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Sample records for aged wine brandies

  1. Kinetics of odorant compounds in wine brandies aged in different systems.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Ilda; Santos, Rui; Ricardo-da-Silva, Jorge M; Anjos, Ofélia; Mira, Helena; Belchior, A Pedro; Canas, Sara

    2016-11-15

    The odorants compounds of aged wine brandies comprise compounds deriving from the wood, from the distillate and from the reactions that occur inside the barrel. The aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the odorant compounds of a wine brandy during two years of ageing in two ageing systems. The odorant compounds in the analysed brandies changed significantly over the time, but with different evolution patterns. The wood related compounds increased over time, with the highest increase in the first months of ageing. The kinetics of cis, trans-β-methyl-γ-octalactone, acetovanillone and of seven volatile phenols are established for the first time in brandies. Moreover, a significant effect of the ageing system was found on the kinetics of the wood related compounds. These results pointed out the interest of these compounds as a tool to discriminate different ageing technologies. PMID:27283715

  2. Extraction/oxidation kinetics of low molecular weight compounds in wine brandy resulting from different ageing technologies.

    PubMed

    Canas, Sara; Caldeira, Ilda; Belchior, A Pedro

    2013-06-15

    This study provides innovative information on the influence of new technologies of ageing (stainless steel tanks with wood staves or wood tablets of chestnut or Limousin oak), in comparison with traditional technology (oak wooden barrels), on the extraction/oxidation kinetics of low molecular weight compounds of wine brandy. The brandy was sampled and analysed by HPLC during the first year of ageing. The results show that most of the compounds tend to increase over the time, but their extraction/oxidation kinetics depend on the ageing technology. The wooden barrels promote greater enrichment in the majority of the compounds. However, gallic acid, ellagic acid and syringaldehyde, and vanillin and 5-methylfurfural, which are strong antioxidants and key-odourant compounds, respectively, present higher contents in the brandy aged with the alternative technologies. Chestnut proves to be a suitable alternative to Limousin oak for the ageing of brandy in all the studied technologies, inducing faster evolution and high quality. PMID:23497909

  3. 27 CFR 19.648 - Age of brandy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Age of brandy. 19.648 Section 19.648 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Bottle...

  4. Organotin speciation in French brandies and wines by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography--pulsed flame photometric detection.

    PubMed

    Heroult, Julien; Bueno, Maïté; Potin-Gautier, Martine; Lespes, Gaëtane

    2008-02-01

    An analytical method devoted to organotin compounds (OTC) determination in brandy and wine was developed. It is based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of ethylated organotins. The following operating factors were examined: SPME mode/nature of fibre coating, sample volume/dilution, and sampling time. The optimisation work led to dilute the sample in an aqueous buffer (1/11, v/v ratio) in order to satisfactorily decrease the matrix effects due to competitive sorption of non-OTC species onto/into fibre coating. The optimised operating conditions consist of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated fibre used in headspace mode for 30 min. In wines, the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranged from 1 to 40 and 3 to 80 ng(Sn)L(-1) respectively, according to the species. The analytical validation was made by evaluating the accuracy of OTC determination in spiked samples with various concentrations over the whole calibration range, i.e. from LOQ to 1000 ng(Sn)L(-1). Recovery was around 80-110% and precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) was between 12% and 25%. Despite the presence of two chromatographic peaks corresponding to sulphur compounds during brandy analysis, the selectivity of the method is adequate. The analysis confirmed the analytical performances and applicability of the method to wine and brandy samples. The obtained results emphasise the contamination of brandy and wine by organotins, the storage in plastic container seeming to be confirmed as the main OTC source. PMID:18177662

  5. Portable Electronic Nose to Discriminate Artificial Aged Wine from Barrel-Aged Wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. P.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.; Horrillo, M. C.

    2011-09-01

    A novel portable electronic nose is presented as a fast tool to differentiate traditional aged wines from artificial aged wines. The instrument we have developed for testing the wines is a general purpose wireless portable electronic nose base on micromechanical tin oxide sensors. This system may discriminate among the wine samples obtained with the different aging methods.

  6. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of wine and wine distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Ya.; Borisova, E.; Genova, Ts.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and brandies are multicomponent systems and conventional fluorescence techniques, relying on recording of single emission or excitation spectra, are often insufficient. In such cases synchronous fluorescence spectra can be used for revealing the potential of the fluorescence techniques. The technique is based on simultaneously scanning of the excitation and emission wavelength with constant difference (Δλ) maintained between them. In this study the measurements were made using FluoroLog3 spectrofluorimeter (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) and collected for excitation and emission in the wavelength region 220 - 700 nm using wavelength interval Δλ from 10 to 100 nm in 10 nm steps. This research includes the results obtained for brandy and red wine samples. Fluorescence analysis takes advantage in the presence of natural fluorophores in wines and brandies, such as gallic, vanillic, p-coumaric, syringic, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin and etc. Applying of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of these types of alcohols allows us to estimate the quality of wines and also to detect adulteration of brandies like adding of a caramel to wine distillates for imitating the quality of the original product aged in oak casks.

  7. Quantification of three galloylglucoside flavour precursors by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in brandies aged in oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Slaghenaufi, Davide; Franc, Céline; Mora, Nathalie; Marchand, Stéphanie; Perello, Marie-Claire; de Revel, Gilles

    2016-04-15

    Vanillin-(6'-O-galloyl)-β-glucopyranoside (VGG), 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-(6'-O-galloyl)-β-glucopyranoside (TMPGG), and (6R,9R)-3-oxo-α-ionol-9-O-(6'-O-galloyl)-β-glucopyranoside (macarangioside E) were identified as aroma precursors in oak wood. An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify these three galloylglucoside compounds in brandies aged in oak barrels. The detection system consisted of a triple quadrupole mass analyser operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. For the first time, vanillin-β-d-xylopyranoside (VX) was synthesised for use as an internal standard. The detection limits (48 μg L(-1) for VGG, 52 μg L(-1) for TMPGG, and 19 μg L(-1) for macarangioside E) were low enough to quantify these aroma precursors in spirits without any sample preparation. PMID:26971020

  8. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  9. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  10. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  11. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  12. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  13. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging.

    PubMed

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air-liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  14. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging

    PubMed Central

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C.; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L.; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air–liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  15. [Analytical characterization of varietal wines and aging phenomena].

    PubMed

    Cantagrel, R; Carles, J

    1978-01-01

    We have studied some wines issued from pure varieties (Gamay, Pinot, Syrah, Malbec, Merlot, Tannat, Jurançon) and from country wines where they are predominant (Cahors: Malbec; Corbieres: Carignan). We have analysed the most important classes of compounds: volatile components, free amino acids, mineral elements, phenolic components, organic acids. In regard of the large variation of "oligoconstituants" and "macroconstituants" concentrations (ratio: I to 30 000), we examine the proportions between the minimum and the maximum of the variation range. We define an abundance degree from 0 to 100 p. 100 for every compound. With this unique scale, it is possible to include all parameters on the same graph and to determine the general profile of a wine from the relative abundance of its components. The wine profiles from same country wine or same variety have approximately the same shape and their curves are well superposed. On the other hand, when we compare the profiles of wines issued from two different varieties, we rapidly visualise the most important differences. We have for instance grouped on a graph the parameters which differentiate Gamay from Pinot and Merlot from Jurançon. Then we show on a precise example the resemblance between a country wine profile (Cahors) and that one of its predominant variety (Malbec). The differences we have observed are well explained by secondary varieties (Jurançon, Merlot, Tannat). The same procedure is applied to study the aging of wines. A graphic representation shows the variations during seven years (1970 to 1976). Five parameters are found to characterise with good precision the age of wine: isobutanol, methyl-3 butanol-1, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate, ethyl succinate. With a detailed analysis of the components of wines, it is possible to differentiate varieties, age and perhaps many other aspects. PMID:754580

  16. Fate of key odorants in Sauternes wines through aging.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Meurée, Ariane; Timmermans, Aurore; Collin, Sonia

    2009-09-23

    Recent work has revealed the importance of polyfunctional thiols in young Sauternes wines, but very little is yet known about the fate of such compounds during aging in the bottle. In this study, two Sauternes wines were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) after XAD 2 and thiol-specific extractions. Most polyfunctional thiols (3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 2-sulfanylethyl acetate, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal, etc.) proved to be completely degraded after 2 years of bottle aging in a cellar. Only 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol was still found in aged samples at concentrations above its threshold value. Most other key odorants found in the young noble rot wine were still detected 5-6 years after harvest: varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, isobutyrate, hexanoate, and isovalerate), and oak maturation-related compounds (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-damascenone, trans-non-2-enal, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and furaneol), as well as three newly identified aromas exhibiting interesting cake, honey-like, and dried apricot odors: homofuraneol, theaspirane, and gamma-decalactone. Interestingly, abhexon, never mentioned in sweet wines before, was found to be synthesized during bottle aging. An optimized extraction method allowed us to quantify this honey/spicy compound at levels close to its threshold value (up to 7 microg/L after 5-6 years), thus suggesting a key role of this strong odorant in old Sauternes wines. PMID:19754174

  17. [Wine and alcohol in apothecaries' shops during the Middle Ages in Southern countries].

    PubMed

    Bénézet, J P

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol, wine and their derivatives do not play during the Middle Ages the role they played during Antiquity. The reading of ancient authors by Arab doctors was probably at the origin of this lack of interest for wine. As ordinary wine, medicinal wines were a matter of conviviality more than of therapeutics. Vinegar was more often used, maybe because of its lack of inebriating properties. Alcohol, this mysterious product, was probably more pertinent in the area of alchemy. Doctors and pharmacists of the enlightened age gave it a new importance. The influence of Islam on Middle Age medicine in Christian occident could explain this lack of interest for wine. PMID:11944654

  18. Phenolic compounds and furanic derivatives in the characterization and quality control of Brandy de Jerez.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Dodero, M C; Guillén Sánchez, D A; Rodríguez, M Schwarz; Barroso, C García

    2010-01-27

    This article shows the results obtained in the study of the extraction profiles from oak wood to distillate of several compounds, low molecular weight phenolics, and furanic derivatives, and the relationship of their contents with those found in commercial sherry brandies and other aged distillates of different geographical origin, in order to research the utility of these analytical variables for explaining the highly specific character of Brandy de Jerez. Using multivariate statistic techniques, the aging system (static by anadas, or dynamic, well known as Soleras y Criaderas) has been confirmed as having a great influence on the analytical profile of aged distillates (discrimination is up to 100%). Differences between commercial brandies and those aged experimentally of equivalent average age have also been confirmed. The Solera Gran Reserva Brandies de Jerez show a clear differentiation from the rest of the distillates of different origin (discrimination is up to 80%), indicating their highly specific character. PMID:20020693

  19. Phenolic compounds and browning in sherry wines subjected to oxidative and biological aging.

    PubMed

    Fabios, M; Lopez-Toledano, A; Mayen, M; Merida, J; Medina, M

    2000-06-01

    The composition in hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxycinnamic esters, tyrosol, syringaldehyde, and flavan-3-ol derivatives of three different types of sherry wine obtained by aging of the same starting wine under different conditions was studied. So-called "fino" wine was obtained by biological aging under flor yeasts, "oloroso" wine by oxidative aging, and "amontillado" wine by a first stage of biological aging followed by a second oxidative step. On the basis of the results, the wines subjected to oxidative aging exhibited higher phenol contents, in addition to scarcely polar compounds absorbing at 420 nm that were absent in the wines obtained by biological aging. Taking into account that flavan-3-ol derivatives play an important role in wine browning, a model catechin solution was inoculated with flor yeast which, contrary to the findings of other authors in the absence of yeasts, formed no colored compounds. This different behavior may account for the resistance to browning of pale sherry wines in the presence of flor yeasts. PMID:10888514

  20. Outlining the influence of non-conventional yeasts in wine ageing over lees.

    PubMed

    Belda, Ignacio; Navascués, Eva; Marquina, Domingo; Santos, Antonio; Calderón, Fernando; Benito, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    During the last decade, the use of innovative yeast cultures of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts as alternative tools to manage the winemaking process have turned the oenology industry. Although the contribution of different yeast species to wine quality during fermentation is increasingly understood, information about their role in wine ageing over lees is really scarce. This work aims to analyse the incidence of three non-Saccharomyces yeast species of oenological interest (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) and of a commercial mannoprotein-overproducer S. cerevisiae strain compared with a conventional industrial yeast strain during wine ageing over lees. To evaluate their incidence in mouthfeel properties of wine after 4 months of ageing, the mannoprotein content of wines was evaluated, together with other wine analytic parameters, such as colour and aroma, biogenic amines and amino acids profile. Some differences among the studied parameters were observed during the study, especially regarding the mannoprotein concentration of wines. Our results suggest that the use of T. delbrueckii lees in wine ageing is a useful tool for the improvement of overall wine quality by notably increasing mannoproteins, reaching values higher than obtained using a S. cerevisiae overproducer strain. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27017923

  1. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement. PMID:24915355

  2. The phenolic chemistry and spectrochemistry of red sweet wine-making and oak-aging.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-González, M; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J; Teixeira, N; Mateus, N; De Freitas, V

    2014-01-01

    A natural sweet wine (NSW) was made with dried grapes from Vitis vinifera L. cv Garnacha Tintorera. A fortified sweet wine (FSW) was also obtained: the maceration-alcoholic fermentation of Garnacha Tintorera must was stopped by addition of ethanol 96% (v/v). UV/Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC/DAD-ESI/MS were applied to determine, respectively, the evolution of colour and phenolic compounds in Garnacha Tintorera based-sweet wines during aging. In sweet wines, aging decreased a(∗) (red/green), colour saturation and lightness and increased b(∗) (yellow/blue), and hue angle. Most of the phenolic compounds determined, such as anthocyanins, esters of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers, oligomers and polymers decreased in both sweet wines during aging. On the contrary, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and vitisins increased after one year of aging. Despite that both terminal and extension subunit compositions show very small changes, mean degree of polymerisation of proanthocyanidins decline slightly as aging progressed in both sweet wines. PMID:24444970

  3. Yeast Population Dynamics during the Fermentation and Biological Aging of Sherry Wines

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Zarzoso, B.; Peris-Torán, M. J.; García-Maiquez, E.; Uruburu, F.; Querol, A.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and physiological analyses were used to study the evolution of the yeast population, from alcoholic fermentation to biological aging in the process of “fino” sherry wine making. The four races of “flor” Saccharomyces cerevisiae (beticus, cheresiensis, montuliensis, and rouxii) exhibited identical restriction patterns for the region spanning the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS-1 and ITS-2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene, but this pattern was different, from those exhibited by non-flor S. cerevisiae strains. This flor-specific pattern was detected only after wines were fortified, never during alcoholic fermentation, and all the strains isolated from the velum exhibited the typical flor yeast pattern. By restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA and karyotyping, we showed that (i) the native strain is better adapted to fermentation conditions than commercial strains; (ii) two different populations of S. cerevisiae strains are involved in the process of elaboration, of fino sherry wine, one of which is responsible for must fermentation and the other, for wine aging; and (iii) one strain was dominant in the flor population integrating the velum from sherry wines produced in González Byass wineries, although other authors have described a succession of races of flor S. cerevisiae during wine aging. Analyzing all these results together, we conclude that yeast population dynamics during biological aging is a complex phenomenon and differences between yeast populations from different wineries can be observed. PMID:11319081

  4. Evolutions of volatile sulfur compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during aging in different oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dong-Qing; Zheng, Xiao-Tian; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Duan, Chang-Qing; Liu, Yan-Lin

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines from seven regions of China during maturation in oak barrels was investigated. The barrels were made of different wood grains (fine and medium) and toasting levels (light and medium). Twelve VSCs were quantified by GC/FPD, with dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methionol exceeding their sensory thresholds. Most VSCs tended to decline during the aging, while DMS was found to increase. After one year aging, the levels of DMS, 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one and sulfur-containing esters were lower in the wines aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks. The wood grain and toasting level of oak barrels significantly influenced the concentration of S-methyl thioacetate and 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one. This study reported the evolution of VSCs in wines during oak barrel aging for the first time and evaluated the influence of barrel types, which would provide wine-makers with references in making proposals about wine aging. PMID:26920290

  5. Evaluation of the active odorants in Amontillado sherry wines during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Lourdes; Zea, Luis; Moreno, Jose A; Medina, Manuel

    2010-06-01

    Odor compounds in Amontillado sherry white wine obtained by means of biological aging first and oxidative aging second in American oak casks were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Sniffing revealed fruity, fatty, chemical, spicy, vegetable, floral and empyreumatic odors, the first being the most common. Olfactometric intensity was assessed on a four-point scale. Most changes were detected during the first years of the oxidative aging step. Ethyl isobutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, and eugenol were the strongest odor compounds detected by sniffing in wines. The odor spectrum values for all active odorants were calculated in relation to ethyl octanoate, this compound being the most potent odorant. On the basis of olfactometric intensities and odor spectrum values, ethyl octanoate, ethyl butanoate, eugenol, ethyl isobutanoate, and sotolon can be deemed the main group of potent odorants in Amontillado wines. These compounds maintained similar relative contributions to the aroma profile during the oxidative aging step. PMID:20465212

  6. Aroma ageing trends in GC/MS profiles of liqueur wines.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana C; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Marques, José C

    2010-02-01

    Madeira wine has been studied with the main goal of acquiring a better understanding about the evolution of its properties over time. For that purpose, flexible and reliable data analysis tools were employed to characterize wines at different ageing stages, using flavour chromatography measurements. In this paper we present the results from such a study, where the main differences in the aroma profiles and their development in different types of aged Madeira wines are analyzed and evaluated according to their discriminating power. An exploratory multivariate data analysis was conducted using two different tools, namely biplots and contributions plots obtained through principal component analysis (PCA). In order to take advantage of the maximum amount of information provided by the chromatography data sets, a new approach that incorporates samples variability in the analysis of the statistical significance of contributions estimates, was developed and tested. In this way, it was possible to analyze which volatile compounds have statistically significant and/or similar contributions regarding the observed separation of wine samples from different groups. Furthermore, since several chemical compounds are expected to change together as a result of the ageing-related chemical reactions, they were clustered according to a similarity criterion relative to their importance in the trends observed in the scores space. Results obtained provide a sound basis for the differentiation and characterization of the ageing process followed by Madeira wines. PMID:20103109

  7. Nitrogen compounds in wine during its biological aging by two flor film yeasts: An approach to accelerated biological aging of dry sherry-type wines.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, J C; Ortega, J M

    1997-01-20

    Urea, ammonium, and free amino acid contents were quantified in biological aging of a young wine under two flor film forming yeast strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae race capensis and S. cerevisiae race bayanus, and compared. Cell viability in the film was different for the two yeast strains. Thus, capensis maintained a much greater number of viable cells per surface area than bayanus and hence used greater amount of nitrogen compounds. The main source of nitrogen for the yeasts during the biological aging process was L-proline. The two yeast strains also differed in the amounts of assimilable nitrogen they utilized, in their preferences for amino acid consumption, and kinetics. To accelerate the aging process, the effect of controlled monthly aeration of the wine aged with capensis strain was investigated. The results revealed that short aeration did not appreciably increase the overall consumption of assimilable nitrogen, but consumption of some nitrogen compounds was accelerated (particularly L-proline, L-tryptophan, L-glutamic acid, ammonium ion, L-lysine, and L-arginine); the use of L-ornithine was inhibited; and GABA, L-methionine, and urea were depletes. Probably the aeration increases the aroma compounds, thereby producing wines with improved sensory properties. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18633960

  8. NMR and molecular modeling: application to wine ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucier, C.; Pianet, I.; Laguerre, M.; Glories, Y.

