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Sample records for aged adults

  1. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  2. Aging in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Diana B.; Primeaux-Hart, Sharon; Loveland, Katherine A.; Cleveland, Lynne A.; Lewis, Kay R.; Lesser, Jary; Pearson, Pamela L.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sequential design was used to examine changes related to aging in adults with and without Down syndrome (ns = 55 and 75, respectively). Adults received yearly neuropsychological and medical evaluations. Support for precocious aging in adults with Down syndrome was evident only on a test of verbal fluency, with weaker support obtained on a…

  3. Adult Graduates' Negotiations of Age(ing) and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siivonen, Päivi; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we will explore Finnish adult graduates' social positioning in relation to age and ageing, and the new discursive framing of employability that is firmly expressed in national as well as in European policy agendas. Age is here understood as a social construction and ageing as a lifelong process. We will analyse our joint interview…

  4. Care of Aging Parents by Adult Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Barbara D.

    A prevailing myth holds that modern families, characterized by high mobility and individualistic life styles, do not care for their aging members. To assess the quantity and characteristics of the care of noninstitutionalized elderly parents by their adult children, parents and adult child pairs (N=50) responded to interviews. Specific research…

  5. Quantification of biological aging in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Cohen, Harvey J.; Corcoran, David L.; Danese, Andrea; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E.; Schaefer, Jonathan D.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Ben; Yashin, Anatoli I.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Antiaging therapies show promise in model organism research. Translation to humans is needed to address the challenges of an aging global population. Interventions to slow human aging will need to be applied to still-young individuals. However, most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease. As a result, little is known about aging in young humans. We studied aging in 954 young humans, the Dunedin Study birth cohort, tracking multiple biomarkers across three time points spanning their third and fourth decades of life. We developed and validated two methods by which aging can be measured in young adults, one cross-sectional and one longitudinal. Our longitudinal measure allows quantification of the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (e.g., pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, and immune function). We applied these methods to assess biological aging in young humans who had not yet developed age-related diseases. Young individuals of the same chronological age varied in their “biological aging” (declining integrity of multiple organ systems). Already, before midlife, individuals who were aging more rapidly were less physically able, showed cognitive decline and brain aging, self-reported worse health, and looked older. Measured biological aging in young adults can be used to identify causes of aging and evaluate rejuvenation therapies. PMID:26150497

  6. College-Age & Young Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... use in this age group, including patterns of marijuana use, non-medical use of prescription drugs, cocaine, and newer trends ... Marijuana Medicine? Revised July 2015 . Offers facts about marijuana as a legal medical treatment and about potential and approved treatments using ...

  7. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Boyette, Lisa B.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. PMID:24757526

  8. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Lisa B; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-01-21

    Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. PMID:24757526

  9. Developmental Changes in the Perception of Adult Facial Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas F.

    2007-01-01

    The author studied children's (aged 5-16 years) and young adults' (aged 18-22 years) perception and use of facial features to discriminate the age of mature adult faces. In Experiment 1, participants rated the age of unaltered and transformed (eyes, nose, eyes and nose, and whole face blurred) adult faces (aged 20-80 years). In Experiment 2,…

  10. Perception of "appropriate" age for retirement among young adults, middle-aged adults, and elderly people.

    PubMed

    Joulain, M; Mullet, E; Lecomte, C; Prévost, R

    2000-01-01

    The "appropriate" age for retirement as it is perceived by young adults, middle-aged adults, and elderly people has been studied. No respondents were surprised or had trouble expressing an opinion about the minimum and maximum "appropriate" ages for retirement. Representations of the "appropriate" retirement age vary primarily as a function of the perceived physical constraints involved in the occupation, and also depend on the age of the person being questioned; the younger the respondent, and lower the perceived "appropriate" minimum age. There was no tendency among the young adults to prolong the work life of older individuals. Nor was there a tendency to associate aging with the loss of intellectual capacities likely to lead to early retirement. PMID:10735183

  11. Listening Comprehension in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this summary is to examine changes in listening comprehension across the adult lifespan and to identify factors associated with individual differences in listening comprehension. Method In this article, the author reports on both cross-sectional and longitudinal changes in listening comprehension. Conclusions Despite significant declines in both sensory and cognitive abilities, listening comprehension remains relatively unchanged in middle-aged listeners (between the ages of 40 and 60 years) compared with young listeners. These results are discussed with respect to possible compensatory factors that maintain listening comprehension despite impaired hearing and reduced cognitive capacities. PMID:25768392

  12. Viewing Our Aged Selves: Age Progression Simulations Increase Young Adults' Aging Anxiety and Negative Stereotypes of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rittenour, Christine E; Cohen, Elizabeth L

    2016-04-01

    This experiment tests the effect of an old-age progression simulation on young adults' (N = 139) reported aging anxiety and perceptions about older adults as a social group. College students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: self-aged simulation, stranger-aged simulation, or a control group. Compared with the control group, groups exposed to an age progression experienced more negative affect, and individuals in the self-aged condition reported greater aging anxiety. In accordance with stereotype activation theorizing, the self-age simulation group also perceived older adults as less competent and expressed more pity and less envy for older adults. Compared to the stranger-aged group, participants who observed their own age progression were also the more likely to deny the authenticity of their transformed image.These findings highlight potential negative social and psychological consequences of using age simulations to affect positive health outcomes, and they shed light on how virtual experiences can affect stereotyping of older adults. PMID:27076488

  13. Age estimation of adults from dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    Kvaal, S I; Kolltveit, K M; Thomsen, I O; Solheim, T

    1995-07-28

    Previous studies have shown that with advancing age the size of the dental pulp cavity is reduced as a result of secondary dentine deposit, so that measurements of this reduction can be used as an indicator of age. The aim of the present study was to find a method which could be used to estimate the chronological age of an adult from measurements of the size of the pulp on full mouth dental radiographs. The material consisted of periapical radiographs from 100 dental patients who had attended the clinics of the Dental Faculty in Oslo. The radiographs of six types of teeth from each jaw were measured: maxillary central and lateral incisors and second premolars, and mandibular lateral incisors, canines and first premolars. To compensate for differences in magnification and angulation on the radiographs, the following ratios were calculated: pulp/root length, pulp/tooth length, tooth/root length and pulp/root width at three different levels. Statistical analyses showed that Pearson's correlation coefficient between age and the different ratios for each type of tooth was significant, except for the ratio between tooth and root length, which was, therefore, excluded from further analysis. Principal component analyses were performed on all ratios, followed by regression analyses with age as dependent variable and the principal components as independent variables. The principal component analyses showed that only the two first of them had significant influence on age, and a good and easily calculated approximation to the first component was found to be the mean of all the ratios. A good approximation to the second principal component was found to be the difference between the mean of two width ratios and the mean of two length ratios, and these approximations of the first and second principal components were chosen as predictors in regression analyses with age as the dependent variable. The coefficient of determination (r2) for the estimation was strongest when the ratios

  14. Age estimation of indian adults from orthopantomographs.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sudhanshu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for estimating the chronological age of Indian adults based on the relationship between age and various morphological variables of canine teeth, obtained using orthopantomographs. Orthopantomographs of 120 selected patients were digitized, and radiographic images of the right maxillary canine in each case were processed using a computer aided drafting program. Pulp/tooth area ratio, pulp/root length ratio, pulp/tooth length ratio, pulp/root width ratio at the cemento-enamel junction level, pulp/root width ratio at midroot level, and pulp/root width ratio at the midpoint between the cemento-enamel junction and the midroot of the canine were calculated by measuring various features on the images. Pearson's correlation, multiple linear regression, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Regression equations were developed to estimate age from morphological variables. The observed minus the estimated age in the total study sample ranged from -2.2 to +1.5 years, in males from -0.9 to +0.8 years, while in females it was from -1 to +0.8 years. Differences between observed and estimated ages of subjects were not statistically significant. In conclusion there is a linear relationship of pulp/root width ratio at mid-root level and pulp/tooth area ratio of the right maxillary canine with chronological age in the Indian population. Age of subjects can therefore be estimated with a good degree of accuracy using regression equations. PMID:21503416

  15. Age-Related Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of Adult Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Barlow, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses effects of age and sex on certain acoustic properties of speech, given conflicting findings on such effects reported in prior research. The speech of 27 younger adults (15 women, 12 men; mean age 25.5 years) and 59 older adults (32 women, 27 men; mean age 75.2 years) was evaluated for identification of differences for sex and…

  16. How Age-Biased Are Counselors of Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.; Schlossberg, Nancy

    A study was made to determine the extent of age bias among counselors working with adult clients in educational settings. An Age Norms Inquiry questionnaire was sent to counselors in 55 urban colleges and to members of the Adult Development Guidance Association (186 of 381 questionnaires were returned). Age bias was operationally defined as…

  17. EFFECT OF ADULT MALLARD AGE ON AVIAN REPRODUCTIVE TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was designed to determine the effect of using two different ages of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) adults within the first breeding season on reproductive tests under standard Toxic Substances Control Act avian reproductive guidelines. The adult age groups were 7 and 11 m...

  18. The Age-Participation Relationship Revisited: Focus on Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikkanen, Tarja

    1998-01-01

    A study of 1097 employed Finnish adults found that 51.8% had recently participated or intended to participate in adult education. Those aged 40-44 were three times more likely to participate than ages 60-64. Participation was influenced by educational attainment and lack of know-how. Results suggested the importance of acknowledging the…

  19. Knowledge of Aging and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Neil C.; Friedrich, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred young-, middle-, and old-old adults responded to a battery of quizzes dealing with life satisfaction and objective aging knowledge in the physical, psychological, and social domains. Analyses incorporated domains of aging knowledge, life satisfaction, age, gender, and demographic variables. Both means difference and regression…

  20. Measuring Successful Aging in Southern Black Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.; Bentley, Monica

    2011-01-01

    With the growing size of the population of aging Black individuals, it is important to understand successful aging in this group. This study, therefore, piloted the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) with a convenience sample of Black older adults. Participants completed a demographic form, the SAI, Purpose in Life Test, Life Satisfaction…

  1. Older Adults in Lifelong Learning: Participation and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the participation of older adult learners in educational activities and successful aging. In partnership with seniors' organizations, focus-group interviews were conducted on seniors' involvement in learning and their perceptions of its influence on successful aging. Successful aging is defined in…

  2. Haptic Exploration in Young, Middle-Aged, and Elderly Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Joel M.; Brodzinsky, David M.

    1978-01-01

    Matching accuracy and strategy utilization in young, middle-aged, and elderly adults was examined in a series of intramodal, haptic match-to-standard problems. Results indicated that elderly adults were less successful in solving the haptic problems. They also displayed less systematic and logical haptic search strategies. (Author)

  3. Artful Witnessing of the Story: Loss in Aging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Peggy; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine the concepts of ego integrity, life review, and narrative reconstruction as cornerstones of theory that inform counseling practice with aging adults. Contemporary theories of grief reconciliation are proposed as useful models for understanding and creatively addressing the needs of adults who are 60 years and older.

  4. Aging Parents and Adult Children: Research Themes in Intergenerational Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancini, Jay A.; Blieszner, Rosemary

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the following dominant themes in the relationships of older parents and their adult children within the context of societal age structure changes: roles and responsibilities, parent-child interaction, individual well-being, relationship quality, and caregiving by adult children. Concludes with speculations on the future of research on…

  5. Adult age trends in athletic performances.

    PubMed

    Stones, M J; Kozma, A

    1981-01-01

    Aged trends in male, world record, track and field performances were examined over the 40-69 years age range. Five hypotheses were compared with respect to accuracy of prediction of differential age trends across events. The only hypothesis to yield statistically significant predictions was termed that of energy expenditure-supply ratio. This hypothesis predicts performance changes with age to exhibit steeper overall declines for events for events associated with higher maximal force transmissions, relative to the available (anaerobic or aerobic) energy supply. PMID:7318855

  6. Incidental Learning of Aging Adults via Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Laura C.; Pankowski, Mary L.

    1988-01-01

    Seventy-nine older adults viewed a television documentary in an informal setting. Cued-recall tests were given immediately after the program and again one week later to determine the proportion of recall of main and subordinate ideas. Regression was used to analyze the importance to retention of subjects' individual characteristics. (Author/CH)

  7. Age Stereotypes in Middle-Aged through Old-Old Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Neil Carter; Friedrich, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of the study was to compare adult age groups on aging bias, with measures of knowledge of aging in the physical, psychological, and social domains and life satisfaction. The study sample, consisting of 752 men and women, 40 to 95 years of age, was tested using Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin's (1961) Life Satisfaction Index (LSI)…

  8. Age Trends and Age Norms for the NEO Personality Inventory-3 In Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3) is a modification of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) designed to be more understandable to adolescents. Data from adults aged 21 to 91 showed that the NEO-PI-3 also functions as well or better than the NEO-PI-R in adults. Age trends from combined adolescent (n = 500) and adult (n = 635)…

  9. Age and Grip Strength Predict Hand Dexterity in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jason A.; Ramsay, Jill; Hughes, Christopher; Peters, Derek M.; Edwards, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature, there is much evidence of a relationship between age and dexterity, where increased age is related to slower, less nimble and less smooth, less coordinated and less controlled performances. While some suggest that the relationship is a direct consequence of reduced muscle strength associated to increased age, there is a lack of research that has systematically investigated the relationships between age, strength and hand dexterity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations between age, grip strength and dexterity. 107 adults (range 18-93 years) completed a series of hand dexterity tasks (i.e. steadiness, line tracking, aiming, and tapping) and a test of maximal grip strength. We performed three phases of analyses. Firstly, we evaluated the simple relationships between pairs of variables; replicating the existing literature; and found significant relationships of increased age and reduced strength; increased age and reduced dexterity, and; reduced strength and reduced dexterity. Secondly, we used standard Multiple Regression (MR) models to determine which of the age and strength factors accounted for the greater variance in dexterity. The results showed that both age and strength made significant contributions to the data variance, but that age explained more of the variance in steadiness and line tracking dexterity, whereas strength explained more of the variance in aiming and tapping dexterity. In a third phase of analysis, we used MR analyses to show an interaction between age and strength on steadiness hand dexterity. Simple Slopes post-hoc analyses showed that the interaction was explained by the middle to older aged adults showing a relationship between reduced strength and reduced hand steadiness, whereas younger aged adults showed no relationship between strength and steadiness hand dexterity. The results are discussed in terms of how age and grip strength predict different types of hand dexterity in

  10. Characteristics of Older Adults and the Aging: Some Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Cash J.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

    1978-01-01

    Asserting that both humanistic and manpower considerations dictate that we address the aging process, this article describes the characteristics of older adults and illustrates the way in which they may be allowed to remain productive. Maslow's "Need Hierarchy" and Thorndike's "Theory of Developmental Tasks" are applied to the aging process. (JC)

  11. Promoting Healthy Aging in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Sorensen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the research on health promotion for adults aging with developmental disabilities. First, it examines barriers to healthy aging, including health behaviors and access to health screenings and services. Second, it reviews the research on health promotion interventions, including physical activity interventions, health education…

  12. Age and Identity Issues of Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia B.; Katrin, Susan E.

    Do women go through identifiable developmental stages? Can generalizable patterns of transition be found, and if so, do these patterns differ according to the age of the respondent? What are women's most difficult and most satisfying times of life? To provide some exploratory quantitative data on these questions, a sample of 120 women completed a…

  13. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  14. Muscular Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Koschate, J; Drescher, U; Baum, K; Eichberg, S; Schiffer, T; Latsch, J; Brixius, K; Hoffmann, U

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary oxygen uptake (V˙O2) kinetics and heart rate kinetics are influenced by age and fitness. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics can be estimated from heart rate and pulmonary V˙O2. In this study the applicability of a test using pseudo-random binary sequences in combination with a model to estimate muscular V˙O2 kinetics was tested. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics were expected to be faster than pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics, slowed in aged subjects and correlated with maximum V˙O2 and heart rate kinetics. 27 elderly subjects (73±3 years; 81.1±8.2 kg; 175±4.7 cm) participated. Cardiorespiratory kinetics were assessed using the maximum of cross-correlation functions, higher maxima implying faster kinetics. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics were faster than pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics (0.31±0.1 vs. 0.29±0.1 s; p=0.004). Heart rate kinetics were not correlated with muscular or pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics or maximum V˙O2. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics correlated with maximum V˙O2 (r=0.35; p=0.033). This suggests, that muscular V˙O2 kinetics are faster than estimates from pulmonary V˙O2 and related to maximum V˙O2 in aged subjects. In the future this experimental approach may help to characterize alterations in muscular V˙O2 under various conditions independent of motivation and maximal effort. PMID:27116341

  15. Leg Strength Comparison between Younger and Middle-age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Nam, Chang S.

    2009-01-01

    Although a risk of occupational musculoskeletal diseases has been identified with age-related strength degradation, strength measures from working group are somewhat sparse. This is especially true for the lower extremity strength measures in dynamic conditions (i.e., isokinetic). The objective of this study was to quantify the lower extremity muscle strength characteristics of three age groups (young, middle, and the elderly). Total of 42 subjects participated in the study: 14 subjects for each age group. A commercial dynamometer was used to evaluate isokinetic and isometric strength at ankle and knee joints. 2 × 2 (Age group (younger, middle-age, and older adult groups) × Gender (male and female)) between-subject design and Post-hoc analysis were performed to evaluate strength differences among three age groups. Post-hoc analysis indicated that, overall, middle-age workers’ leg strengths (i.e. ankle and knee muscles) were significantly different from younger adults while middle-age workers’ leg strengths were virtually identical to older adults’ leg strengths. These results suggested that, overall, 14 middle-age workers in the present study could be at a higher risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Future studies looking at the likelihood of musculoskeletal injuries at different work places and from different working postures at various age levels should be required to validate the current findings. The future study would be a valuable asset in finding intervention strategies such that middle-age workers could stay healthier longer. PMID:20436934

  16. Mesenteric lymph flow in adult and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Akl, Tony J; Nagai, Takashi; Coté, Gerard L; Gashev, Anatoliy A

    2011-11-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the aging-associated changes, contractile characteristics of mesenteric lymphatic vessels (MLV), and lymph flow in vivo in male 9- and 24-mo-old Fischer-344 rats. Lymphatic diameter, contraction amplitude, contraction frequency, and fractional pump flow, lymph flow velocity, wall shear stress, and minute active wall shear stress load were determined in MLV in vivo before and after N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) application at 100 μM. The active pumping of the aged rat MLV in vivo was found to be severely depleted, predominantly through the aging-associated decrease in lymphatic contractile frequency. Such changes correlate with enlargement of aged MLV, which experienced much lower minute active shear stress load than adult vessels. At the same time, pumping in aged MLV in vivo may be rapidly increased back to levels of adult vessels predominantly through the increase in contraction frequency induced by nitric oxide (NO) elimination. Findings support the idea that in aged tissues surrounding the aged MLV, the additional source of some yet unlinked lymphatic contraction-stimulatory metabolites is counterbalanced or blocked by NO release. The comparative analysis of the control data obtained from experiments with both adult and aged MLV in vivo and from isolated vessel-based studies clearly demonstrated that ex vivo isolated lymphatic vessels exhibit identical contractile characteristics to lymphatic vessels in vivo. PMID:21873496

  17. Hypermnesia: age-related differences between young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Widner, R L; Otani, H; Smith, A D

    2000-06-01

    Hypermnesia is a net improvement in memory performance that occurs across tests in a multitest paradigm with only one study session. Our goal was to identify possible age-related differences in hypermnesic recall. We observed hypermnesia for young adults using verbal (Experiment 1) as well as pictorial (Experiment 2) material, but no hypermnesia for older adults in either experiment. We found no age-related difference in reminiscence (Experiments 1 and 2), though there was a substantial difference in intertest forgetting (Experiments 1 and 2). Older, relative to young, adults produced more forgetting, most of which occurred between Tests 1 and 2 (Experiments 1 and 2). Furthermore, older, relative to young, adults produced more intrusions. We failed to identify a relationship between intrusions and intertest forgetting. We suggest that the age-related difference in intertest forgetting may be due to less efficient reinstatement of cues at test by older adults. The present findings reveal that intertest forgetting plays a critical role in hypermnesic recall, particularly for older adults. PMID:10946539

  18. Age differences in adults' scene memory: knowledge and strategy interactions.

    PubMed

    Azmitia, M; Perlmutter, M

    1988-08-01

    Three studies explored young and old adults' use of knowledge to support memory performance. Subjects viewed slides of familiar scenes containing high expectancy and low expectancy items and received free recall (Experiments 1, 2, and 3), cued recall (Experiments 1 and 2), and recognition (Experiments 1 and 2) tests. In Experiment 1 encoding intentionality was varied between subjects. Young adults performed better than old adults on all tests, but on all tests, both age groups produced a similar pattern of better memory of high expectancy than low expectancy items and showed an encoding intentionality effect for low expectancy items. In Experiments 2 and 3 all subjects were told to intentionally encode only one item from each scene; the remaining items could be encoded incidentally. Young adults performed better than old adults, although again, the pattern of performance of the two age groups was similar. High expectancy and low expectancy intentional items were recalled equally well, but high expectancy incidental items were recalled better than low expectancy incidental items. Low expectancy intentional items were recognized better than high expectancy intentional items, but incidental high expectancy items were recognized better than incidental low expectancy items. It was concluded that young and old adults use their knowledge in similar ways to guide scene memory. The effects of item expectancy and item intentionality were interpreted within Hasher & Zacks' (2) model of automatic and effortful processes. PMID:3228800

  19. Age Differences in Adults' Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Marion

    1979-01-01

    Adults in their twenties and sixties were tested for free recall, cued recall, and recognition of words that they had studied in an intentional memory task or generated associations to in an incidental orienting task. Significant age-related declines in performance on intentional items were observed regardless of type of memory test. (Author)

  20. Adult Age Differences in Categorization and Multiple-Cue Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Rui; von Helversen, Bettina; Karlsson, Linnea; Cupper, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    We often need to infer unknown properties of objects from observable ones, just like detectives must infer guilt from observable clues and behavior. But how do inferential processes change with age? We examined young and older adults' reliance on rule-based and similarity-based processes in an inference task that can be considered either a…

  1. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  2. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  3. Diminished adult neurogenesis in the marmoset brain precedes old age

    PubMed Central

    Leuner, Benedetta; Kozorovitskiy, Yevgenia; Gross, Charles G.; Gould, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    With aging there is a decline in the number of newly generated neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In rodents and tree shrews, this age-related decrease in neurogenesis is evident long before the animals become aged. No previous studies have investigated whether primates exhibit a similar decline in hippocampal neurogenesis with aging. To investigate this possibility, young to middle aged adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were injected with BrdU and perfused 3 weeks later. The number of newly generated cells in the subgranular zone/granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus was significantly lower in older animals and decreased linearly with age. A similar age-related decline in new cells was observed in the subventricular zone but not in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus. These data demonstrate that a substantial decrease in neurogenesis occurs before the onset of old age in the adult marmoset brain, suggesting the possibility that similar alterations occur in the human brain. PMID:17940008

  4. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  5. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Vonetta M.; Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Sozda, Christopher N.; Kirton, Joshua W.; Green, Mackenzie L.; O’Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E.; Anton, Stephen D.; Manini, Todd M.; Woods, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness. PMID:26834623

  6. Perceptions of Longevity and Successful Aging in Very Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Katie E.; Marks, Loren D.; Benedetto, Tim; Sullivan, Marisa C.; Barker, Alyse

    2013-01-01

    We examined perceptions of longevity and successful aging in young-old (60 to 74 years), old-old (75 to 89 years), and oldest-old (90 + years) adults drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Participants’ responses to three open-ended questions that assessed their attributions for longevity, what they look forward to, and advice for younger persons today were compared. Content analyses yielded three emergent themes: maintaining physical, mental, and relational well-being; living a healthy life; and living a faithful life. Implications of these findings for current views on successful aging and insights for promoting a long and healthy life are considered. PMID:24353480

  7. How Japanese adults perceive memory change with age: middle-aged adults with memory performance as high as young adults evaluate their memory abilities as low as older adults.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of self-referent beliefs about memory change with age. The relationship between beliefs and memory performance of three age groups of Japanese adults was investigated. The beliefs measured by the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998) differed among the age groups and between sexes. In most scales, the ratings by middle-aged adults were as low as those by older adults, which were lower than those by young adults. Women perceived their memory abilities as lower than men's, with no interaction between age and sex, suggesting the difference remains across the lifespan. For middle-aged adults, the better they performed in cued-recall, free recall, and recognition, the lower they evaluated their memory self-efficacy, while few relationships were found for other groups. Our results suggest that cognitive beliefs change with age and that investigating the beliefs of the middle-aged adults is indispensable to elucidate the transition of beliefs. PMID:24669510

  8. The Role of Vitamin D in the Aging Adult

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Meghan; Penckofer, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals aged 65 and older is expected to more than double from 2012 to 2060. The role of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with aging has not been well studied. Traditionally, the role of vitamin D focused on the maintenance of skeletal health in the older adult. With the discovery of vitamin D receptors in the nervous, cardiovascular and endocrine systems, the role of vitamin D and its impact on these systems has become an important area of research. Older adults are at risk for lower levels of vitamin D as a result of decreased cutaneous synthesis and dietary intake of vitamin D. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between low levels of vitamin D and diseases associated with aging such as cognitive decline, depression, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Clinical trials to determine the benefit of vitamin D supplementation in preventing and treating such diseases are in progress. This paper highlights current evidence regarding the role that vitamin D may play in diseases associated with aging and addresses the need for well-designed randomized trials to examine its benefit on health outcomes in the older adult. PMID:25893188

  9. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  10. Brain metabolism and memory in age differentiated healthy adults

    SciTech Connect

    Riege, W.H.; Metter, E.J.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The (F-18)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scan method with positron emission tomography was used to determine age differences in factors underlying both the performances on 18 multivariate memory tests and the rates of cerebral glucose utilization in 9 left and 9 right hemispheric regions of 23 healthy adults in the age range of 27-78 years. Young persons below age 42 had higher scores than middle-aged (age 48-65 yrs) or old (age 66-78 yrs) persons on two of seven factors, reflecting memory for sequences of words or events together with metabolic indices of Broca's (and its mirror region) and Thalamic areas. Reliable correlations (critical r = 0.48, p<0.02) indicated that persons with high Superior Frontal and low Caudate-Thalamic metabolic measures were the same who performed well in tests of memory for sentences, story, designs, and complex patterns; while metabolic indices of Occipital and Posterior Temporal regions were correlated with the decision criteria adopted in testing. The mean metabolic ratio (b = -0.033, F = 5.47, p<0.03) and those of bilateral Broca's regions (b = -0.002, F = 13.65, p<0.001) significantly declined with age. The functional interrelation of frontal-subcortical metabolic ratios with memory processing was more prominent in younger persons under study and implicates decreasing thalamo-frontal interaction with age.

  11. Linguistic Masking Release in School-Age Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed if 6- to 8-year-old children benefit from a language mismatch between target and masker speech for sentence recognition in a 2-talker masker. Method English sentence recognition was evaluated for English monolingual children (ages 6–8 years, n = 15) and adults (n = 15) in an English 2-talker and a Spanish 2-talker masker. A regression analysis with subject as a random variable was used to test the fixed effect of listener group and masker language and the interaction of these two effects. Results Thresholds were approximately 5 dB higher for children than for adults in both maskers. However, children and adults benefited to the same degree from a mismatch between the target and masker language with approximately 3 dB lower thresholds in the Spanish than the English masker. Conclusions Results suggest that children are able to take advantage of linguistic differences between English and Spanish speech maskers to the same degree as adults. Yet, overall worse performance for children may indicate general cognitive immaturity compared with adults, perhaps causing children to be less efficient when combining glimpses of degraded speech information into a meaningful sentence. PMID:26974870

  12. Age and race effects on pain sensitivity and modulation among middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Glover, Toni L.; King, Christopher D.; Goodin, Burel R.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Bartley, Emily J.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Sotolongo, Adriana; Fessler, Barri J.; Redden, David T.; Staud, Roland; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effects of aging and race on responses to noxious stimuli using a wide range of stimulus modalities. The participants were 53 non-Hispanic Blacks and 138 non-Hispanic White adults, ages 45 to 76. The participants completed a single 3-hour sensory testing session where responses to thermal, mechanical, and cold stimuli were assessed. The results suggest that there are selected age differences, with the older group less sensitive to warm and painful heat stimuli than middle-aged participants, particularly at the knee. This site effect supports the hypothesis that the greatest decrement in pain sensitivity associated with aging occurs in the lower extremities. In addition, there were several instances where age and race effects were compounded, resulting in greater race differences in pain sensitivity among the older participants. Overall, the data suggest that previously reported race differences in pain sensitivity emerged in our older samples, and this study contributes new findings in that these differences may increase with age in non-Hispanic Blacks for temporal summation and both heat and cold immersion tolerance. We have added to the aging and pain literature by reporting several small to moderate differences in responses to heat stimuli between middle and older age adults. PMID:24239561

  13. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought. PMID:26881835

  14. The Changing Nature of Adult Education in the Age of Transnational Migration: Toward a Model of Recognitive Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.

  15. Adults' memories of growing up in the Atomic Age

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation was an empirical, qualitative, cross-age study of sixteen adults who grew up during the formative years of the Atomic Ages. The research objectives were to (1) examine the childhood determinants of adult thinking about nuclear weapons and (2) understand media's role in molding perceptions of the nuclear threat. Participants' childhood recollections of world news events were elicited through in-depth interviews. These data were analyzed in light of prior research comparing the childhood feelings and experiences of eight subjects, born 1935-1945, to those of eight subjects, born 1945-1955. The study demonstrated that participants nuclear anxiety differed between the two ages groups due to experiences growing up during the years of World War II versus the Cold War years. All participants had learned about atomic weapons at an early age form the media, which continued to be their primary educator regarding the nuclear facts of life. Few subjects, as children, ever discussed concerns about nuclear weapons with their parents. Few subjects, as parents, discussed concerns about nuclear weapons with their children.

  16. Age 55 or better: active adult communities and city planning.

    PubMed

    Trolander, Judith Ann

    2011-01-01

    Active adult, age-restricted communities are significant to urban history and city planning. As communities that ban the permanent residence of children under the age of nineteen with senior zoning overlays, they are unique experiments in social planning. While they do not originate the concept of the common interest community with its shared amenities, the residential golf course community, or the gated community, Sun Cities and Leisure Worlds do a lot to popularize those physical planning concepts. The first age-restricted community, Youngtown, AZ, opened in 1954. Inspired by amenity-rich trailer courts in Florida, Del Webb added the “active adult” element when he opened Sun City, AZ, in 1960. Two years later, Ross Cortese opened the first of his gated Leisure Worlds. By the twenty-first century, these “lifestyle” communities had proliferated and had expanded their appeal to around 18 percent of retirees, along with influencing the design of intergenerational communities. PMID:22175080

  17. Intermuscular Coherence in Normal Adults: Variability and Changes with Age.

    PubMed

    Jaiser, Stephan R; Baker, Mark R; Baker, Stuart N

    2016-01-01

    We investigated beta-band intermuscular coherence (IMC) in 92 healthy adults stratified by decade of age, and analysed variability between and within subjects. In the dominant upper limb, IMC was estimated between extensor digitorum communis and first dorsal interosseous as well as between flexor digitorum superficialis and first dorsal interosseous. In the ipsilateral lower limb, IMC was measured between medial gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum brevis as well as between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum brevis. Age-related changes in IMC were analysed with age as a continuous variable or binned by decade. Intrasession variance of IMC was examined by dividing sessions into pairs of epochs and comparing coherence estimates between these pairs. Eight volunteers returned for a further session after one year, allowing us to compare intrasession and intersession variance. We found no age-related changes in IMC amplitude across almost six decades of age, allowing us to collate data from all ages into an aggregate normative dataset. Interindividual variability ranged over two orders of magnitude. Intrasession variance was significantly greater than expected from statistical variability alone, and intersession variance was even larger. Potential contributors include fluctuations in task performance, differences in electrode montage and short-term random variation in central coupling. These factors require further exploration and, where possible, minimisation. This study provides evidence that coherence is remarkably robust to senescent changes in the nervous system and provides a large normative dataset for future applications of IMC as a biomarker in disease states. PMID:26901129

  18. Intermuscular Coherence in Normal Adults: Variability and Changes with Age

    PubMed Central

    Jaiser, Stephan R.; Baker, Mark R.; Baker, Stuart N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated beta-band intermuscular coherence (IMC) in 92 healthy adults stratified by decade of age, and analysed variability between and within subjects. In the dominant upper limb, IMC was estimated between extensor digitorum communis and first dorsal interosseous as well as between flexor digitorum superficialis and first dorsal interosseous. In the ipsilateral lower limb, IMC was measured between medial gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum brevis as well as between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum brevis. Age-related changes in IMC were analysed with age as a continuous variable or binned by decade. Intrasession variance of IMC was examined by dividing sessions into pairs of epochs and comparing coherence estimates between these pairs. Eight volunteers returned for a further session after one year, allowing us to compare intrasession and intersession variance. We found no age-related changes in IMC amplitude across almost six decades of age, allowing us to collate data from all ages into an aggregate normative dataset. Interindividual variability ranged over two orders of magnitude. Intrasession variance was significantly greater than expected from statistical variability alone, and intersession variance was even larger. Potential contributors include fluctuations in task performance, differences in electrode montage and short-term random variation in central coupling. These factors require further exploration and, where possible, minimisation. This study provides evidence that coherence is remarkably robust to senescent changes in the nervous system and provides a large normative dataset for future applications of IMC as a biomarker in disease states. PMID:26901129

  19. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  20. Aging on the Street: Homeless Older Adults in America.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    Older adults are at greater risk for homelessness today than at any time in recent history. Approximately one half of homeless individuals in America are older than 50, which has created serious challenges for how cities, governments, and health care providers care for homeless populations. Systems established in the 1980s to help care for homeless individuals were not designed to address problems of aging. It is critical that nurses and all health professionals have a better understanding of the unique needs and concerns of homeless older adults. Nurses can be an important part of the solution, not only through direct patient care but by advocating for improvements in care for this vulnerable population. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 25-29.]. PMID:27576225

  1. White Matter Neurons in Young Adult and Aged Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Farzad; Wang, Xiyue; Rosene, Douglas L.; Rockland, Kathleen S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and non-human primates (NHP), white matter neurons (WMNs) persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR), temporal (TE), and parietal (Par) association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys. A major aim was to determine whether there was age-related neuronal loss, as might be expected given the substantial age-related changes known to occur in the surrounding white matter environment. Neurons were visualized by immunocytochemistry for Neu-N in coronal tissue sections (30 μm thickness), and neuronal density was assessed by systematic random sampling. Per 0.16 mm2 sampling box, this yielded about 40 neurons in the superficial WM and 10 in the deep WM. Consistent with multiple studies of cell density in the cortical gray matter of normal brains, neither the superficial nor deep WM populations showed statistically significant age-related neuronal loss, although we observed a moderate decrease with age for the deep WMNs in the frontal region. Morphometric analyses, in contrast, showed significant age effects in soma size and circularity. In specific, superficial WMNs were larger in FR and Par WM regions of the young monkeys; but in the TE, these were larger in the older monkeys. An age effect was also observed for soma circularity: superficial WMNs were more circular in FR and Par of the older monkeys. This second, morphometric result raises the question of whether other age-related morphological, connectivity, or molecular changes occur in the WMNs. These could have multiple impacts, given the wide range of putative

  2. Contributions of music to aging adults' quality of life.

    PubMed

    Solé, Carme; Mercadal-Brotons, Melissa; Gallego, Sofia; Riera, Mariangels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (a) To evaluate and to compare the impact of three music programs (choir, music appreciation and preventive music therapy sessions) on the quality of life of healthy older adults, and (b) to identify the motivations and the difficulties that seniors encounter when participating in activities of this type, in order to come up with recommendations and strategies for the design of appropriate programs for older adults. A pre-posttest quasi-experimental design without equivalent control group was used in this project. The sample included 83 persons over 65 years of age. The data collection was carried out through an ad hoc questionnaire that included the four aspects of the construct of quality of life (physical health, subjective health, psychological well-being and interpersonal relations), a questionnaire on motivation and another on satisfaction about the program. This questionnaire on quality of life was administered twice: at the beginning of the programs (pretest) and at the end (posttest). The results of this study indicate that the participants perceived improvements in some aspects of their quality of life. In addition, the main reasons which motivate participation in these musical activities are to broaden the social network and to acquire new knowledge. The results are discussed in the light of the challenges of active and satisfactory aging. PMID:21275335

  3. Poor mobility in hospitalized adults of all ages.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Alison M; McRae, Prue; McHugh, Kirstie; Griffin, Lauren; Hitchen, Andrew; Walker, James; Cruickshank, Mark; Morris, Norman R; Kuys, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    Low levels of activity in hospital inpatients contribute to functional decline. Previous studies have shown low levels of activity in older inpatients, but few have investigated younger inpatients (aged <65 years). This observational study measured activity in older (aged ≥65 years) and younger hospital inpatients on 3 wards (medical, surgical, oncology) in a major teaching hospital in Brisbane, Australia, as part of a quality-improvement intervention to enhance mobility. Using structured behavioral mapping protocols, participants were observed for 2-minute intervals throughout 4, 4-hour daytime observation periods. The proportion of time spent at different activity levels was calculated for each participant, and time spent standing, walking or wheeling was compared between age group and wards. There were 3272 observations collected on 132 participants (median, 30 per patient; range, 9-35). The most time was spent lying in bed (mean 57%), with 9% standing or walking. There were significant differences among wards, but no difference between older and younger subgroups. Low mobility is common in adult inpatients of all ages. Behavioral mapping provided measures suitable for use in quality improvement. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:289-291. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. PMID:26797978

  4. Effects of Aging and Adult Development Education and Service Learning on Attitude, Anxiety, and Occupational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a semester-long aging and adult development course that included an intergenerational, service-learning component on attitudes toward older adult men and women, aging anxiety, and interest in occupations that serve older adults among individuals training for careers in healthcare and social services. It also…

  5. Repetition Priming in Adults with Williams Syndrome: Age-Related Dissociation between Implicit and Explicit Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Kittler, Phyllis; Brown, W. Ted; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Devenny, Darlynne A.

    2005-01-01

    We examined implicit and explicit memory in adults with Williams syndrome. An age-related dissociation was found; repetition priming (reflecting implicit memory) did not show change with age, but free recall (reflecting explicit memory) was markedly reduced. We also compared the performance of adults with Williams syndrome to adults with Down…

  6. Adult Age Differences in Accessing and Retrieving Information from Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petros, Thomas V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated adult age differences in accessing and retrieving information from long-term memory. Results showed that older adults (N=26) were slower than younger adults (N=35) at feature extraction, lexical access, and accessing category information. The age deficit was proportionally greater when retrieval of category information was required.…

  7. Attitudes toward Younger and Older Adults: The German Aging Semantic Differential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluth, Sebastian; Ebner, Natalie C.; Schmiedek, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The present study used the German Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) to assess attitudes toward younger and older adults in a heterogeneous sample of n = 151 younger and n = 143 older adults. The questionnaire was administered in two versions, one referring to the evaluation of younger adults, the other to the evaluation of older adults.…

  8. Flavonol Intake and Cognitive Decline in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Root, Martin; Ravine, Erin; Harper, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive decline occurs with age and may be slowed by dietary measures, including increased intake of dietary phytochemicals. However, evidence from large and long-term studies of flavonol intake is limited. Dietary intakes of flavonols were assessed from a large biracial study of 10,041 subjects, aged 45-64, by analysis of a food frequency questionnaire administered at visit 1 of triennial visits. Cognitive function was assessed at visits 2 and 4 with the following three cognitive performance tests: the delayed word recall test, the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale digit symbol subtest, and the word fluency test of the Multilingual Aphasia Examination. The change in each score over 6 years was calculated, and a combined standardized change score was calculated. Generalized linear models controlled for age, ethnicity, gender, education level, energy intake, current smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, and vitamin C intake. Total flavonols across quintiles of intake were positively associated with preserved combined cognitive function (P<.001). This pattern with preserved combined cognitive function was consistent for the three major individual flavonols in the diet, myricetin, kaempferol, and quercetin (each P<.001). The positive association with total flavonols was strongest for the digit symbol subtest (P<.001). In this cohort, flavonol intake was correlated with protected cognitive function over time. PMID:26325006

  9. Correlates of Root Caries Experience in Middle-Aged and Older Adults within the Northwest PRECEDENT

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.; Berg, Joel H.; Kim, Amy S.; Scott, JoAnna

    2014-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background We examined the correlates of root caries experience for middle-aged (ages 45–64 years) and older adults (ages 65+ years) to test the hypothesis that the factors related to root caries are different for middle-aged versus older adults. Methods This observational cross-sectional study focused on adult patients ages 45–97 years recruited from the Northwest PRECEDENT (N=775 adults). The outcome variable was any root caries experience (no/yes). Sociodemographic, intraoral, and behavioral factors were hypothesized as potential root caries correlates. We used Poisson regression models to generate overall and age-stratified prevalence ratios (PR) of root caries and Generalized Estimating Equations to account for practice-level clustering of participants. Results About 20% of adults had any root caries. Dentists’ assessment that the patient was at high risk for any caries was associated with greater prevalence of root caries experience in both middle-aged adults (PR=2.70, 95% CI: 1.63,4.46) and older adults (PR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.19,2.95). The following factors were significantly associated with increased root caries prevalence, but only for middle-aged adults: male sex (P=.02), self-reported dry mouth (P<.0001), exposed roots (P=.03), and increased frequency of eating or drinking between meals (P=.03). No other covariates were related to root caries experience for older adults. Conclusions Within a practice-based research network, the factors associated with root caries experience were different for middle-aged and older adults. Future work should identify relevant root caries correlates for adults ages 65+ years. Clinical Implications Interventions aimed at preventing root caries are likely to be different for middle-aged and older adults. Root caries prevention programs should address the appropriate aged-based risk factors. PMID:23633699

  10. Looking age-appropriate while growing old gracefully: A qualitative study of ageing and body image among older adults.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Glen S; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Williamson, Heidi; Christopher, Gary; Harcourt, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction can be significantly detrimental to wellbeing. Little is known about older adults' body image, despite the fact that ageing causes unique bodily changes and that sociocultural pressures to resist these changes abound. We conducted six focus groups with a UK community sample of White British and South Asian older adults aged 65-92 years. Thematic analysis highlighted four themes: appearance indicates capability and identity; physical ability trumps appearance; felt pressures to age 'gracefully' while resisting appearance changes; and gender and cultural differences. These findings suggest that older adults' body image can have important implications for their wellbeing and merits researchers' attention. PMID:24776689

  11. Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 132

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The data reveal significant age-related differences in proficiencies, strongly suggesting that proficiency tends to "naturally" decline with age. Age…

  12. A Golden Age for Adult Education: The Collective Disorienting Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The continuing challenge of engaging adult learners in the process of positive social change has summoned adult educators to a new understanding of their role as change agents in an increasingly complex world. Despite all obstacles presented by our contemporary culture, the nature of adult development continues to offer opportunities for adult…

  13. Reflecting on Self-Relevant Experiences: Adult Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Cora; Pasupathi, Monisha

    2010-01-01

    A broad array of research findings suggest that older adults, as compared with younger adults, have a more positive sense of self and possibly a clearer and more consistent sense of self. Further, older adults report lower motivation to construct or maintain a sense of self. In the present study, we examined whether such differences in self-views…

  14. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  15. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  16. Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

  17. Variability of the Aging Process in Dementia-Free Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsao, Raphaele; Kindelberger, Cecile; Freminville, Benedicte; Touraine, Renaud; Bussey, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the typical aging process in adults with Down syndrome, focusing on its variability. The sample comprised 120 adults with Down syndrome who were free of dementia. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years. Each participant was assessed on cognitive functioning and social adaptation, and was checked for…

  18. Barriers to Sustainability in Mature-Age Adult Learners: Working toward Identity Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Akilah R.; Chen, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    While research on K-12 environmental education (EE) has been quite robust, there has been less focus on effective approaches for mature-age adult learners. This qualitative study examined perceptions of barriers to sustainability in American, mature-age adult learners. Results revealed two interacting, superordinate themes: personal relevance and…

  19. What Does Age Have to Do with Skills Proficiency? Adult Skills in Focus #3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Adults tend to lose their information-processing skills as they age, especially if they do not use them. While older adults may compensate for this loss by developing other valuable skills, the importance of being proficient in information-processing skills in determining wages and employment does not diminish as workers age. Probably the most…

  20. The Social Construction of Age: Adult Foreign Language Learners. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities…

  1. When feeling different pays off: how older adults can counteract negative age-related information.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Sassenberg, Kai; Freund, Alexandra M

    2013-12-01

    Negative age stereotypes are pervasive and threaten older adults' self-esteem. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that differentiation from one's age group reduces the impact of negative age-related information on older adults' self-evaluation. In Experiment 1, older adults (N = 83, M = 71.9 years) were confronted with neutral or negative age-related information followed by a manipulation of self-differentiation. Experiment 2 (N = 44, M = 73.55 years) tested the moderating role of self-differentiation in the relationship of implicit attitudes toward older adults and implicit self-esteem. Results suggest that self-differentiation prevents the impact of negative age-related information on older adults' self-esteem. PMID:23957227

  2. The Difference that Age Makes: Cultural Factors that Shape Older Adults' Responses to Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogk, Marja

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that approaching vision loss from age-related macular degeneration from a sociocultural perspective, specifically considering perceptions of aging, blindness, disability, and generational viewpoints and norms, may be critical to understanding older adults' responses to vision loss and visual rehabilitation.

