL). A more positive attitude or belief represented an attitude where noise or hearing loss is seen as unproblematic and attitudes and beliefs regarding HPDs is worse. Hearing was evaluated using (high frequency) pure tone audiometry (PTA), transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. First, mean differences in hearing between the groups with different attitudes and beliefs were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second, a χ2 test was used to examine the usage of HPDs by the different groups with different attitudes and beliefs. Young adults with a positive attitude had significantly more deteriorated hearing and used HPDs less than the other subjects. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs) for young adults should provide information and knowledge regarding noise, hearing loss, and HPDs. Barriers wearing HPDs should especially be discussed. Further, those campaigns should focus on self-experienced hearing related symptoms that might serve as triggers for attitudinal and behavioral changes. PMID:26356365

  7. Screening of Connexin 26 in Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Danielle; Silva, Daniela da; Lopez, Priscila; Mantovani, Jair Cortez

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The first locus for nonsyndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss is on chromosome 13q11–22. The 35delG mutation is present in 80% of cases in which GJB2 is involved, which makes the study of this mutation very important. The viability and benefits of screening for mutations in the connexin 26 gene are now beginning to change the diagnostic evaluation and identification of the etiology of hearing loss. Objective To investigate the occurrence of the 35delG mutation in patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss and their first degree relatives. Methods This transversal study included 72 patients from the local hospital. The patients were divided into three groups: group A, sensorineural hearing loss (n = 58); group B, first-degree relatives of group A with sensorineural hearing loss (n = 09); and group C, first-degree relatives of patients from group A without hearing loss (n = 05). All patients had audiological evaluation and genetic testing of the 35delG mutation. Results The 35delG mutation was found in four heterozygous mutations (three of them found in the same family). The other heterozygous mutation was found in a female patient with bilateral, moderate, prelingual, sensorineural hearing loss. A single homozygous mutation was found in a male patient, with severe sensorineural hearing loss in his right ear and profound hearing loss in the left ear. Conclusions The 35delG mutation was found in 7% of the cases. The test is easy to perform and inexpensive, but it is necessary to investigate other genes related to hearing loss. PMID:25992148

  8. Positive, Neutral, and Negative Connotations Associated with Social Representation of 'Hearing Loss' and 'Hearing Aids'

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Gretchen; Danermark, Berth; Germundsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives In our previous studies we explored the social representation of hearing loss and hearing aids. In this study we aimed at exploring if the positive, neutral and negative connotations associated with the social representation of 'hearing loss' and 'hearing aids' for the same categories vary across countries. In addition, we also looked at if there is an association between connotations and demographic variables. Subjects and Methods A total of 404 individuals from four countries were asked to indicate the words and phrases that comes to mind when they think about 'hearing loss' and 'hearing aids'. They also indicated if the words and phrases they reported had positive, neutral or negative association, which were analyzed and reported in this paper. Results There are considerable differences among the countries in terms of positive, neutral and negative associations report for each category in relation to hearing loss and hearing aids. However, there is limited connection between demographic variables and connotations reported in different countries. Conclusions These results suggesting that the social representation about the phenomenon hearing loss and hearing aids are relatively stable within respondents of each country. PMID:26771011

  9. Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Firszt, Jill B.; Reeder, Ruth M.; Holden, Timothy A.; Burton, Harold; Chole, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Monaural hearing induces auditory system reorganization. Imbalanced input also degrades time-intensity cues for sound localization and signal segregation for listening in noise. While there have been studies of bilateral auditory deprivation and later hearing restoration (e.g., cochlear implants), less is known about unilateral auditory deprivation and subsequent hearing improvement. We investigated effects of long-term congenital unilateral hearing loss on localization, speech understanding, and cortical organization following hearing recovery. Hearing in the congenitally affected ear of a 41 year old female improved significantly after stapedotomy and reconstruction. Pre-operative hearing threshold levels showed unilateral, mixed, moderately-severe to profound hearing loss. The contralateral ear had hearing threshold levels within normal limits. Testing was completed prior to, and 3 and 9 months after surgery. Measurements were of sound localization with intensity-roved stimuli and speech recognition in various noise conditions. We also evoked magnetic resonance signals with monaural stimulation to the unaffected ear. Activation magnitudes were determined in core, belt, and parabelt auditory cortex regions via an interrupted single event design. Hearing improvement following 40 years of congenital unilateral hearing loss resulted in substantially improved sound localization and speech recognition in noise. Auditory cortex also reorganized. Contralateral auditory cortex responses were increased after hearing recovery and the extent of activated cortex was bilateral, including a greater portion of the posterior superior temporal plane. Thus, prolonged predominant monaural stimulation did not prevent auditory system changes consequent to restored binaural hearing. Results support future research of unilateral auditory deprivation effects and plasticity, with consideration for length of deprivation, age at hearing correction and degree and type of hearing loss. PMID