    1998-02-01

    Red wine contains polyphenols called tannins which are very important for its taste and longevity. These polymers consist in repeating units of catechin and its epimer epicatechin. During ageing, slow condensation reactions take place which lead to new chemical structures. Among the possible reactions, we have focused our attention on acetaldehyde cross-linking. Catechin was used as a model for the production of polymers with acetaldehyde. Two reaction product fractions have been isolated by liquid chromatography. Mass measurement indicated that these fractions contain dimers. NMR (1D and 2D) and molecular modelling were then used to study the structure and conformations of these products. The first product consist in a pure dimer with the two catechin moieties connected with an ethyl bridge on the carbon 6 and 8. The second fraction was a mixture of two dimers (50/50). NMR measurements showed that it could be two symmetrical dimers involving the same carbon for each catechin moiety (6 or8). Le vin rouge contient des polyphénols appelés tanins qui sont très importants pour son goût et sa longévité. Il s'agit principalement de polymères de catéchine et d'épicatéchine. Durant le vieillissement du vin, des réactions de condensation interviennent lentement et conduisent à de nouvelles structures. Parmi les réactions possibles, nous avons plus spécialement étudié la polymérisation par pontage avec l'éthanal. La catéchine a été utilisée comme modèle de tannin et mise en présence d'éthanal en milieu acide proche du vin. Deux fractions de produits de réaction ont été isolées par chromatographie liquide. La spectrométrie de masse a révélé la présence de dimères. La RMN (1D et 2D) et la modélisation moléculaire ont ensuite été utilisées pour déterminer la structure et la conformation de ces produits. La première fraction a été identifiée comme étant un dimère de deux unités catéchines reliées par un pont éthyle par leur

  9. Natural oxygenation of Champagne wine during ageing on lees: A metabolomics picture of hormesis.

    PubMed

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Moritz, Franco; Gil, Ryan B; Goffette, Delphine; Valade, Michel; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Gougeon, Régis D

    2016-07-15

    The oxygenation of Champagne wine after 4 and 6 years of aging on lees in bottle was investigated by FTICR-MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Three levels of permeability were considered for the stoppers, ranging from 0.2 to 1.8 mg/L/year of oxygen transfer rate. Our results confirmed a good repeatability of ultra-high resolution FTICR-MS, both in terms of m/z and coefficient of variation of peak intensities among biological replicates. Vintages appeared to be the most discriminated features, and metabolite annotations suggested that the oldest wines (2006) were characterized by a higher sensitivity towards oxygenation. Within each vintage, the oxygenation mechanisms appeared to be different for low and high ingresses of oxygen, in agreement with the hormesis character of wine oxygenation. In the particular case of single variety wines and for a given level of stopper permeability, our results also showed that variety discrimination could be easily achieved among wines. PMID:26948607

  10. Sherry wines.

    PubMed

    Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2011-01-01

    Sherry wines are among the most distinctive Spanish wines, mainly produced in the southern Spain (particularly in Jerez and Montilla-Moriles), using traditional practices aimed at ensuring uniform quality and characteristics over time. Several types of Sherry wines are produced depending on the winemaking conditions. Fino-type wines are characterized by a dynamic biological aging, in which a layer of yeast grows in the surface of the wine (flor velum). On the contrary, Oloroso-type sherry wines are subjected to an oxidative aging, while Amontillado-type Sherries are produced by combining both production systems. Therefore, these wines undergo different biological and chemical processes that affect distinctively their chemical composition and their aroma and sensory characteristics. Through this review, the main aspects involved in the winemaking technology of sherry wines, and the latest scientific findings related to the microbiota of the flor film and other aspects associated to the changes in their chemical and sensory composition during aging will be revised. Some new trends in sherry wine technology focused on the acceleration of the biological aging or the use of organic grapes will be also considered. PMID:21867891

  11. Formation of siliceous sediments in brandy after diatomite filtration.

    PubMed

    Gómez, J; Gil, M L A; de la Rosa-Fox, N; Alguacil, M

    2015-03-01

    Brandy is quite a stable spirit but sometimes light sediment appears. This sediment was separated and analysed by IR and SEM-EDX. It was revealed that the sediment is composed mostly of silica and residual organic matter. Silica was present as an amorphous phase and as microparticles. In an attempt to reproduce the formation of the sediment, a diatomite extract was prepared with an ethanol/water mixture (36% vol.) and a calcined diatomite similar to that used in brandy filtration. This extract was added to unfiltered brandy in different amounts. After 1 month, the Si concentration decreased in all samples and sediments with similar compositions and features to those found in the unstable brandy appeared. The amounts of sediment obtained were directly related to the decrease in Si concentration in solution. Consequently, it can be concluded that siliceous sediment in brandy originates from Si released during diatomite filtration. PMID:25306320

  12. Identification of Piperitone as an Aroma Compound Contributing to the Positive Mint Nuances Perceived in Aged Red Bordeaux Wines.

    PubMed

    Picard, Magali; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2016-01-20

    Although a sensory definition of the aging bouquet of red Bordeaux wines was recently established, its chemical transcription has only partially been elucidated. A multiple-step approach, combining sensory evaluations of red Bordeaux wines and aromatic reconstitutions of wine extract fractions, was used to identify the molecular markers involved. One wine with a high aging-bouquet score and a mint nuance has received particular attention. Various reconstitution and omission tests highlighted the contribution of two specific fractions to the intensity of the perception of mint aroma. Gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry was applied to the targeted fractions to identify molecular marker(s) responsible for the mint nuance in fine red Bordeaux wines. A similar analytical process was applied to selected fractions of essential oils presenting mint odors to characterize them and interpret the mass spectrometry data. This approach resulted in the detection of piperitone, a monoterpene ketone that, to the best of our knowledge, was reported for the first time as a contributor to the positive mint aroma of aged red Bordeaux wines. PMID:26735409

  13. Analysis and assessment of Madeira wine ageing over an extended time period through GC-MS and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana C; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Marques, José C

    2010-02-15

    Wine is one of the world's higher value agricultural products. The present work is centred on Madeira wine, a fine and prestigious example among Portuguese liqueur wines,with the main goal to deepen our understanding of relevant phenomena going on during the winemaking process, in particular during ageing of "Malmsey" Madeira wine. In this paper we present the results obtained from the chemical characterization of how its aroma composition evolves during ageing, and the development of a robust framework for analyzing the identity of aged Madeira wines. An extended ageing period was considered, covering a time frame of twenty years, from which several samples were analyzed in terms of their aromatic composition. The multivariate structure of this chemical information was then processed through multivariate statistical feature extraction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), in order to identify the relevant patterns corresponding to trends associated with wine ageing. Classification methodologies for age prediction were developed, using data from the lower dimensional sub-spaces obtained after projecting the original data to the latent variable spaces provided by PCA or PLS-DA. Finally, the performance for each classification methodology developed was evaluated according to their error rates using cross-validation methodologies (Leave-One-Out and k-fold Monte Carlo). Results obtained so far show that quite interesting classification performances can indeed be achieved, despite the natural variability present in wine products. These results also provide solid bases which can be used to build up available frameworks which assist quality monitoring and identity assurance tasks. PMID:20103138

  14. Impact of glutathione-enriched inactive dry yeast preparations on the stability of terpenes during model wine aging.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Andújar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Simó, Carolina; González, Javier; Chana, Antonio; Dávalos, Juan; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-02-12

    The impact of the addition of glutathione-enriched Inactive dry yeast preparations (g-IDYs) on the stability of some typical wine terpenes (linalool, α-terpineol, β-citronellol, and nerol) stored under accelerated oxidative conditions was evaluated in model wines. Additionally, the effects of a second type of IDY preparation with a different claim (fermentative nutrient) and the sole addition of commercial glutathione into the model wines were also assessed. Model wines were spiked with the low molecular weight fraction (<3 kDa permeate) isolated from the IDYs, avoiding the interaction of aroma compounds with other yeast components. An exhaustive chemical characterization of both IDY permeates was carried out by using targeted and nontargeted metabolomics approaches using CE-MS and FT-ICR-MS analytical platforms. The findings suggest that the addition of <3 kDa permeate isolated from any of the IDYs employed decreases the loss of typical wine terpenes in model wines submitted to accelerated aging conditions. The g-IDY preparation did indeed release reduced GSH into the model wines, although this compound did not seem exclusively related to the protective effect on some aroma compounds determined in both model wines. The presence of other sulfur-containing compounds from yeast origin in g-IDY, and also the presence of small yeast peptides, such as methionine/tryptophan/tyrosine-containing tripeptide in both types of IDYs, seemed to be related to the antioxidant activity determined in the two permeates and to the minor loss of some terpenes in the model wines spiked with them. PMID:24460029

  15. Ultrastructural changes of sparkling wine lees during long-term aging in real enological conditions.

    PubMed

    Tudela, Rebeca; Gallardo-Chacón, Joan J; Rius, Núria; López-Tamames, Elvira; Buxaderas, Susana

    2012-06-01

    Ultrastructural changes of lees of three series of sparkling wines produced using the traditional method during long-term aging (4 years) were assessed by high-pressure freezing in combination with transmission electron microscopy. The stratified structure of the cell wall disappeared throughout aging. After 18 months, the microfibrous material of the cell wall appeared more diffuse and the amorphous midzone of the inner wall layer was progressively degraded. From 30 months onward, the cell wall consisted of a tangled structure of fibers. In spite of these changes, the cell wall of yeasts remained unbroken at 48 months of wine aging. Cell membrane breakage was observed for the first time in lees of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An increase in the thickness of the periplasmic space owing to plasmolysis and of the number of cells with less cytoplasmic content was observed during aging. Morphological evidence of microautophagy was detected for the first time in S. cerevisiae in enological conditions. PMID:22404819

  16. Involvement of Dimethyl Sulfide and Several Polyfunctional Thiols in the Aromatic Expression of the Aging Bouquet of Red Bordeaux Wines.

    PubMed

    Picard, Magali; Thibon, Cécile; Redon, Pascaline; Darriet, Philippe; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2015-10-14

    The development of an aromatic bouquet during fine wine aging depends on complex transformations occurring in a reductive atmosphere, favorable to the formation and preservation of sulfur odorants, such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and polyfunctional thiols. The aim of this study was to address their role in the occurrence, evolution, and perceived sensory nuances of the aging bouquet of red Bordeaux wines. These compounds were quantified in 24 wines and scored by a professional wine panel for the degree to which they reflected the aging bouquet olfactory concept. Partial least square (PLS) analysis, combining sensory and quantitative chemical data, predicted that DMS, 2-furanmethanethiol, and 3-sulfanylhexanol concentrations correlated with the typicality score, discriminating highly-typical wines from less-typical ones. Several vintages from three vineyards were then subjected to sensory and chemical analysis to determine how aging bouquet typicality and the intensity of five key aromatic notes (undergrowth, truffle, fresh fruit, toasted, and empyreumatic) evolved during bottle storage in relation to these three sulfur odorants. PCA analysis emphasized their combined impact on aging bouquet typicality and their contribution to undergrowth, truffle, and empyreumatic attributes. PMID:26365759

  17. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity in sparkling wines: modulation by the ageing on lees.

    PubMed

    Stefenon, C A; Bonesi, C De M; Marzarotto, V; Barnabé, D; Spinelli, F R; Webber, V; Vanderlinde, R

    2014-02-15

    Sparkling wines (SW) have a special biological ageing on lees that is performed using two distinct methods: in the bottle (Champenoise) or in isobaric tanks (Charmat method). The objective of this study was to compare the levels of phenolic compounds, β-Glucosidase and antioxidant activity during the ageing on lees, in samples of SW produced at industrial scale by both methods. The β-Glucosidase activity has been constant over time, showing a close relationship with all the polyphenols studied (resveratrol, piceid, tyrosol, gallic, caffeic and ferulic acids), which were affected by the sur lie time. With these cross-reactions, the biological properties of the SW were also modulated. The results showed that the long period of ageing decreased the antioxidant potential in all samples. This work demonstrates that the sur lie is more important than the production method itself, due to its ability to modulate the necessary changes to achieve the specific objective. PMID:24128480

  18. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterization of wines from four Spanish denominations of origin, aged in Spanish Rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam; Poveda, Pilar; Perez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of almost 40 oak-related volatile compounds and the sensorial characteristics of red wines from four Spanish denominations of origin (DOs) (Bierzo, Toro, Ribera de Duero, and Rioja) during aging in barrels made of Rebollo oak wood, Quercus pyrenaica, were studied and compared to the same wines aged in American and French oak barrels. Each oak wood added unique and special characteristics to the wine, and in addition, each wine showed a different ability to extract the compounds, which result in these characteristics from the oak wood. In general, wines aged in Q. pyrenaica wood were characterized by high levels of eugenol, guaiacol, and other volatile phenols. In regards to compounds like cis-whiskylactone or maltol, the behavior of this wood is very similar to that of American oaks. When considering phenolic aldehydes and ketones, the levels of these compounds are intermediate between those of French and American woods and depend greatly on the type of wine. The type of oak, on the other hand, does not affect the chromatic characteristics of the wines. In sensory analysis, the biggest differences are found in the olfactory phase. Among the four DOs studied, wine aged in Q. pyrenaica presented the highest notes of wood, with more aromas of roasting, toasting, milky coffee, spices, or wine-wood interactions. The wines aged in barrels made of Q. pyrenaica wood were highly regarded, and preference was shown for them over those same wines when they had been aged in barrels of American or French oak. PMID:18778067

  19. Spectrofluorimetric determination of ellagic acid in brandy.

    PubMed

    Sádecká, Jana; Tóthová, Jana

    2012-12-01

    Two spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed for the rapid determination of ellagic acid. The first method is based on the complex formation between ellagic acid and borax in methanol solution. The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 456nm with excitation at 383nm. Linear calibration curve was obtained from 2.5×10(-8) to 7.5×10(-7)molL(-1) and the limit of determination was 4×10(-9)molL(-1). The second method is based on the complex formation between ellagic acid and boric acid in ethanol solution. The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 447nm with excitation at 387nm. Linear calibration curve was obtained from 1.25×10(-7) to 1.00×10(-6)molL(-1) and the limit of determination was 7×10(-9)molL(-1). The methods were successfully applied for the determination of ellagic acid in brandy samples. The results were found to be in good agreement with those obtained by HPLC method. PMID:22953802

  20. Variations in oxygen and ellagitannins, and organoleptic properties of red wine aged in French oak barrels classified by a near infrared system.