  3. The Responsibility of Adult Educators in the Nuclear Age. TECHNIQUES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Sandra; Goldberg, Joan Carol

    1984-01-01

    The task of adult educators is to provide students with information as well as opportunities to explore alternatives to the arms race. As a starting point to raising nuclear issues in the classroom and incorporating them into the curriculum, the adult educator can administer a survey or questionnaire to students about nuclear weapons and the…

  4. Creative Ageing? Selfhood, Temporality and the Older Adult Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabeti, Shari

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a long-term ethnography of an adult creative writing class situated in a major urban art gallery in the United Kingdom. It takes the claims of one group of older adults--that creative writing made them "feel younger"--as the starting point for exploring this connection further. It places these claims broadly within…

  5. Searching for faces of different ages: Evidence for an experienced-based own-age detection advantage in adults.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Proietti, Valentina; Gava, Lucia; Bricolo, Emanuela

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that attention deployment in visual search tasks is modulated by face race and emotional expression, with a search asymmetry in favor of those faces that are less efficiently discriminated and recognized at the individual level (i.e., other-race faces and angry faces). Face age is another dimension affecting how faces are remembered, as it has been widely reported that young adults show significant deficits in recognizing other-age faces. By comparing adults' search efficiency for own- and other-age faces in a visual search task in which face age was the target feature we explored whether the mirror pattern of detection and recognition effects found for race biases generalizes to age biases, and whether search efficiency for adult and nonadult faces is modulated by experience accumulated with nonadult faces. Search efficiency was greater for adult faces than for infant (Experiment 1) or child faces (Experiment 2) in adults with limited experience with infants or children, whereas there was no sign of search asymmetry in preschool teachers who have had extensive recent experience with children (Experiment 2). Results indicate that the influence of age on attention deployment parallels the effects that this face attribute has on face recognition, and that both effects are experience-based. PMID:25984588

  6. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Paul T.; Phillips-Meek, Michelle C.; Richards, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in five-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research.1 PMID:25904864

  7. "The Wisdom of Age": Perspectives on Aging and Growth among Lesbian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Putney, Jennifer M; Leafmeeker, Rebecca R; Hebert, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Older lesbian-identified women are a health disparate yet resilient population about whom knowledge is limited and emerging. Among the areas in need of research are older lesbians' experiences of later life and stress-related growth. This article presents the findings from a qualitative study that investigated older lesbians' experiences of adversity and adaptation as they age. In-depth, exploratory interviews were conducted with 12 lesbian-identified women who were between the ages of 65-80. This study applied grounded theory methodology to identify respondents sources of stress and fear, their strengths and coping strategies and how those relate to each other and to their growth in later life. We advance a model of adaptive change that shows how spirituality, social support, and resistance to cultural norms help older lesbian adults cope with loss, illness, and discrimination and develop wisdom in later life. Knowledgeable practitioners can help older lesbian women identify and maintain sources of social support, explore spirituality, and facilitate continuous growth through the end of life. Social workers can advocate for services that are welcoming and affirmative so as to reduce fears of isolation and dependence associated with health decline. PMID:27267208

  8. Age-Related Effects of Alcohol from Adolescent, Adult, and Aged Populations Using Human and Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Van Skike, Candice E.; Nixon, Sara Jo; Matthews, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Background This review incorporates current research examining alcohol's differential effects on adolescents, adults, and aged populations in both animal and clinical models. Methods The studies presented range from cognitive, behavioral, molecular, and neuroimaging techniques, leading to a more comprehensive understanding of how acute and chronic alcohol use affects the brain throughout the life span. Results Age of life is a significant factor in determining the effect of alcohol on brain functioning. Adolescents and aged populations may be more negatively affected by heavy alcohol use when compared to adults. Conclusions Investigations limiting alcohol effects to a single age group constrains understanding of differential trajectories and outcomes following acute and chronic use. To meaningfully address the sequencing and interaction effects of alcohol and age, the field must incorporate collaborative and integrated research efforts focused on interdisciplinary questions facilitated by engaging basic and applied scientists with expertise in a range of disciplines including alcohol, neurodevelopment, and aging. PMID:25156779

  9. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kesby, James P.; Kim, Jane J.; Scadeng, Miriam; Woods, Gina; Kado, Deborah M.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Achim, Cristian L.; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old) and aged (15 months old) mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions. PMID:26448649

  10. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Kim, Jane J; Scadeng, Miriam; Woods, Gina; Kado, Deborah M; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Jeste, Dilip V; Achim, Cristian L; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old) and aged (15 months old) mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions. PMID:26448649

  11. Middle-aged adults exhibit altered spatial variations in Achilles tendon wave speed

    PubMed Central

    Slane, Laura Chernak; DeWall, Ryan; Martin, Jack; Lee, Kenneth; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial variations in measured wave speed in the relaxed and stretched Achilles tendons of young and middle-aged adults. Wave speed was measured from the distal Achilles tendon, soleus aponeurosis, medial gastrocnemius aponeurosis and medial gastrocnemius muscle in healthy young (n = 15, aged 25 ± 4 years) and middle-aged (n = 10, aged 49 ± 4 years) adults in resting, dorsiflexed and plantarflexed postures. In both age groups, Achilles tendon wave speed decreased proximally, with the lowest wave speed measured in the gastrocnemius aponeurosis. Measured wave speed increased with passive dorsiflexion, reflecting the strain-stiffening behavior of tendons. There were no significant aging effects on wave speed in the free tendon or soleus aponeurosis. However, a significant, inverse relationship between gastrocnemius aponeurosis wave speed and age was observed in the dorsiflexed posture. We also observed significantly lower wave speeds in the gastrocnemius muscles of middle-aged adults when compared with young adults. These results suggest that Achilles tendon compliance increases in a distal-to-proximal pattern, with middle-aged adults exhibiting greater compliance in the distal gastrocnemius muscle and tendinous structures. An age-related change in the spatial variation in Achilles tendon compliance could affect localised tissue deformation patterns and injury potential within the triceps surae muscle-tendon units. PMID:26020294

  12. The influence of age on lip-line cant in adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jung Suk; Kim, Cheol Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to assess the direction and degree of lip-line cant in Korean adult orthodontic patients and to identify the effects of sex and age on changes in the cant severity. Methods In this cross-sectional retrospective study, lip-line cant was measured in the frontal photographs of 585 Korean patients (92 men and 493 women) aged 18-48 years. The outcome variables (direction and degree of lip-line cant) were assessed in terms of predictor variables (sex, age, sagittal skeletal relationship, and menton deviation angle). Results The direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to sex, age, or skeletal classification. Patients had 1.6° of lip-line cant on average before orthodontic treatment. Middle-aged adults displayed a significant trend toward a lower degree of lip-line cant compared to younger adults (p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the degree of lip-line cant was weakly negatively correlated with age (p < 0.001). Conclusions While the direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to the parameters explored here, the degree of cant was correlated with age in adults, independent of menton deviation. Specifically, middle-aged adults tended to display significantly lower degrees of lip-line cant than did younger adults. PMID:27019822

  13. Age Differences in Trade-Off Decisions: Older Adults Prefer Choice Deferral

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiwei; Ma, Xiaodong; Pethtel, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Our primary purpose in this study was to examine age differences in using choice deferral when young and older adults made trade-off decisions. Ninety-two young and 92 older adults were asked to make a trade-off decision among four cars or to use choice deferral (i.e., not buy any of these cars and keep looking for other cars). High and low emotional trade-off difficulty were manipulated between participants through different attribute labels of available cars. Older adults were more likely than young adults to choose deferral. Older adults who used deferral reported less retrospective negative emotion than those who did not. PMID:21534690

  14. Aging faces and aging perceivers: young and older adults are less sensitive to deviations from normality in older than in young adult faces.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2013-01-01

    Past studies examining the other-age effect, the phenomenon in which own-age faces are recognized more accurately than other-age faces, are limited in number and report inconsistent results. Here we examine whether the perceptual system is preferentially tuned to differences among young adult faces. In experiment 1 young (18-25 years) and older adult (63-87 years) participants were shown young and older face pairs in which one member of each pair was undistorted and the other had compressed or expanded features. Participants indicated which member of each pair was more normal and which was more expanded. Both age groups were more accurate when tested with young compared with older faces-but only when judging normality. In experiment 2 we tested a separate group of young adults on the same two tasks but with upright and inverted face pairs to examine the differential pattern of results between the normality and discrimination tasks. Inversion impaired performance on the normality task but not the discrimination task and eliminated the young adult advantage in the normality task. Collectively, these results suggest that the face processing system is optimized for young adult faces and that abundant experience with older faces later in life does not reverse this perceptual tuning. PMID:24303745

  15. Coming of Age: Considerations in the Prescription of Exercise for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Amanda L.; Taylor, Beth A.; Panza, Gregory A.; Wu, Yin; Pescatello, Linda S.; Thompson, Paul D.; Fernandez, Antonio B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults represent the fastest-growing age demographic of the population. Physiological changes associated with primary aging and concurrent chronic disease adversely impact functional capacity, health outcomes, and quality of life. For these reasons, there is a national emphasis for healthcare providers to improve the health, function, and quality of life of older adults to preserve independent living and psychological well-being. The benefits of regular physical activity or exercise with regard to aging and disease are indisputable, yet many clinicians do not prescribe exercise to older adults. This reluctance may be attributable to a lack of knowledge regarding appropriate exercise prescription for older adults in light of the potential risks and benefits of various doses and types of exercise. In addition, clinicians and patients may have concerns about potential health considerations relevant to older adults such as comprehensive pre-exercise screening and exercise-drug interactions. In light of this, the following review presents (1) guidelines for exercise prescription in older adults and modification of these guidelines for patients with the most common age-associated comorbidities; (2) recommendations for pre-exercise screening prior to initiating an exercise program in older adults; (3) considerations for older adults on one or more medications; and (4) common barriers to adopting and maintaining exercise in an older population. Our goal is to provide a framework that clinicians can follow when prescribing exercise in older adults while considering the unique characteristics and concerns present in this population. PMID:27486492

  16. Coming of Age: Considerations in the Prescription of Exercise for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Zaleski, Amanda L; Taylor, Beth A; Panza, Gregory A; Wu, Yin; Pescatello, Linda S; Thompson, Paul D; Fernandez, Antonio B

    2016-01-01

    Older adults represent the fastest-growing age demographic of the population. Physiological changes associated with primary aging and concurrent chronic disease adversely impact functional capacity, health outcomes, and quality of life. For these reasons, there is a national emphasis for healthcare providers to improve the health, function, and quality of life of older adults to preserve independent living and psychological well-being. The benefits of regular physical activity or exercise with regard to aging and disease are indisputable, yet many clinicians do not prescribe exercise to older adults. This reluctance may be attributable to a lack of knowledge regarding appropriate exercise prescription for older adults in light of the potential risks and benefits of various doses and types of exercise. In addition, clinicians and patients may have concerns about potential health considerations relevant to older adults such as comprehensive pre-exercise screening and exercise-drug interactions. In light of this, the following review presents (1) guidelines for exercise prescription in older adults and modification of these guidelines for patients with the most common age-associated comorbidities; (2) recommendations for pre-exercise screening prior to initiating an exercise program in older adults; (3) considerations for older adults on one or more medications; and (4) common barriers to adopting and maintaining exercise in an older population. Our goal is to provide a framework that clinicians can follow when prescribing exercise in older adults while considering the unique characteristics and concerns present in this population. PMID:27486492

  17. Hypermnesia: a further examination of age differences between young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Otani, Hajime; Kato, Koichi; Von Glahn, Nicholas R; Nelson, Meghann E; Widner, Robert L; Goernert, Phillip N

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies that examined age differences in hypermnesia reported inconsistent results. The present experiment investigated whether the different study materials in these studies were responsible for the inconsistency. In particular, the present experiment examined whether the use of a video, as opposed to words and pictures, would eliminate previously reported age differences in hypermnesia. Fifteen college students and 15 older adults viewed a 3-minute video clip followed by two free-recall tests. The results indicated that older adults, as a whole, did not show hypermnesia. However, when older adults were divided into low and high memory groups based on test 1 performance, the high memory group showed hypermnesia whereas the low memory group did not show hypermnesia. The older adults in the low memory group were significantly older than the older adults in the high memory group - indicating that hypermnesia is inversely related to age in older adults. Reminiscence did not show an age-related difference in either the low or high memory group whereas inter-test forgetting did show an age difference in the low memory group. As expected, older adults showed greater inter-test forgetting than young adults in the low memory group. Findings from the present experiment suggest that video produces a pattern of results that is similar to the patterns obtained when words and pictures are used as study material. Thus, it appears that the nature of study material is not the source of inconsistency across the previous studies. PMID:17681108

  18. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  19. Trajectories of brain aging in middle-aged and older adults: Regional and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Naftali; Ghisletta, Paolo; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2010-01-01

    The human brain changes with age. However, the rate and the trajectories of change vary among the brain regions and among individuals, and the reasons for these differences are unclear. In a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults, we examined mean volume change and individual differences in the rate of change in 12 regional brain volumes over approximately 30 months. In addition to the baseline assessment, there were two follow-ups, 15 months apart. We observed significant average shrinkage of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, orbital–frontal cortex, and cerebellum in each of the intervals. Shrinkage of the hippocampus accelerated with time, whereas shrinkage of the caudate nucleus, prefrontal subcortical white matter, and corpus callosum emerged only at the second follow-up. Throughout both assessment intervals, the mean volumes of the lateral prefrontal and primary visual cortices, putamen, and pons did not change. Significant individual differences in shrinkage rates were observed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the cerebellum, and all the white matter regions throughout the study, whereas additional regions (medial–temporal structures, the insula, and the basal ganglia) showed significant individual variation in change during the second follow-up. No individual variability was noted in the change of orbital frontal and visual cortices. In two white matter regions, we were able to identify factors associated with individual differences in brain shrinkage. In corpus callosum, shrinkage rate was greater in persons with hypertension, and in the pons, women and carriers of the ApoEε4 allele exhibited declines not noted in the whole sample. PMID:20298790

  20. Adult literacy policy and provision in an age of austerity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limage, Leslie J.

    1986-12-01

    Against a background of growing concern for the large numbers of semiliterate or completely illiterate school leavers and adults in the industrialized countries, this article examines four key aspects necessary for gauging a nation's response to the problem of adult illiteracy. The four aspects — awareness raising, high-level national commitment, resource allocation, and range and extent of in-school and out-of-school basic education/literacy provision — are analyzed with particular reference to the United Kingdom, the United States, France and Canada. The article indicates that, in a period of economic austerity when education budgets are being cut, provision for adult literacy and for remedial classes in school is one of the first areas to be sacrificed. The article ends on a pessimistic note with respect to the implementation of a `Right to Read' charter in all industrialized countries.

  1. Age effect on subcortical structures in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Goodro, Matt; Sameti, Mohammad; Patenaude, Brian; Fein, George

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional age effects in normal control volunteers were investigated in 8 subcortical structures: lateral ventricles, thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala and nucleus accumbens. Two hundred and twenty six control subjects, ranging in age from 19 to 85 years, were scanned on a 1.5T GE system (n = 184) or a 3.0T Siemens system (n = 42). Cranium-size adjusted subcortical structure volumes were estimated using FSL’s FIRST software, which is fully automated. Significant age effects were found for all volumes when the entire age range was analyzed, however the older subjects (60–85 years of age) showed a stronger correlation between age and structural volume for the ventricles, hippocampus, amygdala and accumbens than middle-aged (35–60 years of age) subjects. Middle-aged subjects were studied at both sites, and age effects in these groups were comparable, despite differences in magnet strength and acquisition systems. This agreement lends support to the validity of the image analysis tools and procedures used in the present study. PMID:22863654

  2. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Adult Age Differences in Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in…

  3. Intertemporal Choice Behavior in Emerging Adults and Adults: Effects of Age Interact with Alcohol Use and Family History Status

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher T.; Steel, Eleanor A.; Parrish, Michael H.; Kelm, Mary K.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show marked immediate reward selection (or “Now”) bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18–25), regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine (1) whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, (2) whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and (3) whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n = 237 healthy participants (ages 18–40; 50% female), and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26–40 year olds. Additionally, non-heavy drinking adults who reported a problem drinking first degree relative showed greater Now bias compared to those not reporting familial problem drinking. While not definitive, these findings lend support for elevated Now bias in adulthood as an intermediate phenotype for AUDs. Moreover, non-additive effects of age and heavy drinking on Now bias suggest perturbations in largely common neural circuits in both groups. PMID:26635580

  4. Age-related differences in celiac disease: Specific characteristics of adult presentation

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Santiago; Vaquero, Luis; Rodríguez-Martín, Laura; Caminero, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease may appear both in early childhood and in elderly subjects. Current knowledge of the disease has revealed some differences associated to the age of presentation. Furthermore, monitoring and prognosis of celiac subjects can vary depending on the pediatric or adult stage. The main objective of this review is to provide guidance for the adult diagnostic and follow-up processes, which must be tailored specifically for adults and be different from pediatric patients. PMID:26558154

  5. Integrating the Humanities into a Liberal Arts Course on Adult Development and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, John C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a freshman liberal arts honors course on adult development and aging. Contains suggestions for selecting and using readings, films, music, and television shows. Provides examples of how to make connections between these materials and the scientific literature. (DSK)

  6. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...

  7. Confusion and the Older Adult. Module A-8. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on confusion and the older adult is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Three sections present…

  8. Brain activity during source memory retrieval in young, middle-aged and old adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Trejo-Morales, Patricia; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erick Humberto; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Salgado-Lujambio, Perla; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa

    2015-08-27

    We investigated neurofunctional changes associated with source memory decline across the adult life span using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Young, middle-aged and old adults carried out a natural/artificial judgment of images of common objects that were randomly presented in one of the quadrants of the screen. At retrieval, the images were displayed at the center of the screen and the participants judged whether each image was new or old and, if old, they indicated in which quadrant of the screen the image had originally been presented. Comparing the items associated with correct versus incorrect source judgments revealed that no regions showed greater activity in young adults than in middle-aged adults; however, in young and middle-aged adults the activity in the left hippocampus and left anterior temporal cortex was of greater magnitude than in the older adults. Several regions also exhibited greater activity in young adults than in old adults. These results suggest that in middle age the recollection neural network, assessable by fMRI, is still preserved. PMID:26054305

  9. Adult Learning in the Digital Age: Perspectives on Online Technologies and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Terry T., Ed.; Keengwe, Jared, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    As instructors move further into the incorporation of 21st century technologies in adult education, a new paradigm of digitally-enriched mediated learning has emerged. This book provides a comprehensive framework of trends and issues related to adult learning for the facilitation of authentic learning in the age of digital technology. This…

  10. Nutrition and the Older Adult. Module A-9. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on nutrition and the older adult is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Five sections present…

  11. A Comparison of the Personality Characteristics of Adult Learners and Traditional Age Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D.; Ardaiolo, Frank P.

    1979-01-01

    The Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) was administered to first year adult learners and to traditional age freshmen from the same multicampus university. Older students exhibited more intellectual and social-emotional maturity. Personality functioning of adult learners at the commuter campus was more like that of younger students. (Author)

  12. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English literacy, which…

  13. Children's Attitudes toward Older Adults and Aging: A Synthesis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Cara N.; Ricketts, Kristina G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves as a summation of literature on children's attitudes toward older adults and aging. Research indicates that the vast amount of information available provides varying levels of understanding toward children's actual views of older adults. Differences between measurements, settings, and procedures stand as barriers in…

  14. Adult Education and Aging: Perspectives on Research at a Private Independent Research Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene

    As part of a symposium on challenges and problems of adult education researchers in different settings, recent research activities at one private independent research organization were examined. Three projects of the American Instituties for Research (AIR) were reviewed, all relating to adult development and aging. The first examined career…

  15. Patterns of Self-Disclosure across Social Support Networks: Elderly, Middle-Aged, and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rhonda G.; Parrott, Roxanne

    1995-01-01

    Functions served by self-disclosure may vary depending upon the adults' gender and stage in the life span. Studies such issues in regard to the elderly, middle-aged, and young adults' use of four functions of self-disclosure: self-expression, self-clarification, social control, and social validation. Findings support the claim that greater…

  16. Relationships of Disability with Age Among Adults Aged 50 to 85: Evidence from the United States, England and Continental Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Siegrist, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To extend existing research on the US health disadvantage relative to Europe by studying the relationships of disability with age from midlife to old age in the US and four European regions (England/Northern and Western Europe/Southern Europe/Eastern Europe) including their wealth-related differences, using a flexible statistical approach to model the age-functions. Methods We used data from three studies on aging, with nationally representative samples of adults aged 50 to 85 from 15 countries (N = 48225): the US-American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Outcomes were mobility limitations and limitations in instrumental activities of daily living. We applied fractional polynomials of age to determine best fitting functional forms for age on disability in each region, while controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and important risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity). Results Findings showed high levels of disability in the US with small age-related changes between 50 and 85. Levels of disability were generally lower in Eastern Europe, followed by England and Southern Europe and lowest in Northern and Western Europe. In these latter countries age-related increases of disability, though, were steeper than in the US, especially in Eastern and Southern Europe. For all countries and at all ages, disability levels were higher among adults with low wealth compared to those with high wealth, with largest wealth-related differences among those in early old age in the USA. Conclusions This paper illustrates considerable variations of disability and its relationship with age. It supports the hypothesis that less developed social policies and more pronounced socioeconomic inequalities are related to higher levels of disability and an earlier onset of disability. PMID:23977172

  17. Age, Gender, and Reasons for Living among Australian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Reasons for living have been identified as protective factors in relation to suicide, and much research has documented gender differences in reasons for living. In contrast, little research has investigated age differences in reasons for living. In the current study, the relationship of age to reasons for living was investigated, as was whether…

  18. 2004 Survey of Adult Protective Services: Abuse of Adults 18 Years of Age and Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... for adults 18-59 (21.6%), followed by physical abuse (19.5%), and caregiver neglect/abandonment (18.3%) ( ... third largest category for adults 18-59 was physical abuse (13.2%). Percentages of self-neglect appeared to ...

  19. Unusual allergy to soy appeared in adult age.

    PubMed

    Asero, R; Mistrello, G; Amato, S; Villalta, D

    2016-05-01

    A case of adult onset severe soy allergy is discussed. The allergen protein involved did not correspond to those presently detectable by commercial diagnostic means, but was not identified, possibly due to the insufficient level of specific IgE. Fresh foods and commercial food extracts remain an invaluable tool to support the diagnosis of food allergy, both in-vivo and in-vitro. PMID:27152605

  20. Aging in Movement Representations for Sequential Finger Movements: A Comparison between Young-, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacola, Priscila; Roberson, Jerroed; Gabbard, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that as we enter older adulthood (greater than 64 years), our ability to mentally represent action in the form of using motor imagery declines. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested young-, middle-aged, and older adults on their ability to perform sequential finger…

  1. Understanding how older adults living in deprived neighbourhoods address ageing issues.

    PubMed

    Bielderman, Annemiek; Schout, Gert; de Greef, Mathieu; van der Schans, Cees

    2015-08-01

    Older adults living in deprived areas are at risk of developing frailty and becoming care dependent. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore how community-dwelling, older adults living in deprived neighbourhoods address ageing issues. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 participants who were community-dwelling (independently living), aged 65 years and older, not dependent on care, and living in a socioeconomically deprived urban neighbourhood in the northern part of the Netherlands. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Our findings emphasise the resourcefulness of these older adults when coping with apparent adversities. Simultaneously, the findings convey deficits concerning knowledge about ageing and health. Despite this, it appeared that these older adults possess an optimistic view of life, accept their situation, and are content with the capacities they still possess. Perspectives on how older adults address ageing issues are important for developing leads for nursing practice. Nurses will be challenged to recognise the coping strategies of older adults, particularly considering their deficits in health knowledge. The results of this study may serve as a basis for community nurses to manage care for older adults in deprived neighbourhoods. PMID:26252237

  2. Midlife and Aging Parents of Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Impacts of Lifelong Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank J.; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk

    2012-01-01

    Using population data, this study included parents of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD, n = 220) and parents of individuals without disabilities (n = 1042). Parents of individuals with IDD were further divided into those who co-resided with their adult child and those whose adult child lived elsewhere, and the three groups were compared regarding parental patterns of attainment, social participation, psychological functioning, and health in midlife and early old age. In midlife, parents of individuals with IDD were mainly similar to comparison parents. However, by early old age, these parents had poorer health and mental health. Co-residence between the adult with IDD and the parent was prevalent during midlife (51.4%) and in the early years of old age (38.6%), and there were different patterns of parental outcomes depending on the residential status of the adult with IDD. PMID:22126660

  3. Characteristics of Young Adult (Aged 18-25) and Youth (Aged 12-17) Admissions: 2004. The DASIS Report. Issue 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report compares young adult admissions to admissions of youths aged 12 to 17, who accounted for 8 percent of Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) admissions in 2004. The report further breaks down the young adult admissions into two subgroups: those aged 18 to 21 (9 percent of all admissions); and those aged 22 to 25 (12 percent of all…

  4. A method for estimating age of Danish medieval sub-adults based on long bone length.

    PubMed

    Primeau, Charlotte; Friis, Laila; Sejrsen, Birgitte; Lynnerup, Niels

    2012-07-01

    The preferred method for aging archaeological sub-adult skeletons is by dental examination. In cases where no dental records are available, age estimation may be performed according to epiphyseal union, skeletal elements or diaphyseal lengths. Currently no data have been produced specifically for aging archaeological Danish sub-adults from the medieval period based on diaphyseal lengths. The problem with using data on Danish samples, which have been derived from a different population, is the possibility of skewing age estimates. In this study 58 Danish archaeological sub-adults were examined, aged from approximately six years to twenty-one years. The samples were aged according to two dental methods: Haavikko and Ubelaker. Regression formulae were constructed for aging according to their diaphyseal lengths both for individual long bones and combinations of upper and lower long bones. This study indicated that with the regression formulae developed, estimation of age can be done with reasonable results on Danish sub-adults. The Danish data were then compared to data from a different archaeological sample and a modern sample. It showed that the modern data indicated a consistently lower age compared to this sample which increased until reaching a maximum of nearly five years and six months. When comparing the archaeological data to this study, the growth profile crossed over at 12.5 years with a maximum age difference before the cross point of two years and three months lower for the archaeological data. After the cross point there was a maximum difference of three years and four months higher for the archaeological data. This study has shown the importance of using data for age estimation for archaeological material which has been developed specifically for that population. In addition it has presented a possible solution for Danish sub-adult material when dental material is not available. PMID:22928354

  5. Coping and Psychological Health of Aging Parents of Adult Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Among aging parents (mean age = 65, "N" = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas…

  6. From Loving Grandma to Working with Older Adults: Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Daniela C.

    2009-01-01

    The steady increase of population aging requires not only more people working within the field of aging but also the creation of new services. However, current students from areas such as medicine, nursing, psychology, and social work frequently have low interest in working with older adults. The low interest relates to this task's lack of…

  7. New Ideas for Promoting Physical Activity among Middle Age and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…

  8. Adaptive Behavior and Cognitive Function of Adults with Down Syndrome: Modeling Change with Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Barbara A.; Eklund, Susan J.; James, David R.; Foose, Alice K.

    2003-01-01

    Fifty-eight adults with Down syndrome were assessed longitudinally over 10 years for the purpose of modeling aging-related change in cognitive function and adaptive behavior. Findings provide further evidence of changes in performance with age and include selected effects for participants who completed the study and those lost to follow-up.…

  9. Maladaptive Behaviors Related to Adaptive Decline in Aging Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Changes in patterns of maladaptive behavior related to age-associated adaptive declines were investigated in 529 adults with mental retardation (ages 30 to 84), 202 with Down syndrome. Certain maladaptive behaviors were related to the onset of adaptive declines, (e.g., lack of boundaries). Findings suggest similarities in the course of…

  10. Age Differences in Personality Across the Adult Life Span: Parallels in Five Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Robert R.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Administered translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory to adults in Germany, Italy, Portugal, Croatia, and South Korea. Found declines in neuroticism, extraversion and openness, and increases in agreeableness and conscientiousness age for both men and women. Results support hypothesis that age differences reflect universal maturational…

  11. Service Providers' Perceptions of Active Ageing among Older Adults with Lifelong Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buys, L.; Aird, R.; Miller, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable attention is currently being directed towards both active ageing and the revising of standards for disability services within Australia and internationally. Yet, to date, no consideration appears to have been given to ways to promote active ageing among older adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods:…

  12. Mediators of Well-Being in Ageing Family Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnes, Patricia; Woodford, Lynn; Passey, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Background: Increasing numbers of adults with an intellectual disability are being cared for at home by ageing parents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether carer resources (i.e. social support and formal service use) and carer appraisals of ageing and stress/burden mediate the relationships between (1) maladaptive behaviour and…

  13. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  14. Memory Aging Knowledge and Memory Self-Appraisal in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brigman, Susan; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Burton-Chase, Allison; Holland, Kayla

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among memory aging knowledge and memory self-appraisal in college students and community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire ([KMAQ] Cherry, Brigman, Hawley, & Reese, 2003) and the Memory Functioning Questionnaire ([MFQ] Gilewski, Zelinski,…

  15. Adult Age Differences in Frequency Estimations of Happy and Angry Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitin, Jana; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing age, the ratio of gains to losses becomes more negative, which is reflected in expectations that positive events occur with a high likelihood in young adulthood, whereas negative events occur with a high likelihood in old age. Little is known about expectations of social events. Given that younger adults are motivated to establish…

  16. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  17. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  18. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive…

  19. Attitudes toward Aging: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adults from the United States and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConatha, Jasmin Tahmaseb; Schnell, Frauke; Volkwein, Karin; Riley, Lori; Leach, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Social and cultural attitudes toward aging provide a framework for assessing one's own aging experiences as well as one's attitudes toward older men and women. Ageism, or prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory practices toward older adults (Butler, 1980), has been found to be widespread around the world. This study focuses on a comparative…

  20. Differences in temporal order memory among young, middle-aged, and older adults may depend on the level of interference

    PubMed Central

    Rotblatt, Lindsay J.; Sumida, Catherine A.; Van Etten, Emily J.; Turk, Eva Pirogovsky; Tolentino, Jerlyn C.; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in temporal order memory have been well documented in older adults; however, little is known about this ability during middle age. We tested healthy young, middle-aged, and older adults on a previously published visuospatial temporal order memory test involving high and low interference conditions. When interference was low, young and middle-aged adults did not differ, but both groups significantly outperformed older adults. However, when interference was high, significant differences were found among all three age groups. The data provide evidence that temporal order memory may begin to decline in middle age, particularly when temporal interference is high. PMID:25852544

  1. Onset aging conditions of adults with an intellectual disability associated with primary caregiver depression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Kuo, Meng-Ting; Wu, Jia-Lin; Chu, Cordia; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2014-03-01

    Caregivers of adults with an intellectual disability experience depressive symptoms, but the aging factors of the care recipients associated with the depressive symptoms are unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze the onset aging conditions of adults with an intellectual disability that associated with the depression scores of their primary caregivers. A cross-sectional survey was administered to gather information from 455 caregivers of adults with an intellectual disability about their symptoms of depression which assessed by a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The 12 aging conditions of adults with an intellectual disability include physical and mental health. The results indicate that 78% of adults with an intellectual disability demonstrate aging conditions. Physical conditions associated with aging include hearing decline (66.3%), vision decline (63.6%), incontinence (44%), articulation and bone degeneration (57.9%), teeth loss (80.4), physical strength decline (81.2%), sense of taste and smell decline (52.8%), and accompanied chronic illnesses (74.6%). Mental conditions associated with aging include memory loss (77%), language ability deterioration (74.4%), poor sleep quality (74.2%), and easy onset of depression and sadness (50.3%). Aging conditions of adults with an intellectual disability (p<0.001) was one factor that significantly affected the presence of depressive symptom among caregivers after controlling demographic characteristics. Particularly, poor sleep quality of adults with an intellectual disability (yes vs. no, OR=3.807, p=0.002) was statistically correlated to the occurrence of significant depressive symptoms among their caregivers. This study suggests that the authorities should reorient community services and future policies toward the needs of family caregivers to decrease the burdens associated with caregiving. PMID:24467811

  2. Autonomic predictors of Stroop performance in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Karen J; Jetha, Michelle K; Drmic, Irene E; Bryson, Susan E; Goldberg, Joel O; Hall, Geoffrey B; Santesso, Diane L; Segalowitz, Sidney J; Schmidt, Louis A

    2010-06-01

    Although changes in autonomic activity have been extensively examined as responses to cognitive challenges, relatively few studies have used individual differences in autonomic parameters to predict executive performance in healthy adults. Here we examined baseline and task-related changes in heart rate and heart rate variability (measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)) to predict performance of a pictorial Stroop task in a group of 81 healthy adults aged 17-55. Greater autonomic reactivity (increased heart rate and reduced RSA for task performance) was associated with faster colour naming of faces in the Stroop task. Dividing the group by median age revealed that middle-aged adults reduced RSA to a greater degree than their younger counterparts in the context of equivalent performance across groups. Findings suggest that performance of executive function tasks that evoke attentional control may depend in part on the responsiveness of autonomic control parameters via age-dependent mechanisms. PMID:20193717

  3. The adult body: how age, gender, and body mass index are related to body image.

    PubMed

    Algars, Monica; Santtila, Pekka; Varjonen, Markus; Witting, Katarina; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. Body image and perceived attractiveness were examined, and the impact of age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) was analyzed and discussed from an evolutionary and a sociocultural perspective. METHOD. The population-based sample consisted of 11,468 Finnish men and women aged 18 to 49 years. RESULTS. Both age-related decrease and increase in body satisfaction was detected as well as interactions between age and gender. Some effects were nonlinear. Women were generally less satisfied with their bodies than men. BMI had a stronger influence on women's body image than men's. DISCUSSION. It was proposed that it is insufficient to merely study how age affects general body image because adults might become more satisfied with some aspects of their bodies as a function of age and less satisfied with other aspects. Body satisfaction might also fluctuate during different phases of the adult life, and the patterns possibly differ between men and women. PMID:19897779

  4. Adult Age Differences in Processing Narrative Text: Managing Character Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Soo Rim

    2009-01-01

    Understanding a narrative situation depends on keeping track of multiple characters that enter and exit dynamically as the plot unfolds. Because there has been no systematic investigation of age differences in the ability to manage multiple characters during narrative comprehension, this project was designed to examine those differences in this…

  5. Suicide Prevention in Adults (Age 30-65).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Ronald W.

    1995-01-01

    Explores some of the possible distinctive traits of midlife suicides, which include: loss of spouse, years of heavy drinking, reaching the age of high depression risk, and occupational problems. Midlife suicides tend to be highest among white males, although female suicide rates peak in midlife. The paper concludes with a review of assessment and…

  6. Cognitive deterioration in adult epilepsy: Does accelerated cognitive ageing exist?

    PubMed

    Breuer, L E M; Boon, P; Bergmans, J W M; Mess, W H; Besseling, R M H; de Louw, A; Tijhuis, A G; Zinger, S; Bernas, A; Klooster, D C W; Aldenkamp, A P

    2016-05-01

    A long-standing concern has been whether epilepsy contributes to cognitive decline or so-called 'epileptic dementia'. Although global cognitive decline is generally reported in the context of chronic refractory epilepsy, it is largely unknown what percentage of patients is at risk for decline. This review is focused on the identification of risk factors and characterization of aberrant cognitive trajectories in epilepsy. Evidence is found that the cognitive trajectory of patients with epilepsy over time differs from processes of cognitive ageing in healthy people, especially in adulthood-onset epilepsy. Cognitive deterioration in these patients seems to develop in a 'second hit model' and occurs when epilepsy hits on a brain that is already vulnerable or vice versa when comorbid problems develop in a person with epilepsy. Processes of ageing may be accelerated due to loss of brain plasticity and cognitive reserve capacity for which we coin the term 'accelerated cognitive ageing'. We believe that the concept of accelerated cognitive ageing can be helpful in providing a framework understanding global cognitive deterioration in epilepsy. PMID:26900650

  7. Support Networks of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Berit; Depner, Charlene

    Research on social supports of the aged indicates that creation and maintenance of supportive interpersonal bonds among the elderly result in an enhancement of their quality of life. The nature of social support networks at different points in the life course was investigated to determine the relative size of social networks and the way men and…

  8. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Young Adults Born Preterm: Support for Accelerated Biological Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Carolina C. J.; Codd, Veryan; Samani, Nilesh J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Subjects born preterm have an increased risk for age-associated diseases, such as cardiovascular disease in later life, but the underlying causes are largely unknown. Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of biological age, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Objectives To compare LTL between subjects born preterm and at term and to assess if LTL is associated with other putative cardiovascular risk factors at young adult age. Methods We measured mean LTL in 470 young adults. LTL was measured using a quantitative PCR assay and expressed as T/S ratio. We analyzed the influence of gestational age on LTL and compared LTL between subjects born preterm (n = 186) and at term (n = 284). Additionally, we analyzed the correlation between LTL and potential risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Results Gestational age was positively associated with LTL (r = 0.11, p = 0.02). Subjects born preterm had shorter LTL (mean (SD) T/S ratio = 3.12 (0.44)) than subjects born at term (mean (SD) T/S ratio = 3.25 (0.46)), p = 0.003). The difference remained significant after adjustment for gender and size at birth (p = 0.001). There was no association of LTL with any one of the putative risk factors analyzed. Conclusions Young adults born preterm have shorter LTL than young adults born at term. Although we found no correlation between LTL and risk for CVD at this young adult age, this biological ageing indicator may contribute to CVD and other adult onset diseases at a later age in those born preterm. PMID:26619005

  9. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05) and middle-aged adults (baseline 88 ± 2, peak 103 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05). MSNA also increased in both groups [young: baseline 886 ± 143, peak 1,961 ± 242 arbitrary units (AU)/min; middle-aged: baseline 1,164 ± 225, peak 2,515 ± 404 AU/min; both P < 0.05]. TPR (P < 0.001), but not Q (P = 0.76), increased during the trial. However, the observed increases in blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. PMID:27053648

  10. Age-related face processing bias in infancy: evidence of perceptual narrowing for adult faces.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Bulf, Hermann; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Proietti, Valentina

    2014-02-01

    Recent data demonstrate a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in both adults and young children, suggesting that face representation is shaped by visual experience accumulated with different face-age groups. As for species and race, this age bias may emerge during the first year of life as part of the general process of perceptual narrowing, given the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals. Using infant-controlled habituation and visual-paired comparison at test, two experiments were carried out to examine 3- and 9-month-olds' ability to discriminate within adult and infant faces. Results showed that, when they are provided with adequate time to visually compare the stimuli during test trials (Experiment 2), 3-month-olds exhibit above-chance discrimination of adult and infant faces. Instead, 9-month-olds discriminate adult faces but not infant faces (Experiments 1 and 2). Results provide the first evidence of age-related face processing biases in infancy, and show that by 9 months face representations tune to adult human faces. PMID:24374735

  11. Alcohol consumption by aging adults in the United States: health benefits and detriments.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Pontes; Weems, M K Suzy

    2008-10-01

    The most rapidly growing segment of the US population is that of older adults (> or =65 years). Trends of aging adults (those aged > or =50 years) show that fewer women than men consume alcohol, women consume less alcohol than men, and total alcohol intake decreases after retirement. A U- or J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and mortality exists among middle-aged (age 45 to 65 years) and older adults. Thus, alcohol can be considered either a tonic or a toxin in dose-dependent fashion. Active areas of research regarding the possible benefits of moderate alcohol consumption among aging individuals include oxidative stress, dementia, psychosocial functioning, dietary contributions, and disease prevention. Yet, due to the rising absolute number of older adults, there may be a silent epidemic of alcohol abuse in this group. Dietary effects of moderate and excessive alcohol consumption are reviewed along with mechanisms by which alcohol or phytochemicals modify physiology, mortality, and disease burden. Alcohol pharmacokinetics is considered alongside age-related sensitivities to alcohol, drug interactions, and disease-related physiological changes. International guidelines for alcohol consumption are reviewed and reveal that many nations lack guidelines specific to older adults. A review of national guidelines for alcohol consumption specific to older adults (eg, those offered by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse) suggests that they may be too restrictive, given the current literature. There is need for greater quantification and qualification of per capita consumption, consumption patterns (quantity, frequency, and stratified combinations), and types of alcohol consumed by older adults in the United States. PMID:18926132

  12. Does social support impact depression in caregivers of adults ageing with spinal cord injuries?

    PubMed Central

    Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Rogers, Joan C.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the role of social support in predicting depression in caregivers of adults aging with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Design Cross-sectional secondary data analyses were conducted for this study. Setting Participants were recruited from multiple community locations in Pittsburgh, PA and Miami, FL. Subjects Community-dwelling caregivers of aging adults with SCI (N=173) were interviewed as part of a multisite randomized clinical trial. Main measures The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale measured caregiver depression symptom levels. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined the effect of social support (social integration, received social support, and negative social interactions) on depressive symptoms levels for the caregivers of adults aging with SCI, controlling for demographic characteristics and caregiving characteristics. Results Caregivers were, on average, 53 years old (SD=15) and care-recipients were 55 years old (SD=13). Average Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores indicated that sixty-nine (40%) caregivers had significant depressive symptoms (mean 8.69, SD=5.5). Negative social interactions (β̂ =.27, P<.01) and social integration (β̂ =−.25, P<.01) were significant independent predictors of depressive symptom levels in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that negative social interactions and social integration are associated with burden in caregivers of adults aging with SCI. Negative social interactions and social integration should be investigated in assessments and interventions intended to target caregiver depressive symptom levels. PMID:23117350

  13. Factors Influencing the Successful Aging of Iranian Old Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aging is an irreversible natural process characterized by a decline in both the physical and mental status of individuals. Because of multiple factors, this process and its consequences vary greatly between individuals. A successful aging (SA) is the target of current health policies and well-being of individuals. Knowing the factors that contribute to SA and its barriers would translate in measurements that increase the quality of life of elderly and reduce health costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 16 elderly women, aged 61 - 96 years, was recruited for this qualitative content analysis study. Study data were collected during 2012 -.2013 by conducting 16 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews. We continued the data collection until reaching saturation. Study data were analyzed concurrently with data collection, by using the conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA fell into five main categories, including availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle. Conclusions: Availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle were the main interrelated factors affecting Iranian elderly women’s SA. Accordingly, providing elderly women with strong educational, emotional, financial, cultural, and social supports can help facilitate their SA. PMID:26421171

  14. Older Adults' Level of Knowledge about Old Age Using the Facts of Aging Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Arleen J.