  10. Disrupted functional brain connectome in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haibo; Fan, Wenliang; Zhao, Xueyan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Wenjuan; Lei, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haha; Cheng, Huamao; Shi, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is generally defined as sensorineural hearing loss of 30 dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies and within a three-day period. This hearing loss is usually unilateral and can be associated with tinnitus and vertigo. The pathogenesis of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss is still unknown, and the alterations in the functional connectivity are suspected to involve one possible pathogenesis. Despite scarce findings with respect to alterations in brain functional networks in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss, the alterations of the whole brain functional connectome and whether these alterations were already in existence in the acute period remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations of brain functional connectome in two large samples of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients and to investigate the correlation between unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss characteristics and changes in the functional network properties. Pure tone audiometry was performed to assess hearing ability. Abnormal changes in the peripheral auditory system were examined using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The graph theoretical network analysis method was used to detect brain connectome alterations in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Compared with the control groups, both groups of unilateral SSNHL patients exhibited a significantly increased clustering coefficient, global efficiency, and local efficiency but a significantly decreased characteristic path length. In addition, the primary increased nodal strength (e.g., nodal betweenness, hubs) was observed in several regions primarily, including the limbic and paralimbic systems, and in the auditory network brain areas. These findings suggest that the alteration of network organization already exists in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients within the acute period

  11. Drug Induced Hearing Loss: Researchers Study Strategies to Preserve Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... dying due to ototoxic drugs. Please describe the benefits of your findings. Our results advance our understanding ... hearing is critical to their developing speech and language skills. Our goal is to improve the lives ...

  12. Hearing Loss and Older Adults’ Perceptions of Access to Care

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Jessica R.; Barnett, Steven; Smith, Maureen A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether hard-of-hearing older adults were more likely to report difficulties and delays in accessing care and decreased satisfaction with healthcare access than those without hearing loss. The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (2003–2006 wave, N = 6,524) surveyed respondents regarding hearing, difficulties/delays in accessing care, satisfaction with healthcare access, socio-demographics, chronic conditions, self-rated health, depression, and length of relationship with provider/site. We used multivariate regression to compare access difficulties/delays and satisfaction by respondents’ hearing status (hard-of-hearing or not). Hard-of-hearing individuals comprised 18% of the sample. Compared to those not hard-of-hearing, hard-of-hearing individuals were significantly more likely to be older, male and separated/divorced. They had a higher mean number of chronic conditions, including atherosclerotic vascular disease, diabetes and depression. After adjustment for potential confounders, hard-of-hearing individuals were more likely to report difficulties in accessing healthcare (Odds Ratio 1.85; 95% Confidence Interval 1.19–2.88). Satisfaction with healthcare access was similar in both groups. Our findings suggest healthcare access difficulties will be heightened for more of the population because of the increasing prevalence of hearing loss. The prevalence of hearing loss in this data is low and our findings from a telephone survey likely underestimate the magnitude of access difficulties experienced by hard-of-hearing older adults. Further research which incorporates accessible surveys is needed. In the meantime, clinicians should pay particular attention to assessing barriers in healthcare access for hard-of-hearing individuals. Resources should be made available to proactively address these issues for those who are hard-of-hearing and to educate providers about the specific needs of this population. PMID:21301940

  13. Prelinguistic Vocal Development in Infants with Typical Hearing and Infants with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2008-01-01

    Delays in the onset of canonical babbling with hearing loss are extensively documented. Relatively little is known about other aspects of prelinguistic vocal development and hearing loss. Eight infants with typical hearing and eight with severe-to-profound hearing loss were matched with regard to a significant vocal development milestone, the…