    PubMed

    Michel, Julien; Albertin, Warren; Jourdes, Michael; Le Floch, Alexandra; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2016-08-01

    During wine aging in barrels, antioxidant molecules from wood, such as ellagitannins, are solubilized and react with wine molecules and oxygen. However, their concentrations are highly variable. Oxygen is an important factor, as it plays a role in wine parameters and organoleptic perceptions. Five barrel modalities were used; three polyphenol indices (IP), classified using the NIRS procedure, and three grain qualities. Barrels were equipped with windows to measure the oxygen using luminescence technology. The ellagitannin concentrations in the wine and its organoleptic properties were monitored. Oxygen concentrations decreased quickly during the first 8days of aging and this phenomenon was significantly more marked in barrels with a higher IP and medium grain. The ellagitannin concentrations were believed to be correlated with wood classification and oxygen consumption. Furthermore, the organoleptic properties were significantly impacted, as the wine with the lowest ellagitannin level was described as less astringent, bitter, woody, and smoky/toasty. PMID:26988516

  1. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Meneses, M; Torres, C M; Castells, F

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  2. Differential Adsorption of Ochratoxin A and Anthocyanins by Inactivated Yeasts and Yeast Cell Walls during Simulation of Wine Aging.

    PubMed

    Petruzzi, Leonardo; Baiano, Antonietta; De Gianni, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA) by yeasts is a promising approach for the decontamination of musts and wines, but some potential competitive or interactive phenomena between mycotoxin, yeast cells, and anthocyanins might modify the intensity of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine OTA adsorption by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the wild strain W13, and the commercial isolate BM45), previously inactivated by heat, and a yeast cell wall preparation. Experiments were conducted using Nero di Troia red wine contaminated with 2 μg/L OTA and supplemented with yeast biomass (20 g/L). The samples were analyzed periodically to assess mycotoxin concentration, chromatic characteristics, and total anthocyanins over 84 days of aging. Yeast cell walls revealed the highest OTA-adsorption in comparison to thermally-inactivated cells (50% vs. 43% toxin reduction), whilst no significant differences were found for the amount of adsorbed anthocyanins in OTA-contaminated and control wines. OTA and anthocyanins adsorption were not competitive phenomena. Unfortunately, the addition of yeast cells to wine could cause color loss; therefore, yeast selection should also focus on this trait to select the best strain. PMID:26516913

  3. Differential Adsorption of Ochratoxin A and Anthocyanins by Inactivated Yeasts and Yeast Cell Walls during Simulation of Wine Aging

    PubMed Central

    Petruzzi, Leonardo; Baiano, Antonietta; De Gianni, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA) by yeasts is a promising approach for the decontamination of musts and wines, but some potential competitive or interactive phenomena between mycotoxin, yeast cells, and anthocyanins might modify the intensity of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine OTA adsorption by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the wild strain W13, and the commercial isolate BM45), previously inactivated by heat, and a yeast cell wall preparation. Experiments were conducted using Nero di Troia red wine contaminated with 2 μg/L OTA and supplemented with yeast biomass (20 g/L). The samples were analyzed periodically to assess mycotoxin concentration, chromatic characteristics, and total anthocyanins over 84 days of aging. Yeast cell walls revealed the highest OTA-adsorption in comparison to thermally-inactivated cells (50% vs. 43% toxin reduction), whilst no significant differences were found for the amount of adsorbed anthocyanins in OTA-contaminated and control wines. OTA and anthocyanins adsorption were not competitive phenomena. Unfortunately, the addition of yeast cells to wine could cause color loss; therefore, yeast selection should also focus on this trait to select the best strain. PMID:26516913

  4. Volatile compounds as markers of ageing in Tempranillo red wines from La Mancha D.O. stored in oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vázquez, Lucía; Alañón, M Elena; Calvo, Elena; Cejudo, M Jesús; Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2011-07-29

    Solid-phase extraction cartridges (SPE)-GC/MS method was used to analyse red wines aromas. The matrix effect was studied with chemicals standard prepared in synthetic wines with water/alcohol solutions (12% ethanol, v/v) following the procedure proposed. The method offers good reproducibility since the relative standard deviations (RSD%) for the volatile compounds levels were less than 9%. This method was used to differentiate the aroma of one hundred mono-varietal young, crianza, reserva and gran reserva La Mancha D.O. wines (cv. Tempranillo) on the basis of oak barrel contact period. Samples were checked at ten time points over 36 months. Sixty important wine odorants, such as volatile phenols, vanillin derivatives, lactones, norisoprenoids, benzene compounds, esters and terpenols, can be quantitatively determined in a single run. Results showed significant quantitative differences in the volatile profiles of wines depending on the length of time in contact with wood, even in wines belonging to the same commercial category. Stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) was used to obtain a model that predicted the time of barrel ageing to which wines were submitted in relation with the wine volatile composition. A successful function based on eight compounds with a mean deviation of 0.37 months in the predictions, was obtained. PMID:21227438

  5. Development of lysozyme-combined antibacterial system to reduce sulfur dioxide and to stabilize Italian Riesling ice wine during aging process

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Han, Shun-yu; Zhang, Bo; Li, Min; Sheng, Wen-jun

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of SO2 reduction and stabilizing ice wine, a new antibacterial technique was developed and verified in order to reduce the content of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and simultaneously maintain protein stability during ice wine aging process. Hazardous bacterial strain (lactic acid bacteria, LAB) and protein stability of Italian Riesling ice wine were evaluated in terms of different amounts of lysozyme, SO2, polyphenols, and wine pH by single-factor experiments. Subsequently, a quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite design with four variables was conducted to establish the multiple linear regression model that demonstrated the influence of different treatments on synthesis score between LAB inhibition and protein stability of ice wine. The results showed that, synthesis score can be influenced by lysozyme and SO2 concentrations on an extremely significant level (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the lysozyme-combined antibacterial system, which is specially designed for ice wine aging, was optimized step by step by response surface methodology and ridge analysis. As a result, the optimal proportion should be control in ice wine as follows: 179.31 mg L−1 lysozyme, 177.14 mg L−1 SO2, 0.60 g L−1 polyphenols, and 4.01 ice wine pH. Based on this system, the normalized synthesis score between LAB inhibition and protein stability can reach the highest point 0.920. Finally, by the experiments of verification and comparison, it was indicated that lysozyme-combined antibacterial system, which was a practical and prospective method to reduce SO2 concentration and effectively prevent contamination from hazardous LAB, can be used to stabilize ice wine during aging process. PMID:26405531

  6. Concurrent phenomena contributing to the formation of the aroma of wine during aging in oak wood: an analytical study.

    PubMed

    Jarauta, Idoia; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2005-05-18

    Red wine was stored in different oak barrels or in stainless steel, and samples were taken for two years to determine 79 aroma compounds. Aging in oak affects 41 compounds. The type of wood affects 11 compounds. At least seven different processes seem to take place concurrently in aroma evolution, and five such processes, affecting 37 compounds, are linked to the oak cask. These are extraction from the wood, oxidation of wine alcohols and amino acids, microbiological formation of ethyl phenols, sorption processes, and condensation of acetaldehyde with polyphenols. The wood can release linear gamma- and delta-lactones, beta-damascenone, and ionones. Some compounds are released very fast from wood, which suggests they lie in the external part of the wood. Some extraction profiles are too complex to be explained by physical processes. Finally, the levels of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone and 2-ethyl-5-methyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone increase even in the reference wine, which suggests the presence of a precursor. PMID:15884855

  7. Effect of different aging techniques on the polysaccharide and phenolic composition and sensory characteristics of Syrah red wines fermented using different yeast strains.

    PubMed

    del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2015-07-15

    The effect of high levels of the polysaccharide Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain (HPS) and another conventional yeast strain (FERM) on the polysaccharide and phenolic composition of Syrah red wines during alcoholic fermentation and subsequent aging on lees, with or without oak wood chips, and on inactive dry yeast was investigated. The HPS yeast released higher amounts of polysaccharides during alcoholic fermentation than FERM yeast (485 g L(-1) and 403 g L(-1), respectively) and after the aging period (516 g L(-1) and 500 g L(-1), respectively). The different aging techniques increased the polysaccharide concentration; the concentration was dependent on the aging technique applied. The interaction of the polysaccharides with the phenolic compounds depended on the yeast strain, aging technique, aging period and compound analysed. The HPS wines exhibited better sensory characteristics than the FERM wines after alcoholic fermentation; however, during the aging period, it was difficult to determine which technique produced the best wine due to the interactions of aging technique, aging period and sensory attribute evaluated. PMID:25722146

  8. Application of multi-way analysis to UV-visible spectroscopy, gas chromatography and electronic nose data for wine ageing evaluation.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; Rodriguez-Méndez, M L; Leardi, R; Oliveri, P; Hernando-Esquisabel, D; Iñiguez-Crespo, M; de Saja, J A

    2012-03-16

    In this study, a multi-way method (Tucker3) was applied to evaluate the performance of an electronic nose for following the ageing of red wines. The odour evaluation carried out with the electronic nose was combined with the quantitative analysis of volatile composition performed by GC-MS, and colour characterisation by UV-visible spectroscopy. Thanks to Tucker3, it was possible to understand connections among data obtained from these three different systems and to estimate the effect of different sources of variability on wine evaluation. In particular, the application of Tucker3 supplied a global visualisation of data structure, which was very informative to understand relationships between sensors responses and chemical composition of wines. The results obtained indicate that the analytical methods employed are useful tools to follow the wine ageing process, to differentiate wine samples according to ageing type (either in barrel or in stainless steel tanks with the addition of small oak wood pieces) and to the origin (French or American) of the oak wood. Finally, it was possible to designate the volatile compounds which play a major role in such a characterisation. PMID:22340529

  9. Quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry carried out at different dilutions of an extract. Key differences in the odor profiles of four high-quality Spanish aged red wines.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, V; Aznar, M; López, R; Cacho, J

    2001-10-01

    Four Spanish aged red wines made in different wine-making areas have been extracted, and the extracts and their 1:5, 1:50, and 1:500 dilutions have been analyzed by a gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) approach in which three judges evaluated odor intensity on a four-point scale. Sixty-nine different odor regions were detected in the GC-O profiles of wines, 63 of which could be identified. GC-O data have been processed to calculate averaged flavor dilution factors (FD). Different ANOVA strategies have been further applied on FD and on intensity data to check for significant differences among wines and to assess the effects of dilution and the judge. Data show that FD and the average intensity of the odorants are strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.892). However, the measurement of intensity represents a quantitative advantage in terms of detecting differences. For some odorants, dilution exerts a critical role in the detection of differences. Significant differences among wines have been found in 30 of the 69 odorants detected in the experiment. Most of these differences are introduced by grape compounds such as methyl benzoate and terpenols, by compounds released by the wood, such as furfural, (Z)-whiskey lactone, Furaneol, 4-propylguaiacol, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, isoeugenol, and ethyl vanillate, by compounds formed by lactic acid bacteria, such as 2,3-butanedione and acetoine, or by compounds formed during the oxidative storage of wines, such as methional, sotolon, o-aminoacetophenone, and phenylacetic acid. The most important differences from a quantitative point of view are due to 2-methyl-3-mercaptofuran, 4-propylguaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and isoeugenol. PMID:11600028

  10. Survey: Ochratoxin A in European special wines.

    PubMed

    Valero, Ana; Marín, Sonia; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente

    2008-05-15

    The occurrence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) was examined in 121 special wines made using different winemaking techniques and from many European origins. The wine groups with the highest OTA content and occurrence, above 90%, were those were the must was fortified before fermentation (mean: 4.48μg/l) and those made from grapes dried by means of sun exposure (mean: 2.77μg/l). Fortified wines with long aging in wooden casks were about 50% contaminated, with OTA levels below 1.00μg/l. Wines affected by noble rot, late harvest wines and ice wines did not contain OTA. Overall, 19.8% of the wines studied contained OTA levels above the maximum permissible limit for the European Union (2μg/kg) in wine (excluding liqueur wines). PMID:26059137

  11. Calcium isotopes in wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  12. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  13. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles. PMID:26610612

  14. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Ross R; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N; Nichols, David S; Breadmore, Michael C; Shellie, Robert A; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 (o)C. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles. PMID:26610612

  15. 27 CFR 19.303 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.303 Section 19.303 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. A proprietor may add caramel that has no material... oak chips that have not been treated with any chemical to packages of spirits prior to or after...

  16. 27 CFR 19.303 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.303 Section 19.303 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. A proprietor may add caramel that has no material... oak chips that have not been treated with any chemical to packages of spirits prior to or after...

  17. 27 CFR 19.303 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.303 Section 19.303 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. A proprietor may add caramel that has no material... oak chips that have not been treated with any chemical to packages of spirits prior to or after...

  18. 27 CFR 19.303 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.303 Section 19.303 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. A proprietor may add caramel that has no material... oak chips that have not been treated with any chemical to packages of spirits prior to or after...

  19. 27 CFR 19.318 - Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits. 19.318 Section 19.318 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Production § 19.318 Addition of caramel to rum or brandy and addition of oak chips to spirits... prior to production gauge. Oak chips which have not been treated with any chemical may be added...

  20. Untangling the chemistry of port wine aging with the use of GC-FID, multivariate statistics, and network reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Dan; Monforte, Ana Rita; Silva Ferreira, António César

    2013-03-13

    Chromatography separates the different components of complex mixtures and generates a fingerprint representing the chemical composition of the sample. The resulting data structure depends on the characteristics of the detector used, univariate for devices such as a flame ionization detector (FID) or multivariate for mass spectroscopy (MS). This study addresses the potential use of a univariate signal for a nontargeted approach to (i) classify samples according to a given process or perturbation, (ii) evaluate the feasibility of developing a screening procedure to select candidates related to the process, and (iii) provide insight into the chemical mechanisms that are affected by the perturbation. To achieve this, it was necessary to use and develop methods for data preprocessing and visualization tools to assist an analytical chemist to view and interpret complex multidimensional data sets. Dichloromethane Port wine extracts were collected using GC-FID; the chromatograms were then aligned with correlation optimized warping (COW) and subsequently analyzed with multivariate statistics (MVA) by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS-R). Furthermore, wavelets were used for peak calling and alignment refinement, and the resulting matrix was used to perform kinetic network reconstruction via correlation networks and maximum spanning trees. Network-target correlation projections were used to screen for potential chromatographic regions/peaks related to aging mechanisms. Results from PLS between aligned chromatograms and target molecules showed high X to Y correlations of 0.91, 092, and 0.89 with 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (Maillard), acetaldehyde (oxidation), and 4,5-dimethyl-(5H)-3-hydroxy-2-furanone, respectively. The context of the correlation (and therefore likely kinetic) relationships among compounds detected by GC-FID and the relationships between target compounds within different regions of the network can be clearly seen

  1. Sparkling wines: features and trends from tradition.

    PubMed

    Buxaderas, Susana; López-Tamames, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Sparkling wines contain at least three CO₂ pressure bars at 20°C. Carbonic gas is required to have an endogenous origin, obtained via a second fermentation, in the following European categories: sparkling wines and quality sparkling wines. In these types of sparkling wines, high gas pressure, together with other wine components, enables them to produce effervescence and foam when poured into the glass. The most commonly used grape varieties are Chardonnay and Pinot. Elaboration consists of two phases. In the first phase, the base wine is obtained after applying white vinification. The second phase consists of refermenting the wine, either in the bottle (champenoise or traditional method) or in isobaric tanks (Charmat method). The second fermentation requires the addition of "liqueur de tirage" to the base wine. The sparkling wines have a special biological aging or aging sur lies. As sparkling wines remain in contact with the lees, they develop sensory notes such as toasty, lactic, sweet, and yeasty, which can be attributed to proteolytic processes, components that would serve as the substrate for chemical and enzymatic reactions and to causes related with release-absorption between cell walls and the wine. PMID:22909977

  2. Talking About Wine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Adrienne

    1975-01-01

    A structural analysis of the wine vocabulary used by wine experts is given. Experiments involving typical wine drinkers show that there is little consensus in how the words are applied to wine. Communication tasks show that the sender and receiver of messages about wine perform little better than chance. (Author/RM)

  3. Gas chromatographic organic acid profiling analysis of brandies and whiskeys for pattern recognition analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Y J; Kim, K R; Kim, J H

    1999-06-01

    An efficient gas chromatographic profiling and pattern recognition method is described for brandy and whiskey samples according to their organic acid contents. It involves solid-phase extraction of organic acids using Chromosorb P with subsequent conversion to stable tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives for the direct analysis by capillary column gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 12 organic acids were reproducibly identified in liquor samples (1 mL). When the GC profiles were simplified to their retention index spectra, characteristic patterns were obtained for each liquor sample as well as for each group average. Stepwise discriminant analysis provided star symbols characteristic for each liquor sample and group average. As expected, canonical discriminant analysis correctly classified 23 liquor samples studied into two groups of either brandy or whiskey. PMID:10794629

  4. Influence of copigmentation and phenolic composition on wine color.

    PubMed

    Heras-Roger, J; Alonso-Alonso, O; Gallo-Montesdeoca, A; Díaz-Romero, C; Darias-Martín, J

    2016-06-01

    Chromatic characteristics and their relationships with copigmentation and phenolic composition were studied in 160 bottled red wines. Free anthocyanins, copigmented anthocyanins and polymeric pigments contributing to color were calculated according to Boulton protocol and related to main changes produced in wine visible spectra after destroying any copigmented anthocyanins effect. Color differences between copigmented and non copigmented wines were quantified and related with ageing, cultivar and phenolic profile. Phenomenon of co-pigmentation visually increases the colour at 420, 520 and 620 nm for most of wines. Copigmented wines showed a mean value of 8.26 CIELab units higher than non copigmented (ΔEab(c-nc)), being this shift deeper for young wines than for aged wines. Copigmentation mostly changed hue and decreased L, a* and b* values therefore resulted into purplish and darker wine. Visual variations in color caused by copigmentation was related to particularly anthocyanins and copigments (mostly flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids). PMID:27478209

  5. Study of quinones reactions with wine nucleophiles by cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carla M; Barros, António S; Ferreira, António C S; Silva, Artur M S

    2016-11-15

    Quinones are electrophilic species which can react with various nucleophiles, like wine antioxidants, such as sulfur dioxide or ascorbic acid, thiols, amino acids, and numerous polyphenols. These reactions are very important in wine aging because they mediate oxygen reactions during both production and bottle aging phases. In this work, the major challenge was to determine the interaction between ortho-quinones and wine nucleophiles (amino acids, thiols, and the antioxidants SO2 and ascorbic acid), by cyclic voltammetry. Wine-model solutions with gallic acid, caffeic acid, or (+)-catechin and nucleophilic compounds were used. To understand the effect of nucleophilic addition in wine, a white wine with the same added nucleophiles was also analysed. Cyclic voltammograms were taken with glassy carbon electrode or screen-printed carbon electrodes, respectively, for wine-model and white wines solutions, in the absence and in the presence of nucleophiles. A nucleophilic order profile related to the cathodic current intensity decrease was observed. PMID:27283600

  6. Gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative study of the aroma of six premium quality spanish aged red wines.

