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Sample records for agents morphological study

  1. Abiotically-induced plant morphological changes and host-range expansion in quarantine evaluations of candidate weed biocontrol agents: the case study Conchyloctenia hybrida (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Ghebremariam, Tsedal T; Krüger, Kerstin; Reinhardt, Carl F; Robbertse, Petrus J

    2014-10-01

    Plant morphological changes mediated by growth conditions are linked to changes in host preference of herbivores. Understanding how these morphological changes influence herbivore feeding is critical in the interpretation of results of host evaluation of candidate weed biocontrol agents in quarantine and improvement of the evaluation system. We determined the effect of plant growth conditions on leaf trichomes and host choice of Conchyloctenia hybrida Boheman, an insect adapted to the removal of trichomes before feeding. The study included four Solanum species: Solanum lichtensteinii Willdenow (natural host of C. hybrida), Solanum mauritianum Scopoli, Solanum melongena L., and Solanum tuberosum L.. Plants were grown in either full sun, shade, a glasshouse, or in a growth-chamber. Plants grown in full sun had a higher leaf trichome density than those in shade or controlled environments. S. mauritianum had the highest trichome density and thickness of trichome layer. In a multiple-choice test using excised leaves, feeding by C. hybrida was higher on Solanum plants grown in the controlled environment as compared with full sun. Trichome removal from leaf surfaces of plants grown in full sun, using adhesive tape, was effective for S. lichtensteinii, S. mauritianum, and S. melongena, but not S. tuberosum. Leaf consumption by C. hybrida increased significantly where manual trichome removal using adhesive tape was effective. Structurally, leaves of S. tuberosum have simple trichomes with basal cells sunken into the mesophyll tissue. When using forceps to remove trichomes of S. tuberosum, mesophyll and vascular tissue remained attached to the trichomes. Generally, the type, density, and mat-thickness of leaf trichomes determined feeding by C. hybrida, but varied with plant species and growth conditions. PMID:25259692

  2. Morphological and chemical changes in dentin after using endodontic agents: Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abraha~o.; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2012-07-01

    We examine the morphological and chemical changes in the pulp chamber dentin after using endodontic agents by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μEDXRF). Thirty teeth were sectioned exposing the pulp chamber and divided by six groups (n=5): NT-no treatment; CHX-2% chlorhexidine; CHXE-2% chlorhexidine+17% EDTA E-17% EDTA; SH5-5.25% NaOCl; SH5E-5.25% NaOCl+17% EDTA. The inorganic and organic content was analyzed by FT-Raman. μEDXRF examined calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content as well as Ca/P ratio. Impressions of specimens were evaluated by SEM. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p<0.05). Differences were observed among groups for the 960 cm-1 peak. Ca and P content differences were significant (SH5>NT=SH5E>CHX>E>CHXE). CHXE and E presented the highest Ca/P ratio values compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The SEM images in the EDTA-treated groups had the highest number of open tubules. Erosion in the tubules was observed in CHX and SH5E groups. Endodontic agents change the inorganic and organic content of pulp chamber dentin. NaOCl used alone, or in association with EDTA, was the most effective agent considering chemical and morphological approaches.

  3. [Meibomian gland morphology study progression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqian; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping

    2014-04-01

    The meibomian gland (MG) in the eyelids, which is the largest sebaceous gland throughout the body, synthesize and secrete lipids to form the superficial tear film layer. It plays a key role in maintaining the ocular surface health. Abnormalities in meibomian gland morphology lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is the main cause of evaporative dry eye. Study on meibomian gland morphology will contribute significantly to the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. This review is just focusing on the current studies about techniques to visualize the morphology of the MG and changes of meibomian gland morphology related to diseases. PMID:24931156

  4. The Compatibility Effect Of Coupling Agent On Rheological-Morphological Relationship Of Banana Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S. Y.; Shamsudin, Z.

    2009-06-01

    The rheological properties of banana fibre reinforced polypropylene (PP/BF) composites at different composition were analysed using Shimadzu capillary rheometer. The effect of coupling agent concentration on the rheological properties was studied and followed by drawing a relationship of rheological-morphological properties of PP/BF composites. It was found that all composite system exhibits pseudoplasticity and incorporation of treated fibres consequents enhanced viscosity due to improved interfacial adhesion at fibre-matrix interface. However, it was observed that PP/BF composite with 2 wt% silane concentration does not yield further enhancement in the rheological properties when compared to that of 1 wt%. Composites with 1 wt% silane concentration were found to yield most promising compatibility effect with well-oriented and uniformly dispersed fibre morphology.

  5. Infants' Attribution of a Goal to a Morphologically Unfamiliar Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimizu, Y. Alpha; Johnson, Susan C.

    2004-01-01

    How do infants identify the psychological actors in their environments? Three groups of 12-month-old infants were tested for their willingness to encode a simple approach behavior as goal-directed as a function of whether it was performed by (1) a human hand, (2) a morphologically unfamiliar green object that interacted with a confederate and…

  6. Concentration Effect of Reducing Agents on Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Size, Morphology, and Growth Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Seo, Yu Seon; Kim, Kyeounghak; Han, Jeong Woo; Park, Youmie; Cho, Seonho

    2016-12-01

    Under various concentration conditions of reducing agents during the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we obtain the various geometry (morphology and size) of AuNPs that play a crucial role in their catalytic properties. Through both theoretical and experimental approaches, we studied the relationship between the concentration of reducing agent (caffeic acid) and the geometry of AuNPs. As the concentration of caffeic acid increases, the sizes of AuNPs were decreased due to the adsorption and stabilizing effect of oxidized caffeic acids (OXCAs). Thus, it turns out that optimal concentration exists for the desired geometry of AuNPs. Furthermore, we investigated the growth mechanism for the green synthesis of AuNPs. As the caffeic acid is added and adsorbed on the surface of AuNPs, the aggregation mechanism and surface free energy are changed and consequently resulted in the AuNPs of various geometry. PMID:27119158

  7. Concentration Effect of Reducing Agents on Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Size, Morphology, and Growth Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-seok; Seo, Yu Seon; Kim, Kyeounghak; Han, Jeong Woo; Park, Youmie; Cho, Seonho

    2016-04-01

    Under various concentration conditions of reducing agents during the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we obtain the various geometry (morphology and size) of AuNPs that play a crucial role in their catalytic properties. Through both theoretical and experimental approaches, we studied the relationship between the concentration of reducing agent (caffeic acid) and the geometry of AuNPs. As the concentration of caffeic acid increases, the sizes of AuNPs were decreased due to the adsorption and stabilizing effect of oxidized caffeic acids (OXCAs). Thus, it turns out that optimal concentration exists for the desired geometry of AuNPs. Furthermore, we investigated the growth mechanism for the green synthesis of AuNPs. As the caffeic acid is added and adsorbed on the surface of AuNPs, the aggregation mechanism and surface free energy are changed and consequently resulted in the AuNPs of various geometry.

  8. Morphological study of semicrystalline polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Shrish Yashwant

    1999-10-01

    This dissertation addresses several unresolved issues pertaining to the morphology of semi-crystalline polymers. The morphology of the simpler semi-crystalline polymers such as, polyethylene (PE) has been well characterized in the literature. Still large gaps exist in the quantitative understanding of the lamellar in the spherulites of these polymers. The intermediate regime between the lamellae and spherulites is still largely unexplored. Further information on this regime will enhance the establishment of vital structure-property relationships in commercially blown PE films. The lamellae may follow fractal scaling laws as they grow from the nucleus to form the spherulite. This mesoscale structure will be investigated by ultra low small angle (Bonse-Hart) scattering. Variables such as the orientation imported during processing and the branch content the effect the macro-properties of the finished polymer product. In the past the orientation of molecular chains has been studied by several authors using diffraction, birefringence and spectroscopic measurements. In this study the orientation of the lamellae will be quantified using small angle x-ray scattering and an attempt will be made to correlate the orientation to properties such as permeability and machine direction tear strength in blown films of commercial grades of high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and the newer metallocene resins. The origin and cause of spherulitic banding in semi-crystalline polymers remains another mystery. The classical formalisms of lamellar banding by Keith and Padden which attribute it to the regular twisting of lamellae are not universal and fail to explain the bands present in other materials such as agates, where there is no evidence of lamellar structures. The phenomena of lamellar banding will be studied in bio-polyester systems, which exhibit distinct, well developed banded spherulites. The effect of copolymerization and thermal

  9. Effects of the Reducing Agents on Morphologies of Gold Nanoparticles in POLY(STYRENE-B-4-VINYLPYRIDINE) Micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nauman; Kim, Dong-Hun; Park, Lee-Soon; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Yoon, Keun-Byoung; Kwak, Giseop; Park, Soo-Young

    The effects of the reducing agents of hydrazine (H4N2), sodium borohydride (NaBH4), and triethylsilane (C6H15Si) on the morphologies of gold nanoparticles in the poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) micelle were studied using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), UV/visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). "Cherry" morphology was found in the gold nanoparticles reduced by hydrazine while "raspberry" morphology was found in the gold nanoparticles reduced by sodium borohydride. Hydrazine was more effective in reducing gold nanoparticle in the core of the PS-b-P4VP micelle than sodium borohydride and triethylsilane. The nanoparticles reduced by hydrazine were confined in the core and more regular than those reduced by sodium borohydride and triethylsilane. The possible mechanism leading to these morphological differences was also discussed.

  10. Gape-limited predators as agents of selection on the defensive morphology of an invasive invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Miehls, Andrea L J; Peacor, Scott D; McAdam, Andrew G

    2014-09-01

    Invasive species have widespread and pronounced effects on ecosystems and adaptive evolution of invaders is often considered responsible for their success. Despite the potential importance of adaptation to invasion, we still have limited knowledge of the agents of natural selection on invasive species. Bythotrephes longimanus, a cladoceran zooplankton, invaded multiple Canadian Shield lakes over the past several decades. Bythotrephes have a conspicuous caudal process (tail spine) that provides a morphological defense against fish predation. We measured viability selection on the longest component of the Bythotrephes spine, the distal spine segment, through a comparison of the lengths of first and second instar Bythotrephes collected from lakes differing in the dominance of gape-limited predation (GLP) and nongape-limited predation (NGLP) by fish. We found that natural selection varied by predator gape-limitation, with strong selection (selection intensity: 0.20-0.79) for increased distal spine length in lakes dominated by GLP, and no significant selection in lakes dominated by NGLP. Further, distal spine length was 17% longer in lakes dominated by GLP, suggesting the possibility of local adaptation. As all study lakes were invaded less than 20 years prior to our collections, our results suggest rapid divergence in defensive morphology in response to selection from fish predators. PMID:24916281

  11. Further morphological studies of QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Campbell, B.; Gower, A. C.; Crampton, D.; Morris, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of optical mapping of 29 QSOs, together with results of VLA observations of 16 of the optically observed objects. Principal results are that QSOs to z = 0.45 have extended nebulosity, the average ratio of nuclear to fuzz luminosity, corrected for resolution, is about 0.5, some 8 times higher than Seyfert I values, the average fuzz luminosity is -21.5, fainter than giant ellipticals, and fuzz morphology does not resemble E or S galaxies, but is very similar to Seyfert I's to similar luminosity limits. In some cases, indications of spiral structure are seen, and a large fraction of asymmetrical morphology is noted. In the QSO 0241 + 622, steep spectrum radio emission is found displaced from the central source exactly along the minor optical axis.

  12. Echographic studies of osmotic agents.

    PubMed

    Vucicevic, Z M; Tark, E; Ahmad, S

    1979-09-01

    The effectiveness of osmotic agents, acetazolamide (Diamox), urea, glycerol, and mannitol, and massages (5 and 10 minutes) for inducing hypotony in rabbit eyes was evaluated by ultrasonography. Mannitol was found to have the greatest hypotonic effect followed closely by urea and glycerol, then acetazolamide. The difference between the 5 and 10 minute massages was negligible. PMID:122221

  13. Halide test agent replacement study

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J.

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  14. Epitheliocystis agents in sea bream Sparus aurata: morphological evidence for two distinct chlamydia-like developmental cycles.

    PubMed

    Crespo, S; Zarza, C; Padrós, F; Marín de Mateo, M

    1999-06-23

    The morphology of membrane-bound intracellular inclusions, or 'cysts', of epitheliocystis from sea bream Sparus aurata is described. Inclusions under the light microscope appear either granular or amorphous. Granular inclusions do not elicit a proliferative host reaction and contain the 3 distinctive developmental stages of chlamydial organisms: the highly pleomorphic reproductive form or reticulate body, the condensing form or intermediate body and the infective non-dividing rather uniform elementary body. Amorphous inclusions may elicit a proliferative host reaction and contain prokaryotic organisms which differ morphologically from those reported within granular cysts. More or less elongated electron-lucent organisms divide by fission to give rise to electron-dense non-dividing small cells with a dense nucleoid. Vacuolated and non-vacuolated small cells are reported. The morphology and developmental cycle of sea bream epitheliocystis agents would support their chlamydial nature; however, the immunohistochemical study conducted on gill samples which carried both inclusions failed to demonstrate the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) chlamydial antigen. The different stages of the 2 distinct developmental cycles described in the present study are compared with electron microscope observations of epitheliocystis organisms reported from different host species. The hypothesis that epitheliocystis infection in the sea bream might be caused by a unique highly pleomorphic chlamydia-like agent, the life history of which includes 2 entirely different developmental cycles, is discussed. PMID:10439904

  15. The Influence of Surface-Active Agent on the Micro-Morphology and Crystallinity of Spherical Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Liu, Huan; Kan, Hongmin; Wang, Xiaoyang; Long, Haibo; Zhou, Yonghui

    2015-08-01

    This search used the low-cost boric acid and borax as a source of boron, urea as a nitrogen source, surface-active agent Dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (SDBS) as a dispersant, and thus prepared different micro-morphology and crystallinity hexagonal boron nitride powders under a flowing ammonia atmosphere at a nitriding temperature of 900 °C. The effect of the surface-active agent (SDBS) content on the crystallinity and micro-morphology of hexagonal boron nitride powders was studied, and the corresponding relationship between micro-morphology and crystallinity was explored. The results showed that under a certain synthetic process (900 °C for 3 h), the surfactant content had affected the crystallinity and micro-morphology of h-BN powders. Without the added surfactant, the graphitization index (GI) was 3.61, and micro-morphology of h-BN powders. was spherical, the distribution of ball diameters was uneven, and there was also significant particle agglomeration, with some particles even exhibiting adhesion, sintering necks, and high sphericity and diameter. When the added SDBS percentages were 2%, 4% and 6%, the graphitization index (GI) decreased to 2.98, 2.58 and 2.41 respectively: the corresponding crystallinity improved significantly. When the surfactant SDBS content was higher (10%), the diameter distribution of the h-BN powders was even, but there was evidence of agglomeration of particles and particle adhesion. The crystallinity decreased when the GI value was increased to 4. When the surfactant SDBS content was 6%, the dispersion of h-BN powders was at its optimum, and the particle size distribution was at its most uniform. Meanwhile the GI value was at its lowest, and the crystallinity at its highest. PMID:26369229

  16. Morphologic studies in the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, D. O.; Horton, W. A.; Rimoin, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the delineation of the genetic skeletal dysplasias, a heterogeneous group of disorders, that consist of over 80 distinct conditions. Morphologic studies have added a further dimension to the delineation of these conditions, their diagnosis, and the investigation of their pathogenetic mechanisms. In certain diseases, the morphologic alterations are characteristic and pathognomonic. In others only nonspecific alterations are observed, whereas in still other disorders growth-plate structure is essentially normal. Histologic, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic studies of growth-plate cartilage have provided new insights into the complexity of morphogenetic events in normal growth through the demonstration of morphologic defects in the genetic disorders of skeletal growth. As yet, very little is known of the biochemical abnormalities underlying the morphologic abnormalities. However, the great variety of morphologic findings points to a number of different pathogenetic defects in the synthesis, release, and assembly of connective tissue macromolecules and in the cells involved in growth-plate metabolism. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:474720

  17. The New Agent: A Qualitative Study to Strategically Adapt New Agent Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…

  18. Forging a morphological system out of two dimensions: Agentivity and number

    PubMed Central

    Horton, L.; Goldin-Meadow, S.; Coppola, M.; Senghas, A.; Brentari, D.

    2015-01-01

    Languages have diverse strategies for marking agentivity and number. These strategies are negotiated to create combinatorial systems. We consider the emergence of these strategies by studying features of movement in a young sign language in Nicaragua (NSL). We compare two age cohorts of Nicaraguan signers (NSL1 and NSL2), adult homesigners in Nicaragua (deaf individuals creating a gestural system without linguistic input), signers of American and Italian Sign Languages (ASL and LIS), and hearing individuals asked to gesture silently. We find that all groups use movement axis and repetition to encode agentivity and number, suggesting that these properties are grounded in action experiences common to all participants. We find another feature – unpunctuated repetition – in the sign systems (ASL, LIS, NSL, Homesign) but not in silent gesture. Homesigners and NSL1 signers use the unpunctuated form, but limit its use to No-Agent contexts; NSL2 signers use the form across No-Agent and Agent contexts. A single individual can thus construct a marker for number without benefit of a linguistic community (homesign), but generalizing this form across agentive conditions requires an additional step. This step does not appear to be achieved when a linguistic community is first formed (NSL1), but requires transmission across generations of learners (NSL2). PMID:26740937

  19. SeeDB: a simple and morphology-preserving optical clearing agent for neuronal circuit reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ke, Meng-Tsen; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Imai, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    We report a water-based optical clearing agent, SeeDB, which clears fixed brain samples in a few days without quenching many types of fluorescent dyes, including fluorescent proteins and lipophilic neuronal tracers. Our method maintained a constant sample volume during the clearing procedure, an important factor for keeping cellular morphology intact, and facilitated the quantitative reconstruction of neuronal circuits. Combined with two-photon microscopy and an optimized objective lens, we were able to image the mouse brain from the dorsal to the ventral side. We used SeeDB to describe the near-complete wiring diagram of sister mitral cells associated with a common glomerulus in the mouse olfactory bulb. We found the diversity of dendrite wiring patterns among sister mitral cells, and our results provide an anatomical basis for non-redundant odor coding by these neurons. Our simple and efficient method is useful for imaging intact morphological architecture at large scales in both the adult and developing brains. PMID:23792946

  20. Water as an agent for the morphology modification of metal oxalate materials on the nanoscale: from sheets to rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minog; Kim, Yoojin; Kwon, Wonjong; Yoon, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    A number of approaches have been used to control the shape of metal oxalates, which often used as precursors for metal oxide nanomaterials. However, attempts to use water as a regulator have not been reported. Here in we report systematic studies on related topics: nanosheets, composed of 1-dimensional [M(C2O4)(EG)] (M = Zn or Co) polymeric structure, could be transformed into nanorods by using water as a shape-shifting agent because water can readily substitute EG ligand, leading alternation of inter-chain hydrogen bonding interactions. In addition, heat-treatment of these nanomaterials with diverse morphologies resulted in porous metal oxides with high degrees of shape retention.

  1. Water as an agent for the morphology modification of metal oxalate materials on the nanoscale: from sheets to rods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minog; Kim, YooJin; Kwon, WonJong; Yoon, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    A number of approaches have been used to control the shape of metal oxalates, which often used as precursors for metal oxide nanomaterials. However, attempts to use water as a regulator have not been reported. Here in we report systematic studies on related topics: nanosheets, composed of 1-dimensional [M(C2O4)(EG)] (M = Zn or Co) polymeric structure, could be transformed into nanorods by using water as a shape-shifting agent because water can readily substitute EG ligand, leading alternation of inter-chain hydrogen bonding interactions. In addition, heat-treatment of these nanomaterials with diverse morphologies resulted in porous metal oxides with high degrees of shape retention. PMID:26763973

  2. Construction of Zinc Oxide into Different Morphological Structures to Be Utilized as Antimicrobial Agent against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Elkady, M. F.; Shokry Hassan, H.; Hafez, Elsayed E.; Fouad, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Nano-ZnO has been successfully implemented in particles, rods, and tubes nanostructures via sol-gel and hydrothermal techniques. The variation of the different preparation parameters such as reaction temperature, time, and stabilizer agents was optimized to attain different morphological structures. The influence of the microwave annealing process on ZnO crystallinity, surface area, and morphological structure was monitored using XRD, BET, and SEM techniques, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide produced in nanotubes structure was examined against four different multidrug resistant bacteria: Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) strains. The activity of produced nano-ZnO was determined by disc diffusion technique and the results revealed that ZnO nanotubes recorded high activity against the studied strains due to their high surface area equivalent to 17.8 m2/g. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ZnO nanotubes showed that the low concentrations of ZnO nanotubes could be a substitution for the commercial antibiotics when approached in suitable formula. Although the annealing process of ZnO improves the degree of material crystallinity, however, it declines its surface area and consequently its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26451136

  3. Amphipathic agents for membrane protein study.

    PubMed

    Sadaf, Aiman; Cho, Kyung Ho; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins (MPs) are insoluble in aqueous media as a result of incompatibility between the hydrophilic property of the solvent molecules and the hydrophobic nature of MP surfaces, normally associated with lipid membranes. Amphipathic compounds are necessary for extraction of these macromolecules from the native membranes and their maintenance in solution. The amphipathic agents surround the hydrophobic segments of MPs, thus serving as a membrane mimetic system. Of the available amphipathic agents, detergents are most widely used for MP manipulation. However, MPs encapsulated by conventional detergent micelles have a tendency to undergo structural degradation, hampering MP advance, and necessitating the development of novel detergents with enhanced efficacy for MP study. In this chapter, we will introduce both conventional and novel classes of detergents and discuss about the chemical structures, design principles, and efficacies of these compounds for MP solubilization and stabilization. The behaviors of those agents toward MP crystallization will be a primary topic in our discussion. This discussion highlights the common features of popular conventional/novel detergents essential for successful MP structural study. The conclusions reached by this discussion would not only enable MP scientists to rationally select a set of detergent candidates among a large number of detergents but also provide detergent inventors with useful guidelines in designing novel amphipathic systems. PMID:25950960

  4. STUDIES OF WATERBORNE AGENTS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cu...

  5. Influence of Selective Biochemical and Morphological Agents on Natural History of Aneurysm of Abdominal Aorta Development.

    PubMed

    Wołoszko, Tomasz; Skórski, Maciej; Kwasiborski, Przemysław; Kmin, Ewelina; Gałązka, Zbigniew; Pogorzelski, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is probably influenced by many factors. The role of some of these factors, such as intraluminal thrombus (ILT) or cystatin C serum levels, remains controversial. Proving their influence could have therapeutic implications for some patients with AAA. Associations between the rate of increase in diameter of an aneurysm and ILT, as well as other factors, including biochemical factors (C-Reactive Protein - CRP, cystatin C), age, sex, and comorbidities, could predict disease progression in individual patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy patients with small AAA were included into the study. The patients were followed using ultrasound and CT imaging. We evaluated aneurysm dimensions and aneurysm wall thickness, as well as ILT and its dimensions, aneurysm wall morphology, CRP, and cystatin C. RESULTS We observed significant growth of AAA and thinning of aneurysmal wall. Aneurysms over 4 cm grew significantly faster in the second year of observation. ILT grew together with AAA size. Age, sex, smoking, dyslipidemias, or controlled arterial hypertension had no influence on aneurysm progression rate. Changes in serum of CRP concentration did not reach statistical significance, but cystatin C levels did. CONCLUSIONS Presence and size of ILT, wall thickness, and cystatin C levels may be considered in prediction of AAA progression. ILT might exert a protective influence on the risk of aneurysm rupture. However, larger aneurysms containing larger thrombi grow faster and their walls undergo more rapid degradation, which in turn increases the risk of rupture. This matter requires further studies. PMID:26859744

  6. Morphological cladistic study of coregonine fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.R.; Todd, T.N.

    1992-01-01

    A cladistic analysis of 50 characters from 26 taxa of coregonine fishes and two outgroup taxa yields a phylogenetic tree with two major branches, best summarized as two genera - Prosopium and Coregonus. Presence of teeth on the palatine, long maxillae, and long supra-maxillae are primitive, whereas loss of teeth, short or notched maxillae, and short supermaxillae are derived traits. P. coulteri and C. huntsmani are morphologically and phylogenetically primitive members of their groups. The widespread species, P. cylindraceum and P. williamsoni are morphologically advanced in parallel with the subgenus Coregonus (whitefishes): they share subterminal mouths, short jaws, and reduced teeth. Prosopium gemmifer parallels the ciscoes, subgenus Leucichthys. The whitefishes, C. ussuriensis, C. lavaretus, C. clupeaformis, and C. nasus are a monophyletic group, the subgenus Coregonus. The subgenus Leucichthys is a diverse, relatively plesiomorphic assemblage, widespread in the Holarctic region. This assemblage includes the inconnu, Stenodus.

  7. Semantic processing during morphological priming: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Iakimova, Galina; Ziegler, Johannes C; Colé, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has yielded conflicting results regarding the onset of semantic processing during morphological priming. The present study was designed to further explore the time-course of morphological processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). We conducted a primed lexical decision study comparing a morphological (LAVAGE - laver [washing - wash]), a semantic (LINGE - laver [laundry - wash]), an orthographic (LAVANDE - laver [lavender - wash]), and an unrelated control condition (HOSPICE - laver [nursing home - wash]), using the same targets across the four priming conditions. The behavioral data showed significant effects of morphological and semantic priming, with the magnitude of morphological priming being significantly larger than the magnitude of semantic priming. The ERP data revealed significant morphological but no semantic priming at 100-250 ms. Furthermore, a reduction of the N400 amplitude in the morphological condition compared to the semantic and orthographic condition demonstrates that the morphological priming effect was not entirely due to the semantic or orthographic overlap between the prime and the target. The present data reflect an early process of semantically blind morphological decomposition, and a later process of morpho-semantic decomposition, which we discuss in the context of recent morphological processing theories. PMID:25020124

  8. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  9. Morphological Awareness and Chinese Children's Literacy Development: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoying; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling; Wu, Xinchun; Li, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Qiu; Zhu, Jin; Shu, Hua; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wang, Qiuying; Yin, Li; He, Yeqin; Packard, Jerome; Gaffney, Janet S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and Chinese children's literacy development. Of the 169 children from elementary schools in Beijing, China, who participated in the study, about half received enhanced instruction on the morphology of characters and words in the first and second grade. At…

  10. Rheological/Morphological Study of PS/CNT Nanocomposite Electrospun Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazinani, Saeedeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Dubois, Charles

    2008-07-01

    This work depicts rheological characteristics of Polystyrene (PS)/Carbon Nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite solutions and their incidence on the morphological properties of final electrospun fibers. Nanocomposite fibers were obtained through electrospinning of PS/Di-Methyl Formamide (DMF) solutions containing different concentrations and types of Carbon Nanotubes. The morphology of fibers at different concentrations and types of CNTs was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Optical Microscopy. Correlation between initial CNT dispersion and final fibers morphologies was obtained using viscometry results and optical microscopy of initial solutions. The results obtained show that beads presence in fibers are due to nanoparticles agglomerations. A styrenic copolymer (Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene, SBS-Kraton) was employed as a compatibilizing agent to improve CNTs dispersion instead of chemical modification. Addition of copolymer affects both final fiber morphologies and CNT dispersion condition.

  11. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  12. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect

    Poindl, M. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  13. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindl, M.; Bonten, C.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  14. Morphology in Malay-English Biliteracy Acquisition: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study examined the effect of English morphological instruction on the development of English as well as Malay morphological awareness and word reading abilities among Malay-English bilingual fourth graders in Singapore, where English is the medium of instruction. The intervention group experienced semester-long instruction in…

  15. Nanostructured surfaces investigated by quantitative morphological studies.

    PubMed

    Perani, Martina; Carapezzi, Stefania; Mutta, Geeta Rani; Cavalcoli, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of different surfaces has been investigated by atomic force microscopy and quantitatively analyzed in this paper. Two different tools have been employed to this scope: the analysis of the height-height correlation function and the determination of the mean grain size, which have been combined to obtain a complete characterization of the surfaces. Different materials have been analyzed: SiO x N y , InGaN/GaN quantum wells and Si nanowires, grown with different techniques. Notwithstanding the presence of grain-like structures on all the samples analyzed, they present very diverse surface design, underlying that this procedure can be of general use. Our results show that the quantitative analysis of nanostructured surfaces allows us to obtain interesting information, such as grain clustering, from the comparison of the lateral correlation length and the grain size. PMID:27004458

  16. Nanostructured surfaces investigated by quantitative morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perani, Martina; Carapezzi, Stefania; Rani Mutta, Geeta; Cavalcoli, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of different surfaces has been investigated by atomic force microscopy and quantitatively analyzed in this paper. Two different tools have been employed to this scope: the analysis of the height-height correlation function and the determination of the mean grain size, which have been combined to obtain a complete characterization of the surfaces. Different materials have been analyzed: SiO x N y , InGaN/GaN quantum wells and Si nanowires, grown with different techniques. Notwithstanding the presence of grain-like structures on all the samples analyzed, they present very diverse surface design, underlying that this procedure can be of general use. Our results show that the quantitative analysis of nanostructured surfaces allows us to obtain interesting information, such as grain clustering, from the comparison of the lateral correlation length and the grain size.

  17. Pore morphology study of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, D.W.; Anderson, J.; Haereid, S.; Smith, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    Silica aerogels have numerous properties which suggest applications such as ultra high efficiency thermal insulation. These properties relate directly to the aerogel`s pore size distribution. The micro and meso pore size ranges can be investigated by normal small angle x-ray scattering and possibly, nitrogen adsorption. However, the measurement of larger pores (> 250 {angstrom}) is more difficult. Due to their limited mechanical strength, mercury porosimetry and nitrogen condensation can disrupt the gel structure and electron microscopy provides only limited large scale structure information. The use of small angle light scattering techniques seems to have promise, the only hurdle is that aerogels exhibit significant multiple scattering. This can be avoided if one observes the gels in the wet stage since the structure of the aerogel should be very similar to the wet gel (as the result of supercritical drying). Thus, if one can match the refractive index, the morphology can be probed. The combination of certain alcoholic solvents fit this index matching criteria. Preliminary results for the gel network (micron range) and primary particle structure (manometer) are reported by using small angle light scattering and ultra-small angle x-ray scattering. The effects on structure over the length scale range of <1 nm to >5 {mu}m under different conditions (precursors, pH, etc.) are presented. The change in structure of an aerogel during isostatic compaction to 228 MPa (to simulate drying from wetting solvents) are also discussed.

  18. Structural, morphological and electroluminescence studies of Zno:Co nanophosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anju; Vishwakarma, H. L.

    2016-09-01

    The nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) doped with various concentrations of cobalt (Co) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effect of doping concentration on structural and morphological properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell volume, bond length, texture coefficient, lattice constants and dislocation density are also studied. Here, we also compared the interplaner spacing and relative peak intensities from their standard values with different angles. Crystallite sizes have been calculated by Debye-Scherrer's formula whose values are decreasing with increase in cobalt content up to 3 %. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods was (101). The XRD analysis also ensures that ZnO has a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The electroluminescence (EL) cells were prepared by placing pure and cobalt-doped ZnO nanoparticles between ITO-coated conducting glass plate and aluminium foil. Alternating voltage of various frequencies was applied, and EL brightness at different voltages was measured and corresponding current was also recorded. The voltage dependence of electroluminescence (EL) brightness of the ZnO:Co shows exponential increase. The linear voltage-current characteristic indicates ohmic nature. The EL brightness at a particular voltage is found to increase by increasing Co doping, but for higher percentage of Co the EL brightness is reduced. It is also seen that Co does not influence the threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  19. Morphological transformation of an established Syrian hamster dermal cell with the anti-tussive agent noscapine.

    PubMed

    Porter, R; Parry, E M; Parry, J M

    1992-05-01

    Following exposure to the alkaloid noscapine hydrochloride over a concentration range of 10-120 micrograms/ml immortal cultures of Syrian hamster dermal fibroblasts were shown to undergo morphological transformation. The resultant transformed foci produced cultures which were anchorage independent as confirmed by soft agar tests. Karyotype analysis of a noscapine transformed colony demonstrated an increase in chromosome number compared to the immortal culture and the non-random duplication of a translocated chromosome 9 previously identified in the immortal culture. These data indicate that noscapine, which has previously been shown to be a spindle inhibitor and inducer of polyploidy in cultured cells, is capable of inducing in vitro cell transformation. Such data indicate a carcinogenic potential for this widely used cough suppressant. PMID:1602976

  20. Studies on Hdpe-Coconut Flour Composites: Effect of Coupling Agents and Surface Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, C.; González, J.; Hernández, M.; Ichazo, M. N.; Alvarado, Sinai; Ziegler, Dulce Maria

    2008-08-01

    This study investigates the mechanical, thermal and morphological behavior of coconut flour/polyethylene composites, with special interest on the influence of the surface modification of coconut flour and the presence of different coupling agents on the interfacial bonding. The different treatments of the composites with an EAA copolymer, with titanate, with 5 and 18 wt% of NaOH and acetylating, confirm the better tensile behavior of these composites.

  1. Removal of heavy metal ions by biogenic hydroxyapatite: Morphology influence and mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dandan; Guan, Xiaomei; Huang, Fangzhi; Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Chen, Jun; Long, Haibo

    2016-08-01

    Based on the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) with different morphologies, such as nanorod-like, flower-like and sphere-like assembled HA nanorods, a new strategy has been developed for the removal of heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+. The dependence of removal efficiency on the morphology and the suspended concentration of trapping agent, the removal time and selectivity were evaluated and discussed. The experimental results proved that the removal capacity of flower-like assembled HA nanorods (NAFL-HA) was the best, and the maximum removal ratio for Pb2+ ion was 99.97%. The mechanism of Pb2+ removal was studied in detail, noting that some metal ions were completely incorporated into hydroxyapatitie to produce Pb-HA. It reveals that the metal ions capture by HA is mainly controlled by sample surface adsorption and co-precipitation, which are directly controlled by sample morphology.

  2. Morphological studies of the vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstroem, B.

    1973-01-01

    The anatomy of the intratemporal part of the vestibular nerve in man, and the possible age related degenerative changes in the nerve were studied. The form and structure of the vestibular ganglion was studied with the light microscope. A numerical analysis of the vestibular nerve, and caliber spectra of the myelinated fibers in the vestibular nerve branches were studied in individuals of varying ages. It was found that the peripheral endings of the vestibular nerve form a complicated pattern inside the vestibular sensory epithelia. A detailed description of the sensory cells and their surface organelles is included.

  3. [Aging of the aorta: a morphological study].

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; Del Corso, L; Meola, M; Giuliano, G; Borelli, A; Riccioni, S

    1994-05-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the aging of aorta with respect to atherosclerotic modifications: abdominal aorta echotomography is the preferred approach for this study. In 354 elderly patients, 65 and over, we have evaluated the diameter and the course of the aorta, the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta and iliac vessels, and the presence of aneurysms. Two kinds of findings could be identified by echotomography: age-related physiologic modifications, represented essentially by an increase of the aortic diameter; pathologic changes, characteristic for atherosclerosis, of which aneurysms are the most dangerous complications. PMID:7924179

  4. Morphological study of endothelial cells during freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A.; Xu, L. X.; Sandison, G. A.; Cheng, S.

    2006-12-01

    Microvascular injury is recognized as a major tissue damage mechanism of ablative cryosurgery. Endothelial cells lining the vessel wall are thought to be the initial target of freezing. However, details of this injury mechanism are not yet completely understood. In this study, ECMatrix™ 625 was used to mimic the tumour environment and to allow the endothelial cells cultured in vitro to form the tube-like structure of the vasculature. The influence of water dehydration on the integrity of this structure was investigated. It was found that the initial cell shape change was mainly controlled by water dehydration, dependent on the cooling rate, resulting in the shrinkage of cells in the direction normal to the free surface. As the cooling was prolonged and temperature was lowered, further cell shape change could be induced by the chilling effects on intracellular proteins, and focal adhesions to the basement membrane. Quantitative analysis showed that the freezing induced dehydration greatly enhanced the cell surface stresses, especially in the axial direction. This could be one of the major causes of the final breaking of the cell junction and cell detachment.