    The Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) has been used in different studies to assess the level of knowledge about old age. It contains 25 factual statements concerning basic physical, mental, and social facts and the most common misconceptions about aging. One purpose of this study was to identify the most frequent misconceptions in a group of older adults…

  15. Older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning: a systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Warmoth, Krystal; Tarrant, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Lang, Iain A

    2016-07-01

    Many older people perceive ageing negatively, describing it in terms of poor or declining health and functioning. These perceptions may be related to older adults' health. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing research on the relationship between older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases (ASSIA, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and PsycINFO). Citations within identified reports were also searched. Observational studies were included if they included perceptions of ageing and health-related measures involving participants aged 60 years and older. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using predefined criteria. Twenty-eight reports met the criteria for inclusion. Older adults' perceptions of ageing were assessed with a variety of measures. Perceptions were related to health and functioning across seven health domains: memory and cognitive performance, physical and physiological performance, medical conditions and outcomes, disability, care-seeking, self-rated health, quality of life and death. How ageing is perceived by older adults is related to their health and functioning in multiple domains. However, higher quality and longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate this relationship. PMID:26527056

  16. The emotional blink: adult age differences in visual attention to emotional information.

    PubMed

    Langley, Linda K; Rokke, Paul D; Stark, Atiana C; Saville, Alyson L; Allen, Jaryn L; Bagne, Angela G

    2008-12-01

    To assess age differences in attention-emotion interactions, the authors asked young adults (ages 18-33 years) and older adults (ages 60-80 years) to identify target words in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The second of two target words was neutral or emotional in content (positive in Experiment 1, negative in Experiment 2). In general, the ability to identify targets from a word stream declined with age. Age differences specific to the attentional blink were greatly reduced when baseline detection accuracy was equated between groups. With regard to emotion effects, older adults showed enhanced identification of both positive and negative words relative to neutral words, whereas young adults showed enhanced identification of positive words and reduced identification of negative words. Together these findings suggest that the nature of attention-emotion interactions changes with age, but there was little support for a motivational shift consistent with emotional regulation goals at an early stage of cognitive processing. PMID:19140657

  17. A Comprehensive Analysis of Connectivity and Aging Over the Adult Life Span.

    PubMed

    Archer, Jo A; Lee, Annie; Qiu, Anqi; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel

    2016-03-01

    Aging has been associated with decreased intra- and internetwork connectivity during rest and task. Recent work has shown the influential role of the salience network over the default mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN). This study comprehensively investigates age-related changes in intra- and internetwork connectivity and effective connectivity between the DMN, ECN, and salience network across the adult life span. Two hundred ten participants completed a working memory task, an inhibition task, and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Networks were extracted using independent component analysis; then, regression analyses and t-tests between three age groups, 21-40 (younger), 41-60 (middle), and 61-80 (older), were conducted. Older age was associated with decreased intranetwork connectivity. Functional network connectivity analyses revealed older age was associated with increased internetwork connectivity between the salience network and the ECNs and DMNs. In both cases, the effects were more pronounced in the tasks compared to resting state. Granger causality analyses indicated the salience network was influenced by the DMN and ECN in all age groups during both tasks, but not rest. However, middle adults showed increased influence from the salience network to the right ECN compared to younger adults during the flanker task. Taking everything into account, these findings indicate the role of the salience network changes over the life span, which may have implications for the early detection of pathophysiology in older adults. PMID:26652914

  18. Neural correlates of source memory retrieval in young, middle-aged and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Hernández-Ramos, Evelia; Trejo-Morales, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in young (21-27 years old), middle-aged (50-57 years old) and older adults (70-77 years old) to determine whether the decline in source memory that occurs with advancing age coincides with contemporaneous neurophysiological changes. Source memory for the spatial location (quadrant on the screen) of images presented during encoding was examined. The images were shown in the center of the screen during the retrieval task. Retrieval success for source information was characterized by different scalp topographies at frontal electrode sites in young adults relative to middle-aged and older adults. The right frontal effect during unsuccessful retrieval attempts showed amplitude and latency differences across age groups and was related to the ability to discriminate between old and new images only in young adults. These results suggest that the neural correlates of the retrieval success and attempt were affected by age and these effects were present by middle-age. PMID:22366225

  19. A population pharmacokinetic approach to describe cephalexin disposition in adult and aged dogs.

    PubMed

    Prados, Ana Paula; Schaiquevich, Paula; Kreil, Verónica; Monfrinotti, Agustina; Quaine, Pamela; Tarragona, Lisa; Hallu, Ruben; Rebuelto, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to characterize the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cephalexin to healthy adult and aged dogs, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Two hundred and eighty-six cephalexin plasma concentrations obtained from previous pharmacokinetic studies were used. Sex, age, pharmaceutical formulation, and breed were evaluated as covariates. A one-compartment model with an absorption lag-time (Tlag) best described the data. The final model included age (adult; aged) on apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F), apparent elimination rate (ke/F), and Tlag; sex (female; male) on ke/F, and breed (Beagle; mixed-breed) on Vd/F. Addition of the covariates to the model explained 78% of the interindividal variability (IIV) in Vd/F, 36% in ke/F, and 24% in Tlag, respectively. Formulation did not affect the variability of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tlag was longer, whereas Vd/F and ke/F were lower in aged compared to adult animals; in female aged dogs ke/F was lower than in male aged dogs; however, the differences were of low magnitude. Different disposition of cephalexin may be expected in aged dogs. PMID:25431741

  20. A Population Pharmacokinetic Approach to Describe Cephalexin Disposition in Adult and Aged Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Ana Paula; Kreil, Verónica; Monfrinotti, Agustina; Quaine, Pamela; Tarragona, Lisa; Hallu, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to characterize the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cephalexin to healthy adult and aged dogs, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Two hundred and eighty-six cephalexin plasma concentrations obtained from previous pharmacokinetic studies were used. Sex, age, pharmaceutical formulation, and breed were evaluated as covariates. A one-compartment model with an absorption lag-time (Tlag) best described the data. The final model included age (adult; aged) on apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F), apparent elimination rate (ke/F), and Tlag; sex (female; male) on ke/F, and breed (Beagle; mixed-breed) on Vd/F. Addition of the covariates to the model explained 78% of the interindividal variability (IIV) in Vd/F, 36% in ke/F, and 24% in Tlag, respectively. Formulation did not affect the variability of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tlag was longer, whereas Vd/F and ke/F were lower in aged compared to adult animals; in female aged dogs ke/F was lower than in male aged dogs; however, the differences were of low magnitude. Different disposition of cephalexin may be expected in aged dogs. PMID:25431741

  1. Eye Conditions in Older Adults: Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Kirsch, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes a progressive loss of photoreceptors in the macula. It is the most common cause of legal blindness in the United States, and some form of AMD is thought to affect more than 9 million individuals. Risk factors include older age, smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, white race, female sex, and a family history of AMD. There are two types of advanced AMD: nonexudative (dry or geographic atrophy) and exudative (wet or neovascular). Both cause progressive central vision loss with intact peripheral vision. Nonexudative AMD accounts for 80% to 90% of all advanced cases, and more than 90% of patients with severe vision loss have exudative AMD. On ophthalmoscopic examination, early findings include drusen (ie, yellow deposits in the retina). Prominent choroidal vessels, subretinal edema, and/or hemorrhage are seen in wet AMD. Regular eye examinations, visual field testing, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography are used for diagnosis and to guide management. There is no specific therapy for dry AMD, but antioxidant supplementation may be helpful. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor is the treatment of choice for wet AMD. Optical aids and devices can help to maximize function for patients with AMD. PMID:27348529

  2. The Role of Aging and Disability Resource Centers in Serving Adults Aging with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Families: Findings from Seven States.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Caitlin E; Putman, Michelle; Kramer, John; Mutchler, Jan E

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are living to experience old age. The purpose of this project was to assess the activities of aging and disability resource centers (ADRCs) as they seek to serve older adults with intellectual disabilities and their family caregivers. Data come from 21 in-depth qualitative interviews with ADRC staff in seven states. Results of this qualitative analysis indicate that ADRCs are not focusing explicitly on adults aging with I/DD and their family caregivers, but meeting the needs of this population is a future goal of ADRCs. Challenges related to accessing and providing information and referral services for adults aging with I/DD were described and highlight existing unmet needs of this population. Supporting adults who simultaneously require aging and disability services requires true coordination of aging and disability service systems. PMID:26548867

  3. Electrophysiological evidence for adult age-related sparing and decrements in emotion perception and attention

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Joshua W.; Khoja, Nadia; Kaut, Kevin P.; Lien, Mei-Ching; Allen, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined adult age differences in processing emotional faces using a psychological refractory period paradigm. We used both behavioral and event-related potential (P1 component) measures. Task 1 was tone discrimination (fuzzy vs. pure tones) and Task 2 was emotional facial discrimination (“happy” vs. “angry” faces). The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the two tasks was 100, 300, and 900 ms. Earlier research observed larger age deficits in emotional facial discrimination for negative (angry) than for positive (happy) faces (Baena et al., 2010). Thus, we predicted that older adults would show decreased attentional efficiency in carrying out dual-task processing on the P1 (a component linked to amygdalar modulation of visual perception; Rotshtein et al., 2010). Both younger and older groups showed significantly higher P1 amplitudes at 100- and 300-ms SOAs than at the 900-ms SOA, and this suggests that both age groups could process Task 2 faces without central attention. Also, younger adults showed significantly higher P1 activations for angry than for happy faces, but older adults showed no difference. These results are consistent with the idea that younger adults exhibited amygdalar modulation of visual perception, but that older adults did not. PMID:22936901

  4. Placement, Relocation and End of Life Issues in Aging Adults with and without Down's Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patti, P.; Amble, K.; Flory, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aging adults with Down's syndrome (DS) experience more relocations and other life events than adults with intellectual disabilities aged 50 and older without DS. Age-related functional decline and the higher incidence of dementia were implicated as the contributing factors that led to relocation and nursing home placement. Method: A…

  5. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group – young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside “headmaster”) or feminine roles (badante “social care worker”), followed by a male (padre “father”) or female kinship term (madre “mother”). The task was to decide if the two words – the role noun and the kinship term – could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press ‘yes,’ when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  6. Children's reasoning about disclosing adult transgressions: effects of maltreatment, child age, and adult identity.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Thomas D; Ahern, Elizabeth C; Malloy, Lindsay C; Quas, Jodi A

    2010-01-01

    A total of two hundred ninety-nine 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children of comparable socioeconomic status and ethnicity judged whether children should or would disclose unspecified transgressions of adults (instigators) to other adults (recipients) in scenarios varying the identity of the instigator (stranger or parent), the identity of the recipient (parent, police, or teacher), and the severity of the transgression ("something really bad" or "something just a little bad"). Children endorsed more disclosure against stranger than parent instigators and less disclosure to teacher than parent and police recipients. The youngest maltreated children endorsed less disclosure than nonmaltreated children, but the opposite was true among the oldest children. Older maltreated children distinguished less than nonmaltreated children between parents and other types of instigators and recipients. PMID:21077859

  7. Age-related differences in cognition across the adult lifespan in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    It is largely unknown how age impacts cognition in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated whether age-related cognitive differences are similar, reduced or increased across the adult lifespan, examined cognitive strengths and weaknesses, and explored whether objective test performance is related to subjective cognitive challenges. Neuropsychological tests assessing visual and verbal memory, generativity, and theory of mind (ToM), and a self-report measure assessing cognitive failures were administered to 236 matched participants with and without ASD, aged 20-79 years (IQ > 80). Group comparisons revealed that individuals with ASD had higher scores on visual memory, lower scores on generativity and ToM, and similar performance on verbal memory. However, ToM impairments were no longer present in older (50+ years) adults with ASD. Across adulthood, individuals with ASD demonstrated similar age-related effects on verbal memory, generativity, and ToM, while age-related differences were reduced on visual memory. Although adults with ASD reported many cognitive failures, those were not associated with neuropsychological test performance. Hence, while some cognitive abilities (visual and verbal memory) and difficulties (generativity and semantic memory) persist across adulthood in ASD, others become less apparent in old age (ToM). Age-related differences characteristic of typical aging are reduced or parallel, but not increased in individuals with ASD, suggesting that ASD may partially protect against an age-related decrease in cognitive functioning. Despite these findings, adults with ASD experience many cognitive daily challenges, which highlights the need for adequate social support and the importance of further research into this topic, including longitudinal studies. Autism Res 2016, 9: 666-676. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26333004

  8. Comparison of catalase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between young, adult and aged mice and rats

    PubMed Central

    AHN, JI HYEON; CHEN, BAI HUI; SHIN, BICH-NA; LEE, TAE-KYEONG; CHO, JEONG HWI; KIM, IN HYE; PARK, JOON HA; LEE, JAE-CHUL; TAE, HYUN-JIN; LEE, CHOONG-HYUN; WON, MOO-HO; LEE, YUN LYUL; CHOI, SOO YOUNG; HONG, SEONGKWEON

    2016-01-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme and is crucial in modulating synaptic plasticity in the brain. In this study, CAT expression as well as neuronal distribution was compared in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged mice and rats. Male ICR mice and Sprague Dawley rats were used at postnatal month (PM) 1, PM 6 and PM 24 as the young, adult and aged groups, respectively (n=14/group). CAT expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, neuronal distribution was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the mean number of NeuN-immunoreactive neurons was marginally decreased in mouse and rat hippocampi during aging, although this change was not identified to be significantly different. However, CAT immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal and granule neurons in the adult mouse and rat hippocampi and was significantly decreased in the aged mouse and rat hippocampi compared with that in the young animals. CAT protein levels in the hippocampus were also lowest in the aged mouse and rat hippocampus. These results indicate that CAT expression is significantly decreased in the hippocampi of aged animals and decreased CAT expression may be closely associated with aging. PMID:27221506

  9. Comparison of catalase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between young, adult and aged mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul; Choi, Soo Young; Hong, Seongkweon

    2016-07-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme and is crucial in modulating synaptic plasticity in the brain. In this study, CAT expression as well as neuronal distribution was compared in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged mice and rats. Male ICR mice and Sprague Dawley rats were used at postnatal month (PM) 1, PM 6 and PM 24 as the young, adult and aged groups, respectively (n=14/group). CAT expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, neuronal distribution was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the mean number of NeuN‑immunoreactive neurons was marginally decreased in mouse and rat hippocampi during aging, although this change was not identified to be significantly different. However, CAT immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal and granule neurons in the adult mouse and rat hippocampi and was significantly decreased in the aged mouse and rat hippocampi compared with that in the young animals. CAT protein levels in the hippocampus were also lowest in the aged mouse and rat hippocampus. These results indicate that CAT expression is significantly decreased in the hippocampi of aged animals and decreased CAT expression may be closely associated with aging. PMID:27221506

  10. Psychic and Somatic Symptoms of Depression among Young Adults, Institutionalized Aged and Noninstitutionalized Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemore, Robert; Eames, Nancy

    1979-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that the institutional nature of old-age homes increases depression in the elderly. Results provided no support that the aged are more depressed. Somatic complaints can be indicators of depression in the elderly if normative differences between young and old are taken into account. (Author)

  11. Opportunities for Cancer Prevention Among Adults Aged 45 to 64

    PubMed Central

    Zonderman, Alan B.; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include: interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus since these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. PMID:24512936

  12. Susceptibility to interference by music and speech maskers in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Başkent, Deniz; van Engelshoven, Suzanne; Galvin, John J

    2014-03-01

    Older listeners commonly complain about difficulty in understanding speech in noise. Previous studies have shown an age effect for both speech and steady noise maskers, and it is largest for speech maskers. In the present study, speech reception thresholds (SRTs) measured with competing speech, music, and steady noise maskers significantly differed between young (19 to 26 years) and middle-aged (51 to 63 years) adults. SRT differences ranged from 2.1 dB for competing speech, 0.4-1.6 dB for music maskers, and 0.8 dB for steady noise. The data suggest that aging effects are already evident in middle-aged adults without significant hearing impairment. PMID:24606308

  13. White Matter Microstructural Organization Is Higher with Age in Adult Superior Cerebellar Peduncles

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Richard A.; Allin, Matthew; Picchioni, Marco M.; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; McGuire, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    Using diffusion tensor imaging, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the relationship between white matter tract microstructure and age in 200 healthy adult subjects using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Though most tracts showed the slight decline in microstructural organization with age widely noted, in both superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) it correlated positively with age, a result not previously reported. We confirmed this by using an alternative method, and by repeating our TBSS analysis in an additional sample of 133 healthy adults. In exploring this surprising result we considered the possibility that this might arise from the continual cognitive and motor refinement that is enacted in the cerebellum: we found that tract microstructure in both SCPs was also strongly correlated with IQ, again in contrast with all other tracts, and its relationship with age mediated by IQ, as a training model would predict. PMID:27148043

  14. White Matter Microstructural Organization Is Higher with Age in Adult Superior Cerebellar Peduncles.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Richard A; Allin, Matthew; Picchioni, Marco M; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; McGuire, Philip K

    2016-01-01

    Using diffusion tensor imaging, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the relationship between white matter tract microstructure and age in 200 healthy adult subjects using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Though most tracts showed the slight decline in microstructural organization with age widely noted, in both superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) it correlated positively with age, a result not previously reported. We confirmed this by using an alternative method, and by repeating our TBSS analysis in an additional sample of 133 healthy adults. In exploring this surprising result we considered the possibility that this might arise from the continual cognitive and motor refinement that is enacted in the cerebellum: we found that tract microstructure in both SCPs was also strongly correlated with IQ, again in contrast with all other tracts, and its relationship with age mediated by IQ, as a training model would predict. PMID:27148043

  15. Susceptibility to interference by music and speech maskers in middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Başkent, Deniz; van Engelshoven, Suzanne; Galvin, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Older listeners commonly complain about difficulty in understanding speech in noise. Previous studies have shown an age effect for both speech and steady noise maskers, and it is largest for speech maskers. In the present study, speech reception thresholds (SRTs) measured with competing speech, music, and steady noise maskers significantly differed between young (19 to 26 years) and middle-aged (51 to 63 years) adults. SRT differences ranged from 2.1 dB for competing speech, 0.4–1.6 dB for music maskers, and 0.8 dB for steady noise. The data suggest that aging effects are already evident in middle-aged adults without significant hearing impairment. PMID:24606308

  16. On and Off the Mat: Yoga Experiences of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wertman, Annette; Wister, Andrew V; Mitchell, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    This article explores potential differences in yoga practice between middle-and older-aged adults. A health belief - life course model frames this research, and a mixed-methods analytic strategy is employed to examine life course pathways into yoga and motivations to practice, as well as perceived barriers and health benefits. For the quantitative analyses, a convenience sample of 452 participants was collected using an online questionnaire. For the qualitative analyses, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sub-set of 20 participants. Unique differences between the age groups (both current age and age when started yoga) as well as by gender were found for selected pathways, reasons/motivations, and barriers to engage in yoga as well as for perceived health benefits. In addition, results underscore the importance of informational cues and social linkages that affect how individuals adopt and experience yoga. Implications for health promotion programs that target older adults are discussed. PMID:27086476

  17. Characteristics of Physician Office Visits for Obesity by Adults Aged 20 and Over: United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Talwalkar, Anjali; McCarty, Frances

    2016-03-01

    In 2011–2014, current asthma prevalence was higher among adults with obesity compared with adults in lower weight categories. This pattern was consistent across most demographic subgroups, except among men, for whom no statistically significant difference in current asthma prevalence by weight status was observed. Other epidemiologic studies of asthma prevalence have shown conflicting results about whether obesity is a risk factor for asthma among males. By race and Hispanic origin, current asthma prevalence was highest among adults with obesity for all groups. Patterns differed slightly among groups. For non-Hispanic black and Hispanic adults, prevalence for those with obesity was higher than for those in the normal weight and overweight categories. For non-Hispanic white adults, there was no signficant difference in asthma prevalence between the obese and overweight categories. For all age groups, current asthma prevalence was highest among adults with obesity, and there was no significant difference in asthma prevalence between those in the normal weight and overweight categories. There was an increasing trend in asthma prevalence as weight increased that was observed most clearly in the 60 and over age group. From 2001 to 2014, there was an increasing trend in current asthma prevalence among adults overall and among overweight adults. However, no significant trend was observed among adults in other weight categories. Findings from an American Thoracic Society workshop on obesity and asthma concluded that obesity is a major risk factor for asthma, and that obesity-related asthma is likely different from other types of asthma (e.g., allergic, occupational, exercise-induced, nocturnal, aspirin-sensitive, and severe asthma). PMID:27018815

  18. [Forensic age estimation in juveniles and young adults: Reducing the range of scatter in age diagnosis by combining different methods].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sven; Schramm, Danilo; Ribbecke, Sebastian; Schulz, Ronald; Wittschieber, Daniel; Olze, Andreas; Vieth, Volker; Ramsthaler, H Frank; Pfischel, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Geserick, Gunther; Schmeling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic rise in the number of refugees entering Germany means that age estimation for juveniles and young adults whose age is unclear but relevant to legal and official procedures has become more important than ever. Until now, whether and to what extent the combination of methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics has resulted in a reduction of the range of scatter of the summarized age diagnosis has been unclear. Hand skeletal age, third molar mineralization stage and ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphyses were determined for 307 individuals aged between 10 and 29 at time of death on whom autopsies were performed at the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Berlin, Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg between 2001 and 2011. To measure the range of scatter, linear regression analysis was used to calculate the standard error of estimate for each of the above methods individually and in combination. It was found that combining the above methods led to a reduction in the range of scatter. Due to various limitations of the study, the statistical parameters determined cannot, however, be used for age estimation practice. PMID:26934764

  19. Influence of aging on visual perception and visual motor integration in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhwi; Park, Young-Kyung; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Hong

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated age-related changes of cognitive function in Korean adults using the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 (K-DTVP-2) and the Visual Motor Integration-3rd Revision (VMI-3R) test, and determined the main factors influencing VP and VMI in older adults. For this research, 139 adults for the K-DTVP-2 and 192 adults for the VMI-3R, from a total of 283 participants, were randomly and separately recruited in province, Korea. The present study showed that the mean score of the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R in 10-yr age increments significantly decreased as age increased (K-DTVP-2, F= 41.120, P< 0.001; VMI-3R, F= 16.583, P< 0.001). The mean score of the VMI-3R and K-DTVP-2 were significantly decreased in participants in their 50s compared to those in their 20s (P< 0.05). Age (t= -9.130, P< 0.001), gender (t= 3.029, P= 0.003), and the presence of diseases (t= -2.504, P= 0.013) were the significant factors affecting K-DTVP-2 score. On the other hand, age (t= -6.300, P< 0.001) was the only significant factor affecting VMI-3R score. K-DTVP-2 score (Standardized β= -0.611) decreased more sensitively with aging than VMI-3R (Standardized β= -0.467). The two measurements had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.855, P< 0.001). In conclusion, it can be suggested that VP and VMI should be regularly checked from an individual's 50s, which is a critical period for detecting cognitive decline by aging. Both the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R could be used for determining the level of cognitive deficit by aging. PMID:25210701

  20. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  1. Age-period-cohort analysis of smoking prevalence among young adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among Korean men in their thirties is substantially high (approximately 50%). An in-depth analysis of smoking trends among young adults in their twenties is necessary to devise antismoking policies for the next 10 years. This study aimed to identify the contributions of age, period, and birth cohort effects on smoking prevalence in young adults. METHODS: Subjects comprised 181,136 adults (83,947 men: 46.3%; 97,189 women: 53.7%) aged 19 to 30 years from the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey. Smoking prevalence adjusted with reference to the 2008 population was applied to the age-period-cohort (APC) model to identify the independent effects of each factor. RESULTS: For men, smoking prevalence rapidly escalated among subjects aged 19 to 22 years and slowed down among those aged 23 to 30 years, declined during 2008 to 2010 but stabilized during 2011 to 2013, and declined in birth cohorts prior to 1988 but stabilized in subjects born after 1988. However, in APC models, smoking prevalence increased with age in the 1988 to 1991 birth cohort. In this birth cohort, smoking prevalence at age 19 to 20 years was approximately 24% but increased to 40% when the subjects turned 23 to 24 years. For women, smoking prevalence was too low to generate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past six years and in recent birth cohorts, smoking prevalence in adults aged 19 to 30 years has declined and is stable. Smoking prevalence should be more closely followed as it remains susceptible to an increase depending on antismoking policies or social conditions. PMID:27197740

  2. Food restriction increases long-term memory persistence in adult or aged mice.

    PubMed

    Talhati, F; Patti, C L; Zanin, K A; Lopes-Silva, L B; Ceccon, L M B; Hollais, A W; Bizerra, C S; Santos, R; Tufik, S; Frussa-Filho, R

    2014-04-01

    Food restriction (FR) seems to be the unique experimental manipulation that leads to a remarkable increase in lifespan in rodents. Evidences have suggested that FR can enhance memory in distinct animal models mainly during aging. However, only few studies systemically evaluated the effects FR on memory formation in both adult (3-month-old) and aged (18-24-month-old) mice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute (12h) or repeated (12h/day for 2days) FR protocols on learning and memory of adult and aged mice evaluated in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT), an animal model that concurrently (but independently) evaluates learning and memory, anxiety and locomotion. We also investigated the possible role of FR-induced stress by the corticosterone concentration in adult mice. Male mice were kept at home cage with food ad libitum (CTRL-control condition) or subjected to FR during the dark phase of the cycle for 12h/day or 12h/2days. The FR protocols were applied before training, immediately after it or before testing. Our results demonstrated that only FR for 2days enhanced memory persistence when applied before training in adults and before testing in aged mice. Conversely, FR for 2days impaired consolidation and exerted no effects on retrieval irrespective of age. These effects do not seem to be related to corticosterone concentration. Collectively, these results indicate that FR for 2days can promote promnestic effects not only in aged mice but also in adults. PMID:24361378

  3. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults

    PubMed Central

    Weikum, Whitney M.; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  4. When the mind wanders: age-related differences between young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Zavagnin, Michela; Borella, Erika; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    Interest in mind wandering (MW) has grown in recent years, but few studies have assessed this phenomenon in older adults. The aim of this study was to assess age-related differences between young, young-old and old-old adults in MW using two versions of the sustained attention to response task (SART), one perceptual and one semantic. Different indicators were examined (i.e., reported MW episodes and behavioral indices of MW such as response time latency and variability, incorrect response and omission errors). The relationship between MW, certain basic mechanisms of cognition (working memory, inhibition and processing speed), cognitive failures and intrusive thoughts in everyday life was also explored. Findings in both versions of the SART indicated that older adults reported a lower frequency of MW episodes than young adults, but some of the behavioral indices of MW (response time variability, incorrect response and omission errors) were higher in old-old adults. This seems to suggest that MW becomes less frequent with aging, but more pervasive and detrimental to performance. Our results also indicated that the role of age and cognitive mechanisms in explaining MW depends on the demands of the SART task considered. PMID:24291121

  5. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  6. fMRI subsequent source memory effects in young, middle-aged and old adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Trejo-Morales, Patricia; Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erick Humberto; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Salgado-Lujambio, Perla; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa

    2015-03-01

    The ability to remember the spatial context in which our experiences occur declines linearly across the adult lifespan. However, little is known about whether this source memory decline is associated with neural activity changes. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were recorded in young, middle-aged and old adults to investigate brain activity variations across the adult lifespan during encoding of subsequent spatial source memory retrieval. Twelve healthy individuals of both sexes were enrolled in each age group. During encoding, participants performed natural/artificial judgment of images of common objects that were randomly presented in one of the quadrants of the screen. During retrieval, the images presented at encoding were randomly mixed with new ones and displayed at the center of the screen. Participants judged whether each image was new or old and, if an image was old, they were instructed to indicate in which quadrant the image was presented in the encoding session. The contrast between study items that were later recognized and assigned a correct source judgment with those whose sources were subsequently forgotten revealed that positive subsequent memory effects disappear by middle age in the left medial orbitofrontal gyrus and appear in the left superior occipital gyrus. This under-recruitment and over-recruitment brain activity was also present in old adults. The results allowed us to identify the specific brain regions that first fail to encode spatial information into an episodic representation during the adult lifespan. PMID:25476566

  7. Knowledge about aging and worry in older adults: Testing the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo, Roberto; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Montorio, Ignacio; Ruiz, Miguel A.; Cabrera, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the relationship between knowledge about aging and severity of worry in older adults, and to test the potential mediational role of intolerance of uncertainty. Method The sample was composed of 120 community-dwelling older adults, with a mean of age of 71.0 years (SD = 6.3). Mediational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and compare different models. Results Greater knowledge about aging was negatively related to both intolerance of uncertainty and worry, and its effect on worry was partially mediated by intolerance of uncertainty. The mediational model obtained an excellent fit to the data (i.e. Goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.995) and clearly had a better fit than alternative models. Conclusion These results suggest that a good knowledge of the aging process could help decrease aversive uncertainty and thus reduce the level of worry among older adults. Thus, educational programs to increase knowledge about aging could serve as one preventive strategy for anxiety in old age. PMID:19197699

  8. Exploring identity and aging: auto-photography and narratives of low income older adults.

    PubMed

    Kohon, Jacklyn; Carder, Paula

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on meanings of health, housing, independence and aging among low-income adults age 55 and older who live in, or are on a waiting list for, publicly subsidized rental housing. The purpose was to learn how low-income older adults perceive their independence and health, and how their place of residence contributes to these perceptions, as well as related perceptions of self. Qualitative data were collected using in-person narrative interviews with 45 individuals and a second photo elicitation interview with 31 of these persons. Themes describe how disrupted identities influence subjective thoughts about the aging process, housing, health, and finances, the process of clinicalization, and place identities. These findings highlight the relationship between housing status, dignity, and shifting identities as older adults experience the aging process in a low-income context. This study expands the current scholarship on the relationship between environment and aging as well as our understanding of poverty among older persons. These topics are relevant for new policies and programs to support the aging in place of older persons in subsidized housing. Understanding the life worlds of those who live in or have applied to this form of housing will be instrumental in developing such strategies. PMID:24984907

  9. Mediating Effect of Executive Function on Memory in Normal Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jae; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2013-01-01

    Objective We hypothesize that the effect of aging on memory is mediated by executive function. Methods Two hundred and thirty healthy adults (101 male, 129 female) were recruited for the study. We used a promising, newly developed, computerized neuropsychological test for the measurement of executive function and memory. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and path analysis. Results The full mediation model showed a good fit to the data. However, chi-squared (χ2) tests for model comparison indicated that the partial mediation model better fits our data. Thus, the partial mediation model was used as the final model. In terms of auditory-verbal memory, the effect of aging on memory was fully mediated by executive function. However, visuo-spatial memory was significantly affected both indirectly (through executive function) and directly (by aging). Gender differences were not significant in this model. Conclusion This study demonstrated the importance of executive function in the memory functioning of normal aging adults. It is noteworthy that modality differences were found between auditory-verbal and visuo-spatial memory. Aging is not the only factor that drives memory decline, and its direct, adverse effect on memory was more prominent in the visuo-spatial memory task than auditory-verbal memory task. Since performance in both modalities is fully or partially mediated by executive function, it is important to train normal aging adults in executive control skills, such as planning, strategy formation, and rapid decision making. PMID:23798957

  10. Age and gender differences in ability emotional intelligence in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570984

  11. How old am I? Age estimation in living adults: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; De Angelis, D; Ruspa, M; Gibelli, D; Cameriere, R; Grandi, M

    2008-12-01

    Age estimation is a common task in forensic medicine. Odontologists are frequently involved in the age assessment of human remains or living juveniles. The need to estimate the age of living individuals is becoming more frequent, because of the increasing number of immigrants (illegal or otherwise) without acceptable identification documents and with missing or uncertain birth dates. Whereas age estimation in subadults is usually performed by methods based on the physiological growth of bones and teeth, in the case of living adults age determination is more difficult, because body maturation has come to an end and the most commonly used procedures in forensics on human remains are too invasive for the living individual. The following case report aims at highlighting the difficulties of performing age estimation in the living adult and the importance of a multidisciplinary approach including forensic odontology: a middle-aged woman from Ethiopia who was supposed to be 62 years old (according to one set of documents), was removed from employment lists as she had reached the retirement age for Italy. However another set of documents indicated a younger age (46 years). Hormonal dosage of E2 (17-β estradiol) and FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) showed an age close to the begininng of menopause. An experimental dental method, based on the decrease of canine pulp chamber with age, was performed in order to obtain more information: the result was an estimation of a 47-57 age range. Combined results suggested that it was more likely that the actual age of the woman was closer to 46 than to 62. PMID:22717788

  12. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    PubMed

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed. PMID:12220049

  13. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  14. Mentoring across Generations: Engaging Age 50+ Adults as Mentors. Research in Action. Issue 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that older adult volunteers are more likely to be involved in relationship building with young people who are in difficult situations, in periods of transition, and in educational endeavors than volunteers of younger ages. Research also suggests that nurturing, giving to, and serving others contributes to greater…

  15. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  16. Incipient Adult Personality: The NEO-PI-3 in Middle-School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    This study administered the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of an adult measure of the Five-Factor Model, to 449 boys and girls aged 12 and 13, who described themselves or a peer. Analyses of readability, reliability, factor structure, and convergent and discriminant validity suggested that the NEO-PI-3 can be…

  17. Sweepnet captures of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera:Miridae) adult genders and age-classes in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, in cotton usually relies on population estimates obtained using the sweepnet. Recent studies indicated adult L. hesperus gender and physiological age influence feeding behavior, within-plant distribution, and injury to cotton. W...

  18. Internet Use and Social Networking among Middle Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogeboom, David L.; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; Osman, Hana; Bell-Ellison, Bethany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the associations between Internet use and the social networks of adults over 50 years of age were examined. A sample (n = 2284) from the 2004 wave of the "Health and Retirement Survey" was used. In regression models considering a number of control variables, frequency of contact with friends, frequency of contact with family, and…

  19. CpG Improves Influenza Vaccine Efficacy in Young Adult but Not Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Alejandro; Co, Mary; Mathew, Anuja

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown a reduced efficacy of influenza vaccines in the elderly compared to young adults. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a commercially available inactivated influenza vaccine (Fluzone®) in young adult and aged mice. C57/BL6 mice were administered a single or double immunization of Fluzone® with or without CpG and challenged intranasally with H1N1 A/California/09 virus. A double immunization of Fluzone® adjuvanted with CpG elicited the highest level of protection in young adult mice which was associated with increases in influenza specific IgG, elevated HAI titres, reduced viral titres and lung inflammation. In contrast, the vaccine schedule which provided fully protective immunity in young adult mice conferred limited protection in aged mice. Antigen presenting cells from aged mice were found to be less responsive to in vitro stimulation by Fluzone and CpG which may partially explain this result. Our data are supportive of studies that have shown limited effectiveness of influenza vaccines in the elderly and provide important information relevant to the design of more immunogenic vaccines in this age group. PMID:26934728

  20. Age Effects in a Study Abroad Context: Children and Adults Studying Abroad and at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llanes, Angels; Munoz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of learning context and age on second language development by comparing the language gains, measured in terms of oral and written fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity, and accuracy, experienced by four groups of learners of English: children in a study abroad setting, children in their at-home school, adults in…

  1. CpG Improves Influenza Vaccine Efficacy in Young Adult but Not Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Alejandro; Co, Mary; Mathew, Anuja

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown a reduced efficacy of influenza vaccines in the elderly compared to young adults. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a commercially available inactivated influenza vaccine (Fluzone®) in young adult and aged mice. C57/BL6 mice were administered a single or double immunization of Fluzone® with or without CpG and challenged intranasally with H1N1 A/California/09 virus. A double immunization of Fluzone® adjuvanted with CpG elicited the highest level of protection in young adult mice which was associated with increases in influenza specific IgG, elevated HAI titres, reduced viral titres and lung inflammation. In contrast, the vaccine schedule which provided fully protective immunity in young adult mice conferred limited protection in aged mice. Antigen presenting cells from aged mice were found to be less responsive to in vitro stimulation by Fluzone and CpG which may partially explain this result. Our data are supportive of studies that have shown limited effectiveness of influenza vaccines in the elderly and provide important information relevant to the design of more immunogenic vaccines in this age group. PMID:26934728

  2. Age, Crime, and Sanctions: The Transition from Juvenile to Adult Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others

    This document, the final report resulting from a two-year study of the use of juvenile records in adult court proceedings and the relationship between age and sanction severity, is of interest to researchers and policymakers concerned with sanction policies for youthful offenders. The introductory chapter provides an overview of the controversy…

  3. Age of Acquisition Effects on the Functional Organization of Language in the Adult Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayberry, Rachel I.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and…

  4. Perception of Talker Age by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Rohrbeck, Kristin L.; Wagner, Laura

    2013-01-01

    People with high-functioning Autism (HFA) can accurately identify social categories from speech, but they have more difficulty connecting linguistic variation in the speech signal to social stereotypes associated with those categories. In the current study, the perception and evaluation of talker age by young adults with HFA was examined. The…

  5. Assessing Subjective Well-Being in Chinese Older Adults: The Chinese Aging Well Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Po-Wen; Fox, Kenneth R.; McKenna, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Subjective well-being has increasingly been used as a key indicator of quality of life in older people. Existing evidence shows that it is likely that eastern cultures carry different life values and so the Chinese Aging Well Profile was devised for measuring subjective well-being in Chinese adults (50+). Data was collected from 1,906…

  6. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  7. Cognitive Functioning in Middle and Old Age Adults. A Review of Research Based on Piaget's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, D. E.; Bielby, D. Del Vento

    1974-01-01

    A review of literature on Piagetian cognitive functioning generally noted lower levels of functioning for elderly subjects than for comparison groups of adults. Several possible interpretations for these age differences were offered. The effects of certain demographic variables on performance were also reviewed and inconsistent results were noted.…

  8. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  9. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans Versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig M.; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  10. The Source of Adult Age Differences in Event-Based Prospective Memory: A Multinomial Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Bayen, Ute J.

    2006-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory involves remembering to perform an action in response to a particular future event. Normal younger and older adults performed event-based prospective memory tasks in 2 experiments. The authors applied a formal multinomial processing tree model of prospective memory (Smith & Bayen, 2004) to disentangle age differences…

  11. The Psychology of Adult Development and Aging: A Survey of Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Karen Havill

    1989-01-01

    Provides an annotated survey of reference materials published since 1980 that provide access to interdisciplinary psychological literature on adult development and aging. Highlights include periodical indexes and abstracts; dictionaries and encyclopedias; directories and guides; handbooks; literature reviews; bibliographies; test instruments; and…

  12. Relationships amongst Age, Language and Related Skills in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, Teresa; Torr, Jennifer; Wong, Hui Yi

    2010-01-01

    Studies into the effects of ageing on language in adults with Down syndrome (DS) have tended to rely on measures that lack sensitivity to change because they fail to explore across linguistic domains or rely on proxy reports. The study aim was to use measures of receptive and expressive language from studies of younger individuals with DS in…

  13. Clinical Study of the Effects of Age on the Physical Health of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sally-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Physical disorders and pharmacotherapy for 134 people with mental retardation (ages 65 years and older) living in the United Kingdom were compared to 73 younger adults with mental retardation. Results showed the older group had higher rates of urinary incontinence, immobility, hearing impairments, arthritis, hypertension, and cerebrovascular…

  14. Factors Affecting Sensitivity to Frequency Change in School-Age Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…

  15. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  16. Age-related changes in neural activity during source memory encoding in young, middle-aged and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Trejo-Morales, Patricia; Hernández-Ramos, Evelia

    2010-07-01

    Source memory, the ability to remember contextual information present at the moment an event occurs, declines gradually during normal aging. The present study addressed whether source memory decline is related to changes in neural activity during encoding across age. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in three groups of 14 subjects each: young (21-26 years), middle-aged (50-55 years) and older adults (70-77 years). ERPs were recorded while the subjects performed a natural/artificial judgment on images of common objects that were presented randomly in one of the quadrants of the screen (encoding phase). At retrieval, old images mixed with new ones were presented at the center of the screen and the subjects judged whether each image was new or old and, if old, were asked to indicate at which position of the screen the image was presented in the encoding session. The neurophysiological activity recorded during encoding was segregated for the study items according to whether their context was correctly retrieved or not, so as to search for subsequent memory effects (SME). These effects, which consisted of larger amplitude for items subsequently attracting a correct source judgment than an incorrect one, were observed in the three groups, but their onset was delayed across the age groups. The amplitude of the SME was similar across age groups at the frontal and central electrode sites, but was manifested more at the posterior sites in middle-aged and older adults, suggesting that source memory decline may be related to less efficient encoding mechanisms. PMID:20441775

  17. Older adults' evaluations of middle-aged children's attempts to initiate discussion of care needs.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Craig; Fisher, Carla L; Pitts, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    We explored how older adults evaluated the strategies used by an adult child to initiate discussion of future care needs, and subsequently, whether these judgments affected older adults' willingness to engage in discussions about eldercare if approached in a similar fashion by one of their own children. One hundred and thirty older adults were randomly assigned to read one of four scripts depicting efforts by a middle-aged daughter to raise the topic of future care needs with her mother by implementing a variety of facework behaviors. Scripts manipulated the degree to which the daughter conveyed respect for her mother's desires for autonomy (negative face) and connection (positive face). The daughter's facework significantly predicted older parents' evaluation of her as supportive, which in turn predicted their willingness to discuss future care needs with one of their own children if they were to approach the conversation in a similar way. PMID:24156501

  18. Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

    2012-01-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  19. Telomerase gene therapy in adult and old mice delays aging and increases longevity without increasing cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno; Vera, Elsa; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Tejera, Agueda M; Ayuso, Eduard; Bosch, Fatima; Blasco, Maria A

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in aging research is to improve health during aging. In the case of mice, genetic manipulations that shorten or lengthen telomeres result, respectively, in decreased or increased longevity. Based on this, we have tested the effects of a telomerase gene therapy in adult (1 year of age) and old (2 years of age) mice. Treatment of 1- and 2-year old mice with an adeno associated virus (AAV) of wide tropism expressing mouse TERT had remarkable beneficial effects on health and fitness, including insulin sensitivity, osteoporosis, neuromuscular coordination and several molecular biomarkers of aging. Importantly, telomerase-treated mice did not develop more cancer than their control littermates, suggesting that the known tumorigenic activity of telomerase is severely decreased when expressed in adult or old organisms using AAV vectors. Finally, telomerase-treated mice, both at 1-year and at 2-year of age, had an increase in median lifespan of 24 and 13%, respectively. These beneficial effects were not observed with a catalytically inactive TERT, demonstrating that they require telomerase activity. Together, these results constitute a proof-of-principle of a role of TERT in delaying physiological aging and extending longevity in normal mice through a telomerase-based treatment, and demonstrate the feasibility of anti-aging gene therapy. PMID:22585399

  20. Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Hatthakit, Urai

    2014-01-01

    Background Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods Eight steps of scale development were followed: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test–retest reliability. Results Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test–retest reliability were confirmed. Conclusion The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a

  1. Behavioral responses to and brain distribution of morphine in mature adult and aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, C.K.; Ho, I.K.; Hoskins, B.

    1986-03-01

    Mature adult (3-6 mo old) and aged (2 yr old) male ICR mice were injected with 10 to 100 mg/kg morphine, s.c. The ED50 values for running behavior (as measured using Stoelting activity monitors and having each mouse serve as its own control) representing 5 times control activity was approximately 7.5 mg/kg for aged mice and approximately 17.5 mg/kg for the mature adults. The ED50 values for analgesia 1 hr after morphine administration using the tail-flick method (max. response time = 8 sec) were approx. 70 mg/kg for the aged mice and 15 mg/kg for the mature adults. One hour after injecting /sup 3/H-morphine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg, 0.13 and 0.14% of the doses appeared in brains of aged and mature adult mice, respectively. Regional distribution of the morphine was the same for both age groups. Expressed as percent of total brain morphine, it was as follows: cortex, 30%; midbrain, 18%; cerebellum, 17%; medulla, 12%; pons, 9%; striatum, 8% and periaqueductal gray, 6%. Expressed as g morphine/g tissue for the 2 doses, the distribution was; periaqueductal gray, 30 and 80; striatum, 9 and 34; medulla, 6 and 20 pons; 5 and 19; cerebellum, 4 and 13; midbrain 2.5 and 8.5 and cortex, 2 and 8. These results suggest that the differences in response to morphine by the two age groups were due to age-related differences in opioid receptor populations and/or affinities.

  2. A key to successful aging: learning-style patterns of older adults.

    PubMed

    Van Wynen, E A

    2001-09-01

    A sample of 61 volunteer older adults, age 64 to 88, living independently in a suburban, residential senior citizen setting, participated in this dual-pronged investigation. It was the first study of its kind to analyze the current and previous learning styles of a sample of older adults. Current learning-style preferences were assessed through the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey (PEPS) and recalled learning-style preferences identified through the Previous Learning Experiences Questionnaire. Each older adult participant was administered the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire to assess their cognitive functioning. Two directional research hypotheses were tested. Single-sample t tests confirmed that these older adults scored significantly different on learning-style elements as measured by the PEPS from the original normed group. Single-sample t tests also revealed that older adult men were significantly different from older adult women on certain learning-style preferences. Research conducted with the Dunn and Dunn Learning-Style Model during the past 30 years has yielded valuable insights into how learning-style preferences evolve over time. This model's research continuum, until recently, extended from early childhood through the midlife years of between 40 and 50. This investigation currently has expanded the learning-style continuum to incorporate octogenarians. The element of perception has provided additional information that is important and useful for educators when preparing instructional sessions that include diverse older adult participants. PMID:11820557

  3. Effects of Perceptual and Contextual Enrichment on Visual Confrontation Naming in Adult Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Yvonne; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Reilly, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of enriching line drawings with color/texture and environmental context as a facilitator of naming speed and accuracy in older adults. Method Twenty young and 23 older adults named high-frequency picture stimuli from the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) under three conditions: (a) black-and-white items, (b) colorized-texturized items, and (c) scene-primed colored items (e.g., “hammock” preceded 1,000 ms by a backyard scene). Results With respect to speeded naming latencies, mixed-model analyses of variance revealed that young adults did not benefit from colorization-texturization but did show scene-priming effects. In contrast, older adults failed to show facilitation effects from either colorized-texturized or scene-primed items. Moreover, older adults were consistently slower to initiate naming than were their younger counterparts across all conditions. Conclusions Perceptual and contextual enrichment of sparse line drawings does not appear to facilitate visual confrontation naming in older adults, whereas younger adults do tend to show benefits of scene priming. We interpret these findings as generally supportive of a processing speed account of age-related object picture-naming difficulty. PMID:21498581

  4. M*A*S*H: A Program of Social Interaction Between Institutionalized Aged and Adult Mentally Retarded Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalson, Leon

    1976-01-01

    Restoration of a major social role to institutionalized aged through a program of social interaction and socialization with adult mentally retarded is described and evaluated. The over-all findings encourage this innovative opportunity for institutionalized aged. (Author)

  5. Adult age differences in learning and generalization of feedback-based associations.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jessica R; Gluck, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    Feedback-based associative learning (e.g., acquiring new associations from positive or negative outcomes) and generalization (e.g., applying past learning to new settings) are important cognitive skills that enable people to make economic decisions or social judgments. This ability to acquire new skills based on feedback and transfer those experiences to predict positive outcomes in novel situations is essential at all ages, but especially among older adults who must continually adapt to new people, environments, and technologies. Ample evidence from animal work, clinical research, and computational modeling has demonstrated that feedback-based associative learning is sensitive to basal ganglia dysfunction and generalization to medial temporal lobe dysfunction. This dissociation is relevant because of recent evidence that has suggested healthy aging compromises the basal ganglia system earlier than the medial temporal lobes. However, few studies have investigated how healthy aging influences these cognitive processes. Here, we examined both feedback-based associative learning and generalization in younger, middle-aged, and older adults using a computerized acquired equivalence task. Results revealed a significant effect of age group on feedback-based associative learning, consistent with evidence of persistent age-related declines in the basal ganglia. In contrast, generalization was spared in all but the oldest adult group, likely reflecting preserved medial temporal lobe function until advanced old age. Our findings add behavioral evidence to the emerging view that healthy aging affects the striatal system before the medial temporal lobes. Although further evidence is needed, this finding may shed light on the possible time course of neural system dysfunction in healthy aging. PMID:24364400

  6. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age. PMID:27068128

  7. Associations of self-perceived successful aging in young-old versus old-old adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Averria Sirkin; Palmer, Barton W.; Rock, David; Gelston, Camille V.; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to compare associations of self-perceived successful aging (SPSA) among Young-Old (Y-O; age 50–74 years) versus Old-Old (O-O; 75–99 years) community-dwelling adults. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare respondents’ self-perceptions of successful aging among O-O relative to Y-O adults. Methods Participants included 365 Y-O and 641 O-O adults. The two age groups were compared in terms of the association of SPSA with other preselected measures including sociodemographic information, physical and mental functioning, objective and subjective cognitive functioning, emotional health, and positive psychological constructs. Results The O-O group reported higher levels of SPSA than the Y-O group. In multiple regression modeling examining predictors of SPSA in each group, there was a tendency toward lower associations in the O-O group overall. Most notably, the associations between physical and mental functioning with SPSA were significantly lower in the O-O versus Y-O group. There were no associations with SPSA that were significantly higher in the O-O versus Y-O group. Conclusion The lower predictive power of physical and mental functioning on SPSA among O-O relative to Y-O adults is particularly noteworthy. It is apparent that SPSA is a multidimensional construct that cannot be defined by physical functioning alone. Continuing to clarify the underlying factors impacting SPSA between groups may inform tailored interventions to promote successful aging in Y-O and O-O adults. PMID:25369763

  8. Body Mass Index Trajectories and Healthcare Utilization in Young and Middle-aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Elrashidi, Muhamad Y; Jacobson, Debra J; St Sauver, Jennifer; Fan, Chun; Lynch, Brian A; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a significant public health issue with adverse impact on health and costs. Applying a life-course perspective to obesity may advance our understanding of the influence of obesity over time on patterns of healthcare utilization in young and middle-aged United States (US) adults.We identified baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI trajectories, and assessed their association with outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations in a well-defined population of young and middle-aged US adults.Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (N = 23,254) aged 18 to 44 years, with at least 3 BMI measurements, residing in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2012.We observed that 27.5% of the population was obese. Four BMI trajectories were identified. Compared to under/normal weight, obese class III adults had higher risk of outpatient visits (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 1.86; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.67-2,08), ED visits (adjusted RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.74-3.34), and hospitalizations (adjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.59-1.75). BMI trajectory was positively associated with ED visits after adjustment for age, sex, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (P < 0.001 for trend).Among young and middle-aged US adults, baseline BMI is positively associated with outpatient visits, ED visits, and hospitalizations, while BMI trajectory is positively associated with ED visits. These findings extend our understanding of the longitudinal influence of obesity on healthcare utilization in early to mid-adulthood. PMID:26765446

  9. Dietary Iron Concentration May Influence Aging Process by Altering Oxidative Stress in Tissues of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Lorena Fernandes; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes; Campos, Natália Aboudib; de Valencia, Fernando Fortes; Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential element. However, in its free form, iron participates in redox-reactions, leading to the production of free radicals that increase oxidative stress and the risk of damaging processes. Living organisms have an efficient mechanism that regulates iron absorption according to their iron content to protect against oxidative damage. The effects of restricted and enriched-iron diets on oxidative stress and aging biomarkers were investigated. Adult Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10, 35 or 350 mg/kg iron (adult restricted-iron, adult control-iron and adult enriched-iron groups, respectively) for 78 days. Rats aged two months were included as a young control group. Young control group showed higher hemoglobin and hematocrit values, lower levels of iron and lower levels of MDA or carbonyl in the major studied tissues than the adult control group. Restricted-iron diet reduced iron concentrations in skeletal muscle and oxidative damage in the majority of tissues and also increased weight loss. Enriched-iron diet increased hematocrit values, serum iron, gamma-glutamyl transferase, iron concentrations and oxidative stress in the majority of tissues. As expected, young rats showed higher mRNA levels of heart and hepatic L-Ferritin (Ftl) and kidneys SMP30 as well as lower mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and interleukin-1 beta (Il1b) and also lower levels of liver protein ferritin. Restricted-iron adult rats showed an increase in heart Ftl mRNA and the enriched-iron adult rats showed an increase in liver nuclear factor erythroid derived 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2) and Il1b mRNAs and in gut divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA (Slc11a2) relative to the control adult group. These results suggest that iron supplementation in adult rats may accelerate aging process by increasing oxidative stress while iron restriction may retards it. However, iron restriction may also impair other physiological processes that are not associated with aging. PMID:23593390

  10. The demographics of fat talk in adult women: Age, body size, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Engeln, Renee; Salk, Rachel H

    2016-08-01

    Fat talk, conversations in which women disparage the size/shape of their bodies, acts as both a reflection of and contributor to body dissatisfaction. We assessed the impact of age, body mass index, and ethnicity on fat talk in two large, online surveys of adult women. Body mass index showed a small, positive correlation with fat talk, but only for women who were not overweight. Fat talking was common across all ages. In contrast to the common belief that fat talk is limited to young, thin women, these studies demonstrate that women of many body sizes and ages engage in fat talk. PMID:25488938

  11. Age-Related Differences in Plasma Proteins: How Plasma Proteins Change from Neonates to Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ignjatovic, Vera; Lai, Cera; Summerhayes, Robyn; Mathesius, Ulrike; Tawfilis, Sherif; Perugini, Matthew A.; Monagle, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of major diseases such as cardiovascular disease, thrombosis and cancer increases with age and is the major cause of mortality world-wide, with neonates and children somehow protected from such diseases of ageing. We hypothesized that there are major developmental differences in plasma proteins and that these contribute to age-related changes in the incidence of major diseases. We evaluated the human plasma proteome in healthy neonates, children and adults using the 2D-DIGE approach. We demonstrate significant changes in number and abundance of up to 100 protein spots that have marked differences in during the transition of the plasma proteome from neonate and child through to adult. These proteins are known to be involved in numerous physiological processes such as iron transport and homeostasis, immune response, haemostasis and apoptosis, amongst others. Importantly, we determined that the proteins that are differentially expressed with age are not the same proteins that are differentially expressed with gender and that the degree of phosphorylation of plasma proteins also changes with age. Given the multi-functionality of these proteins in human physiology, understanding the differences in the plasma proteome in neonates and children compared to adults will make a major contribution to our understanding of developmental biology in humans. PMID:21365000

  12. The Moderating Role of Age-Group Identification and Perceived Threat on Stereotype Threat among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sonia K.; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates…

  13. Effect of Speaker Age on Speech Recognition and Perceived Listening Effort in Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuliffe, Megan J.; Wilding, Phillipa J.; Rickard, Natalie A.; O'Beirne, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults exhibit difficulty understanding speech that has been experimentally degraded. Age-related changes to the speech mechanism lead to natural degradations in signal quality. We tested the hypothesis that older adults with hearing loss would exhibit declines in speech recognition when listening to the speech of older adults,…

  14. Age-Related Differences in the Brain Areas outside the Classical Language Areas among Adults Using Category Decision Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yong Won; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Joo Hwa; Lee, Hui Joong; Yi, Sang Doe; Chang, Hyuk Won; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-01-01

    Older adults perform much like younger adults on language. This similar level of performance, however, may come about through different underlying brain processes. In the present study, we evaluated age-related differences in the brain areas outside the typical language areas among adults using a category decision task. Our results showed that…

  15. The Relationship between Age, Gender, Historical Change, and Adults' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin, James B.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991, 2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health…

  16. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  17. Aging and selective engagement: the moderating impact of motivation on older adults' resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Germain, Cassandra M; Swaim, Elizabeth L; Osowski, Nicole L

    2009-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine age differences in the impact of motivation in a social cognitive task. We tested the hypothesis that aging is associated with an increase in the selective engagement of cognitive resources in support of performance. Different-aged adults read descriptions of 2 people in order to determine which was better suited for a particular job. These descriptions contained behaviors that were either consistent or inconsistent with the job, and participants performed the task under conditions of high versus low accountability. Examination of memory for behavioral information revealed that accountability disproportionately affected older adults' performance, with the locus of this effect being in conscious recollection processes. This supports the aforementioned selective engagement hypothesis by demonstrating that the differential impact of the motivational manipulation was based in deliberative memory processes. PMID:19357075

  18. Blood Glucose, Diet-Based Glycemic Load and Cognitive Aging Among Dementia-Free Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Andel, Ross; McEvoy, Cathy; Dahl Aslan, Anna K.; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years. Methods. Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged ≥50 years (M = 63.1, SD = 8.3) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were studied. Mixed effects growth models were utilized to assess overall performance and change in general cognitive functioning, perceptual speed, memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability as a function of baseline blood glucose and diet-based glycemic load. Results. High blood glucose was related to poorer overall performance on perceptual speed as well as greater rates of decline in general cognitive ability, perceptual speed, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load was related to poorer overall performance in perceptual speed and spatial ability. Conclusion. Diet-based glycemic load and, in particular, elevated blood glucose appear important for cognitive performance/cognitive aging. Blood glucose control (perhaps through low glycemic load diets) may be an important target in the detection and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25149688

  19. Personality Trait Differences Between Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Measurement Artifacts or Actual Trends?