    PubMed

    Culleré, Laura; Escudero, Ana; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2004-03-24

    The aroma of six premium quality Spanish red wines has been studied by quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and techniques of quantitative chemical analysis. The GC-O study revealed the presence of 85 aromatic notes in which 78 odorants were identified, two of which-1-nonen-3-one (temptatively) and 2-acetylpyrazine-are reported in wine for the first time. Forty out of the 82 quantified odorants may be present at concentrations above their odor threshold. The components with the greatest capacity to introduce differences between these wines are ethyl phenols produced by Brettanomyces yeasts (4-ethylphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-propyl-2-methoxyphenol), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), (Z)-3-hexenol, thiols derived from cysteinic precursors (4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, and 3-mercaptohexanol), some components yielded by the wood [(E)-isoeugenol, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, vanillin, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), and (Z)-whiskylactone], and compounds related to the metabolism (2-phenylethanol, ethyl esters of isoacids, 3-methylbutyl acetate) or oxidative degradation of amino acids [phenylacetaldehyde and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon)]. The correlation between the olfactometric intensities and the quantitative data is, in general, satisfactory if olfactometric differences between the samples are high. However, GC-O fails in detecting quantitative differences in those cases in which the olfactive intensity is very high or if odors elute in areas in which the odor chromatogram is too complex. PMID:15030226

  7. Wine and heart health

    MedlinePlus

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  8. Port-Wine Stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Port-Wine Stain A parent's guide for infants and babies ... a three-month-old infant with a port-wine stain. Overview A port-wine stain is a ...

  9. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Deep Creek and Brandy Branch crossings, Nassau County, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of surveys conducted July 14-18, 1992, at the Deep Creek and the Brandy Branch crossings of a pipeline installed during May 1991 in Nassau County, Florida. Both floodplains supported bottomland hardwood forests. The pipeline at the Deep Creek crossing was installed by means of horizontal directional drilling after the ROW had been clear-cut, while the pipeline at the Brandy Branch crossing was installed by means of conventional open trenching. Neither site was seeded or fertilized. At the time of sampling, a dense vegetative community, made up primarily of native perennial herbaceous species, occupied the ROW within the Deep Creek floodplain. The Brandy Branch ROW was vegetated by a less dense stand of primarily native perennial herbaceous plants. Plant diversity was also lower at the Brandy Branch crossing than at the Deep Creek crossing. The results suggest that some of the differences in plant communities are related to the more hydric conditions at the Brandy Branch floodplain.

  10. Tears of Wine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugliotti, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    The unique occurrence of the upward motion of a thin film of wine, and its formation into drops inside the wall of a wine glass is explained. Evaporation of alcohol generates a surface tension gradient, moving the film of wine upwards on the internal sides of a wine glass, where it collects and forms into drops or tears.

  11. Scalping of light volatile sulfur compounds by wine closures.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria A; Jourdes, Michaël; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2012-11-01

    Closures have an important influence on wine quality during aging in a bottle. Closures have a direct impact on oxygen exposure and on volatiles scavenging in wine. Model wine solution soaking assays of several types of closures (i.e., natural and technical cork stoppers, synthetic closures, screw caps) with two important wine volatile sulfur compounds led to a considerable reduction in their levels. After 25 days, cork closures and synthetic closures, to a lesser extent, have significantly scavenged hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide. These compounds have a determinant impact on wine aging bouquet, being largely responsible for "reduced off-flavors". Hydrogen sulfide levels are often not well correlated with the exposure of wine to oxygen or with the permeability of the closure. Its preferential sorption by some types of closures may explain that behavior. Scalping phenomenon should be taken into account when studying wine post-bottling development. PMID:23072649

  12. Impact of alternative technique to ageing using oak chips in alcoholic or in malolactic fermentation on volatile and sensory composition of red wines.

    PubMed

    Gómez García-Carpintero, E; Gómez Gallego, M A; Sánchez-Palomo, E; González Viñas, M A

    2012-09-15

    This paper reports on a complete study of the effect of wood, in the form of oak chips, on the volatile composition and sensory characteristics of Moravia Agria wines added at different stages of the fermentation process. Aroma compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sensory profile was evaluated by experienced wine-testers. Oak chips were added to wines in two dose rates at different stages of the winemaking process: during alcoholic fermentation (AF), during malolactic fermentation (MLF) and in young, red Moravia Agria wine. Wines fermented with oak chips during AF showed higher concentrations of the ethyl esters of straight-chain fatty acids, ethyl, hexyl, isoamyl acetates and superior alcohols than the control wines. The higher concentrations of benzene compound, oak lactones and furanic compounds were found in wines in contact with oak chips during MLF. The use of oak chips gives rise to a different sensorial profile of wines depending of the point of addition. Higher intensities of woody, coconut, vanilla and sweet spices descriptors were obtained when a large dose rate of chips was employed. PMID:23107700

  13. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., vinegar, nonbeverage cooking wine. (b) Salted wine. Salted wine is a wine or wine product not for beverage... salt per 100 milliliter of wine. (12.5 pounds of salt/100 gallons of wine.) (c) Vinegar. Vinegar is...

  14. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., vinegar, nonbeverage cooking wine. (b) Salted wine. Salted wine is a wine or wine product not for beverage... salt per 100 milliliter of wine. (12.5 pounds of salt/100 gallons of wine.) (c) Vinegar. Vinegar is...

  15. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., vinegar, nonbeverage cooking wine. (b) Salted wine. Salted wine is a wine or wine product not for beverage... salt per 100 milliliter of wine. (12.5 pounds of salt/100 gallons of wine.) (c) Vinegar. Vinegar is...

  16. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., vinegar, nonbeverage cooking wine. (b) Salted wine. Salted wine is a wine or wine product not for beverage... salt per 100 milliliter of wine. (12.5 pounds of salt/100 gallons of wine.) (c) Vinegar. Vinegar is...

  17. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., vinegar, nonbeverage cooking wine. (b) Salted wine. Salted wine is a wine or wine product not for beverage... salt per 100 milliliter of wine. (12.5 pounds of salt/100 gallons of wine.) (c) Vinegar. Vinegar is...

  18. Interplay among Gcn5, Sch9 and Mitochondria during Chronological Aging of Wine Yeast Is Dependent on Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Picazo, Cecilia; Orozco, Helena; Matallana, Emilia; Aranda, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae chronological life span (CLS) is determined by a wide variety of environmental and genetic factors. Nutrient limitation without malnutrition, i.e. dietary restriction, expands CLS through the control of nutrient signaling pathways, of which TOR/Sch9 has proven to be the most relevant, particularly under nitrogen deprivation. The use of prototrophic wine yeast allows a better understanding of the role of nitrogen in longevity in natural and more demanding environments, such as grape juice fermentation. We previously showed that acetyltransferase Gcn5, a member of the SAGA complex, has opposite effects on CLS under laboratory and winemaking conditions, and is detrimental under the latter. Here we demonstrate that integrity of the SAGA complex is necessary for prolonged longevity, as its dismantling by SPT20 deletion causes a drop in CLS under both laboratory and winemaking conditions. The sch9Δ mutant is long-lived in synthetic SC medium, as expected, and the combined deletion of GCN5 partially suppresses this phenotype. However it is short-lived in grape juice, likely due to its low nitrogen/carbon ratio. Therefore, unbalance of nutrients can be more relevant for life span than total amounts of them. Deletion of RTG2, which codes for a protein associated with Gcn5 and is a component of the mitochondrial retrograde signal, and which communicates mitochondrial dysfunction to the nucleus, is detrimental under laboratory, but not under winemaking conditions, where respiration seems not so relevant for longevity. Transcription factor Rgm1 was found to be a novel CLS regulator Sch9-dependently. PMID:25658705

  19. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine,...

  20. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine,...

  1. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine,...

  2. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine,...

  3. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine,...

  4. 27 CFR 19.331 - Use of oak chips in spirits and caramel in brandy and rum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of oak chips in... Storage of Distilled Spirits Use of Oak Chips and Caramel § 19.331 Use of oak chips in spirits and caramel in brandy and rum. A proprietor may add oak chips that have not been treated with any chemical...

  5. 27 CFR 19.331 - Use of oak chips in spirits and caramel in brandy and rum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of oak chips in... Storage of Distilled Spirits Use of Oak Chips and Caramel § 19.331 Use of oak chips in spirits and caramel in brandy and rum. A proprietor may add oak chips that have not been treated with any chemical...

  6. 27 CFR 19.331 - Use of oak chips in spirits and caramel in brandy and rum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of oak chips in... Storage of Distilled Spirits Use of Oak Chips and Caramel § 19.331 Use of oak chips in spirits and caramel in brandy and rum. A proprietor may add oak chips that have not been treated with any chemical...

  7. 27 CFR 19.331 - Use of oak chips in spirits and caramel in brandy and rum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of oak chips in... Storage of Distilled Spirits Use of Oak Chips and Caramel § 19.331 Use of oak chips in spirits and caramel in brandy and rum. A proprietor may add oak chips that have not been treated with any chemical...

  8. 27 CFR 19.343 - Addition of oak chips to spirits and addition of caramel to brandy and rum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Addition of oak chips to... PLANTS Storage § 19.343 Addition of oak chips to spirits and addition of caramel to brandy and rum. Oak chips which have not been treated with any chemical may be added to packages either prior to or...

  9. Port-wine stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... wine stains, including freezing, surgery, radiation, and tattooing. Laser therapy is most successful in eliminating port-wine stains. ... Prognosis) Stains on the face respond better to laser therapy than those on the arms, legs, or middle ...

  10. Port-wine stain

    MedlinePlus

    A port-wine stain is a birthmark in which swollen blood vessels create a reddish-purplish discoloration of the skin. ... Port-wine stains occur in about 3 out of 1,000 people. In rare cases, port-wine stains are ...

  11. Anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of Terminaliapallida Brandis. in Swiss albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Manikandan, L; Bhattacharya, S; Senthilkumar, G P; Suresh, R

    2005-02-28

    Ethanol extract of Terminalia pallida Brandis. (EETP) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against various models of ulcers, such as drug-induced ulcers, histamine-induced ulcers and ethanol-induced ulcers in Swiss albino rats. The EETP at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per os (p.o.) exhibited significant protection against ulcers produced by indomethacin, histamine and the effect was comparable to that of the reference drug famotidine (30 mg/kg b.w) orally. The extract also afforded significant protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. Meanwhile, EETP significantly lowered the elevated lipid peroxide level (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and restored the altered glutathione level in ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. The present investigation revealed that the EETP exhibited significant anti-ulcer activity by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa, thereby reducing mucosal damage. PMID:15707782

  12. Wine and endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Caimi, G; Carollo, C; Lo Presti, R

    2003-01-01

    In recent years many studies have focused on the well-known relationship between wine consumption and cardiovascular risk. Wine exerts its protective effects through various changes in lipoprotein profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades, platelet aggregation, oxidative mechanisms and endothelial function. The last has earned more attention for its implications in atherogenesis. Endothelium regulates vascular tone by a delicate balancing among vasorelaxing (nitric oxide [NO]) and vasoconstrincting (endothelins) factors produced by endothelium in response to various stimuli. In rat models, wine and other grape derivatives exerted an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing capacity especially associated with the NO-stimulating activity of their polyphenol components. In experimental conditions, reservatrol (a stilbene polyphenol) protected hearts and kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury through antioxidant activity and upregulation of NO production. Wine polyphenols are also able to induce the expression of genes involved in the NO pathway within the arterial wall. The effects of wine on endothelial function in humans are not yet clearly understood. A favorable action of red wine or dealcoholized wine extract or purple grape juice on endothelial function has been observed by several authors, but discrimination between ethanol and polyphenol effects is controversial. It is, however likely that regular and prolonged moderate wine drinking positively affects endothelial function. The beneficial effects of wine on cardiovascular health are greater if wine is associated with a healthy diet. The most recent nutritional and epidemiologic studies show that the ideal diet closely resembles the Mediterranean diet. PMID:15134380

  13. High pressure treatments accelerate changes in volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wine during bottle storage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mickael C; Nunes, Cláudia; Rocha, M Angélica M; Rodrigues, Ana; Rocha, Sílvia M; Saraiva, Jorge A; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-12-01

    The impact of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wines during bottle storage was studied. For this purpose, white and red wines were produced without sulphur dioxide (SO2) and, at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, the wines were pressurised at 500 MPa and 425 MPa for 5 min. Wine with 40 ppm of SO2 and a wine without a preservation treatment were used as controls. More than 160 volatile compounds, distributed over 12 chemical groups, were identified in the wines by an advanced gas chromatography technique. The pressurised wines contained a higher content of furans, aldehydes, ketones, and acetals, compared with unpressurised wines after 9 months of storage. The changes in the volatile composition indicate that HHP treatments accelerated the Maillard reaction, and alcohol and fatty acid oxidation, leading to wines with a volatile composition similar to those of faster aged and/or thermally treated wines. PMID:26041211

  14. Identification and quantification of impact odorants of aged red wines from Rioja. GC-olfactometry, quantitative GC-MS, and odor evaluation of HPLC fractions.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M; López, R; Cacho, J F; Ferreira, V

    2001-06-01

    An XAD-4 extract from a 5-year-old wine from Rioja (Spain) was analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Most of the odorants were quantified by GC-MS. A second extract was fractionated in an HPLC system with a C-18 semipreparative column. Fifty fractions were recovered, their alcoholic degree and pH were further adjusted to those of the wine, and those fractions that showed strong odor characteristics were further re-extracted and analyzed by GC-O and GC-MS. Reconstitution experiments were carried out to confirm the role of the odorants detected in the fractions. Fifty-eight odorants were found in the Rioja wine, 52 of which could be identified. Methyl benzoate was found to be a wine aroma constituent for the first time. The most important odorants are 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-whiskey lactone, 4-ethylphenol, beta-damascenone, fusel alcohols, isovaleric and hexanoic acids, eugenol, fatty acid ethyl esters, and ethyl esters of isoacids, Furaneol, phenylacetic acid, and (E)-2-hexenal. Comparison among the three techniques shows good agreement and demonstrates that they are complementary. PMID:11409988

  15. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    PubMed Central

    Rajdl, Daniel; Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Stehlik, Pavel; Dobra, Jana; Babuska, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration. PMID:26771632

  16. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines: chromatic properties and global phenolic composition by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-González, M; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2013-09-01

    Valdeorras (the N.W. corner of Spain) wants to promote the production and marketing of new sweet wines. The present work represents the first study on sweet wines manufactured with red grapes Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera, a teinturier cultivar. Two different red sweet wines were elaborated: the first one was made with dried grapes; Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera has excellent potential to produce wines from raisined grapes; the second one, a fortified sweet wine aged in oak barrels. Different red Garnacha Tintorera-based wines (a dry base wine, GBW; a naturally sweet wine, GNSW; and a fortified sweet wine, GFSW) were characterized. Chromatic characteristics and phenolic compounds were established by spectrophotometric methods in order to assess the technology of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines. High molecular weight brown polymers, produced during the grape drying process and isolated from sweet wines by the dialysis process, were responsible for the brown colour of sweet wines. As a consequence, yellowness of sweet wines was also higher which was confirmed by colorimetric indexes. With respect to phenolic content, GFSW presented the lowest content because the maceration-alcoholic fermentation was stopped through the addition of alcohol before the diffusion of red pigments from skins to must was complete. GNSW presented the highest phenolic content due to the concentration effect resulting from evaporation of water from the grapes. Anthocyanins of sweet wines were polymerised in great extent. The percentage of polymerised tannins was sufficient to guarantee the aging process of sweet wines. PMID:23578636

  17. Effect of incorporation of mahua extract, fining agent and ageing on the quality characteristics of red wine.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sandeep; Kaur, Mandeep; Sharma, H K