  5. Profound morphological changes in the erythrocytes and fibrin networks of patients with hemochromatosis or with hyperferritinemia, and their normalization by iron chelators and other agents.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Vermeulen, Natasha; Lipinski, Boguslaw; Gericke, George S; Kell, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that individuals with increased iron levels are more prone to thrombotic diseases, mainly due to the presence of unliganded iron, and thereby the increased production of hydroxyl radicals. It is also known that erythrocytes (RBCs) may play an important role during thrombotic events. Therefore the purpose of the current study was to assess whether RBCs had an altered morphology in individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), as well as some who displayed hyperferritinemia (HF). Using scanning electron microscopy, we also assessed means by which the RBC and fibrin morphology might be normalized. An important objective was to test the hypothesis that the altered RBC morphology was due to the presence of excess unliganded iron by removing it through chelation. Very striking differences were observed, in that the erythrocytes from HH and HF individuals were distorted and had a much greater axial ratio compared to that accompanying the discoid appearance seen in the normal samples. The response to thrombin, and the appearance of a platelet-rich plasma smear, were also markedly different. These differences could largely be reversed by the iron chelator desferal and to some degree by the iron chelator clioquinol, or by the free radical trapping agents salicylate or selenite (that may themselves also be iron chelators). These findings are consistent with the view that the aberrant morphology of the HH and HF erythrocytes is caused, at least in part, by unliganded ('free') iron, whether derived directly via raised ferritin levels or otherwise, and that lowering it or affecting the consequences of its action may be of therapeutic benefit. The findings also bear on the question of the extent to which accepting blood donations from HH individuals may be desirable or otherwise. PMID:24416376

  6. Acquisition of L2 English Morphology: A Family Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yanyin; Widyastuti, Ima

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the status of morphology in the L2 English of three members of a family from Indonesia (parents and their 5-year-old daughter) who have lived, studied or worked in Australia for a year. The investigation is contextualized against various learning settings in which the informants have learned English: formal instruction in…

  7. [Morphological studies of hydroxyapatite crystals exposed to disodium pamidronate].

    PubMed

    Hein, L E; Grassi, R L; Roldán, E J; Gregori, D; Varela, M E; Piccinni, E P

    1997-01-01

    dose groups, showing an improvement of bone material properties and stiffness. Thus, it may rather be lower than the "in vitro" used concentrations. In concordance with above experimental conditions it can be concluded that bisphosphonates exert morphological changes in hydroxyapatite crystals, in a dose dependent manner, at least when high concentrations are used. In addition, it is postulated that changes observed on "in vivo" samples may be the result with other adaptative factors as for example the local mechanical usage. The latter data were limited, and should be studied with more details if an extrapolation to the bisphosphonate treated osteoporotic women is intended. Finally, it is suggested that any agent that changes BMU activity (all known anti-osteoporotic drugs) may potentially modify the quality of hydroxyapatite crystals, affecting in turn the bone resistance to fracture, independently from the quantity of bone mass gained. Thus, to help predicting the consequences on skeletal fragility, there is a need to know the direct or indirect effect of drugs on bone crystals. PMID:9567349

  8. Morphological study of cortical surfaces with principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy; Tong, Yunxia; Sun, Yinlong

    2005-03-01

    Recent study in neuroscience has observed evidence that the anatomic structures in human brains might have certain connection with the functioning. This triggers the interest in morphological study of cortical surfaces and in comparison of different ethnic groups. In this paper, we compare the MRI brain datasets of ten Chinese and ten Caucasians. We apply a statistical analysis to the white matter volumes in these datasets and evaluate the dissimilarities between the two groups using various intuitive measures. This analysis has revealed systematic morphological differences between the two ethnic groups.

  9. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  10. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  11. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  12. Planetary geological studies. [MARS crater morphology and ejecta deposit topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasius, K. R.

    1981-01-01

    A global data base was assembled for the study of Mars crater ejecta morphology. The craters were classified as to morhology using individual photographic prints of Viking orbiter frames. Positional and scale information were derived by fitting digitized mosaic coordinates to lattitude-longitude coordinates of surface features from the Mars geodetic control net and feature coordinates from the U.S.G.S. series of 1:5,00,000 scale shaded relief maps. Crater morphology characteristics recorded are of two classes - attributes of each ejecta deposit and other crater charactersitics. Preliminary efforts to check the data base with findings of other workers are described.

  13. Morphological Priming by Itself: A Study of Portuguese Conjugations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verissimo, Joao; Clahsen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Does the language processing system make use of abstract grammatical categories and representations that are not directly visible from the surface form of a linguistic expression? This study examines stem-formation processes and conjugation classes, a case of "pure" morphology that provides insight into the role of grammatical structure in…

  14. Effects of different cyclodextrins on the morphology, loading and release properties of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide)-microparticles containing the hypnotic agent etizolam.

    PubMed

    Lopedota, A; Cutrignelli, A; Trapani, A; Boghetich, G; Denora, N; Laquintana, V; Trapani, G; Liso, G

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the feasibility of using microparticles (MPs) constituted by the biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and a number of cyclodextrins (CDs) as an orally sustained delivery system of the hypnotic agent etizolam (ETZ). A further aim of the work was to investigate the effects of different CDs on the morphology, loading, and release properties of the MPs prepared. For these purposes, ETZ alone, and ETZ/CD-PLGA loaded MPs were prepared by the W/O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method. It was found that the release of ETZ in vitro was more prolonged over three days with a kinetic constant proportional to t(1/2). It was also demonstrated that the CDs in these MPs are able to modulate several properties such as morphology, drug loading, and release properties. In fact, marked differences in shape, surface, and encapsulation efficiencies were noted depending on the presence, hydrophilicity, and charge of the CD employed. The obtained results induce us to consider the present ETZ-containing formulations as new valuable tools for the treatment of different insomnia categories. PMID:17454433

  15. Advocating for Social Studies: Becoming AGENTS for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heafner, Tina L.; O'Connor, Katherine A.; Groce, Eric C.; Byrd, Sandra; Good, Amy J.; Oldendorf, Sandra; Passe, Jeff; Rock, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors emphasize the role of elementary social studies teachers as citizen activists and reformers. The authors call upon all teachers to become AGENTS for change in order to strengthen the role of social studies in elementary schools, to guarantee that all students have an equitable opportunity to learn social studies, and…

  16. Zinc supplementation in experimental liver cirrhosis: a morphological, structural and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, E.; Pannarale, L.; Franchitto, A.; Riggio, O.

    1993-01-01

    Zinc treatment in liver cirrhosis is known to prevent a number of clinical symptoms. Previous studies have also indicated that Zn has a protective effect on the development of the clinical, biochemical and morphological manifestations of hepatic injury if administered simultaneously with the noxious agent. In this study, the protective effects of zinc treatment against the development of liver cirrhosis have been tested in cirrhotic rats treated by intragastric administration of CCl4. The development of morphological lesions has been investigated by means of standardized and comparable techniques, LM, TEM, SEM, microvascular casts and measurements of liver collagen content by colorimetric determination in paraffin embedded sections. LM and EM observations showed typical morphological features of cirrhosis in all CCl4 treated rats. In the same group of animals, the microvascular casts showed the development of the typical 'perinodular' branching and the various anastomoses of pre and post-sinusoidal vessels. Colorimetric evaluation has shown a significant increase in collagen content after CCl4 treatment. Qualitative and quantitative data of livers of CCl4 treated rats supplemented or not with zinc were significantly similar. In conclusion, zinc treatment influences biochemical parameters, but not the morphology of liver cirrhosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8217781

  17. The anterior talofibular ligament: A detailed morphological study.

    PubMed

    Khawaji, Bader; Soames, Roger

    2015-09-01

    The anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) is commonly injured and may result in ankle instability. Good results from ATFL reconstruction have been reported; however complications and movement restrictions have also been observed. ATFL differences have been reported; however details of its precise bony attachment are lacking. This study provides a detailed morphology of the ATFL with respect to surgical and clinical applications. ATFL morphology, number of bands and the exact insertion points were studied in 50 formaldehyde embalmed feet. ATFL length was measured in different joint positions to assess its functional role: ATFL length varied from 18.81 mm in dorsiflexion to 21.06 mm in plantarflexion: mid-length width and thickness were 4.97 mm and 1.01 mm respectively. The bony attachment lengths were also measured: mean proximal and distal bony attachment lengths were 4.68 mm and 3.1mm respectively, while 13.04 mm had no bony attachment. One (22.9%), two (56.3%) and three (20.8%) band morphologies were observed originating 10.37 mm anterosuperior to the lateral malleolar tip and inserting 3.92 mm anterior to the anterior lateral malleolar line (ALML). Detailed morphology of the ATFL may help in restoring injured ATFL function by appropriate ligament reconstruction, as well as aid the understanding of the mechanism of ligament injury. PMID:26205996

  18. Toxicity studies on agent GA (Phase 2): 90 day subchronic study of GA (Tabun) in cd rats. Appendices. Final report, July 1985-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide essential toxicologic information on Tabun administration over a 90 day period. This toxicologic information may be used to adjust the maximum-tolerated dose for subsequent dominant-lethal and two-generation reproduction studies. The objectives were to determine the toxic effects of nerve agent exposure (e.g., target organs); and to determine the effects of nerve agent GA on sperm morphology and motility and vaginal cytology.

  19. Morphological priming during language switching: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Lensink, Saskia E.; Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Schiller, Niels O.

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual language control (BLC) is a much-debated issue in recent literature. Some models assume BLC is achieved by various types of inhibition of the non-target language, whereas other models do not assume any inhibitory mechanisms. In an event-related potential (ERP) study involving a long-lag morphological priming paradigm, participants were required to name pictures and read aloud words in both their L1 (Dutch) and L2 (English). Switch blocks contained intervening L1 items between L2 primes and targets, whereas non-switch blocks contained only L2 stimuli. In non-switch blocks, target picture names that were morphologically related to the primes were named faster than unrelated control items. In switch blocks, faster response latencies were recorded for morphologically related targets as well, demonstrating the existence of morphological priming in the L2. However, only in non-switch blocks, ERP data showed a reduced N400 trend, possibly suggesting that participants made use of a post-lexical checking mechanism during the switch block. PMID:25566022

  20. Morphology of Mandibular Incisors: A Study on CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Kamtane, Smita; Ghodke, Monali

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of the study was to identify the number of root canals and examine root canal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors in an Indian sub-population of Pune, Maharashtra, India using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material/Methods This study was conducted at Elite CBCT & Dental Diagnostics, Pune. One hundred mandibular incisors were evaluated for the number of root, root canals and root morphology. Results In the present study, amongst 102 mandibular incisors, all had one root, 36% of them had a second canal, and Vertucci Type I was the most common type. Conclusions CBCT imaging is an excellent method for detection of different canal configurations of mandibular incisors. PMID:26834865

  1. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    SciTech Connect

    Arulmozhi, K. T.; Mythili, N.

    2013-12-15

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  2. Chronological and morphological study of heart development in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marcela, Salazar García; Cristina, Revilla Monsalve María; Angel, Palomino Garibay Miguel; Manuel, Arteaga Martínez; Sofía, Díaz-Cintra; Patricia, De La Rosa-Santander; Bladimir, Roque-Ramírez; Concepción, Sánchez Gómez

    2012-08-01

    Adult and embryonic laboratory rats have been used as a mammalian model organism in biomedical research, descriptive and experimental cardiac embryology, and experimental teratology. There have been, however, considerable variations and discrepancies concerning the developmental staging of the rat embryo in the reported literature, which have resulted in several controversies and inconsistencies. Therefore, we carried out a careful anatomical and histological study of rat cardiac morphogenesis from the premorphogenetic period to the mature heart in a newborn pup. A correlation between the chronology and morphological features of the heart and embryo or newborn was made. We provide a simple and comprehensive guide relating the developmental timing and fate of the embryonic components of the heart and their morphological changes in the rat based on in vivo labeling studies in the chick. We also compare the timing of heart development in rats, humans, and mice. PMID:22715162

  3. Decomposing Animacy Reversals between Agents and Experiencers: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourguignon, Nicolas; Drury, John E.; Valois, Daniel; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to refine current hypotheses regarding thematic reversal anomalies, which have been found to elicit either N400 or--more frequently--"semantic-P600" (sP600) effects. Our goal was to investigate whether distinct ERP profiles reflect aspectual-thematic differences between Agent-Subject Verbs (ASVs; e.g., "to eat") and…

  4. Dens invaginatus in an impacted mesiodens: a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Cantín, M; Fonseca, G M

    2013-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a dental anomaly originated from invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla, during odontogenesis. DI may be associated with other abnormalities such as dysmorphic mesiodens, and this unusual condition may be detected by chance on the conventional radiography. However, the three-dimensional nature and the exact morphological patterns of DI are impossible to appreciate from this method. We present a morphological study of impacted mesiodens in a 9-year-old girl, which the three coronal invaginations were detected only by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in the pre-surgical examination. CBCT, radiographic and microscopic reproductions allow transfer of images to facilitate cooperation of working groups, examination as well as for teaching purposes. PMID:24322044

  5. Morphology Studies of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Ji Sun

    Energy is a prerequisite for creating and sustaining life. The need for energy increases globally as the world's population and economy grow. However, conventional energy sources---fossil fuels---generate carbon dioxide and contribute to global warming, perhaps the most serious environmental problem of our time. Carbon dioxide-free energy is required to stop global warming. Polymer solar cells have been attracting a great deal of interest as a source of renewable energy with a great potential for low cost. Polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have been greatly improved; the power conversion efficiency is already up to 9.2% making the future of the polymer solar cell very promising. This thesis is a study of the morphology of polymer:fullerene BHJ, one of the most critical and challenging parts of high efficiency polymer solar cells. To discover the morphology, cross-section as well as top-down transmission electron microscopy were used. The contrast was achieved by utilizing phase contrast microscopy. Thermal annealing, dependence of BHJ thickness, processing additives, solution sequential process and solution sequential process with the use of cosolvent that affects/controls the BHJ morphology are studied in detail.

  6. An experimental study of rill erosion and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Haiou; Zheng, Fenli; Wen, Leilei; Lu, Jia; Jiang, Yiliang

    2015-02-01

    Rill erosion is recognized as an important process of water erosion on agricultural land. The objectives of this study are to examine the effects of rainfall intensity on rill network development and to present some indicators for a quantitative description of rill morphology. A soil pan (10 m long, 3 m wide and 0.5 m deep and with an adjustable slope gradient from 0 to 30°) was subjected to three successive rains under rainfall intensities of 50 and 100 mm h- 1. The results showed that rainfall intensity significantly affected rill erosion, especially in the active period of rill network development. The magnitude of rill erosion was 28.5 and 33.1 kg m- 2 and contributed 78.6% and 76.2% to the soil loss under rainfall intensities of 50 and 100 mm h- 1, respectively. The formation of rill network under the 50 mm h- 1 intensity was more complex than that under the 100 mm h- 1 intensity; for the latter rill networks developed fast and then varied slightly. The mean rill inclination angle (δmean), rill density (ρ), degree of rill dissection (μ) and mean rill tortuosity complexity (cmean) increased with the increase of rains under the same rainfall intensity. The μ value was the optimal derivative morphological indicator to estimate rill erosion and morphology, which was followed in descending order by δmean, cmean and ρ.

  7. Effects of xenobiotics on fish tissues: morphological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Current applications of light and electron microscopy to investigations of changes in various tissues from fish exposed to xenobiotics have been reviewed. Emphasis has been placed on two types of contaminants, petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorobiphenyls, as examples of important xenobiotics found in the marine environment. Although the data are fragmentary because of the small number of studies, they clearly contribute new and valuable information to an understanding of the impact of these contaminants on the olfactory organ, liver, lens, and intestine from several species of fish. The morphological aspects of damage to the olfactory organs of fish exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons included hyperplasia and attenuation of the chemosensory cilia. In the liver of fish exposed to chlorobiphenyls, one of the most evident cellular anomalies was whorls of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum appeared proliferated and its cisternae were dilated. Changes in the amount of lipid stored in the hepatocytes have been observed in fish exposed to both petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorobiphenyls. Some hydrocarbons affected eye tissues. Structural alterations that occurred during hydration of lens fiber cells and cataract formation were elucidated. A synopsis of the morphological changes in the intestine of fish exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons alone, chlorobiphenyls alone, and the combined contaminants is presented. All three groups of contaminant-exposed fish have subcellular inclusions that are distinctly abnormal. Recommendations for future studies include the need for further characterization of the range of normal tissue structure, comparative studies of additional species, and multiple contaminant exposures.

  8. Different hollow and spherical TiO2 morphologies have distinct activities for the photocatalytic inactivation of chemical and biological agents.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Shimodo, Takahito; Usuki, Sho; Torigoe, Kanjiro; Terashima, Chiaki; Katsumata, Ken-Ichi; Ikekita, Masahiko; Fujishima, Akira; Sakai, Hideki; Nakata, Kazuya

    2016-08-01

    The inactivation of Escherichia coli and Qβ phage was examined following their photocatalytic treatment with TiO2 hollows and spheres that had been prepared by electrospray, hydrothermal treatment, and calcination. The crystal structures of the hollows and spheres were assigned to TiO2 anatase, and the surface areas of the hollows and spheres were determined to be 91 and 79 m(2) g(-1), respectively. Interestingly, TiO2 spheres exhibited higher anti-pathogen performance than TiO2 hollows, a difference we ascribe to the prevention of light multi-scattering by microorganisms covering the surfaces of the TiO2 particles. The photocatalytic decomposition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the presence of TiO2 hollows and spheres was examined in order to study the dependence of photocatalytic activity on TiO2 morphology for the size scale of the reactants. TiO2 hollows provided greater photocatalytic decomposition of DMSO than did TiO2 spheres, in contrast to the pattern seen for pathogen inactivation. Fabrication of photocatalysts will need to vary depending on what substance (e.g., organic compound or biological agent) is being targeted for environmental remediation. PMID:27381096

  9. Morphological studies of resonances in plasmonic metasurfaces for SPR sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelek, Jakub; Kwiecien, Pavel; Richter, Ivan; Homola, Jiří

    2015-05-01

    We investigate selected periodic arrays of nanostructures inspired by metasurfaces originally used in metamaterial structures and evaluate their potential for surface plasmon resonance applicable in sensing. Building blocks including rectangles, cut wires, crosses, fishnets, split ring resonators were ordered on suitable substrates and their reflection (R), transmission (T), and loss energy (L) spectra were calculated. The numerical studies were performed using our efficient in-house two-dimensional rigorous coupled-wave analysis technique. Our technique incorporates all the key improvements of the method available, taking into account both proper Fourier factorization rules, adaptive spatial resolution techniques, as well as structural symmetries. Using the R, T, and L spectra, we investigated spectral sensitivity of SPR and calculated the respective SPR sensor characteristics, such as figures of merit (FOM), enabling direct comparison of various structural morphologies for potential sensing applications. Also, optimization of the structures in terms of FOM has been performed to identify the most promising candidates. Additionally, to allow for interpretation of spectral resonant features and the interplay of individual and surface lattice resonances, we were gradually changing the morphology of individual building blocks from one type of element to another one. We believe that this study will bring insight into plasmonic behavior of nanostructured metasurfaces and will further benefit research into SPR biosensors.

  10. Morphological studies on Meckel's diverticulum in geese (Anser anser domesticus).

    PubMed

    Besoluk, K; Eken, E; Boydak, M; Tipirdamaz, S

    2002-10-01

    This study was carried out to reveal the morphological features of Meckel's diverticulum (MD) in geese. For this purpose, a total of 36 adult healthy geese of both sexes, 50-52 weeks of age, were used. The mean weight of MD in male was found to be significantly larger than that of female. It was located a little distal to the midpoint of the small intestine in both sexes. It had a lot of lymphoid tissues, the simple columnar epithelium and a small number of crypts, and was a lack of villi, and its muscularis mucosae was very thin. Results from this study are thought to throw light on future studies on MD and proper diagnosis of pathological disorders related to it, and to contribute considerably to the present anatomical knowledge on MD in geese. PMID:12484422

  11. Study of crystallization and morphology of ammonium diuranate and uranium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Subhankar; Roy, Saswati B.; Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B.

    2012-05-01

    Ammonium diuranate (ADU) and its heating product uranium oxides (UO3 + U3O8) are important intermediates for nuclear fuel production. The microstructure and particle size distribution (PSD) of ADU powder produced at various stages of precipitation have been measured to study the particle growth of ADU. The change of morphology of ADU and UO3 + U3O8 has also been studied when gaseous ammonia is added instead of aqueous ammonia solution and when a seeding agent is added to the uranyl nitrate solution before precipitate formation. It has been observed that the ADU particles form basically agglomerates of submicron platelets. The microstructure of ADU was retained in UO3 + U3O8 even after calcination.

  12. A new substance to relax polychaete worms (Annelida) prior to morphological study

    PubMed Central

    Bonyadi-Naeini, Alieh; Rahimian, Hassan; Glasby, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A variety of chemical substances have been used to relax and/or immobilize polychaete worms, and other invertebrates, prior to specimen preparation for morphological examination. To solve difficulties encountered during the study of nereidid polychaetes (Annelida: Phyllodocida), an experiment was designed and carried out to investigate a new relaxing agent to immobilize nereidid specimens and stimulate pharynx eversion. The new substance, Dentol® (Khoraman laboratory, Iran), a dental anesthetic and antiseptic medicine containing 10% Carvacrol as the effective ingredient, was used for the first time and compared with other substances that have been used traditionally in polychaete studies. Crosstab analysis showed significant differences between different treatment groups, with Dentol® providing much better results for all considered criteria. PMID:27408556

  13. A new substance to relax polychaete worms (Annelida) prior to morphological study.

    PubMed

    Bonyadi-Naeini, Alieh; Rahimian, Hassan; Glasby, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    A variety of chemical substances have been used to relax and/or immobilize polychaete worms, and other invertebrates, prior to specimen preparation for morphological examination. To solve difficulties encountered during the study of nereidid polychaetes (Annelida: Phyllodocida), an experiment was designed and carried out to investigate a new relaxing agent to immobilize nereidid specimens and stimulate pharynx eversion. The new substance, Dentol® (Khoraman laboratory, Iran), a dental anesthetic and antiseptic medicine containing 10% Carvacrol as the effective ingredient, was used for the first time and compared with other substances that have been used traditionally in polychaete studies. Crosstab analysis showed significant differences between different treatment groups, with Dentol® providing much better results for all considered criteria. PMID:27408556

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Barrall, G A

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  15. New metal based drug as a therapeutic agent: Spectral, electrochemical, DNA-binding, surface morphology and photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslu, Harun; Gölcü, Ayşegül

    2015-07-01

    Cu(II) complexes of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Meloxicam (H2MLX) was synthesized and characterized via spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The thermal behavior of the complex was also analyzed. The photoluminescence properties of the compounds were analyzed under different conditions. The electrochemical properties of both ligand and complex have been analyzed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) using glassy carbon electrode. The biological activities of the compounds were evaluated through examining their capacity to bind to fish sperm double strand DNA (FSdsDNA) with absorption spectroscopy and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Absorption studies of the interaction of the H2MLX and its Cu(II) complex with FSdsDNA have indicated that these compounds could bind to FSdsDNA, and the binding constants were calculated. The morphology of the FSdsDNA, H2MLX, and Cu(II) complex were analyzed thanks to using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the DPV technique, pencil graphite electrode was used as a working electrode. The decrease in the intensity of the guanine oxidation signals was used as an indicator for the interaction mechanism.

  16. Experimental Modeling of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy. An Experimental Morphological Study.

    PubMed

    Khoroshilova-Maslova, I P; Leparskaya, N L; Nabieva, M M; Andreeva, L D

    2015-05-01

    A model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy induced by simultaneous intravitreal injection of recombinant IL-1β and platelet concentrate is created and its main morphological manifestations are studied on Chinchilla rabbits. The model reflects pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy: epiretinal membrane with the formation of retinal plication, traction detachment of the retina; moderate inflammatory reaction in the uveal tract, in the optic nerve infundibulum, in the vitreous body; intact structural elements of the retina, dissociation of the retinal pigmented epithelium cells with their subsequent migration. The model is adequate to the clinical picture of proliferative vitreoretinopathy in humans, which recommends it for experimental studies of the efficiency of drug therapy and prevention of this disease. PMID:26033599

  17. Studying femtosecond-laser hyperdoping by controlling surface morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Mark T.; Sher, Meng-Ju; Lin Yuting; Zhang, Haifei; Smith, Matthew J.; Gradecak, Silvija; Mazur, Eric

    2012-05-01

    We study the fundamental properties of femtosecond-laser (fs-laser) hyperdoping by developing techniques to control the surface morphology following laser irradiation. By decoupling the formation of surface roughness from the doping process, we study the structural and electronic properties of fs-laser doped silicon. These experiments are a necessary step toward developing predictive models of the doping process. We use a single fs-laser pulse to dope silicon with sulfur, enabling quantitative secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and Hall effect measurements. These measurements indicate that at laser fluences at or above 4 kJ m{sup -2}, a single laser pulse yields a sulfur dose >(3 {+-} 1) x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} and results in a 45-nm thick amorphous surface layer. Based on these results, we demonstrate a method for hyperdoping large areas of silicon without producing the surface roughness.

  18. Surface Morphological Studies on Nerve Cells by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkaya, Goksel; Zhong, Lei; Rehder, Vincent; Dietz, Nikolaus

    2009-03-01

    Surface morphological properties of fixed and living nerve cells removed from the buccal ganglion of Helisoma trivolvis have been studied by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Identified, individual neurons were removed from the buccal ganglion of Helisoma trivolvis and plated into poly-L-lysine coated glass cover-slips. The growth of the nerve cells was stopped and fixed with 0.1% Glutaraldehyde and 4% Formaldehyde solution after extension of growth cones at the tip of the axons. Topography and softness of growth cone filopodia and overlying lamellopodium (veil) were probed by AFM. Information obtained from AFM's amplitude and phase channels have been used for determination of softness of the region probed. The results of structural studies on the cells are linked to their mechanical properties and internal molecular density distribution.

  19. Dynamic potential and surface morphology study of sertraline membrane sensors

    PubMed Central

    Khater, M.M.; Issa, Y.M.; Hassib, H.B.; Mohammed, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    New rapid, sensitive and simple electrometric method was developed to determine sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-Cl) in its pure raw material and pharmaceutical formulations. Membrane sensors based on heteropolyacids as ion associating material were prepared. Silicomolybdic acid (SMA), silicotungstic acid (STA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) were used. The slope and limit of detection are 50.00, 60.00 and 53.24 mV/decade and 2.51, 5.62 and 4.85 μmol L−1 for Ser-ST, Ser-PM and Ser-SM membrane sensors, respectively. Linear range is 0.01–10.00 for the three sensors. These new sensors were used for the potentiometric titration of Ser-Cl using sodium tetraphenylborate as titrant. The surface morphologies of the prepared membranes with and without the modifier (ion-associate) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopes. PMID:26257944

  20. Dynamic potential and surface morphology study of sertraline membrane sensors.

    PubMed

    Khater, M M; Issa, Y M; Hassib, H B; Mohammed, S H

    2015-05-01

    New rapid, sensitive and simple electrometric method was developed to determine sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-Cl) in its pure raw material and pharmaceutical formulations. Membrane sensors based on heteropolyacids as ion associating material were prepared. Silicomolybdic acid (SMA), silicotungstic acid (STA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) were used. The slope and limit of detection are 50.00, 60.00 and 53.24 mV/decade and 2.51, 5.62 and 4.85 μmol L(-1) for Ser-ST, Ser-PM and Ser-SM membrane sensors, respectively. Linear range is 0.01-10.00 for the three sensors. These new sensors were used for the potentiometric titration of Ser-Cl using sodium tetraphenylborate as titrant. The surface morphologies of the prepared membranes with and without the modifier (ion-associate) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopes. PMID:26257944

  1. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A.; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerella causeyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla. PMID:25829846

  2. How morphology influences relaxivity - comparative study of superparamagnetic iron oxide-polymer hybrid nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Sandro; Bannwarth, Markus B; Musyanovych, Anna; Landfester, Katharina; Münnemann, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) are widely used in MRI as T2 contrast agents, and interest is still growing. Here, the T2 relaxivity of three different SPIO-polymer hybrid morphologies, i.e. homogeneously distributed iron oxide within a polymer matrix, Janus-like nanoparticles and polymer nanocapsules containing iron oxides, is studied. Making use of calculations based on theory for agglomerated systems, the obtained T2 values could be predicted for all different morphologies, except for nanocapsules. Nanocapsules, in contrast to full spheres, allow for water exchange between encapsulated water and bulk water, and thus have two contributions to relaxivity. One originates from the capsules acting as a weakly magnetized cluster and the other stems from the individual SPIOs inside the capsule. Therefore, the relaxivities were also computed using an empirical equation found in the literature, which considers water exchange, resulting in a better T2 forecast for the nanocapsules. The presented study is the first example of a comparison between measured and calculated relaxivities of nanocapsules. PMID:26153149

  3. [Morphological study of bile in the diagnosis of biliary diseases].

    PubMed

    Potekhina, Iu P

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study principles of bile structurization in healthy people and patients with various biliary diseases. 160 patients with different biliary diseases and other diseases of the hepatopancreaticoduodenal zone were examined. Samples of gallbladder bile were taken from corpses of young men, who did not have any diseases of the hepatopancreaticoduodenal zone. Their diagnoses were confirmed by an ultrasound morphological study. Bile was studied by the cuneate dehydration and viscosimetric methods. The structure of facies of gallbladder bile under conditions of absence of diseases of the hepatopancreaticoduodenal zone was shown. The facies have a wide convex peripheral zone (a cushion) without any well-defined border. The central part of the facies is amorphous or fine-grained, sometimes with occasional inclusions of larger crystals. Markers of exacerbation of chronic cholecystitis (dendrites in the central zone of bile facies) as well as signs of the presence of a malignant neoplasm touching the bile (large diamond-shaped crystals in the central zone of bile facies where dendrites begin) were discovered. PMID:14556555

  4. How Specific Is the Connection between Morphological Awareness and Spelling? A Study of French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, S.; Deacon, S. H.; Pacton, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between morphological awareness and spelling. We show that French children in Grades 3 and 4 appear to use morphological information in spelling; spelling of sounds for which there are several alternatives was more accurate in derived than in nonderived words. The link between morphological awareness and…

  5. Morphological and microstructural studies on aluminizing coating of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Samsu, Zaifol; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Daud, Abd Razak; Hussein, Hishammuddin

    2013-11-27

    Hot dip aluminizing is one of the most effective methods of surface protection for steels and is gradually gaining popularity. The morphology and microstructure of an inter-metallic layer form on the surface of low carbon steel by hot dip aluminization treatment had been studied in detail. This effect has been investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The result shows that the reaction between the steel and the molten aluminium leads to the formation of Fe–Al inter-metallic compounds on the steel surface. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic studies showed that a two layer coating was formed consisting of an external Al layer and a (Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}) inter metallic on top of the substrate after hot dip aluminizing process. The inter-metallic layer is ‘thick’ and exhibits a finger-like growth into the steel. Microhardness testing shown that the intermetallic layer has high hardness followed by steel substrate and the lowest hardness was Al layer.

  6. Morphological Study of Palatal Rugae in a Sudanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Hamid, Awrad

    2015-01-01

    Palatal rugae patterns have unique characteristics and have been proposed as an alternative method to establish identity when other means, such as fingerprints and dental records, are not attainable. This study was conducted to determine the morphological characteristics of palatine rugae and to assess the existence of side asymmetry in them in Sudanese Arabs. It also assesses the possibility of determining sex using logistic regression. One hundred dental casts for 50 males and 50 females aged between 18 and 23 were studied for palatal rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, as well as sexual dimorphism and side symmetry. The most predominant rugae were primary, and the most prevalent shapes in both sexes were wavy, curved, and straight forms. The predominant orientation was forward. Side asymmetry existed more in the orientations than in the shapes, but no side asymmetry was recorded in the dimensions. There was no significant sexual dimorphism in the rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, except for forward-directed rugae (P < 0.037). A predictive value of 60% was obtained in assigning sex using dimensions and orientations and of 58% using shapes alone. Therefore, the palatal rugae are not recommended for assigning sex effectively among Sudanese Arabs unless it is the only means available. PMID:25737723

  7. Morphological study of palatal rugae in a Sudanese population.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Hamid, Awrad

    2015-01-01

    Palatal rugae patterns have unique characteristics and have been proposed as an alternative method to establish identity when other means, such as fingerprints and dental records, are not attainable. This study was conducted to determine the morphological characteristics of palatine rugae and to assess the existence of side asymmetry in them in Sudanese Arabs. It also assesses the possibility of determining sex using logistic regression. One hundred dental casts for 50 males and 50 females aged between 18 and 23 were studied for palatal rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, as well as sexual dimorphism and side symmetry. The most predominant rugae were primary, and the most prevalent shapes in both sexes were wavy, curved, and straight forms. The predominant orientation was forward. Side asymmetry existed more in the orientations than in the shapes, but no side asymmetry was recorded in the dimensions. There was no significant sexual dimorphism in the rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, except for forward-directed rugae (P < 0.037). A predictive value of 60% was obtained in assigning sex using dimensions and orientations and of 58% using shapes alone. Therefore, the palatal rugae are not recommended for assigning sex effectively among Sudanese Arabs unless it is the only means available. PMID:25737723

  8. Synthesis of calcium carbonate using extract components of croaker gill as morphology and polymorph adjust control agent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Qing, Chengsong; Zheng, Jiaoling; Liu, Yuxi; Wu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with various polymorphs, sizes and morphologies by using organic substrates has become an interesting topic for the last years. Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the presence of extract components of croaker gill. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and particle morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that at lower concentration yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph. Calcite was obtained only. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. The corners of the particle change from angular to curved. However, with the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth. PMID:27040242

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study on Blebs Morphology of Ahmed Valves

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Joana; Fernandes, Fernando; Patricio, Madalena; Brás, Ana; Rios, Cristina; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the morphometric parameters of filtration blebs of a valved aqueous humor drainage device. Materials and methods: Orbital magnetic resonances imaging (MRI) was taken after implantation of an Ahmed valve (FP7 model). Outcomes of the analysis were intraocular pressure (IOP) and the bleb’s morphometric analysis (volume, height, major and minor axis). Associations between IOP and the imaging-related study variables were explored by Spearman’s correlation test. Results: Eleven patients underwent orbital MRI examination. Recordings were taken after a mean of 2.7 months (1-6 months) after surgery. IOP was significantly lower than its preoperative values (17.6 ± 6.4 mm Hg vs 36.1 ± 6.4 mm Hg, p < 0.01). Mean bleb volume was 856.9 ± 261 mm3 and its height, major and minor axis were 5.77 ± 1.9, 14.8 ± 2.9 and 8.14 ± 3.6 mm, respectively. A positive correlation was detected between IOP and mean height (r = 0.77, p = 0.048) and major axis (r = 0.83, p = 0.03). Interestingly, the overall bleb volume was related to IOP levels immediately prior to surgery (r = 0.75, p < 0.01). Additionally, the posterior part of the plate was found to be displaced from the scleral surface in five cases (45%). Conclusion: Ahmed valve’s bleb morphology seems to correlate with both the pre- and postoperative IOP, which might suggest a clinical benefit of administering aqueous suppressants pre- as well as postoperatively. The plate of the device may show a significant dislocation from its initial surgical implantation site. How to cite this article: Ferreira J, Fernandes F, Patricio M, Brás A, Rios C, Stalmans I, Pinto LA. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study on Blebs Morphology of Ahmed Valves. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):1-5. PMID:26997824

  10. Use of human tissue explants to study human infectious agents

    PubMed Central

    Grivel, Jean-Charles; Margolis, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    The study of human cell–cell and cell–pathogen interactions that occur in the context of complex tissue cytoarchitecture is critical for deciphering the mechanisms of many normal and pathogenic processes. This protocol describes methods for culturing and infecting explants of human tissues to study the pathogenesis of human infectious agents and their local interactions. The protocol relies on the use of fresh human tissues dissected into small blocks or biopsies that are cultured at the liquid–air interface on collagen rafts. These tissue blocks retain their cytoarchitecture and support productive infection of various pathogens without exogenous stimulation. Experimental details for setting up cultures of human tonsils, lymph nodes and cervicovaginal and rectosigmoid tissues, including protocols for their infection with HIV-1 and other pathogens, are described here. Using this protocol, culture and infections can be set up in 3–6 h and be maintained for 2–3 weeks, depending on the tissue used. PMID:19197269

  11. CN MORPHOLOGY STUDIES OF COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.

    2011-06-15

    We report on narrowband CN imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory on 39 nights from 2010 July until 2011 January. We observed two features, one generally to the north and the other generally to the south. The CN morphology varied during the apparition: no morphology was seen in July; in August and September, the northern feature dominated and appeared as a mostly face-on spiral; in October, November, and December, the northern and southern features were roughly equal in brightness and looked like more side-on corkscrews; in January, the southern feature was dominant but the morphology was indistinct due to very low signal. The morphology changed smoothly during each night and similar morphology was seen from night to night. However, the morphology did not exactly repeat each rotation cycle, suggesting that there is a small non-principal axis rotation. Based on the repetition of the morphology, we find evidence that the fundamental rotation period was increasing: 16.7 hr from August 13 to 17, 17.2 hr from September 10 to 13, 18.2 hr from October 12 to 19, and 18.7 hr from October 31 to November 7. We conducted Monte Carlo jet modeling to constrain the pole orientation and locations of the active regions based on the observed morphology. Our preliminary, self-consistent pole solution has an obliquity of 10{sup 0} relative to the comet's orbital plane (i.e., it is centered near R.A. = 257{sup 0} and decl. = +67{sup 0} with an uncertainty around this position of about 15{sup 0}) and has two mid-latitude sources, one in each hemisphere.