    PubMed

    Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts. PMID:25773456

  20. Speech Recognition Across the Life Span: Longitudinal Changes From Middle-Age to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of evidence of age-related declines in speech recognition in middle age to older adulthood; to review contributions of pure-tone thresholds, age, and gender; and to report preliminary results from a longitudinal study. Method Pure-tone thresholds and word recognition in quiet and babble are being measured in a large sample of adults yearly or every 2 to 3 years. Analyses included >16,000 audiograms and speech recognition scores from >1,200 adults whose ages ranged from the 40s to the 90s. A multivariable generalized linear repeated mixed model assessed changes in thresholds and speech recognition over time. Results Word recognition in quiet declined significantly while controlling for threshold increases, and declines appeared to accelerate near ages 65 to 70 years. Scores for men were poorer than those for women even after controlling for gender differences in thresholds, but rates of decline did not differ by gender. Smaller declines in key word recognition in babble were observed, and declines appeared to accelerate near ages 75 to 80 years. Conclusions Additional evidence is needed from large-scale longitudinal cohort studies to determine rates of change of auditory function across the life span. These studies can identify associations with modifiable risk factors and potential mechanisms to reduce, to prevent, or to delay the onset of age-related hearing loss. PMID:25767998

  1. A Case of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in a Middle-Aged Adult

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Nicole; Abdelmalik, Peter A.; Curtis, Mark; Bar, Barak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that is often preceded by infection or recent vaccination. Encephalopathy and focal neurological deficits are usually manifest several weeks after a prodromal illness with rapidly progressive neurologic decline. ADEM is most commonly seen in children and young adults, in which prognosis is favorable, but very few cases have been reported of older adults with ADEM and thus their clinical course is unknown. Methods. Here we present a case of ADEM in a middle-aged adult that recovered well after treatment. Results. A 62-year-old man presented with encephalopathy and rapid neurological decline following a gastrointestinal illness. A brain MRI revealed extensive supratentorial white matter hyperintensities consistent with ADEM and thus he was started on high dose intravenous methylprednisolone. He underwent a brain biopsy showing widespread white matter inflammation secondary to demyelination. At discharge, his neurological exam had significantly improved with continued steroid treatment and four months later, he was able to perform his ADLs. Conclusions. This case of ADEM in a middle-aged adult represents an excellent response to high dose steroid treatment with a remarkable neurological recovery. Thus it behooves one to treat suspected cases of ADEM in an adult patient aggressively, as outcome can be favorable. PMID:26180647

  2. A Case of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in a Middle-Aged Adult.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Nicole; Abdelmalik, Peter A; Curtis, Mark; Bar, Barak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that is often preceded by infection or recent vaccination. Encephalopathy and focal neurological deficits are usually manifest several weeks after a prodromal illness with rapidly progressive neurologic decline. ADEM is most commonly seen in children and young adults, in which prognosis is favorable, but very few cases have been reported of older adults with ADEM and thus their clinical course is unknown. Methods. Here we present a case of ADEM in a middle-aged adult that recovered well after treatment. Results. A 62-year-old man presented with encephalopathy and rapid neurological decline following a gastrointestinal illness. A brain MRI revealed extensive supratentorial white matter hyperintensities consistent with ADEM and thus he was started on high dose intravenous methylprednisolone. He underwent a brain biopsy showing widespread white matter inflammation secondary to demyelination. At discharge, his neurological exam had significantly improved with continued steroid treatment and four months later, he was able to perform his ADLs. Conclusions. This case of ADEM in a middle-aged adult represents an excellent response to high dose steroid treatment with a remarkable neurological recovery. Thus it behooves one to treat suspected cases of ADEM in an adult patient aggressively, as outcome can be favorable. PMID:26180647

  3. Psychology Doctoral Students' Interest in Working with Older Adults: The Roles of Knowledge, Ageism, Aging Anxiety and Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbin, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Given the growing population of older adults with more reported mental health needs, there are not sufficient psychologists interested in working with this population. This study looked at why interest is so low, looking particularly at the correlations between interest in working with older adults and knowledge about aging, ageism, aging anxiety…

  4. "Feeling younger, walking faster": subjective age and walking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Walking speed is a key vital sign in older people. Given the implications of slower gait speed, a large literature has identified health-related, behavioral, cognitive, and biological factors that moderate age-related decline in mobility. The present study aims to contribute to existing knowledge by examining whether subjective age, how old or young individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, contributes to walking speed. Participants were drawn from the 2008 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 2970) and the 2011 and 2013 waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, N = 5423). In both the HRS and the NHATS, linear regression analysis revealed that a younger subjective age was associated with faster walking speed at baseline and with less decline over time, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. These associations were partly accounted for by depressive symptoms, disease burden, physical activity, cognition, body mass index, and smoking. Additional analysis revealed that feeling younger than one's age was associated with a reduced risk of walking slower than the frailty-related threshold of 0.6 m/s at follow-up in the HRS. The present study provides novel and consistent evidence across two large prospective studies for an association between the subjective experience of age and walking speed of older adults. Subjective age may help identify individuals at risk for mobility limitations in old age and may be a target for interventions designed to mitigate functional decline. PMID:26296609

  5. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving.

    PubMed

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20-74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19-89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  6. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving

    PubMed Central

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20–74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19–89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  7. Periodontitis prevalence in adults ≥ 65 years of age, in the USA.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Wei, Liang; Borgnakke, Wenche S; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Zhang, Xingyou; Lu, Hua; McGuire, Lisa C; Genco, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The older adult population is growing rapidly in the USA and it is expected that by 2040 the number of adults ≥ 65 years of age will have increased by about 50%. With the growth of this subpopulation, oral health status, and periodontal status in particular, becomes important in the quest to maintain an adequate quality of life. Poor oral health can have a major impact, leading to tooth loss, pain and discomfort, and may prevent older adults from chewing food properly, often leading to poor nutrition. Periodontitis is monitored in the USA at the national level as part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative. In this report, we provide estimates of the overall burden of periodontitis among adults ≥ 65 years of age and after stratification according to sociodemographic factors, modifiable risk factors (such as smoking status), the presence of other systemic conditions (such as diabetes) and access to dental care. We also estimated the burden of periodontitis within this age group at the state and local levels. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 cycles were analyzed. Periodontal measures from both survey cycles were based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. Nineteen per cent of adults in this subpopulation were edentulous. The mean age was 73 years, 7% were current smokers, 8% lived below the 100% Federal Poverty Level and < 40% had seen a dentist in the past year. Almost two-thirds (62.3%) had one or more sites with ≥ 5 mm of clinical attachment loss and almost half had at least one site with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm. We estimated the lowest prevalence of periodontitis in Utah (62.3%) and New Hampshire (62.6%) and the highest in New Mexico, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia each with a prevalence of higher than 70%. Overall, periodontitis is highly prevalent in this subpopulation, with two-thirds of dentate older adults affected at any geographic level. These findings provide an

  8. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the focus on…

  9. Food Hypersensitivity in Mexican Adults at 18 to 50 Years of Age: A Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bedolla-Pulido, Tonatiuh Ramses; Camacho-Peña, Alan Salvador; González-García, Estefanía; Morales-Romero, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There is limited epidemiological evidence of food hypersensitivity (FH) in the adult population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of FH in Mexican adults, their clinical features and to establish common food involved in its appearance. Methods We designed a cross-sectional study using a fixed quota sampling; 1,126 subjects answered a structured survey to gather information related to FH. Results The prevalence of FH in adults was 16.7% (95% CI, 14.5% to 18.8%), without statistical significant differences related to gender (women, 17.5% and men, 15.9%) or residential location. The most common clinical manifestations in adults with FH were oral allergy syndrome (70 of 1,126) and urticaria (55 of 1,126). According to category, fruits and vegetables were the most frequent foods to trigger FH (6.12%) and were individually related to shrimp (4.0%), and cow milk (1.5%). Adults under age 25 had a higher frequency of FH (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.91, P <0.001). Personal history of any atopic disease was significantly associated with FH (P <0.0001). Conclusions The prevalence of FH is relatively high in Mexican adults, and FH is significantly associated with atopic diseases. PMID:25374750

  10. An Examination of the Perceptions of Older Americans on Successful Aging and Adult Education Programs to Meet Their Aging Needs in Southeast Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Ileeia Anjale

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the personal perceptions of older Americans in regards to the aging process and the characteristics of successful aging. In addition, the study aimed to determine individual perceptions of adult education programs and resources necessary in aging successfully. The study examined current resources, services…

  11. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Kim, David K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Harriman, Kathleen H

    2016-01-01

    In October 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2016. This schedule provides a summary of ACIP recommendations for the use of vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged 19 years or older in two figures, footnotes for each vaccine, and a table that describes primary contraindications and precautions for commonly used vaccines for adults. Although the figures in the adult immunization schedule illustrate recommended vaccinations that begin at age 19 years, the footnotes contain information on vaccines that are recommended for adults that may begin at age younger than age 19 years. The footnotes also contain vaccine dosing, intervals between doses, and other important information and should be read with the figures. PMID:26845417

  12. Modeling computer interest in older adults: the role of age, education, computer knowledge, and computer anxiety.

    PubMed

    Ellis, D; Allaire, J C

    1999-09-01

    We proposed a mediation model to examine the effects of age, education, computer knowledge, and computer anxiety on computer interest in older adults. We hypothesized that computer knowledge and computer anxiety would fully mediate the effects of age and education on computer interest. A sample of 330 older adults from local senior-citizen apartment buildings completed a survey that included an assessment of the constructs included in the model. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the results supported the hypothesized mediation model. In particular, the effect of computer knowledge operated on computer interest through computer anxiety. The effect of age was not fully mitigated by the other model variables, indicating the need for future research that identifies and models other correlates of age and computer interest. The most immediate application of this research is the finding that a simple 3-item instrument can be used to assess computer interest in older populations. This will help professionals plan and implement computer services in public-access settings for older adults. An additional application of this research is the information it provides for training program designers. PMID:10665203

  13. Effects of Aging and Adult-Onset Hearing Loss on Cortical Auditory Regions

    PubMed Central

    Cardin, Velia

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common feature in human aging. It has been argued that dysfunctions in central processing are important contributing factors to hearing loss during older age. Aging also has well documented consequences for neural structure and function, but it is not clear how these effects interact with those that arise as a consequence of hearing loss. This paper reviews the effects of aging and adult-onset hearing loss in the structure and function of cortical auditory regions. The evidence reviewed suggests that aging and hearing loss result in atrophy of cortical auditory regions and stronger engagement of networks involved in the detection of salient events, adaptive control and re-allocation of attention. These cortical mechanisms are engaged during listening in effortful conditions in normal hearing individuals. Therefore, as a consequence of aging and hearing loss, all listening becomes effortful and cognitive load is constantly high, reducing the amount of available cognitive resources. This constant effortful listening and reduced cognitive spare capacity could be what accelerates cognitive decline in older adults with hearing loss. PMID:27242405

  14. The Impact of Age Stereotypes on Older Adults' Hazard Perception Performance and Driving Confidence.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Lyn; Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Horswill, Mark S; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of age-stereotype threat on older adults' performance on a task measuring hazard perception performance in driving. The impact of age-stereotype threat in relation to the value participants placed on driving and pre- and post-task confidence in driving ability was also investigated. Eighty-six adults aged from 65 years of age completed a questionnaire measuring demographic information, driving experience, self-rated health, driving importance, and driving confidence. Prior to undertaking a timed hazard perception task, participants were exposed to either negative or positive age stereotypes. Results showed that age-stereotype threats, while not influencing hazard perception performance, significantly reduced post-driving confidence compared with pre-driving confidence for those in the negative prime condition. This finding builds on the literature that has found that stereotype-based influences cannot simply be understood in terms of performance outcomes alone and may be relevant to factors affected by confidence such as driving cessation decisions. PMID:24652925

  15. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity. PMID:26597049

  16. Age, arterial stiffness, and components of blood pressure in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meili; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin; Huo, Yong; Xu, Xin; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Fan, Fangfang; Cui, Wei; Yang, Xinchun

    2014-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) changes with age. We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural Chinese adults to investigate: (1) what is the relationship between age, arterial stiffness, and BP in Chinese men and women; and (2) to what degree can the age-BP relationship be explained by arterial stiffness, controlling for other covariables. These analyses included a total of 1688 subjects (males/females: 623/1065), aged 40 to 88 years. Among them, 353 (20.9%) had hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg). Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). baPWV appeared to be more strongly correlated with BP (including SBP, DBP, mean arterial pressure [MAP], pulse pressure [PP]) than age (P < 0.001 for comparisons between Spearman correlation coefficients). Furthermore, baPWV was associated with BP (including SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP) and risk of hypertension in a dose-response fashion, independent of age; in contrast, the age-BP associations were either attenuated or became negative after adjusting for baPWV. Arterial stiffness appears to be an independent contributor to hypertension, even after adjusting for age and other covariables. In contrast, age-BP associations became attenuated or negative after adjusting for baPWV. The utility of baPWV as a diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic indicator for hypertension warrants further investigation. PMID:25546666

  17. Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Carol E.; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J.; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N = 727 men; mean age 55, SD = 2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [β = 0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

  18. Regional age differences in gray matter diffusivity among healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Lauren E; Conturo, Thomas E; Laidlaw, David H; Cabeen, Ryan P; Akbudak, Erbil; Lane, Elizabeth M; Heaps, Jodi M; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Baker, Laurie M; Cooley, Sarah; Scott, Staci; Cagle, Lee M; Phillips, Sarah; Paul, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    Aging is associated with microstructural changes in brain tissue that can be visualized using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While previous studies have established age-related changes in white matter (WM) diffusion using DTI, the impact of age on gray matter (GM) diffusion remains unclear. The present study utilized DTI metrics of mean diffusivity (MD) to identify age differences in GM/WM microstructure in a sample of healthy older adults (N = 60). A secondary aim was to determine the functional significance of whole-brain GM/WM MD on global cognitive function using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Participants were divided into three age brackets (ages 50-59, 60-69, and 70+) to examine differences in MD and cognition by decade. MD was examined bilaterally in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes for the primary analyses and an aggregate measure of whole-brain MD was used to test relationships with cognition. Significantly higher MD was observed in bilateral GM of the temporal and parietal lobes, and in right hemisphere WM of the frontal and temporal lobes of older individuals. The most robust differences in MD were between the 50-59 and 70+ age groups. Higher whole-brain GM MD was associated with poorer RBANS performance in the 60-69 age group. Results suggest that aging has a significant and differential impact on GM/WM diffusion in healthy older adults, which may explain a modest degree of cognitive variability at specific time points during older adulthood. PMID:25864197

  19. Adults' reports of their earliest memories: consistency in events, ages, and narrative characteristics over time.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Larkina, Marina

    2014-07-01

    Earliest memories have been of interest since the late 1800s, when it was first noted that most adults do not have memories from the first years of life (so-called childhood amnesia). Several characteristics of adults' earliest memories have been investigated, including emotional content, the perspective from which they are recalled, and vividness. The focus of the present research was a feature of early memories heretofore relatively neglected in the literature, namely, their consistency. Adults reported their earliest memories 2-4 times over a 4-year period. Reports of earliest memories were highly consistent in the events identified as the bases for earliest memories, the reported age at the time of the event, and in terms of qualities of the narrative descriptions. These findings imply stability in the boundary that marks the offset of childhood amnesia, as well as in the beginning of a continuous sense of self over time. PMID:24836979

  20. Socioeconomics and Major Disabilities: Characteristics of Working-Age Adults in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Kiregu, Joshua; Murindahabi, Nathalie K.; Tumusiime, David; Thomson, Dana R.; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L.; Ahayo, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background Disability affects approximately 15% of the world’s population, and has adverse socio-economic effects, especially for the poor. In Rwanda, there are a number of government compensation programs that support the poor, but not specifically persons with disability (PWDs). This study investigates the relationship between poverty and government compensation on disability among working-age adults in Rwanda. Methods This was a secondary analysis of 35,114 adults aged 16 to 65 interviewed in the 2010/2011 Rwanda Household Wealth and Living Conditions survey, a national cross-sectional two-stage cluster survey, stratified by district. This study estimated self-reported major disability, and used chi-square tests to estimate associations (p<0.1) with income, government compensation, occupation type, participation in public works programs, and household poverty status. Non-collinear economic variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression, along with socio-demographic confounders that modified the relationship between any economic predictor and the outcome by 10% or more. All analyses adjusted for sampling weights, stratification, and clustering of households. Results Over 4% of working-age adults reported having a major disability and the most prevalent types of disability in order were physical, mental, and then sensory disability. In bivariate analysis, annual income, occupation type, and poverty status were associated with major disability (p<0.001 for all). Occupation type was dropped because it was collinear with income. Age, education, and urban/rural residence were confounders. In the multivariate analysis, adults in all income groups had about half the odds of disability compared to adults with no income (Rwf1-120,000 OR = 0.57; Rwf120,000–250,000 OR = 0.61; Rwf250,000–1,000,000 OR = 0.59; Rwf1,000,000+ OR = 0.66; p<0.05 for all), and non-poor adults had 0.77 the odds of disability compared to poor adults (p = 0.001). Conclusion Given

  1. Associations between anxiety disorders, suicide ideation, and age in nationally representative samples of Canadian and American adults.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Sarah; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Erickson, Julie; Mackenzie, Corey S; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    Suicidal behaviors are of significant concern for the individuals displaying such behavior and for service providers who encounter them. Using nationally representative samples of Canadian and American adults, we aimed to examine: whether age moderates the relationship between having any anxiety disorder and suicide ideation (SI), the prevalence of SI among younger and older adults, and whether age and individual anxiety disorders were differentially associated with SI. Age moderated the relationship between any anxiety disorder and SI among Americans only. Past-year SI was less prevalent among older, compared to younger, adults; though, nearly every anxiety disorder was associated with increased odds of SI among younger and older Canadian and American adults after controlling for covariates. Effect sizes were particularly large for older American adults, but were coupled with large confidence intervals. Findings contribute to a growing literature suggesting that SI in the context of anxiety is a highly prevalent and complex mental health problem across the adult lifespan. PMID:25306089

  2. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Matthew R; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  3. Reliability and validity of eight dental age estimation methods for adults.

    PubMed

    Soomer, Helena; Ranta, Helena; Lincoln, Michael J; Penttilä, Antti; Leibur, Edvitar

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of eight published dental age estimation methods for adults that may aid in victim identification. Age was calculated on 20 Caucasian teeth of known age according to the methods of Kvaal (for in situ and extracted teeth), Solheim (for in situ and sectioned teeth), Lamendin (for extracted teeth), Johanson (for sectioned teeth) and Bang (for extracted and sectioned teeth) by one independent observer. For each method, mean age error and standard error were assessed as the measures of accuracy and precision. In addition, method simplicity, requirements for tooth preparation and the equipment necessary were assessed and recommendations given for forensic use in various situations. Methods for sectioned teeth gave more reliable results when compared to methods for intact teeth. PMID:12570217

  4. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Matthew R.; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I.; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  5. Perspectives on Aging. Exercise and Wellness Programs for Aging Adults. A Conference Held at Brigham Young University (Provo, Utah, August 22, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1983

    Papers presented at a conference on recreation, exercise, and wellness for aging adults included: (1) "Leisure Activity in the 11th Hour or Physical Pursuits of Old Fossils" (Larry L. Neal); (2) "Exercise and Nutrition for the Senior Adult" (Michele Anderson and Jackie A. Smith); and (3) "Senior Wellness Advocacy Network--S.W.A.N.--An Experiment…

  6. Exploring Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Attitudes: Disparities by Race/Ethnicity and Age

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Amaranta D.; Dehlendorf, Christine; Borrero, Sonya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rocca, Corinne H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, with the highest proportions occurring among Blacks, Hispanics, and teenagers. Understanding differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraception by race/ethnicity and age can improve efforts to reduce disparities in unintended pregnancy. Methods This analysis used data from the 897 female respondents in National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge, a survey exploring young adults' knowledge and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess racial/ethnic and age group differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraceptives. Findings Hispanics and teenagers (aged 18–19) had lower awareness of available contraceptive methods, and lower knowledge about individual methods compared with White women and young adults (age 20–29). For example, Hispanics (74%) and teenagers (77%) were less likely to have heard of the intrauterine device (IUD) than were White women (90%) and young adults (90%), and were less likely to know that a woman experiencing side effects could switch brands of oral contraceptive pills (72% of Hispanics vs. 86% of White women; 76% of teenagers vs. 90% of young adults). Hispanics born outside the United States had lower knowledge about contraceptives than U.S.-born Hispanics. For example, foreign-born Hispanics were less likely than U.S.-born Hispanics to have heard of the IUD (59% vs. 82%) or the vaginal ring (55% vs. 95%). Conclusions Lower contraceptive knowledge among teenagers and Hispanics, particularly immigrants, suggests the importance of disseminating family planning information to these women as one means to address disparities in unintended pregnancy. PMID:24725755

  7. Aging in Place vs. Relocation for Older Adults with Neurocognitive Disorder: Applications of Wiseman's Behavioral Model.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Daniel B; Andersen, Troy Christian; Lehning, Amanda J; Perry, Tam E

    2015-01-01

    Some older adults are more vulnerable to housing concerns due to physical and cognitive challenges, including those with a neurocognitive disorder who need extensive support. Environmental gerontology frameworks, including Wiseman's 1980 Behavioral Model of Elderly Migration, have informed scholarship on aging in place and relocation. Understanding Wiseman's model, including considerations for working with families confronting a neurocognitive disorder, can help practitioners ensure that older clients live in settings that best meet their wants and needs. PMID:26016530

  8. Normative shifts of cortical mechanisms of encoding contribute to adult age differences in visual-spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-06-01

    The capacity of visual-spatial working memory (WM) declines from early to late adulthood. Recent attempts at identifying neural correlates of WM capacity decline have focused on the maintenance phase of WM. Here, we investigate neural mechanisms during the encoding phase as another potential mechanism contributing to adult age differences in WM capacity. We used electroencephalography to track neural activity during encoding and maintenance on a millisecond timescale in 35 younger and 35 older adults performing a visual-spatial WM task. As predicted, we observed pronounced age differences in ERP indicators of WM encoding: Younger adults showed attentional selection during item encoding (N2pc component), but this selection mechanism was greatly attenuated in older adults. Conversely, older adults showed more pronounced signs of early perceptual stimulus processing (N1 component) than younger adults. The amplitude modulation of the N1 component predicted WM capacity in older adults, whereas the attentional amplitude modulation of the N2pc component predicted WM capacity in younger adults. Our findings suggest that adult age differences in mechanisms of WM encoding contribute to adult age differences in limits of visual-spatial WM capacity. PMID:23415947

  9. Specific ablation of Nampt in adult neural stem cells recapitulates their functional defects during aging

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Liana R; Imai, Shin-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation and self-renewal, as well as insult-induced differentiation, decrease markedly with age. The molecular mechanisms responsible for these declines remain unclear. Here, we show that levels of NAD+ and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis, decrease with age in the hippocampus. Ablation of Nampt in adult NSPCs reduced their pool and proliferation in vivo. The decrease in the NSPC pool during aging can be rescued by enhancing hippocampal NAD+ levels. Nampt is the main source of NSPC NAD+ levels and required for G1/S progression of the NSPC cell cycle. Nampt is also critical in oligodendrocytic lineage fate decisions through a mechanism mediated redundantly by Sirt1 and Sirt2. Ablation of Nampt in the adult NSPCs in vivo reduced NSPC-mediated oligodendrogenesis upon insult. These phenotypes recapitulate defects in NSPCs during aging, giving rise to the possibility that Nampt-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis is a mediator of age-associated functional declines in NSPCs. PMID:24811750

  10. [Emotional experience and regulation across the adult lifespan: comparative analysis in three age groups].

    PubMed

    Márquez-González, María; Izal Fernández de Trocóniz, María; Montorio Cerrato, Ignacio; Losada Baltar, Andrés

    2008-11-01

    The studies focused on age-related differences in emotional experience are still scarce, and most of them have been conducted with North-American samples. This study explores the presence of age-related differences in some facets of emotional experience (subjective well-being and emotional intensity), as well as in variables related to emotion regulation (subjective emotional control and three emotion-regulation mechanisms: situation selection, emotion suppression, rumination) in the Spanish population. One hundred and sixty people from three age groups (younger, middle-aged and older adults) participated in the study. Older participants reported lower levels of life satisfaction and positive emotional intensity than younger ones, as well as higher levels of perceived emotional control, emotional maturity and leveling of positive affect, and more use of emotion suppression. The results partially support the emotional maturity hypothesis of emotional functioning in old age, but also suggest that older adults' emotional regulation may present important peculiarities which have not yet been addressed in the extant literature, such as the moderation or limitation of emotional experience, especially positive emotions. PMID:18940059

  11. Chronic and progressive Parkinson's disease MPTP model in adult and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Manchado, Ana B; Villadiego, Javier; Romo-Madero, Sonia; Suárez-Luna, Nela; Bermejo-Navas, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Gómez, José A; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Labandeira-García, José L; Echevarría, Miriam; López-Barneo, José; Toledo-Aral, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the different animal models of Parkinson's disease developed during the last years, they still present limitations modelling the slow and progressive process of neurodegeneration. Here, we undertook a histological, neurochemical and behavioural analysis of a new chronic parkinsonian mouse model generated by the subcutaneous administration of low doses of MPTP (20 mg/kg, 3 times per week) for 3 months, using both young adult and aged mice. The MPTP-induced nigrostriatal neurodegeneration was progressive and was accompanied by a decrease in striatal dopamine levels and motor impairment. We also demonstrated the characteristic neuroinflammatory changes (microglial activation and astrogliosis) associated with the neurodegenerative process. Aged animals showed both a faster time course of neurodegeneration and an altered neuroinflammatory response. The long-term systemic application of low MPTP doses did not induce any increase in mortality in either young adult or aged mice and better resembles the slow evolution of the neurodegenerative process. This treatment could be useful to model different stages of Parkinson's disease, providing a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and facilitating the testing of both protective and restorative treatments. Here, we show a new chronic and progressive parkinsonian mouse model, in young and aged mice. This model produces a stable degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway, continuous neuroinflammatory reaction and motor deficits. Aged animals showed a faster neurodegeneration and an altered neuroinflammatory response. This treatment could be useful to model different stages of PD and to test both protective and restorative therapeutic approaches. PMID:26500044

  12. Aging-Dependent Changes in the Radiation Response of the Adult Rat Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, Matthew K. Forbes, M. Elizabeth; Robbins, Mike E.; Riddle, David R.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of aging on the radiation response in the adult rat brain. Methods and Materials: Male rats 8, 18, or 28 months of age received a single 10-Gy dose of whole-brain irradiation (WBI). The hippocampal dentate gyrus was analyzed 1 and 10 weeks later for sensitive neurobiologic markers associated with radiation-induced damage: changes in density of proliferating cells, immature neurons, total microglia, and activated microglia. Results: A significant decrease in basal levels of proliferating cells and immature neurons and increased microglial activation occurred with normal aging. The WBI induced a transient increase in proliferation that was greater in older animals. This proliferation response did not increase the number of immature neurons, which decreased after WBI in young rats, but not in old rats. Total microglial numbers decreased after WBI at all ages, but microglial activation increased markedly, particularly in older animals. Conclusions: Age is an important factor to consider when investigating the radiation response of the brain. In contrast to young adults, older rats show no sustained decrease in number of immature neurons after WBI, but have a greater inflammatory response. The latter may have an enhanced role in the development of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in older individuals.

  13. Age differences in the impact of peers on adolescents' and adults' neural response to reward.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashley R; Steinberg, Laurence; Strang, Nicole; Chein, Jason

    2015-02-01

    Prior research suggests that increased adolescent risk-taking in the presence of peers may be linked to the influence of peers on the valuation and processing of rewards during decision-making. The current study explores this idea by examining how peer observation impacts the processing of rewards when such processing is isolated from other facets of risky decision-making (e.g. risk-perception and preference, inhibitory processing, etc.). In an fMRI paradigm, a sample of adolescents (ages 14-19) and adults (ages 25-35) completed a modified High/Low Card Guessing Task that included rewarded and un-rewarded trials. Social context was manipulated by having participants complete the task both alone and while being observed by two, same-age, same-sex peers. Results indicated an interaction of age and social context on the activation of reward circuitry during the receipt of reward; when observed by peers adolescents exhibited greater ventral striatal activation than adults, but no age-related differences were evinced when the task was completed alone. These findings suggest that, during adolescence, peers influence recruitment of reward-related regions even when they are engaged outside of the context of risk-taking. Implications for engagement in prosocial, as well as risky, behaviors during adolescence are discussed. PMID:25280778

  14. Neural Correlates of Novelty and Face-Age Effects in Young and Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Christopher I.; Negreira, Alyson; Gold, Andrea L.; Britton, Jennifer C.; Williams, Danielle; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2008-01-01

    The human amygdala preferentially responds to objects of potential value, such as hedonically valenced and novel stimuli. Many studies have documented age-related differences in amygdala responses to valenced stimuli, but relatively little is known about age-related changes in the amygdala’s response to novelty. This study examines whether there are differences in amygdala novelty responses in two different age groups. Healthy young and elderly adults viewed both young and elderly faces that were seen many times (familiar faces) or only once (novel faces) in the context of an fMRI study. We observed that amygdala responses to novel (versus familiar) faces were preserved with aging, suggesting that novelty processing in the amygdala remains stable across the lifespan. In addition, participants demonstrated larger amygdala responses to target faces of the same age group than to age out-group target faces (i.e., an age in-group effect). Differences in anatomic localization and behavioral results suggest that novelty and age in-group effects were differentially processed in the amygdala. PMID:18586522

  15. Acute brain slice methods for adult and aging animals: application of targeted patch clampanalysis and optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Tanya L.; Chen, Qian; Feng, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    Summary The development of the living acute brain slice preparation for analyzing synaptic function roughly a half century ago was a pivotal achievement that greatly influenced the landscape of modern neuroscience. Indeed, many neuroscientists regard brain slices as the gold-standard model system for detailed cellular, molecular, and circuitry level analysis and perturbation of neuronal function. A critical limitation of this model system is the difficulty in preparing slices from adult and aging animals, and over the past several decades few substantial methodological improvements have emerged to facilitate patch clamp analysis in the mature adult stage. In this chapter we describe a robust and practical protocol for preparing brain slices from mature adult mice that are suitable for patch clamp analysis. This method reduces swelling and damage in superficial layers of the slices and improves the success rate for targeted patch clamp recordings, including recordings from fluorescently labeled populations in slices derived from transgenic mice. This adult brain slice method is suitable for diverse experimental applications, including both monitoring and manipulating neuronal activity with genetically encoded calcium indicators and optogenetic actuators, respectively. We describe the application of this adult brain slice platform and associated methods for screening kinetic properties of Channelrhodopsin (ChR) variants expressed in genetically-defined neuronal subtypes. PMID:25023312

  16. Leisure as a resource for successful aging by older adults with chronic health conditions.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Susan L; Nimrod, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the model of Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC) (Baltes & Baltes, 1990), the purpose of this article is to examine leisure-related goals of older adults with chronic conditions and the strategies they use to not only successfully manage their chronic health conditions but live well with them. Semi-structured in-person interviews were conducted with 18 community-dwelling older adults (nine males, nine females, ages 58-87 years) with a variety of chronic conditions. Inductive and deductive within and cross-case thematic analyses resulted in descriptions of changes and continuity in participants' leisure participation following the onset of their chronic condition and construction of four themes: drawing on existing resources for continued involvement, setting leisure-based goals, using strategies to get more out of life, and more than managing: living a life of meaning. Implications for promoting successful aging are discussed, specifically the benefits of incorporating information and skill-building to help older adults recognize that leisure can be a resource for healthy aging and self-managing their chronic health condition. PMID:22696843

  17. Age Differential Effects of Severity of Visual Impairment on Mortality among Older Adults in China

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Danan; Zhou, Junshan; Yong, Vanessa; Sautter, Jessica; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We use a population-based longitudinal survey in China from 2002 to 2005 to examine age differentials in the association between severity of visual impairment and mortality risk in older adults. Controlling for numerous factors and baseline health, a substantial age difference is found. Young-old women and men aged 65–79 with severe visual impairments have 161% (hazard ratio=2.61) and 52% (hazard ratio =1.52) higher risk of death respectively as compared to their unimpaired counterparts. Mild impairment does not increase mortality risk among young-old adults, while both mild and severe impairment increase mortality risk by 33% and 32% for women and 24% and 34% for men among the oldest-old as a whole when all factors are controlled for. We conclude that visual impairment is an independent predictor of mortality and severe visual impairment likely plays a stronger role in determining mortality risk among young-old adults than among the oldest-old. PMID:25474802

  18. Diet quality in older age: the influence of childhood and adult socio-economic circumstances.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Janice L; Ramsay, Sheena E; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2015-05-14

    Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on daily fruit and vegetable consumption and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), with higher scores indicating better diet quality. Adult and childhood socio-economic measures included occupation/father's occupation, education and household amenities, which combined to create composite scores. Social relationships included social contact, living arrangements and marital status. Both childhood and adult socio-economic factors were independently associated with diet quality. Compared with non-manual social class, men of childhood manual social class were less likely to consume fruit and vegetables daily (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66, 0.97), as were men of adult manual social class (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79), and less likely to be in the top EDI quartile (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61, 0.88), similar to men of adult manual social class (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.79). Diet quality decreased with increasing adverse adult socio-economic scores; however, the association with adverse childhood socio-economic scores diminished with adult social class adjustment. A combined adverse childhood and adulthood socio-economic score was associated with poor diet quality. Diet quality was most favourable in married men and those not living alone, but was not associated with social contact. Diet quality in older men is influenced by childhood and adulthood socio-economic factors, marital status and living arrangements. PMID:25827289

  19. Age-Related Phasic Patterns of Mitochondrial Maintenance in Adult Caenorhabditis elegans Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Morsci, Natalia S.; Hall, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with cognitive decline and increasing risk of neurodegeneration. Perturbation of mitochondrial function, dynamics, and trafficking are implicated in the pathogenesis of several age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Despite this fundamental importance, the critical understanding of how organismal aging affects lifetime neuronal mitochondrial maintenance remains unknown, particularly in a physiologically relevant context. To address this issue, we performed a comprehensive in vivo analysis of age-associated changes in mitochondrial morphology, density, trafficking, and stress resistance in individual Caenorhabditis elegans neurons throughout adult life. Adult neurons display three distinct stages of increase, maintenance, and decrease in mitochondrial size and density during adulthood. Mitochondrial trafficking in the distal neuronal processes declines progressively with age starting from early adulthood. In contrast, long-lived daf-2 mutants exhibit delayed age-associated changes in mitochondrial morphology, constant mitochondrial density, and maintained trafficking rates during adulthood. Reduced mitochondrial load at late adulthood correlates with decreased mitochondrial resistance to oxidative stress. Revealing aging-associated changes in neuronal mitochondria in vivo is an essential precedent that will allow future elucidation of the mechanistic causes of mitochondrial aging. Thus, our study establishes the critical foundation for the future analysis of cellular pathways and genetic and pharmacological factors regulating mitochondrial maintenance in aging- and disease-relevant conditions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we address long-standing questions: How does aging affect neuronal mitochondrial morphology, density, trafficking, and oxidative stress resistance? Are these age-related changes amenable to genetic manipulations that slow down the aging process? Our study illustrates that mitochondrial

  20. Dual task demands on encoding and retrieval processes: evidence from healthy adult ageing.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H; Della Sala, Sergio; MacPherson, Sarah E; Cooper, Janine

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies of dual-task performance have demonstrated that encoding and retrieval processes are differentially affected by the simultaneous performance of a secondary task. Whilst dual task demands during encoding have a detrimental effect on memory performance, dual task demands during retrieval have a detrimental effect on secondary task performance. However, dual task effects on memory during encoding appear unaffected by age, while effects at retrieval on secondary task performance are age sensitive. Most previous studies have focused on free recall or cued recall of word lists. In the current study, encoding and retrieval were examined in younger and older healthy adults performing a task typically thought to load verbal working memory, namely immediate serial ordered digit recall together with a response time (RT) task. In Experiment 1, the demands of a secondary RT task were varied as a function of response-to-stimulus interval, while in Experiment 2 the predictability of the stimulus location was manipulated. In both age groups, dual task during encoding, but not at retrieval, produced significant interference in memory performance and unlike most previous studies the impact at encoding was greater for the older group. In contrast, significantly slower RTs were demonstrated under dual task conditions during encoding and retrieval. Older adults produced significantly slower RTs than younger adults only for dual task at retrieval. Older people were more sensitive to time pressure in responding under dual task conditions, but neither group was sensitive to predictability of stimulus location. Results are consistent with the concept of a cognitive resource that supports dual task performance, and that is sensitive to the effects of age on memory encoding of items that rely heavily on the operation of verbal working memory resources. The age sensitivity to dual task only became apparent when effects at encoding and at retrieval were considered separately

  1. Attitudes toward mental health services: age-group differences in Korean American adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20-45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen's (1968; A behavioral model of families' use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and enabling (acculturation, health insurance coverage and personal experience and beliefs) variables were considered. In the mean-level assessment, younger and older adults were found to hold a similar level of positive attitudes toward mental health services. In the multivariate analysis, culture-influenced beliefs were shown to have a substantial contribution to the model of attitudes toward mental health services in both age groups. The belief that depression is a medical condition was found to be a common predictor of positive attitudes across the groups. In the older adult sample, more negative attitudes were observed among those who believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness and that having a mentally ill family member brings shame to the whole family. Our findings show that older adults are not only more subject to cultural misconceptions and stigma related to mental disorders, but also their attitudes toward service use are negatively influenced by the cultural stigma. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs. PMID:19197698

  2. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden. PMID:25624341

  3. Impact of Increasing Age on Outcomes of Spinal Fusion in Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Verla, Terence; Adogwa, Owoicho; Toche, Ulysses; Farber, S. Harrison; Petraglia, Frank; Murphy, Kelly R.; Thomas, Steven; Fatemi, Parastou; Gottfried, Oren; Bagley, Carlos A.; Lad, Shivanand P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of advancing age on postoperative complications and revision surgery after fusion for scoliosis. Methods A retrospective, cohort study was performed using the Thomson Reuters MarketScan database, examining patients with adult scoliosis who underwent spinal fusion from 2000 to 2009. Primary outcomes included infection, hemorrhage and pulmonary embolism (PE) within 90 days of surgery, and refusion. The effect of increasing age was estimated using the odds ratio (OR) of complications in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, and a Cox proportional hazard model estimated the hazard ratio of refusion. Results A total of 8432 patients were included in this study. Overall, the average age was 53.3 years, with 26.90% males and 39% with a Charlson Comorbidity Score of ≥1. Most patients had commercial insurance (66.81%), with 26.03% and 7.16% covered by Medicare and Medicaid, respectively. Increasing age (per 5-year increment) was a significant predictor of hemorrhagic complication (OR, 1.06; confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.11; P = 0.0196), PE (OR, 1.09; CI, 1.03–1.16; P = 0.0031), infection (OR, 1.04; CI, 1.01–1.07; P = 0.0053), and refusion (hazard ratio, 1.07; CI, 1.02–1.13; P = 0.0103). Conclusions In this study, age was associated with increased risk of hemorrhage, PE, infection, and refusion. With the aging population, the role of patient age on postoperative healing and outcomes deserves deeper investigation after repair of adult idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:26546999

  4. Optimal speech level for speech transmission in a noisy environment for young adults and aged persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hayato; Ota, Ryo; Morimoto, Masayuki; Sato, Hiroshi

    2005-04-01

    Assessing sound environment of classrooms for the aged is a very important issue, because classrooms can be used by the aged for their lifelong learning, especially in the aged society. Hence hearing loss due to aging is a considerable factor for classrooms. In this study, the optimal speech level in noisy fields for both young adults and aged persons was investigated. Listening difficulty ratings and word intelligibility scores for familiar words were used to evaluate speech transmission performance. The results of the tests demonstrated that the optimal speech level for moderate background noise (i.e., less than around 60 dBA) was fairly constant. Meanwhile, the optimal speech level depended on the speech-to-noise ratio when the background noise level exceeded around 60 dBA. The minimum required speech level to minimize difficulty ratings for the aged was higher than that for the young. However, the minimum difficulty ratings for both the young and the aged were given in the range of speech level of 70 to 80 dBA of speech level.

  5. Adolescent and Young Adult Mortality by Cause: Age, Gender, and Country, 1955 to 1994

    PubMed Central

    HEUVELINE, PATRICK; SLAP, GAIL B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare mortality rates from motor vehicle accidents (MVA), homicide, and suicide across countries, age groups, and time. Methods The World Health Organization Mortality Database was used to construct age- and gender-specific rates in 26 countries for individuals aged 15 to 34 years during the period 1955 to 1994. The rates were adjusted for differences among countries in the age-and-gender distributions of their populations. Cause-specific rates were compared by country, 4-year age groups, 8-year time blocks, and male/female ratios. Results The proportion of deaths in 15–34-year-olds owing to MVA, homicide, and suicide increased from 26% to 43% over the 40-year study period. Mortality rates differ by country more than time block, peak at ages 15–29 years, and are higher in males than females. Compared to the United States, 24 countries had lower homicide rates and 23 had lower MVA-death rates. Conclusions Despite declining rates of death from other causes, the rates of adolescent and young adult death from MVA, homicide, and suicide remain high in countries throughout the world. The proportion of deaths attributable to these causes increased steadily during the latter half of the 20th century. Fatal risk behaviors begin to increase during adolescence but do not peak until age 30 years, suggesting that the target population for prevention extends well beyond the teenage years. PMID:11755798

  6. The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages and increased adult mortality is explained by early parental loss

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Kohler, Iliana; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages at birth and increased mortality among adult offspring is often attributed to parental reproductive ageing, e.g., declining oocyte or sperm quality. Less attention has been paid to alternative mechanisms, including parental socio-demographic characteristics or the timing of parental death. Moreover, it is not known if the parental age-adult mortality association is mediated by socioeconomic attainment of the children, or if it varies over the lifecourse of the adult children. We used register-based data drawn from the Finnish 1950 census (sample size 89,737; mortality follow-up 1971–2008) and discrete-time survival regression with logit link to analyze these alternative mechanisms in the parental age-offspring mortality association when the children were aged 35–49 and 50–72. Consistent with prior literature, we found that adult children of older parents had increased mortality relative to adults whose parents were aged 25–29 at the time of birth. For example, maternal and paternal ages 40–49 were associated with mortality odds ratios (ORs)of 1.31 (p<.001) and 1.22 (p<.01), respectively, for offspring mortality at ages 35–49. At ages 50–72 advanced parental age also predicted higher mortality, though not as strongly. Adjustment for parental socio-demographic characteristics (education, occupation, family size, household crowding, language) weakened the associations only slightly. Adjustment for parental survival, measured by whether the parents were alive when the child reached age 35, reduced the advanced parental age coefficients substantially and to statistically insignificant levels. These results indicate that the mechanism behind the advanced parental age-adult offspring mortality association is mainly social, reflecting early parental loss and parental characteristics, rather than physiological mechanisms reflecting reproductive ageing. PMID:24997641

  7. The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages and increased adult mortality is explained by early parental loss.