    2012-09-01

    Mahua (Madhuca longfolia) extract and black grapes (Vitis vinifera) must samples 100:0 (grape:mahua), 95:5 (grape:mahua) and 90:10 (grape:mahua) were analyzed for quality characteristics. Samples were kept for fermentation and monitored for quality analysis for 15 days. 90:10 (grape:mahua) sample was found to be best on the basis of ranking test and subjected to clarification using bentonite and gelatine. Sample treated with a combination of 0.02 g/100 g bentonite and 0.04 g/100 g gelatin showed better results for anthocyanin (52.2 mg/100 g) and tannin (0.038%w/v). After ageing of 3 months TSS was found highest (2.7ºBx) in the non-clarified sample and lowest (2.1ºBx) in sample treated with 0.06 g/100 g bentonite and 0.03 g/100 g gelatine. pH was highest (3.29) in sample treated with 0.06 g/100 g bentonite and 0.03 g/100 g gelatine and lowest (3.16) in sample with 0.04 g/100 g bentonite and 0.03 g/100 g gelatine. Anthocyanin content was highest (56.1 mg/100 g) in control sample and lowest (29.22 mg/100 g) in sample treated with 0.04 g/100 g bentonite and 0.02 g/100 g gelatin. Tannin content was found to be highest (0.079%w/v) in control sample and lowest (0.03%w/v) in sample treated with 0.02 g/100 g bentonite and 0.04 g/100 g gelatine. PMID:23997332

  18. Classification of red wines using suitable markers coupled with multivariate statistic analysis.

    PubMed

    Geana, Elisabeta Irina; Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Dinca, Oana Romina; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Stefanescu, Ioan; Artem, Victoria; Bala, Camelia

    2016-02-01

    Methodologies for chemometric classification of five authentic red wine varieties from Murfatlar wine center, Romania, young and aged are reported. The discriminant analysis based on several anthocyanins, organic acids, (13)C/(12)C, (18)O/(16)O and D/H isotopic ratios, (1)H and (13)C NMR fingerprints revealed a very satisfactory categorization of the wines, both in terms of variety and vintage, thus illustrating the validity of selected variables for wine authentication purposes. LDA applied to the combined data shows 85.7% classification of wines according to grape variety and 71.1% classification of wines according to vintage year, including a control wine set for each categorization, thus allowing an accurate interpretation of the data. Thereby, anthocyanins, certain anthocyanin ratios, oxalic, shikimic, lactic, citric and succinic acids, sugars like glucose, amino acids like histidine, leucine, isoleucine and alanine, and also 2,3-butanediol, methanol, glycerol and isotopic variables were significant for classification of wines. PMID:26304442

  19. Champagne flutes and brandy snifters: modelling protostellar outflow-cloud chemical interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, R. P.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Williams, D. A.; Redman, M. P.

    2014-10-01

    A rich variety of molecular species has now been observed towards hot cores in star-forming regions and in the interstellar medium. An increasing body of evidence from millimetre interferometers suggests that many of these form at the interfaces between protostellar outflows and their natal molecular clouds. However, current models have remained unable to explain the origin of the observational bias towards wide-angled `brandy snifter' shaped outflows over narrower `champagne flute' shapes in carbon monoxide imaging. Furthermore, these wide-angled systems exhibit unusually high abundances of the molecular ion HCO+. We present results from a chemodynamic model of such regions where a rich chemistry arises naturally as a result of turbulent mixing between cold, dense molecular gas and the hot, ionized outflow material. The injecta drives a rich and rapid ion-neutral chemistry in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the observations. The observational bias towards wide-angled outflows is explained naturally by the geometry-dependent ion injection rate causing rapid dissociation of CO in the younger systems.

  20. Identification and analysis of piperitone in red wines.

    PubMed

    Pons, Alexandre; Lavigne, Valérie; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2016-09-01

    The present study concerns the search for new aroma compounds associated with the flavor of aged and prematurely aged red wines. Sensory descriptive analysis associated with gas chromatography-olfactometry was first performed to find specific odoriferous zones. One of the zones, reminiscent of mint, was found in red wines with a prune flavor. Thanks to several analytical approaches including preparative gas chromatography, p-menth-1-en-3-one (piperitone), has been identified in red wines. The olfactory detection threshold of this terpene reminiscent of mint was 0.9μg/L in model hydroalcoholic solution and 70μg/L in red wines. Chiral multidimensional GC-MS was used to show that piperitone was present mainly in the (R) form in red wines. The concentration of piperitone in aged red wines ranged from a few ng/L to 435ng/L, but the level was not linked to the age of the wine nor to its premature evolution. PMID:27041315

  1. Laser treatment of port-wine stains

    PubMed Central

    Brightman, Lori A; Geronemus, Roy G; Reddy, Kavitha K

    2015-01-01

    Port-wine stains are a type of capillary malformation affecting 0.3% to 0.5% of the population. Port-wine stains present at birth as pink to erythematous patches on the skin and/or mucosa. Without treatment, the patches typically darken with age and may eventually develop nodular thickening or associated pyogenic granuloma. Laser and light treatments provide improvement through selective destruction of vasculature. A variety of vascular-selective lasers may be employed, with the pulsed dye laser being the most common and well studied. Early treatment produces more optimal results. Advances in imaging and laser treatment technologies demonstrate potential to further improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25624768

  2. Identification and Organoleptic Contribution of Vanillylthiol in Wines.

    PubMed

    Floch, Morgan; Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Darriet, Philippe; Pons, Alexandre

    2016-02-17

    Vanillylthiol, a chemical compound reminiscent of clove and smoke, has been identified for the first time in young red and dry white wines. The chemical structure of this new aroma was confirmed by original chemical synthesis. Vanillylthiol was prepared by a two-step procedure from vanillin. The conversion of vanillin to divanillyl disulfide was easily achieved by treatment with an inorganic sulfur-donor reagent. Reduction of the disulfide gave the target thiol in good yield. The quantification of vanillylthiol in wine was performed by nonspecific liquid/liquid extraction (CH2Cl2), separation of the volatile compounds using gas chromatography, and specific detection using tandem mass spectrometry (triple quadrupole). Vanillylthiol was found particularly in young wines aged in new oak barrels. These wines contained between a few 50 ng/L to more than 8300 ng/L. The highest levels were found in red wines aged 12 months in new oak barrels. Given its perception threshold in a wine model solution (3.8 μg/L), vanillylthiol may contribute to the spicy, clove-like flavor of red wines aged in oak barrels. PMID:26806420

  3. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  4. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  5. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  6. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section 4.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine...

  7. Influence of oak maturation regimen on composition, sensory properties, quality, and consumer acceptability of cabernet sauvignon wines.

    PubMed

    Crump, Anna M; Johnson, Trent E; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2015-02-11

    Oak barrels have long been the preferred method for oak maturation of wine, but barrels contribute significantly to production costs, so alternate oak maturation regimens have been introduced, particularly for wines at lower price points. To date, few studies have investigated consumers' acceptance of wines made using non-traditional oak treatments. In this study, two Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged using traditional (i.e., barrel) and/or alternative (i.e., stainless steel or plastic tanks and vats, with oak wood added) maturation regimens. Chemical and sensory analyses were subsequently performed to determine the influence on wine composition and sensory properties, that is, the presence of key oak-derived volatile compounds and perceptible oak aromas and flavor. The quality of a subset of wines was rated by a panel of 10 wine experts using a 20-point scoring system, with all wines considered technically sound. Consumer acceptance of wines was also determined. Hedonic ratings ranged from 5.7 to 5.9 (on a 9-point scale), indicating there was no significant difference in consumers' overall liking of each wine. However, segmentation based on individual liking scores identified three distinct clusters comprising consumers with considerably different wine preferences. These results justify wine producers' use of alternative oak maturation regimens to achieve wine styles that appeal to different segments of their target market. PMID:25584640

  8. Effect of wine pH and bottle closure on tannins.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kassara, Stella; Kennedy, James A; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2013-11-27

    The impact of wine pH and closure type on color, tannin concentration, and composition was investigated. A single vintage of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was divided into three batches, the pH was adjusted to 3.2, 3.5 or 3.8, and the wines were bottled under screw caps with either SaranTin (ST) or Saranex (Sx) liners. After 24 months, the tannin concentration, tannin percent yield (relating to the proportion of acid-labile interflavan bonds), and the mean degree of polymerization (mDp) had decreased significantly, all of which can contribute to the softening of wine astringency with aging. The higher pH wines contained less percent (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate subunits, whereas the Sx pH 3.2 wines were significantly lower in percent yield and mDp than the other wines. Overall, the tannin structure and wine color of the lower pH wines (pH 3.2) bottled under Sx screw caps changed more rapidly with aging than those of the higher pH wines (pH 3.8) bottled under ST screw caps. PMID:24195587

  9. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, J.; Santos, J. P.; Horrillo, M. C.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.

    2009-05-01

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  10. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, J.

    2009-05-23

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  11. Relationship between Menthiafolic Acid and Wine Lactone in Wine.

    PubMed

    Giaccio, Joanne; Curtin, Chris D; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2015-09-23

    Menthiafolic acid (6-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoic acid, 2a) was quantified by GC-MS in 28 white wines, 4 Shiraz wines, and for the first time in 6 white grape juice samples. Menthiafolic acid was detected in all but one of the wine samples at concentrations ranging from 26 to 342 μg/L and in the juice samples from 16 to 236 μg/L. Various model fermentation experiments showed that some menthiafolic acid in wine could be generated from the grape-derived menthiafolic acid glucose ester (2b) during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Samples containing high concentrations of menthiafolic acid were also analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS and were shown to contain this compound in predominantly the (S)-configuration. Enantioselective analysis of wine lactone (1) in one of these samples, a four-year-old Chardonnay wine showed, for the first time, the presence of the 3R,3aR,7aS isomer of wine lactone (1b), which is the enantiomer of the form previously reported as the sole isomer present in young wine samples. The weakly odorous 3R,3aR,7aS 1b form comprised 69% of the total wine lactone in the sample. On the basis of the enantioselectivity of the hydrolytic conversion of menthiafolic acid to wine lactone at pH 3.0 determined previously and the relative proportions of (R)- and (S)-menthiafolic acid in the Chardonnay wine, the predicted ratio of wine lactone enantiomers that would be formed from hydrolysis at ambient temperature of the menthiafolic acid present in this wine was close to the ratio measured, which was consistent with menthiafolic acid being the major or sole precursor to wine lactone in this sample. PMID:26321591

  12. Angel's share combats wine fraud: (14)C dating of wine without opening the bottle.

    PubMed

    Fahrni, Simon M; Fuller, Benjamin T; Southon, John R

    2015-09-01

    The problem of fraud continues to plague the wine industry, and detecting cases where the original bottle has been refilled with an inferior vintage is especially difficult. A novel noninvasive procedure presented here relies on radiocarbon dating the so-called angel's share: the trace amounts of ethanol and other gases that diffuse into and through the cork as bottled wine ages and matures. These are collected by applying a vacuum to the top of the bottle and cryo-trapping the extracted gas, leaving the liquid contents untouched. Vintage verification is therefore possible without exposing the liquid contents to the atmosphere, which may render a bottle costing tens of thousands of dollars worthless for later resale and consumption. The method also has a potential for stable isotope ratio as well as chemical analysis to find indications for fraud or spoilage of fine and rare wines as well as other liquids with cork stoppers. PMID:26258285

  13. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classes of wine other than... Classes of wine other than standard wine. The following classes of wine are not standard wine: (a) High...; (f) Vinegar stock, produced as provided in § 24.217; and (g) Wines other than those in classes...

  14. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classes of wine other than... Classes of wine other than standard wine. The following classes of wine are not standard wine: (a) High...; (f) Vinegar stock, produced as provided in § 24.217; and (g) Wines other than those in classes...

  15. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classes of wine other than... Classes of wine other than standard wine. The following classes of wine are not standard wine: (a) High...; (f) Vinegar stock, produced as provided in § 24.217; and (g) Wines other than those in classes...

  16. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classes of wine other than... Classes of wine other than standard wine. The following classes of wine are not standard wine: (a) High...; (f) Vinegar stock, produced as provided in § 24.217; and (g) Wines other than those in classes...

  17. A Laboratory Classroom Where ?Wining? Is Encouraged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Hope

    2004-01-01

    A wine analysis for most is: take a sip, and either like it or don't. Not so for the students taking wine analysis courses at California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo, California. In the college's new Wine Analysis Laboratory, students learn how to run chemical analyses of wines and compare chemical profiles of wines. Professor…

  18. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  19. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  20. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  1. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  2. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  3. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... wines considered to be other wine include: (1) Wine made with sugar, water, or sugar and water beyond... kinds of fruit. (3) Wine made with sugar other than pure dry sugar, liquid pure sugar, and invert sugar.... Other wine will have a basic character derived from the primary winemaking material. If sugar is used...

  4. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wines considered to be other wine include: (1) Wine made with sugar, water, or sugar and water beyond... kinds of fruit. (3) Wine made with sugar other than pure dry sugar, liquid pure sugar, and invert sugar.... Other wine will have a basic character derived from the primary winemaking material. If sugar is used...

  5. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wines considered to be other wine include: (1) Wine made with sugar, water, or sugar and water beyond... kinds of fruit. (3) Wine made with sugar other than pure dry sugar, liquid pure sugar, and invert sugar.... Other wine will have a basic character derived from the primary winemaking material. If sugar is used...

  6. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wines considered to be other wine include: (1) Wine made with sugar, water, or sugar and water beyond... kinds of fruit. (3) Wine made with sugar other than pure dry sugar, liquid pure sugar, and invert sugar.... Other wine will have a basic character derived from the primary winemaking material. If sugar is used...

  7. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section 24.218 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in...

  8. Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

  9. Volatile phenols depletion in red wine using molecular imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Rafaela; Dopico-García, Sonia; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; López-Vilariño, José M; González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Cela-Pérez, Concepción; Silva, Luís R

    2015-12-01

    Wines can be modified by microorganisms during the ageing process, by producing off-flavours like volatile phenols (VP), leading to their deterioration, with great economic losses. The development of methods to recover wines affected by unwanted VP became an important target. Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic materials with artificially-generated recognition sites for selective extraction of organic compounds from different matrices. In this work, two MIPs to remove unwanted VP from wines were developed and their effects were evaluated. Volatile compounds were determined by GC-FID and GC-IT/MS and phenolic compounds (non-coloured and anthocyanins) by HPLC-DAD. The treatment with MIP-4EG and MIP-4EP significantly reduced the content of 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol, respectively. Nevertheless, the changes observed in wine non-coloured and coloured phenolics and sensorial analysis indicate that their specificity and selectivity regarding off-flavours still needs to be improved. PMID:26604347

  10. Factors influencing the aroma composition of Chardonnay wines.

    PubMed

    Gambetta, Joanna M; Bastian, Susan E P; Cozzolino, Daniel; Jeffery, David W

    2014-07-16

    Chardonnay is one of the oldest and most widely distributed wine grape cultivars and is of commercial importance for the world's wine-producing nations. It is an extremely flexible variety that has adapted to different regions with varied weather and soil characteristics. Somewhat uniquely among white wines, Chardonnay lends itself to a wide variety of production styles, which can be tailored to the target market. Techniques such as skin maceration, barrel and stainless steel fermentation, use of selected or indigenous yeasts, malolactic fermentation, and aging in barrels with or without lees are all applicable and lead to different compositional outcomes. A number of research papers have been published with a view to understanding Chardonnay composition and quality as well as the impact of different enological techniques on the final product. This review summarizes current knowledge, explaining the influence of viticultural and production techniques on aroma composition, and poses directions for further research into Chardonnay wines. PMID:24954266

  11. Atlantic consumption of French rum and brandy and economic growth in the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Mandelblatt, Bertie

    2011-01-01

    Why did the production of rum in the French West Indies not achieve the same success within the French Atlantic as it did in the British Atlantic world? Surveying the history of rum production in the French Caribbean in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, this article contends that the reason why no regional trade in rum developed in French North America resulted from fierce industrial and institutional competition from brandy producers in metropolitan France. Rum, nevertheless, remained significant within the culture and economy of Native Americans and African Americans. This article seeks to add nuance to the wider debate of the ability of the trans-border diffusion of new ideas to stimulate and institutionalize industrial and economic growth in the Atlantic world. French entrepreneurs were no less ‘entrepreneurial’ than their British counterparts, but real constraints on consumption on both sides of the Atlantic created insufficient demand. PMID:21695844

  12. Growing for wine style

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    My talk will present an overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and...

  13. Port-Wine Stains

    MedlinePlus

    ... upsetting for kids, especially if they're large, dark, or on the face. And any birthmark can take a toll on a child's self-confidence, no matter how large or small the mark might be. The good news is that lasers (highly concentrated light energy) can make many kids' port-wine stains much ...

  14. Assisting Wine Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Ames Research Center to assist wine growers in the Napa valley in their fight against a root parasite which is destroying millions of dollars worth of grape crops. NASA researchers are using airborne scanners and remote sensing equipment to detect the parasite before it becomes entrenched, so that growers can treat the harvest to resist infestation.