  12. Morphological Study of Directionally Freeze-Cast Nickel Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hyungyung; Kim, Min Jeong; Choi, Hyelim; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choe, Heeman; Dunand, David C.

    2016-03-01

    Nickel foams, consisting of 51 to 62 pct aligned, elongated pores surrounded by a network of Ni walls, were fabricated by reduction and sintering of directionally cast suspensions of nanometric NiO powders in water. Use of dispersant in the slurry considerably affected the foam morphology and microstructure at both the micro- and macro-scale, most likely by modifying ice solidification into dendrites (creating the aligned, elongated macro-pores) and NiO powder accumulation in the inter-dendritic space (creating the Ni walls with micro-pores). The mean width of the Ni walls, in foams solidified with and without dispersant, was 21 ± 5 and 75 ± 13 µm, respectively. Additionally, the foams with the dispersant showed less dense walls and rougher surfaces than those without the dispersant. Moreover, the fraction of closed pores present in the foam walls with the dispersant was higher than that of the samples without dispersant. We finally verified the potential energy application of the Ni foam produced in this study by carrying out a preliminary single-cell performance test with the Ni foam sample as the gas diffusion layer on the anode side of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

  13. Morphological Study of the Newly Designed Cementless Femoral Stem

    PubMed Central

    Baharuddin, Mohd Yusof; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam; Mohd Noor, Alias

    2014-01-01

    A morphology study was essential to the development of the cementless femoral stem because accurate dimensions for both the periosteal and endosteal canal ensure primary fixation stability for the stem, bone interface, and prevent stress shielding at the calcar region. This paper focused on a three-dimensional femoral model for Asian patients that applied preoperative planning and femoral stem design. We measured various femoral parameters such as the femoral head offset, collodiaphyseal angle, bowing angle, anteversion, and medullary canal diameters from the osteotomy level to 150 mm below the osteotomy level to determine the position of the isthmus. Other indices and ratios for the endosteal canal, metaphyseal, and flares were computed and examined. The results showed that Asian femurs are smaller than Western femurs, except in the metaphyseal region. The canal flare index (CFI) was poorly correlated (r < 0.50) to the metaphyseal canal flare index (MCFI), but correlated well (r = 0.66) with the corticomedullary index (CMI). The diversity of the femoral size, particularly in the metaphyseal region, allows for proper femoral stem design for Asian patients, improves osseointegration, and prolongs the life of the implant. PMID:25025068

  14. Morphological and Spectral Study of the Galaxy Kaz 73

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Movsessian, T. A.

    2005-04-01

    Morphological and spectral studies of the nucleus and immediately surrounding regions of the galaxy Kaz 73 are reported. The observations were made on the 2.6 m telescope at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory in combination with the multi-pupil VAGR spectrograph. Isophotes are constructed for monochromatic images in the Hα, [NII]λ 6584, and [SII]λ6731 lines. It is shown that the surface brightness of the nucleus in monochromatic images of these lines increases rapidly from the edge to the center, with an increase of 5m for the Hα line. The nucleus of Kaz 73 is found to rotate clockwise about its axis, which is perpendicular to the direction of the arms of the galaxy. The extent of the nucleus in the direction of the arms is found to be a consequence of its rotation; that is, the nucleus is flattened in the direction of the poles. Overall, the nucleus of Kaz 73 has all the kinematic features of an entire galaxy. The masses of the nucleus and its gaseous component are determined to be 6.5ṡ108 M• and 1.9ṡ104 M•, respectively.

  15. Studying Cryogenic Fracturing Process and Fracture Morphology using Transparent Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, M.; Yin, X.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Wu, Y. S.; Alqahtani, N.; Patterson, T.; Yao, B.; Miskimins, J.

    2014-12-01

    Cryogenic fracturing exploits thermal gradient and resulting local tensile stress to initiate fractures / cracks on a surface exposed to cryogenic fluids. This study investigates the development and morphology of cracks generated from cryogenic thermal shock in a borehole geometry. The study evaluates cryogenic thermal shock under no external confining stress to specimens. To better understand this process in a geometry relevant to applications, a borehole was drilled through transparent acrylic specimens representing a wellbore. This borehole was partially cased with stainless steel tubing set by a high yield epoxy. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the wellbore through a stainless steel tube. The pressure was low (< 10 psia) and the fractures were initiated by the thermal shock; these initiated fractures allowed further penetration of the cryogen, which helped to propagate fractures throughout the specimen. A major advantage of performing this experiment in a transparent cryogenic specimen is the ability to observe fracture proliferation through time. It is observed that fracture growth was characterized by abrupt starts and stops, which suggest that the tensile stress generated inside the borehole must reach a certain threshold for fracture initiation and growth. Two distinctive patterns in crack development were observed: one is horizontal-planar-radial pattern created by longitudinal thermal contraction, and another is vertical cracks by circumferential contraction. The horizontal cracks appeared to be spaced by a certain length, known as the exclusion distance, which exists because a set of cracks cannot be created closer than a certain length due to limited amount of thermal contraction. The vertical tension cracks tend to initiate between the horizontal radial cracks and bridge them, as it may be energy-efficient to start from and propagate to existing defects.

  16. Bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells: a morphologic study.

    PubMed

    Marrie, T J; Lam, J; Costerton, J W

    1980-08-01

    Urethral and midstream urine samples from healthy women and from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) were examined by electron microscopy. Urethral urine samples from healthy subjects contained sparsely and densely colonized uroepithelial cells. The latter had morphologically heterogeneous bacteria adherent to each other and to the epithelial cell by a ruthenium red-positive fibrous matrix, which was present on the surface of all bacteria examined. Urethral urine samples from patients with UTI often had two distinct microcolonies of morphologically similar bacteria adherent to the same uroepithelial cell. Midstream urine samples from these patients contained large microcolonies of morphologically identical bacteria. Urine from patients with catheter-associated infections contained few uroepithelial cells and two distinct varieties of bacterial microcolonies--one of intact homogeneous cells and another of a mixture of damaged and intact bacteria. These in vivo observations indicate that the bacterial surface matrix participates in bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells and in bacteria-bacteria adhesion. PMID:6774033

  17. Structure-activity studies on organoselenium alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Kang, S I; Spears, C P

    1990-01-01

    A variety of organoselenium alkylating agents were synthesized, using 2-hydroxyethyl and 3-hydroxypropyl selenocyanate intermediates, and studied to determine their chemical reactivities with 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP) and cytotoxicities against CCRF-CEM, L1210/0, and L1210/L-PAM cells. The comparison between the 2-chloroethyl sulfides and selenides 1-4 revealed the markedly enhanced nucleophilicity of selenium (Se) over sulfur (S) by two or more orders of magnitude. This finding indicates that a major consideration in the design of antitumor alkylating organoselenides is the reactivity of selenium. A Taft plot of the experimental first-order rate constant, knbp, and sigma* in a series of 2-chloroethylseleno compounds gave a slope of -1.73 (rho*), with the exception of 2-chloroethyl 2-nitrophenyl selenide (10). The anomalous behavior of 10 is explained in terms of the ortho-nitro stabilization effect directly interacting with the selenium atom of ethyleneselenonium ion to form a 5-membered cyclic intermediate. In the same series, a 5000-fold difference in alkylating reactivity offered only a sixfold variation in cytotoxicity against CCRF-CEM cells. Increasing the alkylating chain length from ethlene to propylene units markedly reduced alkylating reactivities. In the CH3Se(CH2)n Cl series, 16 (n = 3) was 1.5 X 10(5) times slower than 2 (n = 2) in NBP alkylation, revealing that 3-chloro-n-propyl selenides are not chemically reactive enough to be biological alkylating agents despite the presence of the highly nucleophilic selenium atom. Replacement of chloride with mesylate in 3-substituted propyl selenides, such as 17 and 20, restored desirable reactivities and cytotoxicities. PMID:2313578

  18. THE SUPERFICIAL BRANCH OF THE RADIAL NERVE: A MORPHOLOGIC STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Folberg, Celso Ricardo; Ulson, Heitor; Scheidt, Rodrigo Benedet

    2015-01-01

    Study the morphology of the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) of the forearms and wrists of fresh adult human cadavers. Methods: Twenty three dissections were performed under 3.5x loupe magnification, histological sections of the nerve were obtained in 20 dissections for fascicle identification. Results: The SBRN emerged, in average, at 8.65cm proximal to the radial styloid apophysis (RSA) between the Brachioradialis (BR) and Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus (ECRL) tendons. In 6/23 cases the SBRN emerged between an accessory BR tendon and the main BR tendon. The first branch of the SBRN arose at an average of 4.58 cm proximal to the RSA. A branch running across the RSA was found in 7/23 cases. At that level, the average number of branches crossing the wrist was 3.4. A fascicle count of the nerve and its first branch showed an average of 6.6 and 4.0 fascicles, respectively. Conclusion: Our anatomical findings are similar to those in the revised literature and contribute towards a better knowledge of the SBRN. Great caution is required in surgical procedures such as percutaneous bone fixation of the distal 1/3 of the forearm and wrist and particularly, in those susceptible to SBRN injury, as in seven of the 23 cases the SRBN ran directly accross the RSA. The authors recommend performing small longitudinal incisions down to the subcutaneous tissue, separating the nerve branches by blunt soft tissue dissection, with a delicate haemostat, before introducing the Kirschner wires (minimally invasive procedures). PMID:26998456

  19. Collagenous gastritis: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 patients.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-04-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection. PMID

  20. [Experiments using rats on Kosmos biosatellites: morphologic and biochemical studies].

    PubMed

    Il'in, E A; Kaplanskiĭ, A S; Savina, E A

    1989-01-01

    Results of morphological and biochemical investigations of rats flown on Cosmos biosatellites are discussed. It is emphasized that most changes occurring during exposure to microgravity are directly or indirectly related to lower musculoskeletal loads which in turn produce deconditioning of different physiological systems and organism as a whole. It is concluded that this deconditioning is associated with both metabolic and structural changes. PMID:2685464

  1. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

  2. Study of suspending agents for gadolinium(III)-exchanged hectorite. An oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent

    SciTech Connect

    Balkus, K.J. Jr.; Shi, J.

    1996-12-25

    Clays modified with paramagnetic ions have been shown to be effective magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. The efficacy in part relies on the suspension of the small clay particles in aqueous solution. In this study a series of macromolecules were eveluated as suspending agents for Gd(III) ion exchanged hectorite clay in water. The room temperature relaxivities for the Gd-hectorite clays were enhanced by the addition of poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene glycol), cyclodextrins, and cholic acid to aqueous suspensions. Additionally, there was no evidence of free Gd(III) in solution in the presence of these suspending agents. In contrast the combination of alginic acid or poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) with the clays resulted in release of the Gd(III) into solution. Xanthan gum, which is often used as an emulsifier and stabilizer in food products, forms a viscous suspension but also reacts with free Gd(III) ions. 25 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The Study on Collaborative Manufacturing Platform Based on Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-yan; Qu, Zheng-geng

    To fulfill the trends of knowledge-intensive in collaborative manufacturing development, we have described multi agent architecture supporting knowledge-based platform of collaborative manufacturing development platform. In virtue of wrapper service and communication capacity agents provided, the proposed architecture facilitates organization and collaboration of multi-disciplinary individuals and tools. By effectively supporting the formal representation, capture, retrieval and reuse of manufacturing knowledge, the generalized knowledge repository based on ontology library enable engineers to meaningfully exchange information and pass knowledge across boundaries. Intelligent agent technology increases traditional KBE systems efficiency and interoperability and provides comprehensive design environments for engineers.

  4. Abrasive blasting agents: designing studies to evaluate relative risk.

    PubMed

    Hubbs, Ann; Greskevitch, Mark; Kuempel, Eileen; Suarez, Fernando; Toraason, Mark

    Workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica used in abrasive blasting are at increased risk of developing a debilitating and often fatal fibrotic lung disease called silicosis. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that silica sand be prohibited as abrasive blasting material and that less hazardous materials be used in blasting operations. However, data are needed on the relative risks associated with exposure to abrasive blasting materials other than silica. NIOSH has completed acute studies in rats (Hubbs et al., 2001; Porter et al., 2002). To provide dose-response data applicable to making recommendation for occupational exposure limits, NIOSH has collaborated with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to design longer term studies with silica substitutes. For risk assessment purposes, selected doses will include concentrations that are relevant to human exposures. Rat lung burdens achieved should be comparable to those estimated in humans with working lifetime exposures, even if this results in "overloading" doses in rats. To quantify both dose and response, retained particle burdens in the lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes will be measured, as well as biochemical and pathological indices of pulmonary response. This design will facilitate assessment of the pulmonary fibrogenic potential of inhaled abrasive blasting agents at occupationally relevant concentrations. PMID:16020188

  5. Molecular, proteomic and morphological characterization of the ascomycete Guignardia bidwellii, agent of grape black rot: a polyphasic approach to fungal identification.

    PubMed

    Wicht, Barbara; Petrini, Orlando; Jermini, Mauro; Gessler, Cesare; Broggini, Giovanni Antonio Lodovico

    2012-01-01

    Guignardia bidwellii is the etiological agent of grape black rot, a disease affecting Vitis and other Vitaceae that can cause heavy crop losses in vineyards. Its identification is based mainly on morphological characters and the symptoms on plants but, due to their variability, they may be difficult to interpret to reliably distinguish the pathogen to species. To date, despite the economic importance of G. bidwellii, no molecular investigations have been carried out on Vitis isolates and few sequence data are available for cultures derived from ornamental host plants. We analyzed samples of G. bidwellii collected from grapevine cultivars and ornamental plants of various geographic origins by morphological, molecular and proteomic techniques, including ITS1-ITS2 regions and calmodulin gene sequencing, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This polyphasic approach allowed assessing the phylogenetic relationships among the different isolates and suggested the existence of two distinct species. The advantages of a polyphasic approach for the identification of G. bidwellii are highlighted. PMID:22492405

  6. Formation and Morphology of Zn2Ti3O8 Powders Using Hydrothermal Process without Dispersant Agent or Mineralizer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Li; Hwang, Weng-Sing; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Ko, Horng-Huey; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Huang, Hong-Hsin; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of Zn2Ti3O8 powders for attenuating UVA using TiCl4, Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and NH4OH as precursor materials by hydrothermal process has been investigated. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) results show the phases of ZnO, anatase TiO2 and Zn2Ti3O8 coexisted when the zinc titanate powders were calcined at 600 °C for 1 h. When calcined at 900 °C for 1 h, the XRD results reveal the existence of ZnO, Zn2TiO4, rutile TiO2 and ZnTiO3. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations show extensive large agglomeration in the samples. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electron diffraction (ED) examination results indicate that ZnTiO3 crystallites formed with a size of about 5 nm on the matrix of plate-like ZnO when calcined at 700 °C for 1 h. The calcination samples have acceptable absorbance at a wavelength of 400 nm, indicating that the zinc titanate precursor powders calcined at 700 °C for 1 h can be used as an UVA-attenuating agent. PMID:21541035

  7. Hydrogen Generation Rate Scoping Study of DOW Corning Antifoam Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Charles

    2005-09-27

    The antifoam agent DOW Corning Q2-3183A will be added to waste streams in the Hanford River Protection Program-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) to prevent foaming. It consists mostly of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polypropylene glycol (PPG). These and other minor constituents of the antifoam have organic constituents that may participate in radiolytic and chemical reactions that produce hydrogen in Hanford waste. It has been recommended by The WTP R&T Department recommended personnel to treat the organic compounds of the antifoam like the in a similar manner as other organic compounds that are native to the Hanford waste with respect to hydrogen production. This testing has investigated the radiolytic and thermal production of hydrogen from antifoam added to simulant waste solutions to determine if the organic components of the antifoam produce hydrogen in the same manner as the native organic species in Hanford waste. Antifoam additions for this testing were in the range of 4 to 10 wt% to ensure adequate hydrogen detection. Test conditions were selected to bound exposures to the antifoam agent in the WTP. These levels are higher than previously recommended values of 350 mg/L for actual applications in WTP tanks containing air spargers and pulse jet mixers. Limited degradation analyses for the organic components of the antifoam were investigated in this study. A more detailed study involving analyses of antifoam degradation and product formation is in progress at SRNL and results from that study will be reported at a later time. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the Q2-3183A antifoam was measured to be 39.7 {+-} 4.9 wt% TOC. This measurement was performed in triplicate with on three different dilutions of the pure antifoam liquid using a TOC combustion analyzer instrument with catalytic oxidation, followed by CO{sub 2} quantification using an infrared detector. Test results from this study indicate that the WTP HGR correlation

  8. Nonplanar property study of antifungal agent tolnaftate-spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arul Dhas, D.; Hubert Joe, I.; Roy, S. D. D.; Balachandran, S.

    2011-09-01

    Vibrational analysis of the thionocarbamate fungicide tolnaftate which is antidermatophytic, antitrichophytic and antimycotic agent, primarily inhibits the ergosterol biosynthesis in the fungus, was carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features, harmonic vibrational wavenumbers and torsional potential energy surface (PES) scan studies have been computed using density functional theory method. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of VEDA.4 program. Vibrational spectra, natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis and optimized molecular structure show the clear evidence for electronic interaction of thionocarbamate group with aromatic ring. Predicted electronic absorption spectrum from TD-DFT calculation has been compared with the UV-vis spectrum. The Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges and the HOMO-LUMO energy were also calculated. Vibrational analysis reveals that the simultaneous IR and Raman activation of the C-C stretching mode in the phenyl and naphthalene ring provide evidence for the charge transfer interaction between the donor and acceptor groups and is responsible for its bioactivity as a fungicide.

  9. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  10. Copper-oxide metalorganic nanocomposite: morphological and X-ray spectroscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalovega, G.; Funik, A.; Myasoedova, T.; Brzhezinskaya, M.

    2016-05-01

    Oxidation state, local and electronic structure as well as the surface morphology of a CuOx nanocomposites were investigated. The research is focused on studying the relationships between surface morphology and structure of the inorganic component of the nanocomposites. The physico-chemical mechanisms of change in local and electronic structure, oxidation state and the surface morphology of nanocomposites in the interaction of metal oxide nanoparticles with different types of matrices were determined.

  11. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g-1). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM-1 s-1 and 185.58 mM-1 s-1 respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed.Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high

  12. Spectroscopic and morphological study of laser ablated Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, Muahmamd Shahid; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Saman; Dawood, Asadullah; Arooj

    2016-07-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and surface morphology of Titanium (Ti) plasma as a function of laser irradiance have been investigated under ambient environment of argon at fixed pressure of 50 Torr. Ablation was performed by employing Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses (λ ≈ 1064 nm, τ ≈ 10 ns, repetition rate ≈ 10 Hz). Ti targets were exposed to various laser intensities ranging from 6 to 50 GW/cm2. LIBS analysis has been employed for the investigation of plasma parameters. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis was employed for investigation of surface morphology. Ablation depth was measured by optical microscopy technique. It was observed that both plasma parameters, i.e., excitation temperature and electron density have been significantly influenced by laser irradiance. It is observed that with increasing laser irradiance up to 13 GW/cm2, the electron temperature decreases whereas number density significantly increases and attains its maxima. Afterwards by increasing irradiance electron temperature increases, attains its maxima and a decrease in electron number density is observed at irradiance of 19 GW/cm2. Further increase in irradiance causes saturation with insignificant changes in both electron temperature and electron number density. This saturation in both excitation temperature and electron number density is explainable on the basis of self-sustaining regime. SEM micrographs reveal the ripple and coneformation at the boundaries of ablated region of Ti. The height of cones as well as the ablation depth is maximum at irradiance of 13 GW/cm2 whereas electron number density is also maximum. The maximum electron number density is considered to be responsible for maximum ablation as well as mass removal. A strong correlation between plasma parameters and surface morphology is established.

  13. Pharmacogenetic Study of Deferasirox, an Iron Chelating Agent

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Won; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Mi Kyung; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Lee, Sang Seop; Kim, Hyery; Park, June Dong; Park, Kyung Duk; Shin, Hee Young; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion-associated iron overload induces systemic toxicity. Deferasirox, a convenient long acting oral agent, has recently been introduced in clinical practice with a promising efficacy. But there are some patients who experience drug-related toxicities and cannot tolerate it. To investigate effect of genetic variations on the toxicities and find optimal target population, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) subfamily, multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). A total of 20 functional genetic polymorphisms were analyzed in 98 patients who received deferasirox to reduce transfusion-induced iron overload. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records to find out the drug-related toxicities. Fifteen (15.3%) patients developed hepatotoxicity. Patients without wild-type allele carrying two MRP2 haplotypes containing −1774 del and/or −24T were at increased risk of developing hepatotoxicity compared to patients with the wild-type allele on multivariate analysis (OR = 7.17, 95% CI = 1.79–28.67, P = 0.005). Creatinine elevation was observed in 9 patients (9.2%). Body weight ≥40 kg and homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 were risk factors of creatinine elevation (OR = 8.48, 95% CI = 1.7–43.57, P = 0.010 and OR = 14.17, 95% CI = 1.34–150.35, P = 0.028). Our results indicate that functional genetic variants of enzymes to metabolize and transport deferasirox are associated with drug-related toxicities. Further studies are warranted to confirm the results as the pharmacogenetic biomarkers of deferasirox. PMID:23737969

  14. Experimental evaluation of a hyperspectral imager for near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthman, A. S.; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2015-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems have the potential to combine morphological and spectral information to provide detailed and high sensitivity readouts in biological and medical applications. As HSI enables simultaneous detection in several spectral bands, the technology has significant potential for use in real-time multiplexed contrast agent studies. Examples include tumor detection in intraoperative and endoscopic imaging as well as histopathology. A multiplexed readout from multiple disease targets, such as cell surface receptors overexpressed in cancer cells, could improve both sensitivity and specificity of tumor identification. Here, we evaluate a commercial, compact, near-infrared HSI sensor that has the potential to enable low cost, video rate HSI for multiplexed fluorescent contrast agent studies in biomedical applications. The hyperspectral imager, based on a monolithically integrated Fabry-Perot etalon, has 70 spectral bands between 600-900 nm, making it ideal for this application. Initial calibration of the imager was performed to determine wavelength band response, quantum efficiency and the effect of F-number on the spectral response. A platform for wide-field fluorescence imaging in reflectance using fluorophore specific LED excitation was then developed. The applicability of the imaging platform for simultaneous readout of multiple fluorophore signals was demonstrated using a dilution series of Alexa Fluor 594 and Alexa Fluor 647, showing that nanomolar fluorophore concentrations can be detected. Our results show that the HSI system can clearly resolve the emission spectra of the two fluorophores in mixtures of concentrations across several orders of magnitude, indicating a high dynamic range performance. We therefore conclude that the HSI sensor tested here is suitable for detecting fluorescence in biomedical imaging applications.

  15. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological…

  16. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  17. Inflectional Morphology in Cri du Chat Syndrome--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2012-01-01

    This study examined morphological skills in a girl with cri du chat syndrome, addressing three questions: (1) To what extent does the subject inflect words? (2) To what extent are words inflected correctly? (3) To what extent do the inflected words reflect productive morphological rules, and to what extent can they be considered to be…

  18. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  19. A morphologic study of unexplained hepatitis following halothane anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Wills, E. J.; Walton, B.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of postoperative jaundice throughout the United Kingdom allowed the detailed analysis of 76 patients with unexplained hepatitis following halothane anesthesia ("halothane hepatitis"). In 16 patients liver biopsy specimens were examined by light and/or electron microscopy to determine whether the liver morphology could aid the differentiation between "halothane" and "acute viral" hepatitis. The mitochondrial changes often claimed to be characteristic of holothane hepatitis were unremarkable in our patients. Since lipid vacuolation and a predominantly centrilobular distribution of necrosis are not classically described in fatal viral hepatitis, the presence of these features in some of our fatal cases was of some diagnostic interest. In general, however, the results of light and electron microscopy in patients with unexplained postoperative hepatitis is considered to have little differential diagnositc value. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:645815

  20. X-ray morphological study of galaxy cluster catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Democles, Jessica; Pierre, Marguerite; Arnaud, Monique

    2016-07-01

    Context : The intra-cluster medium distribution as probed by X-ray morphology based analysis gives good indication of the system dynamical state. In the race for the determination of precise scaling relations and understanding their scatter, the dynamical state offers valuable information. Method : We develop the analysis of the centroid-shift so that it can be applied to characterize galaxy cluster surveys such as the XXL survey or high redshift cluster samples. We use it together with the surface brightness concentration parameter and the offset between X-ray peak and brightest cluster galaxy in the context of the XXL bright cluster sample (Pacaud et al 2015) and a set of high redshift massive clusters detected by Planck and SPT and observed by both XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories. Results : Using the wide redshift coverage of the XXL sample, we see no trend between the dynamical state of the systems with the redshift.

  1. The Crater Chains of Vesta - a Morphological Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carsenty, Uri; Denevi, B. W.; Wagner, R. J.; Schenk, P.; Hviid, S. F.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russel, C. T.

    2012-10-01

    The Dawn spacecraft spent 141 days in the Low Mapping Orbit (LAMO) around Vesta obtaining 10251 images with an average resolution of 20m per pixel. The surface of Vesta displays a diverse geological structure - numerous impact craters, extensive ejecta blankets, giant troughs around the equator, impact basins, and regions with enigmatic dark as well as bright material (1). The LAMO imaging data set has been used to search, over the entire illuminated surface, for crater chains, which are groups of depressions (round or elongated) in mostly linear alignments - resembling a chain of pearls. More than 300 features were identified as crater chains most of which have an East - West orientation. Based on morphology the observed crater chains were divided into 5 subgroups. 1) Single crater chain (A) - a linear alignment of craters associated with other types of linear features (e.g. grooves, faults, troughs, ridges, or trenches). 2) Single crater chain (NA) - a linear alignment of craters not associated with other types of linear features. 3) Crater chain families - segments of short crater chains aligned parallel to each other. Some are associated with lineaments and some are not. 4) Swarm - a wide “band” of craters stretching in the East - West direction. 5) Special cases which do not fit in the other groups or are mixtures of the other types. The global distribution of crater chains and crater counts will be used to analyze the various morphological groups. Hypotheses for the formation mechanisms of the different groups will be explored. (1) Jaumann, et al, 2012 - Science 336,687-690

  2. (D, L) polylactide microspheres as embolic agent. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Flandroy, P; Grandfils, C; Collignon, J; Thibaut, A; Nihant, N; Barbette, S; Jerome, R; Teyssie, P

    1990-01-01

    Owing to their shape, accurately calibrated microspheres appear to be very suitable material for distal embolization. Moreover, the biocompatible (D, L) polyactide (PLA) microspheres possess two other valuable advantages: easy adjustment of their biodegradation rate, and incorporation of chemotherapeutic agents during their production. The authors describe the preparation of these (D, L) PLA microspheres and their clinical applications as a preliminary step to arterial chemoembolization. PMID:2234391

  3. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2016-02-14

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g(-1)). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM(-1) s(-1) and 185.58 mM(-1) s(-1) respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed. PMID:26460932

  4. Atypical Renal Cysts: A Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Study.

    PubMed

    Matoso, Andres; Chen, Ying-Bei; Rao, Vishal; Wang, Lu; Cheng, Liang; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-02-01

    There is a lack of standardized nomenclature for renal cysts lined by multiple cell layers or with short papillary projections but without nests of epithelial cells within the stroma. We retrieved 29 cases (15 nephrectomies, 14 partial nephrectomies) from the surgical pathology files of Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1993 to 2014 and performed immunohistochemistry for CK7, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), CAIX, and CD10 and fluorescence in situ hybridization for trisomy 7 and 17 and 3p deletion. The mean age at excision was 58 years (range, 29 to 80 y) with 16 men and 13 women. Mean size was 2.9 cm (range, 0.3 to 10 cm). The cysts were grouped by their morphology into (1) clear cell, (2) eosinophilic stratified, and (3) eosinophilic papillary. By immunohistochemistry, 7/9 (78%) of the clear cell cases were diffusely positive for both CK7 and CAIX resembling the pattern seen in clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma. The majority of eosinophilic stratified (4/6; 67%) and eosinophilic papillary (12/14; 86%) cases were positive for CK7 and had variable staining for AMACR, CD10, or CAIX, suggesting a differentiation more aligned with papillary renal cell carcinoma. The most common molecular alterations detected were trisomy 17 (n=6) and trisomy 7 (n=4). One case showed deletion of chromosome 3p. Clinical follow-up information was available in 23 patients; 20 were alive with no evidence of disease after a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 3 to 120 mo), 1 patient was dead due to metastatic lung cancer, 1 of sepsis, and 1 of unknown reason. Atypical renal cysts present as complex radiologic lesions, as secondary lesions in patients with a renal mass, or in a background of chronic renal disease. These atypical cysts appear heterogenous, and some follow in their morphology and immunoprofile with well-established renal tumors. The presence of 3p deletion and trisomy 7/17 suggests that in some cases they may be precursors of renal cell carcinoma. Longer follow

  5. Middle Eastern intestinal lymphoma: a morphological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacson, P; Al-Dewachi, H S; Mason, D Y

    1983-01-01

    A total of 31 cases of Middle Eastern gastrointestinal lymphoma (from Mosul, Iraq) has been analysed by conventional histology, and also by immunoperoxidase staining of trypsinised paraffin sections with anti-Ig and anti-J chain antisera. Histologically these neoplasms fell into three categories: undifferentiated lymphoma of Burkitt type (8 cases); follicle centre cell (FCC) lymphoma, resembling European lymphomas of FCC origin (15 cases); and Mediterranean lymphoma (MTL) (3 cases). Immunohistological staining of the FCC neoplasms showed that these tumours resembled their European counterpart in that cytoplasmic Ig and J chain could be demonstrated in a proportion of cases. However there was a striking difference in that alpha chain alone, light chain alone, or J chain alone were detected in several cases (in contrast to the predominance of mu plus kappa or lambda light chains found in European cases). Furthermore, prominent intracellular inclusions of alpha chains were found in two cases. Staining of the MTL cases revealed that the characteristic mucosal plasma cell infiltrate was positive for alpha chain (weakly) and J chain (strongly) but that the invasive cells which morphologically resembled FCCs were negative for both constituents. It is argued that these three histological categories constitute the major types of gastrointestinal lymphoma in the Middle East; and that in MTL the invasive lymphoma is of FCC type. Images PMID:6404945

  6. Developmental and morphological studies in Japanese medaka with ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gladys, Fanny Moses; Matsuda, Masaru; Lim, Yiheng; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Imai, Takuto; Otani, Yukitoshi; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Cense, Barry

    2015-01-01

    We propose ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography to study the morphological development of internal organs in medaka fish in the post-embryonic stages at micrometer resolution. Different stages of Japanese medaka were imaged after hatching in vivo with an axial resolution of 2.8 µm in tissue. Various morphological structures and organs identified in the OCT images were then compared with the histology. Due to the medaka’s close resemblance to vertebrates, including humans, these morphological features play an important role in morphogenesis and can be used to study diseases that also occur in humans. PMID:25780725

  7. Crater morphology in sandstone targets: The MEMIN impact parameter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufresne, Anja; Poelchau, Michael H.; Kenkmann, Thomas; Deutsch, Alex; Hoerth, Tobias; SchńFer, Frank; Thoma, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Hypervelocity (2.5-7.8 km s-1) impact experiments into sandstone were carried out to investigate the influence of projectile velocity and mass, target pore space saturation, target-projectile density contrast, and target layer orientation on crater size and shape. Crater size increases with increasing projectile velocity and mass as well as with increasing target pore space saturation. Craters in water-saturated porous targets are generally shallower and larger in volume and in diameter than craters from equivalent impacts into dry porous sandstone. Morphometric analyses of the resultant craters, 5-40 cm in diameter, reveal features that are characteristic of all of our experimental craters regardless of impact conditions (I) a large central depression within a fragile, light-colored central part, and (II) an outer spallation zone with areas of incipient spallation. Two different mechanical processes, grain fragmentation and intergranular tensile fracturing, are recorded within these crater morphologies. Zone (I) approximates the shape of the transient crater formed by material compression, displacement, comminution, and excavation flow, whereas (II) is the result of intergranular tensile fracturing and spallation. The transient crater dimensions are reconstructed by fitting quadric parabolas to crater profiles from digital elevation models. The dimensions of this transient and of the final crater show the same trends: both increase in volume with increasing impact energy, and with increasing water saturation of the target pore space. The relative size of the transient crater (in percent of the final crater volume) decreases with increasing projectile mass and velocity, signifying a greater contribution of spallation on the final crater size when projectile mass and velocity are increased.

  8. EARLY EFFECTS OF TRIMETHYLTIN ON THE DENTATE GYRUS BASKET CELLS: A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrophysiological evidence for reduction of recurrent inhibition in the dentate gyrus in animals exposed to trimethyltin (TMT) suggested alterations in the inhibitory neurons (basket cells) by TMT. The present study was designed to investigate the morphology of basket cells af...