    PubMed

    Myrskylä, Mikko; Elo, Irma T; Kohler, Iliana V; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-10-01

    The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages at birth and increased mortality among adult offspring is often attributed to parental reproductive aging, e.g., declining oocyte or sperm quality. Less attention has been paid to alternative mechanisms, including parental socio-demographic characteristics or the timing of parental death. Moreover, it is not known if the parental age-adult mortality association is mediated by socioeconomic attainment of the children, or if it varies over the lifecourse of the adult children. We used register-based data drawn from the Finnish 1950 census (sample size 89,737; mortality follow-up 1971-2008) and discrete-time survival regression with logit link to analyze these alternative mechanisms in the parental age-offspring mortality association when the children were aged 35-49 and 50-72. Consistent with prior literature, we found that adult children of older parents had increased mortality relative to adults whose parents were aged 25-29 at the time of birth. For example, maternal and paternal ages 40-49 were associated with mortality odds ratios (ORs) of 1.31 (p<.001) and 1.22 (p<.01), respectively, for offspring mortality at ages 35-49. At ages 50-72 advanced parental age also predicted higher mortality, though not as strongly. Adjustment for parental socio-demographic characteristics (education, occupation, family size, household crowding, language) weakened the associations only slightly. Adjustment for parental survival, measured by whether the parents were alive when the child reached age 35, reduced the advanced parental age coefficients substantially and to statistically insignificant levels. These results indicate that the mechanism behind the advanced parental age-adult offspring mortality association is mainly social, reflecting early parental loss and parental characteristics, rather than physiological mechanisms reflecting reproductive aging. PMID:24997641

  8. Age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile sensitivity of hand and face in neurotypical adults.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Lalit; Barlow, Steven M; Kieweg, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory perception decreases with age, and is altered as a function of sex. Very little is known about the age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile detection thresholds (VDTs) of the face relative to the glabrous hand. This study utilized a single-interval up/down (SIUD) adaptive procedure to estimate the VDT for mechanical stimuli presented at 5, 10, 50, 150, 250, and 300 Hz at two sites on the face, including the right non-glabrous surface of the oral angle and the right lower lip vermilion; and on the hand on the glabrous surface of the distal phalanx of the right dominant index finger. Eighteen right-handed healthy younger adults and 18 right-handed healthy older adults participated in this study. VDTs were significantly different between the three stimulus sites (p < 0.0001), and dependent on stimulus frequency (p < 0.0001) and the sex of the participants (p < 0.005). VDTs were significantly higher for older adults when compared to younger adults for the finger stimulation condition (p < 0.05). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in cheek and lower lip VDTs between male and female subjects. Difference in the VDTs between the three stimulation sites is presumed to reflect the unique typing and distribution of mechanoreceptors in the face and hand. Age-related differences in finger skin sensitivity are likely due to changes in the physical structure of skin, changes in the number and morphology of the mechanoreceptors, differences in the functional use of the hand, and its central representation. Sex-related differences in the VDTs may be due to the differences in tissue conformation and thickness, mechanoreceptor densities, skin hydration, or temperature characteristics. PMID:25248543

  9. The interplay of subjective social status and essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging on cortisol reactivity to challenge in older adults.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Weiss, Mona

    2016-08-01

    Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience stress when confronted with cognitive challenges. However, little is known about individual differences that might explain why some older adults exhibit stronger stress responses than others. We examined the interplay of two social-cognitive factors to explain older adults' cortisol reactivity: (1) subjective social status, and (2) essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. We hypothesized that, depending on whether older adults believe that aging-related cognitive decline is inevitable versus modifiable, low subjective social status should lead to stronger or weaker cortisol reactivity. Using longitudinal data, we assessed the impact of cognitive challenges on stress reactivity in a sample of older adults (N = 389; 61-86 years). As predicted, regression analyses confirmed that 44 min after cognitively challenging tasks, older adults exhibited a significantly different cortisol reactivity depending on their subjective social status and their essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. Specifically, older adults with low subjective social status and high essentialist beliefs showed a significantly elevated cortisol reactivity. We discuss the role of essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging to predict when and why high versus low subjective social status leads to stress responses in older adults. PMID:27159187

  10. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  11. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration) to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency) and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length) of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks. PMID:27195007

  12. Adult Age Differences in the Effects of Goals on Self-Regulated Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Shake, Matthew C.; Miles, Joseph R.; Noh, Soo Rim

    2008-01-01

    We examined age differences in the allocation of effort when reading text for either high levels of recall accuracy or high levels of efficiency. Older and younger adults read a series of sentences, making judgments of learning before recalling the information they had studied. Older adults showed less sensitivity than the young to the accuracy goal in terms of both reading time allocation and memory performance. Memory monitoring (i.e., the correspondence between actual and perceived learning) and differential allocation of effort to unlearned items were age-equivalent, so that age differences in goal adherence were not attributable to these factors. However, comparison with data from a judgment task neutral with respect to memory monitoring showed that learning gains among the old across trial were reduced relative to young by memory monitoring, suggesting that active memory monitoring may be resource-consuming for older learners. Regression analysis was used to show that age differences in the responsiveness to (cognitive/information-acquisition) goals could be accounted for, in part, by independent contributions from working memory and memory self-efficacy. Our data suggest that both processing capacity (“what you have”) and beliefs (“knowing you can do it”) can contribute to individual differences in engaging resources (“what you do”) to effectively learn novel content from text. PMID:17201498

  13. Midlife sexuality among Thai adults: Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most respondents were aware of this change and saw a decrease in sexual activity and desire more often among women compared to men. At the same time, many respondents viewed sexuality as important to a marriage. Some respondents accepted the decrease in sexual activity and focused more on work, family and temple activities. Thai Buddhism was seen as an important resource for people who were dealing with changes due to aging. Other persons turned to other partners including both commercial and non-commercial partners. The influence of the HIV epidemic that began in the 1990s was seen in concerns about disease transmission with extramarital partners and consequent attitudes toward condom use. The acceptability of extramarital partners in the family and community ranged from acceptance to strong disapproval of extramarital relationships PMID:22582023

  14. Dissociative global and local task-switching costs across younger adults, middle-aged adults, older adults, and very mild Alzheimer's disease individuals.

    PubMed

    Huff, Mark J; Balota, David A; Minear, Meredith; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Duchek, Janet M

    2015-12-01

    A task-switching paradigm was used to examine differences in attentional control across younger adults, middle-aged adults, healthy older adults, and individuals classified in the earliest detectable stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A large sample of participants (570) completed a switching task in which participants were cued to classify the letter (consonant/vowel) or number (odd/even) task-set dimension of a bivalent stimulus (e.g., A 14), respectively. A pure block consisting of single-task trials and a switch block consisting of nonswitch and switch trials were completed. Local (switch vs. nonswitch trials) and global (nonswitch vs. pure trials) costs in mean error rates, mean response latencies, underlying reaction time (RT) distributions, along with stimulus-response congruency effects were computed. Local costs in errors were group invariant, but global costs in errors systematically increased as a function of age and AD. Response latencies yielded a strong dissociation: Local costs decreased across groups whereas global costs increased across groups. Vincentile distribution analyses revealed that the dissociation of local and global costs primarily occurred in the slowest response latencies. Stimulus-response congruency effects within the switch block were particularly robust in accuracy in participants in the very mild AD group. We argue that the results are consistent with the notion that the impaired groups show a reduced local cost because the task sets are not as well tuned, and hence produce minimal cost on switch trials. In contrast, global costs increase because of the additional burden on working memory of maintaining 2 task sets. PMID:26652720

  15. Coping and Psychological Health of Aging Parents of Adult Children With Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Among aging parents (mean age = 65, N = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas disengagement and distraction strategies exacerbated the effects of burden on depression symptoms. Most effects were similar for mothers and fathers, and all coping strategies, including active strategies to reduce stress (primary engagement), had greater effects for the parents with co-resident children. Vulnerability to caregiver burden was greatest when the aging parents with co-resident children used disengagement and distraction coping, but those who used engagement coping were resilient. PMID:24679353

  16. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN. PMID:26209847

  17. Coping and psychological health of aging parents of adult children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Vivian E; Floyd, Frank J; Mailick, Marsha R; Greenberg, Jan S

    2014-03-01

    Among aging parents (mean age  =  65, N  =  139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas disengagement and distraction strategies exacerbated the effects of burden on depression symptoms. Most effects were similar for mothers and fathers, and all coping strategies, including active strategies to reduce stress (primary engagement), had greater effects for the parents with co-resident children. Vulnerability to caregiver burden was greatest when the aging parents with co-resident children used disengagement and distraction coping, but those who used engagement coping were resilient. PMID:24679353

  18. Effects of flooring on required coefficient of friction: Elderly adult vs. middle-aged adult barefoot gait.

    PubMed

    Rozin Kleiner, Ana Francisca; Galli, Manuela; Araujo do Carmo, Aline; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flooring on barefoot gait according to age and gender. Two groups of healthy subjects were analyzed: the elderly adult group (EA; 10 healthy subjects) and the middle-aged group (MA; 10 healthy subjects). Each participant was asked to walk at his or her preferred speed over two force plates on the following surfaces: 1) homogeneous vinyl (HOV), 2) carpet, 3) heterogeneous vinyl (HTV) and 4) mixed (in which the first half of the pathway was covered by HOV and the second by HTV). Two force plates (Kistler 9286BA) embedded in the data collection room floor measured the ground reaction forces and friction. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was analyzed. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures was performed. During barefoot gait, there were differences in the RCOF among the flooring types during the heel contact and toe-off phases. Due to better plantar proprioception during barefoot gait, the EA and MA subjects were able to distinguish differences among the flooring types. Moreover, when the EA were compared with the MA subjects, differences could be observed in the RCOF during the toe-off phase, and gender differences in the RCOF could also be observed during the heel contact phase in barefoot gait. PMID:25959329

  19. EARLY CHILDHOOD LENGTH-FOR-AGE IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE WORK STATUS OF FILIPINO YOUNG ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Carba, Delia B.; Tan, Vivencia L.; Adair, Linda S.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies on childhood health and human capital in developing countries examine how early childhood linear growth relates to later human productivity as reflected in schooling success. Work status is another important human capital outcome related to early child health. This study examines the relationship of linear growth restriction at two years of age to work status in young adults who have, for the most part completed their schooling and further explores whether this relationship differs by gender. The analysis sample of 1,795 was drawn from participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, which followed individuals from birth to age 20–22 years. Work status in 2005 was represented by three categories: not working, working in an informal job, and working in a formal job. Formal work in the Philippines, as in most countries, is associated with regular hours, higher wages and benefits. Analyses were stratified by gender and current school enrolment, and adjusted for socioeconomic status and attained years of schooling. Among males no longer in school, higher length-for-age Z score (LAZ) at age 2 was associated with a 40% increase in likelihood of formal work compared to not working. In females, each 1 unit increase in LAZ was associated with 0.2 higher likelihood of formal vs. informal work. No significant associations were observed in the small sample of young adults still in school. To improve job prospects of young adults, it is important to provide proper nutrition in early childhood and adequate educational opportunities during schooling years. PMID:19261549

  20. [Current model of breakfast for different age groups: children, a adolescents and adults].

    PubMed

    Núñez, C; Cuadrado, C; Carbajal, A; Moreiras, O

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to assess the current breakfast model in different age groups: children between the ages of 6 and 12 years (n = 54); adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years (n = 174); and adults, older than 18 years of age (n = 252). For this a questionnaire has been designed that follows the standards of that used for a similar study by our team in 1984 on a sample of 1350 individuals. The modified and amplified questionnaire included open and closed questions about: the omission of breakfast and its causes, foods that are a part of breakfast, the most frequent types and the variations, the role of the second breakfast, the number of fasting hours since dinner, the time spent of breakfast, and the subjective opinion regarding the importance or not of having breakfast. 98.95% answer yes to the question do you have breakfast, but only 9% eats a nutritionally correct breakfast, one defined as that breakfast that supplies 20% of the total energy and includes foods from at least four different groups. All the children included some form of milk product in their breakfast. The adolescents consumed the lowest proportion of cereals (19.4%) and the highest proportion of pastries (24.2%). The percentage of adults who drink coffee with milk (57%) and sugar (37.7%) is significantly higher than that it the other two groups. Bread (37.7%), pastries (28.3%) and cookies (26.1%) are the solid foods eaten most by the adults. The children spend the longest time on breakfast. 35.9% of the sample varies their breakfast, 43.1% never does, and 21% does so sometimes. The average time elapsed between dinner and breakfast is 10.5 +/- 1.2 hours. It is advisable to have a more nutritionally balanced breakfast, including different foods from at least four groups, and including a greater variety in the menus. PMID:9780752

  1. Age-related prefrontal impairments implicate deficient prediction of future reward in older adults.

    PubMed

    Eppinger, Ben; Heekeren, Hauke R; Li, Shu-Chen

    2015-08-01

    Foresighted decision-making depends on the ability to learn the value of future outcomes and the sequential choices necessary to achieve them. Using a 3-stage Markov decision task and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated age differences in the ability to extract state transition structures while learning to predict future reward. In younger adults learning was associated with enhanced activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In older adults (OA) we found no evidence for PFC recruitment. However, high-performing OA showed enhanced striatal activity, suggesting that they may engage in a model-free (experience-based) learning strategy. Change point analyses revealed that in younger adults learning was characterized by distinct and abrupt shifts in PFC activity, which were predictive of behavioral change points. In OA PFC activity was less pronounced and not predictive of behavior. Our findings suggest that age-related impairments in learning future reward value can be attributed to a deficit in extracting sequential state transition structures. This deficit may lead to myopic decisions in OA if contextual information has to be temporally integrated. PMID:26004018

  2. Lexical influences on competing speech perception in younger, middle-aged, and older adults.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Karen S; Jesse, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    The influence of lexical characteristics of words in to-be-attended and to-be-ignored speech streams was examined in a competing speech task. Older, middle-aged, and younger adults heard pairs of low-cloze probability sentences in which the frequency or neighborhood density of words was manipulated in either the target speech stream or the masking speech stream. All participants also completed a battery of cognitive measures. As expected, for all groups, target words that occur frequently or that are from sparse lexical neighborhoods were easier to recognize than words that are infrequent or from dense neighborhoods. Compared to other groups, these neighborhood density effects were largest for older adults; the frequency effect was largest for middle-aged adults. Lexical characteristics of words in the to-be-ignored speech stream also affected recognition of to-be-attended words, but only when overall performance was relatively good (that is, when younger participants listened to the speech streams at a more advantageous signal-to-noise ratio). For these listeners, to-be-ignored masker words from sparse neighborhoods interfered with recognition of target speech more than masker words from dense neighborhoods. Amount of hearing loss and cognitive abilities relating to attentional control modulated overall performance as well as the strength of lexical influences. PMID:26233036

  3. When Age Matters: Differences in Facial Mimicry and Autonomic Responses to Peers' Emotions in Teenagers and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ardizzi, Martina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Age-group membership effects on explicit emotional facial expressions recognition have been widely demonstrated. In this study we investigated whether Age-group membership could also affect implicit physiological responses, as facial mimicry and autonomic regulation, to observation of emotional facial expressions. To this aim, facial Electromyography (EMG) and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) were recorded from teenager and adult participants during the observation of facial expressions performed by teenager and adult models. Results highlighted that teenagers exhibited greater facial EMG responses to peers' facial expressions, whereas adults showed higher RSA-responses to adult facial expressions. The different physiological modalities through which young and adults respond to peers' emotional expressions are likely to reflect two different ways to engage in social interactions with coetaneous. Findings confirmed that age is an important and powerful social feature that modulates interpersonal interactions by influencing low-level physiological responses. PMID:25337916

  4. How Family Support and Internet Self-Efficacy Influence the Effects of E-Learning among Higher Aged Adults--Analyses of Gender and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Regina Ju-chun

    2010-01-01

    Gender and age differences in the effects of e-learning, including students' satisfaction and Internet self-efficacy, have been supported in prior research. What is less understood is how these differences are shaped, especially for higher aged adults. This article examines the utility of family support (tangible and emotional) and Internet…

  5. Colorectal cancer screening awareness and intentions among low income, sociodemographically diverse adults under age 50.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Karen; Puleo, Elaine; McNeill, Lorna H; Bennett, Gary; Chan, Sophia; Syngal, Sapna

    2008-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates in the US are suboptimal, particularly among lower income and racial/ethnically diverse groups. If specific populations have limited awareness of screening when they reach age 50, there may be delays in screening adoption. This study investigated sociodemographic and social contextual factors associated with awareness of CRC and intentions to be screened at age 50 among 692 low income, racial, and ethnic minority adults living in low income housing. The majority of respondents (62%) were between ages 30 and 49, and 94% had some form of health insurance (e.g., Medicaid). About 70% reported having heard about CRC screening; 66% reported intentions to be screened at age 50. In multivariable analyses, screening awareness was associated with age and education. Immigrants who had English as a second language had lower awareness. Females tended to have higher awareness if they had private insurance; there were no differences among males. Multivariable analyses found that screening intentions were higher among men, those with more role responsibilities, more role conflicts, and higher levels of social cohesion. It is important to identify opportunities for maximizing screening uptake among those who become age-eligible for screening if we are to make a significant impact on CRC disparities. PMID:18478340

  6. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  7. Nutrition through the life span. Part 3: adults aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Alison

    The UK has an ageing population, but this is not being matched by a similar increase in healthy life expectancy. The greatest challenge in the 21st century will be to improve the quality of life as ageing occurs. Health is the most important prerequisite for people to enjoy life in their older years (Brundtland, 1988). Diet is one factor that is believed to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases associated with ageing. The third and final part of this series addressing the concept of nutrition through the lifespan seeks to educate health-care professionals as to what constitutes a healthy diet for the elderly population, and gives practical guidance as to how to try and prevent the ever-growing problem of malnutrition within this age group. It is suggested that when the older adult is hospitalized their risk of malnutrition increases. Therefore, some guidance for the use of oral nutritional supplements in this population is given. Good nutrition and physical exercise are essential for healthy ageing from both a physical and psychological perspective (NICE, 2008). Therefore a multidisciplinary life course approach to ageing is vital to minimizing its complications for quality of life and subsequent public health (Denny, 2008). PMID:19273990

  8. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  9. Religion, spirituality, and older adults with HIV: critical personal and social resources for an aging epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E; Brennan, Mark; Enah, Comfort; Smith, Glenda L; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2011-01-01

    By 2015, approximately half of adults with HIV in the United States will be 50 and older. The demographic changes in this population due to successful treatment represent a unique challenge, not only in assisting these individuals to cope with their illness, but also in helping them to age successfully with this disease. Religious involvement and spirituality have been observed to promote successful aging in the general population and help those with HIV cope with their disease, yet little is known about how these resources may affect aging with HIV. Also, inherent barriers such as HIV stigma and ageism may prevent people from benefitting from religious and spiritual sources of solace as they age with HIV. In this paper, we present a model of barriers to successful aging with HIV, along with a discussion of how spirituality and religiousness may help people overcome these barriers. From this synthesis, implications for practice and research to improve the quality of life of this aging population are provided. PMID:21753865

  10. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age. PMID:27622176

  11. The effect of a music therapy intergenerational program on children and older adults' intergenerational interactions, cross-age attitudes, and older adults' psychosocial well-being.

    PubMed

    Belgrave, Melita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of participation in a music-based intergenerational music program on cross-age interactions and cross-age attitudes of elementary-age children and older adults, and older adults' psychosocial well-being. Twenty-one children in the 4th grade volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 12) or control (n = 9) group. Twenty-six older adults from a retirement living facility also volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 14) or control (n = 12) group. Ten 30-min music sessions occurred in which participants engaged in singing, structured conversation, moving to music, and instrument playing interventions. Data analysis of cross-age interactions revealed that the interventions "structured conversation" and "moving to music" were more effective in eliciting interaction behaviors than the interventions "singing" and "instrument playing." Standardized measures revealed that children's attitudes towards older adults improved, though not significantly so, after participation in the intergenerational program. Results of biweekly post-session questionnaires revealed a decrease in negative descriptions of older adults and an increase in positive descriptions of older adults--suggesting a more positive view towards aging. Results revealed that older adults' attitudes towards children improved significantly after their participation in the intergenerational program. While standardized measures revealed that older adults did not perceive a significant improvement in their psychosocial well-being, their bi-weekly post-session questionnaires showed they perceived increased feelings of usefulness and other personal benefits from the intergenerational interactions. Suggestions for future research, the utility of varied measurement instruments, and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:22506301

  12. Psychiatric Co-occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (Nmax = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80). Albeit comparable to other psychiatric patients, levels of symptoms and psychological distress were high over the adult lifespan; 79 % met criteria for a psychiatric disorder at least once in their lives. Depression and anxiety were most common. However, older adults less often met criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis and, specifically, social phobia than younger adults. Hence, despite marked psychological distress, psychiatric problems are also less prevalent in older aged individuals with ASD. PMID:26861713

  13. Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Department (ED) Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Pharmaceuticals* among Adults Aged 18 to 34, by Alcohol ... 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 * Nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals includes taking more than the prescribed dose of ...

  14. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Standing Reach Tasks Among Middle-Aged Adults With Diplegic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Su, Ivan Y W; Chow, Daniel H K

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that children with cerebral palsy (CP) exhibited premature anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) with high variability and excessive activity in the frontal plane. To better understand the effects of gross motor functioning level on APAs over the life course, the authors examined the presence and consistency of APAs in 11 adults with diplegia at 2 functioning levels against 8 age-matched healthy adults during unilateral and bilateral reaching. Results revealed an anticipatory vertical torque (TZ) and an increased likelihood of APAs during bilateral reaching for the lower functioning group. It is postulated that APAs may first emerge in TZ in CP. Results also indicated an excessive premovement postural activity in the frontal plane in both CP groups. PMID:26730748

  15. You Never Lose the Ages You’ve Been: Affective Perspective Taking in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mikels, Joseph A.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Aging appears to be associated with a growing preference for positive over negative information (Carstensen, Mikels, & Mather, 2006). In this study, we investigated potential awareness of the phenomenon by asking older people to recollect material from the perspective of a younger person. Younger and older participants listened to stories about 25 and 75-year-old protagonists, and then were asked to retell the stories from the perspective of the protagonists. Older adults used relatively more positive than negative words when retelling from the perspective of a 75 versus 25-year-old. Younger adults, however, used comparable numbers of positive and negative words regardless of perspective. These findings contribute to a growing literature that points to developmental gains in the emotion domain. PMID:20230142

  16. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  17. Neurologic disorders in Medicaid vs privately insured children and working-age adults

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Joseph P.; Frick, Kevin; Carone, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Summary This retrospective, observational study reports health utilization and access patterns of Medicaid recipients for neurologic diseases compared to privately insured individuals seen in 2 hospitals at a single institution in the same time period. We reviewed records of patients and compared demographic characteristics, visit types, neurologic diagnoses, and all-cause mortality, by age group, when seen with Medicaid vs private insurance. Adults insured by Medicaid were more likely to present as inpatients and with life-threatening neurologic disease compared to privately insured patients. Moreover, adult patients presenting with neurologic disease on Medicaid had a higher all-cause mortality rate than privately insured patients. Similar disparities in neurologic disease were not observed in children. The relationship of these findings to patient educational status, household income, comorbidities, and the reasons prompting Medicaid eligibility require additional study. PMID:24790798

  18. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, Kanakamedala; Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  19. Dietary patterns and relationship to obesity-related health outcomes and mortality in adults 75 years of age or greater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The prevalence of obesity-related adverse health outcomes is increasing among older adults. Because it is thought that nutrition plays an important role in successful aging, there has been considerable interest in the association between dietary patterns of older adults and obesity-relat...

  20. A Study of Associations between Age, Race, Gender, and Adult Learners Graduating from a Distant-Learning Master's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Deborah Trupp

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on adult learners' age, race, gender, and whether they graduated from a distant-learning, master in the art of teaching program at an accredited college during the three academic semesters that comprised the 2007-2008 school year. The dependent variable used in this study consisted of whether adult learners graduated from a…

  1. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59 years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults. PMID:26598104

  2. TAp63 prevents premature aging by promoting adult stem cell maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaohua; Paris, Maryline; Gi, Young Jin; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Cho, Min Soon; Lin, Yu-Li; Biernaskie, Jeffrey A.; Sinha, Satrajit; Prives, Carol; Pevny, Larysa H.; Miller, Freda D.; Flores, Elsa R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The cellular mechanisms that regulate the maintenance of adult tissue stem cells are still largely unknown. We show here that the p53 family member, TAp63, is essential for maintenance of epidermal and dermal precursors and that, in its absence, these precursors senesce and skin ages prematurely. Specifically, we have developed a TAp63 conditional knockout mouse and used it to ablate TAp63 in the germline (TAp63−/−) or in K14-expressing cells in the basal layer of the epidermis (TAp63fl/fl;K14cre+). TAp63−/− mice age prematurely and develop blisters, skin ulcerations, senescence of hair follicle-associated dermal and epidermal cells, and decreased hair morphogenesis. These phenotypes are likely due to loss of TAp63 in dermal and epidermal precursors since both cell types show defective proliferation, early senescence, and genomic instability. These data indicate that TAp63 serves to maintain adult skin stem cells by regulating cellular senescence and genomic stability, thereby preventing premature tissue aging. PMID:19570515

  3. Ethanol-Induced Alterations in Purkinje Neuron Dendrites in Adult and Aging Rats: a Review.

    PubMed

    Dlugos, Cynthia A

    2015-08-01

    Uncomplicated alcoholics suffer from discrete motor dysfunctions that become more pronounced with age. These deficits involve the structure and function of Purkinje neurons (PN), the sole output neurons from the cerebellar cortex. This review focuses on alterations to the PN dendritic arbor in the adult and aging Fischer 344 rat following lengthy alcohol consumption. It describes seminal studies using the Golgi-Cox method which proposed a model for ethanol-induced dendritic regression. Subsequent ultrastructural studies of PN dendrites showed dilation of the extensive smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) which preceded and accompanied dendritic regression. The component of the SER that was most affected by ethanol was the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase pump (SERCA) responsible for resequestration of calcium into the SER. Ethanol-induced decreases in SERCA pump levels, similar to the finding of SER dilation, preceded and occurred concomitantly with dendritic regression. Discrete ethanol-induced deficits in balance also accompanied these decreases. Ethanol-induced ER stress within the SER of PN dendrites was proposed as an underlying cause of dendritic regression. It was recently shown that increased activation of caspase 12, inherent to the ER, occurred in PN of acute slices in ethanol-fed rats and was most pronounced following 40 weeks of ethanol treatment. These findings shed new light into alcohol-induced disruption in PN dendrites providing a new model for the discrete but critical changes in motor function in aging, adult alcoholics. PMID:25648753

  4. Sensitivity to spacing changes in faces and nonface objects in preschool-aged children and adults.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-08-01

    Sensitivity to variations in the spacing of features in faces and a class of nonface objects (i.e., frontal images of cars) was tested in 3- and 4-year-old children and adults using a delayed or simultaneous two-alternative forced choice matching-to-sample task. In the adults, detection of spacing information was robust against exemplar differences for faces but varied across exemplars for cars (Experiment 1A). The 4-year-olds performed above chance in both face and car discrimination even when differences in spacing were very small (within ±1.6 standard deviations [SDs]) and the task involved memory components (Experiment 1B), and the same was true for the 3-year-olds when tested with larger spacing changes (within ±2.5SDs) in a task that posed no memory demands (Experiment 2). An advantage in the discrimination of faces over cars was found at 4years of age, but only when spacing cues were made more readily available (within ±2.5SDs). Results demonstrate that the ability to discriminate objects based on feature spacing (i.e., sensitivity to second-order information) is present at 3years of age and becomes more pronounced for faces than cars by 4years of age. PMID:21477815

  5. Dental age estimation in a Brazilian adult population using Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alana de Cássia Silva; Alves, Nathalia Zanini; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Rocha, Marcos; Cameriere, Roberto; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a specific formula to estimate age in a Brazilian adult population and to compare the original formula from Cameriere to this Brazilian formula. The sample comprised 1,772 periapical radiographs from 443 subjects (219 men, 224 women) that were organized into 12 groups according to sex (men or women) and age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years and older). The films were analyzed using the criteria described by Cameriere et al. (2004) and Adobe Photoshop®. We obtained a mean error of 8.56 (SD = 5.80) years for tooth 13, 7.99 (SD = 5.78) years for tooth 23, 8.38 (SD = 6.26) years for tooth 33, and 8.20 (SD = 6.54) years for tooth 43. When teeth were combined in the analysis, we observed lower mean errors. The Brazilian formula developed from this sample group was more accurate than Cameriere's formula. However, other factors must be considered to improve age estimates in adults. PMID:25590504

  6. US patterns of mental health service utilization for transition-age youth and young adults.

    PubMed

    Pottick, Kathleen J; Bilder, Scott; Vander Stoep, Ann; Warner, Lynn A; Alvarez, Mike F

    2008-10-01

    This study examines rates of admission and patterns of mental health service use by persons of transition age (16-25 years) in the USA based on the nationally representative 1997 Client/Patient Sample Survey and population data from the US Census Bureau. A precipitous decline in utilization was observed at the age of emancipation: the yearly admission rate for inpatient, outpatient, and residential services was 34 per 1,000 for 16- and 17-year-olds and 18 per 1,000 for 18- and 19-year-olds. Among 20- and 21-year-olds, more were referred from criminal justice and fewer from family or friends and social services, and proportionately more were Medicaid recipients. Targeting resources to enhance shared planning between child and adult systems may facilitate continuity of care for young adult clients who are aging out of child mental health systems, as well as for those who experience their first episodes of mental disorder in early adulthood. PMID:18026842

  7. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria. PMID:26775199

  8. No smile like another: adult age differences in identifying emotions that accompany smiles

    PubMed Central

    Riediger, Michaela; Studtmann, Markus; Westphal, Andrea; Rauers, Antje; Weber, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    People smile in various emotional contexts, for example, when they are amused or angry or simply being polite. We investigated whether younger and older adults differ in how well they are able to identify the emotional experiences accompanying smile expressions, and whether the age of the smiling person plays a role in this respect. With this aim, we produced 80 video episodes of three types of smile expressions: positive-affect smiles had been spontaneously displayed by target persons as they were watching amusing film clips and cartoons. Negative-affect smiles had been displayed spontaneously by target persons during an interaction in which they were being unfairly accused. Affectively neutral smiles were posed upon request. Differences in the accompanying emotional experiences were validated by target persons' self-reports. These smile videos served as experimental stimuli in two studies with younger and older adult participants. In Study 1, older participants were less likely to attribute positive emotions to smiles, and more likely to assume that a smile was posed. Furthermore, younger participants were more accurate than older adults at identifying emotional experiences accompanying smiles. In Study 2, both younger and older participants attributed positive emotions more frequently to smiles shown by older as compared to younger target persons, but older participants did so less frequently than younger participants. Again, younger participants were more accurate than older participants in identifying emotional experiences accompanying smiles, but this effect was attenuated for older target persons. Older participants could better identify the emotional state accompanying smiles shown by older than by younger target persons. Taken together, these findings indicate that there is an age-related decline in the ability to decipher the emotional meaning of smiles presented without context, which, however, is attenuated when the smiling person is also an older adult

  9. Association between hair mineral and age, BMI and nutrient intakes among Korean female adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Se Ra; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Na Ri; Chung, Hwan Wook

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the association between hair mineral levels and nutrient intakes, age, and BMI in female adults who visited a woman's clinic located in Seoul. Dietary intakes were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and mineral levels were measured in collected hairs, and the relationship between these was examined. The average daily nutrient intakes of subjects were compared to those of the KDRIs, and the energy intake status was fair. The average intake of calcium in women of 50 years and over was 91.35% of KDRIs and the potassium intake was greatly below the recommended levels in all age groups. In the average hair mineral contents in subjects, calcium and copper exceeded far more than the reference range while selenium was very low with 85.19% of subjects being lower than the reference value. In addition, the concentrations of sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese in the hair were below the reference ranges in over 15% of subjects. The concentrations of sodium, chromium, sulfur, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with age, but the hair zinc level showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with age. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chromium, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with BMI. Some mineral levels in subjects of this study showed significant correlations with nutrient intakes, but it seems that the hair mineral content is not directly influenced by each mineral intake. As described above, some hair mineral levels in female adults deviated from the normal range, and it is considered that nutritional intervention to control the imbalance of mineral nutrition is required. Also, as some correlations were shown between hair mineral levels and age, BMI, and nutrient intakes, the possibility of utilizing hair mineral analysis for specific purposes in the future is suggested. PMID:20090887

  10. Objective Measures of Physical Activity, White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Status in Adults Over Age 80

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age=87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (minutes), and intensity (Metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean±SD/day: 1766±1345 steps, 202±311 kcal, 211±39 minutes, 1.8±1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  11. Testis structure and function in a nongenetic hyperadipose rat model at prepubertal and adult ages.

    PubMed

    França, L R; Suescun, M O; Miranda, J R; Giovambattista, A; Perello, M; Spinedi, E; Calandra, R S

    2006-03-01

    There are few data for hormonal levels and testis structure and function during postnatal development in rats neonatally treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG). In our study, newborn male pups were ip injected with MSG (4 mg/g body weight) every 2 d up to 10 d of age and investigated at prepubertal and adult ages. Plasma levels of leptin, LH, FSH, prolactin, testosterone (T), corticosterone, and free T4 (FT4) were measured. MSG rats displayed elevated circulating levels of corticosterone and hyperadiposity/hyperleptinemia, regardless of the age examined; conversely, circulating prolactin levels were not affected. Moreover, prepubertal MSG rats revealed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in testis weight and the number of Sertoli (SC) and Leydig cells per testis. Leptin plasma levels were severalfold higher (2.41 vs. 8.07; P < 0.05) in prepubertal MSG rats, and these animals displayed plasma LH, FSH, T, and FT4 levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data indicate that testis development, as well as SC and Leydig cell proliferation, were disturbed in prepubertal MSG rats. Adult MSG rats also displayed significantly higher leptin plasma levels (7.26 vs. 27.04; P < 0.05) and lower (P < 0.05) LH and FSH plasma levels. However, T and FT4 plasma levels were normal, and no apparent alterations were observed in testis structure of MSG rats. Only the number of SCs per testis was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in the adult MSG rats. In conclusion, although early installed hyperadipose/hyperleptinemia phenotype was probably responsible for the reproductive axis damages in MSG animals, it remains to be investigated whether this condition is the main factor for hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis dysfunction in MSG rats. PMID:16339210

  12. Comparison of maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing in relation to age in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Su; Oh, Dong-Hwan; Chang, Moonyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure and compare the maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing in young and older adults. [Subjects and Methods] The study recruited 80 healthy young (aged 20 to 39 years) and older adults (aged ≥65 years) in public places. The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was used to measure maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing. For each subject, the peak value of three measurements was recorded and analyzed. [Results] Maximal tongue strength was statistically significantly higher for the young adults group than the older adults group. Conversely, tongue strength used during swallowing was statistically significantly higher for the older adults group than the young adults group. The percentages of tongue strength used during swallowing for the young adults and older adults groups were approximately 38.8% and 53.8%, respectively. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that older adults have a lower maximal tongue strength than young adults, but a higher tongue strength used during swallowing. PMID:27064477

  13. Aging Effects on Whole-Brain Functional Connectivity in Adults Free of Cognitive and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; Regina, Ana Carolina Brocanello; Kovacevic, Natasa; Martin, Maria da Graça Morais; Santos, Pedro Paim; Carneiro, Camila de Godoi; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Amaro, Edson; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the default mode network (DMN), but most functional imaging studies have restricted the analysis to specific brain regions or networks, a strategy not appropriate to describe system-wide changes. Moreover, few investigations have employed operational psychiatric interviewing procedures to select participants; this is an important limitation since mental disorders are prevalent and underdiagnosed and can be associated with RSFC abnormalities. In this study, resting-state fMRI was acquired from 59 adults free of cognitive and psychiatric disorders according to standardized criteria and based on extensive neuropsychological and clinical assessments. We tested for associations between age and whole-brain RSFC using Partial Least Squares, a multivariate technique. We found that normal aging is not only characterized by decreased RSFC within the DMN but also by ubiquitous increases in internetwork positive correlations and focal internetwork losses of anticorrelations (involving mainly connections between the DMN and the attentional networks). Our results reinforce the notion that the aging brain undergoes a dedifferentiation processes with loss of functional diversity. These findings advance the characterization of healthy aging effects on RSFC and highlight the importance of adopting a broad, system-wide perspective to analyze brain connectivity. PMID:26315689

  14. Successful aging: Advancing the science of physical independence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Woods, Adam J; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W; Carter, Christy S; Clark, David J; Cohen, Ronald A; Corbett, Duane B; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A; Fillingim, Roger B; Foster, Thomas C; Gundermann, David M; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T; Mutchie, Heather L; Perri, Michael G; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J; Sibille, Kimberly T; Solberg, Laurence M; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The concept of 'successful aging' has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. A consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  15. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. PMID:26569038

  16. Social relations and filial maturity in middle-aged adults: contextual conditions and psychological determinants.

    PubMed

    Perrig-Chiello, P; Sturzenegger, M

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the contextual and psychological preconditions of parent help and helpfulness in a sample of 260 middle-aged persons belonging to two age groups, 40-45 years and 50-55 years. In a first step we want to focus on the description of the contextual situation of the persons of this "hinge generation": What are their available social networks; what are their commitments towards children and parents in terms of perceived obligation and investment; how is their perceived balance of giving and receiving; how do they anticipate and experience dependency of their parents? In a second step we will highlight the readiness of middle-aged women and men to help their parents as well as the effectively reported help. Here we are interested in the psychological determinants of such attitude and behaviour. Structural equation models are performed to estimate the predictory power of personality variables, control beliefs and reported stress (family and job) on filial helpfulness and help. Results suggest that differential aspects such as gender and age group explain a large amount of variance of the variables intergenerational commitment and satisfaction with social networks and have--along with personality variables--a strong impact on filial help and helpfulness of middle-aged adults. PMID:11310223

  17. Helping Aging Parents of Adult Children with Serious Mental Illness1

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Allan V.; Scogin, Forrest; MacNeil, Gordon; Leeper, James; Wimberly, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript reports the results of a study that pilot tested a home-delivered, multi-dimensional problem-solving intervention aimed at helping aging parental caregivers of adult children with schizophrenia. The results indicate that the participants (N=5) who received the 10-session intervention showed increased life satisfaction and emotional well being, and reduced feelings of burden, compared to those participants in the control group (N=10). If a planned larger scale evaluation of the intervention provides evidence of its effectiveness, practitioners could have a valuable new treatment tool to provide assistance to this caregiver population. PMID:20953330

  18. Digital Inclusion for Older Adults based on Physical Activities: an Age Concern.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Cristine; Menezes, Júlio; Pina, Carmelo; Lima, Juliana; Barbosa Neto, João

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, we are living in an interdependent and interconnected world during an age that is driven by technological progress. It has extraordinary potential to improve the quality of later life: creating social networks to tackle isolation and loneliness; transforming services to help people live independently at home for longer; empowering consumers; and enabling civil participation. In light of this, this poster aims to present the development process of a digital booklet for mobile devices--smartphones and tablets that illustrate the benefits of doing physical exercises for older adults aiming to improve life quality and minimizing digital exclusion. PMID:26262272

  19. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education. PMID:21547828

  20. Acceleration of age-associated methylation patterns in HIV-1-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Rickabaugh, Tammy M; Baxter, Ruth M; Sehl, Mary; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Hultin, Patricia M; Hultin, Lance E; Quach, Austin; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Horvath, Steve; Vilain, Eric; Jamieson, Beth D

    2015-01-01

    Patients with treated HIV-1-infection experience earlier occurrence of aging-associated diseases, raising speculation that HIV-1-infection, or antiretroviral treatment, may accelerate aging. We recently described an age-related co-methylation module comprised of hundreds of CpGs; however, it is unknown whether aging and HIV-1-infection exert negative health effects through similar, or disparate, mechanisms. We investigated whether HIV-1-infection would induce age-associated methylation changes. We evaluated DNA methylation levels at >450,000 CpG sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of young (20-35) and older (36-56) adults in two separate groups of participants. Each age group for each data set consisted of 12 HIV-1-infected and 12 age-matched HIV-1-uninfected samples for a total of 96 samples. The effects of age and HIV-1 infection on methylation at each CpG revealed a strong correlation of 0.49, p<1 x 10(-200) and 0.47, p<1 x 10(-200). Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) identified 17 co-methylation modules; module 3 (ME3) was significantly correlated with age (cor=0.70) and HIV-1 status (cor=0.31). Older HIV-1+ individuals had a greater number of hypermethylated CpGs across ME3 (p=0.015). In a multivariate model, ME3 was significantly associated with age and HIV status (Data set 1: βage=0.007088, p=2.08 x 10(-9); βHIV=0.099574, p=0.0011; Data set 2: βage=0.008762, p=1.27 x 10(-5); βHIV=0.128649, p=0.0001). Using this model, we estimate that HIV-1 infection accelerates age-related methylation by approximately 13.7 years in data set 1 and 14.7 years in data set 2. The genes related to CpGs in ME3 are enriched for polycomb group target genes known to be involved in cell renewal and aging. The overlap between ME3 and an aging methylation module found in solid tissues is also highly significant (Fisher-exact p=5.6 x 10(-6), odds ratio=1.91). These data demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is associated with methylation patterns that are

  1. Severe loneliness in community-dwelling aging adults with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Loboprabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Successful aging involves adapting to changing needs. The 2009 U.S. Census noted that 43% of adult Americans are single and that the oldest-old population is the most rapidly growing aging segment. Geriatric, lonely, hopeless individuals are at high risk for depression and suicide. Lonely individuals fail to adapt to their circumstances; and physical and mental illness place them at risk for neglect, morbidity, and mortality. The authors discuss the role of attachment in the individual's subjective experience of loneliness and suggest how attachment theory can be used to guide interventions to improve the individual's self-esteem, coping, and problem-solving abilities. This article also discusses the use of multimodal therapy, including psychodynamic, interpersonal, and cognitive-behavior therapy and coping skills training, to improve the individual's ability to adapt to the surrounding environment and to reintegrate into the community. PMID:22261980

  2. Gray Matter Characteristics in Mid and Old Aged Adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-08-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the brain anatomy of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a different developmental pattern then typical age-matched peers. There is however, a paucity of studies examining gray matter in mid and late adulthood in ASD. In this cross-sectional neuroimaging study, we, performed vertex-wise whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses of cortical volume, thickness, surface area, and gyrification index in 51 adults with and 49 without ASD, between 30 and 75 years. There was significant age-related volume loss and cortical thinning, but there were no group differences. The lack of significant anatomical differences between intellectual able individuals with and without ASD, suggests that ASD is not (strongly) related to gray matter morphology in mid and late adulthood. PMID:27177894

  3. Competing Demands from Aging Parents and Adult Children in Two Cohorts of American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wiemers, Emily E.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    In late middle age, individuals may face competing demands on their time and financial resources from elderly parents and young adult children. This study uses the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine changes over time in the probability of having children and living parents for women age 45 to 64. We compare two cohorts: those born in the 1920s and 1930s and those born in the 1940s and 1950s. We find that there has been a dramatic increase in the probability of having children and living parents and that this increase has been driven mainly by changes in life expectancy of the parent generation. We further examine transfers of money and co-residence for women in the later cohort. We find that while women may not give to parents and children concurrently, approximately thirty percent of them have provided support to both parents and children at some point in the past. PMID:26594071

  4. Preliminary report on the correlations among pineal concretions, prostatic calculi and age in human adult males.

    PubMed

    Mori, Ryoichi; Kodaka, Tetsuo; Sano, Tsuneyoshi

    2003-09-01

    By using quantitative image analysis of soft X-ray photographs on the bulk of extracted pineal glands and prostates, we made a preliminary investigation into the correlations among pineal concretions (% by mass), prostatic calculi (% by mass) and age (years) in 40 human adult males, ranging in age from 31 to 95 years (mean (+/-SD) 69.9 +/- 15.2 years), who died and underwent the routine dissection course. The mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi were 17.68 +/- 13.56% (range 0-51.34%) and 0.93 +/- 1.31% (range 0-5.82%), respectively. There was no correlation between the mass concentration of pineal concretions and aging (r = 0.03; P < 1.0). There was no correlation between mass concentration of prostatic calculi and aging (r = 0.28; P < 0.5). No pineal concretions and no prostatic calculi were observed in seven and 10 cases, respectively; in addition, in one case, neither-concretions nor calculi were seen. From such data and from the previously reported suggestion on the counteracting functions between the pineal gland and prostate, a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi was expected. This was certainly obtained, but the correlation was low (r = -0.39; P < 0.05). Such a low correlation and no correlations between the concentrations of pineal concretions and aging or between prostatic calculi and aging may have been caused by the examination of relatively older humans. Therefore, further investigations using a number of pair samples collected from males including younger age generations will be necessary. PMID:14527133

  5. Neuropsychological Sex Differences Associated with Age of Initiated Use Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. Method In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. Results We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision-making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision-making and age of initiated use, specifically that ADHD symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision-making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother’s education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex-differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females. PMID:25832823

  6. Intimate partner victimization among adults aged 60 and older: an analysis of the 1999 and 2004 General Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Poole, Christopher; Rietschlin, John

    2012-04-01

    Accounts in both the scientific literature and popular media have brought about increased recognition of the reality of elder abuse. However, relatively little work has examined intimate partner victimization with respect to older adults. In this study, weighted data from cycles 13 (1999) and 18 (2004) of the General Social Survey are pooled to examine how factors uniquely influence the prevalence and risk of emotional, financial, and physical abuse among adults aged 60 and over. Considerations regarding elder abuse committed by spouses, versus abuse of older adults more broadly (by their children and other adults), are also discussed. PMID:22471512

  7. Consumer-directed personal care: comparing aged and non-aged adult recipient health-related outcomes among those with paid family versus non-relative providers.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Robert; Kang, Taewoon; Faucett, Julia

    2011-10-01

    Risk factors associated with the incidence of recipient injuries, bedsores and contractures, and health care use (i.e., emergency department and hospital use) among aged and non-aged adult personal care recipients are investigated. Data are from a statewide survey of aged and non-aged adult personal assistance service (PAS) recipients (n = 913) in California's In-Home Supportive Services (IHSS) program. This is a consumer-directed PAS program. Outcomes among recipients using relatives (other than spouses or parents) as paid providers are compared with those of recipients having non-relatives as providers. No differences were found by provider-recipient relationships. Non-aged recipients, those in poorer health, those with more than three activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, and those changing providers during the year were all at greater risk for adverse health outcomes. African American, Hispanic, and Asian recipients were at lower risk for injuries and hospital stays than were White recipients. PMID:22106901

  8. Successful Aging and Subjective Well-Being Among Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This research integrates successful aging and developmental adaptation models to empirically define the direct and indirect effects of 2 distal (i.e., education and past life experiences) and 5 proximal influences (i.e., physical functioning, cognitive functioning, physical health impairment, social resources, and perceived economic status) on subjective well-being. The proximal influences involved predictors outlined in most extant models of successful aging (e.g., Rowe & Kahn, 1998 [Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon Books.]). Our model extends such models by including distal impact as well as interactions between distal and proximal impacts. Design and Methods: Data were obtained from 234 centenarians and 72 octogenarians in the Georgia Centenarian Study. Structural equation modeling was conducted with Mplus 6.1. Results: Results showed significant direct effects of physical health impairment and social resources on positive aspects of subjective well-being among oldest-old adults. We also found significant indirect effects of cognitive functioning and education on positive affect among oldest-old adults. Social resources mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and social resources mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. In addition, physical health impairment mediated the relationship between cognitive functioning and positive affect; and cognitive functioning and physical health impairment mediated the relationship between education and positive affect. Implications: Integrating 2 different models (i.e., successful aging and developmental adaptation) provided a comprehensive view of adaptation from a developmental perspective. PMID:25112594

  9. Immunologic Aging in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Does Infant Sternotomy Matter?

    PubMed

    Elder, Robert W; George, Roshan P; McCabe, Nancy M; Rodriguez Iii, Fred H; Book, Wendy M; Mahle, William T; Kirk, Allan D

    2015-10-01

    Thymectomy is performed routinely in infants undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. Children post-sternotomy have decreased numbers of T lymphocytes, although the mechanisms involved and long-term consequences of this have not been defined. We hypothesized that lymphopenia in patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) would be reflective of premature T cell maturation and exhaustion. Adults with ACHD who had sternotomy to repair congenital heart disease as infants (<1 year) and age-matched ACHD patients without prior sternotomy were studied using polychromatic flow cytometry interrogating markers of lymphocyte maturation, exhaustion and senescence. Group differences were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Eighteen ACHD patients aged 21-40 years participated: 10 cases and 8 controls. Median age at sternotomy for cases was 52 days. Cases and controls were matched for age (28.9 vs. 29.1 years; p = 0.83), gender (p = 0.15) and race (p = 0.62) and had similar case complexity. Cases had a lower mean percentage of cytotoxic CD8 lymphocytes compared to controls (26.8 vs. 33.9 %; p = 0.016), with fewer naive, undifferentiated CD8 T cells (31.0 vs. 53.6 %; p = 0.027). CD8 cells expressing PD1, a marker of immune exhaustion, trended higher in cases versus controls (25.6 vs. 19.0 %; p = 0.083). Mean percentage of CD4 cells was higher in cases versus controls (65.6 vs. 59.6 %; p = 0.027), without differences in CD4 T cell maturation subtype. In summary, ACHD patients who undergo sternotomy as infants exhibit differences in T lymphocyte composition compared to ACHD controls, suggesting accelerated immunologic exhaustion. Investigation is warranted to assess the progressive nature and clinical impact of this immune phenotypic change. PMID:25916315

  10. Morbidity risks among older adults with pre-existing age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Akushevich, Igor; Kravchenko, Julia; Ukraintseva, Svetlana; Arbeev, Konstantin; Kulminski, Alexander; Yashin, Anatoliy I

    2013-12-01

    Multi-morbidity is common among older adults; however, for many aging-related diseases there is no information for U.S. elderly population on how earlier-manifested disease affects the risk of another disease manifested later during patient's lifetime. Quantitative evaluation of risks of cancer and non-cancer diseases for older adults with pre-existing conditions is performed using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registry data linked to the Medicare Files of Service Use (MFSU). Using the SEER-Medicare data containing individual records for 2,154,598 individuals, we empirically evaluated age patterns of incidence of age-associated diseases diagnosed after the onset of earlier manifested disease and compared these patterns with those in general population. Individual medical histories were reconstructed using information on diagnoses coded in MFSU, dates of medical services/procedures, and Medicare enrollment/disenrollment. More than threefold increase of subsequent diseases risk was observed for 15 disease pairs, majority of them were i) diseases of the same organ and/or system (e.g., Parkinson disease for patients with Alzheimer disease, HR=3.77, kidney cancer for patients with renal failure, HR=3.28) or ii) disease pairs with primary diseases being fast-progressive cancers (i.e., lung, kidney, and pancreas), e.g., ulcer (HR=4.68) and melanoma (HR=4.15) for patients with pancreatic cancer. Lower risk of subsequent disease was registered for 20 disease pairs, mostly among patients with Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, e.g., decreased lung cancer risk among patients with Alzheimer's (HR=0.64) and Parkinson's (HR=0.60) disease. Synergistic and antagonistic dependences in geriatric disease risks were observed among US elderly confirming known and detecting new associations of wide spectrum of age-associated diseases. The results can be used in optimization of screening, prevention and treatment strategies of chronic diseases among U.S. elderly

  11. A review of the literature on the aging adult skull and face: implications for forensic science research and applications.