  15. Effects of low frequency ultrasonic treatment on the maturation of steeped greengage wine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinhua; Zhang, Min; Fang, Zhongxiang; Liu, Yaping

    2014-11-01

    To accelerate wine maturation, low frequency ultrasonic waves of 28 kHz and 45 kHz were used to treat the steeped greengage wine. The contents of total acid, total ester, fusel oils and the wine chromaticity were determined before and after the ultrasonic treatment. The volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS method, and the sensory quality was evaluated by panelist. The results indicated that ultrasonic treatment of the steeped greengage wine at 45 kHz 360 W for 30 min was effective to accelerate the aging process, where the fusel oils and alcohol compounds were significantly reduced and acid and ester compounds were significantly increased. PMID:24874386

  16. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required. PMID:25494838

  17. Wine Consumption and 20-Year Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; North, Rebecca J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined level of wine consumption and total mortality among 802 older adults ages 55–65 at baseline, controlling for key sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors. Despite a growing consensus that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced total mortality, whether wine consumption provides an additional, unique protective effect is unresolved. Method: Participants were categorized in three subsamples: abstainers, high-wine-consumption moderate drinkers, and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers. Alcohol consumption, sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health problems were assessed at baseline; total mortality was indexed across an ensuing 20-year period. Results: After adjusting for all covariates, both high-wine-consumption and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers showed reduced mortality risks compared with abstainers. Further, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine were older, were more likely to be male, reported more health problems, were more likely to be tobacco smokers, scored lower on socioeconomic status, and (statistical trend) reported engaging in less physical activity. Controlling only for overall ethanol consumption, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine showed a substantially increased 20-year mortality risk of 85%. However, after controlling for all covariates, the initial mortality difference associated with wine consumption was no longer significant. Conclusions: Among older adults who are moderate drinkers, the apparent unique effects of wine on longevity may be explained by confounding factors correlated with wine consumption. PMID:22152665

  18. Influence of Grape Maturity on Complex Carbohydrate Composition of Red Sparkling Wines.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Williams, Pascale; Doco, Thierry

    2016-06-22

    This paper studied how grape maturity affected complex carbohydrate composition during red sparkling wine making and wine aging. Grape ripening stage (premature and mature grapes) showed a significant impact on the content, composition, and evolution of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides of sparkling wines. Polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, mannoproteins, rhamnogalacturonans II, and oligosaccharides in base wines increased with maturity. For both maturity stages, polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, and the glucuronic acid glycosyl residue of the oligosaccharides were the major carbohydrates detected in all vinification stages. The total glycosyl content of oligosaccharides decreased during the whole period of aging on yeast lees. The reduction of polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose and rhamnogalacturonans type II during the aging was more pronounced in mature samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the polysaccharide and oligosaccharide composition of red sparkling wines. PMID:27226011

  19. Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura)(Diptera: drosophilidae), trapped with combinations of wines and vinegars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trapping experiments evaluated wine and vinegar baits for spotted wing drosophila flies, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), and assessed variance in biat attractiveness with wit type, vinegar type, and bait age. A mixture of apple cider vinegar and a Merlot wine attracted more flies than a mixtur...

  20. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  1. Red wine activates plasma membrane redox system in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity. PMID:26866566

  2. Wine fermentation microbiome: a landscape from different Portuguese wine appellations

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Cardoso, Remy; Custódio, Valéria; Fernandes, Joana; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    Grapes and wine musts harbor a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations. For this, the wine microbiome, from six Portuguese wine appellations, was fully characterized as regards to three stages of fermentation – Initial Musts (IM), and Start and End of alcoholic fermentations (SF and EF, respectively). The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF, and EF, and in the bacterial population between IM and SF. Fungal communities were characterized by either the presence of environmental microorganisms and phytopathogens in the IM, or yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentations in wine must samples as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (as Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Sporothrix, Candida, and Schizosaccharomyces). Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae) and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae) were also detected. Interestingly, a biogeographical correlation for both fungal and bacterial communities was identified between wine appellations at IM suggesting that each wine region contains specific and embedded microbial communities which may contribute to the uniqueness of regional wines. PMID

  3. Decoding the combinatorial aroma code of a commercial Cognac by application of the sensomics concept and first insights into differences from a German brandy.

    PubMed

    Uselmann, Verena; Schieberle, Peter

    2015-02-25

    In the volatile fraction isolated from a commercial Cognac by means of extraction/SAFE distillation, 39 odor-active areas were detected, among which (E)-β-damascenone showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 2048 followed by 2- and 3-methylbutanol, (S)-2-methylbutanol, 1,1-diethoxyethane, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, as well as 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanilla-like) and 2-phenylethanol. The quantitation of 37 odorants by stable isotope dilution assays and a calculation of odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) resulted in 34 odorants with OAVs > 1. Among them (E)-β-damascenone, methylpropanal, ethyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, ethyl methylpropanoate, and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate together with ethanol were established as key contributors to the Cognac aroma. Finally, the overall aroma of the Cognac could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of these 34 key odorants on the basis of their natural concentrations in the Cognac using an odorless matrix to simulate the influence of the nonvolatile constituents. A comparison of the FD factors of the key odorants identified in a German brandy to those in the Cognac suggested the pair (E)-β-damascenone and ethyl pentanoate as indicators to differentiate various Cognacs from German, French, and Spanish brandies. This was confirmed by calculating a ratio of the concentrations of (E)-β-damascenone to ethyl pentanoate for 12 Cognacs and 7 brandies from Germany and 2 from France and Spain, respectively. PMID:25641554

  4. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance – with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used – an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli. PMID:22888174

  5. 27 CFR 24.210 - Classes of wine other than standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classes of wine other than standard wine. 24.210 Section 24.210 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.210 Classes of wine other than standard...

  6. Wine and migraine: compatibility or incompatibility?

    PubMed

    Nicolodi, M; Sicuteri, F

    1999-01-01

    According to popular belief, alcoholic beverages are to be avoided in the case of headache, a term which includes migraine, the most common type of headache. An imbalance between pain transmission and inhibition has been suggested and partly proved to be the mechanism of migraine. This means that peripherally acting substances following wine intake are unlikely to trigger migraine attacks. We hypothesized that factors other than the mere consumption of alcohol can trigger migraine attacks. In an attempt to corroborate this assumption, we carried out a 14-month study in 307 volunteers. All the volunteers had no health problems apart from suffering from migraine without aura. During the entire study period, patients had to complete a diary/questionnaire every time they consumed alcohol. The questionnaires included items regarding the quantity (measured in dl) and the type of alcohol they consumed as well as information about their lifestyle. The volunteers also had to complete a pain diary. It was observed that spirits and sparkling wines were significantly (p > 0.0001) more frequently related to migraine attacks than other alcoholic beverages. Nonetheless, there was no statistical relationship between the consumption of alcohol and migraine attacks. On the other hand, a positive relationship was established between stressful events and the onset of migraine attacks. As an overall result, it was observed that low amounts of alcohol (i.e., 1 dl of 4-14% alcohol/vol. and 0.4 dl of 35-42% alcohol/vol.) did not induce a significant increase in the frequency of migraine attacks. Moreover, it emerged that alcoholic beverage intake during stress periods was related to a significantly higher frequency of migraine attacks (p > 0.0001 for spirits and sparkling wines, p > 0.009 for red wine and p > 0.006 and p > 0.004 for white wine and beer, respectively). Routine blood tests revealed that the subjects who prefer red wine showed a lower level (p > 0.05) of total cholesterol

  7. Cardioprotective abilities of white wine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianhua; Tosaki, Arpad; Cordis, Gerald A; Bertelli, Alberto A E; Bertelli, Aldo; Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

    2002-05-01

    To study if white wines, like red wine, can also protect the heart from ischemia reperfusion injury, ethanol-free extracts of three different white wines (WW1, WW2 and WW3) (100 mg/100 g body weight) were given orally to Sprague Dawley rats (200 g body weight) for three weeks. Control rats were given water only for the same period of time. After three weeks, rats were anesthetized and sacrificed, and the hearts excised for the preparation of isolated working rat heart. All hearts were subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by two hours of reperfusion. The results demonstrated that among the three different white wines, only WW2 showed cardioprotection as evidenced by improved post-ischemic ventricular recovery compared to control. The amount of malonaldehyde production in white wine-fed rat hearts were lower compared to that found in control hearts indicating reduced formation of the reactive oxygen species. In vitro studies using chemiluminescence technique revealed that these white wines scavenged both superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. The results of our study demonstrated that only WW2 white wine provided cardioprotection as evidenced by the improved the post-ischemic contractile recovery and reduced myocardial infarct size. The cardioprotective effect of this white wine may be attributed, at least in part, from its ability to function as an in vivo antioxidant. PMID:12074987

  8. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  9. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77 Section 24.77 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any...

  10. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77 Section 24.77 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any...

  11. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77 Section 24.77 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Tax Exempt Wine § 24.77 Experimental wine. (a) General. Any...

  12. Carbonic maceration wines: characteristics and winemaking process.

    PubMed

    Tesniere, C; Flanzy, C

    2011-01-01

    Invented by Michel Flanzy in 1934, carbonic maceration involves placing the intact grape clusters into a closed tank with a carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. The berries subsequently undergo an intracellular fermentation without yeast intervention. Complex changes occur during this process which entail the transformation of a small amount of sugar into alcohol (1.5-2% alcohol), the reduction of malic acid content by about half, and the generation of secondary products. Compared with wines produced by conventional techniques, carbonic maceration produces wines of distinctive character of superior quality possessing a harmonious balance. It can be used to generate a wide range of wines (red as well as rosé), to be drunk young or aged. The process is composed of four steps: vatting of intact berries, "maceration-fermentation," pumping off, and pressing, followed by a second fermentation phase. Exchanges and interactions occur between grape berries, the gaseous atmosphere, and the must present at the bottom of the tank during the first step of the carbonic maceration winemaking process. Yeast fermentation starts at this stage, in the liquid phase, and continues throughout the second step as well, with the malolactic fermentation. The specific conditions required for a good handling of carbonic maceration are presented. PMID:21867890

  13. Effect of processing on phenolics of wines.

    PubMed

    Blanco, V Z; Auw, J M; Sims, C A; O'Keefe, S F

    1998-01-01

    Phenolics of grapes are the main compounds responsible for color, taste, mouth feel, oxidation and other chemical reactions in wine and juice. Phenolic levels in wine and juice are affected by numerous processing conditions (crushing, pressing, sulfite addition, skin contact, oak aging). Studies were conducted to better understand the effect of processing on phenolic composition of three varieties of grapes. Three different processing steps: immediate press, hot press, and hull treatment (skin contact) for 7 and 14 days were applied to three different grape varieties, Vitis rotundifolia cv. Noble, Vitis vinifer cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and the French-American hybrid Chambourcin. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and bitterness/astringency were assessed using a trained sensory panel. V. rotundifolia wines had higher levels of epicatechin and gallic acid but lower caftaric acid and procyanidins compared to the other varieties and were more astringent and bitter. Processing treatment affected phenolics and color differently among the three varieties. PMID:9598211

  14. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products—specifically, herbs and tree resins—were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  15. Nibbling Tears of Wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristoff, Jeff; Bush, John

    2006-11-01

    The meniscus of an alcohol-rich solution is known to climb upwards due to an evaporation-induced Marangoni stress, thus initiating the tears of wine phenomenon. Rather than merging directly, the tears may bob up and down when they make contact with the underlying reservoir, appearing to nibble at its edge. We present a qualitative description of this flow and propose a simple theoretical model for this behavior. We thus rationalize the observed dependence of the nibbling frequency on the system parameters.

  16. Wine and headache.

    PubMed

    Jarisch, R; Wantke, F

    1996-05-01

    Headache can be induced by histamine in wine in patients suffering from histamine intolerance, a disease characterized by impaired histamine degradation based on reduced diamine oxidase activity or a lack of the enzyme. Diamine oxidase is localized in the jejunal mucosa and is the most important enzyme metabolising histamine. It is competitively inhibited by alcohol and numerous drugs. In preliminary investigations, assessment of diamine oxidase levels gave decreased activity (0.03 nKat/l) in patients with histamine intolerance compared to healthy controls (0.07 nKat/l). In pregnancy, diamine oxidase levels are known to be about 500-fold elevated, giving mean levels of 25.0 nKat/l. Other biogenic amines such as phenylethylamine or serotonin may be causative for wine/food-induced headache. In experimental models, headache has been induced by histamine infusion as well as red wine provocation. Histamine-induced headache is a vascular headache likely to be caused by nitric oxide which probably represents a key molecule in vascular headaches. A histamine-free diet is the treatment of choice for patients with histamine intolerance and chronic headache. To start treatment, an antihistamine (H1 blocker) for 14 days as well as a histamine-free diet for at least 4 weeks are recommended. Clinical improvement to the diet as well as in vitro tests for plasma histamine and diamine oxidase in the serum as well as vitamin B6 levels have to confirm the diagnosis. As supportive treatment, a vitamin B6 (pyridoxal phosphate) substitution appears useful in histamine-intolerant patients as pyridoxal phosphate seems to be crucial for diamine oxidase activity. Histamine intolerance, based on reduced diamine oxidase activity or a lack in the enzyme is causative for wine/food-induced chronic headache. According to the localization of diamine oxidase in the jejunal mucosa, histamine intolerance is primarily a disease of intestinal origin. A histamine-free diet is the treatment of choice in

  17. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R

    2009-05-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products--specifically, herbs and tree resins--were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  18. Trace element analysis of Cretan wines and wine products.

    PubMed

    Galani-Nikolakaki, S; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N; Katsanos, A A

    2002-02-21

    The object of this research is to investigate the ways and the degree of contamination of Cretan grapes from the area of Chania and their alcoholic products, with the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. Fifteen samples of grapes were collected and used for the production of experimental wines from rinsed and unrinsed grapes. A microwave furnace was used for the digestion and dissolution of the experimental wines, the precipitates that originated in these wines, as well as the wines of the corresponding producers. The analyses of all mentioned samples as well as 34 local alcoholic distillates were performed using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations for all the elements that were determined were almost in all cases, well below the maximum permissible levels by the Greek and the European Union legislation. PMID:11874038

  19. At the cutting-edge of grape and wine biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Borneman, Anthony R; Schmidt, Simon A; Pretorius, Isak S

    2013-04-01

    Wine is arguably the oldest biotechnological endeavor, with humans having been involved in wine production for at least 7000 years. Despite the artisan nature of its production, work by pioneering scientists such as Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier and Louis Pasteur placed wine research in a prominent position for the application of cutting-edge biological and chemical sciences, a position it still holds to this day. Technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and systems biology are now revolutionizing winemaking by combining the ability to engineer phenotypes rationally, with a precise understanding of the genetic makeup and key phenotypic drivers of the key organisms that contribute to this age-old industry. PMID:23218459

  20. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Belinda; Undery, Rebecca; Ahmed, Humza

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs), brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant's sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual. PMID:24526901

  1. Extraction of phenolics and changes in antioxidant activity of red wines during vinification.

    PubMed

    Burns, J; Gardner, P T; Matthews, D; Duthie, G G; Lean, M E; Crozier, A

    2001-12-01

    The moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages has been associated with protection against the development of coronary heart disease. Although alcohol itself can help prevent coronary heart disease through a number of mechanisms, red wine appears to offer protection above and beyond that attributable to alcohol alone. Red wine is a complex fluid containing grape, yeast, and wood-derived phenolic compounds, the majority of which have been recognized as potent antioxidants. The aim of this study was to investigate the major phenolic contributors to the antioxidant activity of wine. To this end, four wines were followed during the first 7-9 days of vinification. Individual phenolic compounds were quantified by HPLC, and antioxidant activity was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The extraction of the phenolics was found to be influenced by vinification procedure, grape quality, and grape variety. Although fermenting wines reached a total phenolic content comparable to that of a bottled wine after 9 days of vinification, the antioxidant activity was significantly lower than that of a finished wine. This suggests that the larger polyphenolic complexes and condensation products that appear during aging make a sizable contribution to the overall antioxidant activity of red wines. PMID:11743766

  2. Using mixed inocula of Saccharomyces cerevisiae killer strains to improve the quality of traditional sparkling-wine.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Rocío; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, Manuel; Álvarez, María L; Ramírez, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The quality of traditional sparkling-wine depends on the aging process in the presence of dead yeast cells. These cells undergo a slow autolysis process thereby releasing some compounds, mostly colloidal polymers such as polysaccharides and mannoproteins, which influence the wine's foam properties and mouthfeel. Saccharomyces cerevisiae killer yeasts were tested to increase cell death and autolysis during mixed-yeast-inoculated second fermentation and aging. These yeasts killed sensitive strains in killer plate assays done under conditions of low pH and temperature similar to those used in sparkling-wine making, although some strains showed a different killer behaviour during the second fermentation. The fast killer effect improved the foam quality and mouthfeel of the mixed-inoculated wines, while the slow killer effect gave small improvements over single-inoculated wines. The effect was faster under high-pressure than under low-pressure conditions. Wine quality improvement did not correlate with the polysaccharide, protein, mannan, or aromatic compound concentrations, suggesting that the mouthfeel and foaming quality of sparkling wine are very complex properties influenced by other wine compounds and their interactions, as well as probably by the specific chemical composition of a given wine. PMID:27375256

  3. 27 CFR 24.311 - Taxpaid wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxpaid wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.311 Taxpaid wine record. A proprietor who has taxpaid United States or foreign wine on taxpaid wine premises or on taxpaid wine bottling...