  14. Hearing assistive technology considerations for older individuals with dual sensory loss.

    PubMed

    Kricos, Patricia B

    2007-12-01

    This article focuses on the current state of the science related to audiologic rehabilitation of individuals with dual sensory impairment, with an emphasis on considerations for provision of appropriate hearing assistive technology for this population. A substantial increase in the number of older adults is predicted in the coming years, many of whom will have significant age-related impairments in hearing and vision. Thus, hearing care professionals will be called on increasingly to attend to the special needs of people with dual sensory impairments to ensure maximal quality of life and independence for these individuals. Access to sound is critical for individuals who live with compromises in both vision and hearing. Hearing assistive technology may improve not only their speech perception but also their connection and orientation to the environment, as well as enable greater mobility. Thus, the audiologist's provision of appropriate and carefully selected hearing assistive technology may contribute dramatically to the quality of life of the individual with dual sensory loss. Prefitting, fitting, and postfitting considerations in providing hearing aids and other assistive technology to individuals with dual sensory impairment are reviewed. PMID:18080391

  15. Age-related differences in heat loss capacity occur under both dry and humid heat stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larose, Joanie; Boulay, Pierre; Wright-Beatty, Heather E.; Sigal, Ronald J.; Hardcastle, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the progression of impairments in heat dissipation as a function of age and environmental conditions. Sixty men (n = 12 per group; 20–30, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, and 55–70 yr) performed four intermittent exercise/recovery cycles for a duration of 2 h in dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity) and humid (35°C, 60% relative humidity) conditions. Evaporative heat loss and metabolic heat production were measured by direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and heat loss during the sessions. Evaporative heat loss was reduced during exercise in the humid vs. dry condition in age groups 20–30 (−17%), 40–44 (−18%), 45–49 (−21%), 50–54 (−25%), and 55–70 yr (−20%). HE fell short of being significantly different between groups in the dry condition, but was greater in age group 20–30 yr (279 ± 10 W) compared with age groups 45–49 (248 ± 8 W), 50–54 (242 ± 6 W), and 55–70 yr (240 ± 7 W) in the humid condition. As a result of a reduced rate of heat dissipation predominantly during exercise, age groups 40–70 yr stored between 60–85 and 13–38% more heat than age group 20–30 yr in the dry and humid conditions, respectively. These age-related differences in heat dissipation and heat storage were not paralleled by significant differences in local sweating and skin blood flow, or by differences in core temperature between groups. From a whole body perspective, combined heat and humidity impeded heat dissipation to a similar extent across age groups, but, more importantly, intermittent exercise in dry and humid heat stress conditions created a greater thermoregulatory challenge for middle-aged and older adults. PMID:24812643

  16. Hearing loss in hydrocephalus: a review, with focus on mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Satzer, David; Guillaume, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    While neither hydrocephalus nor cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt placement is traditionally considered in the differential diagnosis of hearing loss, there is substantial evidence that CSF circulation and pressure abnormalities can produce auditory dysfunction. Several indirect mechanisms may explain association between hydrocephalus and hearing loss, including mass effect, compromise of the auditory pathway, complications of prematurity, and genetically mediated hydrocephalus and hearing loss. Nevertheless, researchers have proposed a direct mechanism, which we term the hydrodynamic theory. In this hypothesis, the intimate relationship between CSF and inner ear fluids permits relative endolymphatic or perilymphatic hydrops in the setting of CSF pressure disturbances. CSF is continuous with perilymph, and CSF pressure changes are known to produce parallel perilymphatic pressure changes. In support of the hydrodynamic theory, some studies have found an independent association between hydrocephalus and hearing loss. Moreover, surgical shunting of CSF has been linked to both resolution and development of auditory dysfunction. The disease burden of hydrocephalus-associated hearing loss may be large, and because hydrocephalus and over-shunting are reversible, this relationship merits broader recognition. Hydrocephalic patients should be monitored for hearing loss, and hearing loss in a patient with shunted hydrocephalus should prompt further evaluation and possibly adjustment of shunt settings. PMID:26280639

  17. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives  To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Methods  Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Results  Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. Conclusions  The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health. PMID:27413410

  18. Hearing Loss and Deafness. An Annotated Bibliography of Children's Books about Hearing Loss, Deafness, and Hearing Impaired People. Have You Ever Wondered About...?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldman-Brown, Deborah

    The annotated bibliography lists children's books about hearing loss, deafness, and hearing-impaired persons. The first section lists books about Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan, Keller's teacher. In section 2, each of the fiction entries features at least one major character with hearing impairment. Section 3 contains non-fiction books about…

  19. Mutations of GIPC3 cause nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNB72 but not DFNB81 that also maps to chromosome 19p