  9. A study of the simulated evolution of the spectral sensitivity of visual agent receptors.

    PubMed

    Liese, A; Polani, D; Uthmann, T

    2001-01-01

    In this article we study a model for the evolution of the spectral sensitivity of visual receptors for agents in a continuous virtual environment. The model uses a genetic algorithm (GA) to evolve the agent sensors along with the control of the agents by requiring the agents to solve certain tasks in the simulation environment. The properties of the evolved sensors are analyzed for different scenarios. In particular, it is shown that the GA is able to find a balance between sensor costs and agent performance in such a way that the spectral sensor sensitivity reflects the emission spectrum of the target objects and that the capability of the sensors to evolve can help the agents significantly in adapting to their task. PMID:11580876

  10. External mouthpart morphology in the Tenuipalpidae (Tetranychoidea): Raoiella a case study.

    PubMed

    Beard, J J; Ochoa, R; Bauchan, G R; Welbourn, W C; Pooley, C; Dowling, A P G

    2012-08-01

    The use of low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) to study external mouthpart morphology in the Tenuipalpidae, in particular the genus Raoiella, has brought some aspects of the mechanics of feeding in this group into question. In addition, an LTSEM study on the specialized feeding behaviour of Raoiella indica Hirst (Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) revealed host plant use in this species could be affected by stomatal complex morphology. PMID:22415242

  11. Toward a study of gene regulatory constraints to morphological evolution of the Drosophila ocellar region.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Hidalgo, Daniel; Becerra-Alonso, David; García-Morales, Diana; Casares, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    The morphology and function of organs depend on coordinated changes in gene expression during development. These changes are controlled by transcription factors, signaling pathways, and their regulatory interactions, which are represented by gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Therefore, the structure of an organ GRN restricts the morphological and functional variations that the organ can experience-its potential morphospace. Therefore, two important questions arise when studying any GRN: what is the predicted available morphospace and what are the regulatory linkages that contribute the most to control morphological variation within this space. Here, we explore these questions by analyzing a small "three-node" GRN model that captures the Hh-driven regulatory interactions controlling a simple visual structure: the ocellar region of Drosophila. Analysis of the model predicts that random variation of model parameters results in a specific non-random distribution of morphological variants. Study of a limited sample of drosophilids and other dipterans finds a correspondence between the predicted phenotypic range and that found in nature. As an alternative to simulations, we apply Bayesian networks methods in order to identify the set of parameters with the largest contribution to morphological variation. Our results predict the potential morphological space of the ocellar complex and identify likely candidate processes to be responsible for ocellar morphological evolution using Bayesian networks. We further discuss the assumptions that the approach we have taken entails and their validity. PMID:27038024

  12. Morphological Study of Soft Palate by Using Computed Tomography–A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Nairita; Vijayvargiya, Ritika

    2015-01-01

    Background Soft palate is an important part of oro-naso-pharyngeal apparatus. The morphometric assessment of soft palate is well-performed on computed tomography (CT). Aim To evaluate the morphology of soft palate in healthy individuals by using Computed tomography. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 300 healthy voluntary participants who were subjected to CT scan (sagittal view) of head and neck region. The measurements of antero-posterior and supero-inferior length of soft palate were performed by using Syngo CT 2009E software. Statistical Analysis The statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS software version 16 and test applied were one-way ANOVA, independent t-test, chi-square and Karl Pearson’s co-relation coefficient. Results The participant’s age ranged from 18-80 years with mean of 39.51±14.64. The study had equal number of males (n=150) and females (n=150). Out of six shapes of soft palate, Butt type (38.7%) was the commonest. The morphology of soft palate in different age groups was statistically not significant (p>0.05). The total mean of antero-posterior length (30.31±3.39 mm) of soft palate was more than supero-inferior length (10.72±1.71 mm). The mean of antero-posterior length in males (30.69±3.42 mm) was more than females (29.92±3.32 mm); which was statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean of supero-inferior length in males (10.67±1.78 mm) was less than females (10.78+1.64 mm), which was statistically not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion CT scan is an important diagnostic aid for studying the accurate morphology of soft palate. PMID:26436052

  13. In-Service Training of Agricultural Agents in New York State: 1963; Extension Study Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Frank D.; Harshaw, Jean

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the nature and amount of inservice training which the 168 agricultural agents in New York State received during 1963. Emphasis was on refresher and other training. The greatest number of days of training offered agents was in November followed closely by March and February, in all, a total of 36% of the…

  14. Endoscopic spectral domain optical coherence tomography of murine colonic morphology to determine effectiveness of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents in colorectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeGendre-McGhee, Susan; Rice, Photini F. S.; Wall, R. Andrew; Klein, Justin; Luttman, Amber; Sprute, Kyle; Gerner, Eugene; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2012-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a minimally-invasive imaging modality capable of tracking the development of individual colonic adenomas. As such, OCT can be used to evaluate the mechanisms and effectiveness of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents in colorectal cancer models. The data presented here represent part of a larger study evaluating α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and Sulindac as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents using mice treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). 27 A/J mice were included in the chemoprevention study, subdivided into four treatment groups (No Drug, DFMO, Sulindac, DFMO/Sulindac). 30 mm lateral images of each colon at eight different rotations were obtained at five different time points using a 2 mm diameter spectral domain OCT endoscopy system centered at 890 nm with 3.5 μm axial resolution in air and 5 μm lateral resolution. Images were visually analyzed to determine number and size of adenomas. Gross photos of the excised colons and histology provided gold standard confirmation of the final imaging time point. Preliminary results show that 100% of mice in the No Drug group developed adenomas over the course of the chemoprevention study. Incidence was reduced to 71.43% in mice given DFMO, 85.71% for Sulindac and 0% for DFMO/Sulindac. Discrete adenoma size did not vary significantly between experimental groups. Additional experiments are currently under way to verify these results and evaluate DFMO and Sulindac for chemotherapeutic applications.

  15. Studies of the developmental toxicity of polycarboxylate dispersing agents.

    PubMed

    Nolen, G A; Monroe, A; Hassall, C D; Iavicoli, J; Jamieson, R A; Daston, G P

    1989-06-01

    Three linear polycarboxylate compounds, two linear polyacrylates (90,000 MW and 4,500 MW) and one linear polyacrylate-maleate copolymer (12,000 MW), were tested for their teratogenic potential in female Sprague Dawley rats. These polymers, which were tested as sodium salts, are used as dispersing agents in detergent formulations at levels of 1-5%. All compounds were administered by gavage during organogenesis (days 6-15 of pregnancy). No adverse effects on development were seen with any of the three compounds at any of the doses tested. The highest dose, and therefore the minimum no-effect dose, for the three linear polymers was 1125 mg/kg/day for the 90,000 MW polyacrylate, 3000 mg/kg/day for the 4,500 MW polyacrylate, and 6670 mg/kg/day for the polyacrylate-maleate copolymer. Based on these data, these compounds are not developmentally toxic, even at very high dose levels. PMID:2598833

  16. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: morphologic and immunohistopathologic studies.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Keene, D R; Blank, E; Hori, H; Sakai, L Y; Sherwin, L A; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    A 32-wk-gestation female with type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis has been studied. The clinical features were typical, and radiographs revealed short ribs, hypoplastic ilia, absence of ossification of sacrum, pubis, ischia, tali, calcanei, and many vertebral bodies; the long bones were short with mild metaphyseal flaring. The femoral cylinder index was 6.3. Comparison with previous cases placed the patient toward the mild end of the achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis spectrum (Whitley-Gorlin prototype IV). Light microscopy revealed hypercellular cartilage with decreased matrix traversed by numerous fibrous vascular canals. The growth plate was markedly abnormal. Ultrastructural studies revealed prominently dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing a fine granular material with occasional fibrils in all chondrocytes. Immunohistologic studies indicated irregular large areas of cartilage matrix staining with monoclonal antibody to human type III collagen. The relative intensity of matrix staining for type II collagen appeared diminished. More striking, however, were intense focal accumulations of type II collagen within small rounded perinuclear structures of most chondrocytes but not other cell types. These results strongly suggest intracellular retention of type II collagen within vacuolar structures, probably within the dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum observed in all chondrocytes by electron microscopy (EM), and imply the presence of an abnormal, poorly secreted type II collagen molecule. Biochemical studies (see companion paper) suggest that this patient had a new dominant lethal disorder caused by a structural abnormality of type II collagen. PMID:3057886

  17. [Experimental study of the heaptotoxic effect of toluol III. Quantitative morphological study].

    PubMed

    Aranka, H; Zsuzsa, B; Gábor, F; György, U

    1976-07-01

    Hepatotoxic effect of the analitically pure toluene used in the Chemical Factory "Tiszai" was investigated by the aid of quantitative morphological method on male rats of line CFY. Toluene was administered intraperitoneally and subcutaneously. It was established, that there exists a nearly lineal correlation between the logarithms of intraperitoneally administered doses of toluene, the number and area of mitochondria localized in the unite area of the hepatocyte, and between the increase of number of matrix-granules in the mitochondria. The average-area of the mitochondria remained unchanged. As an effect of large intraperitoneal doses of toluene increase of the density of nuclei and the nucleus-plasma proportion could be revealed. There exists a nearly lineal correlation between the logarithms of intraperitoneal and subcutaneous doses of toluene and the decrease of volume of the cell nuclei. Statistical curves of the nuclei-variation-study as an effect of large doses show two peaks. Authors stress the importance of quantitative morphological studies in the toxicology. Results of such investigations should be evaluated in connection with each other. PMID:940573

  18. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Lahuis, Bertine; van Daalen, Emma; Staal, Wouter G.; Rozendal, Marije; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Beemer, Frits A.; van Engeland, Herman

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McNemar test or paired t-test matched pairs. Morphological abnormalities were significantly more prevalent in patients with autism than in the normal control group and 48 morphological features distinguished patients from controls. Our findings show that morphological features are associated with autism. Exploring potential underlying genetic mechanisms of this association might lead to a better understanding of autism. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1018-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20473590

  19. Morphology and size of stem cells from mouse and whale: observational study

    PubMed Central

    van den Beukel, Johanna C; Wiersma, Lidewij C M; Ijzer, Jooske

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the morphology and size of stem cells from two mammals of noticeably different body size. Design Observational study. Setting The Netherlands. Participants A humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and a laboratory mouse (Mus musculus). Main outcome measures Morphology and size of mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue. Results Morphologically, mesenchymal stem cells of the mouse and whale are indistinguishable. The average diameter of 50 mesenchymal stem cells from the mouse was 28 (SD 0.86) µm and 50 from the whale was 29 (SD 0.71) µm. The difference in cell size between the species was not statistically significant. Although the difference in bodyweight between the species is close to two million-fold, the mesenchymal stem cells of each were of similar size. Conclusions The mesenchymal stem cells of whales and mice are alike, in both morphology and size. PMID:24336001

  20. Morphological Study of Chordae Tendinae in Human Cadaveric Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Gunnal, S. A.; Wabale, R. N.; Farooqui, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The chordae tendinae (CT) are strong, fibrous connections between the valve leaflets and the papillary muscles. Dysfunction of the papillary muscles and chordae is frequent. Mitral valve replacement with preservation of CT and papillary muscles may preserve postoperative left ventricular function better than conventional mitral valve replacement in patients with chronic mitral regurgitation. Methods: The study was carried out on 116 human cadaveric hearts. The heart was opened through the atrioventricular valve to view the constituents of the complex. Origin, attachments, insertions, distribution, branching pattern and gross structure of CT were observed and studied in detail. Results: In the present study more than 21 terminologies of CT were defined by classifying it into six different types. Classification is done according to the origin, attachments, insertion, distribution, branching pattern and gross structure. Terminologies defined are as follows. Apical pillar chordae, Basal pillar chordae, True chordae, False chordae, Interpillar chordae, Pillar wall chordae, Cusp chordae, Cleft chordae, Commissural chordae, First order chordae, Second order chordae, Free zone chordae, Marginal chordae, Rough zone chordae, Straight chordae, Branched-fan shaped chordae, Spiral chordae, Irregular-web chordae, Tendinous chordae, Muscular chordae, Membranous chordae. Basal pillar chordae are found in 9.48%. Mean number of chordae taking origin from apical half of a single papillary muscle or single head of papillary muscle was 9.09 with the range of 3-18. Mean number of the marginal chordae attached to a single cusp was 22.63 ranging from 11 to 35. Strut chordae showed interesting insertion with broad aponeurosis in 38.79% and large muscular flaps in 13.79%. Chordae muscularis were found in 14% and membranous chordae were found in 6%. Conclusions: This knowledge may prove useful for cardiologists and cardiac surgeons. PMID:25838872

  1. Effect of Co doping, capping agent and optical-structural studies of ZnO:Co2+ nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri Otaqsara, S. M.

    2011-08-01

    Co2+ doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using PEG as a capping agent were prepared by colloidal wet-chemical method. The structure, morphology and characteristics of as-prepared samples were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns studies revealed wurtzite crystal phase. STM-TEM micrographs show a spherical shape and nearly well distribution with an average particle size of ~15-20 nm. UV-VIS spectra show the presence of exciton peak at 349 nm which can be effectively tuned versus cobalt doping and PEG concentration. PL studies were done under the excitation of 347 nm, which exhibited a UV (~386 nm) and visible (blue-orange) emission peak because of free-exciton recombination and oxygen vacancy.

  2. Comparative study of the effects of two bleaching agents on oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Yara Tardelli; Sartorelli, Renata; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo effects of bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide (Platinum/Colgate) or 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (Day White 2Z/Discus Dental) on mutans Streptococcus during dental bleaching. The products were applied on 30 volunteers who needed dental bleaching. In each volunteer, one of the two bleaching agents was used on both dental arches one hour a day for three weeks. Analysis of the bacterial counts was made by collecting saliva before (baseline values), during (7 and 21 days) bleaching treatments and 14 days posttreatment. The Friedman non-parametric analysis (alpha=0.05) found no differences in microorganism counts at different times for each group for both agents (p>0.05). The Mann Whitney nonparametric test (alpha=0.05) showed no differences in micro-organism counts for both agents (p>0.05). Different bleaching agents did not change the oral cavity mutans Streptococcus counts. PMID:16130860

  3. Medical meniscus repairs. An experimental and morphologic study.

    PubMed

    Cabaud, H E; Rodkey, W G; Fitzwater, J E

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to determine the healing potential of medial meniscus tears, 20 canine and 12 rhesus knee joints were subjected to transverse medial meniscus laceration and repair with a single Dexon suture (Davis & Geck, Pearl River, NY). At four months, 12 out of 32 (38%) had healed completely with restoration of the inner meniscal rim and 18 (56%) showed partial healing sufficient to protect the underlying articular cartilage. Only 2 (6%) of the menisci failed to heal. Histologic evaluation showed that the scar tissue present in the menisci was composed of unorganized collagen without common ground substance components. As a result of these studies, we believe that certain meniscal tears, particularly those involving the vascular periphery, can heal and may be repaired rather than treated by meniscectomy. PMID:6894516

  4. Morphological study of fetal nasopharyngeal epithelium in man.

    PubMed

    Gulisano, M; Montella, A; Orlandini, S Z; Pacini, P

    1992-01-01

    In 30 human fetuses between 8 and 13 weeks of intrauterine life the lateral wall of the nasopharynx was examined by light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In the subjects between 8 and 9 weeks in utero the mucosa displays still an immature appearance, being mono- or bistratified and lacking the characteristic structures of the respiratory epithelium. Nevertheless, signs of differentiation are to be noticed, with the presence of two distinct cellular types that, in the later periods, will give rise to ciliated cells and microvillus-provided cells. An almost complete differentiation will be reached at 12-13 weeks in utero, even if goblet cells are still lacking in the examined zone during the considered period. Nonrespiratory types of epithelium, such as transitional or squamous, were never found in the studied subjects. PMID:1514372

  5. In Vitro Reparative Dentin: a Biochemical and Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Teti, G.; Salvatore, V.; Ruggeri, A.; Manzoli, L.; Gesi, M.; Orsini, G.; Falconi, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, starting from human dental pulp cells cultured in vitro, we simulated reparative dentinogenesis using a medium supplemented with different odontogenic inductors. The differentiation of dental pulp cells in odontoblast-like cells was evaluated by means of staining, and ultramorphological, biochemical and biomolecular methods. Alizarin red staining showed mineral deposition while transmission electron microscopy revealed a synthesis of extracellular matrix fibers during the differentiation process. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the differentiated phenotype expressed odontoblast markers, such as Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) and Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP), as well as type I collagen. Quantitative data regarding the mRNA expression of DMP1, DSP and type I collagen were obtained by Real Time PCR. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated the various localizations of DSP and DMP1 during odontoblast differentiation. Based on our results, we obtained odontoblast-like cells which simulated the reparative dentin processes in order to better investigate the mechanism of odontoblast differentiation, and dentin extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization. PMID:24085272

  6. Morphological and physiological studies on Indian national kabaddi players.

    PubMed Central

    Dey, S K; Khanna, G L; Batra, M

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-five national kabaddi players (Asiad gold medalists 1990), mean age 27.91 years, who attended a national camp at the Sports Authority of India, Bangalore before the Beijing Asian Games in 1990, were investigated for their physical characteristics, body fat, lean body mass (LBM) and somatotype. The physiological characteristics assessed included back strength, maximum oxygen uptake capacity and anaerobic capacity (oxygen debt) and related cardiorespiratory parameters (oxygen pulse, breathing equivalent, maximum pulmonary ventilation, maximum heart rate). Body fat was calculated from skinfold thicknesses taken at four different sites, using Harpenden skinfold calipers. An exercise test (graded protocol) was performed on a bicycle ergometer (ER-900) using a computerized EOS Sprint (Jaeger, West Germany). The mean(s.d.) percentage body fat (17.56(3.48)) of kabaddi players was found to be higher than normal sedentary people. Their physique was found to be endomorphic mesomorph (3.8-5.2-1.7). Mean(s.d.) back strength, maximum oxygen uptake capacity (VO2max) and oxygen debt were found to be 162.6(18.08) kg, 42.6(4.91) ml kg-1 min-1 and 5.02(1.29) litre respectively. Physical characteristics, percentage body fat, somatotype, maximum oxygen uptake capacity and anaerobic capacity (oxygen debt) and other cardiorespiratory parameters were compared with other national counterparts. Present data are comparable with data for judo, wrestling and weightlifting. Since no such study has been conducted on international counterparts, these data could not be compared. These data may act as a guideline in the selection of future kabaddi players and to attain the physiological status comparable to the present gold medalists. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 p242-a PMID:8130960

  7. A cross-sectional study on the relationship between craniofacial morphology and the coronoid process.

    PubMed

    Torisu, Takahiro; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Fukui, Tadao; Yamaki, Masaki; Nakamura, Junichi; Saito, Isao

    2009-12-01

    Although there have been some reports on the relationship between craniofacial morphology and the activity of the temporal muscle attached to the coronoid process, such relationship is still unclear. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the relationship between the coronoid process and overall craniofacial morphology using lateral cephalograms of 60 female subjects (mean age 9.6 years) without mandibular deviation. Statistical testing was undertaken using stepwise regression analysis. Anterior coronoid marginal depth correlated negatively (r = 0.71) with gonial angle, SNA, and overjet. The coronoid angle also correlated negatively (r = 0.86) with both the vertical and horizontal lengths from sella to the coronoid tip as well as with the horizontal length from sella to the posterior ramus margin. Furthermore, the coronoid length correlated positively (r = 0.61) with the coronoid angle and the anterior coronoid marginal depth. The coronoid width was also positively (r = 0.69) correlated with overbite. Coronoid process morphology is related not only to mandibular morphology and position but also to maxillary position and the dental relationship in the anterior region. It therefore seems clear that coronoid process morphology might be related to temporal muscle functioning and its associated craniofacial morphological measurements. PMID:19622629

  8. Morphological studies of laser-induced photoacoustic damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flotte, Thomas J.; Yashima, Yutaka; Watanabe, Shinichi; McAuliffe, Daniel J., Sr.; Jacques, Steven L.

    1990-06-01

    Argon-fluoride excimer laser ablation of stratum comeum causes deeper tissue damage than expected for thermal or photochemical mechanisms, suggesting thatphotoacoustic waves have arole in tissue damage. Laserirradiation (193 nm, 14 ns pulses, 1-2 Hz) attworadiantexposures, 60 and 160 mJ/cm2perpulse was usedto ablate the stratumcomeumofskin. Light and electron microscopy ofimmediate biopsies demonstrated damage to fibroblasts as deep as 88 and 220 jun, respectively, below the ablation site. Ablation throughwaterwas usedtoinertially confine the ablation zone. Partial ablationofs.c. through airproducedno damage, whereas partial ablation through water damaged skin to amean depth of 1 14.5 8.8( Full thickness ablation of s.c. through air and water produced damage zones measuring 192.2 16.2 and 293.0 71.6 rim, respectively (p <0.05). The increased depth ofdamage in the presence ofinertial confinementprovided by the layer of water strongly supports a photoacoustic mechanism ofdamage. The depths ofdamage for thelarge spot, line, and small spots were 43 1 164 urn, 269 96xni, andno damage. The spot size dependence ofthedepthofdamage is consistentwiththe geometric attenuation one would expect to be present from a pressure wave related phenomena. Sequential biopsies were taken over a 7 day period for light and transmission electron microscopy. At 24 hours, there was necrosis of the epidermis and papillary dermis subjacent to the ablation site, with neutrophils surrounding and demarcating the affected area. The necrotic zone sloughedby48 hours. Thereepithelializationwas completeby7 days. The sequenceofrepairis similartoknife wound healing which we have previously studied, and is analogous to other wound healing processes. We have used an experimental model of ArF excimer laser ablation of stratum corneum to investigate laser-induced photoacoustic damage. The evidence for the injury being due to pressure transients is indirectbutcompelling. Whether these pressuretransients are

  9. Experiment K-7-28: Lung Morphology Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; Kaplansky, A. S.

    1994-01-01

    There are no previous studies investigating the effect of microgravity exposure during spaceflight on lung tissue. We examined the ultrastructure of the left lungs of 5 Czechoslovakian Wistar rats flown on the 13 day, 19+ hr. Cosmos 2044 mission, and compared them to 5 vivarium and 5 synchronous controls at 1-g conditions, and 5 rats exposed to 14 days of tail-suspension. Within 10 minutes of sacrifice by decapitation, the lungs were removed and immersed in 3% glutaraldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer (total osmolarity of the fixative: 560 mOsm; pH = 7.4). The tissue stored at 5 C was transported to our laboratory where it was processed for light and electron microscopy. No significant perivascular cuffing caused by interstitial edema was present in the tissue samples. Some of the flight, tail-suspended, and synchronous control rats showed alveolar edema, while vivarium controls did not. The pulmonary capillaries appeared to be more congested in the flight animals than in the other groups. This could be related to the increased hematocrit due to the microgravity exposure. In all 5 flight, 4 tail-suspended, and 3 synchronous rats, red blood cells (RBC) were present in the alveolar spaces. The RBC were either suspended free in the alveoli or observed lining the alveolar wall. The frequency of RBC lining the alveolar walls appeared greater in the dorsal (gravity non-dependent) than in ventral (gravity dependent) regions of the lung in these three animal groups. In 3 of the vivarium controls, a few RBC were found in the alveolar spaces. Intra-capillary fluid-filled vesicles were observed in the flight, tail-suspended and synchronous animals, but not in the vivarium controls. The formation of intra-capillary fluid-filled vesicles has been previously associated with pulmonary hypertension induced by high altitude exposure and mitral stenosis. In conclusion, pulmonary hemorrhage and alveolar edema of unknown origin occurred to a greater extent in the flight, tail

  10. Novel ceria-zirconia-yttria mesostructures: Synthesis, characterization, diffusional studies & the effects of morphology on their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova Morales, Alma Iris

    Ceria-zirconia-yttria (CZY) mixed oxides are used as catalyst supports for three-way catalysts for automotive exhaust emission control and in solid oxide fuel cells. By improving the morphology of CZY mesopores it is possible to reduce the sintering of supported noble metals and enhance overall catalyst lifetime and performance. However, limited studies have been published on the synthetic control of the morphology of CZY materials and the effects that CZY pore geometry has on catalyst operation. To create optimized CZY catalyst supports, novel mesoporous CZY oxides were synthesized via classical sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) methods, obtaining mesostructures that exhibited excellent physical and diffusional properties. This dissertation provides a detailed analysis of the factors and mechanisms that promote the creation of ordered mesoporous CZY structures via classical sol-gel and EISA approaches. Classical sol-gel methods are reaction-limited syntheses in which, for the case of CZY materials, the formation of polyoxides occurs rapidly as a result of the availability of water and hydrolyzing agents in the initial solution, yielding disordered oxide mesostructures. Alternatively, EISA is a diffusion-limited process, where the rate of oxide forming reactions is limited by the slow diffusion of water into the initial ethanolic-metal salts solution. The slow loss of ethanol by evaporation enables the condensation-polymerization of metal oxy-hydroxide species to coincide with the ordering of these oligomers around the self-organized polymer template. Thus, for the templated synthesis of mesoporous CZY materials, it is the rate of metal oxide condensation that determines the nature of the resulting oxide structure. The choice of templating technique used during CZY synthesis heavily influenced post-calcination morphologies and pore sizes, but to-date no relationships between pore morphology and catalyst performance for CZY materials was presented

  11. Imageability and Transparency in Morphological Awareness: A Study of How Third-Grade Children Made Lemonade from Lemon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Morphological awareness has been established as important to literacy success, and as such, it is critical to study factors affecting children's performance on measures of this skill. Morphological transparency, or the clarity of the sound and letter pattern relationship between base words and their associated morphological forms, has been found…

  12. A Phonological and Morphological Study of the Speech of the Negro of Memphis, Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Juanita Virginia

    1968-01-01

    This study of certain phonological and morphological aspects of the Negro speech of Memphis, Tennessee, is a revision of the author's 1961 Ph.D. thesis submitted to the University of Michigan. Twenty-four informants, all but one of whom were native Memphians, were used for the study; they were classed according to education and age. The interview…

  13. A Study of Supernova Remnants with Center-Filled X-Ray Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick O.

    2001-01-01

    The proposed study entails use of archival data, primarily from past and active X-ray observatories, to study the properties of a class of supernova remnants (SNRs) which display a centrally-bright X-ray morphology. Several models which have been proposed to explain the morphology are being investigated for comparisons with measured characteristics of several remnants: nonthermal emission from a central synchrotron nebula; thermal emission enhanced by slow evaporation of cool clouds in the hot SNR interior; and relic thermal emission from the SNR interior after the remnant has entered the radiative phase of evolution, thus causing the shell emission to cease.

  14. [Morphological study of the adrenals of rats exposed on the Kosmos-690 satellite].

    PubMed

    Savina, E A; Alekseev, E I

    1979-01-01

    Adrenals of 12 rats flown aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-690 and 30 rats used in the ground-based experiments Control-1 and Control-2 were studied morphologically. The animals were sacrificed on the 2nd and 27th days after completion of the experiments (i. e., on the 12 and 37th days after irradiation at a total dose of 800 rad). A comparative study of morphological changes in the adrenals of flight and control rats did not show any distinct differences. It is therefore concluded that space flight factors did not produce a significant effect on the adrenal response to irradiation at a dose of 800 rad. PMID:423508

  15. Eco-morphological studies on pleopodal lungs and cuticle in Armadillidium species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Szabó, Péter; Mrak, Polona; Strus, Jasna; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2013-05-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) have adapted to land life by diverse morphological, physiological and behavioral changes. Woodlice species exhibit a large variety in this respect, their preferences ranging from moist to dry habitats. These moisture preference values are related to various morphological adaptations, rendering terrestrial isopods amenable to studying morphological adaptations to terrestrial life. We performed a comparison of four Armadillidium species (Armadillidium zenckeri, Armadillidium nasatum, Armadillidium versicolor, Armadillidium vulgare), by quantifying two morphological traits: the extent of the interfacial endothelium between the respiratory space and the hemolymph within pleopodal lungs and the thickness of tergite cuticle, which are 'key factors' in determining protection from desiccation. These values were measured from light micrographs of cross-sectioned lungs. The cosmopolitan A. vulgare, as a habitat generalist, seems to be the most resistant against desiccation and other environmental conditions, while A. zenckeri is the most sensitive one. Light microscopic studies revealed that the four species can be ordered similarly, if we compare them by the extension of the endothelial interface and cuticle thickness, suggesting that these morphological traits are important determinants of their distribution on habitat, microhabitat scales and through the existence of suitable habitats - together with many other factors - the geographical pattern of species occurence. PMID:23376766

  16. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological intervention and a non-intervention control group. Phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and spelling abilities were tested before and after the intervention. Participants from both linguistic intervention programs and in all grades made significant progress in linguistic awareness and spelling after the intervention. The results showed that both intervention programs were successful in promoting children's spelling skills in both groups. Also, older poor readers showed a stronger response to the morphological intervention than the older skilled readers. A transfer effect was found with the phonological training contributing to the morphological skills and vice versa. The results of the current study were discussed in the light of developmental and psycholinguistic views of spelling acquisition as well as the characteristics of Arabic language and orthography. PMID:25821152

  17. Comparative studies on the thermostability of five strains of transmissible-spongiform-encephalopathy agent.

    PubMed

    Fernie, Karen; Steele, Philip J; Taylor, David M; Somerville, Robert A

    2007-08-01

    The causal infectious agents of TSEs (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases) are renowned for their resistance to complete inactivation. Survival of TSE infectivity after autoclaving potentially compromises many procedures where TSE infectivity may be present, including surgical instrument sterilization. In the present study, the heat inactivation properties of five different TSE agents were tested in a variety of experiments by exposing them to a range of heat inactivation conditions. Although TSE infectivity was reduced after heating to 200 degrees C in a hot air oven, substantial amounts of infectivity remained. Unlike wet heat inactivation, no TSE strain-dependent differences were observed in the reduction in the amounts of infectivity produced by dry heat inactivation. However, the incubation periods of mice infected with one dry heated TSE strain, ME7, were substantially prolonged, whereas there was little or no effect for two other TSE models. Varying autoclaving conditions for three TSE strains between 132 and 138 degrees C, and times of exposure between 30 and 120 min, had little or no effect on the recovery of TSE infectivity. The results illustrate the limitations of TSE agent inactivation using heat-based methods. The results support the hypothesis that the structures of TSE agents are stabilized during heat-inactivation procedures, rendering them much more refractory to inactivation. This may occur through dehydration of the causal agents, specifically through the removal of the water of solvation from agent structures and hence stabilize interactions between prion protein and TSE agent-specific ligands. PMID:17331068

  18. The effect of different chemical agents on human enamel: an atomic force and scanning electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rominu, Roxana O.; Rominu, Mihai; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Pop, Daniela; Petrescu, Emanuela

    2010-12-01

    PURPOSE: The goal of our study was to investigate the changes in enamel surface roughess induced by the application of different chemical substances by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. METHOD: Five sound human first upper premolar teeth were chosen for the study. The buccal surface of each tooth was treated with a different chemical agent as follows: Sample 1 - 38% phosphoric acid etching (30s) , sample 2 - no surface treatment (control sample), 3 - bleaching with 37.5 % hydrogen peroxide (according to the manufacturer's instructions), 4 - conditioning with a self-etching primer (15 s), 5 - 9.6 % hydrofluoric acid etching (30s). All samples were investigated by atomic force microscopy in a non-contact mode and by scanning electron microscopy. Several images were obtained for each sample, showing evident differences regarding enamel surface morphology. The mean surface roughness and the mean square roughness were calculated and compared. RESULTS: All chemical substances led to an increased surface roughness. Phosphoric acid led to the highest roughness while the control sample showed the lowest. Hydrofluoric acid also led to an increase in surface roughness but its effects have yet to be investigated due to its potential toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: By treating the human enamel with the above mentioned chemical compounds a negative microretentive surface is obtained, with a morphology depending on the applied substance.

  19. Crafting an Agentive Self: Case Studies of Digital Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Glynda A.; Katz, Mira-Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on data from a multi-year digital storytelling project, this comparative case study offers portraits of two emerging authors--one a child and the other a young adult--who used multiple media and modes to articulate pivotal moments in their lives and reflect on life trajectories. The conceptual framework blends recent scholarship on…

  20. Desensitizing Agent Reduces Dentin Hypersensitivity During Ultrasonic Scaling: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Tomonari; Akiyama, Toshiharu; Takano, Takuya; Gokyu, Misa; Sudo, Takeaki; Khemwong, Thatawee; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentin hypersensitivity can interfere with optimal periodontal care by dentists and patients. The pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling is intolerable for patient and interferes with the procedure, particularly during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) for patients with gingival recession. Aim This study proposed to evaluate the desensitizing effect of the oxalic acid agent on pain caused by dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. Materials and Methods This study involved 12 patients who were incorporated in SPT program and complained of dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. We examined the availability of the oxalic acid agent to compare the degree of pain during ultrasonic scaling with or without the application of the dentin hypersensitivity agent. Evaluation of effects on dentin hypersensitivity was determined by a questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores after ultrasonic scaling. The statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student t-test and Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results The desensitizing agent reduced the mean VAS pain score from 69.33 ± 16.02 at baseline to 26.08 ± 27.99 after application. The questionnaire revealed that >80% patients were satisfied and requested the application of the desensitizing agent for future ultrasonic scaling sessions. Conclusion This study shows that the application of the oxalic acid agent considerably reduces pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity experienced during ultrasonic scaling. This pain control treatment may improve patient participation and treatment efficiency. PMID:26501012

  1. Semantic Extension of Agent-Based Control: The Packing Cell Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, Pavel; Radakovič, Miloslav; Obitko, Marek; Mařík, Vladimír

    The paper reports on the latest R&D activities in the field of agent-based manufacturing control systems. It is documented that this area becomes strongly influenced by the advancements of semantic technologies like the Web Ontology Language. The application of ontologies provides the agents with much more effective means for handling, exchanging and reasoning about the knowledge. The ontology dedicated for semantic description of orders, production processes and material handling tasks in discrete manufacturing domain has been developed. In addition, the framework for integration of this ontology in distributed, agent-based control solutions is given. The Manufacturing Agent Simulation Tool (MAST) is used as a base for pilot implementation of the ontology-powered multiagent control system; the packing cell environment is selected as a case study.

  2. Experimental Artifacts for Morphological Tweaking of Chemical Sensor Materials: Studies on ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ikram Ul; Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    2012-01-01

    Sensing mechanisms of gases on solid structures are predominantly surface-dominated. Benign surface features in terms of small grain size, high aspect ratio, large surface area and open and connected porosity, are required to realize a successful sensor material. Such morphological artifacts are a function of the fabrication and processing techniques employed. In this paper, we describe the fabrication of monoshaped and monosized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles by a homogeneous precipitation method, using urea and/or hexmethyltetraamine as the reductant. The effect of operating conditions and experimental variables, such as the relative concentration of the precursors, temperature, and the aging time on the morphology of the resulting particles was studied systematically. These experimental parameters were optimized in order to achieve particles of uniform morphology and of narrow size distribution. Some of these particles were employed for the detection of ammonia gas at room temperature. PMID:22969399

  3. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Heval; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Lahuis, Bertine; van Daalen, Emma; Staal, Wouter G.; Rozendal, Marije; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Beemer, Frits A.; van Engeland, Herman

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McNemar test or paired t-test matched pairs.…

  4. Experimental studies of the physiologic properties of technetium-99m agents: Myocardial transport of perfusion imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Meerdink, D.J.; Leppo, J.A. )

    1990-10-16

    The physiologic properties of new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial imaging agents (Tc-99m sestamibi, an isonitrile; and Tc-99m teboroxime, a boronic acid adduct of technetium dioxime) are discussed and compared to thallium-201 (Tl-201). Studies with isolated hearts, subcellular fractions and cell cultures indicate that Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 do not share common transport or sequestration mechanisms. Although peak Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial extraction over time is about half that of Tl-201 at equivalent coronary blood flows, the amount of Tc-99m sestamibi that remains in the heart is similar to that of Tl-201 because of its higher retention efficiency. The high retention efficiency for Tc-99m sestamibi also results in minimal redistribution. In contrast, Tc-99m teboroxime myocardial extraction is higher than that of Tl-201, but its retention is less efficient, resulting in relatively rapid washout characteristics which may quickly result in tracer redistribution. During reperfusion after a no-flow period, Tc-99m sestamibi extraction and retention increase, but for Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 these values tend to decrease. All tracers show adequate transport characteristics for perfusion imaging, and differences in transport and retention should lead to the development of new clinical protocols.27 references.

  5. [Study on an enhancing agent for removing arsenic from drinking water].