  4. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off...

  5. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  6. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  7. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  8. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  9. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  10. 27 CFR 24.296 - Taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid wine operations..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Taxpaid Wine Operations § 24.296 Taxpaid wine operations. (a) General. The proprietor may conduct taxpaid wine operations authorized...

  11. 27 CFR 24.293 - Wine for Government use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine for Government use..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.293 Wine for Government use. (a) General. Wine may be removed from bonded wine premises, free...

  12. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off...

  13. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine...

  14. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  15. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  16. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  17. Comparison of the evolution of low molecular weight phenolic compounds in typical Sherry wines: Fino, Amontillado, and Oloroso.

    PubMed

    García Moreno, M Valme; Barroso, Carmelo García

    2002-12-18

    Changes in the content of low molecular weight phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, aldehydes, and their esterified derivatives, tyrosol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde) during the aging of three different classes of Sherry wine, Fino, Oloroso, and Amontillado, have been studied. The samples studied were taken from each of the scales of the particular aging system applied to the three classes of wine. Clear differences were observed in the behavior of the low molecular weight phenolic in the three classes of wine. The wines subjected to oxidative aging presented a higher phenolic content overall, with the exception of the esterified derivatives of phenolic compounds that are mainly found in the samples that have not undergone any process of oxidation. MANOVA results confirmed that there are significant differences between all of the samples of the three types of wines. Using LDA, a classification of 100% of the samples has been made. PMID:12475270

  18. Wine, women, suspiciousness and advertising.

    PubMed

    Kohn, P M; Smart, R G

    1987-03-01

    Women college students (N = 66) viewed videotapes of a soap opera episode and a rock music program, ostensibly to evaluate the appeal of such material to college women. Different versions of the videotape included zero, three or nine wine commercials. Refreshments, including white wine, were available to the subjects. Suspiciousness about the experiment was evaluated through an open-ended questionnaire, responses to which were independently content-analyzed by two scorers. Major findings were as follows: Women exposed to nine wine commercials consumed more wine than those exposed to three. Twelve women were judged suspicious about the experiment, but none showed continued specific awareness of the study's true purpose. The differential consumption patterns of women in the three-wine-commercial and nine-wine-commercial conditions were exaggerated among suspicious women. These findings, in light of previous observations, suggest opposite reactions to soft-sell versus hard-sell persuasive appeals by men and women, notably ones predisposed to be suspicious about the purpose of experiments. PMID:3560952

  19. Arsenic Content in American Wine.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies that have investigated arsenic content in juice, rice, milk, broth (beef and chicken), and other foods have stimulated an interest in understanding how prevalent arsenic contamination is in the U.S. food and beverage supply. The study described here focused on quantifying arsenic levels in wine. A total of 65 representative wines from the top four wine-producing states in the U.S. were analyzed for arsenic content. All samples contained arsenic levels that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) exposure limit for drinking water of 10 parts per billion (ppb) and all samples contained inorganic arsenic. The average arsenic detected among all samples studied was 23.3 ppb. Lead, a common co-contaminant to arsenic, was detected in 58% of samples tested, but only 5% exceeded the U.S. EPA exposure limit for drinking water of 15 ppb. Arsenic levels in American wines exceeded those found in other studies involving water, bottled water, apple juice, apple juice blend, milk, rice syrup, and other beverages. When taken in the context of consumption patterns in the U.S., the pervasive presence of arsenic in wine can pose a potential health risk to regular adult wine drinkers. PMID:26591333

  20. Volatile compounds of red wines macerated with Spanish, American, and French oak chips.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2009-07-22

    The volatile composition of a red wine aged for 2 months with three different Spanish oak chips (Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus petraea) from different regions of Castilla y León was compared with that of wines aged with American and French chips. In general, the extraction kinetics showed that the maximum concentration of the volatile compounds extracted from wood can be reached in only 1 month. In the final wines, the levels of furanic aldehydes and eugenol were higher in the wines macerated with Spanish chips, whereas cis-whiskey-lactone, vanillin, and methyl vanillate showed higher levels in wines treated with American chips. Among the wines treated with the different Spanish chips, the differences observed in the volatile composition were more related to the geographical origin of the forest than to the botanical species. In general, the wines macerated with Spanish chips showed levels of oak-related volatile compounds that were more similar to those macerated with French chips than to those macerated with American chips. PMID:19601669

  1. Rosé wine volatile composition and the preferences of Chinese wine professionals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaming; Capone, Dimitra L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Jeffery, David W

    2016-07-01

    Rosé wine aromas range from fruity and floral, to more developed, savoury characters. Lighter than red wines, rosé wines tend to match well with Asian cuisines, yet little is known about the factors driving desirability of rosé wines in emerging markets such as China. This study involved Chinese wine professionals participating in blind rosé wine tastings comprising 23 rosé wines from Australia, China and France in three major cities in China. According to the sensory results, a link between the preference, quality and expected retail price of the wines was observed, and assessors preferred wines with prominent red fruit, floral, confectionery and honey characters, and without developed attributes or too much sweetness. Basic wine chemical parameters and 47 volatile compounds, including 5 potent thiols, were determined. Correlations between chemical components, sensory attributes and preference/quality/expected price were visualised by network analysis, revealing relationships that are worthy of further investigation. PMID:26920325

  2. Influence of polysaccharides on wine protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Jaeckels, Nadine; Meier, Miriam; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Decker, Heinz; Fronk, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Polysaccharides are the major high-molecular weight components of wines. In contrast, proteins occur only in small amounts in wine, but contribute to haze formation. The detailed mechanism of aggregation of these proteins, especially in combination with other wine components, remains unclear. This study demonstrates the different aggregation behavior between a buffer and a model wine system by dynamic light scattering. Arabinogalactan-protein, for example, shows an increased aggregation in the model wine system, while in the buffer system a reducing effect is observed. Thus, we could show the importance to examine the behavior of wine additives under conditions close to reality, instead of simpler buffer systems. Additional experiments on melting points of wine proteins reveal that only some isoforms of thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases are involved in haze formation. We can confirm interactions between polysaccharides and proteins, but none of these polysaccharides is able to prevent haze in wine. PMID:26830558

  3. Chromatography-Olfactometry Study of the Aroma of Fino Sherry Wines

    PubMed Central

    Zea, L.; Moyano, L.; Ruiz, M. J.; Medina, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aroma of Fino sherry wines produced by industrial biological aging for 0, 1.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years in the Montilla-Moriles region (southern Spain) was studied by gas chromatography-olfactometry. The aroma sensations detected by 3 trained sniffers were classified according to their odor descriptors into 8 odorant series (fruity, empyreumatic, chemical, fatty, balsamic, vegetable, floral, and spicy), describing the aroma profile of the studied wines. The results showed 47 detected odors in the unaged wines, 50 in the 1.5-years-old wines and 59, 61 and 69 in the wines aged 2.5, 4.5, and 6 years, respectively. According to the frequency of the perceived aromas, the fruity and empyreumatic series were the most characteristic odorant series. By exception of chemical, floral and balsamic series without changes during aging of the wines, the remainder series increased their participation during the aging, mainly the fruity, empyreumatic, and fatty series. PMID:20689702

  4. Geochemistry and Minerality of Wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oze, C.; Horton, T. W.; Beaman, M.

    2010-12-01

    Kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) and gibbsite (Al(OH)3) are capable of forming in a variety of environments including anthropogenic solutions such as wine. Here, we evaluate the geochemistry of twelve white wines in order to assess the potential relationship between kaolinite/gibbsite saturation and minerality, a common wine descriptor used to express the rock and/or soil character in the aromas and flavors of wines. Aluminum and Si concentrations ranged from 228-1,281 µg L-1 and 6,583-19,746 µg L-1, respectively, where Si and Al are the only elements to demonstrate positive covariance with minerality scores. Sulfur levels varied from 25,013-167,383 µg L-1 and show the strongest negative covariance with minerality scores. However, like all of the elements studied (Al, Si, Na, Mg, S, K, Ca, and Fe), these trends were not significantly different than random at the 95% confidence level. In contrast, the relative degrees of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation display strong positive covariance with minerality scores and these trends are not random at the greater than 95% confidence level. Overall, our tasters were able to accurately assess the degree of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation amongst the twelve wines based on the objective of assessing minerality. Although the wines were undersaturated with respect to gibbsite/kaolinite, geochemical modeling reveals that increasing the wines’ pHs from ~3.3 to 4.1-4.6 (which is achievable on the palate where saliva has a pH of 7.4) results in gibbsite/kaolinite oversaturation. By considering that minerality is a function of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation and decreasing S, the origin of minerality’s taste and chemical origin in wine with known physical standards becomes increasingly crystalline.

  5. Proton-beam technique dates fine wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physicists in France have invented a way to authenticate the vintage of rare wine without needing a sommelier's keen nose or even a corkscrew. The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how old the bottles are and even where they come from. The new method could help unmask counterfeit wines - a growing problem in the fine-wine industry, where a bottle can sell for thousands of Euros.

  6. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines: detailed phenolic composition by HPLC/DAD-ESI/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-González, M; Regueiro, J; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-01-15

    Sweet wines are traditionally elaborated in Galicia (the N.W. corner of Spain). The denomination of origin (DO) Valdeorras, one of the five DOs in Galicia, wants to promote the production and marketing of new sweets wines. The first one is made with dried red grapes Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera (GNSW); this cultivar is a teinturier cultivar which has excellent potential to produce wines from raisined grapes. The second one, a fortified sweet wine aged in oak barrels (GFSW). Additionally a dry young wine (GBW) was produced from the same variety. Their aroma profiles and chromatic characteristics (determined by simple spectrophotometric methods) have been previously established. Now, proanthocyanidins, flava-3-ol monomers, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonols and resveratrol were determined by HPLC, for the same three wines. The highest concentration of total proanthocyanidins (PAs) was evaluated in the GBW (525mgL(-1)), which was about 2-fold the concentration in the GNSW (236mgL(-1)) and about more 10-fold the concentration in the GFSW (44mgL(-1)). No apparent difference in the aDP (mean degree of polymerisation) was observed for the GBW (1.9) and the GNSW (2.1), whereas a slightly lower value was obtained for the GFSW (1.5). Total anthocyanin concentration was described as follow as GBW: 390mgL(-1)≫GNSW: 57mgL(-1)>GFSW: 25mgL(-1), which indicates that sweet wines were polymerised in great extent. Only vitisin A and B were found the main concentration in GFSW when compared to GBW by the ageing process. In sweet wines, phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids) and flavonols were lowest when compared to GBW and resveratrol not was found in sweet wines. PMID:24054241

  7. The Essentials of Proper Wine Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Gary H.

    This instructional unit was designed to assist the food services instructor and/or the restaurant manager in training students and/or staff in the proper procedure for serving wines to guests. The lesson plans included in this unit focus on: (1) the different types of wine glasses and their uses; (2) the parts of a wine glass; (3) the proper…

  8. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or repackage taxpaid wines must, before carrying on those operations,...

  9. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of scientific research may, without payment of tax, produce, receive, blend, treat, and store wine for experimental...

  10. 27 CFR 24.77 - Experimental wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Experimental wine. 24.77... Experimental wine. (a) General. Any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of scientific research may, without payment of tax, produce, receive, blend, treat, and store wine for experimental...

  11. Raman spectroscopy of white wines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François

    2015-08-15

    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines. PMID:25794745

  12. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols. PMID:22829964

  13. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Collins, Thomas S.; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir. PMID:27302757

  14. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference. PMID:24767072

  15. Managing ochratoxin A risk in the grape-wine food chain.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Angelo; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2008-02-01

    The main source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the wine food chain is the infection of grapes by "black aspergilli" in the field. OTA-producing black aspergilli include principally Aspergillus carbonarius, followed by A. niger and possibly A. tubingensis. They are opportunistic fungi that develop particularly on damaged berries at ripening, although they may occur and form OTA on grapes from veraison to harvest. Climatic conditions (high humidity and temperature) and geographical location are important factors favouring OTA accumulation in grape berries. The severity of aspergillus rot is influenced by excessive irrigation and rainfall prior to harvest, which causes berry splitting. In addition, berry wounds caused by insect attack provide preferential entries for black aspergilli. High OTA levels occur in grapes severely damaged by the grape moth, Lobesia botrana, particularly in Mediterranean areas. Some grape varieties display greater susceptibility to aspergillus rot due to intrinsic genetic characteristics and bunch conformation (i.e. compact>sparse). Control measures for toxigenic mycoflora in the vineyards must consider these critical control points. Proper fungicidal and insecticidal treatments can reduce OTA contamination. Nevertheless, knowledge about the fate of OTA and its distribution in wine and winery by-products is important to manage OTA risk in contaminated stock. In our wine-making experiments, only 4% of the OTA present in grapes remained in the wine--the majority is retained in pressed grape pomaces. OTA concentration remained unchanged in wine after a 1-year aging as well as in all liquid fractions collected during vinification (i.e. must, free run wine, and wine after first and second decantation). Activated carbon can reduce OTA levels in wine but negatively affects wine quality. PMID:18286409

  16. Development of a quantitation method to assay both lyoniresinol enantiomers in wines, spirits, and oak wood by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cretin, Blandine N; Dubourdieu, Denis; Marchal, Axel

    2016-05-01

    Wine taste balance evolves during oak aging by the release of volatile and non-volatile compounds from wood. Among them, an enantiomer of lyoniresinol, (+)-lyoniresinol, has been shown to exhibit bitterness. To evaluate the impact of (+)-lyoniresinol on wine taste, a two-step quantitation method was developed and validated. First, (±)-lyoniresinol was assayed in wines, spirits, and oak wood macerates by C-18 liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Then, the lyoniresinol enantiomeric ratio was determined by chiral LC-HRMS in order to calculate the (+)-lyoniresinol content. In red and white wines, the average concentrations of (+)-lyoniresinol were 1.9 and 0.8 mg/L, respectively. The enantiomer proportions were not affected by bottle aging, and lyoniresinol appeared to remain stable over time. The sensory study of (+)-lyoniresinol established its perception threshold at 0.46 mg/L in wine. All the commercial wines quantitated were above this perception threshold, demonstrating its impact on wine taste by an increase in bitterness. In spirits, (+)-lyoniresinol ranged from 2.0 to 10.0 mg/L and was found to be released continuously during oak aging. Finally, neither botanical origin nor toasting was found to significantly affect the (+)-lyoniresinol content of oak wood. Graphical abstract From oak wood to wine: evaluation of the influence of (+)-lyoniresinol on the bitterness of wines and spirits. PMID:27000563

  17. 27 CFR 4.71 - Standard wine containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standard wine containers..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Fill for Wine § 4.71 Standard wine containers. (a) A standard wine container shall be made, formed and filled to meet...

  18. 27 CFR 19.256 - Tax on wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on wine. 19.256... § 19.256 Tax on wine. (a) Imposition of tax. All wine (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and compounds sold as wine) produced in or imported into or brought into the United States...

  19. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon...

  20. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... method or manner which will clearly and readily distinguish untaxpaid wine or spirits from taxpaid wine... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine...

  1. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion into still wine. 24.193 Section 24.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or...

  2. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine. 24.213 Section 24.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine...