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Atteeq U.; Gul, Khitab; Morell, Robert J.; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Riazuddin, Saima; Ali, Rana A.; Shahzad, Mohsin; Jaleel, Ateeq-ul; Andrade, Paula B.; Khan, Shaheen N.; Khan, Saadullah; Brewer, Carmen C.; Ahmad, Wasim; Leal, Suzanne M.; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2012-01-01

    A missense mutation of Gipc3 was previously reported to cause age-related hearing loss in mice. Point mutations of human GIPC3 were found in two small families, but association with hearing loss was not statistically significant. Here, we describe one frameshift and six missense mutations in GIPC3 cosegregating with DFNB72 hearing loss in six large families that support statistically significant evidence for genetic linkage. However, GIPC3 is not the only nonsyndromic hearing impairment gene in this region; no GIPC3 mutations were found in a family cosegregating hearing loss with markers of chromosome 19p. Haplotype analysis excluded GIPC3 from the obligate linkage interval in this family and defined a novel locus spanning 4.08 Mb and 104 genes. This closely linked but distinct nonsyndromic hearing loss locus was designated DFNB81. PMID:21660509

  20. A review of new insights on the association between hearing loss and cognitive decline in ageing.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, S; Forli, F; Guglielmi, V; De Corso, E; Paludetti, G; Berrettini, S; Fetoni, A R

    2016-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) has a multifactorial pathogenesis and it is an inevitable hearing impairment associated with reduction of communicative skills related to ageing. Increasing evidence has linked ARHL to more rapid progression of cognitive decline and incidental dementia. Many aspects of daily living of elderly people have been associated to hearing abilities, showing that hearing loss (HL) affects the quality of life, social relationships, motor skills, psychological aspects and function and morphology in specific brain areas. Epidemiological and clinical studies confirm the assumption of a relationship between these conditions. However, the mechanisms are still unclear and are reviewed herein. Long-term hearing deprivation of auditory inputs can impact cognitive performance by decreasing the quality of communication leading to social isolation and depression and facilitate dementia. On the contrary, the limited cognitive skills may reduce the cognitive resources available for auditory perception, increasing the effects of HL. In addition, hearing loss and cognitive decline may reflect a 'common cause' on the auditory pathway and brain. In fact, some pathogenetic factors are recongised in common microvascular disease factors such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and hypertension. Interdisciplinary efforts to investigate and address HL in the context of brain and cognitive ageing are needed. Surprisingly, few studies have been adressed on the effectiveness of hearing aids in changing the natural history of cognitive decline. Effective interventions with hearing aids or cochlear implant may improve social and emotional function, communication, cognitive function and positively impact quality of life. The aim of this review is to overview new insights on this challenging topic and provide new ideas for future research. PMID:27214827

  1. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey

    PubMed Central

    Størmer, Carl Christian Lein; Laukli, Einar; Høydal, Erik Harry; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of Tromsø. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians. PMID:26572701

  2. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey.

    PubMed

    Størmer, Carl Christian Lein; Laukli, Einar; Høydal, Erik Harry; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of TromsØ. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians. PMID:26572701

  3. Hearing loss and the high speed dental handpiece.

    PubMed Central

    Zubick, H H; Tolentino, A T; Boffa, J

    1980-01-01

    A pure tone air conduction audiometric evaluation was administered to 137 dentists and 80 physicians. The physicians were found to have better hearing threshold levels, notably in the 4000HZ center frequency range. The left ear of right handed dentists showed a greater loss of hearing ostensibly related to proximity to the noise source. Dental specialists showed a loss pattern similar to those of the general dentists. The findings suggest that there may be a cause and effect relationship between hearing loss and use of the highspeed dental handpiece. PMID:6990802

  4. Sensorineural hearing loss in Lassa fever: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Lassa fever is an acute arena viral haemorrhagic fever with varied neurological sequelae. Sensorineural hearing loss is one of the rare complications which occur usually during the convalescent stage of the infection. Case presentation The cases of two female patients aged 19 and 43 years old, respectively, with clinical features suggestive of Lassa fever and confirmed by immunoserological/Lassa-virus-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction are presented. Both patients developed severe sensorineural hearing loss at acute phases of the infections. Conclusion Sensorineural hearing loss from Lassa fever infections can occur in both acute and convalescent stages and is probably induced by an immune response. PMID:19178735