    PubMed

    Ling, B; Li, S; Zhu, Y; Zhang, B

    2001-05-01

    Drinking water contaminated by arsenic for an extended period of time could be detrimental to the health of people. Some preliminary symptoms could be alleviated by drinking water non-contaminated. It is important to develop an arsenic removal agent with a specific property of most efficient, cost-effective and easy for operation. The results showed that the capacity of the agent developed in this study was 10 times higher for arsenic removal than other agent available. The lowest arsenic content of the treated water was 0.05 mg/L. The special function of this agent was arsenic removing without changing other components and the concentrations of other elements in the treated water. The operation and management was simple without adjusting pH of the influent and effluent water. The agent was 5 times cheaper in cost than alumina or activated carbon, because it was a reusable oxidation-catalyst. Therefore, the agent could be widely applied in drinking water plants or used as a purifier at home in the high arsenic areas. PMID:12525087

  6. Evaluation of Microleakage of Dental Composites Using Bonding Agents with Different Placement Techniques: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasvir; Garg, Deepanshu; Sunil, MK; Sawhney, Anshul; Malaviya, Neha; Tripathi, Shashank; Arora, Saloni

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid progress of adhesive dentistry over the past decade has been attributed to the significant advances in dentin bonding technology. Requirements of an ideal bonding agent are quite similar to those indicated by Buonocore despite of many improvements. As we enter the new millennium, it is important for us to examine the past. Objective To evaluate the microleakage of three bonding agents namely Single Bond, Prime & Bond NT and Excite using different composite materials namely Z100, Spectrum TPH, Tetric with three different placement techniques. Materials and Methods Fifty four extracted human premolars were taken & divided into 9 groups depending upon application of bonding agents followed by composite restorations. Specimens were subjected to thermal cycling at 60C, 370C, 540C and again at 370C & then placed in 10 ml each of freshly prepared 50% silver nitrate solution for 2 hour in darkness, washed & placed under sun light for 24 hours. The sectioned specimens were then observed under stereomicroscope to detect microleakage. Results On comparing the mean microleakage scores among the three groups, maximum microleakage scores have been obtained when no bonding agent was used, while least microleakage scores were obtained with double coat of bonding agent. Conclusion The present study suggests that the placement of bonding agent technique before composite restoration can be effective to limit the microleakage at the tooth restoration interface. PMID:26501015

  7. A morphological and morphometric study of the prosimian lung: the lesser bushbaby Galago senegalensis.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1990-01-01

    The lung of the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis) has been investigated morphologically and morphometrically using the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. Grossly and microscopically, the bushbaby lung was found to be essentially similar to that of the other primates and the mammals in general. Subtle morphometric differences were, however, observed, with the bushbaby lung being generally structurally less sophisticated than that of the other primates on which comparable data are available, except for man. The weight-specific surface area of the blood-gas (tissue) barrier in G. senegalensis was 25 cm2 g-1. The thickness of the blood-gas barrier was 0.355 micron and the weight specific total anatomical pulmonary diffusing capacity 0.045 mlO2 sec-1 mbar1 kg-1. The morphological similarity of the galago lung to that of man gives sufficient grounds to justify its possible use in human pulmonary studies but caution has been called for in the general utilisation of primate tissues without first establishing their morphological characteristics, just because the primates are taken to be evolutionally close to man. The dearth of morphological studies on the various organ systems of the prosimians is pointed out. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2272898

  8. A study of cortical morphology in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    De Guio, François; Mangin, Jean-François; Rivière, Denis; Perrot, Matthieu; Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Sandra W; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2014-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is responsible for a broad range of brain structural malformations, which can be studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI methods have emerged to characterize brain abnormalities, but the teratogenic effects of alcohol on cortical morphology have received little attention to date. Twenty-four 9-year-old children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (9 with fetal alcohol syndrome, 15 heavy exposed nonsyndromal children) and 16 age-matched controls were studied to assess the effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on cortical morphology. An automated method was applied to 3D T1-weighted images to assess cortical gyrification using global and regional sulcal indices and two region-based morphological measurements, mean sulcal depth and fold opening. Increasing levels of alcohol exposure were related to reduced cortical folding complexity, even among children with normal brain size, indicating a reduction of buried cortical surface. Fold opening was the strongest anatomical correlate of prenatal alcohol intake, indicating a widening of sulci in all regions that were examined. These data identify cortical morphology as a suitable marker for further investigation of brain damage associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:23946151

  9. Reinforcement Learning Multi-Agent Modeling of Decision-Making Agents for the Study of Transboundary Surface Water Conflicts with Application to the Syr Darya River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegels, N.; Siegfried, T.; Pereira Cardenal, S. J.; Jensen, R. A.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2008-12-01

    In most economics--driven approaches to optimizing water use at the river basin scale, the system is modelled deterministically with the goal of maximizing overall benefits. However, actual operation and allocation decisions must be made under hydrologic and economic uncertainty. In addition, river basins often cross political boundaries, and different states may not be motivated to cooperate so as to maximize basin- scale benefits. Even within states, competing agents such as irrigation districts, municipal water agencies, and large industrial users may not have incentives to cooperate to realize efficiency gains identified in basin- level studies. More traditional simulation--optimization approaches assume pre-commitment by individual agents and stakeholders and unconditional compliance on each side. While this can help determine attainable gains and tradeoffs from efficient management, such hardwired policies do not account for dynamic feedback between agents themselves or between agents and their environments (e.g. due to climate change etc.). In reality however, we are dealing with an out-of-equilibrium multi-agent system, where there is neither global knowledge nor global control, but rather continuous strategic interaction between decision making agents. Based on the theory of stochastic games, we present a computational framework that allows for studying the dynamic feedback between decision--making agents themselves and an inherently uncertain environment in a spatially and temporally distributed manner. Agents with decision-making control over water allocation such as countries, irrigation districts, and municipalities are represented by reinforcement learning agents and coupled to a detailed hydrologic--economic model. This approach emphasizes learning by agents from their continuous interaction with other agents and the environment. It provides a convenient framework for the solution of the problem of dynamic decision-making in a mixed cooperative / non

  10. [Standardization of pathoanatomic activities in performing specialized and high-tech morphological studies].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, S L; Chibisov, V N; Krivolapov, Iu A

    2006-01-01

    The study reports the standard for the activity of an immunohistochemical laboratory. The standard includes a staff list, objective calculation, and planning the salary in accordance with a real amount of work. On performing the high-tech and labor-intensive morphological studies, the actual spent time essentially differs from the current standards, which requires implementation of organizational, financial, economic, and methodological measures at the federal level. PMID:17290899

  11. Chronic administration of the neurotrophic agent cerebrolysin ameliorates the behavioral and morphological changes induced by neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion in a rat model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Roque, Rubén Antonio; Ramos, Brenda; Tecuatl, Carolina; Juárez, Ismael; Adame, Anthony; de la Cruz, Fidel; Zamudio, Sergio; Mena, Raúl; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer; Flores, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) in rats has been widely used as a neurodevelopmental model to mimic schizophrenia-like behaviors. Recently, we reported that nVHLs result in dendritic retraction and spine loss in prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, has been reported to ameliorate the synaptic and dendritic pathology in models of aging and neurodevelopmental disorder such as Rett syndrome. This study sought to determine whether Cbl was capable of reducing behavioral and neuronal alterations in nVHL rats. The behavioral analysis included locomotor activity induced by novel environment and amphetamine, social interaction, and sensoriomotor gating. The morphological evaluation included dendritic analysis by using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in PFC and NAcc. Behavioral data show a reduction in the hyperresponsiveness to novel environment- and amphetamine-induced locomotion, with an increase in the total time spent in social interactions and in prepulse inhibition in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. In addition, neuropathological analysis of the limbic regions also showed amelioration of dendritic retraction and spine loss in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. Cbl treatment also ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the PFC and NAcc in nVHL rats. This study demonstrates that Cbl promotes behavioral improvements and recovery of dendritic neuronal damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that Cbl may have neurotrophic effects in this neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. These findings support the possibility that Cbl has beneficial effects in the management of schizophrenia symptoms. PMID:21932359

  12. Retrospective cohort study of anti-tumor necrosis factor agent use in a veteran population

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Nermeen; Kazerooni, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are effective for several immunologic conditions (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn’s disease (CD), and psoriasis). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents via chart review. Methods. Single-site, retrospective cohort study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents in veterans initiated between 2010 and 2011. Primary aim evaluated response at 12 months post-index date. Secondary aims evaluated initial response prior to 12 months post-index date and infection events. Results. A majority of patients were prescribed anti-TNF agents for CD (27%) and RA (24%). Patients were initiated on etanercept (41%), adalimumab (40%), and infliximab (18%) between 2010 and 2011. No differences in patient demographics were reported. Response rates were high overall. Sixty-five percent of etanercept patients, 82% of adalimumab patients, and 59% of infliximab patients were either partial or full responders, respectively. Approximately 16%, 11%, and 12% of etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab were non-responders, respectively. Infections between the groups were non-significant. Etanercept and adalimumab patients had higher but non-significant odds of being a responder relative to infliximab. Conclusions. Most patients initiated with anti-TNF agent were responders at 12 months follow-up for all indications in a veteran population. PMID:24883246

  13. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O

    2015-12-10

    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds. PMID:26505918

  14. Structural, morphological and Raman studies of pulse electrosynthesised indium antimonide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Joginder; Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, P.

    2015-08-01

    InSb films deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a pulse elctrodeposition technique. The deposition was carried out at an applied potential -1.3V versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Structural, morphological and optical studies were performed on the electrodeposited InSb. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the deposited InSb films are polycrystalline in nature having the zinc blend structure. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ɛ) were calculated using XRD results. The EDAX analysis shows that chemical composition of In3+ and Sb3+ ions is close to the required stoichiometry. The surface morphology of the deposited films was examined using scanning electron scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. However, the crystallite size determined by the Scherrer method shows a size close to 30 nm. Surface morphology studies of the InSb films were also performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average surface roughness as measured by AFM is around 40 nm. Hot probe studies show that all the electrodeposited thin films have n type conductivity and the thickness of the films is calculated using electrochemical formula.

  15. Structural, morphological and Raman studies of pulse electrosynthesised indium antimonide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Joginder Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, P.

    2015-08-28

    InSb films deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a pulse elctrodeposition technique. The deposition was carried out at an applied potential −1.3V versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Structural, morphological and optical studies were performed on the electrodeposited InSb. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the deposited InSb films are polycrystalline in nature having the zinc blend structure. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ε) were calculated using XRD results. The EDAX analysis shows that chemical composition of In{sup 3+} and Sb{sup 3+} ions is close to the required stoichiometry. The surface morphology of the deposited films was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. However, the crystallite size determined by the Scherrer method shows a size close to 30 nm. Surface morphology studies of the InSb films were also performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average surface roughness as measured by AFM is around 40 nm. Hot probe studies show that all the electrodeposited thin films have n type conductivity and the thickness of the films is calculated using electrochemical formula.

  16. Controlled Growth of WO3Nanostructures with Three Different Morphologies and Their Structural, Optical, and Photodecomposition Studies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using sodium tungstate (Na2WO4·2H2O) alone as starting material, and sodium tungstate in presence of ferrous ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2·6H2O] or cobalt chloride (CoCl2·6H2O) as structure-directing agents. Orthorhombic WO3having a rectangular slab-like morphology was obtained when Na2WO4·2H2O was used alone. When ferrous ammonium sulfate and cobalt chloride were added to sodium tungstate, hexagonal WO3nanowire clusters and hexagonal WO3nanorods were obtained, respectively. The crystal structure and orientation of the synthesized products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and their chemical composition was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of the synthesized products were verified by UV–Vis and photoluminescence studies. A photodegradation study on Procion Red MX 5B was also carried out, showing that the hexagonal WO3nanowire clusters had the highest photodegradation efficiency. PMID:20628456

  17. Surface studies of aminoferrocene derivatives on gold: electrochemical sensors for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad A K; Long, Yi-Tao; Schatte, Gabriele; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    The cystamine conjugate [(BocNH)Fc(CO)CSA]2 was prepared by coupling cystamine with the N-protected ferrocene amino acid derivative BocHN-Fc-COOH and was fully characterized by spectroscopic methods and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cystamine conjugate forms films on gold substrates, which upon deprotection of the amino group, react with chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics, upon which the redox properties of the Fc group are affected significantly. Cyclic voltammetry shows 50(5) mV anodic shifts of the Fc redox potentials after exposure to EtSCH2CH2Cl, a simulant for sulfur mustard HD (MA), and (NC)(EtO)2P(O), a simulant for nerve agent Tabun (NA). Exposure to MA and NA causes an increase in 2.3 and 4.5 ng mass, respectively, in QCM which indicates ca. 70% efficiency in Boc-deprotection. Ellipsometry measured a film thickness increase from 6(+/-1) A for the deprotected film to 10(+/-4) A for the film modified with MA and to 7(+/-2) A for the film modified with NA. AFM measurements show changes in the thickness and morphology of the film after reaction with MA and NA. The surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and clearly show the attachment of the cystamine conjugate on the surface and its reaction with CWA mimics. PMID:17319647

  18. Scanning electron microscopy study to analyze the morphological characteristics of root surfaces after application of Carisolv gel in association with scaling and root planing: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sharmila J.; Gohil, Meera H.

    2012-01-01

    Context: There has been considerable interest in the use of chemical-assisted root detoxification. Chemical agents have been proposed to facilitate calculus removal. Aims: A study was carried out to analyze the morphological characteristics of the root surfaces after application of Carisolv gel in association with scaling and root planing under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Settings and Design: The Department of Periodontics of the K. M. Shah Dental College and Hospital, Vadodara, (Gujarat, India). Materials and Methods: Sixty periodontally compromised extracted human teeth were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) scaling and root planning (SRP) alone; (2) passive topical application of Carisolv + SRP; (3) active topical application of Carisolv + SRP; (4) multiple applications of Carisolv + SRP. Carisolv gel was applied to the root surfaces for 30 seconds, followed by scaling and root planing, consisting of 30 strokes, with Gracey curettes in an apical-coronal direction, parallel to the long axis of the tooth. The only exception was group 4, where the roots were instrumented until a smooth, hard, and glass-like surface was achieved. All specimens were further analyzed by SEM. Statistical Analysis: The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method was used. Results: Active application of Carisolv gel produced more extensive morphological changes than passive application and SRP alone. When multiple applications of Carisolv with SRP were performed, there was a significant decrease in the smear layer compared to a single application of the gel, either passively or actively. Conclusions: The Carisolv gel failed to remove the smear layer completely, especially with a single application, independently of the method of application. This study documented that the Carisolv gel produced changes in the root morphology of periodontally compromised teeth, only when it was applied actively and multiple times. PMID:23162324

  19. Diagnosis of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma based on morphologic and immunohistochemical features: a reproducibility study.

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, Kala; Vang, Russell; Shaw, Patricia; Gross, Amy; Soslow, Robert; Parkash, Vinita; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J

    2011-12-01

    There is compelling evidence that serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) is a precursor of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Large-scale studies are now required to determine its biological significance and clinical implication. Before conducting these studies, a reproducible classification for STIC is needed, and that is the goal of this study. This study involved 6 gynecologic pathologists from 4 academic institutions and 3 independent rounds of review. In round 1, sixty-seven lesions ranging from normal, atypical, to STICs were classified by 5 pathologists on the basis of predetermined morphologic criteria. Interobserver agreement for the diagnosis of STIC versus not STIC was fair [κ = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26, 0.52], and intraobserver reproducibility ranged from fair to moderate on the basis of percentage agreement and κ. Round 2 involved testing revised criteria that incorporated morphology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for p53 protein expression and Ki-67 labeling in 10 sets by 3 of the pathologists. The result was an improvement in interobserver agreement for the classification of STIC (κ = 0.62; 95% CI 0.18, 1.00). An algorithm was then created combining morphology and IHC for p53 and Ki-67, and reproducibility was assessed as part of round 3. In 37 lesions reviewed by 6 pathologists, substantial agreement for STIC versus no STIC was observed (κ = 0.73; 95% CI 0.58, 0.86). In conclusion, we have developed reproducible criteria for the diagnosis of STIC that incorporate morphologic and IHC markers for p53 and Ki-67. The algorithm we propose is expected to help standardize the classification of STIC for future studies. PMID:21989347

  20. Exploring metameric variation in human molars: a morphological study using morphometric mapping.

    PubMed

    Morita, Wataru; Morimoto, Naoki; Ohshima, Hayato

    2016-09-01

    Human molars exhibit a type of metameric variation, which is the difference in serially repeated morphology within an organism. Various theories have been proposed to explain how this variation is brought about in the molars. Actualistic data that support the theories, however, are still relatively scarce because of methodological limitations. Here we propose new methods to analyse detailed tooth crown morphologies. We applied morphometric mapping to the enamel-dentine junction of human maxillary molars and examined whether odontogenetic models were adaptable to human maxillary molars. Our results showed that the upper first molar is phenotypically distinct among the maxillary molars. The average shape of the upper first molar is characterized by four well-defined cusps and precipitous surface relief of the occlusal table. On the other hand, upper third molar is characterized by smooth surface relief of the occlusal table and shows greater shape variation and distinct distribution patterns in morphospace. The upper second molar represents an intermediate state between first and third molar. Size-related shape variation was investigated by the allometric vector analysis, and it appeared that human maxillary molars tend to converge toward the shape of the upper first molar as the size increases. Differences between the upper first molar and the upper second and third molar can thus be largely explained as an effect of allometry. Collectively, these results indicate that the observed pattern of metameric variation in human molars is consistent with odontogenetic models of molar row structure (inhibitory cascade model) and molar crown morphology (patterning cascade model). This study shows that morphometric mapping is a useful tool to visualize and quantify the morphological features of teeth, which can provide the basis for a better understanding of tooth evolution linking morphology and development. PMID:27098351

  1. Comparative Study of Pineapple Juice as a Negative Oral Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the image quality of magnetic resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using Pineapple Juice (PJ) or ranitidine as negative oral contrast agents and no agent. Materials and Methods: MRCP images of patients administered PJ (n = 117) or Ranitidine (n = 110) at random, and patients without an agent (n = 50) were evaluated. The subjective image quality of the overall, extra hepatic bile duct and pancreatic duct and the degree of elimination of gastrointestinal fluid were scored by two blinded radiologists. Results were compared using Mann-Whitney’s U-test. Results: The degrees of elimination of gastro duodenal fluid of PJ and ranitidine were significantly better than those without an agent (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). The subjective image quality of PJ of the overall and extra hepatic bile duct were significantly better, although no significant differences for ranitidine were observed compared with those without an agent (p < 0.01 and p =0.23, p = 0.025 and p = 0.18). There were no significant differences for the pancreatic duct (p = 0.13 and p = 0.20), nor were there any significant differences in the evaluations between PJ and ranitidine (p = 0.21 and p = 0.96). Conclusion: PJ showed better performance compared to that of conventional ranitidine in terms of pancreatic and biliary depiction and safety. PMID:25738055

  2. Loading effects on rat craniomandibular morphology: a system for gravity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ranbir; Carvalho, Thais; Gerstner, Geoffrey E.

    2005-02-01

    Gravity effects on muscle and bone are a major impediment to long-term space travel. We introduce a model for studying these effects, the craniomandibular system. Some advantages of this system include: (1) craniomandibular morphology is determined by epigenetic factors including gravity, (2) relatively light forces can significantly alter its morphology, and (3) soft diet and tooth loss produce effects that are similar to those produced in lower limbs by weightlessness. In the study, implants made either of gold (experimental group) or lightweight acrylic (controls) were attached to adult rats' mandibles. After 13 weeks, the animals' skulls and mandibles were dissected. Pair-wise comparisons indicated that the experimental animals showed significantly shortened and narrowed cranial bases, and significant changes in the posterior zygomatic arch region. These results indicate that simulated macrogravity influences bone remodeling in the adult craniomandibular system.

  3. Study on morphology, pathogenicity, and genetic variability of Beauveria bassiana isolates obtained from Boophilus microplus tick.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Everton Kort Kamp; Costa, Gisela Lara; Moraes, Aurea Maria Lage; Zahner, Viviane; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2006-03-01

    Fifty isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, 1912 (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) were analyzed by morphology, for their pathogenic potential to Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae, and by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. Morphological analysis demonstrated that isolates present characteristics compatible to those described for B. bassiana in the literature. Virulence test demonstrated that all isolates present lethal effect on larvae and that the lethal concentration varies among isolates. The most virulent isolate was the only one obtained from human infection, which was also the only isolate presenting synnemata. The study on genetic variability among the isolates allowed the identification of 23 electrophoretic profiles. The established groupings suggest that most of the isolates obtained from B. microplus of the same locality present low genetic variation. In this way, the data in the present study will contribute to a meticulous characterization of these B. bassiana isolates. PMID:16374618

  4. Versatile but Temperamental: A Morphological Study of Palmaris Longus in the Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Tintu Thottiyil; Joseph, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Palmaris longus (PL) is one of the most variable muscles in our body and is vestigial functionally. Its long tendon and its superficial location make it an ideal source for tendon harvesting. Variations such as absence, duplication and reversal have far reaching clinical impact. The aim of this study is to estimate the presence, variants and nerve supply of the PL. Materials and Methods: Upper extremity of 24 cadavers was dissected and PL was examined. The results were compared to other studies on the PL and literature survey was carried out. Results: Thirty nine specimens showed normal morphology and four showed complete agenesis. Other morphological variations seen included - reversed, hybrid, fusiform, fleshy and bifurcated tendon of insertion. Conclusion: Every surgeon must be aware of the variations of the versatile but temperamental PL. Prior knowledge of the layout of the muscle helps in planning intricate surgeries to which this tendon is put use to. PMID:25859436

  5. Agent neutralization studies III. Detoxification of VX in aqueous persulfate. Final report, May-August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanec, J.W.; Albizo, J.M.; Henderson, V.D.; Szafraniec, L.L.; Beaudry, W.T.

    1994-06-01

    Aqueous solutions of persulfate salts are frequently used to mineralize organic substrates in the course of total organic carbon analyses. A study has been conducted at the U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center to determine whether this approach may be useful to neutralize the nerve agent VX. VX was reacted with aqueous ammonium persulfate at 90 deg C and 70 deg C. The concentration of agent and the acidity of the mixture were varied. 31P-NMR was used to monitor the destruction of VX as well as the formation and degradation of the phosphorus-containing products. A titration procedure using ferrous sulfate and ceric ammonium nitrate was used to monitor the consumption of persulfate. The products formed and their stabilities were found to vary significantly with the acidity of the solution. Nuclear magnetic resonance, Oxidation, VX, Ammonium persulfate, Mineralization, Temperature effects, Chemical agent disposal.

  6. [Clinical and experimental studies on membranous pulp-capping agent with Chinese medicinal herbs].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z P; Li, Z R; Li, S L

    1993-06-01

    A membranous pulp-capping agent of Chinese medicinal herbs was made by ourselves prescription, and was filled in capsules for medication. Direct pulp-capping and pulpotomy were performed on 102 permanent teeth. During the observation period of more than one year, the successful rate was 82.4%. Under light microscope, the artificial exposed sites of normal sheep teeth were fully sealed after capping for 45 days. There were calcification under the exposed sites. The inner lines were preparative dentins. Experiments on dogs' teeth revealed that the pulps were normal after two month's direct pulp-capping, and the new dentins appeared. The bacteria culture test was made before and after the pulp-capping agent was used on ten deep carious teeth. It revealed that the bacteria all converted negative after medication of two weeks. Clinical and experimental studies indicated that the pulp-capping agent is valuable in clinical treatment. PMID:8257838

  7. Surface Morphology and Dielectric Studies of Zr{sup 4+}-Rich Barium Titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, Raghavendra; Madolappa, Shivanand; Raibagkar, R. L.

    2011-07-15

    In the current work, we have characterized a compound with general formula Ba(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3}(BZT). Surface morphology including grain distribution, histogram of area, volume, length and perimeter was examined through atomic force microscope (AFM). The AFM data revealed the non-uniform distribution of grains in the BZT ceramics. The temperature dependent relative permittivity of the sample was studied and found to exhibit diffuse phase transition phenomenon.

  8. Molecular Characterization and Histopathology of Myxobolus koi Infecting the Gills of A koi Cyprinus carpio, with an Amended Morphologic Description of the Agent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Myxobolus sp., morphologically resembling M. toyamai, M. longisporus, and M. koi, was isolated from the gills of a koi, Cyprinus carpio that died in an ornamental pond. Large plasmodia were localized within lamellae, causing severe disruption of the normal branchial architecture, sufficient to com...

  9. Resolving cryptic species with morphology and DNA; thrips as a potential biocontrol agent of Brazilian peppertree, with a new species and overview of Pseudophilothrips (Thysanoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular and morphological evidence is presented to support the description of a second species of Pseudophilothrips in Brazil in association with Schinus terebinthifolius, an invasive weedy tree in North America. Pseudophilothrips is here recognized as a weakly defined genus comprising 13 describe...

  10. Study by fluorescence microscopy of the effect of fluorescent whitening agents on the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Luckhaus, G; Löser, E

    1975-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopic studies of the skin of hairless mice showed that a fluorescent whitening agent (FWA) of the bis(phenyltriazolyl)stilbenedisulfonate type did not penetrate into the subepithelial layers (dermis and subcutaneous tissue) of the skin after cutaneous application. PMID:1064538

  11. Alternative Strategies for Proof-of-Principle Studies of Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    The proof that a new antibacterial agent is not only active in vitro but also effective in vivo under clinically relevant conditions is currently provided (i) by using appropriate nonclinical models of infection and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) analysis providing evidence of the likelihood of clinical efficacy and (ii) by examining the study drug in exploratory clinical trials, as well as dose and schedule finding during phase II of clinical development. This approach is both time-consuming and costly. Furthermore, PK-PD targets for any novel antibacterial agent cannot be derived from studies with experimental animals. Therefore, alternative strategies have to be identified to prove the principle that a novel antibacterial agent is active under clinically relevant conditions. This review summarizes evidence that the quantitative analysis of shifts in the viable counts of pathogens in infected patients or the evaluation of the PD effect of an investigational agent on indicator organisms of the human resident microflora or colonizers of healthy volunteers, if paralleled with PK monitoring of serum and the target site, provides an alternative to a classical proof-of-principle study in the course of a phase II study program. PMID:24867989

  12. Studies of the action of chemical agents on the heart. Annual report, February 1985-February 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, G.R.; Moutvic, R.R.

    1986-03-01

    This report describes initial studies to determine the subchronic effect of Soman and Sarin, on the electrical, mechanical, and neurochemical properties of the heart. Two different animal models are under development. The electrophysiologic and hemodynamic aspects of survival doses of chemical agent are begin studied in the dog. Two chronically instrumented dog models have been developed. The first is a hemodynamic dog model in which long-term measurements of left and right heart pressures, aortic flow, coronary flow as well as epicardial electrocardiograms, are monitored. The animals will be monitored at baseline and for one month following exposure in survival of a chemical-warfare-agent insult. These animals are stressed via treadmill exercise. The electrophysiology dog model consists of chronically implanted electrodes for performance of repetitive ventricular response stimulation, His bundle recording, and ECG analysis. Measurements are made prior to, and for one month following, exposure to survivable doses of CW agent. This dog model is further probed by sequential administration of various pharmacologic agents designed to study the autonomic status of the heart. All dogs and a limited number of the guinea pigs will be continuously monitored for occurrence of arrhythmic events utilizing Holter monitoring technology. The guinea pig neurochemical studies will include acetylcholines, choline acetyltransferase activity, QNB binding, choline uptake, norepinephrine levels and turnover, and norepinephrine uptake experiments.

  13. Mechanistic studies of Gd3+-based MRI contrast agents for Zn2+ detection: towards rational design.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Célia S; Caillé, Fabien; Pallier, Agnès; Morfin, Jean-François; Petoud, Stéphane; Suzenet, Franck; Tóth, Éva

    2014-08-25

    A series of novel pyridine-based Gd(3+) complexes have been prepared and studied as potential MRI contrast agents for Zn(2+) detection. By independent assessment of molecular parameters affecting relaxivity, we could interpret the relaxivity changes observed upon Zn(2+) binding in terms of variations of the rotational motion. PMID:25116889

  14. A Study of Some Effects of Early Change Agent Behavior on a Group Client System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Douglas Wylie

    A study was conducted to explore some of the relationships existing between the early behavior of a change agent with a group client system and its subsequent effects on the helping relationship established between them. A review of related literature was made. The model of helping relationship which formed the basis for the design of the study…

  15. Anatomical and Morphological Characterization of the Nasopalatine Canal: A Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Rodricks, D; Gupta, A; Phulambrikar, T; Singh, S K; Sharma, B K; Agrawal, P

    2016-04-01

    The anterior maxilla, also called pre-maxilla, is an area frequently requiring surgical interventions. Rehabilitation of this area remains a complex restorative challenge. The most prominent anatomical structure within the anterior maxilla is the Nasopalatine Canal. Thorough knowledge about this anatomical structure plays an important role in the successful outcomes of surgical procedures. This retrospective study was done to evaluate the anatomy and morphology of the Nasopalatine Canal using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study included 125 subjects aged between 15 and 78 years who were divided into the following 5 groups: i) 15-30 years, ii) 30-45 years, iii) 45-60 years, iv) 60-75 years, v) ≥75 years in the Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, Sri Aurobindo College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India from January 2012 to January 2015. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed using a standard exposure and patient positioning protocol. The data of the CBCT images were sliced in three dimensions. Image planes on the three axes (X, Y, and Z) were sequentially analyzed for the location, morphology and dimensions of the Nasopalatine Canal. The correlation of age and gender with all the variables were evaluated. ANOVA and Z-test was used. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Males and females showed significant differences in the length of the canal and anterior bone width in the sagittal sections. Inverted L was identified as a new dimension to the morphological shape of Nasopalatine Canal in central Madhya Pradesh population. The present study highlighted important variability observed in the anatomy and morphology of the Nasopalatine Canal. PMID:27277370

  16. A new chitosan biopolymer derivative as metal-complexing agent: synthesis, characterization, and metal(II) ion adsorption studies.

    PubMed

    Krishnapriya, K R; Kandaswamy, M

    2010-09-23

    In this study, a new chitosan biopolymer derivative (CTSL) has been synthesized by anchoring a new vanillin-based complexing agent or ligand, namely 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl] benzaldehyde, (L) with chitosan (CTS) by means of condensation. The new material was characterized by elemental (CHN), spectral (FTIR and solid state (13)C NMR), thermal (TG-DTA and DSC), structural (powder XRD), and morphological (SEM) analyses. The CTSL was employed to study the equilibrium adsorption of various metal ions, namely, Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II), as functions of pH of the solutions. Its kinetics of adsorption was evaluated utilizing the pseudo first order and pseudo second order equation models and the equilibrium data were analyzed by Langmuir isotherm model. The CTSL shows good adsorption capacity for metal ions studied in the order Cu(II)>Ni(II)>Cd(II)> or =Co> or =Mn(II)>Fe(II)>Pb(II) in all studied pH ranges due to the presence of many coordinating moieties present in it. PMID:20708730

  17. Molecular Modeling Approaches to Study the Binding Mode on Tubulin of Microtubule Destabilizing and Stabilizing Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Maurizio; Forli, Stefano; Magnani, Matteo; Manetti, Fabrizio

    Tubulin targeting agents constitute an important class of anticancer drugs. By acting either as microtubule stabilizers or destabilizers, they disrupt microtubule dynamics, thus inducing mitotic arrest and, ultimately, cell death by apoptosis. Three different binding sites, whose exact location on tubulin has been experimentally detected, have been identified so far for antimitotic compound targeting microtubules, namely the taxoid, the colchicine and the vinka alkaloid binding site. A number of ligand- and structure-based molecular modeling studies in this field has been reported over the years, aimed at elucidating the binding modes of both stabilizing and destabilizing agent, as well as the molecular features responsible for their efficacious interaction with tubulin. Such studies are described in this review, focusing on information provided by different modeling approaches on the structural determinants of antitubulin agents and the interactions with the binding pockets on tubulin emerged as fundamental for antitumor activity.To describe molecular modeling approaches applied to date to molecules known to bind microtubules, this paper has been divided into two main parts: microtubule destabilizing (Part 1) and stabilizing (Part 2) agents. The first part includes structure-based and ligand-based approaches to study molecules targeting colchicine (1.1) and vinca alkaloid (1.2) binding sites, respectively. In the second part, the studies performed on microtubule-stabilizing antimitotic agents (MSAA) are described. Starting from the first representative compound of this class, paclitaxel, molecular modeling studies (quantitative structure-activity relationships - QSAR - and structure-based approaches), performed on natural compounds acting with the same mechanism of action and temptative common pharmacophoric hypotheses for all of these compounds, are reported.

  18. Surfactant mediated morphological tethering of Cu2O nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    This communication describes a very simple and reproducible methodology to study the self-assembly of nanoparticles functionalized with a non-ionic tethering agent attached to the surface of the nanoparticle seeds. The synthesis starts with the [Cu(OH)4]2- species acting as a template, with varying concentration of the tethering agent Triton X-100 (TX100). The morphological alteration is systematically investigated. The effect of surfactant micelles, growth reaction time, and solution temperature has a tremendous impact on the morphology of the nanocrystals that govern the controlled synthesis of different shapes of nanostructures. The initial morphology of the nanocrystals is polyhedron in the absence of a tethering additive. The addition of TX100 suppresses the polymorph phase morphology and enhances the non-uniform spherical morphology of the nanocrystals. The surface modification effect enhances the morphological alteration, which potentially makes it applicable to various industrial uses such as water cleaning, hydrogen production, and third-generation solar cells.

  19. The study of crystallization and interfacial morphology in polymer/carbon nanotube composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minus, Marilyn Lillith

    This study illustrates the ability of SWNT to nucleate and template polymer crystallization and orientation, and produce materials with improved properties and unique polymer morphologies. This research work focuses primarily on the physical interaction between single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and the flexible polymer system polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Polymer crystallization in the near vicinity of SWNT (interphase) has been studied to understand the capability of SWNT in influence polymer morphology in bulk films and fibers. Fibrillar crystallization was achieved by shearing PVA/SWNT dispersions and resulted in the formation of oriented PVA/SWNT fibers or ribbons, while PVA solutions produce unoriented fibers. PVA single crystals were grown in PVA solutions as well as PVA/SWNT dispersions over a period of several months at room temperature (25°C). PVA single crystal growth in PVA/SWNT dispersions is templated by SWNT, and these crystals show the presence of new morphologies for PVA. PVA single crystals of differing morphology were also grown at elevated temperatures, and show morphology dependant electron beam irradiation resistance. Gel-spinning was used to produce PVA, and PVA/SWNT fibers where, PVA crystallization in the bulk fiber was observed. With 1 wt% SWNT loading in PVA, the fiber tensile strength increased from 1.6 GPa for the control PVA to 2.6 GPa for PVA/SWNT. Analysis of this data suggests stress of up to ˜120 GPa on the SWNT. This is the highest reported stress on the SWNT to date and confirm excellent reinforcement and load transfer of SWNT in the PVA matrix. Raman spectroscopy data show high SWNT alignment in the fiber where the I0*/I90* ratio is measured to be 106. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) is used to characterize polymer morphology near the polymer-SWNT interface for PVA/SWNT fibers. HR-TEM studies of Polymer/CNT composites show distinct morphological differences at the polymer-SWNT interface/interphase for

  20. A Morphological Study of Compact Narrow Emission Line Galaxies In The COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldassare, Vivienne; Feldman, D.; Greenbaum, A.; Hasan, I.; Mahalchick, S.; Liu, C.; COSMOS Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a morphological study of 139 spectroscopically selected compact narrow emission line galaxies (CNELGs) from the COSMOS HST Treasury Survey, using a comparison sample of field galaxies of similar magnitude obtained from the COSMOS field. The CNELGs range in magnitude from 18.13 < V < 21.95 and in redshift from 0 < z < 0.9. Preliminary results indicate that, whereas statistically the CNELGs are clearly morphologically distinct from our comparison sample, at HST resolution they are also clearly not all - or even predominantly - "compact." This work was supported by an NSF REU Site grant to The City University of New York and American Museum of Natural History; an NSF STEAM grant to the College of Staten Island; the NASA New York Space Grant program; Barnard College; and the CUNY Macaulay Honors College.

  1. A study on different morphological structures of zinc oxide nanostructures for humidity sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Abdullah, M. A. R.; Sin, M. D.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    Effects of different morphological structures of ZnO to the performance of the device in the humidity sensing have been studied. Two different kinds of nanostructures were obtained which are nanords and nanoflakes. From the surface morphology image, the ZnO nanoflakes has lower diameter size of 100 nm compared to ZnO nanorods of 250 nm. The ZnO nanoflakes are not aligned and has low porous structure compared to ZnO nanorods. The humidity sensor performance of ZnO nanorods has superior performance compared to ZnO nanoflakes. The sensitivity of the ZnO nanorods sensor is 3.20 which are almost two times higher than the ZnO nanoflakes of 1.65. The structural properties of the samples have been characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) electrical properties has been characterized using current voltage (I-V) measurement.

  2. A morphological study of the tracheal epithelium of the snake Natrix maura.

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, L M

    1990-01-01

    The epithelium of the trachea of the Natrix maura snake was studied by conventional light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The epithelium is formed of basal, ciliated, endocrine and secretory cells. It shows different thickness and distribution of the cells, depending on the area (covering the cartilaginous or the membranous zone). Secretory cells show a morphology similar to that found in lizards but it is different from the mucous cells reported in the extrapulmonary airways of turtles, birds and mammals. The ultrastructure of the secretory cells is similar to that reported for serous cells in the airways of mammals. Intra-epithelial plasma cells are also found within the epithelium. The present results show that there are marked morphological differences between the tracheal epithelium of lizards and snakes and that of turtles, birds and mammals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2272908

  3. Amorphous material of the skin in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a morphologic and biochemical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, S.; Nagao, K.; Yamauchi, M.

    1994-01-01

    We performed morphologic studies on skin from seven patients with ALS and seven control subjects. By light microscopy, the wide spaces that separated collagen bundles reacted strongly with colloidal iron and alcian blue in ALS patients. Electron microscopy revealed markedly increased amorphous material that was positive for ruthenium red in the ground substance. These findings were not present in controls. Quantitative amino acid analysis showed that the amount of total amino acids (nmoles per mg dry weight) was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in ALS patients compared with that of controls, and there was a significant negative correlation between skin amino acid content and duration of illness in ALS patients (r = -0.83, p < 0.001). These morphologic findings and biochemical data indicate that the amorphous material, which is markedly increased in ALS skin, includes glycosaminoglycans.