  3. Controlling protected designation of origin of wine by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mandrile, Luisa; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Giovannozzi, Andrea Mario; Rossi, Andrea Mario

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, a Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy method, to authenticate the provenience of wine, for food traceability applications was developed. In particular, due to the specific chemical fingerprint of the Raman spectrum, it was possible to discriminate different wines produced in the Piedmont area (North West Italy) in accordance with i) grape varieties, ii) production area and iii) ageing time. In order to create a consistent training set, more than 300 samples from tens of different producers were analyzed, and a chemometric treatment of raw spectra was applied. A discriminant analysis method was employed in the classification procedures, providing a classification capability (percentage of correct answers) of 90% for validation of grape analysis and geographical area provenance, and a classification capability of 84% for ageing time classification. The present methodology was applied successfully to raw materials without any preliminary treatment of the sample, providing a response in a very short time. PMID:27283630

  4. Validation of a rapid conductimetric test for the measurement of wine tartaric stability.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Antonella; Motta, Silvia; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Guaita, Massimo; Asproudi, Andriani; Panero, Loretta

    2016-12-01

    This work was aimed at optimizing a rapid and reproducible conductivity test for the evaluation of wine tartaric stability, in order to improve the practices for the prevention of tartaric precipitations during bottle aging. The test consists in measuring the drop of conductivity in wines kept under stirring for a fixed time, at low temperature, after the addition of micronized potassium bitartrate crystals (KHT). An experimental design was planned to study three factors affecting the test: temperature, duration and dose of added potassium bitartrate. A standard protocol was defined to produce a micronized potassium bitartrate starting from available commercial products, since the dimensions of the crystals can affect the final conductivity values. After the choice of the best conditions the method was validated. Two different stability thresholds were defined for white wines and for red/rosé wines by comparing the results of the mini-contact test with those of the cold test. PMID:27374600

  5. Aromatic evolution of wine packed in virgin and recycled PET bottles.

    PubMed

    Dombre, Clara; Rigou, Peggy; Wirth, Jérémie; Chalier, Pascale

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of the aromatic profile of a rosé wine packed in glass, virgin and recycled PET bottles was studied. Wine stored in PET and glass bottles was clearly differentiated after 5months of storage but only by a limited number of compounds. More pronounced decrease of oxygen sensitive compounds such as methionol was observed in PET bottles as well as the apparition of oxidative and ageing aroma compounds such as ethyl pyruvate, furfural or dioxanes in higher concentration. Compared to virgin PET bottles, recycled PET bottles induced slight changes favouring the presence of esters and alcohols. The chemical evolution of wine was the most important phenomenon that explains the loss of flavour rather than the sorption into PET. Because of their moderate oxygen permeability, the use of virgin PET and recycled PET bottles could be adapted for short conservation of wine but detrimental to aromatic quality if long conservation is intended. PMID:25624246

  6. Distribution and Organoleptic Impact of Ethyl 3-Hydroxybutanoate Enantiomers in Wine.

    PubMed

    Lytra, Georgia; Cameleyre, Margaux; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Enantiomers of ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate were assayed in 87 commercial wines from various vintages and origins, using chiral gas chromatography (β-cyclodextrin). Generally, ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate levels were higher in red than in white wines of the same age. The average S/R enantiomeric ratio of this compound in red wine was approximately 75:25 (± 13), with an average total concentration of ∼ 450 (± 150) μg/L. In red wines, R-form levels increased gradually during aging, but no variations were observed in S-form concentrations. To our knowledge, no previous research had determined the enantiomeric distribution of this compound in wine. The olfactory threshold of the S-form in dilute alcohol solution was 21 mg/L, one-third that of the R-form: 63 mg/L. The S- and R-forms had different aromatic nuances. The olfactory threshold of their mixture (85:15, m/m) was 14 mg/L, indicating a simple additive effect in this binary mixture. Furthermore, the concentrations found in red wines were considerably below the olfactory threshold under the same experimental conditions. Sensory analysis revealed that ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate (S/R, 85:15, m/m) had an enhancing effect on the perception of fruity aromas in the matrices studied. Sensory profiles highlighted the contribution of ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate to red-berry and fresh-fruit descriptors, despite its subthreshold concentrations. PMID:26587875

  7. 27 CFR 19.421 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.421 Section 19.421 Alcohol....421 Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. A proprietor may withdraw spirits without payment of tax for transfer to a bonded wine cellar for use in...

  8. WINE PRODUCTION FROM CHEESE WHEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate commercial feasibility of producing an alcoholic beverage by wine yeast fermentation of supplemented cheese and cottage cheese wheys. Results indicated that the preferred processing route was (1) fractionation of the whey into prot...

  9. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the fixed... the limitations of § 24.246. Standard wine (including citrus wine) may be stabilized by the...

  10. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the fixed... the limitations of § 24.246. Standard wine (including citrus wine) may be stabilized by the...

  11. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the fixed... the limitations of § 24.246. Standard wine (including citrus wine) may be stabilized by the...

  12. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the fixed... the limitations of § 24.246. Standard wine (including citrus wine) may be stabilized by the...

  13. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. Standard wine other than citrus wine, regardless of the fixed... the limitations of § 24.246. Standard wine (including citrus wine) may be stabilized by the...

  14. Moderate Wine Consumption Inhibits the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    JANSSEN, I.; POWELL, L. H.; WILDMAN, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between wine consumption and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a longitudinal, eight-year study of the natural history of the menopause transition at seven geographical sites in the United States. Although similar in age, the 527 African American women had a worse metabolic profile than 1057 Caucasian women. Moderate wine consumption (one glass/day) was less common among African American women but was associated with a better lipid profile in both ethnic groups. Compared to women who drank one glass of wine per day, those who consumed no wine had twice the risk of developing the MetS. PMID:22639493

  15. Ellagitannin content, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from different countries matured in oak barrels subjected to different toasting methods.

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, M R; Chira, K; Teissedre, P-L

    2016-11-01

    Ellagitannins and aromatic compounds evolution in Cabernet Sauvignon wines macerated in oak barrels for a year was studied. Identical barrels with different toastings (medium toasting, medium toasting with watering, Noisette) were used in French, Italian and USA cellars. Ellagitannins increased by 84-96% with aging time, as did woody volatiles, by 86-91% in French wines and 23-35% in Italian wines, while fruity aroma compounds declined by 50-57% in the French and Italian wines over a 12-months period. Nevertheless, other behaviors and different kinetics rates for these compounds were observed depending on barrel toasting, wine matrix and their interactions. Perceived overall woody intensity was closely related to trans-whiskey lactone, guaiacol and vanillin, whereas astringency and bitterness were significantly linked to ellagitannins (p<0.05). This is the first study that evaluates the toasting effect on wines from different countries matured in the same oak barrels. PMID:27211676

  16. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... allow the loss of carbon dioxide remaining in the wine. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1331, as..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still...

  17. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... allow the loss of carbon dioxide remaining in the wine. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1331, as..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still...

  18. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... allow the loss of carbon dioxide remaining in the wine. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1331, as..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still...

  19. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... allow the loss of carbon dioxide remaining in the wine. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1331, as..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still...

  20. Antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of blackberry and grape wines.

    PubMed

    Mudnic, Ivana; Budimir, Danijela; Modun, Darko; Gunjaca, Grgo; Generalic, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Katalinic, Visnja; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Boban, Mladen

    2012-03-01

    In contrast to the well-described various biological effects of grape wines, the potential effects of commonly consumed blackberry wine have not been studied. We examined in vitro antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of four blackberry wines and compared them with the effects of two red and two white grape wines. Although some blackberry wines had lower total phenolic content relative to the red grape wines, their antioxidant capacity was stronger, which may be related to a higher content of non-flavonoid compounds (most notably gallic acid) in blackberry wines. Although maximal vasodilation induced by blackberry wines was generally similar to that of red wines, blackberry wines were less potent vasodilators. Vasodilatory activity of all wines, in addition to their flavonoid and total phenolic content, was most significantly associated with their content of anthocyanins. No association of vasodilation with any individual polyphenolic compound was found. Our results indicate the biological potential of blackberry wines, which deserves deeper scientific attention. PMID:22082099

  1. Antioxidant and Vasodilatory Effects of Blackberry and Grape Wines

    PubMed Central

    Mudnic, Ivana; Budimir, Danijela; Modun, Darko; Gunjaca, Grgo; Generalic, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Katalinic, Visnja; Ljubenkov, Ivica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In contrast to the well-described various biological effects of grape wines, the potential effects of commonly consumed blackberry wine have not been studied. We examined in vitro antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of four blackberry wines and compared them with the effects of two red and two white grape wines. Although some blackberry wines had lower total phenolic content relative to the red grape wines, their antioxidant capacity was stronger, which may be related to a higher content of non-flavonoid compounds (most notably gallic acid) in blackberry wines. Although maximal vasodilation induced by blackberry wines was generally similar to that of red wines, blackberry wines were less potent vasodilators. Vasodilatory activity of all wines, in addition to their flavonoid and total phenolic content, was most significantly associated with their content of anthocyanins. No association of vasodilation with any individual polyphenolic compound was found. Our results indicate the biological potential of blackberry wines, which deserves deeper scientific attention. PMID:22082099

  2. Dependency of Phytoprostane Fingerprints of Must and Wine on Viticulture and Enological Processes.

    PubMed

    Marhuenda, Javier; Medina, Sonia; Díaz-Castro, Alexandra; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro; Arina, Simón; Zafrilla, Pilar; Mulero, Juana; Oger, Camille; Galano, Jean-Marie; Durand, Thierry; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-10-21

    Wine is one of the most consumed alcoholic beverages around the world. Red wine has demonstrated several benefits for health maintenance. One group of potential anti-inflammatory compounds is the phytoprostanes, oxidative degradation products of linolenic acid. The aim of the present study was to measure, for the first time, the phytoprostane content in wine and must by an UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method after solid-phase extraction. The data showed two predominant classes of phytoprostanes: F1- and D1-phytoprostane series. In wines, the total phytoprostane concentration ranged from 134.1 ± 2.3 to 216.2 ± 3.06 ng/mL. Musts showed concentrations between 21.4 ± 0.8 and 447.1 ± 15.8 ng/mL. The vinification and aging procedures for the production of wine seem to influence the final phytoprostane levels in red wine and to modify the phytoprostane profile. The high concentrations observed and previous reports on anti-inflammatory effects of phytoprostanes make further research on the benefits of phytoprostanes more important. PMID:26422255

  3. Development of a fractionation method for the detection and identification of oak ellagitannins in red wines.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina

    2010-02-15

    During maturation and ageing in oak barrels wines improve their organoleptic properties. Ellagitannins can be released from wood to the wine and be involved in oxidation reactions and seem to influence the astringency and colour properties of the wine. Nevertheless, the ellagitannins levels are lower than those of other wine constituents and, consequently, they are not easily detected. This study has developed a two-step fractionation method consisting of a solid phase extraction in C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges followed by size exclusion chromatography in hand-packed Sephadex LH-20 minicolumn for the detection of oak ellagitannins in different types of wines. An HPLC method has also been developed which allows the separation of compounds with the same m/z ratios, facilitating the ellagitannin identification by means of the mass spectrometric analyses. The main oak ellagitannins (grandinin, vescalagin, roburin E and castalagin) were isolated, detected separately and identified in a spiked wine and in three real ones, proving the usefulness of the fractionation method. PMID:20103159

  4. Emission factor development for the malt beverage, wine, and distilled spirits industries

    SciTech Connect

    Lapp, T.; Shrager, B.; Safriet, D.

    1996-12-31

    Midwest Research Institute is currently developing emission factors for inclusion in AP-42 Chapter 9, Food and Agricultural Industries. Three of the sections cover the production of malt beverages, wine, and distilled spirits. The malt beverage segment focuses on the development of ethanol emission factors for filling operations, which were recently identified as the large source of brewery ethanol emissions. The discussion includes a description of the production process and emissions factors for breweries, a history of emission factories for breweries, a description of emission testing conducted at two large breweries, and a presentation of some of the emission factors for malt beverage production. The wine industry segment focuses on emissions from the fermentation stage for red and white wines, the pomace screen and pomace press for red wines, and bottling of white wine. Emission factors are presented for ethanol emissions from each of these sources as well as other VOC emissions from the fermentation process. A discussion of the wine production process is presented. A discussion of the emission sources and available emission factors is presented for the distilled spirits industry segment. Factors are presented for the fermentation and aging stages. A process description is presented for the production of Bourbon whisky.

  5. Selected Stories from the History of Wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estreicher, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    The archaeological and chemical evidence of wine making shows that vines were cultivated and wine produced well over 7,000 years ago. Wine has been a part of the history of Western Civilization ever since. This talk will start with a brief overview of the key events in the history of wine, and then I will select a few topics which will be discussed in more detail. One of the topics includes a rather tenuous connection to Isaac Newton himself, a futile attempt on my part to justify the very existence of this talk at a Texas Section APS meeting.

  6. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine

    PubMed Central

    Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  7. Sensing free sulfur dioxide in wine.

    PubMed

    Monro, Tanya M; Moore, Rachel L; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K; Elsey, Gordon M; Taylor, Dennis K

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO(2) over time, resulting in wines with little SO(2) protection. Furthermore, SO(2) and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO(2) in wine require the SO(2) to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  8. Intraregional classification of wine via ICP-MS elemental fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, P P; van Jaarsveld, F P; Vanhaecke, F

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of elemental fingerprinting in the classification of wines according to their provenance vineyard soil was investigated in the relatively small geographical area of a single wine district. Results for the Stellenbosch wine district (Western Cape Wine Region, South Africa), comprising an area of less than 1,000 km(2), suggest that classification of wines from different estates (120 wines from 23 estates) is indeed possible using accurate elemental data and multivariate statistical analysis based on a combination of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis. This is the first study to demonstrate the successful classification of wines at estate level in a single wine district in South Africa. The elements B, Ba, Cs, Cu, Mg, Rb, Sr, Tl and Zn were identified as suitable indicators. White and red wines were grouped in separate data sets to allow successful classification of wines. Correlation between wine classification and soil type distributions in the area was observed. PMID:24996361

  9. Instant wine recognition on mobile devices: Delectable, the social wine app

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wiley; Paes-Leme, Cassio; Wild, Jevon; Farrell, Kevin; Kang, Derick

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a wine social app Delectable. Delectable provides a social platform for users to capture, rate, comment, and research wine using their mobile devices. We implement a system to automatically recognize wine when users take a picture of the wine label. We address some of the difficulties of label recognition, such as the light condition, viewing angles and similarities among the same wine producers. As a recognition system that demands high accuracy, our system is integrated with both machine recognition and human crowd sourced recognition. We give an overview of the recognition system and illustrate the user experience.

  10. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

  11. Climate change, wine, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V; Shaw, M Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A; Hijmans, Robert J

    2013-04-23

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  12. Climate change, wine, and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  13. Experimental design approach to evaluate the impact of oak chips and micro-oxygenation on the volatile profile of red wines.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, C; Rodríguez-Tecedor, S; Esteban-Díez, I; Pérez-del-Notario, N; González-Sáiz, J M

    2014-04-01

    A chemometric strategy based on combining an experimental design approach and response surface methodology was applied to gain further knowledge on the influence of chip maceration and micro-oxygenation related factors (oxygen doses, chip doses, wood origin, toasting degree and maceration time) on the volatile profile of red wines during the accelerated ageing process. The results obtained indicated that the volatile profile of wines could be modulated by applying different combinations of factor conditions. Thus, these results would be used to obtain wines with specific volatile profiles that would lead to particular olfactory attributes according to consumers' preferences. Moreover, it was shown that combining wood from different origins helped enhance the quality of the elaborated wines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an experimental design methodology has been applied to simultaneously evaluate the influence of five different ageing parameters on the volatile profile of red wines. PMID:24262569

  14. Reductive off-odors in wines: Formation and release of H₂S and methanethiol during the accelerated anoxic storage of wines.

    PubMed

    Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-05-15

    In order to better understand the processes involved in the development of H2S and methanethiol (MeSH) along anoxic storage of wines, 24 wines were stored in strict anoxia at 50°C for 3weeks. Free and total forms of H2S and MeSH were measured at different times. Results showed that: (1) all wines contain relevant proportions of bonded forms of H2S and MeSH (93% and 47% on average); (2) such % decreases with age; (3) levels of total forms are related to wine metal composition; (4) anoxic storage brings about an increase of free forms, a strong decrease in the percentage of bonded forms, and except for H2S in red wines, an increase in total forms. Both de novo formation and release contribute to reductive off-odors. Release is predominant for reds and H2S, while at 50°C, de novo formation dominates for whites and rosés and MeSH. PMID:26775942

  15. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine׳s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

  16. Another Look at the Wine Butler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeerd, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent article, Iain MacInnes analyzed the static equilibrium of a system consisting of a wine bottle and a wine butler. After discussing that composite system, students can be asked to consider only the bottle (and its contents) as the system. An interesting challenge for them is to describe the forces on the bottle in static equilibrium.

  17. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  18. Production technologies for reduced alcoholic wines.

    PubMed

    Schmidtke, Leigh M; Blackman, John W; Agboola, Samson O

    2012-01-01

    The production and sale of alcohol-reduced wines, and the lowering of ethanol concentration in wines with alcohol levels greater than acceptable for a specific wine style, poses a number of technical and marketing challenges. Several engineering solutions and wine production strategies that focus upon pre- or postfermentation technologies have been described and patented for production of wines with lower ethanol concentrations than would naturally arise through normal fermentation and wine production techniques. However, consumer perception and acceptance of the sensory quality of wines manufactured by techniques that utilize thermal distillation for alcohol removal is generally unfavorable. This negative perception from consumers has focused attention on nonthermal production processes and the development or selection of specific yeast strains with downregulated or modified gene expression for alcohol production. The information presented in this review will allow winemakers to assess the relative technical merits of each of the technologies described and make decisions regarding implementation of novel winemaking techniques for reducing ethanol concentration in wine. PMID:22260123

  19. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232 Section 31.232 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or...

  20. Teaching the Language and Culture of France through Its Wines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    The study of wine offers possibilities for teaching a variety of topics in the high school or college French class: geography, history, grape varieties, food-wine combinations, the art of appreciating and distinguishing wines, the wine industry, and French daily life. The development of a slide-tape presentation is described in detail. Resource…

  1. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits....

  2. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  3. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  4. 27 CFR 26.264 - Determination of tax on wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wine. 26.264 Section 26.264 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.264 Determination of tax on wine. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers wine, the wine tax will be collected at the rates imposed by section...

  5. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  6. 27 CFR 24.141 - Bonded wine warehouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bonded wine warehouse. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Permanent Discontinuance of Operations § 24.141 Bonded wine warehouse. Where all operations at a bonded wine warehouse are to be...

  7. 27 CFR 24.296 - Taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxpaid wine operations. 24.296 Section 24.296 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Taxpaid Wine Operations §...

  8. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  9. 27 CFR 28.315 - Loss of wine in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of wine in transit..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Wine § 28.315 Loss of wine in transit. The tax on wine withdrawn without payment of tax under this part and which is lost during...

  10. 27 CFR 24.293 - Wine for Government use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wine for Government use... § 24.293 Wine for Government use. (a) General. Wine may be removed from bonded wine premises, free of tax, for use of the Government of the United States, or any agency thereof, upon receipt of a...