  5. Hearing loss in speech-language delayed children.

    PubMed

    Psarommatis, I M; Goritsa, E; Douniadakis, D; Tsakanikos, M; Kontrogianni, A D; Apostolopoulos, N

    2001-05-11

    An infant begins to communicate with his/her environment from the first months of life. However, true words do not appear until the age of 12-15 months, following a rather predictable sequence. Delay or failure of normal language development is not a rare situation in childhood and may be due to a variety of reasons. Among these, hearing undoubtedly plays a leading part in the language acquisition process. The purpose of this study was to assess the percentage of hearing-impaired children in a group of phenotypically healthy children presenting with speech-language delay. Between March 1993 and March 1999, 726 speech-language delayed children were examined in our department. In 72 of them, various diseases or syndromes had already been diagnosed and so they were excluded from the study. The remaining 654 apparently healthy children entered the study and underwent a thorough audiological assessment for determination of their hearing thresholds. Eighty-seven children (13.3%) showed various degrees of hearing loss. Most of them (55 children, 8.4%) suffered from sensorineural hearing impairment, while in 32 children (4.9%) a conductive hearing loss was discovered. The increased prevalence of hearing impairment found in our population mandates a thorough hearing evaluation for every case of speech-language delay, even for those children who show no evidence of other handicaps. This will help in the early diagnosis of hearing loss, allowing proper management to be instituted as early as possible. PMID:11335007

  6. Ear Infection and Hearing Loss Amongst Headphone Users

    PubMed Central

    Mazlan, R.; Saim, L.; Thomas, A.; Said, R.; Liyab, B.

    2002-01-01

    The use of headphone has been thought to cause infection in the ear canal and contribute to hearing loss. In this study, we examined 136 Customer Service Representative from Celcom (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. who use headphone throughout their working hours. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ear canal infection and other related diseases of the ear, nose and throat. Their hearing thresholds were also determined using the Amplaid 309 Clinical Audiometer. We found no incidence of infection of the external ear canal amongst the subjects. There were 4 cases of chronic middle ear infection and 4 cases of impacted wax. Hearing impairment was found in 25 subjects (21.2%). However, there was no significant association between hearing loss and the exposure to sound from headphone usage because the high frequencies were not predominantly affected. There was also no association between hearing loss and duration of service. PMID:22844220

  7. Subjective Fatigue in Children With Hearing Loss: Some Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Werfel, Krystal; Camarata, Stephen; Bess, Fred H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the effect of hearing loss on subjective reports of fatigue in school-age children using a standardized measure. Methods As part of a larger ongoing study, the authors obtained subjective ratings of fatigue using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (Varni, Burwinkle, Katz, Meeske, & Dickinson, 2002). This standardized scale provides a measure of general fatigue, sleep/rest fatigue, cognitive fatigue, and an overall composite measure of fatigue. To date, data from 10 children with hearing loss (CHL) and 10 age-matched children with normal hearing (CNH) have been analyzed. Results These preliminary results show that subjective fatigue is increased in school-age children with hearing loss (Cohen's d = 0.78–1.90). In addition, the impact of hearing loss on fatigue in school-age children appears pervasive across multiple domains (general, sleep/rest, and cognitive fatigue). Conclusion School-age CHL reported significantly more fatigue than did CNH. These preliminary data are important given the negative academic and psychosocial consequences associated with fatigue. Further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanisms responsible for this increased fatigue in school-age children with hearing loss, and to identify factors that may modulate (e.g., degree of loss) and mediate (e.g., hearing aid or cochlear implant use) its impact. PMID:23824428

  8. Hearing Loss in Middle-Age Persons with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhuis, H. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study assessed the hearing function of 35 middle-aged adults with Down's syndrome by means of otoscopy, impedance audiometry, brainstem evoked response audiometry, and pure tone audiometry. The study found brainstem evoked response audiometry useful for routine audiological assessment, as it identified hearing losses of 20 to 90 decibels in…

  9. 76 FR 31543 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Register on Thursday, April 21, 2011 (76 FR 22336). Persons who wish to present oral comments at the... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on proposed rulemaking....

  10. Identifying Hearing Loss in Young Children: Technology Replaces the Bell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiserman, William; Shisler, Lenore

    2010-01-01

    Hearing loss can too easily be misdiagnosed or overlooked by providers serving young children. Parents and professionals may observe a language delay--an "invisible" condition--while failing to identify the underlying cause. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) hearing screening technology, used extensively with newborns, is becoming an essential tool,…