  4. Relation of discoid lateral meniscus and cord-like anterior intermeniscal ligament: morphological and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ozcanli, Haluk; Keles, Nigar; Gocmen-Mas, Nüket; Ozenci, Alpay Merter; Aydin, Ahmet Turan

    2011-10-01

    Discoid lateral meniscus is a rare disorder and its association with other variations in the knee joint has been reported. The anterior intermeniscal ligament has also been described as connecting the anterior convex margin of the lateral meniscus to the anterior horn of the medial meniscus. In the normal population, it was observed at 53-94%. Although the functional properties of the anterior intermeniscal ligament are not yet clarified, two distinct types of the ligament have been described according to their morphological characteristics as cord-like and membranous types. The purpose of this study was to evaluate any possible association between morphologic types of anterior intermeniscal ligament and discoid lateral meniscus. A retrospective study was designed; 20 discoid lateral menisci were operated using routine arthroscopic examination. Upon arthroscopic examination the thickness of the ligament and associated morphological changes were recorded systematically. The cord-like anterior intermeniscal ligament was an associated structure in 15 of the 20 knees with discoid lateral meniscus (75%). Patients with discoid lateral meniscus apparently have cord-like type anterior intermeniscal ligament, thus we conclude that cord-like type of anterior intermeniscal ligament is a frequent accompanying structure to discoid lateral meniscus and may have a potential stabilizing effect on its anterior stability. PMID:21404043

  5. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  6. Neurobiological origin of spurious brain morphological changes: A quantitative MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Lorio, Sara; Kherif, Ferath; Ruef, Anne; Melie‐Garcia, Lester; Frackowiak, Richard; Ashburner, John; Helms, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The high gray‐white matter contrast and spatial resolution provided by T1‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made it a widely used imaging protocol for computational anatomy studies of the brain. While the image intensity in T1‐weighted images is predominantly driven by T1, other MRI parameters affect the image contrast, and hence brain morphological measures derived from the data. Because MRI parameters are correlates of different histological properties of brain tissue, this mixed contribution hampers the neurobiological interpretation of morphometry findings, an issue which remains largely ignored in the community. We acquired quantitative maps of the MRI parameters that determine signal intensities in T1‐weighted images (R 1 (=1/T1), R 2*, and PD) in a large cohort of healthy subjects (n = 120, aged 18–87 years). Synthetic T1‐weighted images were calculated from these quantitative maps and used to extract morphometry features—gray matter volume and cortical thickness. We observed significant variations in morphometry measures obtained from synthetic images derived from different subsets of MRI parameters. We also detected a modulation of these variations by age. Our findings highlight the impact of microstructural properties of brain tissue—myelination, iron, and water content—on automated measures of brain morphology and show that microstructural tissue changes might lead to the detection of spurious morphological changes in computational anatomy studies. They motivate a review of previous morphological results obtained from standard anatomical MRI images and highlight the value of quantitative MRI data for the inference of microscopic tissue changes in the healthy and diseased brain. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1801–1815, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876452

  7. Morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from contrasting locations in southern tropical India - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsan, Aswathy E.; Priyamvada, Hema; Ravikrishna, R.; Després, Viviane R.; Biju, C. V.; Sahu, Lokesh K.; Kumar, Ashwini; Verma, R. S.; Philip, L.; Gunthe, Sachin S.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaerosols, which are ubiquitous in the earth's atmosphere, are poorly characterized in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Improved knowledge of their physical and chemical properties is essential to have a better understanding of their dispersion and long-range transport in the atmosphere and at the same time to assess their role as potential Ice Nuclei (IN). In the present work, possibly for the first time we report the morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from marine urban and high altitude continental regions in Southern India. The samples were collected using polycarbonate filter paper and analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with Energy-dispersive Spectra Detector (EDX/EDS). The observed bioaerosols exhibited great variability in their morphological features over this region of the world. At these contrasting environments, we found that fungal spores constituted the major fraction of the total observed bioaerosols. Pollen grains, plant and insect fragments, and lot of other non-identified bio-particles were also observed constituting the remaining fraction. Further, the classification of fungal spores exhibited strong variability over this region. For example, fungal spores of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota class were seen in abundance in marine environment, while Ascomycota especially Cladosporium were seen in abundance in high altitude continental environment. Our findings also suggest that increase in diversity of bioaerosol particles at marine site appeared to coincide with precipitation. It appears that vast diversity in the morphological features of bioaerosols exists over this region, which should further be studied using advanced online techniques for better quantification under contrasting environments. However, the diversity observed in morphological characteristics of bioaerosols at these two contrasting locations is limited and restricted to these two sites and season of the year, and should therefore

  8. Neurobiological origin of spurious brain morphological changes: A quantitative MRI study.

    PubMed

    Lorio, Sara; Kherif, Ferath; Ruef, Anne; Melie-Garcia, Lester; Frackowiak, Richard; Ashburner, John; Helms, Gunther; Lutti, Antoine; Draganski, Bodgan

    2016-05-01

    The high gray-white matter contrast and spatial resolution provided by T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made it a widely used imaging protocol for computational anatomy studies of the brain. While the image intensity in T1-weighted images is predominantly driven by T1, other MRI parameters affect the image contrast, and hence brain morphological measures derived from the data. Because MRI parameters are correlates of different histological properties of brain tissue, this mixed contribution hampers the neurobiological interpretation of morphometry findings, an issue which remains largely ignored in the community. We acquired quantitative maps of the MRI parameters that determine signal intensities in T1-weighted images (R1 (=1/T1), R2 *, and PD) in a large cohort of healthy subjects (n = 120, aged 18-87 years). Synthetic T1-weighted images were calculated from these quantitative maps and used to extract morphometry features-gray matter volume and cortical thickness. We observed significant variations in morphometry measures obtained from synthetic images derived from different subsets of MRI parameters. We also detected a modulation of these variations by age. Our findings highlight the impact of microstructural properties of brain tissue-myelination, iron, and water content-on automated measures of brain morphology and show that microstructural tissue changes might lead to the detection of spurious morphological changes in computational anatomy studies. They motivate a review of previous morphological results obtained from standard anatomical MRI images and highlight the value of quantitative MRI data for the inference of microscopic tissue changes in the healthy and diseased brain. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1801-1815, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876452

  9. Phase-field model for compositional and morphological evolution studies in thin film heteroepitaxial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nitin

    , which are solved using a nonlinear multigrid method. The model is used to investigate the influence of the sign of compositional strain and of the epitaxial mismatch on the arrangement of the equilibrium phases within the film. These studies indicate the possibility of compositional self-assembly processes in addition to morphological self-assembly.

  10. A Pilot Study: The Efficacy of Virgin Coconut Oil as Ocular Rewetting Agent on Rabbit Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Chinn Hooi, Ng; Safie, Nor Hasanah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO) was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P < 0.05). However, further statistical analysis had shown no significant difference at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks compared to initial measurement (P > 0.05). There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P > 0.05). Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being. PMID:25802534

  11. Diffuse reflectance study of the effects of bleaching agents in damaged dental pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bante-Guerra, J.; Trejo-Tzab, R.; Macias, J. D.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2011-03-01

    One of the most important subjects of interest in dentistry and teeth preservation is related to the effects of bleaching agents on the integrity of the dental pieces. This is especially crucial when teeth surface has received some damage, generated by chemical, biological and mechanical agents or weathering in the case of dental pieces recovered from burial sites. In this work the time evolution of the effects of bleaching agents on the surface of dental pieces is monitored using diffuse reflectance in the visible spectrum is reported. The effects were monitored in teeth previously subject to chemical agents. Bleaching was induced using commercial whitening products. It is shown that the time evolution of the reflectance depends strongly on the condition of the surface as well as on the thickness of enamel. Additionally the colorimetric analysis of the samples during the bleaching is presented. This is especially useful in for comparing with previous studies. In order to complement our studies, the effects of the bleaching on the surface of the teeth were monitored by scanning electron microscopy.

  12. The Role of Morphological Awareness in Reading Achievement among Young Chinese-Speaking English Language Learners: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Katie; Chen, Xi; Geva, Esther; Luo, Yang C.; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the development of morphological awareness and its contribution to vocabulary and reading comprehension among young Chinese-speaking English language learners (ELLs). We focused on two aspects of morphological awareness: derivational awareness and compound awareness. Participants included 46 kindergarteners (younger…

  13. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies.

    PubMed

    Lahiani, Mohamed H; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%-46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml(-1). The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. These established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta. PMID:27195934

  14. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-05-19

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%–46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml–1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the additionmore » of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. Furthermore, these established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.« less

  15. A high-frequency study of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect morphology in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, D. A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Akahori, T.; Million, E. T.; Nagataki, S.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2011-09-01

    High-frequency, high-resolution imaging of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect is an important technique to study the complex structures of the atmospheres of merging galaxy clusters. Such observations are sensitive to the details of the electron spectrum. We show that the morphology of the SZ intensity maps in simulated galaxy clusters observed at 345, 600 and 857 GHz are significantly different because of SZ relativistic corrections. These differences can be revealed by high-resolution imaging instruments. We calculate relativistically corrected SZ intensity maps of a simulated, massive, merging galaxy cluster and of the massive, merging clusters 1E0657-558 (the Bullet cluster) and Abell 2219. The morphologies of the SZ intensity maps are remarkably different between 345 and 857 GHz for each merging cluster. We show that high-resolution imaging observations of the SZ intensity maps at these frequencies, obtainable with the LABOCA and HERSCHEL-SPIRE instruments, allow to fully exploit the astrophysical relevance of the predicted SZ morphological effect.

  16. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%–46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml‑1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. These established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.

  17. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan

    2014-09-01

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec-1. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD50 to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  18. Morphological study of the lingual papillae of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, J F; Barbosa, M; De Paz, F J

    2008-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of giant pandas, there are few descriptions of their morphology and even fewer of their microscopic anatomy and the ultrastructure of their organs. In this study of the complete tongue of an adult male giant panda, we describe the morphology of its lingual surface, the different types of papillae, their characteristics and topographic distribution. It was seen that there are four main types of lingual papillae: filiform, conical, fungiform and vallate. There was no sign of foliate papillae, tuberculum intermolare or sublingua. Papilla distribution was not limited to the dorsum of the tongue, but was also seen on the anterior and ventral surfaces of the tongue. In the anterior third of the midline there is a smooth area with no papillae at all. Morphology of the microgrooves and pores is similar to that observed in other mammals. The papillae share characteristics encountered in Carnivora and herbivorous species of mammals. A narrow bamboo-based diet and specialized manner of eating have together resulted in modification of the tongue of a carnivoran, giving it some characteristics typical of an herbivore. PMID:18254792

  19. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan

    2014-09-03

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec{sup −1}. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD{sub 50} to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  20. THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE EJECTA IN SUPERNOVA 1987A: A STUDY OVER TIME AND WAVELENGTH

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Josefin; Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter; Sollerman, Jesper; Kjaer, Karina; Leibundgut, Bruno; Spyromilio, Jason; Jerkstrand, Anders; Kirshner, Robert P.; Mattila, Seppo; McCray, Richard; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2013-05-01

    We present a study of the morphology of the ejecta in Supernova 1987A based on images and spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as well as integral field spectroscopy from VLT/SINFONI. The HST observations were obtained between 1994 and 2011 and primarily probe the outer H-rich zones of the ejecta. The SINFONI observations were obtained in 2005 and 2011 and instead probe the [Si I]+[Fe II] emission from the inner regions. We find a strong temporal evolution of the morphology in the HST images, from a roughly elliptical shape before {approx}5000 days, to a more irregular, edge-brightened morphology with a ''hole'' in the middle thereafter. This transition is a natural consequence of the change in the dominant energy source powering the ejecta, from radioactive decay before {approx}5000 days to X-ray input from the circumstellar interaction thereafter. The [Si I]+[Fe II] images display a more uniform morphology, which may be due to a remaining significant contribution from radioactivity in the inner ejecta and the higher abundance of these elements in the core. Both the H{alpha} and the [Si I]+[Fe II] line profiles show that the ejecta are distributed fairly close to the plane of the inner circumstellar ring, which is assumed to define the rotational axis of the progenitor star. The H{alpha} emission extends to higher velocities than [Si I]+[Fe II], as expected from theoretical models. There is no clear symmetry axis for all the emission. Instead, we find that the emission is concentrated to clumps and that the emission is distributed somewhat closer to the ring in the north than in the south. This north-south asymmetry may be partially explained by dust absorption. We compare our results with explosion models and find some qualitative agreement, but note that the observations show a higher degree of large-scale asymmetry.

  1. Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2014-02-14

    Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise. PMID:24291669

  2. Morphologic Characteristics of Choroid in the Major Choroidal Thickening Diseases, Studied by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Se Woong; Woo, Se Joon; Ryoo, Na-Kyung; Kim, Sang Jin; Han, Gyule

    2016-01-01

    We investigated morphologic features of choroid in the choroidal thickening diseases, including central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH), by a novel tomographic classification system of the choroid. This cross-sectional study involved 30 patients with active CSC, 30 patients with active PCV, and 27 patients with active VKH, and 30 normal controls. Utilizing enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, we classified the morphology of the choroid into five categories: 1) Standard (S), 2) Dilated outer layer and Attenuated inner layer (DA), 3) Darkened (D), 4) Marbled (M), and 5) Pauci-Vascular (PV) types. Additional tomographic characteristics of the choroid such as choroidal vascular dilation, convolution, scleral invisibility, and choroidal hyper- or hypo-thickening were identified as well. The distribution of five choroidal tomographic morphology and additional tomographic characteristics in each group were analyzed. The DA type was observed in the CSC group more frequently than in the normal control group (53.3% vs 3.3%, P < 0.001). Additional tomographic characteristics, such as choroidal vascular dilation (76.7%), and choroidal hyper-thickening (36.7%), were more prevalent in the CSC group than in the control group. The PCV group showed higher prevalence of DA type (33.3% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.006) than the control group. The VKH group showed a significantly higher frequency of the D type (63.0%), convolution (40.7%), and scleral invisibility (70.4%) than controls (0% for all three findings). In conclusion, CSC and PCV shared common morphologic characteristics of choroid, including dilated outer vascular layer and focally attenuated innermost layer. Dense hypo-reflectivity and convolution of choroid were the specific tomographic markers for acute VKH. A new tomographic classification system of choroid may provide discrimination ability and insight into major pachychoroidopathies

  3. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics

  4. Morphologic Characteristics of Choroid in the Major Choroidal Thickening Diseases, Studied by Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoyoung; Bae, Kunho; Kang, Se Woong; Woo, Se Joon; Ryoo, Na-Kyung; Kim, Sang Jin; Han, Gyule

    2016-01-01

    We investigated morphologic features of choroid in the choroidal thickening diseases, including central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH), by a novel tomographic classification system of the choroid. This cross-sectional study involved 30 patients with active CSC, 30 patients with active PCV, and 27 patients with active VKH, and 30 normal controls. Utilizing enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, we classified the morphology of the choroid into five categories: 1) Standard (S), 2) Dilated outer layer and Attenuated inner layer (DA), 3) Darkened (D), 4) Marbled (M), and 5) Pauci-Vascular (PV) types. Additional tomographic characteristics of the choroid such as choroidal vascular dilation, convolution, scleral invisibility, and choroidal hyper- or hypo-thickening were identified as well. The distribution of five choroidal tomographic morphology and additional tomographic characteristics in each group were analyzed. The DA type was observed in the CSC group more frequently than in the normal control group (53.3% vs 3.3%, P < 0.001). Additional tomographic characteristics, such as choroidal vascular dilation (76.7%), and choroidal hyper-thickening (36.7%), were more prevalent in the CSC group than in the control group. The PCV group showed higher prevalence of DA type (33.3% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.006) than the control group. The VKH group showed a significantly higher frequency of the D type (63.0%), convolution (40.7%), and scleral invisibility (70.4%) than controls (0% for all three findings). In conclusion, CSC and PCV shared common morphologic characteristics of choroid, including dilated outer vascular layer and focally attenuated innermost layer. Dense hypo-reflectivity and convolution of choroid were the specific tomographic markers for acute VKH. A new tomographic classification system of choroid may provide discrimination ability and insight into major pachychoroidopathies

  5. Study of the Effect of Nanoparticles and Surface Morphology on Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membrane Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuming; Duranceau, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) surface morphology on membrane performance, productivity experiments were conducted using flat-sheet membranes and three different nanoparticles, which included SiO2, TiO2 and CeO2. In this study, the productivity rate was markedly influenced by membrane surface morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of membrane surfaces revealed that the higher productivity decline rates associated with polyamide RO membranes as compared to that of a cellulose acetate NF membrane was due to the inherent ridge-and-valley morphology of the active layer. The unique polyamide active layer morphology was directly related to the surface roughness, and was found to contribute to particle accumulation in the valleys causing a higher flux decline than in smoother membranes. Extended RO productivity experiments using laboratory grade water and diluted pretreated seawater were conducted to compare the effect that different nanoparticles had on membrane active layers. Membrane flux decline was not affected by particle type when the feed water was laboratory grade water. On the other hand, membrane productivity was affected by particle type when pretreated diluted seawater served as feed water. It was found that CeO2 addition resulted in the least observable flux decline, followed by SiO2 and TiO2. A productivity simulation was conducted by fitting the monitored flux data into a cake growth rate model, where the model was modified using a finite difference method to incorporate surface thickness variation into the analysis. The ratio of cake growth term (k1) and particle back diffusion term (k2) was compared in between different RO and NF membranes. Results indicated that k2 was less significant for surfaces that exhibited a higher roughness. It was concluded that the valley areas of thin-film membrane surfaces have the ability to capture particles, limiting particle back diffusion. PMID:24956946

  6. A computerized tomography study of the morphological interrelationship between the temporal bones and the craniofacial complex

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Helder Nunes; Slavicek, Rudolf; Sato, Sadao

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that the temporal bones are at the center of the dynamics of the craniofacial complex, directly influencing facial morphology, has been put forward long ago. This study examines the role of the spatial positioning of temporal bones (frontal and sagittal inclination) in terms of influencing overall facial morphology. Several 3D linear, angular and orthogonal measurements obtained through computerized analysis of virtual models of 163 modern human skulls reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomography images were analyzed and correlated. Additionally, the sample was divided into two subgroups based on the median value of temporal bone sagittal inclination [anterior rotation group (n = 82); posterior rotation group (n = 81)], and differences between groups evaluated. Correlation coefficients showed that sagittal inclination of the temporal bone was significantly (P < 0.01) related to midline flexion, transversal width and anterior–posterior length of the basicranium, to the anterior–posterior positioning of the mandible and maxilla, and posterior midfacial height. Frontal inclination of the temporal bone was significantly related (P < 0.01) to basicranium anterior–posterior and transversal dimensions, and to posterior midfacial height. In comparison with the posterior rotation group, the anterior rotation group presented a less flexed and anterior–posteriorly longer cranial base, a narrower skull, porion and the articular eminence located more superiorly and posteriorly, a shorter posterior midfacial height, the palatal plane rotated clockwise, a more retrognathic maxilla and mandible, and the upper posterior occlusal plane more inclined and posteriorly located. The results suggest that differences in craniofacial morphology are highly integrated with differences in the positional relationship of the temporal bones. The sagittal inclination of the temporal bone seems to have a greater impact on the 3D morphology of the craniofacial complex than

  7. Molecular dynamics study on effect of elongational flow on morphology of immiscible mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chau; Kalra, Vibha

    2014-04-01

    We studied the effect of elongational flow on structure and kinetics of phase separation in immiscible blends using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different blend systems have been investigated—binary blend of polymers and binary mixture of molecular fluids. The interaction potential parameters in both material systems were chosen to ensure complete phase-separation in equilibrium. We found that elongational flow, beyond a certain rate, significantly alters the steady state morphology in such immiscible mixtures. For the case of polymer blends, perpendicular lamellar morphology was formed under elongation rates (dot \\varepsilon) from 0.05 to 0.5 MD units possibly due to the interplay of two opposing phenomena—domain deformation/rupture under elongation and aggregation of like-domains due to favorable energetic interactions. The elongation timescale at the critical rate of transition from phase-separated to the lamellar structure (dot \\varepsilon = 0.05) was found to be comparable to the estimated polymer relaxation time, suggesting a cross-over to the elongation/rupture-dominant regime. Under strong elongational flow rate, dot \\varepsilon > 0.5, the formation of disordered morphology was seen in polymer blend systems. The kinetics of phase separation was monitored by calculating domain size as a function of time for various elongational flow rates. The domain growth along the vorticity-axis was shown to follow a power law, Rz(t) ˜ t α. A growth exponent, α of 1/3 for the polymer blend and 0.5-0.6 for the fluid molecular mixture was found under elongation rates from 0.005 to 0.1. The higher growth exponent in the fluid mixture is a result of its faster diffusion time scale compared to that of polymer chains. The steady state end-to-end distance of polymer chains and viscosity of the polymer blend were examined and found to depend on the steady state morphology and elongation rate.

  8. Molecular dynamics study on effect of elongational flow on morphology of immiscible mixtures.

    PubMed

    Tran, Chau; Kalra, Vibha

    2014-04-01

    We studied the effect of elongational flow on structure and kinetics of phase separation in immiscible blends using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different blend systems have been investigated-binary blend of polymers and binary mixture of molecular fluids. The interaction potential parameters in both material systems were chosen to ensure complete phase-separation in equilibrium. We found that elongational flow, beyond a certain rate, significantly alters the steady state morphology in such immiscible mixtures. For the case of polymer blends, perpendicular lamellar morphology was formed under elongation rates (ε̇) from 0.05 to 0.5 MD units possibly due to the interplay of two opposing phenomena-domain deformation/rupture under elongation and aggregation of like-domains due to favorable energetic interactions. The elongation timescale at the critical rate of transition from phase-separated to the lamellar structure (ε̇ = 0.05) was found to be comparable to the estimated polymer relaxation time, suggesting a cross-over to the elongation/rupture-dominant regime. Under strong elongational flow rate, ε̇ > 0.5, the formation of disordered morphology was seen in polymer blend systems. The kinetics of phase separation was monitored by calculating domain size as a function of time for various elongational flow rates. The domain growth along the vorticity-axis was shown to follow a power law, Rz(t) ∼ t( α). A growth exponent, α of 1/3 for the polymer blend and 0.5-0.6 for the fluid molecular mixture was found under elongation rates from 0.005 to 0.1. The higher growth exponent in the fluid mixture is a result of its faster diffusion time scale compared to that of polymer chains. The steady state end-to-end distance of polymer chains and viscosity of the polymer blend were examined and found to depend on the steady state morphology and elongation rate. PMID:24712811

  9. Growth, morphology, spectral and thermal studies of gel grown diclofenac acid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, E.; Ramukutty, S.

    2014-03-01

    The crystal growth of diclofenac acid in silica gel is the first to be reported in literature. The growth parameters were varied to optimize the suitable growth condition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction method was used for the conformation of the crystal structure. Morphology studies showed that the growth is prominent along the b-axis and the prominent face is {002}. Fourier transform infrared spectral study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. Thermal stability and decomposition of the material were analyzed using thermo calorimetry in the temperature range 30-500 °C.

  10. Retentiveness of various luting agents used with implant-supported prostheses: a preliminary in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pooja; Gupta, Gaurav; Prithviraj, D R; Pujari, Malesh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary in vitro study was to compare the retentiveness of a luting agent designed for use with dental implants to luting agents designed for use with tooth-retained restorations. The following luting agents were tested: (1) implant cement, (2) resin-bonded zinc oxide-eugenol cement, (3) zinc phosphate cement, (4) zinc polycarboxylate cement, and (5) glass-ionomer cement. After cementation, each sample was subjected to a pull-out test using a universal testing machine, and the loads required to remove the crowns were recorded. The mean values and standard deviations of cement failure loads were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test. The mean cement failure loads (N) were 333.86 ± 18.91 for implant cement, 394.62 ± 9.76 for resin-bonded zinc oxide-eugenol cement, 629.30 ± 20.65 for zinc phosphate cement, 810.08 ± 11.52 for zinc polycarboxylate cement, and 750.17 ± 13.78 for glass-ionomer cement. The retention provided by polycarboxylate cement was significantly greater than that of all other luting agents; the implant cement showed the lowest retention values. These preliminary in vitro observations need to be confirmed under conditions that more closely approximate the clinical environment. PMID:23342339

  11. Caries-removal effectiveness of a papain-based chemo-mechanical agent: A quantitative micro-CT study.

    PubMed

    Neves, Aline A; Lourenço, Roseane A; Alves, Haimon D; Lopes, Ricardo T; Primo, Laura G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to access the effectiveness and specificity of a papain-based chemo-mechanical caries-removal agent in providing minimum residual caries after cavity preparation. In order to do it, extracted carious molars were selected and scanned in a micro-CT before and after caries-removal procedures with the papain-based gel. Similar parameters for acquisition and reconstruction of the image stacks were used between the scans. After classification of the dentin substrate based on mineral density intervals and establishment of a carious tissue threshold, volumetric parameters related to effectiveness (mineral density of removed dentin volume and residual dentin tissue) and specificity (relation between carious dentin in removed volume and initial caries) of this caries-removal agent were obtained. In general, removed dentin volume was similar or higher than the initial carious volume, indicating that the method was able to effectively remove dentin tissue. Samples with an almost perfect accuracy in carious dentin removal also showed an increased removal of caries-affected tissue. On the contrary, less or no affected dentin was removed in samples where some carious tissue was left in residual dentin. Mineral density values in residual dentin were always higher or similar to the threshold for mineral density values in carious dentin. In conclusion, the papain-based gel was effective in removing carious dentin up to a conservative in vitro threshold. Lesion characteristics, such as activity and morphology of enamel lesion, may also influence caries-removal properties of the method. PMID:25809787

  12. Morphological variants of lateral meniscus of the knee: a cadaveric study in South Indian human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Murlimanju, B V; Nair, Narga; Ray, Biswabina; Pai, Mangala M; Amin, Soumya; Pai, Shakuntala R

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, the objectives were to study the morphology of the lateral menisci (LMs) in human fetuses from a South Indian population and to verify the developmental etiology of the discoid lateral meniscus (DLM). The study included 106 fetal knee joints which were fixed in 10% formalin. After dissecting the joints, the morphological variants of the shapes of the LMs were macroscopically noted and classified as discoid and nondiscoid. The nondiscoids were subdivided into C-shaped and crescentic. The discoid lateral menisci (DLMs) were divided into complete and incomplete discoid. From our observations, 82.1% of the LMs were found to be nondiscoid. Among them, 62.3% were C-shaped and 19.8% were crescentic. The remaining 17.9% of the LMs had a discoid shape, and among these, 14.1% were incomplete discoid and 3.8% were completely discoid. Bilaterality of the discoid shape was observed in 26.6% of the cases. There was a female preponderance (11:8) among LMs with discoid morphology. In conclusion, the prevalence of DLM according to the present study was estimated as 17.9%. Our findings favor Kaplan's theory, as the majority of the fetuses of various gestational ages had nondiscoid LMs. Even the youngest fetus (CRL 88 mm, 14 weeks of gestation) exhibited a lateral tibial plateau that was incompletely covered by the meniscus, which did not exhibit a discoid shape. We believe that the DLM is anomalous and arises through variant morphogenesis. PMID:20549581

  13. Study of Structural Morphology of Hemp Fiber from the Micro to the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bei; Sain, Mohini; Oksman, Kristiina

    2007-03-01

    The focus of this work has been to study how high pressure defibrillation and chemical purification affect the hemp fiber morphology from micro to nanoscale. Microscopy techniques, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the structure and properties of the prepared micro and nanofibers. Microscopy studies showed that the used individualization processes lead to a unique morphology of interconnected web-like structure of hemp fibers. The nanofibers are bundles of cellulose fibers of widths ranging between 30 and 100 nm and estimated lengths of several micrometers. The chemical analysis showed that selective chemical treatments increased the α-cellulose content of hemp nanofibers from 75 to 94%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed that the pectins were partially removed during the individualization treatments. X-ray analysis showed that the relative crystallinity of the studied fibers increased after each stage of chemical and mechanical treatments. It was also observed that the hemp nanofibers had an increased crystallinity of 71 from 57% of untreated hemp fibers.

  14. Integrated Agent-Based and Production Cost Modeling Framework for Renewable Energy Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Giulia

    2015-10-07

    The agent-based framework for renewable energy studies (ARES) is an integrated approach that adds an agent-based model of industry actors to PLEXOS and combines the strengths of the two to overcome their individual shortcomings. It can examine existing and novel wholesale electricity markets under high penetrations of renewables. ARES is demonstrated by studying how increasing levels of wind will impact the operations and the exercise of market power of generation companies that exploit an economic withholding strategy. The analysis is carried out on a test system that represents the Electric Reliability Council of Texas energy-only market in the year 2020. The results more realistically reproduce the operations of an energy market under different and increasing penetrations of wind, and ARES can be extended to address pressing issues in current and future wholesale electricity markets.

  15. Agent-Based vs. Equation-based Epidemiological Models:A Model Selection Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Nutaro, James J

    2012-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the need to design model validation strategies for epidemiological disease-spread models. We consider both agent-based and equation-based models of pandemic disease spread and study the nuances and complexities one has to consider from the perspective of model validation. For this purpose, we instantiate an equation based model and an agent based model of the 1918 Spanish flu and we leverage data published in the literature for our case- study. We present our observations from the perspective of each implementation and discuss the application of model-selection criteria to compare the risk in choosing one modeling paradigm to another. We conclude with a discussion of our experience and document future ideas for a model validation framework.

  16. H2 Receptor Antagonists and Right Ventricular Morphology: The MESA Right Ventricle Study

    PubMed Central

    Barr, R. Graham; Bluemke, David A.; Bristow, Michael R.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Lima, Joao A.; Ralph, David D.; Ventetuolo, Corey E.; Kawut, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) use is common and may act directly on the heart through myocardial H2 receptors or indirectly through changes in pulmonary vascular resistance. Objectives: To determine the relationship between histamine H2RA use and right ventricular (RV) morphology. Methods: We studied 4,122 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis without clinical cardiovascular disease who had magnetic resonance imaging assessment of RV morphology and ascertainment of medication use. Multivariable linear regression estimated cross-sectional associations between H2RA use and RV morphology after adjusting for demographics, anthropometrics, smoking status, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Further adjustments for co-medication use, left ventricular parameters, lung structure and function, renal function, or inflammatory markers were considered in separate models. Analyses in a subcohort restricted to H2RA or proton pump inhibitor users accounted for confounding by the indication of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Measurements and Main Results: H2RA use was associated with lower RV mass (–0.7 g; 95% confidence interval, –1.2 to –0.2 g; P = 0.004) and smaller RV end-diastolic volume (–4.2 ml; 95% confidence interval, –7.2 to –1.2 ml; P = 0.006). This relationship was unchanged with adjustment for co-medication use, lung structure and function, renal function, and inflammation. The relationship with RV mass was independent of left ventricular mass. Results were similar in the smaller cohort restricted to proton pump inhibitor and H2RA users. Conclusions: H2RA use was associated with lower RV mass and smaller RV end-diastolic volume. Additional study of histamine and H2 receptors in cardiopulmonary diseases affecting the RV may have direct clinical relevance. PMID:25295642

  17. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Five Loci Influencing Facial Morphology in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fan; van der Lijn, Fedde; Schurmann, Claudia; Zhu, Gu; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Hysi, Pirro G.; Wollstein, Andreas; Lao, Oscar; de Bruijne, Marleen; Ikram, M. Arfan; van der Lugt, Aad; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J.; Homuth, Georg; de Zubicaray, Greig; McMahon, Katie L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Daboul, Amro; Puls, Ralf; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Bevan, Liisa; Pausova, Zdenka; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Wright, Margaret J.; Wicking, Carol; Boehringer, Stefan; Spector, Timothy D.; Paus, Tomáš; Martin, Nicholas G.; Biffar, Reiner; Kayser, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes—PRDM16, PAX3, TP63, C5orf50, and COL17A1—in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at PAX3 influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications. PMID:23028347

  18. Morphological study of styloid process of the temporal bone and its clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Vadgaonkar, Rajanigandha; Prabhu, Latha V.; Rai, Rajalakshmi; Pai, Mangala M.; Tonse, Mamatha; Jiji, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study the morphometry of the styloid process of temporal bone and prevalence of elongated styloid process. The morphology of elongated styloid process along with its embryological and clinical importance are discussed. The present study included 110 human dry skulls which were procured from the bone collections of the department of anatomy. The styloid process was observed macroscopically on both sides of all the skulls, the elongations if any were noted. All the styloids were measured for their length, thickness at different levels and interstyloid distance at various levels. Out of 110 specimens, only 5 skulls (4.5%) exhibited the elongated styloid process. Among them, 3 skulls (2.7%) had unilateral elongation and 2 skulls (1.8%) had bilateral elongation of the styloid process. The mean length of the styloid process was 17.8±9.3 mm and 18.2±5.6 mm for the right and left sides, respectively. The prevalence of elongated styloid process in the present study was 4.5%. The clinical anatomy of this congenital variant is important to the neurosurgeon and radiologist, while interpreting the computed tomogram and magnetic resonance image scans. The morphological knowledge of elongated styloid process is clinically important since the course of the vertebral artery may be distorted in such situations. PMID:26417479

  19. Agent Based Study of Surprise Attacks:. Roles of Surveillance, Prompt Reaction and Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Linda; Sen, Surajit

    Defending a confined territory from a surprise attack is seldom possible. We use molecular dynamics and statistical physics inspired agent-based simulations to explore the evolution and outcome of such attacks. The study suggests robust emergent behavior, which emphasizes the importance of accurate surveillance, automated and powerful attack response, building layout, and sheds light on the role of communication restrictions in defending such territories.

  20. The use of optical coherence tomography for morphological study of scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Veksler, B A; Kuz'min, V L; Kobzev, E D; Meglinski, I V

    2012-05-31

    Aimed at possible widening of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) field of application, an attempt is made to use OCT in tissue engineering and cell transplantology as a tool for morphological studies of substrate materials by the example of scaffolds. By means of the traditional fibreoptical OCT scheme the images of inner structure of scaffolds are obtained, and simultaneously the spatial distribution of the intralipid flow velocity is reconstructed using the Doppler OCT. It is shown that combined use of traditional OCT and Doppler OCT schemes allows revealing the regions of the scaffold demonstrating optimal effect of shear stress, which is a key factor of cell growth.

  1. Surface morphology study of Zr-based amorphous alloys after immersion in boiling nitric acid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Poonam; Dhawan, Anil; Sharma, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Weight loss studies have been performed to determine the corrosion resistance of amorphous Zr60Nb2Al10Ni8Cu20 and Zr59Nb3Al10Ni8Cu20 alloys in aqueous HNO3 media at boiling temperature. The FESEM micrographs has been obtained to know the surface morphology of specimens after immersion in 11.5M boiling aqueous HNO3 media. Zr59Nb3Al10Ni8Cu20 alloy shows better corrosion resistance in nitric acid media than Zr60Nb2Al10Ni8Cu20 alloy.

  2. Morphological study of near threshold fatigue crack growth in a coarse grain aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, Gerhard; Liu, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation in the near-threshold region has been studied in coarse grain Al 7029 alloy. Over eighty percent of the crack surfaces are planar areas parallel to either 100-oriented or 111-oriented planes. The 100-plane crack surfaces show 'pine tree' morphological features formed by slip on two sets of intersecting planes. The 111-plane crack surfaces were planar and shiny. They were formed primarily by slip on a single dominant 111-oriented slip plane with sparse and very light secondary slip markings. Crack growth rates were measured and correlated with Delta-K.

  3. [The salivary glands of Philodryas patagoniensis Girard, 1857 (Serpentes, Colubridae). A morphological, morphometric and histological study].

    PubMed

    Lopes, R A; Contrera, M G; da Costa, J R; Petenusci, S O; Lima-Verde, J S

    1982-01-01

    Morphological, morphometrical and histochemical studies of the cell types in the salivary glands of Philodryas patagoniensis have been performed. It is concluded: 1) the acini of supra, infralabial and premaxillary glands are formed by mucous and mucoserous cells; the Duvernoy's gland by seromucous cells; 2) mucous cells show neutral and sulphated mucosubstances and sialic acid; mucoserous cells show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid and protein radicals; seromucous cells of Duvernoy's gland show neutral mucosubstance and protein radicals. The acinar area, height of tubule and duct cells, and nuclear volume of acinar, tubule and duct cells were evaluated morphometrically. PMID:7181506

  4. Structure and Morphology Study of Cobalt Oxide Doped Silica Nanocomposite Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drasovean, Romana; Monteiro, Regina; Cherif, Mourad

    2010-01-01

    Cobalt oxide doped silica films were synthesized by a dip-coating technique. Initial compounds were cobalt acetate Co(CH3COO)2ṡ4H2O and tetraethoxysilane Si(OC2H5)4. The chemical composition was studied by X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The morphology analyses were carried out by means of atomic force microscopy. The average diameter of cobalt oxide dispersed particles increases with the molar ratio Co:Si and with the aging time of the initial colloidal solution.