    PubMed

    Albert, A Midori; Ricanek, Karl; Patterson, Eric

    2007-10-01

    This paper is a summary of findings of adult age-related craniofacial morphological changes. Our aims are two-fold: (1) through a review of the literature we address the factors influencing craniofacial aging, and (2) the general ways in which a head and face age in adulthood. We present findings on environmental and innate influences on face aging, facial soft tissue age changes, and bony changes in the craniofacial and dentoalveolar skeleton. We then briefly address the relevance of this information to forensic science research and applications, such as the development of computer facial age-progression and face recognition technologies, and contributions to forensic sketch artistry. PMID:17434276

  12. AGE-DEPENDENT MDPV-INDUCED TASTE AVERSIONS AND THERMOREGULATION IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Merluzzi, Andrew P.; Hurwitz, Zachary E.; Briscione, Maria A.; Cobuzzi, Jennifer L.; Wetzell, Bradley; Rice, Kenner C.; Riley, Anthony L.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent rats are more sensitive to the rewarding and less sensitive to the aversive properties of various drugs of abuse than their adult counterparts. Given a nationwide increase in use of “bath salts,” the present experiment employed the conditioned taste aversion procedure to assess the aversive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; 0, 1.0, 1.8 or 3.2 mg/kg), a common constituent in “bath salts,” in adult and adolescent rats. As similar drugs induce thermoregulatory changes in rats, temperature was recorded following MDPV administration to assess if thermoregulatory changes were related to taste aversion conditioning. Both age groups acquired taste aversions, although these aversions were weaker and developed at a slower rate in the adolescent subjects. Adolescents increased and adults decreased body temperature following MDPV administration with no correlation to aversions. The relative insensitivity of adolescents to the aversive effects of MDPV suggests that MDPV may confer an increased risk in this population. PMID:24122728

  13. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation. PMID:26601104

  14. Mobile and Wearable Technology Needs for Aging in Place: Perspectives from Older Adults and Their Caregivers and Providers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Carroll, Deidra; Peck, Michelle; Myneni, Sahiti; Gong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of wearable trackers and mobile devices in the burgeoning world of digital health, the purpose of the study is to explore the role of these mobile and wearable tools among older adults aging in place. We conducted a cross sectional study using individual interviews with older adults and surveys with their caregivers or providers. We interviewed 29 residents living in a retirement community, and surveyed 6 caregivers or providers. The older adults had an average age of 88 years, most did not express interests on technology and heavily relied on providers for health tracking, while their professional caregivers or providers saw a great need to access older adults' health information collected from these mobile and wearable tools. Educating the older old on the benefits of mobile and wearable tools may address such discrepancy on needs of adopting mobile and wearable tools for aging in place. PMID:27332248

  15. Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

    2005-04-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

  16. Can Training Enhance Face Cognition Abilities in Middle-Aged Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Dolzycka, Dominika; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Face cognition is a crucial skill for social interaction and shows large individual differences in healthy adults, suggesting a possibility for improvement in some. We developed and tested specific training procedures for the accuracy of face memory and the speed of face cognition. Two groups each of 20 healthy middle-aged trainees practiced for 29 daily sessions of 15 minutes duration with different computerized home-based training procedures. In addition, 20 matched and 59 non-matched controls were included. Face cognition speed training enhanced performance during the training and transferred to the latent factor level as measured in a pre-post comparison. Persistence of the training effect was evidenced at the manifest level after three months. However, the training procedure influenced the speed of processing object stimuli to the same extent as face stimuli and therefore seems to have affected a more general ability of processing complex visual stimuli and not only faces. No effects of training on the accuracy of face memory were found. This study demonstrates that face-specific abilities may be hard to improve but also shows the plasticity of the speed of processing complex visual stimuli – for the first time in middle-aged, normal adults. PMID:24632743

  17. Maternal deprivation of rat pups increases clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis at adult age.

    PubMed

    Teunis, Marc A T; Heijnen, Cobi J; Sluyter, Frans; Bakker, Joost M; Van Dam, Anne-Marie M W; Hof, Maleen; Cools, Alexander R; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2002-12-01

    Maternal deprivation of neonatal animals has been shown to induce long-lasting changes in the reactivity of the neuroendocrine system. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal deprivation also affects susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in adult life. To this end, 9-day-old rat pups were subjected to a short-lasting maternal deprivation for a period of 24 h. At the age of 8 weeks, we induced EAE in these rats by immunization with myelin basic protein (MBP) in complete Freund's adjuvant. Our data demonstrate that short-lasting maternal deprivation induces a marked increase in the severity of EAE in the animals in later life. The histopathological evaluation of spinal cord and cerebellum corresponded with the observed differences in clinical symptoms of EAE. Moreover, neonatal maternal deprivation affects macrophage functioning at adult age. In contrast, no differences were observed in in vitro mitogen- and MBP-induced cytokine production by splenocytes. LPS-induced corticosterone release did not differ either between maternally deprived and control animals. We conclude that short-lasting neonatal maternal deprivation of rat pups has long-lasting consequences for macrophage activity and for susceptibility to the inflammatory autoimmune disease EAE. PMID:12446005

  18. Regional Brain Volumes and ADHD Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults: The PATH Through Life Study.

    PubMed

    Das, Debjani; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Anstey, Kaarin J; Abhayaratna, Walter; Easteal, Simon

    2014-02-24

    Objective: We investigated whether volumetric differences in ADHD-associated brain regions are related to current symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity in healthy middle-aged adults and whether co-occurring anxiety/depression symptoms moderate these relationships. Method: ADHD Self-Report Scale and Brief Patient Health Questionnaire were used to assess current symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, anxiety, and depression in a population-based sample (n = 269). Brain volumes, measured using a semi-automated method, were analyzed using multiple regression and structural equation modeling to evaluate brain volume-inattention/hyperactivity symptom relationships for selected regions. Results: Volumes of the left nucleus accumbens and a region overlapping the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were positively associated with inattention symptoms. Left hippocampal volume was negatively associated with hyperactivity symptoms. The brain volume-inattention/hyperactivity symptom associations were stronger when anxiety/depression symptoms were controlled for. Conclusion: Inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in middle-aged adults are associated with different brain regions and co-occurring anxiety/depression symptoms moderate these brain-behavior relationships. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567365

  19. Spirometric reference values for Malagasy adults aged 18-73 years.

    PubMed

    Ratomaharo, Julia; Linares Perdomo, Olinto; Collingridge, Dave S; Andriamihaja, Rabezanahary; Hegewald, Matthew; Jensen, Robert L; Hankinson, John; Morris, Alan H

    2015-04-01

    The American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) recommend that spirometry prediction equations be derived from samples of similar race/ethnicity. Malagasy prediction equations do not exist. The objectives of this study were to establish prediction equations for healthy Malagasy adults, and then compare Malagasy measurements with published prediction equations. We enrolled 2491 healthy Malagasy subjects aged 18-73 years (1428 males) from June 2006 to April 2008. The subjects attempted to meet the ATS/ERS 2005 guidelines when performing forced expiratory spirograms. We compared Malagasy measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC with predictions from the European Community for Steel and Coal (ECSC), the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the ERS Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) 2012 study. A linear model for the entire population, using age and height as independent variables, best predicted all spirometry parameters for sea level and highland subjects. FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were most accurately predicted by NHANES III African-American male and female, and by GLI 2012 black male and black and South East Asian female equations. ECSC-predicted FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were poorly matched to Malagasy measurements. We provide the first spirometry reference equations for a healthy adult Malagasy population, and the first comparison of Malagasy population measurements with ECSC, NHANES III and GLI 2012 prediction equations. PMID:25395033

  20. Cognitive decline and oral health in middle-aged adults in the ARIC study.

    PubMed

    Naorungroj, S; Slade, G D; Beck, J D; Mosley, T H; Gottesman, R F; Alonso, A; Heiss, G

    2013-09-01

    Even before dementia becomes apparent, cognitive decline may contribute to deterioration in oral health. This cohort study of middle-aged adults evaluated associations of six-year change in cognitive function with oral health behaviors and conditions in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Cognitive function was measured at study visits in 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 with three tests: (a) Delayed Word Recall (DWR), (b) Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and (c) Word Fluency (WF). Cognitive decline scores were computed as 'studentized' residuals of 1996-1998 scores regressed against 1990-1992 scores. In 1996-1998, 10,050 participants answered dental screening questions, and 5,878 of 8,782 dentate participants received a comprehensive oral examination. Multiple regression models used cognitive change to predict oral health behaviors and conditions with adjustment for covariates. In the fully adjusted models, greater decline in all three measures of cognitive function was associated with increased odds of complete tooth loss. Greater decline in DSS and WF scores was associated with infrequent toothbrushing. Decline in WF scores was also associated with higher plaque levels. In these middle-aged adults, six-year cognitive decline was modestly associated with less frequent toothbrushing, plaque deposit, and greater odds of edentulism, but not with other oral behaviors or diseases. PMID:23872988

  1. Cognitive Decline and Oral Health in Middle-aged Adults in the ARIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Naorungroj, S.; Slade, G.D.; Beck, J.D.; Mosley, T.H.; Gottesman, R.F.; Alonso, A.; Heiss, G.

    2013-01-01

    Even before dementia becomes apparent, cognitive decline may contribute to deterioration in oral health. This cohort study of middle-aged adults evaluated associations of six-year change in cognitive function with oral health behaviors and conditions in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Cognitive function was measured at study visits in 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 with three tests: (a) Delayed Word Recall (DWR), (b) Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and (c) Word Fluency (WF). Cognitive decline scores were computed as ‘studentized’ residuals of 1996-1998 scores regressed against 1990-1992 scores. In 1996-1998, 10,050 participants answered dental screening questions, and 5,878 of 8,782 dentate participants received a comprehensive oral examination. Multiple regression models used cognitive change to predict oral health behaviors and conditions with adjustment for covariates. In the fully adjusted models, greater decline in all three measures of cognitive function was associated with increased odds of complete tooth loss. Greater decline in DSS and WF scores was associated with infrequent toothbrushing. Decline in WF scores was also associated with higher plaque levels. In these middle-aged adults, six-year cognitive decline was modestly associated with less frequent toothbrushing, plaque deposit, and greater odds of edentulism, but not with other oral behaviors or diseases. PMID:23872988

  2. Lamin A-dependent misregulation of adult stem cells associated with accelerated ageing.

    PubMed

    Scaffidi, Paola; Misteli, Tom

    2008-04-01

    The premature-ageing disease Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is caused by constitutive production of progerin, a mutant form of the nuclear architectural protein lamin A. Progerin is also expressed sporadically in wild-type cells and has been linked to physiological ageing. Cells from HGPS patients exhibit extensive nuclear defects, including abnormal chromatin structure and increased DNA damage. At the organismal level, HGPS affects several tissues, particularly those of mesenchymal origin. How the cellular defects of HGPS cells lead to the organismal defects has been unclear. Here, we provide evidence that progerin interferes with the function of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We find that expression of progerin activates major downstream effectors of the Notch signalling pathway. Induction of progerin in hMSCs changes their molecular identity and differentiation potential. Our results support a model in which accelerated ageing in HGPS patients, and possibly also physiological ageing, is the result of adult stem cell dysfunction and progressive deterioration of tissue functions. PMID:18311132

  3. Cognitive Functioning and Driving Simulator Performance in Middle-aged and Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Ball, David A.; Slater, Larry Z.; Ross, Lesley A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of people living with HIV experience cognitive deficits that may impact instrumental activities of daily living. As the number of people aging with HIV increases, concerns mount that disease-related cognitive deficits may be compounded by age-related deficits, which may further compromise everyday functions such as driving. In this cross-sectional pilot study, during a 2.5-hour visit, 26 middle-aged and older adults (40+ years) were administered demographic, health, psychosocial, and driving habits questionnaires; cognitive assessments; and driving simulator tests. Although CD4+T lymphocyte count and viral load were unrelated to driving performance, older age was related to poorer driving. Furthermore, poorer visual speed of processing performance (i.e., Useful Field of View) was related to poorer driving performance (e.g., average gross reaction time). Mixed findings were observed between driving performance and cognitive function on self-reported driving habits of participants. Implications for these findings on nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:24513104

  4. Spain: Promoting the Welfare of Older Adults in the Context of Population Aging

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Juan P.; Latorre, José M.; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, active aging policies, and the main research programs related to gerontology in Spain. PMID:24632624

  5. Effect of shear forces and ageing on the compliance of adhesive pads in adult cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanmin; Robinson, Adam; Viney, Christine; Federle, Walter

    2015-09-01

    The flexibility of insect adhesive pads is crucial for their ability to attach on rough surfaces. Here, we used transparent substrates with micropillars to test in adult cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) whether and how the stiffness of smooth adhesive pads changes when shear forces are applied, and whether the insect's age has any influence. We found that during pulls towards the body, the pad's ability to conform to the surface microstructures was improved in comparison to a contact without shear, suggesting that shear forces make the pad more compliant. The mechanism underlying this shear-dependent increase in compliance is still unclear. The effect was not explained by viscoelastic creep, changes in normal pressure, or shear-induced pad rolling, which brings new areas of cuticle into surface contact. Adhesive pads were significantly stiffer in older cockroaches. Stiffness increased most rapidly in cockroaches aged between 2.5 and 4 months. This increase is probably based on wear and repair of the delicate adhesive cuticle. Recent wear (visualised by Methylene Blue staining) was not age dependent, whereas permanent damage (visible as brown scars) accumulated with age, reducing the pads' flexibility. PMID:26206353

  6. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  7. Knowing a lot for one's age: Vocabulary skill and not age is associated with anticipatory incremental sentence interpretation in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L; Fernald, Anne

    2012-08-01

    Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults. We explore this question by comparing the degree to which an upcoming sentential theme is anticipated by combining information from a prior agent and action. 48 children, aged of 3 to 10, and 48 college-aged adults' eye-movements were recorded as they heard a sentence (e.g., The pirate hides the treasure) in which the object referred to one of four images that included an agent-related, action-related and unrelated distractor image. Pictures were rotated so that, across all versions of the study, each picture appeared in all conditions, yielding a completely balanced within-subjects design. Adults and children quickly made use of combinatory information available at the action to generate anticipatory looks to the target object. Speed of anticipatory fixations did not vary with age. When controlling for age, individuals with higher vocabularies were faster to look to the target than those with lower vocabulary scores. Together, these results support and extend current views of incremental processing in which adults and children make use of linguistic information to continuously update their mental representation of ongoing language. PMID:22632758

  8. Employment among Working-Age Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: A Data-Mining Approach to Identifying Employment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Malachy; Chan, Fong; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Frain, Michael P.; Tansey, Timothy N.; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Strauser, David; Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine demographic, functional, and clinical multiple sclerosis (MS) variables affecting employment status in a national sample of adults with MS in the United States. Method: The sample included 4,142 working-age (20-65 years) Americans with MS (79.1% female) who participated in a national survey. The mean age of participants was…

  9. Memory Loss, Dementia, and Stroke: Implications for Rehabilitation of Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Older adults with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are not immune to the other diseases of aging. Although AMD is the leading cause of low vision in older Americans, stroke is the leading cause of disability, and dementias affect another 2.5 million older Americans. Each condition alone can significantly impair a person's ability to…

  10. Employment Outcomes of Transition-Aged Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A State of the States Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Sloane; Cimera, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the employment outcomes of transition-aged adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) served by vocational rehabilitation services (VR) over the last 10 years by state. A secondary purpose was to compare employment outcomes of individuals with ASD to those of the overall transition-aged population…

  11. Adult but Not Aged C57BL/6 Male Mice Are Capable of Using Geometry for Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachner, Melitta; Morellini, Fabio; Fellini, Laetitia

    2006-01-01

    Geometry, e.g., the shape of the environment, can be used by numerous animal species to orientate, but data concerning the mouse are lacking. We addressed the question of whether mice are capable of using geometry for navigating. To test whether aging could affect searching strategies, we compared adult (3- to 5-mo old) and aged (20- to 21-mo old)…

  12. A Group and Individual Analysis of the Relationship between Age and Information Channel Capacity of Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, William L.

    This study was designed to measure adult performance as related to age. Using methodology derived from information theory, information processing ability was measured with the individuals performing as a communication system. Fifty-five school teachers, ranging in age from 20 to 66, served as subjects. In four groups, the subjects judged the sizes…

  13. Emerging roles of frailty and inflammaging in risk assessment of age-related chronic diseases in older adults: the intersection between aging biology and personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-Chien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Hsiung, Chao A

    2015-01-01

    A chronic disease in older adults usually runs a course that is less predictable than in younger individuals. Unexplained variations in disease incidence, prognosis, therapeutic responses, and toxicity are frequently observed among older adults. This heterogeneity poses huge challenges to the current one-size-fits-all health care systems, and calls for more personalized managements of chronic diseases in older adults. Aging is characterized by progressive deterioration of bodily functions with increasing risk of failure over time. The entire process is hierarchically organized, and progresses from intracellular events to changes at systemic and ultimately organism levels at different rates among different individuals. Aging biology exerts great influences on the development and progression of most age-related chronic diseases. Thus, aging biology could contribute to the complexity of illnesses that increase with age, and aging biomarkers possess a great potential to enable personalized health risk assessment and health care. We review evidences supporting the roles of aging biomarkers in risk assessment of prevalent age-related diseases. Frailty phenotype is an objectively measured indicator of advanced-stage aging that is characterized by organism-level dysfunction. In contrast, altered inflammation markers level signifies an earlier stage between cellular abnormalities and systems dysfunction. Results of human observational studies and randomized controlled trials indicate that these measures, albeit simple, greatly facilitate classification of older patients with cancer, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus into groups that vary in disease incidence, prognosis and therapeutic response/toxicity. As the detailed mechanisms underlying the complex biologic process of aging are unraveled in the future, a larger array of biomarkers that correlate with biologic aging at different stages will be discovered. Following the

  14. A Healthy Aging Program for Older Adults: Effects on Self-Efficacy and Morale

    PubMed Central

    Scult, Matthew; Haime, Vivian; Jacquart, Jolene; Takahashi, Jonathan; Moscowitz, Barbara; Webster, Ann; Denninger, John W.; Mehta, Darshan H.

    2015-01-01

    Context As of 2012, 810 million people were over the age of 60 worldwide, accounting for 11 percent of the population. That number is expected to rise to 2 billion by 2050 or to 22 percent of the overall population. As a result, a growing need exists to understand the factors that promote mental and physical health in older populations. Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop a healthy aging program for older adults and to measure the changes from baseline to the end of the program in participants’ relevant psychosocial outcomes; ie, self-efficacy and morale. Design The study’s Healthy Aging Mind Body Intervention (MBI) was adapted from the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP) at the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine (BHI), which incorporates elements from the fields of stress management, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and positive psychology. That program was modified with examples and exercises targeted to an older population, and evaluated in the current, single-arm, pilot study. Setting The program took place at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Participants The 9-week Healthy Aging MBI was developed for participants aged 65 and over. Fifty-one older adults from the surrounding community participated in the study’s groups. Intervention A new intervention group began the program every 3 months, with a maximum of 12 individuals per group. For each group, the MBI consisted of weekly, 90-minute sessions for 9 consecutive weeks, directed by a psychologist. The program included sessions that taught participants: (1) a variety of methods to elicit the relaxation response (RR), (2) the practice of adaptive coping and cognitions, (3) behaviors necessary to create a healthy lifestyle, and (4) methods of building social support. Outcome Measures The research team chose to focus on 2 psychological variables of interest for aging populations: morale and self-efficacy. The study used 2 questionnaires to measure those outcomes, the

  15. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42*

    PubMed Central

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid adulthood (age 42). The Social Adaptation Life Course Framework guided the focus on social adaptation, social bonds, and economic resources as predictors of adult drug use. Results indicate that more frequent substance use in adolescence and lower income and less frequent church attendance in early adulthood increase the risk of midlife drug use. Shyness in first grade related inversely to later cocaine use and marijuana use (marginally significant). Indirect pathways to drug use also were identified. Gender differences were not significant. The findings show continuities in social maladaptation over time and the importance of social integration and economic resources in the early adult years. PMID:19413135

  16. Development of human white matter fiber pathways: From newborn to adult ages.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Andrew H; Wang, Rongpin; Wilkinson, Molly; MacDonald, Patrick; Lim, Ashley R; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Major long-range white matter pathways (cingulum, fornix, uncinate fasciculus [UF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], thalamocortical [TC], and corpus callosal [CC] pathways) were identified in eighty-three healthy humans ranging from newborn to adult ages. We tracked developmental changes using high-angular resolution diffusion MR tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, number, length, and volume were measured in pathways in each subject. Newborns had fewer, and more sparse, pathways than those of the older subjects. FA, number, length, and volume of pathways gradually increased with age and reached a plateau between 3 and 5 years of age. Data were further analyzed by normalizing with mean adult values as well as with each subject's whole brain values. Comparing subjects of 3 years old and under to those over 3 years old, the studied pathways showed differential growth patterns. The CC, bilateral cingulum, bilateral TC, and the left IFOF pathways showed significant growth both in volume and length, while the bilateral fornix, bilateral ILF and bilateral UF showed significant growth only in volume. The TC and CC took similar growth patterns with the whole brain. FA values of the cingulum and IFOF, and the length of ILF showed leftward asymmetry. The fornix, ILF and UF occupied decreased space compared to the whole brain during development with higher FA values, likely corresponding to extensive maturation of the pathways compared to the mean whole brain maturation. We believe that the outcome of this study will provide an important database for future reference. PMID:26948153

  17. Influence of Resistance Exercise on Lean Body Mass in Aging Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Sen, Ananda; Gordon, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Sarcopenia plays a principal role in the pathogenesis of frailty and functional impairment that occurs with aging. There are few published accounts which examine the overall benefit of resistance exercise (RE) for lean body mass (LBM), while considering a continuum of dosage schemes and/or age ranges. Therefore the purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of RE on LBM in older men and women, while taking these factors into consideration. Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Randomized controlled trials and randomized or non-randomized studies among adults ≥ 50 years, were included. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Cochran Q and I2 statistics, and publication bias was evaluated through physical inspection of funnel plots as well as formal rank-correlation statistics. Mixed-effects meta-regression was incorporated to assess the relationship between RE dosage and changes in LBM. Results Data from forty-nine studies, representing a total of 1328 participants were pooled using random-effect models. Results demonstrated a positive effect for lean body mass and there was no evidence of publication bias. The Cochran Q statistic for heterogeneity was 497.8, which was significant (p < 0.01). Likewise, I2 was equal to 84%, representing rejection of the null hypothesis of homogeneity. The weighted pooled estimate of mean lean body mass change was 1.1 kg (95% CI, 0.9 kg to 1.2 kg). Meta-regression revealed that higher volume interventions were associated (β = 0.05, p < 0.01) with significantly greater increases in lean body mass, whereas older individuals experienced less increase (β = -0.03, p = 0.01). Conclusions RE is effective for eliciting gains in lean body mass among aging adults, particularly with higher volume programs. Findings suggest that RE participation earlier in life may provide superior effectiveness. PMID:20543750

  18. Perceived Stress and Change in Cognitive Function Among Adults Aged 65 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Wilson, Robert S.; Beck, Todd L.; Rajan, Kumar B.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Exposure to acute and chronic stress can affect learning and memory but most evidence comes from animal studies or clinical observations. Almost no population-based studies have investigated the relation of stress to cognition or changes in cognition over time. We examined whether higher levels of perceived stress were associated with accelerated decline in cognitive function in older blacks and whites from a community-based population sample. Methods Participants included 6,207 black and white adults (65.7% black, 63.3% women) from the Chicago Health and Aging project. Two to five in-home assessments were completed over an average of 6.8 years of follow up, and included sociodemographics, health behaviors, psychosocial measures, cognitive function tests, and health history. Perceived stress was measured by a 6-item scale, and a composite measure of four tests of cognition was used to determine cognitive function at each assessment. Results Mixed effects regression models showed that increasing levels of perceived stress were related to lower initial cognitive scores (B=-0.0379, SE=0.0025, p<.001) and a faster rate of cognitive decline (stress × time interaction: B=-0.0015, SE=0.0004, p<.001). Results were similar after adjusting for demographic variables, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, chronic medical conditions, and psychosocial factors and did not vary by race, sex, age or education. Conclusion Increasing levels of stress are independently associated with accelerated declines in cognitive function in black and white adults aged 65 and above. PMID:24367123

  19. Oral trehalose supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kaplon, Rachelle E; Hill, Sierra D; Bispham, Nina Z; Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Nowlan, Molly J; Snyder, Laura L; Chonchol, Michel; LaRocca, Thomas J; McQueen, Matthew B; Seals, Douglas R

    2016-06-01

    We hypothesized that supplementation with trehalose, a disaccharide that reverses arterial aging in mice, would improve vascular function in middle-aged and older (MA/O) men and women. Thirty-two healthy adults aged 50-77 years consumed 100 g/day of trehalose (n=15) or maltose (n=17, isocaloric control) for 12 weeks (randomized, double-blind). In subjects with Δbody mass less than 2.3kg (5 lb.), resistance artery endothelial function, assessed by forearm blood flow to brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (FBFACh), increased ~30% with trehalose (13.3±1.0 vs. 10.5±1.1 AUC, P=0.02), but not maltose (P=0.40). This improvement in FBFACh was abolished when endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production was inhibited. Endothelium-independent dilation, assessed by FBF to sodium nitroprusside (FBFSNP), also increased ~30% with trehalose (155±13 vs. 116±12 AUC, P=0.03) but not maltose (P=0.92). Changes in FBFACh and FBFSNP with trehalose were not significant when subjects with Δbody mass ≥ 2.3kg were included. Trehalose supplementation had no effect on conduit artery endothelial function, large elastic artery stiffness or circulating markers of oxidative stress or inflammation (all P>0.1) independent of changes in body weight. Our findings demonstrate that oral trehalose improves resistance artery (microvascular) function, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, in MA/O adults, possibly through increasing NO bioavailability and smooth muscle sensitivity to NO. PMID:27208415

  20. Oral trehalose supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Hill, Sierra D.; Bispham, Nina Z.; Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Snyder, Laura L.; Chonchol, Michel; LaRocca, Thomas J.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementation with trehalose, a disaccharide that reverses arterial aging in mice, would improve vascular function in middle-aged and older (MA/O) men and women. Thirty-two healthy adults aged 50-77 years consumed 100 g/day of trehalose (n=15) or maltose (n=17, isocaloric control) for 12 weeks (randomized, double-blind). In subjects with Δbody mass<2.3kg (5 lb.), resistance artery endothelial function, assessed by forearm blood flow to brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (FBFACh), increased ∼30% with trehalose (13.3±1.0 vs. 10.5±1.1 AUC, P=0.02), but not maltose (P=0.40). This improvement in FBFACh was abolished when endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production was inhibited. Endothelium-independent dilation, assessed by FBF to sodium nitroprusside (FBFSNP), also increased ∼30% with trehalose (155±13 vs. 116±12 AUC, P=0.03) but not maltose (P=0.92). Changes in FBFACh and FBFSNP with trehalose were not significant when subjects with Δbody mass≥2.3kg were included. Trehalose supplementation had no effect on conduit artery endothelial function, large elastic artery stiffness or circulating markers of oxidative stress or inflammation (all P>0.1) independent of changes in body weight. Our findings demonstrate that oral trehalose improves resistance artery (microvascular) function, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, in MA/O adults, possibly through increasing NO bioavailability and smooth muscle sensitivity to NO. PMID:27208415

  1. Risk indicators of coronal and root caries in Greek middle aged adults and senior citizens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay of multiple determinants which may change overtime. Therefore, periodic surveys of caries experience and redetermination of the risk indicators of the disease are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of coronal and root caries in Greeks aged 35-44 and 65-74-year-old in relation to socio-demographic parameters. Furthermore, trends in coronal caries experience of the 35-44-year-olds were investigated. Methods A sample of 1188 35-44-year-old and 1093 65-74-year-old individuals was selected in 2005 according to WHO guidelines for national pathfinder surveys. Caries was assessed in dentate subjects using the DMFT, DMFS, RDFS and RCI indices. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the effect of socio-demographic parameters. Results The mean DMFT and DMFS scores of the adults were 14.06 and 45.78 respectively, while those of the senior citizens were 20.63 and 89.82. Among the 35-44-year-ods, men and those having a higher educational attainment had significantly lower DMFS values (women OR = 1.679, CI: 1.243-2.267 and >12 years of education OR = 0.321, CI: 0.193-0.535 respectively), while educational level was the only predictor of DMFS in senior citizens (OR = 0.279, CI: 0.079-0.992). The mean DMFT score of the 35-44-year-olds has not improved since 1985, but there was a remarkable reduction in the number of DT related to a simultaneous increase in the number of FT. The mean RDFS rose from 0.39 in adults to 2.66 in senior citizens. The mean RDFS score of the middle aged adults was significantly correlated with education (OR = 0.346, CI: 0.180-0.664). The RCI was almost four times greater in seniors (9.73) than in adults (2.53). There were significant differences in caries experience between the surveyed regions. MS and RDS were the major components of the DMFS and RDFS indices

  2. Adult stem cell maintenance and tissue regeneration in the ageing context: the role for A-type lamins as intrinsic modulators of ageing in adult stem cells and their niches

    PubMed Central

    Pekovic, Vanja; Hutchison, Christopher J

    2008-01-01

    Adult stem cells have been identified in most mammalian tissues of the adult body and are known to support the continuous repair and regeneration of tissues. A generalized decline in tissue regenerative responses associated with age is believed to result from a depletion and/or a loss of function of adult stem cells, which itself may be a driving cause of many age-related disease pathologies. Here we review the striking similarities between tissue phenotypes seen in many degenerative conditions associated with old age and those reported in age-related nuclear envelope disorders caused by mutations in the LMNA gene. The concept is beginning to emerge that nuclear filament proteins, A-type lamins, may act as signalling receptors in the nucleus required for receiving and/or transducing upstream cytosolic signals in a number of pathways central to adult stem cell maintenance as well as adaptive responses to stress. We propose that during ageing and in diseases caused by lamin A mutations, dysfunction of the A-type lamin stress-resistant signalling network in adult stem cells, their progenitors and/or stem cell niches leads to a loss of protection against growth-related stress. This in turn triggers an inappropriate activation or a complete failure of self-renewal pathways with the consequent initiation of stress-induced senescence. As such, A-type lamins should be regarded as intrinsic modulators of ageing within adult stem cells and their niches that are essential for survival to old age. PMID:18638067

  3. Simplified Assay for Epigenetic Age Estimation in Whole Blood of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Bralo, Laura; Lopez-Golan, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Biological age is not always concordant with chronological age and the departures are of interest for understanding how diseases and environmental insults affect tissue function, organismal health, and life expectancy. The best-known biological age biomarker is telomere length, but there are more accurate biomarkers as the recently developed based in epigenetic, transcriptomic, or biochemical changes. The most accurate are the epigenetic biomarkers based on specific changes in DNA methylation referred as DNA methylation age measures (DmAM). Here, we have developed and validated a new DmAM that addresses some limitations of the previously available. The new DmAM includes the study in whole blood (WB) of 8 CpG sites selected as the most informative on a training set of 390 healthy subjects. The 8 CpG DmAM showed better accuracy than other DmAM based in few CpG in an independent validation set of 335 subjects. Results were not significantly influenced by sex, smoking, or variation in blood cell subpopulations. In addition, the new 8 CpG DmAM was amenable to study in a single multiplex reaction done with methylation-sensitive single-nucleotide primer extension (MS-SNuPE), a methodology based on commercially available reagents and run in capillary electrophoresis sequencers. In this way, the high cost of DNA methylation microarrays or of a pyrosequencer, which are needed for alternative DmAM, was avoided. Performance of the DmAM with MS-SNuPE was assessed in a set of 557 donors, showing high call rate (>97%), low CV (<3.3%) and high accuracy (Mean Absolute Deviation = 6.07 years). Therefore, the 8 CpG DmAM is a feasible and accurate tool for assessing the epigenetic component of biological age in blood of adults. PMID:27471517

  4. Modern Attitudes Toward Older Adults in the Aging World: A Cross-Cultural Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2015-09-01

    Prevailing beliefs suggest that Eastern cultures hold older adults in higher esteem than Western cultures do, due to stronger collectivist traditions of filial piety. However, in modern, industrialized societies, the strain presented by dramatic rises in population aging potentially threatens traditional cultural expectations. Addressing these competing hypotheses, a literature search located 37 eligible papers, comprising samples from 23 countries and 21,093 total participants, directly comparing Easterners and Westerners (as classified per U.N. conventions) in their attitudes toward aging and the aged. Contradicting conventional wisdom, a random-effects meta-analysis on these articles found such evaluations to be more negative in the East overall (standardized mean difference = -0.31). High heterogeneity in study comparisons suggested the presence of moderators; indeed, geographical region emerged as a significant moderating factor, with the strongest levels of senior derogation emerging in East Asia (compared with South and Southeast Asia) and non-Anglophone Europe (compared with North American and Anglophone Western regions). At the country level, multiple-moderator meta-regression analysis confirmed recent rises in population aging to significantly predict negative elder attitudes, controlling for industrialization per se over the same time period. Unexpectedly, these analyses also found that cultural individualism significantly predicted relative positivity-suggesting that, for generating elder respect within rapidly aging societies, collectivist traditions may backfire. The findings suggest the importance of demographic challenges in shaping modern attitudes toward elders-presenting considerations for future research in ageism, cross-cultural psychology, and even economic development, as societies across the globe accommodate unprecedented numbers of older citizens. PMID:26191955

  5. Association between Physical Fitness and Successful Aging in Taiwanese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huey-Shinn; Tseng, Tsai-Jou; Su, Shin-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Population aging is escalating in numerous countries worldwide; among them is Taiwan, which will soon become an aged society. Thus, aging successfully is an increasing concern. One of the factors for achieving successful aging (SA) is maintaining high physical function. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical fitness factors associated with SA in Taiwanese older adults (OAs), because these factors are intervenable. Community-dwelling OAs aged more than 65 years and residing in Northern Taiwan were recruited in this study. They received a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which includes sociodemographic data, health conditions and behaviors, activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) function, cognitive and depressive status, and quality of life. Physical fitness tests included the grip strength (GS), 30-second sit-to-stand (30s STS), timed up-and-go (TUG), functional reach (FR), one-leg standing, chair sit-and-reach, and reaction time (drop ruler) tests as well as the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). SA status was defined as follows: complete independence in performing ADL and IADL, satisfactory cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination ≥ 24), no depression (Geriatric Depression Scale < 5), and favorable social function (SF subscale ≥ 80 in SF-36). Adjusted multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Among the total recruited OAs (n = 378), 100 (26.5%) met the aforementioned SA criteria. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and health condition and behaviors, some physical fitness tests, namely GS, 30s STS, 6MWT, TUG, and FR tests, were significantly associated with SA individually, but not in the multivariate model. Among the physical fitness variables tested, cardiopulmonary endurance, mobility, muscle strength, and balance were significantly associated with SA in Taiwanese OAs. Early detection of deterioration in the identified functions and corresponding intervention is essential to ensuring SA

  6. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  7. Self-regulatory driving practices among older adults: health, age and sex effects.

    PubMed

    Kostyniuk, Lidia P; Molnar, Lisa J

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how older adults self-regulate driving, and to identify differences by age, sex, and health-related functioning. Michigan drivers over age 64 were surveyed by telephone (n=961, age [mu=74.2, sigma=5.8], 56% female) about their driving-related behaviors, physical functioning, and health. Respondents were presented with scenarios involving driving to an important appointment under adverse conditions (rainy stormy weather, on alternate route in heavy freeway traffic, 200-mile trip on unfamiliar roads). Generalized logit models examined outcomes for each scenario: driving as usual, driving with modifications, and not driving. Results indicate that the effect of sex on self-regulation was significant and greater than that of age and physical functioning. Women were more likely to self-regulate by not driving. Odds ratios and 95% confidence limits for each scenario for women vs. men are 6.8 (3.8-2.0), 6.5 (3.6-12.0), and 17.7 (11.0-28.6). The effect of sex on self-regulation by modifying driving was smaller and significant only in scenarios 2 and 3. Women were more likely then men to modify driving for scenario 2 (odds ratio, 3.0 (2.0-4.5)) and scenario 3 (odds ratio 4.4 (3.1-0.1)). Overall, the study finds the relative effect of sex on self-regulation greater than that of age and physical functioning for conditions examined. PMID:18606292

  8. Comparative Cognitive and Subjective Side Effects of Immediate Release Oxycodone in Healthy Middle Age and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cherrier, M.; Amory, J.; Ersek, M.; Risler, L.; Shen, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study measured the objective and subjective neurocognitive effects of a single 10mg dose of immediate-release oxycodone in healthy, older (>65 years) and middle age (35 – 55 years) adults who were not suffering from chronic or significant daily pain. Seventy-one participants completed two separate study days and were blind to medication condition (placebo, 10 mg oxycodone). Plasma oxycodone concentration peaked between 60 and 90 min post dose (p<0.01) and pupil size, an indication of physiological effects of the medication peaked at approximately 90 to 120 min post dose (p<0.01). Significant declines in simple and sustained attention, working memory and verbal memory were observed at one hour post dose compared to baseline for both age groups with a trend toward return to baseline by five hours post dose. For almost all cognitive measures there were no medication by age interaction effects, which indicates that the two age groups exhibited a similar responses to the medication challenge. This study suggests that for healthy older adults who are not suffering from chronic pain, neurocognitive and pharmacodynamic changes in response to a 10 mg dose of immediate release oxycodone are similar to those observed for middle age adults. Perspective Study findings indicate that the metabolism, neurocognitive effects, and physical side effects of oral oxycodone are similar for healthy middle-age and older adults. Therefore, clinicians should not avoid prescribing oral opioids to older adults based on the belief that older adults are at higher risk for side effects than younger adults. PMID:19729346

  9. The Relationship between Type D Personality and Suicidality in Low-Income, Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dae Hyun; Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Pyo-Min; Park, Doo-Heum; Ryu, Seung Ho; Yu, Jaehak

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low-income adults are considered to be a group at high risk for suicide. We sought to examine the effect of type D personality and other socio-demographic factors on suicidality in low-income, middle-aged Koreans. Methods In total, 306 low-income, middle-aged Koreans [age: 49.16±5.24 (40-59) years, 156 males, 150 females] were enrolled from the Korean National Basic Livelihood Security System. Socio-demographic data, including employment status, income, health, marital status, and educational attainment, were gathered. Beck's 19-item Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) was applied to evaluate suicidality, and the DS14 was used to assess type D personality. Results Unemployment (p<0.01) and absence of spouse (p=0.03) predicted higher SSI scores independent of other socioeconomic factors. All type D personality scores [i.e., negative affectivity (NA), social inhibition (SI), and total score] predicted higher SSI scores independent of all socioeconomic factors (all, p<0.001). Subjects with type D personality had higher SSI scores (p<0.001), and the association between suicidality and socio-demographic factors (employment or physical health) could be found only in subjects without type D personality. Conclusion Type D personality was a risk factor for suicide in low-income Koreans, independently from socio-economic factors. In addition, the socio-demographic factors were less prominently associated with suicidality in those with type D personality. PMID:25670941

  10. A simple method for imaging axonal transport in aging neurons using the adult Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Vagnoni, Alessio; Bullock, Simon L

    2016-09-01

    There is growing interest in the link between axonal cargo transport and age-associated neuronal dysfunction. The study of axonal transport in neurons of adult animals requires intravital or ex vivo imaging approaches, which are laborious and expensive in vertebrate models. We describe simple, noninvasive procedures for imaging cargo motility within axons using sensory neurons of the translucent Drosophila wing. A key aspect is a method for mounting the intact fly that allows detailed imaging of transport in wing neurons. Coupled with existing genetic tools in Drosophila, this is a tractable system for studying axonal transport over the life span of an animal and thus for characterization of the relationship between cargo dynamics, neuronal aging and disease. Preparation of a sample for imaging takes ∼5 min, with transport typically filmed for 2-3 min per wing. We also document procedures for the quantification of transport parameters from the acquired images and describe how the protocol can be adapted to study other cell biological processes in aging neurons. PMID:27560175

  11. MicroRNA Clusters in the Adult Mouse Heart: Age-Associated Changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Azhar, Gohar; Williams, Emmanuel D.; Rogers, Steven C.; Wei, Jeanne Y.