  5. Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity

  6. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  7. Synthetical bone-like and biological hydroxyapatites: a comparative study of crystal structure and morphology.

    PubMed

    Marković, Smilja; Veselinović, Ljiljana; Lukić, Miodrag J; Karanović, Ljiljana; Bračko, Ines; Ignjatović, Nenad; Uskoković, Dragan

    2011-08-01

    Phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAp) extracted from human mandible bone, and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp), synthesized by the chemical precipitation method, were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (R) spectroscopy techniques, combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural and microstructural parameters were determined through Rietveld refinement of recorded XRD data, performed using the FullProf computing program, and TEM. Microstructural analysis shows anisotropic extension along the [00l] crystallographic direction (i.e. elongated crystallites shape) of both investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes of 10 and 8 nm were estimated for BHAp and CHAp, respectively. The FTIR and R spectroscopy studies show that carbonate ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl ions in the crystal structure of BHAp as well as in CHAp, indicating that both of them are mixed AB-type of CHAp. The thermal behaviour and carbonate content were analysed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The carbonate content of about 1 wt.% and phase transition, at near 790 °C, from HAp to β-tricalcium phosphate were determined in both samples. The quality of synthesized CHAp powder, particularly, the particle size distribution and uniformity of morphology, was analysed by a particle size analyser based on laser diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. These data were used to discuss similarity between natural and synthetic CHAp. Good correlation between the unit cell parameters, average crystallite size, morphology, carbonate content and crystallographic positions of carbonate ions in natural and synthetic HAp samples was found. PMID:21659698

  8. Subchronic exposure to low-doses of the nerve agent VX: physiological, behavioral, histopathological and neurochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Bloch-Shilderman, Eugenia; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Egoz, Inbal; Raveh, Lily; Allon, Nahum; Grauer, Ettie; Gilat, Eran; Weissman, Ben Avi

    2008-08-15

    The highly toxic organophosphorous compound VX [O-ethyl-S-(isoporopylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate] undergoes an incomplete decontamination by conventional chemicals and thus evaporates from urban surfaces, e.g., pavement, long after the initial insult. As a consequence to these characteristics of VX, even the expected low levels should be examined for their potential to induce functional impairments including those associated with neuronal changes. In the present study, we developed an animal model for subchronic, low-dose VX exposure and evaluated its effects in rats. Animals were exposed to VX (2.25 microg/kg/day, 0.05 LD(50)) for three months via implanted mini osmotic pumps. The rapidly attained continuous and marked whole-blood cholinesterase inhibition (approximately 60%), fully recovered 96 h post pump removal. Under these conditions, body weight, blood count and chemistry, water maze acquisition task, sensitivity to the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, peripheral benzodiazepine receptors density and brain morphology as demonstrated by routine histopathology, remained unchanged. However, animals treated with VX showed abnormal initial response in an Open Field test and a reduction (approximately 30%) in the expression of the exocytotic synaptobrevin/vesicle associate membrane protein (VAMP) in hippocampal neurons. These changes could not be detected one month following termination of exposure. Our findings indicate that following a subchronic, low-level exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX some important processes might be considerably impaired. Further research should be addressed towards better understanding of its potential health ramifications and in search of optimal countermeasures. PMID:18485435

  9. Histopathological and morphological studies on natural Cysticercus fasciolaris infection in liver of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moudgil, Aman Dev; Singla, Lachhman Das; Gupta, Kuldip; Daundkar, Prashant S; Vemu, Bhaskar

    2016-06-01

    Descriptive morphology of multifocal hepatic cysts found in eight of forty five (17.78 %) Wistar rats sacrificed during pharmacological studies related to herbal formulations was studied. The creamish to white cysts were of varying sizes, ranging from 3-8 mm in diameter. Morphological studies of these cysts depicted the presence of metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis i.e. Cysticercus fasciolaris inside them. The scolex of metacestode revealed four suckers and rostellum armed with two distinct rows of characteristic pen knife shaped hooks (characteristics of taeniid cestodes). The average size of large hooks was 392.92 ± 10.12 µ and that of small hooks was 240.64 ± 14.26 µ. The average size of suckers was 304.36 ± 12.33 µ. Histopathology of hepatic tissue surrounding the cysts revealed zones of fatty change, inflammation, granulation tissue and metaplasia. However, the histopathology of stomach and small intestines didn't show any significant lesions. PMID:27413289

  10. Differential involvement of sarcomeric proteins in myofibrillar myopathies: a morphological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Claeys, Kristl G; van der Ven, Peter F M; Behin, Anthony; Stojkovic, Tanya; Eymard, Bruno; Dubourg, Odile; Laforêt, Pascal; Faulkner, Georgine; Richard, Pascale; Vicart, Patrick; Romero, Norma B; Stoltenburg, Gisela; Udd, Bjarne; Fardeau, Michel; Voit, Thomas; Fürst, Dieter O

    2009-03-01

    Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are rare inherited or sporadic progressive neuromuscular disorders with considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity. In the current study, we have analyzed histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics in genetically identified MFMs. We performed a morphological and morphometrical study in a cohort of 24 genetically identified MFM patients (12 desmin, 6 alphaB-crystallin, 4 ZASP, 2 myotilin), and an extensive immunohistochemical study in 15 of these patients, using both well-known and novel antibodies directed against distinct compartments of the muscle fibers, including Z-disc and M-band proteins. Our morphological data revealed some significant differences between the distinct MFM subgroups: the consistent presence of 'rubbed-out' fibers in desminopathies and alphaB-crystallinopathies, an elevated frequency of vacuoles in ZASPopathies and myotilinopathies, and the presence of a few necrotic fibers in the two myotilinopathy patients. Immunohistochemistry showed that in MFM only a subset of Z-disc proteins, such as filamin C and its ligands myotilin and Xin, exhibited significant alterations in their localization, whereas other Z-disc proteins like alpha-actinin, myopodin and tritopodin, did not. In contrast, M-band proteins revealed no abnormalities in MFM. We conclude that the presence of 'rubbed-out' fibers are a suggestive feature for desminopathy or alphaB-crystallinopathy, and that MFM is not a general disease of the myofibril, but primarily affects a subgroup of stress-responsive Z-disc proteins. PMID:19151983

  11. Variations in the frenal morphology in the diverse population: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Vikas; Kaur, Rupinder; Goel, Amit; Mahajan, Atika; Mahajan, Neha; Mahajan, Atin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The upper labial frenum is a normal anatomic structure with inherent morphological variations. Frenum has variations depending upon the attachment of fibers along with the presence of structural variations. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of frenal variations in a diverse ethnic population of Sundernagar, Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 500 subjects within age group of 16–40 years (285 females, 215 males). Intraoral examination was done to evaluate the variations in frenum and photographs were taken. Results: In this study, depending upon structural variations, normal frenum was most common followed by frenum with nodule while frenum with appendix was found to be least common. However, no significant difference was found between males and females (P > 0.05) with respect to all frenal attachments. Furthermore, other structural variations were found in the diverse population of Sundernagar, Himachal Pradesh. Conclusion: Upper labial frenum is a small anatomical landmark in the oral cavity found to have diverse morphology. The dentist needs to give due importance for frenum assessment during the oral examination. PMID:27563207

  12. Morphological and biodegradability studies of Euphorbia latex modified polyester - Banana fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan; Diwan, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The composites of Banana fiber were prepared using polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum, morphology and the degree of rate of aerobic biodegradation of the prepared composites were studied. Polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum containing Banana fiber, Euphorbia coagulum and polyester resin taken in the ratio 40: 24: 36 was used for the study, which was the optimum composition of the composite reported in a previous study by the authors. In the biodegradability study cellulose has been used as positive reference material. Result shows that Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester - Banana fiber composites exhibited biodegradation to the extent of around 40%. The use of developed green composites may help in reducing the generation of non-biodegradable polymeric wastes.

  13. Quantitative study of temperature-dependent order in thin films of cylindrical morphology block copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vindhya; Kramer, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Disordering and defect generation in block copolymer systems at high temperatures is of significance to get a better understanding of the physics governing these systems, which can also direct efforts to minimize them. We have studied the smectic-nematic-isotropic transition in confined monolayers and bilayers of cylindrical morphology poly (styrene-b-2vinyl pyridine) diblock copolymer. Previous studies of melting phenomena in block copolymer thin films have relied on quantitative AFM studies alone. We have supplemented AFM studies with grazing incidence small angle X-ray diffraction lineshape analysis to quantify the decay of translational and orientational order with increasing temperature. The results have been interpreted in the context of the Toner-Nelson theory of melting for layered systems.

  14. Computational Nonlinear Morphology with Emphasis on Semitic Languages. Studies in Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiraz, George Anton

    This book presents a tractable computational model that can cope with complex morphological operations, especially in Semitic languages, and less complex morphological systems present in Western languages. It outlines a new generalized regular rewrite rule system that uses multiple finite-state automata to cater to root-and-pattern morphology,…

  15. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  16. Study and implementation of the network management agent of telecommunication application server in NGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; He, Hui; Ni, Yuhua

    2013-03-01

    The telecommunication application server (AS) is an important part of the value-added service network in the next generation network(NGN) as the support platform. Remote, unified and secure management to a variety of services is implemented after the remote network management of the telecommunications application server. The network management system based on Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is decided to utilized to analyse and study the network managed objects in AS because of the integration of telecommunications networks and computer networks on the network management and convenient, economical and flexible features of SNMP protocol. The network management agent module of AS is designed and an example is illustrated the details of the model. Results indicate the good performance of the network management agent.

  17. Synthesis of nanoparticle CT contrast agents: in vitro and in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung June; Xu, Wenlong; Wasi Ahmad, Md; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Park, Ji Ae; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-10-01

    Water-soluble and biocompatible D-glucuronic acid coated Na2WO4 and BaCO3 nanoparticles were synthesized for the first time to be used as x-ray computed tomography (CT) contrast agents. Their average particle diameters were 3.2 ± 0.1 and 2.8 ± 0.1 nm for D-glucuronic acid coated Na2WO4 and BaCO3 nanoparticles, respectively. All the nanoparticles exhibited a strong x-ray attenuation. In vivo CT images were obtained after intravenous injection of an aqueous sample suspension of D-glucuronic acid coated Na2WO4 nanoparticles, and positive contrast enhancements in the kidney were clearly shown. These findings indicate that the nanoparticles reported in this study may be promising CT contrast agents.

  18. Toxicity and medical countermeasure studies on the organophosphorus nerve agents VM and VX

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Helen; Dalton, Christopher H.; Price, Matthew E.; Graham, Stuart J.; Green, A. Christopher; Jenner, John; Groombridge, Helen J.; Timperley, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    To support the effort to eliminate the Syrian Arab Republic chemical weapons stockpile safely, there was a requirement to provide scientific advice based on experimentally derived information on both toxicity and medical countermeasures (MedCM) in the event of exposure to VM, VX or VM–VX mixtures. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken to inform that advice. The penetration rate of neat VM was not significantly different from that of neat VX, through either guinea pig or pig skin in vitro. The presence of VX did not affect the penetration rate of VM in mixtures of various proportions. A lethal dose of VM was approximately twice that of VX in guinea pigs poisoned via the percutaneous route. There was no interaction in mixed agent solutions which altered the in vivo toxicity of the agents. Percutaneous poisoning by VM responded to treatment with standard MedCM, although complete protection was not achieved.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of asiatic acid derivatives as anti-fibrotic agents: structure/activity studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Yang, Fang; Yuan, Mingxing; Jiang, Lijuan; Yuan, Li; Zhang, Xiaowei; Li, Ying; Dong, Lin; Bao, Xu; Yin, Shufan

    2015-04-01

    Fibrotic diseases are characterized by the over-accumulation of fibrous components in the extracellular matrix and the liver, which can lead to liver cirrhosis. Current treatment options cannot reverse or halt liver fibrosis, motivating a search for newer treatment options. Previously, we showed that asiaticoside, a bioactive triterpene glycoside from Centella asiatica, has anti-fibrotic properties. Here, the aglycone asiatic acid was chemically modified, and these derivatives were evaluated for their potential as anti-fibrotic agents. The data obtained from in vivo testing of these compounds in a rodent CCl4-induced liver injury model are discussed. The information obtained from these studies may be useful in the design of novel anti-fibrotic agents. PMID:25461275

  20. Pre-validation study for testing of avian viral vaccines for extraneous agents by PCR.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, L; Ottiger, H P

    2007-12-01

    The biological nature of vaccines imposes a permanent risk for contamination with extraneous agents. Therefore, testing of vaccines for freedom from extraneous agents is essential in the manufacturing process and quality control. Relevant methods for testing for extraneous agents of avian viral vaccines are specified in the monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). Currently, most of these methods involve the use of embryonated eggs or chickens. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a widely used and suitable tool for the amplification and detection of extraneous nucleic acids. Different PCR assays have been developed for the application in routine testing of veterinary vaccines. However, before introduction of new methods in monographs of the Ph. Eur., they must undergo validation. Here we report about a pre-validation study performed in Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs). Diluted samples of avian infectious laryngotracheitis, avian infectious bronchitis and avian infectious bursal disease viruses have been analysed using standardised procedures and reagents. The study demonstrated that PCR methods can be transferred to other laboratories. The results also show that further work is warranted for full validation of the method. PMID:18413134

  1. Multifrequency studies of galaxies and groups. I. Environmental effect on galaxy stellar mass and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, A.; Heinämäki, P.; Nurmi, P.; Teerikorpi, P.; Tempel, E.; Lietzen, H.; Einasto, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. To understand the role of the environment in galaxy formation, evolution, and present-day properties, it is essential to study the multifrequency behavior of different galaxy populations under various environmental conditions. Aims: We study the stellar mass functions of different galaxy populations in groups as a function of their large-scale environments using multifrequency observations. Methods: We cross-matched the SDSS DR10 group catalog with GAMA Data Release 2 and Wide-field Survey Explorer (WISE) data to construct a catalog of 1651 groups and 11 436 galaxies containing photometric information in 15 different wavebands ranging from ultraviolet (0.152 μm) to mid-infrared (22 μm). We performed the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of galaxies using the MAGPHYS code and estimate the rest-frame luminosities and stellar masses. We used the 1 /Vmax method to estimate the galaxy stellar mass and luminosity functions, and the luminosity density field of galaxies to define the large-scale environment of galaxies. Results: The stellar mass functions of both central and satellite galaxies in groups are different in low- and high-density, large-scale environments. Satellite galaxies in high-density environments have a steeper low-mass end slope compared to low-density environments, independent of the galaxy morphology. Central galaxies in low-density environments have a steeper low-mass end slope, but the difference disappears for fixed galaxy morphology. The characteristic stellar mass of satellite galaxies is higher in high-density environments and the difference exists only for galaxies with elliptical morphologies. Conclusions: Galaxy formation in groups is more efficient in high-density, large-scale environments. Groups in high-density environments have higher abundances of satellite galaxies, irrespective of the satellite galaxy morphology. The elliptical satellite galaxies are generally more massive in high-density environments. The stellar

  2. Pericardial Fat and Right Ventricular Morphology: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis- Right Ventricle Study (MESA-RV)

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, David S.; Kawut, Steven M.; Ding, Jingzhong; Bluemke, David A.; Hough, Catherine L.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Lima, Joao A.; Leary, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pericardial fat has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related cardiovascular disease. Proposed mechanisms may be relevant in right heart failure, but relationships between pericardial fat and right ventricular (RV) morphology have not been explored. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a prospective cohort that enrolled participants without clinical cardiovascular disease. Pericardial fat was measured using computed tomography and RV parameters using cardiac MRI. Linear regression estimated associations of pericardial fat with RV mass, RV end diastolic volume (RV-EDV), RV end systolic volume (RV-ESV), RV stroke volume (RV-SV), and RV ejection fraction (RV-EF). Limited models adjusted for age, gender, race, height, and study site with and without weight. Fully adjusted models also accounted for socioeconomic parameters and health behaviors. Adjustment for left ventricular morphology, metabolic syndrome, and systemic inflammation was also performed. Results The study sample included 3988 participants with complete assessment of RV morphology, pericardial fat and all covariates. Greater pericardial fat volume was associated with reduced RV mass (-0.3g per 40 cm3 increase in pericardial fat, p<0.001), smaller RV-EDV (-3.7ml per 40 cm3 increase in pericardial fat, p<0.001), smaller RV-ESV (-1.0ml per 40cm3 increase in pericardial fat, p<0.001), and smaller RV-SV (-2.7mL per 40 cm3 increase in pericardial fat, p<0.001) in participants after adjustment for weight. Associations were unchanged when accounting for health behaviors, markers of systemic inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Greater pericardial fat was associated with reduced RV mass, smaller RV-EDV, smaller RV-ESV, and smaller RV-SV in participants after adjustment for weight. Relationships between pericardial fat and RV morphology could be relevant to diseases of right heart failure. PMID:27311062

  3. Study of the functional morphology of mouthparts of parasitic isopods of marine fishes

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Allayie, Sartaj Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective To carry out a comparative study of the mouthparts and the diet of eight isopod fish parasites. Methods A description of the mouthparts, together with their diet nature, was derived both by direct observation and an interpretation of their structure. The three-dimensional study of the mouthparts of the isopod parasites was done to reveal their morphology. Results Observations revealed that these species are wholly carnivorous. Result shows how they are adapted for tearing and bolting fish food material. The mouthparts consist of a labrum, paragnaths, paired mandibles, maxillules, maxillae and maxillipeds. The labrum and the paragnaths are the least developed but peculiarly the mandibles are asymmetrical, large, stout and highly modified. The analysis of gut contents indicated that Cymothoa indica and Joryma brachysoma diet consisted of 90% to 95% of animal blood. The diet of Mothocya renardi, Ryukyua circularis and Joryma hilsae were mainly composed of mucus (80%-90%). The stomach contents of Nerocila phaeopleura and Nerocila sundaica, were dominated by body muscles (75%-83%). Conclusions The possible functions of the mouthparts, especially in feeding are discussed in light of their structure. The morphology of the mouthparts of the isopod parasites are heavily modified with their feeding behavior.

  4. Scanning electron microscopic study of laser-induced morphologic changes of a coated enamel surface

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    A low-energy Nd:YAG laser was used to irradiate extracted human teeth coated with a black energy-absorbent laser initiator in a study to determine the extent of the morphologic changes produced in the enamel surface. The laser initiator was applied to a cleaned enamel surface and irradiated at an energy output of 30 mJ or 75 mJ. Both energy levels produced morphologic changes of the surface. There was a sharp line of demarcation between the coated, irradiated area and the surrounding noncoated enamel surface. The scanning electron microscope view at the lower energy level showed that the surface had melted and reformed with numerous small, bubble-like inclusions. The 75 mJ energy level showed individual impact craters with shallow centers and raised edges containing numerous pores and large, bubble-like inclusions. Etching is a dental procedure in which an acid is normally used to remove a thin outer layer of the tooth structure. This is necessary to create a roughened, irregular surface in order to provide mechanical retention for dental restorative materials. The changes produced by the laser in this study suggest a simple, effective, and controlled method of etching the enamel surface of a tooth by altering its surface characteristics.

  5. Morphology studies on high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Florian; Klages, Merle; Scholta, Joachim; Jörissen, Ludwig; Morawietz, Tobias; Hiesgen, Renate; Kramer, Dominik; Zeis, Roswitha

    2014-06-01

    The electrode morphology influences the properties and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Here we report our studies of two different electrodes for high-temperature PEMFC prepared by spraying and coating and their impact on the fuel cell performance. Differences in 3D microstructure and adhesion between catalyst layer and gas diffusion layer (GDL) of the electrodes were studied with X-ray microtomography. Scanning electrode microscope investigations show hairline cracks between agglomerates on the surface of the sprayed electrode, whereas the coated electrode shows a network of shrinkage cracks in the catalyst layer. The distribution of the electrode binder polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is related to the locally resolved conductivity, which was determined by scanning the electrode surfaces with a conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip. The macrostructures of the sprayed and coated electrodes are different but contain similar pore structures. The coated electrode has a higher PTFE concentration on the top region, which tends to form a nonconductive and less wettable "skin" on the electrode surface and delays the start-up of the fuel cell. In contrast to low-temperature PEMFC, the electrode morphology has only a minor impact on the steady-state cell performance of high-temperature PEMFC.

  6. Morphological processing in early bilinguals: an ERP study of regular and irregular verb processing.

    PubMed

    De Diego Balaguer, R; Sebastián-Gallés, N; Díaz, B; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2005-09-01

    Although the age of acquisition of a language has an effect when learning a second language, the similarity between languages may also have a crucial role. The aim of the present study is to understand the influence of this latter factor in the acquisition of morphosyntactic information. With this purpose, two groups of highly proficient early Catalan-Spanish bilinguals were presented with a repetition-priming paradigm with regular and irregular verbs of Spanish. Catalan and Spanish have a similar suffix (-o) for regular verbs and completely different alternations for irregular verbs. Two types of irregular verbs were studied (semi-regular verbs with a systematic diphthong alternation, sentir-siento, and verbs with idiosyncratic changes, venir-vengo). Regular verbs showed the same centro-parietal N400 priming effect in the second-language speakers (L2) as in primary-language (L1) speakers. However, differences between groups, in the ERP pattern and the topography of the N400 effect, were observed for irregular morphology. In L1 speakers, the N400 effect was attenuated only for semi-regular verbs. In contrast, L2 speakers showed a reduced N400 priming effect in both irregular contrasts. This pattern of results suggests that the similarity between languages may help for similar structures but may interfere for dissimilar structures, at least when the two languages have very similar morphological systems. PMID:16023332

  7. Morphological and morphometric study of the pecten oculi in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Micali, Antonio; Pisani, Antonina; Ventrici, Claudia; Puzzolo, Domenico; Roszkowska, Anna Maria; Spinella, Rosaria; Aragona, Pasquale

    2012-03-01

    The pecten oculi is a highly vascular and pigmented organ placed in the vitreous body of the avian eye. As no data are currently available on the morphological organization of the pecten in the Psittaciformes, the pecten oculi of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) was studied. The eyes from adult male budgerigars were examined by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy and a morphometric study on both light and transmission electron microscopy specimens was also performed in the different parts of the organ. In the budgerigar, the type of the pecten oculi was pleated. Its basal part had a cranio-caudal and postero-anterior course; its body consisted of 10-12-folds joined apically by a densely pigmented bridge. The pecten showed many capillaries, whose wall was thick and formed by pericytes and endothelial cells. These latter had a large number of microfolds, rectilinear on their luminal surface and tortuous on their abluminal surface. Interstitial pigment cells were placed among the capillaries, filled with melanin granules and showed many cytoplasmic processes. The morphometric analysis demonstrated significant differences among the three parts of the organ relative to the length of the endothelial processes and to the number and size of the pigment granules. The morphological and morphometric analysis showed that the bridge of the budgerigar, different from the other birds, had a large number of capillaries, so that this part of the organ could also play a trophic role for the retina in addition to the choriocapillaris. PMID:22266789

  8. Aerosol Composition and Morphology during the 2005 Marine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle Study

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Laskin, Alexander; Laulainen, Nels S.

    2005-12-01

    The composition and morphology of aerosols activated within cloud droplets relative to the properties of aerosols not activated is of central importance to studies directed at improved parameterization of the treatment of aerosols in large-scale models. These models have many applications, including evaluations of the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on climate. To further our understanding of these aerosol characteristics, scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Science Program (ASP), joined forces with other participants of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) "Marine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle Study" between July 4 and July 29, 2005, at Pt. Reyes, California. Observations from in situ aerosol instruments and from the ARM Mobile Facility will be combined in a first look at observations from this period. The in situ aerosol measurements included high time resolution data of size-resolved bulk composition (sulfate, nitrate, NH4, organics, etc.) and single particle analysis to determine elemental composition and morphology. A CCN counter was also deployed to measure the fraction of cloud droplet kernels that are CCN active over a range of super-saturations. Our presentation will partition measurements into periods of cloudy and cloud-free periods, and will also be partitioned between periods associated with northerly back trajectories that arrived at Pt. Reyes after passing along the Washington-Oregon coast, westerly oceanic trajectories and a very limited number of periods when the air flow appeared to be associated with urban areas to the south and southeast.

  9. Linking drainage front morphology with gaseous diffusion in unsaturated porous media: a lattice Boltzmann study.

    PubMed

    Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani

    2006-11-01

    The effect of drainage front morphology on gaseous diffusion through partially saturated porous media is analyzed using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Flow regimes for immiscible displacement in porous media have been characterized as stable displacement, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering. The dominance of a flow regime is associated with the relative magnitudes of gravity, viscous, and capillary forces, quantifiable via the Bond number Bo, capillary number Ca, and their difference, Bo-Ca . Forced drainage from an initially saturated two-dimensional (2D) porous medium was simulated and the resulting flow patterns were analyzed and compared with theoretical predictions and experimental results. The LBM simulations reproduced expected flow morphologies for a range of drainage velocities and gravitational forces (i.e., a range of capillary and Bond numbers). Furthermore, measures of drainage front width as a function of the dimensionless difference Bo-Ca correspond well with scaling laws derived from percolation theory. Effects of flow morphology on residual fluid entrapment and gaseous diffusion were assessed by running LBM diffusion simulations through the partially saturated domain for a range of water contents. The effective diffusion coefficient as a function of water content was estimated for three regimes: stable drainage front, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering. Significant reductions in gaseous diffusion coefficient were found for viscous fingering relative to stable displacement, and to a lesser extent for capillary fingering, indicating that wetting phase distribution with a high degree of fingering in the 2D domain severely restricts connectivity of gas diffusion pathways through the medium. The study lends support for the use of LBM in design and management of fluids in porous media under variable gravity, and enhances the understanding of the role of dynamic fluid behavior on macroscopic transport properties of partially saturated

  10. Morphological study and comprehensive cellular constituents of milky spots in the human omentum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiu-Yang; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Geng, Xia-Fei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze morphological features of omental milky spots (MS). Method: Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry technique were used to study the omental MS of gastric cancer (GC) patients and rectal cancer (RC) patients. We focused on morphological features of MS and conducted quantitative analysis on the cells number and cellular constituents. Differences in MS parameters between GC and RC were also analyzed. Results: Various shapes of MS were mainly round, oval, irregular form in the adipose and perivascular annular. The median MS perimeter was 2752 (range 817~7753) computer-based pixels. The median value of immune cells in one MS was 141 (43~650), comprising T lymphocytes (46.1%), B lymphocytes (28.4%), macrophages (12.4%) and other immune cells (13.1%). Relatively high density of vessels in MS could be calculated by micro-vessel density (MVD) as 4 (0~13). The median value of mesothelial cells loosely arranged in the surface layer was 5 (0~51). There were no significant differences in MS perimeter, MVD, the number of mesothelial cells, total immune cells, T lymphocytes and macrophages between GC and RC (P>0.05), while the number of MS B lymphocytes in RC was significantly higher than that in GC (P<0.001). Conclusion: MS are primary immune tissues in the omentum and structural bases for development and progression of peritoneal dissemination of GC and RC. Analyzing the morphology and cellular constituents could help understanding the mechanism of peritoneal metastasis. PMID:26722479

  11. Spectroscopic and morphological investigation of chemically treated cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) prepared from cotton sliver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Muhammad; Fatima, Nasreen; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Zahra, Durey Nayab; Ansar, Nasir; Khan, Salman Tariq

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared from cotton sliver and chemically treated with acylating agents. FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphological changes after each chemical treatment when reinforced in unsaturated polyester resin.

  12. Qualitative, quantitative and temporal study of cutting agents for cocaine and heroin over 9 years.

    PubMed

    Broséus, Julian; Gentile, Natacha; Bonadio Pont, Federica; Garcia Gongora, Juan Manuel; Gasté, Laëtitia; Esseiva, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Forensic laboratories mainly focus on the qualification and the quantitation of the illicit drug under analysis as both aspects are used for judiciary purposes. Therefore, information related to cutting agents (adulterants and diluents) detected in illicit drugs is limited in the forensic literature. This article discusses the type and frequency of adulterants and diluents detected in more than 6000 cocaine specimens and 3000 heroin specimens, confiscated in western Switzerland from 2006 to 2014. The results show a homogeneous and quite unchanging adulteration for heroin, while for cocaine it could be characterised as heterogeneous and relatively dynamic. Furthermore, the results indicate that dilution affects more cocaine than heroin. Therefore, the results provided by this study tend to reveal differences between the respective structures of production or distribution of cocaine and heroin. This research seeks to promote the systematic analysis of cutting agents by forensic laboratories. Collecting and processing data related to the presence of cutting agents in illicit drug specimens produces relevant information to understand and to compare the structure of illicit drug markets. PMID:26448535

  13. Electrophysiological studies of penticainide (CM 7857), a new antiarrhythmic agent, in mammalian myocardium.

    PubMed

    Gautier, P; Guiraudou, P; Pezziardi, F; Bertrand, J P; Gagnol, J P

    1987-05-01

    The intracellular electrophysiologic properties of a new antiarrhythmic substance, penticainide, were studied in isolated rabbit, dog, and guinea pig myocardial preparations superfused or perfused with oxygenated Tyrode's solution. "Therapeutic" concentrations of penticainide (1.5 to 3 X 10(-5) M) had little effect on sinus node automaticity; sinoatrial conduction was slightly delayed. In atrial, Purkinje and ventricular fibers, amplitude, and maximal rate of rise of phase O (dV/dtmax) were decreased by penticainide; Purkinje-ventricle conduction velocity was depressed. Penticainide did not significantly modify action potential duration (APD) of rabbit atria and dog ventricle and reduced APD and effective refractory period (ERP) of dog Purkinje and guinea pig ventricular fibers. Penticainide reduced APD heterogeneity of Purkinje-ventricle junction with a preferential effect at the gate and decreased tension amplitude of perfused papillary muscle in dog heart. The effect of penticainide on dV/dtmax was voltage and rate dependent; the resting block was weak. Thus, penticainide is a class 1 antiarrhythmic agent with properties of class 1B agents such as APD reduction and properties of class 1C agents such as slow recovery kinetic of rate-dependent block. PMID:2439843

  14. Inner conflict in patients receiving oral anticancer agents: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Takahashi, Tsunehiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the experiences of patients receiving oral anticancer agents. Design A qualitative study using semistructured interviews with a grounded theory approach. Setting A university hospital in Japan. Participants 14 patients with gastric cancer who managed their cancer with oral anticancer agents. Results Patients with cancer experienced inner conflict between rational belief and emotional resistance to taking medication due to confrontation with cancer, doubt regarding efficacy and concerns over potential harm attached to use of the agent. Although they perceived themselves as being adherent to medication, they reported partial non-adherent behaviours. The patients reassessed their lives through the experience of inner conflict and, ultimately, they recognised their role in medication therapy. Conclusions Patients with cancer experienced inner conflict, in which considerable emotional resistance to taking their medication affected their occasional non-adherent behaviours. In patient-centred care, it is imperative that healthcare providers understand patients’ inner conflict and inconsistency between their subjective view and behaviour to support patient adherence. PMID:25872938

  15. Dynamical systems approach to the study of a sociophysics agent-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Timpanaro, Andre M.; Prado, Carmen P. C.

    2011-03-24

    The Sznajd model is a Potts-like model that has been studied in the context of sociophysics [1,2](where spins are interpreted as opinions). In a recent work [3], we generalized the Sznajd model to include assymetric interactions between the spins (interpreted as biases towards opinions) and used dynamical systems techniques to tackle its mean-field version, given by the flow: {eta}{sub {sigma}} = {Sigma}{sub {sigma}}'{sup M} = 1{eta}{sub {sigma}}{eta}{sigma}'({eta}{sub {sigma}}{rho}{sigma}'{yields}{sigma}-{sigma}'{rho}{sigma}{yields}{sigma}').Where hs is the proportion of agents with opinion (spin){sigma}', M is the number of opinions and {sigma}'{yields}{sigma}' is the probability weight for an agent with opinion {sigma} being convinced by another agent with opinion {sigma}'. We made Monte Carlo simulations of the model in a complex network (using Barabasi-Albert networks [4]) and they displayed the same attractors than the mean-field. Using linear stability analysis, we were able to determine the mean-field attractor structure analytically and to show that it has connections with well known graph theory problems (maximal independent sets and positive fluxes in directed graphs). Our dynamical systems approach is quite simple and can be used also in other models, like the voter model.

  16. Dynamical systems approach to the study of a sociophysics agent-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timpanaro, André M.; Prado, Carmen P. C.

    2011-03-01

    The Sznajd model is a Potts-like model that has been studied in the context of sociophysics [1,2] (where spins are interpreted as opinions). In a recent work [3], we generalized the Sznajd model to include assymetric interactions between the spins (interpreted as biases towards opinions) and used dynamical systems techniques to tackle its mean-field version, given by the flow: ησ = ∑ σ' = 1Mησησ'(ησρσ'→σ-σ'ρσ→σ'). Where hs is the proportion of agents with opinion (spin) σ', M is the number of opinions and σ'→σ' is the probability weight for an agent with opinion σ being convinced by another agent with opinion σ'. We made Monte Carlo simulations of the model in a complex network (using Barabási-Albert networks [4]) and they displayed the same attractors than the mean-field. Using linear stability analysis, we were able to determine the mean-field attractor structure analytically and to show that it has connections with well known graph theory problems (maximal independent sets and positive fluxes in directed graphs). Our dynamical systems approach is quite simple and can be used also in other models, like the voter model.

  17. Feasibility study for the manufacture of zero gravity pharmaceuticles, immunological, and viral agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of extracting, isolating, purifying, separating, or preparing medical and biological products of high socio-economic value in space was studied. In particular, the study was designed to concentrate on the isolation or purification of virals, pharmaceutical and immunological agents by means of electrophoresis, as the Apollo 16 flight demonstrated that a mixed population of latex spheres (.2 and .8 microns) could be successfully separated by electrophoresis in space and without sedimentation with minimal convection. This prompted NASA scientists to look into the possibility of carrying out types of biochemical experiments that would utilize space for medical purposes.

  18. Stereomicroscopic study of the human tooth caries: clinical and morphological correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oancea, Roxana; Vasile, Liliana; Marchese, Cristian; Sava-Rosianu, Ruxandra

    2012-06-01

    Objectives: Stereomicroscopy allows a three-dimensional study of the images and of laterality at superior quality in comparison with other methods. Those advantages are given by the large examination fields and the wide work distances. The adding of the clinical and morphological data at the results gathered with stereomicroscopy and the stereo micrometry is useful in order to appreciate the deepness and the widening of the carious process, and the necessity to reconsider the therapeutically strategy. Materials and methods: During 2009-2011 the study material was represented by 10 surgically removed impacted third molars, and by 20 premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes, with closed and macroscopically apparently integer surfaces. 13 premolars with different degrees of carious affectation and periodontal lesions, which were surgically extracted without trauma, were also selected. The in situ measurements at the occlusal site were realized through the utilization of a fluorescent laser device - DIAGNOdent. The basic principles in stereomicroscopy stood at the base of the obliquely and circularly coaxial illumination techniques, one with optical alignment adjustment of the optical microscope and mechanical adjustment for the optimal illumination and micrometry. The Olympus Microscope SZ ×7 and an Olympus camera with 2,5 × digital zoom and a 3× optical zoom has been used to study the samples in stereomicroscopy and through polarized light it. Results: The DiagnoDent measured the following data: out of 43 apparently healthy teeth, 18 presented values between 2 and 13 (D1), 13 showed values between 14 and 24 (D2), 12 measured values over 24 (D3). After the histological examination in stereomicroscopy and in the polarized light: 25 teeth were healthy, 10 presented caries extended in dental enamel and 8 presented dentinal caries. Stereomicroscopy has allowed the morphological study, the color absorption, the appreciation of the lesions' deepness and substance

  19. Influence of Zn incorporation in CdS: Structural and morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Fu, M.; Mitra, P.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, cadmium zinc sulfide (CdxZn1-xS) alloy compounds have been paid much attention in the fields of opto-electronics, particularly in photovoltaic devices. In this report, the structural, morphological and optical properties of Cdx Zn1-x S films deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD), which is a very attractive method for low-cost and large-area solar cell applications, has been presented. The as-grown layers were characterized using XRD, EDAX, FESEM, TEM and UV-vis spectrophotometers. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and SAED measurement reveals a dominant cubic structure with a minor hexagonal phase for high zinc content films. EDAX analysis shows nearly stoichiometric films with cadmium excess. Close packed and less dissociated surface morphology was observed in the Cdx Zn1-x S ternary thin films with lower Zn2+ content than the higher Zn2+ content one. Agglomeration of nanocrystals for high zinc content films results in enhanced absorption. The mean grain size of Cd0.5 Zn0.5 S calculated from TEM image is ~15 nm. Optical absorption study exhibits a distinct blue shift in band gap energy with enhancement of zinc content in the film.