    2015-01-01

    The microRNAs and microRNA clusters have been implicated in normal cardiac development and also disease, including cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and arrhythmias. Since a microRNA cluster has from two to dozens of microRNAs, the expression of a microRNA cluster could have a substantial impact on its target genes. In the present study, the configuration and distribution of microRNA clusters in the mouse genome were examined at various inter-microRNA distances. Three important microRNA clusters that are significantly impacted during adult cardiac aging, the miR-17-92, miR-106a-363, and miR-106b-25, were also examined in terms of their genomic location, RNA transcript character, sequence homology, and their relationship with the corresponding microRNA families. Multiple microRNAs derived from the three clusters potentially target various protein components of the cdc42-SRF signaling pathway, which regulates cytoskeleton dynamics associated with cardiac structure and function. The data indicate that aging impacted the expression of both guide and passenger strands of the microRNA clusters; nutrient stress also affected the expression of the three microRNA clusters. The miR-17-92, miR-106a-363, and miR-106b-25 clusters are likely to impact the Cdc42-SRF signaling pathway and thereby affect cardiac morphology and function during pathological conditions and the aging process. PMID:26221604

  12. Vascular health and longitudinal changes in brain and cognition in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Raz, Naftali; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Acker, James D

    2007-03-01

    The impact of vascular health on the relations between structural brain changes and cognition was assessed in a longitudinal study of 46 adults, 23 of whom remained healthy for 5 years and 23 of whom had hypertension at baseline or acquired vascular problems during follow-up. At both measurement occasions, the volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and regional brain volumes correlated with age. In 5 years, WMH volume more than doubled in the vascular risk group but did not increase in healthy participants. The frontal lobes had the highest WMH load at baseline and follow-up; the parietal WMH showed the greatest rate of expansion. In the vascular risk group, systolic blood pressure at follow-up correlated with posterior WMH volume. The fastest cortical shrinkage was observed in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. Fluid intelligence correlated with WMH burden and declined along with faster WMH progression. In the vascular risk group, WMH progression and shrinkage of the fusiform cortex correlated with decline in working memory. Thus, poor vascular health contributes to age-related declines in brain and cognition, and some of the age-related declines may be limited to persons with elevated vascular risk. PMID:17402815

  13. Adult romantic attachment, negative emotionality, and depressive symptoms in middle aged men: a multivariate genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Franz, Carol E; York, Timothy P; Eaves, Lindon J; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lyons, Michael J; Grant, Michael D; Xian, Hong; Panizzon, Matthew S; Jimenez, Erica; Kremen, William S

    2011-07-01

    Adult romantic attachment styles reflect ways of relating in close relationships and are associated with depression and negative emotionality. We estimated the extent to which dimensions of romantic attachment and negative emotionality share genetic or environmental risk factors in 1,237 middle-aged men in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). A common genetic factor largely explained the covariance between attachment-related anxiety, attachment-related avoidance, depressive symptoms, and two measures of negative emotionality: Stress-Reaction (anxiety), and Alienation. Multivariate results supported genetic and environmental differences in attachment. Attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance were each influenced by additional genetic factors not shared with other measures; the genetic correlation between the attachment measure-specific genetic factors was 0.41, indicating some, but not complete overlap of genetic factors. Genetically informative longitudinal studies on attachment relationship dimensions can help to illuminate the role of relationship-based risk factors in healthy aging. PMID:21213033

  14. Weight for gestational age and metabolically healthy obesity in adults from the Haguenau cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Background An obesity subphenotype, named ‘metabolically healthy obese’ (MHO) has been recently defined to characterise a subgroup of obese individuals with less risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities. To date no data are available on participants born with small weight for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). Objective Assess the risk of MUHO in SGA versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA) adult participants. Methods 129 young obese individuals (body mass index ≥30 kg/m²) from data of an 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France), were identified out of 1308 participants and were divided into 2 groups: SGA (n=72) and AGA (n=57). Metabolic characteristics were analysed and compared using unpaired t-test. The HOMA-IR index was determined for the population and divided into quartiles. Obese participants within the first 3 quartiles were considered as MHO and those in the fourth quartile as MUHO. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for being MUHO in SGA versus AGA participants were computed. Results The SGA-obese group had a higher risk of MUHO versus the AGA-obese group: RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.6) independently of age and sex. Conclusions In case of obesity, SGA might confer a higher risk of MUHO compared with AGA. PMID:27580829

  15. Adult age differences in information foraging in an interactive reading environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomei; Chin, Jessie; Payne, Brennan R; Fu, Wai-Tat; Morrow, Daniel G; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2016-05-01

    When learning about a single topic in natural reading environments, readers are confronted with multiple sources varying in the type and amount of information. In this situation, readers are free to adaptively respond to the constraints of the environment (e.g., through selection of resources and time allocation for study), but there may be costs of exploring and switching between sources (e.g., disruption of attention, opportunity costs for study). From an ecological perspective, such properties of the environment are expected to influence learning strategies. In the current study, we used a novel reading paradigm to investigate age differences in the effects of information richness (i.e., sentence elaboration) and costs of switching between texts (i.e., time delay) on selection of sources and study time allocation. Consistent with the ecological view, participants progressed from less informative to more informative texts. Furthermore, increased switch cost led to a tendency to allocate more effort to easier materials and to greater persistence in reading, which in turn, led to better memory in both immediate and delayed recall. Older adults showed larger effects of switch cost, such that the age difference in delayed recall was eliminated in the high switch cost condition. Based on an ecological paradigm of reading that affords choice and self-regulation, our study provided evidence for preservation with age in the ability to adapt to changing learning environments so as to improve performance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963481

  16. Prevalence and predictors of habitual snoring in a sample of Saudi middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Siraj O.; Abaalkhail, Bahaa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring among a sample of middle-aged Saudi adults, and its potential predictors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 until June 2013 in randomly selected Saudi Schools in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The enrolled subjects were 2682 school employees (aged 30-60 years, 52.1% females) who were randomly selected and interviewed. The questionnaire used for the interview included: the Wisconsin Sleep Questionnaire to assess for snoring, medical history, and socio-demographic data. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure readings were recorded using standard methods. Results: Forty percent of the 2682 enrolled subjects were snorers: 23.5% were habitual snorers, 16.6% were moderate snorers, and 59.9%, were non-snorers. A multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictors of snoring were ageing, male gender, daytime sleepiness, hypertension, family history of both snoring and obstructive sleep apnea, water-pipe smoking, and consanguinity. Conclusion: This study shows that snoring is a common condition among the Saudi population. Previously reported risk factors were reemphasized but consanguinity was identified as a new independent predictive risk factor of snoring. Exploring snoring history should be part of the clinical evaluation. PMID:26219441

  17. Gender-related differences in susceptibility to oxidative stress in healthy middle-aged Serbian adults.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Malic, Zivka; Francuski, Djordje; Stankovic, Marija; Markovic, Bojan; Soskic, Blagoje; Tomic, Branko; Ilic, Stefan; Dobrivojevic, Snezana; Drca, Sanja; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2016-03-01

    Gender-related differences in the association between polymorphism of xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes or non-genetic biomarkers and susceptibility to oxidative stress was assessed in healthy middle-aged Serbian adults, by urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG/creatinine) and total antioxidant status in serum (TAOS). Females were more susceptible to oxidative stress. In both genders, positive predictor of the antioxidative protection was serum triglyceride, while BMI <25 kg/m(2) was associated with oxidative stress. Susceptibility to oxidative stress in males was associated with GSTT1*null allele and increased serum iron, but in females, it was decreased serum bilirubin. Early identification of the risk factors could be important in the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26754535

  18. The effects of positive and negative social exchanges on aging adults.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll-Dayton, B; Morgan, D; Antonucci, T

    1997-07-01

    This study tested various models of the effects of positive and negative exchanges on positive and negative affect using structural equation modeling. Based on a probability sample of middle-aged and older adults, the relationships between social exchanges and psychological well-being were examined both within the total sample and within subgroups of individuals who had experienced few vs many life events. Within the general population, the Domain Specific Model resulted in the best fit. That is, positive exchanges were associated with positive affect, and negative exchanges were associated with negative affect. However, among the subgroup that had experienced more life events, there was a significantly stronger relationship between negative exchanges and negative affect. These findings suggest that, to understand the effects of social exchanges, it is important to consider the context of life events. PMID:9224447

  19. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population. PMID:26697266

  20. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain. PMID:24559531

  1. Context Memory Decline in Middle Aged Adults is Related to Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Function.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Diana; Maillet, David; Pasvanis, Stamatoula; Ankudowich, Elizabeth; Grady, Cheryl L; Rajah, M Natasha

    2016-06-01

    The ability to encode and retrieve spatial and temporal contextual details of episodic memories (context memory) begins to decline at midlife. In the current study, event-related fMRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of context memory decline in healthy middle aged adults (MA) compared with young adults (YA). Participants were scanned while performing easy and hard versions of spatial and temporal context memory tasks. Scans were obtained at encoding and retrieval. Significant reductions in context memory retrieval accuracy were observed in MA, compared with YA. The fMRI results revealed that overall, both groups exhibited similar patterns of brain activity in parahippocampal cortex, ventral occipito-temporal regions and prefrontal cortex (PFC) during encoding. In contrast, at retrieval, there were group differences in ventral occipito-temporal and PFC activity, due to these regions being more activated in MA, compared with YA. Furthermore, only in YA, increased encoding activity in ventrolateral PFC, and increased retrieval activity in occipital cortex, predicted increased retrieval accuracy. In MA, increased retrieval activity in anterior PFC predicted increased retrieval accuracy. These results suggest that there are changes in PFC contributions to context memory at midlife. PMID:25882039

  2. When is acute persistent cough in school-age children and adults whooping cough?

    PubMed Central

    Philipson, Kathryn; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Grant, Cameron C; Chong, Angela; Turner, Nikki; Stewart, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background Pertussis is a vaccine modified disease in most age groups and hence subtle in its presentation. Current diagnostic approaches require relatively invasive sampling. Aim To determine the incidence of B. pertussis infection among people aged 5–49 years identified in primary care with acute persistent cough using an oral fluid based diagnostic test. Design and setting Active surveillance of acute persistent cough of 2 weeks duration or greater was established in Auckland, New Zealand from May to October 2011. The 15 participating primary care practices provided care for a socioeconomically diverse population. Method Recent B. pertussis infection was determined by measurement of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) in an oral fluid sample. An IgG antibody titre to PT of ≥70 arbitrary units defined recent infection. Participants reported symptoms at presentation and kept a cough diary. Results A total of 226 participants were enrolled: 70 (31%) were children (5–16 years) and 156 (69%) were adults (17–49 years). Oral fluid samples were obtained from 225 participants. Ten per cent (23/225) had recent B. pertussis infection including a larger proportion of children than adults (17% versus 7%, P = 0.003). Neither cough duration nor any individual symptom discriminated between those with and without recent B. pertussis infection. Conclusion Pertussis is a frequent cause of acute persistent cough presenting to primary care. Clinical differentiation of pertussis from other causes of acute persistent cough is difficult. An oral fluid based diagnostic test, which is less invasive than other diagnostic approaches, has high acceptability in primary care. PMID:23972198

  3. Functional Network Endophenotypes Unravel the Effects of Apolipoprotein E Epsilon 4 in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Li, Wenjun; Ward, B. Douglas; Franczak, Malgorzata B.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Antuono, Piero G.; Li, Shi-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE-ε4) accentuates memory decline, structural volume loss and cerebral amyloid deposition in cognitively healthy adults. We investigated whether APOE-ε4 carriers will show disruptions in the intrinsic cognitive networks, including the default mode (DMN), executive control (ECN) and salience (SN) networks, relative to noncarriers in middle-aged healthy adults; and the extent to which episodic-memory performance is related to the altered functional connectivity (Fc) in these networks. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI) was used to measure the differences in the DMN, ECN and SN Fc between 20 APOE-ε4 carriers and 26 noncarriers. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between episodic-memory performance and Fc differences in the three resting-state networks across all subjects. There were no significant differences in the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics and the gray-matter volumes in the carriers and noncarriers. While mostly diminished DMN and ECN functional connectivities were seen, enhanced connections to the DMN structures were found in the SN in ε4 carriers. Altered DMN and ECN were associated with episodic memory performance. Significant Fc differences in the brain networks implicated in cognition were seen in middle-aged individuals with a genetic risk for AD, in the absence of cognitive decline and gray-matter atrophy. Prospective studies are essential to elucidate the potential of R-fMRI technique as a biomarker for predicting conversion from normal to early AD in healthy APOE-ε4 carriers. PMID:23424640

  4. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:26895999

  5. Plasma and Serum Lipidomics of Healthy White Adults Shows Characteristic Profiles by Subjects’ Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Kosuke; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Tajima, Yoko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1) investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma) that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2) elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3) examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group) of young and elderly (25–34 and 55–64 years old, respectively) males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum). Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual’s blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites is

  6. “I’m still raring to go”: Successful Aging Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Driskell, Jeff; Bradford, Judith

    2012-01-01

    While we know that minority status differentiates the experience of aging, little research has been done to examine the ways in which patterns of successful aging may differ in diverse subgroups of older adults. In this exploratory study, we investigated and described experiences of successful aging in a sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Directed by a community-based participatory research process, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 22 LGBT adults, age 60 and older. We took an inductive, grounded theory approach to analyze the taped and transcribed interviews. We coded respondent experiences in four domains: physical health, mental health, emotional state and social engagement. Four gradations of successful aging emerged. Very few in our sample met the bar for “traditional success” characterized by the absence of problems in all four domains of health. Most of the sample was coping to a degree with problems and were categorized in one of two gradations on a continuum of successful aging: “surviving and thriving” and “working at it.” A small number was “ailing”: not coping well with problems. Some of the experiences that respondents described were related to LGBT status; others were related to more general processes of aging. The research suggests that a successful aging framework that is modified to include coping can better describe the experiences of LGBT older adults. The modified conceptual model outlined here may be useful in future research on this population, as well as more broadly for diverse populations of adults, and may be adapted for use in practice to assess and improve health and well-being. PMID:23273552

  7. Ageing and the Moses illusion: older adults fall for Moses but if asked directly, stick with Noah.

    PubMed

    Umanath, Sharda; Dolan, Patrick O; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Many people respond "two" to the question "How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the ark?", even though they know the reference should be to Noah. The Moses Illusion demonstrates a failure to apply stored knowledge (Erickson & Mattson, 1981). Of interest was whether older adults' robust knowledge bases would protect them from vulnerability to this illusion. Of secondary interest were any age differences in the memorial consequences of the illusion, and whether older adults' prior knowledge would protect them from later reproducing information from distorted questions (e.g., later saying that Moses took two animals of each kind on the ark). Surprisingly, older adults fell for the Moses Illusion more often than did younger adults. However, falling for the illusion did not affect older adults' later memory; they were less suggestible than young adults. Most importantly, older adults were more likely to recover from exposure to distorted questions and respond correctly. Explanations of these findings, drawing on theories of cognitive ageing, are discussed. PMID:23705952

  8. Reported exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors: the roles of adult age and global perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Robert S; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M

    2008-03-01

    A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The present study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (M age = 20) and 116 older (M age = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14-day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported exposure to daily stressors is reduced in old age but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between younger and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported exposure to daily stressors in older adults and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. PMID:18361654

  9. Single stance stability and proprioceptive control in older adults living at home: gender and age differences.

    PubMed

    Riva, Dario; Mamo, Carlo; Fanì, Mara; Saccavino, Patrizia; Rocca, Flavio; Momenté, Manuel; Fratta, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women) living at home, aged 65-84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station. The single stance test showed the impairment of single stance stability in older individuals (75-84 yrs). The significant decline of stability in the older subjects may be explained by the impairment of proprioceptive control together with the decrease in compensatory visual stabilization and emergency responses. Younger subjects (65-74 yrs) exhibited better, but still inadequate, proprioceptive control with compensatory visual stabilization. Gender differences appeared in older subjects: women were significantly less stable than men. The measurement of the sensory components of single stance stability could aid in the early detection of a decay in antigravity movements many years before the risk of falling becomes evident. Adequate proprioceptive control could mitigate the effects of all other risks of falling. PMID:23984068

  10. Distinct Brain and Behavioral Benefits from Cognitive vs. Physical Training: A Randomized Trial in Aging Adults.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sandra B; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S; Keebler, Molly W; DeFina, Laura F; Didehbani, Nyaz; Perez, Alison M; Lu, Hanzhang; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Insidious declines in normal aging are well-established. Emerging evidence suggests that non-pharmacological interventions, specifically cognitive and physical training, may counter diminishing age-related cognitive and brain functions. This randomized trial compared effects of two training protocols: cognitive training (CT) vs. physical training (PT) on cognition and brain function in adults 56-75 years. Sedentary participants (N = 36) were randomized to either CT or PT group for 3 h/week over 12 weeks. They were assessed at baseline-, mid-, and post-training using neurocognitive, MRI, and physiological measures. The CT group improved on executive function whereas PT group's memory was enhanced. Uniquely deploying cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR) MRI, the CT cohort showed increased CBF within the prefrontal and middle/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) without change to CVR compared to PT group. Improvements in complex abstraction were positively associated with increased resting CBF in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Exercisers with higher CBF in hippocampi bilaterally showed better immediate memory. The preliminary evidence indicates that increased cognitive and physical activity improves brain health in distinct ways. Reasoning training enhanced frontal networks shown to be integral to top-down cognitive control and brain resilience. Evidence of increased resting CBF without changes to CVR implicates increased neural health rather than improved vascular response. Exercise did not improve cerebrovascular response, although CBF increased in hippocampi of those with memory gains. Distinct benefits incentivize testing effectiveness of combined protocols to strengthen brain health. PMID:27462210

  11. The stories we keep: autobiographical memory in American and Chinese middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Conway, Martin A

    2004-10-01

    One hundred and eight European American and Chinese adults, aged between 38 and 60, participated in this questionnaire study. They each recalled 20 memories from any period of their lives. Memory content was analyzed as a function of culture (U.S. and China), life period (childhood, youth, early midlife, and peak midlife), and gender (female and male). Across the four life periods, Americans provided more memories of individual experiences and unique, one-time events and focused on their own roles and emotions. In contrast, Chinese were more inclined to recall memories of social and historical events and placed a great emphasis on social interactions and significant others in their memory narratives. Chinese also more frequently drew upon past events to convey moral messages than did Americans. In addition, memory content evidenced age-related increases in both autonomous and social orientations. Findings are discussed in light of the self-definitional and directive functions of Autobiographical memory in the context of culture. PMID:15335332

  12. Distinct Brain and Behavioral Benefits from Cognitive vs. Physical Training: A Randomized Trial in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sandra B.; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Keebler, Molly W.; DeFina, Laura F.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Perez, Alison M.; Lu, Hanzhang; D'Esposito, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Insidious declines in normal aging are well-established. Emerging evidence suggests that non-pharmacological interventions, specifically cognitive and physical training, may counter diminishing age-related cognitive and brain functions. This randomized trial compared effects of two training protocols: cognitive training (CT) vs. physical training (PT) on cognition and brain function in adults 56–75 years. Sedentary participants (N = 36) were randomized to either CT or PT group for 3 h/week over 12 weeks. They were assessed at baseline-, mid-, and post-training using neurocognitive, MRI, and physiological measures. The CT group improved on executive function whereas PT group's memory was enhanced. Uniquely deploying cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR) MRI, the CT cohort showed increased CBF within the prefrontal and middle/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) without change to CVR compared to PT group. Improvements in complex abstraction were positively associated with increased resting CBF in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Exercisers with higher CBF in hippocampi bilaterally showed better immediate memory. The preliminary evidence indicates that increased cognitive and physical activity improves brain health in distinct ways. Reasoning training enhanced frontal networks shown to be integral to top-down cognitive control and brain resilience. Evidence of increased resting CBF without changes to CVR implicates increased neural health rather than improved vascular response. Exercise did not improve cerebrovascular response, although CBF increased in hippocampi of those with memory gains. Distinct benefits incentivize testing effectiveness of combined protocols to strengthen brain health. PMID:27462210

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine and cognition in subjects across the adult age span.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lucy Y; Murphy, Richard R; Hanscom, Brett; Li, Ge; Millard, Steven P; Petrie, Eric C; Galasko, Douglas R; Sikkema, Carl; Raskind, Murray A; Wilkinson, Charles W; Peskind, Elaine R

    2013-10-01

    Adequate central nervous system noradrenergic activity enhances cognition, but excessive noradrenergic activity may have adverse effects on cognition. Previous studies have also demonstrated that noradrenergic activity is higher in older than younger adults. We aimed to determine relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) norepinephrine (NE) concentration and cognitive performance by using data from a CSF bank that includes samples from 258 cognitively normal participants aged 21-100 years. After adjusting for age, gender, education, and ethnicity, higher CSF NE levels (units of 100 pg/mL) are associated with poorer performance on tests of attention, processing speed, and executive function (Trail Making A: regression coefficient 1.5, standard error [SE] 0.77, p = 0.046; Trail Making B: regression coefficient 5.0, SE 2.2, p = 0.024; Stroop Word-Color Interference task: regression coefficient 6.1, SE 2.0, p = 0.003). Findings are consistent with the earlier literature relating excess noradrenergic activity with cognitive impairment. PMID:23639207

  14. Education and Physical Activity Mediate the Relationship between Ethnicity and Cognitive Function in Late Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masel, Meredith C.; Raji, Mukaila; Peek, M. Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status (SES), particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the mediating characteristics of education or physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in younger aged groups. Most research conducted focuses only on older adults during a time when degeneration of brain tissue may complicate the exploration of the relationships among ethnicity and cognitive function. The current research will expand existing knowledge about education, physical activity, and cognitive function in minority groups. Design The study presents data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults (n=9,204, mean age +-sd=55.8+-3.1). Regression and mediation testing determined the mediating effects of education and physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function. Results Significant association between white ethnicity and higher scores on cognitive tests was evident as early as late middle age. The magnitude of the association significantly diminished on adjusting for education and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential mediating role of education and physical activity on the ethnic differences in cognitive tests in late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults. Our findings suggest a need for studies to understand if adult education and culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions in middle age influence ethnic disparities in prevalence of cognitive impairment in old age. PMID:20401816

  15. Age Differences in the Trends of Smoking Among California Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Wang, Weize; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Moore, Kevin; Dunn, Erin; Huang, Shi; Feaster, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    The aim is to study the trends of cigarette smoking from 2001 to 2012 using a California representative sample in the US. Data was taken from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2001 to 2012, which is a population-based, biennial, random digit-dial telephone survey of the non-institutionalized population. The CHIS is the largest telephone survey in California and the largest state health survey in the US. 282,931 adults (n = 184,454 with age 18-60 and n = 98,477 with age >60) were included in the analysis. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential covariance and non-response biases. During 2001-2012, the prevalence of current smoking decreased from 18.86 to 15.4 % among adults age 18-60 (β = -0.8, p = 0.0041). As for adults age >60, the prevalence of current smoking trend decreased with variations, started from 9.66 % in 2001, slightly increased to 9.74 % in 2003, but then gradually decreased, falling to 8.18 % in 2012. In 2012, there was a 14 % reduction of daily smoking adults age 18-60 (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.93, p = 0.0006) compared to 2001, while no significant reduction of daily smoking was observed for those age >60. The reductions of smoking prevalence for adults younger than 60 are encouraging. However, there is a concern for smoking cessation rates among those older than 60 years of age, particularly for African Americans. PMID:25929677

  16. Perceived weight discrimination in England: a population-based study of adults aged ⩾50 years

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S E; Steptoe, A; Beeken, R J; Croker, H; Wardle, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a wealth of experimental studies on weight bias, little is known about weight discrimination at the population level. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of perceived weight discrimination in a large population-based sample of older adults. Methods: Data were from 5307 adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; a population-based cohort of men and women aged ⩾50 years. Weight discrimination was reported for five domains (less respect/courtesy; treated as less clever; poorer treatment in medical settings; poorer service in restaurants/stores; threatened/harassed) at wave 5 (2010–2011). Height and weight were measured at wave 4 (2008–2009). We used logistic regression to test the odds of weight discrimination in relation to weight status, age, sex, wealth, education and marital status. Results: Perceived weight discrimination in any domain was reported by 4.6% of participants, ranging from 0.8% in the normal-weight participants through 0.9, 6.7, 24.2 and 35.1% in individuals who were overweight or met criteria for class I, II and III obesity. Overall, and in each situation, odds of perceived weight discrimination were higher in younger and less wealthy individuals. There was no interaction between weight status and any socio-demographic variable. Relative to normal-weight participants, odds ratios for any perceived weight discrimination were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.53–2.40) in those who were overweight, 8.86 (4.65–16.88) in those with class I obesity, 35.06 (18.30–67.16) in class II obese and 56.43 (27.72–114.87) in class III obese. Conclusions: Our results indicate that rates of perceived weight discrimination are comparatively low in individuals who are overweight or have class I obesity, but for those with class II/III obesity, >10% had experienced discrimination in each domain, and >20% had been treated with less respect or courtesy. These findings have implications for public

  17. Neural correlates of the age-related changes in motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in older adults

    PubMed Central

    King, Bradley R.; Fogel, Stuart M.; Albouy, Geneviève; Doyon, Julien

    2013-01-01

    As the world's population ages, a deeper understanding of the relationship between aging and motor learning will become increasingly relevant in basic research and applied settings. In this context, this review aims to address the effects of age on motor sequence learning (MSL) and motor adaptation (MA) with respect to behavioral, neurological, and neuroimaging findings. Previous behavioral research investigating the influence of aging on motor learning has consistently reported the following results. First, the initial acquisition of motor sequences is not altered, except under conditions of increased task complexity. Second, older adults demonstrate deficits in motor sequence memory consolidation. And, third, although older adults demonstrate deficits during the exposure phase of MA paradigms, the aftereffects following removal of the sensorimotor perturbation are similar to young adults, suggesting that the adaptive ability of older adults is relatively intact. This paper will review the potential neural underpinnings of these behavioral results, with a particular emphasis on the influence of age-related dysfunctions in the cortico-striatal system on motor learning. PMID:23616757

  18. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  19. Blood glucose levels and cortical thinning in cognitively normal, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Spira, Adam P; Pettigrew, Corinne; Soldan, Anja; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Rebok, George W; Roses, Allen D; Lutz, Michael W; Miller, Michael M; Thambisetty, Madhav; Albert, Marilyn S

    2016-06-15

    Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk for cognitive decline and is associated with brain atrophy in older demented and non-demented individuals. We investigated (1) the cross-sectional association between fasting blood glucose level and cortical thickness in a sample of largely middle-aged, cognitively normal adults, and (2) whether these associations were modified by genes associated with both lipid processing and dementia. To explore possible modifications by genetic status, we investigated the interaction between blood glucose levels and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOMM) 40 '523 genotype on cortical thickness. Cortical thickness measures were based on mean thickness in a subset of a priori-selected brain regions hypothesized to be vulnerable to atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., 'AD vulnerable regions'). Participants included 233 cognitively normal subjects in the BIOCARD study who had a measure of fasting blood glucose and cortical thickness measures, quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, depression, and medical conditions, higher blood glucose was associated with thinner parahippocampal gyri (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0004) and temporal pole (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0001), as well as reduced average thickness over AD vulnerable regions (B=-0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). There was no evidence for greater cortical thinning in ε4 carriers of the APOE gene or in APOE ε3/3 individuals carrying the TOMM40 VL/VL genotypes. When individuals with glucose levels in the diabetic range (≥126mg/dL), were excluded from the analysis, the associations between glucose levels and cortical thickness were no longer significant. These findings suggest that glucose levels in the diabetic range are associated with reduced cortical thickness in AD vulnerable regions as early as middle age. PMID:27206882

  20. Exercise Blood Pressure and the Risk for Future Hypertension Among Normotensive Middle‐Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle‐aged adults. Methods and Results We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses (≤158; 158 to 170; 170 to 183; ≥183 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and ≤73; 73 to 77; 77 to 82; ≥82 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure). Mean age of the study population was 48±9 years and 73% were men. Average baseline resting blood pressure was 120/77±12/7 mm Hg. During a follow‐up of 5±3 years, 1036 (14.6%) subjects developed hypertension. The cumulative probability of new‐onset hypertension at 5 years was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of exercise systolic blood pressure (5%, 9%, 17%, and 35%, respectively; P<0.001), with a similar association shown for diastolic blood pressure. After adjustment for baseline resting blood pressure and clinical parameters, each 5‐mm Hg increments in exercise either systolic or diastolic blood pressures were independently associated with respective 11% (P<0.001) and 30% (P<0.001) increased risk for the development of hypertension. Conclusions In normotensive middle‐aged individuals, blood pressure response to exercise is associated with future development of hypertension. PMID:25904593

  1. The incidence of cervical spondylosis decreases with aging in the elderly, and increases with aging in the young and adult population: a hospital-based clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuanling; Tian, Fuming; Zhou, Yingjun; He, Wenbo; Cai, Zhiyou

    2016-01-01

    cervical spondylosis increases with aging in the young and the adults. This investigation implicates that aging is not only a contributor to the clinical performance of cervical spondylosis in the elderly, although the incidence of cervical spondylosis is proportional to the progress of age. PMID:26834465

  2. "How Old Are You?"--The Question of Age Bias in the Counseling of Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.; Nowak, Carol

    1976-01-01

    Attention is called to the probability that counselors and psychotherapists share the age stereotypes of other Americans. Kinds of age bias are noted: age restrictiveness, age distortion, and negative attitudes associated with particular ages. (Author)

  3. Are seat belt restraints as effective in school age children as in adults? A prospective crash study

    PubMed Central

    Halman, Stephen I; Chipman, Mary; Parkin, Patricia C; Wright, James G

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study effectiveness of seat belts for protecting school age children in road vehicle crashes. Design Crash examinations by trained investigators. Setting Ten Canadian university based crash investigation centres. Subjects 470 children aged 4-14 years, with 168 selected for detailed analysis, and 1301 adults. Main outcomes measures Use of seat belts by vehicle occupants; severity of injury adjusted for age and crash severity. Results Overall, 40% (189/470) of children were unbelted. Of the 335 children in cars driven by belted adults, 73 (22%) were unbelted. The odds of sustaining fatal or moderately severe injury (injury severity score ⩾4) for children in the front passenger seat was more than nine times higher for unbelted children than for belted ones (odds ratio 9.8 (95% confidence interval 2.4 to 39.4)) and for those in the rear left seat was more than two times higher for unbelted than for belted children (2.6 (1.1 to 5.9)). The protection afforded by seat belts compared favourably with the results for adults in the same seat positions (odds ratios for unbelted v belted adults of 2.4 and 2.7 for front and rear seat passengers respectively). Conclusions Seat belts helped to protect school age children from injury in road vehicle crashes. However, 40% of children were unbelted. Despite standard seat belts being designed for adults, school age children were at least as well protected as adults. What is already known on this topicAlthough child restraints protect young children in road vehicle crashes, it is not known whether standard seat belts used by school age children work as wellSchool age children are often unbelted in carsWhat this study addsData from detailed crash assessments indicate that seat belts protected children at least as well as adultsAdults were more likely than children to be belted, and 22% of children travelling with belted drivers were unbelted PMID:12003883

  4. Age and education corrected older adult normative data for a short form version of the Financial Capacity Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C; Marson, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Because of its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument-Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within 4 empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: (a) compare an individual's performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, (b) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and (c) make comparisons between these aspects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26168311

  5. Effects of Timing, Sex, and Age on Site-Specific Gastrointestinal Permeability Testing in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    McOmber, Mark E.; Ou, Ching-Nan; Shulman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objectives Measurement of gastrointestinal (GI) permeability is used commonly in research and often clinically. Despite its utility, little is known about sugar excretion timeframes or the potential effects of age and gender in GI permeability testing. We sought to determine the timeframes of sugar excretion and the potential effects of age and gender on urinary recovery of the sugars. Methods Healthy adults (n=17) and children (n=15) fasted four hours after the evening meal and then ingested a solution of sucrose, lactulose, mannitol, and sucralose. Urine was collected at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after ingestion and then each time the subjects voided over the next 24 hr. Each urine void was collected separately. Results Median age for the adults was 47.5 yr. (range 21-57 yr.) and for children 10 yr. (5-17). There were no differences between children and adults in mean percent dose of sugar recovered. The time of peak urinary recovery of the sugars was generally similar between children and adults. Sucrose urinary recovery declined with age (P = 0.008; r2 = 0.19) unrelated to gender. Lactulose and sucralose urinary recovery declined with age in females (P = 0.05, r2 = 0.24 and P = 0.011, r2 = 0.41, respectively) but not in males. Conclusions Overall, sugar urinary recovery is comparable in children and adults. Specific sugar urinary recovery may change as a function of age and/or gender. These results need to be taken into account when planning and interpreting GI permeability studies. PMID:20081547

  6. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning. PMID:26983399

  7. Language, aging, and cognition: frontal aslant tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus contribute toward working memory performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rizio, Avery A; Diaz, Michele T

    2016-06-15

    Previous research has documented change in white matter tract integrity with increasing age. Both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric tracts that underlie language processing are susceptible to these age-related changes. The aim of the current study was to explore age and white matter integrity in language-related tracts as predictors of cognitive task performance in younger and older adults. To this end, we carried out principal component analyses of white matter tracts and confirmatory factor analysis of neuropsychological measures. We next carried out a series of regression analyses that used white matter components to predict scores on each of the neuropsychological components. For both younger and older adults, age was a significant predictor of processing speed and working memory. However, white matter integrity did not contribute independently toward these models. In older adults only, both age and a white matter component that included the bilateral frontal aslant tract and left superior longitudinal fasciculus were significant predictors of working memory. Taken together, these results extend our understanding of the contributions of language-related white matter structure to cognitive processing and highlight the effects of age-related differences in both frontal and dorsal tracts. PMID:27138951

  8. Achilles tendon displacement patterns during passive stretch and eccentric loading are altered in middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Slane, Laura Chernak; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate middle-age effects on Achilles displacement patterns under passive stretch and eccentric loading. Healthy young (24.1±1.4 years, n=9) and middle-aged (49.0±3.1 years, n=9) adults were positioned prone and the ankle was cyclically (0.5 Hz, 25 deg range) dorsiflexed during passive stretch and active lengthening. Achilles displacements were tracked in cine ultrasound using 2D speckle tracking. Displacements were found to be non-uniform, with mid and deep portions of the tendon displacing more than superficial portions. However, the degree of non-uniformity was significantly reduced in middle-aged adults, suggesting a potential age-related reduction in inter-fascicle sliding or a shift in loading sharing between plantarflexors. Eccentric loading reduced displacement magnitudes, likely reflecting distal tendon stretch induced via active muscle contractions. Changes in tendon displacement with active loading were greater in middle-aged adults, which could reflect greater tendon compliance. The observed age-related changes in Achilles tendon behavior may have implications for both plantarflexor performance and injury risk. PMID:25962378

  9. Whole-brain grey matter density predicts balance stability irrespective of age and protects older adults from falling.

    PubMed

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Levin, Oron; Renaud, Olivier; Chanal, Julien; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-03-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the brain in balance control. Nevertheless, how decisive grey matter density and white matter microstructural organisation are in predicting balance stability, and especially when linked to the effects of ageing, remains unclear. Standing balance was tested on a platform moving at different frequencies and amplitudes in 30 young and 30 older adults, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Centre of pressure variance was used as an indicator of balance instability. The mean density of grey matter and mean white matter microstructural organisation were measured using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Mixed-effects models were built to analyse the extent to which age, grey matter density, and white matter microstructural organisation predicted balance instability. Results showed that both grey matter density and age independently predicted balance instability. These predictions were reinforced when the level of difficulty of the conditions increased. Furthermore, grey matter predicted balance instability beyond age and at least as consistently as age across conditions. In other words, for balance stability, the level of whole-brain grey matter density is at least as decisive as being young or old. Finally, brain grey matter appeared to be protective against falls in older adults as age increased the probability of losing balance in older adults with low, but not moderate or high grey matter density. No such results were observed for white matter microstructural organisation, thereby reinforcing the specificity of our grey matter findings. PMID:26979897

  10. Vitamin E Status and Metabolism in Adult and Aged Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Traber, Maret G.; Mustacich, Debbie J.; Sullivan, Laura C.; Leonard, Scott W.; Ahern-Rindell, Amelia; Kerkvliet, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is involved in regulation of mechanisms for detoxification of xenobiotics, as well as vitamin A metabolism. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble nutrient whose metabolism is initialized via the cytochrome P450 system. Thus, AhR absence could alter hepatic regulation of α-tocopherol metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we assessed vitamin E status in adult (2–5 m) and old (21–22 m), wildtype and AhR-null mice. Plasma α-tocopherol concentrations in AhR null mice (2.3 ± 1.2 μmol/L, n= 19) were lower than those of wildtype mice (3.2 ± 1.2, n=17, P=0.0131); those in old mice (3.2 ± 1.2, n= 20) were higher than those of adults (2.2 ± 1.0, n=16, p=0.0075). Hepatic α-tocopherol concentrations were not different between genotypes, but were nearly double in old (32 ± 8 nmol/g, n=20) as compared with adult mice (17 ± 2, n=16, p<0.0001). Hepatic Cyp3a concentrations in AhR-null mice were greater than those in wildtypes (p=0.0011). Genotype (p=0.0047), sex (p<0.0001) and age (p<0.0001) were significant modifiers of liver α-tocopherol metabolite (α-CEHC) concentrations. In general, Cyp3a concentrations correlated with hepatic α-tocopherol (r= 0.3957, p<0.05) and α-CEHC (r=0.4260, p<0.05) concentrations. Since there were no significant genotype differences in the hepatic α- or γ-tocopherol concentrations, AhR null mice did not have dramatically altered vitamin E metabolism. Since they did have higher hepatic α-CEHC concentrations, these data suggest metabolism was up-regulated in the AhR null mice in order to maintain the hepatic tocopherol concentrations similar to those of wildtypes. PMID:20153623

  11. Auditory Perceptual Learning in Adults with and without Age-Related Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Karawani, Hanin; Bitan, Tali; Attias, Joseph; Banai, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : Speech recognition in adverse listening conditions becomes more difficult as we age, particularly for individuals with age-related hearing loss (ARHL). Whether these difficulties can be eased with training remains debated, because it is not clear whether the outcomes are sufficiently general to be of use outside of the training context. The aim of the current study was to compare training-induced learning and generalization between normal-hearing older adults and those with ARHL. Methods : Fifty-six listeners (60–72 y/o), 35 participants with ARHL, and 21 normal hearing adults participated in the study. The study design was a cross over design with three groups (immediate-training, delayed-training, and no-training group). Trained participants received 13 sessions of home-based auditory training over the course of 4 weeks. Three adverse listening conditions were targeted: (1) Speech-in-noise, (2) time compressed speech, and (3) competing speakers, and the outcomes of training were compared between normal and ARHL groups. Pre- and post-test sessions were completed by all participants. Outcome measures included tests on all of the trained conditions as well as on a series of untrained conditions designed to assess the transfer of learning to other speech and non-speech conditions. Results : Significant improvements on all trained conditions were observed in both ARHL and normal-hearing groups over the course of training. Normal hearing participants learned more than participants with ARHL in the speech-in-noise condition, but showed similar patterns of learning in the other conditions. Greater pre- to post-test changes were observed in trained than in untrained listeners on all trained conditions. In addition, the ability of trained listeners from the ARHL group to discriminate minimally different pseudowords in noise also improved with training. Conclusions : ARHL did not preclude auditory perceptual learning but there was little generalization to

  12. Mental Time Travel into the Past and the Future in Healthy Aged Adults: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viard, Armelle; Chetelat, Gael; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Beatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal…

  13. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF A SINGLE DOSE OF 1,3-DINITROBENZENE IN TWO AGES OF YOUNG ADULT MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (M-DNB). oung adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24, ...

  14. Age-Related Differences in the Relation between Motivation to Learn and Transfer of Training in Adult Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Vauras, Marja

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis (k = 38, N = 6977) examined age-related differences in the relation between motivation to learn and transfer of training, using data derived from the literature on adult continuing education of the past 25 years. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, a lifespan approach to expectancy theory, and research on interest and…

  15. Feasibility of a Home-based Speed of Processing Training Program in Middle-aged and Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cody, Shameka L.; Fazeli, Pariya; Vance, David E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been much optimism over the positive impact of cART on life expectancy for people with HIV; however, those aging with HIV fear potential day-to-day challenges associated with the development of cognitive deficits. The presence of cognitive deficits has generated major safety concerns as it has been shown to impact driving, mobility, and employment. Given the efficacy of a computerized speed of processing training program administered in the laboratory to older adults and adults with HIV, this study was designed to determine the feasibility of a home-based speed of processing training program in improving cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults with HIV. In this within-subjects pre-post experimental design, twenty middle-aged and older adults (i.e., age 40+) with HIV were administered a brief neuropsychological assessment to gauge their baseline cognitive function before participating in a 10-hour home-based computerized cognitive remediation training program. In addition to self-reported cognitive gains, a six-week posttest indicated significant improvements on the Useful Field of View (UFOV®), a measure of speed of processing and possible transfer to the Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living test, a measure of everyday functioning. These findings show that speed of processing training can successfully improve cognitive function in this vulnerable population even when administered in remote settings such as the privacy of one's home. PMID:26153789

  16. Predicting Commitment in Adult and Traditional-Age Students: Applying Rusbult's Investment Model to the Study of Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cini, Marie A.; Fritz, Janie M. Harden

    Rusbult's Investment Model, a theoretical model of commitment based on notions of social exchange and interdependence theory, was used to predict college commitment in traditional-age and adult college students. A questionnaire assessing rewards, costs, investments, alternatives, and commitment to college was administered to 216 traditional-age…

  17. Effects of chronic overload on muscle hypertrophy and mTOR signaling in adult and aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effect of 28 days of overload on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in young adult (Y; 6 mo old) and aged (O; 30 mo old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats subjected to bilateral synergist ablation (SA) of two-thirds of the gas...

  18. "Old People Are Cranky": Helping Professional Trainees' Knowledge, Attitudes, Aging Anxiety, and Interest in Working with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a gerontology education course in decreasing ageism and aging anxiety and increasing knowledge and interest in working with older adults among undergraduates training for social services careers. Participants completed study measures at the beginning and end of semester. Analyses supported the study…

  19. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  20. Causes of Age-Related Decline in Adaptive Behavior of Adults with Down Syndrome: Differential Diagnoses of Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted of 201 adults with Down's syndrome to investigate the differential causes of decline in adaptive behavior. Results indicated that aging, dementia, and severity of mental retardation were significant factors, while absence of a medical illness predicted a higher level of adaptive behavior. (CR)

  1. Semantic and Phonological Loop Effects on Verbal Working Memory in Middle-Age Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Semantic and phonological loop effects on verbal working memory were examined among middle-age adults with Down syndrome and those with unspecified mental retardation in the context of Baddeley's working memory model. Recall was poorer for phonologically similar, semantically similar, and long words compared to recall of dissimilar short words.…

  2. Age of First Use as a Predictor of Current Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College-Bound Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa K.; Lape, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly used psychoactive substances; however, the sequencing and relationship between age of first use and continued current problematic use among college-bound emerging adults is not well understood. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of current and historical alcohol and marijuana use among…

  3. Older-Aged Parents: The Final Safety Net for Adult Sons and Daughters with AIDS in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knodel, John; Saengtienchai, Chanpen

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the role that older-aged parents play in the care and support of adult sons and daughters with HIV or AIDS and of AIDS orphans in Thailand within the context of a limited institutional safety net. The analysis draws on both quantitative and qualitative data from survey and open-ended interviews with the parents and from…

  4. Healthful Menus and Recipes for Children Over Two Years of Age in the Child and Adult Care Food Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Julie A.; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Brown, J. Lynne

    Noting that children will adjust their food intake to their energy needs, and that offering a variety of foods often will increase their acceptance of new foods, this guide offers instruction on the proper feeding of children ages 3 to 5 in Pennsylvania's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). The menus presented in the guide follow the…

  5. Psychosocial Adaptation to Visual Impairment and Its Relationship to Depressive Affect in Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Jennifer; Hill, Robert D.; Kleinschmidt, Julia J.; Gregg, Charles H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examined psychosocial adaptation to vision loss and its relationship to depressive symptomatology in legally blind older adults with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Design and Methods: The 144 study participants were outpatients of a large regional vision clinic that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of…

  6. Feasibility of a Home-Based Speed of Processing Training Program in Middle-Aged and Older Adults With HIV.

    PubMed

    Cody, Shameka L; Fazeli, Pariya L; Vance, David E

    2015-08-01

    There has been much optimism over the positive impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on life expectancy for people with HIV; however, those aging with HIV fear potential day-to-day challenges associated with the development of cognitive deficits. The presence of cognitive deficits has generated major safety concerns because it has been shown to impact driving, mobility, and employment. Given the efficacy of a computerized speed of processing training program administered in the laboratory to older adults and adults with HIV, this study was designed to determine the feasibility of using a home-based speed of processing training program to improve cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults with HIV. In this within-subject pre-post experimental design, 20 middle-aged and older adults (i.e., age of 40+ years) with HIV were administered a brief neuropsychological assessment to gauge their baseline cognitive function before participating in a 10-hour home-based computerized cognitive remediation training program. In addition to self-reported cognitive gains, a 6-week posttest indicated significant improvements on the Useful Field of View, a measure of speed of processing and possible transfer to the Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living test, a measure of everyday functioning. These findings show that speed of processing training can successfully improve cognitive function in this vulnerable population even when administered in remote settings such as the privacy of one's home. PMID:26153789

  7. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  8. Drug use among HIV+ adults aged 50 and older: findings from the GOLD II study.

    PubMed

    Ompad, Danielle C; Giobazolia, Tatiana T; Barton, Staci C; Halkitis, Sophia N; Boone, Cheriko A; Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Urbina, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nexus of aging, HIV, and substance use is key to providing appropriate services and support for their aging, HIV seropositive patients. The proportion of PLWHA aged 50 and older is growing due to a variety of factors like decreases in mortality due to highly active retroviral therapy and non-negligible HIV incidence. We describe prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and participation in substance use treatment and 12-step programs among 95 HIV-positive patients aged 50 and older engaged in care. Most (73.7%) smoked cigarettes in their lifetime and 46.3% were current smokers. Most were at medium (81.1%) or high risk (13.7%) for an alcohol use disorder. With respect to illicit drug use, 48.4% had used marijuana, cocaine, crack, methamphetamines, heroin, and/or prescription opiates without a prescription in the last 12 months; 23.2% met criteria for drug dependence. Marijuana was the most commonly reported illicit drug (32.6%) followed by cocaine and crack (10.5% each), heroin and prescription opiates (7.4% each), and methamphetamines (6.3%). Among those who had not used drugs in the past 12 months, 36.7% had been in a substance use treatment program and 26.5% had participated in a 12-step program in their lifetime; 8.2% were currently in treatment and 16.3% were currently participating in a 12-step program. Among those who had used an illicit drug in the past 12 months, 37.0% had never been in treatment, 34.8% had been in treatment in their lifetime, and 28.3% were currently in treatment. With respect to 12-step programs, 27.3% of those meeting dependence criteria had never participated, 45.5% had participated in their lifetimes, and 27.3% were currently participating. Our findings suggest that older adults in HIV care settings could benefit from Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment interventions and/or integrated services for substance abuse and medical treatment. PMID:27145363

  9. Age Estimation in Living Adults using 3D Volume Rendered CT Images of the Sternal Plastron and Lower Chest.

    PubMed

    Oldrini, Guillaume; Harter, Valentin; Witte, Yannick; Martrille, Laurent; Blum, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Age estimation is commonly of interest in a judicial context. In adults, it is less documented than in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate age estimation in adults using CT images of the sternal plastron with volume rendering technique (VRT). The evaluation criteria are derived from known methods used for age estimation and are applicable in living or dead subjects. The VRT images of 456 patients were analyzed. Two radiologists performed age estimation independently from an anterior view of the plastron. Interobserver agreement and correlation coefficients between each reader's classification and real age were calculated. The interobserver agreement was 0.86, and the correlation coefficients between readers classifications and real age classes were 0.60 and 0.65. Spearman correlation coefficients were, respectively, 0.89, 0.67, and 0.71. Analysis of the plastron using VRT allows age estimation in vivo quickly and with results similar than methods such as Iscan, Suchey-Brooks, and radiographs used to estimate the age of death. PMID:27092960

  10. Personal views about aging among Korean American older adults: the role of physical health, social network, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A

    2012-06-01

    Given the importance of a positive attitude towards one's own aging, we examined its predictors in a sample of 230 Korean American older adults (M (age) = 69.8 years, SD = 7.05). Personal views about aging, measured with a subscale of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), were regressed on demographic variables, physical health-related factors, and psychosocial attributes (social network and acculturation). Results from the hierarchical regression analysis showed that better physical health conditions (fewer chronic conditions, less functional disability, and better vision) were associated with more positive personal views about aging. Other significant contributors included larger social networks and higher levels of acculturation. Findings suggest that personal views about aging among immigrant elderly populations can be enhanced by promoting physical health, social connectedness, and acculturation. Ways to maintain and improve positive attitudes about personal aging are discussed in a cultural context. PMID:22581472

  11. Wais-III norms for working-age adults: a benchmark for conducting vocational, career, and employment-related evaluations.

    PubMed

    Fjordbak, Timothy; Fjordbak, Bess Sirmon

    2005-02-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scales are routinely used to assess threshold variables which correlate with subsequent job performance. Intellectual testing within educational and clinical settings accommodates natural developmental changes by referencing results to restricted age-band norms. However, accuracy in vocational and career consultation, as well as equity in hiring and promotion requires the application of a single normative benchmark unbiased by chronological age. Such unitary norms for working-age adults (18- to 64-yr.-olds) were derived from the WAIS-III standardization sample in accord with the proportional representation of the seven age-bands subsumed within this age range. Tabular summaries of results are given for the conversion of raw scores to scaled scores for the working-age population which can be used to derive IQ values and Index Scores. PMID:15825898

  12. Age estimation by modified Demirjian's method (2004) and its applicability in Tibetan young adults: A digital panoramic study

    PubMed Central

    Bijjaragi, Shobha C; Sangle, Varsha A; Saraswathi, FK; Patil, Veerendra S; Ashwini Rani, SR; Bapure, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    Context: Estimation of the age is a procedure adopted by anthropologists, archeologists and forensic scientists. Different methods have been undertaken. However none of them meet the standards as Demirjian's method since 1973. Various researchers have applied this method, in both original and modified form (Chaillet and Demirjian in 2004) in different ethnic groups and the results obtained were not satisfactory. Aims: To determine the applicability and accuracy of modified Demirjian's method of dental age estimation (AE) in 8–18 year old Tibetan young adults to evaluate the interrelationship between dental and chronological age and the reliability between intra- and inter observer relationship. Settings and Design: Clinical setting and computerized design. Subjects and Methods: A total of 300 Tibetan young adults with an age range from 8 to 18 years were recruited in the study. Digital panoramic radiographs (DPRs) were evaluated as per the modified Demirjian's method (2004). Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation, paired t-test, linear regression analysis. Results: Inter -and intraobserver reliability revealed a strong agreement. A positive and strong association was found between chronological age and estimated dental age (r = 0.839) with P < 0.01. Modified Demirjian method (2004) overestimated the age by 0.04 years (2.04 months)in Tibetan young adults. Conclusions: Results suggest that, the modified Demirjian method of AE is not suitable for Tibetan young adults. Further studies: With larger sample size and comparision with different methods of AE in a given population would be an interesting area for future research. PMID:26097317

  13. Learning at Every Age? Life Cycle Dynamics of Adult Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beblavy, Miroslav; Thum, Anna-Elisabeth; Potjagailo, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Adult learning is seen as a key factor for enhancing employment, innovation and growth. The aim of this paper is to understand the points in the life cycle at which adult learning takes place and whether it leads to reaching a medium or high level of educational attainment. We perform a synthetic panel analysis of adult learning for cohorts aged…

  14. Adult Literacy in Tennessee: An Analysis by Gender, Age, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keesler, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the state of adult literacy in Tennessee. The field of adult education underwent a transition as the testing procedure and the test changed to correlate with the induction of the Common Core standards in public schools. Adult students face many barriers to overcome to be successful. The research…

  15. Trends and variability in blood lead concentrations among US adults aged 20-64 years and senior citizens aged ≥65 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-07-01

    Using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2003-2012, the objective of this study was to evaluate trends in blood lead levels (BLL) among adults aged 20-64 years (adults) and seniors aged ≥65 years (seniors). In addition, the contribution of other factors like gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, and exposure to secondhand smoke at home in explaining variability in BLL was also evaluated by fitting regression models with log10 transformed values of BLL as dependent variables. BLL decreased over 2003-2012 (p < 0.01). Irrespective of gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status, seniors were found to have higher BLL than adults. Based on the magnitude of differences between the 5th and 95th percentiles, variability in the levels of blood lead was found to be substantially higher among seniors than among adults. Males had statistically significantly higher adjusted BLL than females (2.32 vs. 1.76 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.66 vs. 1.13 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). Non-Hispanic whites had statistically significantly lower adjusted BLL than non-Hispanic blacks (1.99 vs. 2.42 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.22 vs. 1.42 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). When compared with non-smokers, smokers had statistically significantly higher BLL (2.19 vs. 1.86 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.54 vs. 1.22 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). Non-obese had statistically significantly higher BLL than obese individuals (2.11 vs. 1.93 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.48 vs. 1.27 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). Exposure to secondhand smoke at home (SHS) was associated with statistically significantly higher BLL than when there was no exposure to SHS (β = 0.0683, p = 0.03 for seniors; β = 0.034, p = 0.034, p < 0.01 for adults). PMID:27044289

  16. Correlation between Hertel exophthalmometric value and refraction in young Cameroonian adults aged 20 to 40 years

    PubMed Central

    Dohvoma, Viola A; Epée, Emilienne; Ebana Mvogo, Stève R; Lietcheu, N Sandra; Ebana Mvogo, Côme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the relationship between exophthalmometric value (EV) and refractive error in Cameroonian young adults. Patients and methods A prospective descriptive study was carried out in the ophthalmic unit of the Yaoundé Central Hospital from March to May 2015. Consenting patients aged 20–40 years with no intraocular pathology who were seen for refractive errors were included. Ocular protrusion was measured using the Hertel exophthalmometer. Automatic refraction was done following cycloplegia with cyclopentolate and tropicamide. Results A total of 200 patients were included (68% females and 32% males). The mean age was 27.2±6 years. Hyperopia was the most common refractive error (51%), followed by hyperopic astigmatism (19.3%). EV varied between 9 mm and 23 mm, with a mean of 14.8±2.5 mm in the right eye and 15.0±2.5 mm in the left eye. The mean EVs were 17.10±2.80 mm in myopia, 14.24±1.92 mm in hyperopia, 16.72±2.58 mm in myopic astigmatism, 14.07±2.19 mm in hyperopic astigmatism, and 14.77±2.40 mm in mixed astigmatism. The spherical value had a negative correlation with EV (P=0.0000). Conclusion The mean EV of this Cameroonian population is smaller than that of other populations and is consistent with the known characteristic hyperopic status of the population. A study on a larger sample will determine the normative data of absolute and relative EV in our setting. PMID:27536057

  17. Inflammatory markers and cognitive function in middle-aged adults: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, David; Marmot, Michael G.; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are associated with low cognitive performance and decline in middle-aged adults. Design/Setting The Whitehall II study; an ongoing large-scale, prospective occupational cohort study of employees from 20 London-based white-collar Civil Service departments. Participants Data from over 3000 males and 1200 female employees. Measures Inflammatory makers measured in 1991-93 and five cognitive tests (short-term verbal memory, inductive reasoning (AH4-I), vocabulary (Mill Hill), and phonemic and semantic fluency) performed in 1997-99 and 2002-04. Performance in the lowest sex-specific quintile indicated low cognitive performance or decline. Covariates included sociodemographics, health behaviours and health conditions. Results In age-adjusted analyses both CRP and IL-6 were associated with all cognitive measures in 1997-99, even though the association with memory was not consistent. After extensive adjustment raised CRP levels were only associated with poor cognitive performance on the AH4-I (OR=1.38; 95% CI: 1.05-1.82) and Mill Hill (OR=1.52; 95% CI: 1.14-2.03) and IL-6 on semantic fluency (OR=1.27; 95%CI: 1.14-2.03). Associations were more evident in men than in women. No clear relationship was observed for decline. Conclusions Our results suggest that raised levels of inflammatory markers in midlife are moderately associated with lower cognitive status, but little with cognitive decline. PMID:18774232

  18. Vigorous physical activity and carotid distensibility in young and mid-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Quan L; Blizzard, Christopher L; Raitakari, Olli; Sharman, James E; Magnussen, Costan G; Dwyer, Terence; Juonala, Markus; Kähönen, Mika; Venn, Alison J

    2015-05-01

    Although physical activity (PA) improves arterial distensibility, it is unclear which type of activity is most beneficial. We aimed to examine the association of different types of PA with carotid distensibility (CD) and the mechanisms involved. Data included 4503 Australians and Finns aged 26-45 years. Physical activity was measured by pedometers and was self-reported. CD was measured using ultrasound. Other measurements included resting heart rate (RHR), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure, biomarkers and anthropometry. Steps/day were correlated with RHR (Australian men r = -0.10, women r = - 0.14; Finnish men r = -0.15, women r = -0.11; P<0.01), CRF and biochemical markers, but not with CD. Self-reported vigorous leisure-time activity was more strongly correlated with RHR (Australian men r = -0.23, women r = -0.19; Finnish men r = -0.20, women r = -0.13; P < 0.001) and CRF, and was correlated with CD (Australian men r = 0.07; Finnish men r = 0.07, women r = 0.08; P < 0.05). This relationship of vigorous leisure-time activity with CD was mediated by RHR independently of potential confounders. In summary, vigorous leisure-time PA but not total or less intensive PA was associated with arterial distensibility in young to mid-aged adults. Promotion of vigorous PA is therefore recommended among this population. RHR was a key intermediary factor explaining the relationship between vigorous PA and arterial distensibility. PMID:25693850

  19. Adult neurogenesis in the short-lived teleost Nothobranchius furzeri: localization of neurogenic niches, molecular characterization and effects of aging

    PubMed Central

    Tozzini, Eva Terzibasi; Baumgart, Mario; Battistoni, Giorgia; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We studied adult neurogenesis in the short-lived annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri and quantified the effects of aging on the mitotic activity of the neuronal progenitors and the expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) in the radial glia. The distribution of neurogenic niches is substantially similar to that of zebrafish and adult stem cells generate neurons, which persist in the adult brain. As opposed to zebrafish, however, the N. furzeri genome contains a doublecortin (DCX) gene. Doublecortin is transiently expressed by newly generated neurons in the telencephalon and optic tectum (OT). We also analyzed the expression of the microRNA miR-9 and miR-124 and found that they have complementary expression domains: miR-9 is expressed in the neurogenic niches of the telencephalon and the radial glia of the OT, while miR-124 is expressed in differentiated neurons. The main finding of this paper is the demonstration of an age-dependent decay in adult neurogenesis. Using unbiased stereological estimates of cell numbers, we detected an almost fivefold decrease in the number of mitotically active cells in the OT between young and old age. This reduced mitotic activity is paralleled by a reduction in DCX labeling. Finally, we detected a dramatic up-regulation of GFAP in the radial glia of the aged brain. This up-regulation is not paralleled by a similar up-regulation of S100B and Musashi-1, two other markers of the radial glia. In summary, the brain of N. furzeri replicates two typical hallmarks of mammalian aging: gliosis and reduced adult neurogenesis. PMID:22171971

  20. Association of Returning to Work With Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B.; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Raboud, Janet; Lavis, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We systematically reviewed the literature on the impact of returning to work on health among working-aged adults. Methods. We searched 6 electronic databases in 2005. We selected longitudinal studies that documented a transition from unemployment to employment and included a comparison group. Two reviewers independently appraised the retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Results. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial. Fifteen studies revealed a beneficial effect of returning to work on health, either demonstrating a significant improvement in health after reemployment or a significant decline in health attributed to continued unemployment. We also found evidence for health selection, suggesting that poor health interferes with people’s ability to go back to work. Some evidence suggested that earlier reemployment may be associated with better health. Conclusions. Beneficial health effects of returning to work have been documented in a variety of populations, times, and settings. Return-to-work programs may improve not only financial situations but also health. PMID:22390520

  1. Sensitivity and Specificity of Portable Hearing Screening in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Carolina Louise; Bós, Ângelo José Gonçalves; Gonçalves, Andréa Krüger; Olchik, Maira Rozenfeld; Flores, Leticia Sousa; Seimetz, Bruna Macagnin; Bauer, Magda Aline; Coradini, Patricia Pérez; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hearing screening allows the identification of individuals with hearing loss. Aim To determine the sensitivity and specificity of a portable hearing screening device in middle-aged and older adults using the manufacturer scoring and a scoring system proposed by the researchers. Methods In this transversal study, participants underwent anamnesis, otoscopy, and hearing screening using portable equipment. After this, a pure tone audiometry was performed, with participants classified into two groups: with and without hearing loss. The sensitivity and specificity of the hearing screening were calculated for the right and left ears using two methods of interpretation: the original method recommended by the manufacturer (criteria 1) and the method proposed by researchers (criteria 2). Results The sample consisted of 55 individuals, 83.6% (n = 46) of whom were women. Per criteria 1, the sensitivities were 26.3 (right ear) and 21.4% (left ear). The specificity was 100% for both ears. Using criteria 2, the sensitivity was 94.7 (right ear) and 100% (left ear). The specificity was 74.3 (right ear) and 65.9% (left ear). Conclusion This study showed that the criteria proposed by the manufacturer presented low sensitivity in the hearing screening. The criteria proposed by the researchers to achieve a more efficient performance reached high and balanced values for sensitivity and specificity. PMID:25992058

  2. Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver in a middle-aged adult with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Adult primary undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is a rare disease. While the etiology of UESL remains largely unknown, association with systemic inflammatory disorders has been observed. Here, we report a case of UESL in a 46-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and without chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Systematic review of the publicly available English language medical literature identified only 27 cases of UESL in patients aged >45 years and none with SLE. Our patient presented with abdominal pain and had a 2-year history of SLE. Abdominal ultrasonography and enhanced computed tomography revealed a solid mass in the right lobe of the liver. Presumptive diagnosis of atypical hepatocellular carcinoma was made and the patient was treated with segmentectomy of S5 and S4a and cholecystectomy. The final diagnosis of UESL was made according to the pathology results. Since SLE patients may be at increased risk of malignancy, it is possible that the SLE pathogenesis may have contributed to the development of UESL in our patient. According to this case, UESL should be considered when SLE patients present with hepatic space-occupying lesions. PMID:24073982

  3. An unusual case of spontaneous Mycobacterium chelonae corneal ulcer in a healthy middle-aged adult

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Vipul; Sriganesh, R; Relekar, Kirti

    2016-01-01

    Background To report a rare presentation of culture-positive Mycobacterium chelonae corneal ulcer and its management. Findings We report a rare case of a patient with a history of chronic pain and blurriness of vision. Examination revealed a chronic nonhealing paracentral corneal ulcer inferiorly at the 5–7 o’clock meridian with anterior chamber reaction unresponsive to routine antibiotic and antifungal medications with Mantoux test positivity in a middle-aged nondiabetic patient with no prior history of trauma, ocular surgery, and contact lens usage. Ziehl–Neelsen staining of the nonhealing ulcer revealed acid-fast bacilli typical of M. chelonae, with subsequent culture positivity in Löwenstein–Jensen medium. Subsequent treatment with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin resulted in rapid healing of the corneal ulcer. Conclusion M. chelonae presenting as a chronic nonhealing corneal ulcer spontaneously occurring in a healthy adult with no predisposing factor draws attention towards the need to have a good index of suspicion by performing a Ziehl–Neelsen stain and culture, and subsequent successful management with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin. PMID:27274315

  4. Changes in Physiotherapy Utilization in One Workforce: Implications for Accessibility among Canadian Working-Age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Cole, Donald C.; Lee, Hyunmi; Beaton, Dorcas E.; Kennedy, Carol; Subrata, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In debates over access to essential medical care, comparatively little attention has been paid to the provision of outpatient physiotherapy services. We examined physiotherapy utilization for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among approximately 2,000 employees of a large, unionized, Ontario workplace. We obtained MSD-related physiotherapy claims and service data from the public Workplace Safety and Insurance Board, two private medical insurance carriers, a workplace special fund starting in 1995 and a workplace-contracted, on-site physiotherapy clinic starting in 1999. We observed substantial increases in overall physiotherapy utilization for MSDs: a median of 234 services per quarter for 1992–1994 to 1,281 for 1999–2002. With inclusive workplace provision policies, most physiotherapy utilization occurred on-site by 1999–2002 (70%). With a user-pay orientation to outpatient physiotherapy services increasing among working-age adults in Ontario, there is substantial potential for unequal access among those not privately insured or in workplaces with direct service provision. PMID:22294994

  5. Amyloid burden is associated with self-reported sleep in nondemented late middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Kate E; Bendlin, Barbara B; Racine, Annie M; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Christian, Bradley T; Koscik, Rebecca L; Sager, Mark A; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-09-01

    Midlife may be an ideal window for intervention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To determine whether sleep is associated with early signs of AD neuropathology (amyloid deposition) in late midlife, we imaged brain amyloid deposits using positron emission tomography with [C-11]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), and assessed sleep with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale in 98 cognitively healthy adults (aged 62.4 ± 5.7 years) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention. We used multiple regressions to test the extent to which sleep scores predicted regional amyloid burden. Participants reporting less adequate sleep, more sleep problems, and greater somnolence on the Medical Outcomes Study had greater amyloid burden in AD-sensitive brain regions (angular gyrus, frontal medial orbital cortex, cingulate gyrus, and precuneus). Amyloid was not associated with reported sleep amount, symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, trouble falling asleep, or Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Poor sleep may be a risk factor for AD and a potential early marker of AD or target for preventative interventions in midlife. PMID:26059712

  6. Effect of Perceived Stigmatisation on the Quality of Life among Ageing Female Family Carers: A Comparison of Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Carers of Adults with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Lin, L. C.; Kroger, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers'…

  7. Age-Differences in Environment Route Learning: The Role of Input and Recall-Test Modalities in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghetti, Chiara; Borella, Erika; Gyselinck, Valerie; De Beni, Rossana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine age-related differences in young and older adults in route learning, using different types of learning and recall test modalities. A sample of young adults (20-30 years old) and older adults (60-70 years old) learned a city route by using either a map or a description; they then performed a verification…

  8. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Middle-Aged versus Younger Adults Enrolled in a Clinical Trial of a Web-Delivered Psychosocial Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Campbell, Aimee; Aharonovich, Efrat; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that substance abuse is becoming more prevalent in middle-aged adults. The objective of this secondary analysis was to add to the growing empirical literature on the unique features of middle-aged substance abuse populations. Methods We descriptively compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of middle-aged (age 45–62, n = 111) and younger (age 18–44, n = 395) substance abusers entering a web-based psychosocial treatment study as part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Results A significantly greater percentage of middle-aged adults were non-Caucasian and had a marital status other than single/never married. There was a significant association between frequency of Internet use and the age group. Forty-six percent of middle-aged adults versus 21% of younger adults reported no Internet use in the prior 90 days. A significantly greater percentage of middle-aged adults used cocaine, and a significantly greater percentage of younger adults used marijuana and opioids. Clinically significant cognitive impairment (z less than −1.0) was found for the average participant in both groups on logical association of familiar concepts. Conclusions This secondary analysis of a NIDA CTN study provides additional information on the unique features of middle-aged substance abusers. Increasing knowledge of similarities and differences between younger and middle-aged substance abusers can help with potential age-specific substance abuse treatment planning. PMID:23340711

  9. Neurotoxic and neurotrophic roles of proNGF and the receptor sortilin in the adult and ageing nervous system.

    PubMed

    Al-Shawi, Raya; Hafner, Angela; Olsen, Jessica; Olson, Jessica; Chun, Soyon; Raza, Saba; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Lovestone, Simon; Killick, Richard; Simons, Paul; Cowen, Timothy

    2008-04-01

    The precursor form of the nerve growth factor (proNGF), forms a heterotrimeric complex with the receptors p75 and sortilin; this complex has been implicated in neuron cell death. However, it is not known whether proNGF and the receptors p75 and sortilin contribute to age- and disease-related neurodegeneration. Here we show that proNGF induces cell death in subpopulations of basal forebrain and peripheral sympathetic neurons of old, but not of young, adult rodents. In contrast, proNGF appears to induce neurite outgrowth rather than cell death of young adult sympathetic neurons. We have examined the neurotoxic role of proNGF in old age, and find that proNGF protein is elevated during ageing in the projection areas of some populations of vulnerable central and peripheral neurons; caloric restriction, which has known neuroprotective effects, partially prevents these increases. Sortilin was found to play a significant part in the observed patterns of age-related proNGF-mediated neurotoxicity. In particular, survival of aged neurons was rescued by neurotensin, an alternative sortilin ligand that blocks the sortilin-mediated effects of proNGF. Furthermore, sortilin immunoreactivity increases markedly in ageing rodent basal forebrain and sympathetic neurons; in contrast, p75 levels are either unchanged or reduced. From these data we propose that selective age-related neuronal atrophy and neurodegeneration may be mediated by increased sortilin expression in neurons, together with elevated levels of proNGF expression in some targets. PMID:18412630

  10. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P < 0.04), time trial performance (young = 5.9, middle-aged = 8.2%; P < 0.001), peak sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P < 0.001), and average sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P < 0.001) in both young and middle-aged groups from pre- to post-training on the 30-s sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults. PMID:26514645

  11. Isolating Intestinal Stem Cells from Adult Drosophila Midguts by FACS to Study Stem Cell Behavior During Aging

    PubMed Central

    Pandur, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Aging tissue is characterized by a continuous decline in functional ability. Adult stem cells are crucial in maintaining tissue homeostasis particularly in tissues that have a high turnover rate such as the intestinal epithelium. However, adult stem cells are also subject to aging processes and the concomitant decline in function. The Drosophila midgut has emerged as an ideal model system to study molecular mechanisms that interfere with the intestinal stem cells’ (ISCs) ability to function in tissue homeostasis. Although adult ISCs can be easily identified and isolated from midguts of young flies, it has been a major challenge to study endogenous molecular changes of ISCs during aging. This is due to the lack of a combination of molecular markers suitable to isolate ISCs from aged intestines. Here we propose a method that allows for successful dissociation of midgut tissue into living cells that can subsequently be separated into distinct populations by FACS. By using dissociated cells from the esg-Gal4, UAS-GFP fly line, in which both ISCs and the enteroblast (EB) progenitor cells express GFP, two populations of cells are distinguished based on different GFP intensities. These differences in GFP expression correlate with differences in cell size and granularity and represent enriched populations of ISCs and EBs. Intriguingly, the two GFP-positive cell populations remain distinctly separated during aging, presenting a novel technique for identifying and isolating cell populations enriched for either ISCs or EBs at any time point during aging. The further analysis, for example transcriptome analysis, of these particular cell populations at various time points during aging is now possible and this will facilitate the examination of endogenous molecular changes that occur in these cells during aging. PMID:25548862

  12. Effect of masker type and age on speech intelligibility and spatial release from masking in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Patti M.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2009-01-01

    Speech recognition in noisy environments improves when the speech signal is spatially separated from the interfering sound. This effect, known as spatial release from masking (SRM), was recently shown in young children. The present study compared SRM in children of ages 5–7 with adults for interferers introducing energetic, informational, and/or linguistic components. Three types of interferers were used: speech, reversed speech, and modulated white noise. Two female voices with different long-term spectra were also used. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were compared for: Quiet (target 0° front, no interferer), Front (target and interferer both 0° front), and Right (interferer 90° right, target 0° front). Children had higher SRTs and greater masking than adults. When spatial cues were not available, adults, but not children, were able to use differences in interferer type to separate the target from the interferer. Both children and adults showed SRM. Children, unlike adults, demonstrated large amounts of SRM for a time-reversed speech interferer. In conclusion, masking and SRM vary with the type of interfering sound, and this variation interacts with age; SRM may not depend on the spectral peculiarities of a particular type of voice when the target speech and interfering speech are different sex talkers. PMID:17069314

  13. Age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A in Santiago, Chile: risk factors and shift in age of infection among children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Fix, Alan D; Martin, Oriana San; Gallicchio, Lisa; Vial, Pablo A; Lagos, Rosanna

    2002-05-01

    Transition from high to lower endemicity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection may portend increased public health burden with the shift of infection to older ages and increasing morbidity and mortality. This report describes age-specific prevalence of antibodies to HAV (anti-HAV) among children and young adults in Santiago, Chile, compared with previous prevalence data and assesses factors predictive for anti-HAV. In 1998, a serosurvey was performed in Metropolitan Santiago, designed to enroll a representative, age-stratified population on the basis of area of residence. A total of 784 individuals (age range, 1-24 years) were enrolled. Anti-HAV prevalence by year of life was as follows: ages 1 to 4, 12.5%; 5 to 9, 26.2%; 10 to 14, 43.4%; 15 to 19, 57.4%; 20 to 24, 73.9%. Adjusting for age, factors associated (inversely) with anti-HAV included residential areas of higher socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, and household characteristics of potable water, municipal sewage system, and the presence of a toilet or refrigerator in the house. In logistic regression analysis, only maternal years of education and residence in areas of higher SES remained independently associated with anti-HAV. Excluding those from higher SES areas, comparison of the age-specific anti-HAV prevalence data from previous studies of similar methodology in areas of lower SES revealed consistent decreases across all age groups; the age-standardized prevalence for this age range (1-24 years) dropped from 53.7% in 1990 to 40.6% in 1998. In light of the growing pool of susceptible individuals at older ages, with HAV continuing to circulate in the communities, evaluation of the feasibility of vaccination programs would be judicious. PMID:12201603

  14. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake--A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Chapman, Ian; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Horowitz, Michael; Soenen, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness) and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years). We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%-20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m²) than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m²) adults (standardized mean difference: -0.77 (95% confidence interval -0.90 to -0.64)). Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD): -17 (-22 to -13) mm) to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: -14 (-19 to -9) mm) lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm)) greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake. PMID:26751475

  15. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake—A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Chapman, Ian; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Horowitz, Michael; Soenen, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness) and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years). We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%–20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m2) than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m2) adults (standardized mean difference: −0.77 (95% confidence interval −0.90 to −0.64)). Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD): −17 (−22 to −13) mm) to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: −14 (−19 to −9) mm) lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm)) greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake. PMID:26751475

  16. Health-related quality of life in adults with epilepsy: the effect of age, age at onset and duration of epilepsy in a multicentre Italian study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The potential effect of age-related factors on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with epilepsy has rarely been analyzed in the literature. Methods We examined this association in a selected population of 815 adults with epilepsy recruited in the context of a multicentre study for the evaluation of Epi-QoL, one of the first Italian epilepsy-specific measures of HRQOL for adults with epilepsy. The Epi-QoL is a 46-item self-administered questionnaire focusing on six domains, which was successfully tested for reproducibility and validity. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to assess the relationships between age-related factors (patient's age, age at seizure onset, and duration of epilepsy) and overall Epi-QoL score, controlling for the effect of potential confounders. We fitted simple regression models including each age-related factor alone to assess the independent role of each factor on the overall Epi-QoL score. We also fitted multiple regression models including pairs of age-related factors solely, as well as one or two age-related factors together with the same set of confounders. Results Simple regression models showed that age and duration of epilepsy were significant negative predictors of the overall Epi-QoL score: the higher was each age-related factor, the lower was the overall Epi-QoL score; age at onset alone was a nonsignificant predictor of the overall Epi-QoL score. Multiple regression models including two age-related factors solely showed that duration of epilepsy was still a significant negative predictor of the overall Epi-QoL score in both pairwise models, whereas age was a significant negative predictor only in the model including age at onset. Age at onset emerged as a significant positive predictor of the overall Epi-QoL score only in the model including age: the higher was age at onset, the higher was the overall Epi-QoL score. Adjusted regression models including either one or two age

  17. The Cognitive Processes Underlying Event-Based Prospective Memory in School-Age Children and Young Adults: A Formal Model-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Bayen, Ute J.; Martin, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Fifty children 7 years of age (29 girls, 21 boys), 53 children 10 years of age (29 girls, 24 boys), and 36 young adults (19 women, 17 men) performed a computerized event-based prospective memory task. All 3 groups differed significantly in prospective memory performance, with adults showing the best performance and with 7-year-olds showing the…

  18. Traumatic brain injury and age at onset of cognitive impairment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Risacher, Shannon L; McAllister, Thomas W; Saykin, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    There is a deficiency of knowledge regarding how traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with age at onset (AAO) of cognitive impairment in older adults. Participants with a TBI history were identified from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI 1/GO/2) medical history database. Using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model, the AAO was compared between those with and without TBI, and potential confounding factors were controlled. The AAO was also compared between those with mild TBI (mTBI) and moderate or severe TBI (sTBI). Lastly, the effects of mTBI were analyzed on the AAO of participants with clinical diagnoses of either mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD). The AAO for a TBI group was 68.2 ± 1.1 years [95 % confidence interval (CI) 66.2-70.3, n = 62], which was significantly earlier than the AAO for the non-TBI group of 70.9 ± 0.2 years (95 % CI 70.5-71.4, n = 1197) (p = 0.013). Participants with mTBI history showed an AAO of 68.5 ± 1.1 years (n = 56), which was significantly earlier than the AAO for the non-TBI group (p = 0.032). Participants with both MCI and mTBI showed an AAO of 66.5 ± 1.3 years (95 % CI 63.9-69.1, n = 45), compared to 70.6 ± 0.3 years for the non-TBI MCI group (95 % CI 70.1-71.1, n = 935) (p = 0.016). As a conclusion, a history of TBI may accelerate the AAO of cognitive impairment by two or more years. These results were consistent with reports of TBI as a significant risk factor for cognitive decline in older adults, and TBI is associated with an earlier AAO found in patients with MCI or AD. PMID:27007484

  19. The effect of age and vocal task on cepstral/spectral measures of vocal function in adult males.

    PubMed

    Watts, Christopher R; Ronshaugen, Rachelle; Saenz, Daniella

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of aging on cepstral/spectral acoustic measures calculated from clinical stimuli (vowels and sentences from the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice). Thirty younger adult males (20-49 years of age) and thirty older males (50-79 years of age) produced sustained vowels and read a connected speech stimulus which were applied to cepstral/spectral acoustic analyses to derive the multiparametric measure of Cepstral/Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID). Results indicated that older males exhibited significantly greater CSID measures than younger males in connected speech (p=0.001; d=0.98), but not the vowel. Linear regression revealed a moderate correlation between age and CSID in connected speech. These results further inform our understanding of how aging influences voice production in varied contexts and how commonly utilised clinical voice tasks subjected to cepstral/spectral acoustic analyses might differentially inform our knowledge of underlying vocal physiology. PMID:25651197

  20. Age, sex and APOE ε4 effects on memory, brain structure and β-amyloid across the adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Clifford R.; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Knopman, David S.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Mielke, Michelle M.; Lowe, Val; Senjem, Matthew L.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Machulda, Mary M.; Gregg, Brian E.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Rocca, Walter A.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Typical cognitive aging may be defined as age associated changes in cognitive performance in individuals who remain free of dementia. Ideally the full adult age spectrum should be included to assess brain imaging findings associated with typical aging. Objective To compare age, sex and Apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4) effects on memory, brain structure (adjusted hippocampal volume, HVa) and amyloid PET in cognitively normal individuals aged 30 to 95 years old. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross sectional observational study (Marc 2006 to October 2014) at an academic medical center. We studied 1246 cognitively normal subjects; 1209 participants aged 50–95 years old enrolled in a population-based study of cognitive aging and 37 self-selected volunteers aged 30–49. Main Outcomes and Measures Memory, HVa, and amyloid PET Results Overall, memory worsened from age 30 years through the 90s. HVa worsened gradually from 30 years to the mid-60s and more steeply beyond that age. The median amyloid PET was low until age 70 years and increased thereafter. Memory was worse in men than women overall (p<0.001) and more specifically beyond age 40 years. HVa was lower in men than women overall (p<0.001) and more specifically beyond age 60 years. There was no sex difference in amyloid PET at any age. Within each sex, memory performance and HVa were not different by APOE ε4 at any age. From age 70 years onward APOE ε4 carriers had significantly greater median amyloid PET load than noncarriers. However the ages at which 10% of the population were amyloid PET positive were 57 years for APOE ε4 carriers and 64 years for non-carriers. Conclusions and Relevance Male sex is associated with worse memory and HVa among cognitively normal individuals while APOE ε4 is not. In contrast, APOE ε4 is associated with greater amyloid PET values (from age 70 years onward) while sex is not. Worsening memory and HVa occur at earlier ages than abnormal amyloid PET. Therefore

  1. Aging in Place vs. Relocation for Older Adults with a Neurocognitive Disorder: Applications of Wiseman’s Behavioral Model

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Daniel; Andersen, Troy; Lehning, Amanda; Perry, Tam Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Some older adults are more vulnerable to housing concerns due to physical and cognitive challenges, including those with a neurocognitive disorder who need extensive support. Environmental gerontology frameworks, including Wiseman’s (1980) Behavioral Model of Elderly Migration, have informed scholarship on aging in place and relocation. It remains unclear, however, the extent to which this conceptual work informs services and supports for older adults, and the Wiseman model has not been applied to people with a neurocognitive disorder. Understanding Wiseman’s model, including considerations for working with families confronting a neurocognitive disorder, can help practitioners ensure that older clients live in settings that best meet their wants and needs. PMID:26016530

  2. Changes in self-perceived economic satisfaction and mortality at old ages: evidence from a survey of middle-aged and elderly adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miaw-Chwen; Huang, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Experiencing a low socioeconomic status (SES) throughout the life course has been reported to be correlated with poor health outcomes. Several studies have suggested that income, wealth, and perceptions of economic status are associated with increased risk of death among elderly people. Few studies have investigated the association between lifetime SES and mortality among elderly adults. The analysis in this study was based on 2310 elderly adults for whom SES data from the four phases of the longitudinal survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan (1989, 1993, 1996, and 1999) were available, and who were alive in 1999. The SES measures included in the analysis were annual income, the household wealth, and the self-perceived economic satisfaction. A group-based trajectory modelling approach was employed to create SES trajectories. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to examine the association between SES trajectories and 8-year all-cause mortality (1999-2007). Irrespective of whether income, wealth, or self-perceived economic satisfaction was used, the elderly adults with consistently low SES trajectory throughout early old age were independently and significantly associated with higher hazards of mortality than were those in a consistently high SES trajectory. Downward or upward mobility of income and wealth were associated with increased hazard of mortality. However, decreased self-perceived economic satisfaction was not significantly associated with increased hazard of mortality. According to the results, the strong distinction between trajectory patterns of income, wealth, and self-perceived economic satisfaction among elderly adults indicate that neither should be overlooked when investigating the role of SES mobility in mortality. Retirement policies or strategies for maintaining and promoting favorable SES in early old age may benefit the health of elderly adults later in life. PMID:25656417

  3. Infant and Early Childhood Exposure to Adult-Directed and Child-Directed Television Programming: Relations with Cognitive Skills at Age Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Lauricella, Alexis; Zach, Elizabeth; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study described the relations among the amount of child-directed versus adult-directed television exposure at ages 1 and 4 with cognitive outcomes at age 4. Sixty parents completed 24-hour television diaries when their children were 1 and 4 years of age. At age 4, their children also completed a series of cognitive measures and parents…

  4. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  5. Age effects and sex differences in human brain white matter of young to middle-aged adults: A DTI, NODDI, and q-space study.

    PubMed

    Kodiweera, Chandana; Alexander, Andrew L; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; McAllister, Thomas W; Wu, Yu-Chien

    2016-03-01

    Microstructural changes in human brain white matter of young to middle-aged adults were studied using advanced diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI). Multiple shell diffusion-weighted data were acquired using the Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI). The HYDI method is extremely versatile and data were analyzed using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI), and q-space imaging approaches. Twenty-four females and 23 males between 18 and 55years of age were included in this study. The impact of age and sex on diffusion metrics were tested using least squares linear regressions in 48 white matter regions of interest (ROIs) across the whole brain and adjusted for multiple comparisons across ROIs. In this study, white matter projections to either the hippocampus or the cerebral cortices were the brain regions most sensitive to aging. Specifically, in this young to middle-aged cohort, aging effects were associated with more dispersion of white matter fibers while the tissue restriction and intra-axonal volume fraction remained relatively stable. The fiber dispersion index of NODDI exhibited the most pronounced sensitivity to aging. In addition, changes of the DTI indices in this aging cohort were correlated mostly with the fiber dispersion index rather than the intracellular volume fraction of NODDI or the q-space measurements. While men and women did not differ in the aging rate, men tend to have higher intra-axonal volume fraction than women. This study demonstrates that advanced dMRI using a HYDI acquisition and compartmental modeling of NODDI can elucidate microstructural alterations that are sensitive to age and sex. Finally, this study provides insight into the relationships between DTI diffusion metrics and advanced diffusion metrics of NODDI model and q-space imaging. PMID:26724777

  6. Adaptive Strategies and Person-Environment Fit among Functionally Limited Older Adults Aging in Place: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Laura L.; Steggell, Carmen D.; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Older adults prefer to age in place, necessitating a match between person and environment, or person-environment (P-E) fit. In occupational therapy practice, home modifications can support independence, but more knowledge is needed to optimize interventions targeting the housing situation of older adults. In response, this study aimed to explore the accessibility and usability of the home environment to further understand adaptive environmental behaviors. Mixed methods data were collected using objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit among 12 older adults living in community-dwelling housing. Quantitative data described objective P-E fit in terms of accessibility, while qualitative data explored perceived P-E fit in terms of usability. While accessibility problems were prevalent, participants’ perceptions of usability revealed a range of adaptive environmental behaviors employed to meet functional needs. A closer examination of the P-E interaction suggests that objective accessibility does not always stipulate perceived usability, which appears to be malleable with age, self-perception, and functional competency. Findings stress the importance of evaluating both objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit to provide housing interventions that support independence. Further exploration of adaptive processes in older age may serve to deepen our understanding of both P-E fit frameworks and theoretical models of aging well. PMID:26404352

  7. Adaptive Strategies and Person-Environment Fit among Functionally Limited Older Adults Aging in Place: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Lien, Laura L; Steggell, Carmen D; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Older adults prefer to age in place, necessitating a match between person and environment, or person-environment (P-E) fit. In occupational therapy practice, home modifications can support independence, but more knowledge is needed to optimize interventions targeting the housing situation of older adults. In response, this study aimed to explore the accessibility and usability of the home environment to further understand adaptive environmental behaviors. Mixed methods data were collected using objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit among 12 older adults living in community-dwelling housing. Quantitative data described objective P-E fit in terms of accessibility, while qualitative data explored perceived P-E fit in terms of usability. While accessibility problems were prevalent, participants' perceptions of usability revealed a range of adaptive environmental behaviors employed to meet functional needs. A closer examination of the P-E interaction suggests that objective accessibility does not always stipulate perceived usability, which appears to be malleable with age, self-perception, and functional competency. Findings stress the importance of evaluating both objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit to provide housing interventions that support independence. Further exploration of adaptive processes in older age may serve to deepen our understanding of both P-E fit frameworks and theoretical models of aging well. PMID:26404352

  8. Validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Brief Aging Perceptions Questionnaire in Iranian older adults

    PubMed Central

    Sadegh Moghadam, Leila; Foroughan, Mahshid; Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, Farahnaz; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Sajjadi, Moosa; Farhadi, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Background Perceptions of aging refer to individuals’ understanding of aging within their sociocultural context. Proper measurement of this concept in various societies requires accurate tools. Objective The present study was conducted with the aim to translate and validate the Brief Aging Perceptions Questionnaire (B-APQ) and assess its psychometric features in Iranian older adults. Method In this study, the Persian version of B-APQ was validated for 400 older adults. This questionnaire was translated into Persian according to the Wild et al’s model. The Persian version was validated using content, face, and construct (using confirmatory factor analysis) validities, and then its internal consistency and test–retest reliability were measured. Data were analyzed using the statistical software programs SPSS 18 and EQS-6.1. Results The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed construct validity and five subscales of B-APQ. Test–retest reliability with 3-week interval produced r=0.94. Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.75 for the whole questionnaire, and from 0.53 to 0.77 for the five factors. Conclusion The Persian version of B-APQ showed favorable validity and reliability, and thus it can be used for measuring different dimensions of perceptions of aging in Iranian older adults. PMID:27194907

  9. Young Adult Social Development as a Mediator of Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms From Age 21 to 30

    PubMed Central

    Kosterman, Rick; Hill, Karl G.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Meacham, Meredith C.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.; Hawkins, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Little research has examined social development in the young adult years relative to childhood and adolescence. This study tested the hypothesized pathways of the social development model (SDM) in young adulthood for predicting symptoms of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and positive functioning at age 30. A longitudinal panel study originally drawn from Seattle, Washington, elementary schools was examined. The sample included 808 participants with high retention and was gender balanced and ethnically diverse. Analyses focused on ages 21, 27, and 30. SDM constructs were assessed with self-reports of past-year behavior and combined multiple life domains. AUD symptoms corresponding to DSM-IV criteria were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Positive functioning combined measures of constructive engagement in work and school, civic engagement, physical exercise, and lack of depressive symptoms. The study found that AUD symptoms were moderately stable from age 21 to 30; however, developmental pathways hypothesized by the SDM at age 27 played a significant role in partially mediating this association. Alcohol-specific factors were key mediating mechanisms, whereas prosocial factors played little role. Conversely, prosocial factors had an important role in predicting positive functioning at age 30, while there were no significant pathways involving alcohol-specific factors. Findings suggest that age 27 is not too late for interventions targeting adult social development to help diminish alcohol use disorder symptoms by age 30. Alcohol-specific factors such as reducing perceived opportunities or rewards for heavy alcohol use or challenging beliefs accepting of drunkenness are likely to be key ingredients of effective adult interventions. PMID:24955663

  10. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: evidence from EEG and MEG data.

    PubMed

    Ruhnau, Philipp; Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Brauer, Jens; Friederici, Angela D; Schröger, Erich

    2013-01-01

    When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9-10 years) and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times (RTs) in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates that deviance detection is accomplished in a hierarchical manner in the auditory system. Both mismatch responses were localized to auditory cortex areas. All mismatch responses were generally delayed in children, suggesting that not all neurophysiological aspects of deviance processing are mature in school-aged children. Furthermore, the P3a, reflecting involuntary attention capture, was present in both age groups in the EEG with comparable amplitudes and at similar latencies, but with a different topographical distribution. This suggests that involuntary attention shifts toward complex distractors operate comparably in school-aged children and adults, yet undergoing generator maturation. PMID:24155730

  11. Spatial discrimination deficits as a function of mnemonic interference in aged adults with and without memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Reagh, Zachariah M; Roberts, Jared M; Ly, Maria; DiProspero, Natalie; Murray, Elizabeth; Yassa, Michael A

    2014-03-01

    It is well established that aging is associated with declines in episodic memory. In recent years, an emphasis has emerged on the development of behavioral tasks and the identification of biomarkers that are predictive of cognitive decline in healthy as well as pathological aging. Here, we describe a memory task designed to assess the accuracy of discrimination ability for the locations of objects. Object locations were initially encoded incidentally, and appeared in a single space against a 5 × 7 grid. During retrieval, subjects viewed repeated object-location pairings, displacements of 1, 2, 3, or 4 grid spaces, and maximal corner-to-opposite-corner displacements. Subjects were tasked with judging objects in this second viewing as having retained their original location, or having moved. Performance on a task such as this is thought to rely on the capacity of the individual to perform hippocampus-mediated pattern separation. We report a performance deficit associated with a physically healthy aged group compared to young adults specific to trials with low mnemonic interference. Additionally, for aged adults, performance on the task was correlated with performance on the delayed recall portion of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), a neuropsychological test sensitive to hippocampal dysfunction. In line with prior work, dividing the aged group into unimpaired and impaired subgroups based on RAVLT Delayed Recall scores yielded clearly distinguishable patterns of performance, with the former subgroup performing comparably to young adults, and the latter subgroup showing generally impaired memory performance even with minimal interference. This study builds on existing tasks used in the field, and contributes a novel paradigm for differentiation of healthy from possible pathological aging, and may thus provide an avenue for early detection of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24167060

  12. Effects of a low-volume, vigorous intensity step exercise program on functional mobility in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Doheny, Emer P; McGrath, Denise; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Mair, Jacqueline L; Greene, Barry R; Caulfield, Brian; De Vito, Giuseppe; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2013-08-01

    Aging-related decline in functional mobility is associated with loss of independence. This decline may be mitigated through programs of physical activity. Despite reports of aging-related mobility impairment in middle-aged adults, this age group has been largely overlooked in terms of exercise programs that target functional mobility and the preservation of independence in older age. A method to quantitatively assess changes in functional mobility could direct rehabilitation in a proactive rather than reactive manner. Thirty-three healthy but sedentary middle-aged adults participated in a four week low-volume, vigorous intensity stepping exercise program. Two baseline testing sessions and one post-training testing session were conducted. Functional mobility was assessed using the timed up and go (TUG) test, with its constituent sit-to-walk and walk-to-sit phases examined using a novel inertial sensor-based method. Additionally, semi-tandem balance and knee extensor muscle isometric torque were assessed. Trunk acceleration during walk-to-sit reduced significantly post-training, suggesting altered movement control due to the exercise program. No significant training-induced changes in sit-to-walk acceleration, TUG time, balance or torque were observed. The novel method of functional mobility assessment presented provides a reliable means to quantify subtle changes in mobility during postural transitions. Over time, this exercise program may improve functional mobility. PMID:23568151

  13. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant. PMID:25277528

  14. Urban neighbourhood unemployment history and depressive symptoms over time among late middle age and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wight, Richard G; Aneshensel, Carol S; Barrett, Christopher; Ko, Michelle; Chodosh, Joshua; Karlamangla, Arun S

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about how a neighbourhood’s unemployment history may set the stage for depressive symptomatology. This study examines the effects of urban neighbourhood unemployment history on current depressive symptoms and subsequent symptom trajectories among residentially stable late middle age and older adults. Contingent effects between neighbourhood unemployment and individual-level employment status (ie, cross-level interactions) are also assessed. Methods Individual-level survey data are from four waves (2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006) of the original cohort of the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Study. Neighbourhoods are operationalised with US Census tracts for which historical average proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 and change in proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 are used to characterise the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Hierarchical linear regressions estimate three-level (time, individual and neighbourhood) growth models. Results Symptoms in 2000 are highest among those residing in neighbourhoods characterised by high historical average unemployment beginning in 1990 and increasing unemployment between 1990 and 2000, net of a wide range of socio-demographic controls including individual-level employment status. These neighbourhood unemployment effects are not contingent upon individual-level employment status in 2000. 6-year trajectories of depressive symptoms decrease over time on average but are not significantly influenced by the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Conclusions Given the current US recession, future studies that do not consider historical employment conditions may underestimate the mental health impact of urban neighbourhood context. The findings suggest that exposure to neighbourhood unemployment earlier in life may be consequential to mental health later in life. PMID:22918896

  15. Engaging Online Adult Learners in Higher Education: Motivational Factors Impacted by Gender, Age, and Prior Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wenhao David

    2013-01-01

    As the number of online degree programs continues to grow among higher education institutions in the United States, engaging online adult learners to online degree programs is getting more difficult than before. Therefore, this study, situated in a land grant university, investigated the motivational factors that contribute to adult learners'…

  16. Sensitivity to Spacing Changes in Faces and Nonface Objects in Preschool-Aged Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity to variations in the spacing of features in faces and a class of nonface objects (i.e., frontal images of cars) was tested in 3- and 4-year-old children and adults using a delayed or simultaneous two-alternative forced choice matching-to-sample task. In the adults, detection of spacing information was robust against exemplar…

  17. Childlessness, Parenthood, and Depressive Symptoms among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bures, Regina M.; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya; Loree, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has examined whether parenthood is associated with higher levels of well-being among older adults, but definitions of parental status have varied. The authors examine links between parental status and depressive symptoms among older adults, comparing biological and social definitions of parenthood. The study finds few differences…

  18. Divorce and Adult Psychological Well-Being: Clarifying the Role of Gender and Child Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kristi; Dunne-Bryant, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that marital dissolution has negative consequences for adult well-being. Because most research focuses on the average consequences of divorce, we know very little about factors that moderate this association. The present study tests the hypothesis that the effects of marital dissolution on adult well-being are…

  19. Greening the Net Generation: Outdoor Adult Learning in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Adult learning today takes place primarily within walled classrooms or in other indoor settings, and often in front of various types of digital screens. As adults have adopted the digital technologies and indoor lifestyle attributed to the so-called "Net Generation," we have become detached from contact with the natural world outdoors.…

  20. Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults: Effects of Age, Baseline Performance, and Training Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S.; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For…