  20. Modeling Changing Morphology and Density Dependent Groundwater Flow in a Dynamic Environment: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Bierkens, Marc; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2015-04-01

    The prospect of sea level rise and increase in extreme weather conditions has led to a new focus on coastal defense in the Netherlands. As an innovative solution for coastal erosion a mega-nourishment named the Sand Motor (or Sand Engine) has been constructed at the Dutch coast. This body of sand will be distributed slowly along the coastline by wind, waves and currents; keeping the coastal defense structures in place and creating a unique, dynamic environment with changing morphology over time. The large size and position of the Sand Motor might lead to a substantial increase of fresh ground water resources. This creates an opportunity to combine coastal protection with an increase of fresh water resources in coastal regions. With a three dimensional, density dependent, groundwater model the effects of changing morphology over time and the potential increase in fresh water availability have been studied. The preliminary model calculations show that in a period of 20 years volume of fresh water gradually increases to ca. 12 Mm3. In the nearby dune area 7-8 Mm3 is abstracted yearly, therefore the first results are promising in increasing fresh groundwater resources. More model calculations will be performed to investigate the sensitivity of the change in the fresh, brackish and salt water distribution.

  1. Incongruence between molecular phylogeny and morphological classification in amphipod crustaceans: a case study of Antarctic lysianassoids.

    PubMed

    Havermans, Charlotte; Nagy, Zoltán T; Sonet, Gontran; De Broyer, Claude; Martin, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    In Antarctic waters, the superfamily Lysianassoidea is one of the most important amphipod groups both in terms of species number and abundance. Dominant members of this superfamily are species of the orchomenid complex, found throughout the Southern Ocean. This study presents the first molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a representative subset of the Antarctic species belonging to different orchomenid genera and hence provides a framework for a systematic revision of these taxa. The current classification of the orchomenid genera is mainly based on mouthpart morphology. The validity of these morphological characters was assessed by resolving phylogenetic relationships using nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences. The molecular data rejected most of the previously proposed taxonomic subdivisions within this complex. The genera Abyssorchomene and Orchomenella as well as the subgenus Orchomenopsis appeared to be non-monophyletic. This implies that the supposed diagnostic characters are likely a result of convergent evolution. Further, our results indicated the necessity of a revision of the family-level systematics. PMID:19857579

  2. Structural and surface morphological study of Ni doped ZnS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khawal, H. A. Dole, B. N.

    2014-04-24

    Samples of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S (x=0.00, 0.04, 0.08) nanoparticles were synthesized by using the co-precipitation method at room temperature. Structural parameters were investigated by X – ray diffraction (XRD), it reveals that all samples of Ni doped ZnS exhibit the cubic structure with no additional impurity phase. The average crystallite size of all samples is in the range of 2.70 to 2.90 nm. The lattice parameters, X – ray density, volume of unit cell and grain size were calculated using XRD data. It is found that the lattice parameter increases with increasing Ni concentration. Surface morphology of samples was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). From this study it is concluded that samples exhibit cubic morphology. Chemical compositions of Ni doped and pure ZnS samples were detected using EDAX spectra. It is confirmed from EDAX that Ni substitute into ZnS lattice.

  3. Numerical Models of Starburst Galaxies: A Study of Outflows and ISM Morphology in Galactic Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Ryan; Cecil, G. N.; Heitsch, F.

    2014-01-01

    Starbursts and AGN winds in galaxy cores can produce large scale outflows. Whether any given outburst can create an outflow depends on several variables including the rate at which the energy is injected into the interstellar medium (ISM), the distribution of clouds with in the ISM, and the overall shape of the ISM. Previous simulations by Cooper et al. (2008) reproduce linear filaments like that in M 82, but were limited in the parameter space that they could explore. We have modified the public Athena hydro code (Stone et al. 2008) to greatly reduce the computation time of high resolution 3D simulations similar to Cooper et al. (2008) and to handle accurate gas cooling down to lower molecule-forming temperatures (10 K). We are exploring the parameter space of a galactic “blowout”, the origin and evolution of interesting ISM morphology such as the curved filamentary “towers” observed at the center of NGC 3079, and how different ISM morphologies may influence the outflow. These simulations are being compared with spectral imaging obtained with the Herschel space telescope to study the connection between regions of the cold neutral medium, warm neutral medium, and warm ionized medium. Those observations are being presented in another session of this AAS meeting. Our work is supported by NASA/Herschel and NC Space Grant funding.

  4. Study Of Genetic Diversity Between Grasspea Landraces Using Morphological And Molecular Marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedehi, Abbasali Vahabi; Lotfi, Asefeh; Solooki, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    Grass pea is a beneficial crop to Iran since it has some major advantageous such as high grain and forage quality, high drought tolerance and medium level of salinity tolerance and a good native germplasm variation which accessible for breeding programs. This study was carried out to evaluate morphological traits of the grass pea landraces using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology. To evaluate genetic diversity of 14 grass pea landraces from various locations in Iran were investigated using 32 RAPD & ISJ primers at Biocenter of University of Zabol. Analysis of variance indicated a highly significant differences among 14 grass pea landrace for the morphological traits. Average of polymorphism percentage of RAPD primer was 73.9%. Among used primer, 12 random primers showed polymorphism and a total of 56 different bands were observed in the genotypes. Jafar-abad and Sar-chahan genotypes with similarity coefficient of 66% and Khoram-abad 2 and Khoram-abad 7 genotypes with similarity coefficient of 3% were the most related and the most distinct genotypes, respectively. Fourteen primers out of 17 semi random primers produced 70 polymorphic bands which included 56% of the total 126 produced bands. Genetic relatedness among population was investigated using Jacard coefficient and unweighted pair group mean analysis (UPGMA) algorithm. The result of this research verified possibility of use of RAPD & ISJ markers for estimation of genetic diversity, management of genetic resources and determination of repetitive accessions in grass pea.

  5. A comparative study of the morphology of mammalian chordae tendineae of the mitral and tricuspid valves

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Rea, Paul

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that the human heart is almost identical to domestic mammalian species, but with limited literature to support this. One such area that has been underinvestigated is that of the subvalvular apparatus level. The authors set out to examine the morphology of the subvalvular apparatus of the mammalian atrioventricular valves through gross dissection and microscopic analysis in a small-scale pilot study. The authors examined the chordae tendineae of the mitral and tricuspid valves in sheep, pig and bovine hearts, comparing the numbers of each of these structures within and between species. It was found that the number of chordae was up to twice as many for the tricuspid valve compared with the mitral valve. The counts for the chordae on the three valve leaflets of the tricuspid valve, as well as the two mitral valve leaflets, were almost identical between species. However, the chordae attaching onto the posterior papillary muscle were almost double compared with the septal and anterior papillary muscles. Histological analysis demonstrated an abrupt transitional zone. In conclusion, the authors have shown that there is no gross morphological difference between, or within, these species at the subvalvular apparatus level. PMID:26644912

  6. Crenosoma vulpis in wild and domestic carnivores from Italy: a morphological and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Giannelli, Alessio; Colella, Vito; Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Campbell, Bronwyn Evelyn; Parisi, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-10-01

    Crenosoma vulpis is a metastrongyloid nematode primarily associated with respiratory tract infections of red foxes in North America and Europe. Sporadic cases have also been reported in domestic dogs. The present study aimed to provide morphological, molecular, and epidemiological data on the geographical distribution of this nematode throughout Italy. From 2012 to 2014, 12 of the 138 foxes examined, three dogs and one badger scored positive for C. vulpis. Forty adults were isolated from foxes and the badger, whereas first-stage larvae were detected in the three dogs. All specimens were morphologically identified as C. vulpis, and 28 nematodes were also molecularly characterized by sequencing mitochondrial (12S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)) and nuclear (18S rDNA) ribosomal genes. Four haplotypes were identified based on the 12S rDNA target gene, with the most representative (78.5%) designated as haplotype I. No genetic variability was detected for the 18S rDNA gene. The molecular identification was consistent with the distinct separation of species-specific clades inferred by the phylogenetic analyses of both mitochondrial and ribosomal genes. Data herein reported indicates that C. vulpis has a wide distribution in foxes from southern Italy, and it also occurs in dogs from southern and northern regions of the country. Practitioners should consider the occurrence of this nematode in the differential diagnosis of canine respiratory disease, particularly in dogs living close to rural areas where foxes are present. PMID:26103959

  7. Morphological, biochemical, and serological studies on 64 strains of Actinomyces israelii.

    PubMed

    Slack, J M; Landfried, S; Gerencser, M A

    1969-02-01

    A comparative study of 64 strains of Actinomyces israelii was done with the use of techniques standardized by the Subgroup on Taxonomy of the Microaerophilic Actinomycetes. Emphasis was placed on the range of variation to assist recognition of clinical isolates and aid in differentiation from Actinomyces-like organisms. None of the strains was positive for catalase or indole, or in the Voges-Proskauer test; 90% were methyl red-positive and 62% were nitrate-positive. Acid was produced from: glucose (100%), xylose (100%), salicin (98%), raffinose (95%), lactose (89%), cellobiose (83%), mannose (78%), arabinose (76%), inositol (58%), mannitol (48%), starch (31%), glycogen (0%), glycerol (0%), and rhamnose (0%). A. israelii can be identified by the fluorescent-antibody method, but there is no single morphological or biochemical characteristic which can be used for its identification. By both fluorescent-antibody and gel-diffusion techniques, the serological classification of A. israelii group D with serotypes 1 and 2 was verified. Eleven serotype 2 strains were compared morphologically, biochemically, and serologically with 53 serotype 1 strains. All but two of the serotype 2 strains produced viscous growth in broth and none fermented arabinose. PMID:4975155

  8. Morphological and surface studies of ultrasonically treated Raney nickel hydrogen-deuterium exchange catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Cioffi, E.A. ); Willis, W.S.; Suib, S.L. )

    1990-02-01

    Previous surface studies of ultrasonicated Raney nickel catalysts have shown that ultrasonication leads to reduction of surface Ni species to the metallic state. Surface impurities that may poison the Raney nickel catalyst have also been removed during ultrasonication. Negligible increases in surface area are observed after ultrasound treatment of the catalysts even though their activities and selectivities in {sup 2}H incorporation into carbohydrates and glycosphingolipids are markedly improved. The surface and morphological changes taking place during ultrasonic treatment are the focus of this paper. Cr{sup 3+}- and Mo{sup 6+}-doped Raney Ni catalysts have been studied before and after ultrasonciation with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  9. Cluster Morphology-Polymer Dynamics Correlations in Sulfonated Polystyrene Melts: Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anupriya; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S

    2016-04-15

    Reaching exceptionally long times up to 500 ns in equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations studies, we have attained a fundamental molecular understanding of the correlation of ionomer clusters structure and multiscale dynamics, providing new insight into one critical, long-standing challenge in ionic polymer physics. The cluster structure in melts of sulfonated polystyrene with Na^{+} and Mg^{2+} counterions are resolved and correlated with the dynamics on multiple length and time scales extracted from measurements of the dynamic structure factor and shear rheology. We find that as the morphology of the ionic clusters changes from ladderlike for Na^{+} to disordered structures for Mg^{2+}, the dynamic structure factor is affected on the length scale corresponding to the ionic clusters. Rheology studies show that the viscosity for Mg^{2+} melts is higher than for Na^{+} ones for all shear rates, which is well correlated with the larger ionic clusters' size for the Mg^{2+} melts. PMID:27127986

  10. Age-dependent changes in cat masseter nerve: an electrophysiological and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Chase, M H; Engelhardt, J K; Adinolfi, A M; Chirwa, S S

    1992-07-24

    The present study was undertaken to determine the manner in which aging affects the function and structure of the masseter nerve in old cats. Electrophysiological data demonstrated a significant decrease in the conduction velocity of the action potential in old cats compared with that observed in adult cats. Light microscopic analyses revealed an age-dependent decrease in axon diameter. Electron microscopic observations of the masseter nerve in the aged cats revealed a disruption of the myelin sheaths and a pronounced increase in collagen fibers in the endoneurium and perineurium. These morphological changes are discussed and then related to the decrease in conduction velocity which was observed in the electrophysiological portion of this study. PMID:1521161

  11. Which Morphological Characteristics Are Most Influenced by the Host Matrix in Downy Mildews? A Case Study in Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Fabian; Ndambi, Beninweck; Thines, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Before the advent of molecular phylogenetics, species concepts in the downy mildews, an economically important group of obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogens, have mostly been based upon host range and morphology. While molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed a narrow host range for many downy mildew species, others, like Pseudoperonospora cubensis affect even different genera. Although often morphological differences were found for new, phylogenetically distinct species, uncertainty prevails regarding their host ranges, especially regarding related plants that have been reported as downy mildew hosts, but were not included in the phylogenetic studies. In these cases, the basis for deciding if the divergence in some morphological characters can be deemed sufficient for designation as separate species is uncertain, as observed morphological divergence could be due to different host matrices colonised. The broad host range of P. cubensis (ca. 60 host species) renders this pathogen an ideal model organism for the investigation of morphological variations in relation to the host matrix and to evaluate which characteristics are best indicators for conspecificity or distinctiveness. On the basis of twelve morphological characterisitcs and a set of twelve cucurbits from five different Cucurbitaceae tribes, including the two species, Cyclanthera pedata and Thladiantha dubia, hitherto not reported as hosts of P. cubensis, a significant influence of the host matrix on pathogen morphology was found. Given the high intraspecific variation of some characteristics, also their plasticity has to be taken into account. The implications for morphological species determination and the confidence limits of morphological characteristics are discussed. For species delimitations in Pseudoperonospora it is shown that the ratio of the height of the first ramification to the sporangiophore length, ratio of the longer to the shorter ultimate branchlet, and especially the length and

  12. An agent-based simulation model to study accountable care organizations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pai; Wu, Shinyi

    2016-03-01

    Creating accountable care organizations (ACOs) has been widely discussed as a strategy to control rapidly rising healthcare costs and improve quality of care; however, building an effective ACO is a complex process involving multiple stakeholders (payers, providers, patients) with their own interests. Also, implementation of an ACO is costly in terms of time and money. Immature design could cause safety hazards. Therefore, there is a need for analytical model-based decision-support tools that can predict the outcomes of different strategies to facilitate ACO design and implementation. In this study, an agent-based simulation model was developed to study ACOs that considers payers, healthcare providers, and patients as agents under the shared saving payment model of care for congestive heart failure (CHF), one of the most expensive causes of sometimes preventable hospitalizations. The agent-based simulation model has identified the critical determinants for the payment model design that can motivate provider behavior changes to achieve maximum financial and quality outcomes of an ACO. The results show nonlinear provider behavior change patterns corresponding to changes in payment model designs. The outcomes vary by providers with different quality or financial priorities, and are most sensitive to the cost-effectiveness of CHF interventions that an ACO implements. This study demonstrates an increasingly important method to construct a healthcare system analytics model that can help inform health policy and healthcare management decisions. The study also points out that the likely success of an ACO is interdependent with payment model design, provider characteristics, and cost and effectiveness of healthcare interventions. PMID:24715674

  13. Morphological awareness intervention with kindergartners and first and second grade students from low SES homes: a small efficacy study.

    PubMed

    Apel, Kenn; Diehm, Emily

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of a morphological awareness intervention on the morphological awareness and reading skills of students from low-socioeconomic-status homes; we also examined whether the intervention was similarly effective for intervention students who differed in their initial morphological awareness abilities. The 8-week intervention was designed to increase awareness of affixes and the relations between base words and their inflected and derived forms for kindergarteners (n = 27) and first- (n = 22) and second-grade (n = 26) students. Students randomly assigned to the small group intervention were provided instruction four times a week, 25 min a day, whereas students assigned to the control group received "business as usual." Kindergarten and first- and second-grade students receiving the intervention showed statistically significant gains in morphological awareness with large effect sizes on most measures. Students in all three grades who received the intervention demonstrated nonsignificant gains in literacy abilities with null to small effect sizes. Further, students with low morphological awareness abilities at the onset of the study demonstrated similar gains from the intervention as their peers with typical morphological awareness abilities. Our results suggest that explicit morphological awareness instruction may produce gains of practical importance to young elementary students at risk for future literacy difficulties. PMID:24191977

  14. a Study of the Morphology of Pmda-Oda Polyimide Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Craig Douglas

    This research examines how the morphology of PMDA -ODA polyimide films varies as a condition of production and post-imidization treatments. These films were produced using chemical and thermal imidization techniques. The PMDA-ODA films were studied using four different techniques. Optical anisotropy, density and wide and small-angle x-ray scattering measurements were made. Wide-angle x-ray diffraction was used to examine the short-range nature of the ordering while small-angle x-ray scattering was used for long-period spacing and void studies. This research shows that the morphology of PMDA -ODA films depends on the method of imidization. The chemically imidized PMDA-ODA varies from the thermally imidized films. The chemically imidized films are more in-plane and out-of -plane anisotropic which is a result of the lateral stress applied to the film during imidization. These commercially prepared films (Du Pont Kapton^circler) are cast on a high-speed conveyor which applies the stress to the polyamic acid precursor. The thermally imidized films, in contrast, are cast onto glass plates which does not subject them to the same degree of stress. The chemically imidized films also had larger void sizes ( ~35 A compared to ~ 25A) and smaller void fractions. The stresses applied to Kapton^circler resulted in the enlargement of the voids during imidization. For Kapton^circler, the lower void fractions in the thinner films resulted both from the thickness of the film which allowed voids to escape more easily and the larger ordered domains in these samples. The PMDA-ODA films were also thermally treated and soaked in water. The water immersion studies helped to prove the existence of the voids within the films. Although most of the thermal treatments had some effect on the polyimide films, these effects are small at lower temperatures. Upon annealing at temperatures of 450 ^circC, this film experienced a major change in morphology. In addition to degradation of the material

  15. Coupled Numerical Study of Turbidity Currents, Internal Hydraulic Jump and Morphological Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, P.; Cao, Z.; He, Z.; Gareth, P.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: The last two decades have seen intensive experimental and numerical studies of the occurrence condition of internal hydraulic jump in turbidity currents and the induced morphological signatures (Garcia and Parker 1989; Kostic and Parker 2006). Yet there are two critical issues that remain insufficiently or inappropriately addressed. First, depositional turbidity currents are imposed on steep slopes in both flume experiments and numerical cases, exclusively based on a configuration consisting of an upstream sloping portion and a downstream horizontal portion linked by a slope break. This appears physically counterintuitive as steep slope should favour self-accelerating erosional turbidity currents (Parker et al. 1986). The second issue concerns the numerical studies. There exist significant interactions among the current, sediment transport and bed topography. Due to the slope break in bed, the current may experience an internal hydraulic jump, leaving morphological signatures on the bed, which in turn affects the current evolution. Nevertheless, simplified decoupled models are exclusively employed in previous numerical investigations, in which the interactions are either partly or completely ignored without sufficient justification. The present paper aims to address the above-mentioned two issues relevant to the occurrence condition of the internal hydraulic jump and the induced morphological signatures. A recently developed well-balanced coupled numerical model for turbidity currents (Hu et al. 2012) is applied. In contrast to previous studies, erosional turbidity currents will be imposed at the upstream boundary, which is much more typical of the field. The effects of sediment size, bed slope decrease, and upstream and downstream boundary conditions are revealed in detail. In addition, the evolution of turbidity currents over a bed characterized by gradual decrease in slope is also discussed. References Garcia, M. H., and Parker, G. (1989). Experiments

  16. Crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) with acetaminophen--a study on solubility, spherulitic growth, and morphology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Gogos, Costas

    2013-11-01

    A simple, sensitive, efficient, and novel method analyzing the number of spherulitic nuclei was proposed to estimate the solubility of a model drug acetaminophen (APAP) in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). At high crystallization temperature (323 K), 10% APAP-PEO had the same low number of spherulitic nuclei as pure PEO, indicating that APAP and PEO were fully miscible. At low crystallization temperature (303 K), the number of nuclei for 10% APAP-PEO was significantly higher, suggesting that APAP was oversaturated and therefore recrystallized and acted as a nucleating agent. Based on the results obtained, the solubility of APAP in PEO is possibly between the concentration of 0.1% and 1% at 303 K. The spherulitic growth rate G of PEO was found to decrease with increasing APAP concentration, suggesting that APAP is most likely functioning as a chemical defect and is either rejected from or included in the PEO crystals during chain folding. APAP could possibly locate in the inter-spherulitic, inter-fibrillar, inter-lamellar, or intra-lamellar regions of PEO. At 323 K, the morphology of 10% APAP-PEO is more dendritic than spherulitic with large unfilled space in between dendrites and spherulites, which is a sign of one or the combination of the four modes of segregation. An extensive spherulitic nucleation and growth kinetics study using the classical theoretical relationships, for example, the Hoffman-Lauritzen (HL) and Avrami theories, was conducted. Both microscopic and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis yielded similar values for the nucleation constant Kg as well as the fold surface free energy σe and work of chain folding q. The values of σe and q increased with APAP concentration, indicating that the chain folding of PEO was hindered by APAP. PMID:23562611

  17. In vitro studies reveal antiurolithic effect of Terminalia arjuna using quantitative morphological information from computerized microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, A.; Tandon, S.; Singla, S.K.; Tandon, C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: For most cases, urolithiasis is a condition where excessive oxalate is present in the urine. Many reports have documented free radical generation followed by hyperoxaluria as a consequence of which calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition occurs in the kidney tissue. The present study is aimed to exam the antilithiatic potency of the aqueous extract (AE) of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna). Materials and Methods: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia arjuna was investigated in vitro nucleation, aggregation and growth of the CaOx crystals as well as the morphology of CaOx crystals using the inbuilt software ‘Image-Pro Plus 7.0’ of Olympus upright microscope (BX53). Antioxidant activity of AE of Terminalia arjuna bark was also determined in vitro. Results: Terminalia arjuna extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and aggregation of CaOx crystals. The AE of Terminalia arjuna bark also inhibited the growth of CaOx crystals. At the same time, the AE also modified the morphology of CaOx crystals from hexagonal to spherical shape with increasing concentrations of AE and reduced the dimensions such as area, perimeter, length and width of CaOx crystals in a dose dependent manner. Also, the Terminalia arjuna AE scavenged the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals with an IC50 at 13.1µg/mL. Conclusions: The study suggests that Terminalia arjuna bark has the potential to scavenge DPPH radicals and inhibit CaOx crystallization in vitro. In the light of these studies, Terminalia arjuna can be regarded as a promising candidate from natural plant sources of antilithiatic and antioxidant activity with high value. PMID:26689519

  18. The revascularization of pedicle skin flaps in pigs: a functional and morphologic study

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.M.

    1982-10-01

    Functional and morphologic changes occurring during the revascularization of pedicle flaps have been investigated in the skin of pigs. The skin flaps, 16 cm long by 4 cm wide, were based on a row of segmental vessels arising from the internal mammary artery. Comparative measurements were made in flapped and normal skin. The inherent blood supply in the pedicle of the flap was unable to maintain the whole of the flap in a viable state. Flap viability was ascertained at surgery by the use of the intravital dye Disulphine blue. Injections of the dye after surgery gave a less accurate prediction of viability than when dye was injected prior to surgery. Revascularization between the flap and surrounding skin was evident 3 to 4 days postoperatively at the distal, most hypoxic part of the viable flap. The whole flap had a collateral vascular supply 7 to 10 days after surgery. Isotope clearance studies showed that the greatest functional changes occurred in the distal third of the viable flap, where, after initially slowing, the clearance rate became faster than in normal skin (day 5). Potassium extraction studies indicated similar changes. However, an increase in the red-cell volume on day 1 suggested that vascular shunting was occurring. The results of the morphologic studies indicated a correlation between the number of blood vessels per unit area, the thickness of the dermis, and the recorded functional changes. Seven days after surgery, when isotope clearance rates were very rapid, there was a significant increase in the vascular density and dermal thickness.

  19. Prenatal Tobacco Exposure and Brain Morphology: A Prospective Study in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    El Marroun, Hanan; Schmidt, Marcus N; Franken, Ingmar H A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; van der Lugt, Aad; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that smoking during pregnancy can affect offspring health. Prenatal tobacco exposure has been associated with negative behavioral and cognitive outcomes in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. These associations between prenatal tobacco exposure and psychopathology in offspring could possibly be explained by the influence of prenatal tobacco exposure on brain development. In this prospective study, we investigated the association between prenatal tobacco exposure, behavioral and emotional functioning and brain morphology in young children. On the basis of age and gender, we matched 113 children prenatally exposed to tobacco with 113 unexposed controls. These children were part of a population-based study in the Netherlands, the Generation R Study, and were followed from pregnancy onward. Behavioral and emotional functioning was assessed at age 6 with the Child Behavior Checklist. We assessed brain morphology using magnetic resonance imaging techniques in children aged 6–8 years. Children exposed to tobacco throughout pregnancy have smaller total brain volumes and smaller cortical gray matter volumes. Continued prenatal tobacco exposure was associated with cortical thinning, primarily in the superior frontal, superior parietal, and precentral cortices. These children also demonstrated increased scores of affective problems. In addition, thickness of the precentral and superior frontal cortices was associated with affective problems. Importantly, brain development in offspring of mothers who quit smoking during pregnancy resembled that of nonexposed controls (no smaller brain volumes and no thinning of the cortex). Our findings suggest an association between continued prenatal tobacco exposure and brain structure and function in school-aged children. PMID:24096296

  20. Morphology and dynamics of piercement structures: an integrated laboratory and numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Gisler, Galen R.; Haug, Øystein T.

    2013-04-01

    Piercement structures are numerous in many geological settings, including pockmarks, mud volcanoes, hydrothermal vents, maar-diatreme volcanoes, volcanic conduits in stratovolcanoes, and kimberlite volcanoes. These piercement structures exhibit various shapes, from sub-vertical pipes piercing through the country rock to open and wide conduits, such as volcanic craters resulting from volcanic explosions (e.g., Mount Pinatubo). In this contribution, we present an integrated laboratory/numerical study to constrain the dynamics of piercement structures and unravel the processes that control their morphology. The laboratory experiments consist of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with a pack of cohesive fine-grained granular material, at the bottom of which a volume V t of pressurized air is injected at high velocity. As a result of air injection, a piercement structure develops through the medium, and its morphology and evolution is monitored with an ultra-fast camera. We varied systematically the thickness of the model h and the injection pressure P , and show that two morphologies of piercement structures develop: vertical and V-shaped conduits. In a phase diagram with h and P as horizontal and vertical axes, respectively, the two morphologies group into two distinct domains separated by a transition line of critical slope P-h. This phase diagram shows that vertical conduits form for high P /low h, whereas V-shaped conduits form for low P /high h. 2D numerical simulations are performed using Sage, a finite volume hydrocode developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. We ran simulations and varied systematically the input pressure P and the strength of the country rock T . Our simulations produced three types of piercement structures: vertical, sub-horizontal and V-shaped conduits. In a phase diagram with T and P as horizontal and vertical axes, respectively, the three morphologies group into distinct domains separated by transition lines of critical slopes P-T . Vertical

  1. Morphological Diversity of the Rod Spherule: A Study of Serially Reconstructed Electron Micrographs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuai; Mitchell, Joe; Briggs, Deidrie J.; Young, Jaime K.; Long, Samuel S.; Fuerst, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Rod spherules are the site of the first synaptic contact in the retina’s rod pathway, linking rods to horizontal and bipolar cells. Rod spherules have been described and characterized through electron micrograph (EM) and other studies, but their morphological diversity related to retinal circuitry and their intracellular structures have not been quantified. Most rod spherules are connected to their soma by an axon, but spherules of rods on the surface of the Mus musculus outer plexiform layer often lack an axon and have a spherule structure that is morphologically distinct from rod spherules connected to their soma by an axon. Retraction of the rod axon and spherule is often observed in disease processes and aging, and the retracted rod spherule superficially resembles rod spherules lacking an axon. We hypothesized that retracted spherules take on an axonless spherule morphology, which may be easier to maintain in a diseased state. To test our hypothesis, we quantified the spatial organization and subcellular structures of rod spherules with and without axons. We then compared them to the retracted spherules in a disease model, mice that overexpress Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule), to gain a better understanding of the rod synapse in health and disease. Methods We reconstructed serial EM images of wild type and DscamGoF (gain of function) rod spherules at a resolution of 7 nm in the X-Y axis and 60 nm in the Z axis. Rod spherules with and without axons, and retracted spherules in the DscamGoF retina, were reconstructed. The rod spherule intracellular organelles, the invaginating dendrites of rod bipolar cells and horizontal cell axon tips were also reconstructed for statistical analysis. Results Stereotypical rod (R1) spherules occupy the outer two-thirds of the outer plexiform layer (OPL), where they present as spherical terminals with large mitochondria. This spherule group is highly uniform and composed more than 90% of the rod spherule

  2. Potential of Microbispora sp. V2 as biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causative agent of southern blight of Zea mays L (Baby corn)--in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Patil, N N; Waghmode, M S; Gaikwad, P S; Gajbhiye, M H; Gunjal, A B; Nawani, N N; Kapadnis, B P

    2014-11-01

    The study was undertaken with the aim of exploring novel and beneficial agro activities of rare actinomycetes like Microbispora sp. V2. The antagonistic activity of Microbispora sp. V2 was evaluated as a biocontrol agents against Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen. The methodology performed for evaluation of biocontrol agent was in vitro evaluation assay which comprised of three tests viz., cellophane overlay technique, seed germination test and Thiram (fungicide) tolerance of Microbispora sp. V2. The isolate was found to inhibit the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii to 91.43% in cellophane assay. In seed germination assay, Microbispora sp. V2 treated seeds resulted in 25.75% increased germination efficiency, as compared to seeds infected by Sclerotium rolfsii. The isolate Microbispora sp. V2 could tolerate 1000 microg mL(-1) of Thiram (fungicide). The in vitro assay studies proved that Microbispora sp. V2 can be used as antifungal antagonist and thus posses' great potential as biocontrol agent against southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Zea mays L (Baby corn) which causes large economical losses. PMID:25434111

  3. Agent-Based Simulation for Interconnection-Scale Renewable Integration and Demand Response Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Behboodi, Sahand; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2015-12-23

    This paper collects and synthesizes the technical requirements, implementation, and validation methods for quasi-steady agent-based simulations of interconnectionscale models with particular attention to the integration of renewable generation and controllable loads. Approaches for modeling aggregated controllable loads are presented and placed in the same control and economic modeling framework as generation resources for interconnection planning studies. Model performance is examined with system parameters that are typical for an interconnection approximately the size of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) and a control area about 1/100 the size of the system. These results are used to demonstrate and validate the methods presented.

  4. Design, diversity-oriented synthesis and structure activity relationship studies of quinolinyl heterocycles as antimycobacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Rachakonda, Venkatesham; Alla, Manjula; Kotipalli, Sudha Sravanti; Ummani, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The current study reports design and diversity oriented synthesis of novel bis heterocycles with a common 2-methyl, C-4 unsubstituted quinoline moiety as the central key heterocycle. Employing reagent based skeletal diversity approach; a facile synthesis of bis heterocycles with different heterocyclic rings at C-3 position of the quinoline moiety has been accomplished. A broad range of heterocyclic frameworks thus obtained were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity. The active scaffolds were further explored by a parallel library generation in order to establish SAR. Further, low cytotoxicity against A549 cell line enhances the potential of the synthesized molecules as promising antimycobacterial agents. PMID:24189497

  5. Morphological Study of Jaraguay and San Borja Volcanic Fields, Baja California, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrete-Aranda, R.; Canon-Tapia, E.

    2005-12-01

    Volcanism younger than 12.5 Ma has occurred mainly as monogenetic volcanic fields along the Baja California Peninsula, but until now very little attention has been given to the morphological description of this type of volcanism. In this study we present the preliminary results of the first stage of elaboration of a Geographical Information System (GIS) of the northernmost volcanic fields of the Peninsula; Jaraguay and San Borja, which are among the less studied fields in the region. The present status of the GIS includes the main morphological characteristics and localization of over 350 eruptive centers identified in both volcanic fields. Our data show that over 90% of the eruptive centers are cinder cones, whereas the rest of volcanic structures include some stratovolcanos, shield volcanoes and calderas. Detailed analysis of digital elevation models and 14 m resolution Landsat TM images show a remarkable diversity of the size of reported eruptive centers: the average height lies around 720 m with peaks that reaches 1,412 m asl. Preliminary graphic analyses show local concentrations of the biggest volcanic structures in some areas in both fields. This spatial distribution is more evident at the San Borja volcanic field where the biggest volcanic centers are systematically located in its south and north-western boundaries. A similar concentration of bigger volcanic structures is found at the western edge of Jaraguay volcanic field where cinder cones are largely confined to its eastern most edge. The observed morphological changes of volcanic structures occur in both cases within a distance of less than 100 km. We interpret such variations as the result of heterogeneities of the low velocity zone below this particular area of the Baja California Peninsula, although the final evaluation of the distribution of the regional stress field and its relationship with the actual spatial distribution of eruptive centers must wait until more information becomes available. In

  6. A remote sensing study of regional variation in sinkhole morphology-Florida karst vs. Minnesota karst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, C. L.; Hadizadeh, J.; McCarty, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    In many regions of the United States, database technologies and GIS have facilitated spatial analysis of karst. The purpose of this research was to compare regional latitudinal variation in sinkhole karst morphology via remote sensing techniques. Such comparison may be significant because the development of a karst landscape depends primarily on climate and availability of water as well as lithology. Sinkhole karst, a common karst in the U.S., is morphologically defined as cone-shaped depressions with circular or oval opening to the surface that result from the dissolution of relatively soluble bedrock such as limestone or gypsum. The two regions of interest, north-central Florida and southeastern Minnesota, were selected based on structural and lithological similarity of limestone bedrock and the fact that the bedrock study areas are located in clearly different climate zones. This approach utilized topographic maps, digital elevation models, state karst feature databases, and high resolution 0.6m QuickBirdTM and 0.5m WorldView 1TM satellite images in a GIS environment. Morphological parameters - area, perimeter, minor axis and major axis length - were calculated on a total of 80 sinkholes in the study regions using the zonal geometry function, a tool in the spatial analysis extension provided by ESRITM. Our results show that north-central Florida and southeastern Minnesota karst are statistically different in terms of sinkhole shape and size distribution. Florida has larger sinkholes (2,835 square meter Mean) that are closer to circular shape. Minnesota has smaller (1,213 square meter Mean) and more elliptical sinkholes with a comparatively shorter minor axis. Of the possible explanations, climate appears to be the most likely cause for the observed differences. The higher amount of precipitation in Florida coupled with warmer year round temperatures provides an environment conducive to a more chemically involved hydrological regime, which may be responsible for

  7. Effect of silicon resistivity on its porosification using metal induced chemical etching: morphology and photoluminescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Shailendra K.; Sahu, Gayatri; Kumar, Vivek; Sahoo, P. K.; Sagdeo, Pankaj R.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-03-01

    The structure and light-emitting properties of porous Si nanowires (Si NWs) fabricated by metal induced chemical etching (MIE) process on two different Si substrates of different resistivities have been investigated here. The surface morphological studies have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy. It is observed that porous Si containing well aligned Si NWs is formed from high resistivity (1-20 Ωcm) Si wafer, whereas interconnected pores or cheese-like structures are formed from low resistivity (0.2 Ωcm) Si wafers after MIE. An explanation for the different porosification processes has been proposed based on the initial doping level, where number of dopants seems to be playing an important role in the etching process. Visible photoluminescence (PL) has been observed from all the porous Si samples, that are attributed due to quantum confinement effect.

  8. Morphological study of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossum Lutreolina crassicaudata by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Tiana; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio

    2007-05-01

    Tetratrichomonas didelphidis is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine of opossums Didelphis marsupialis, Didelphis albiventris, and Lutreolina crassicaudata. The isolate used in this study was from L. crassicaudata and it was cultivated in monoxenic culture with Escherichia coli in Diamond (TYM) medium without maltose and with starch solution (trypticase-yeast extract-starch), pH 7.5 at 28 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy showed the fine morphological features of the trophozoites: the emergence of the anterior flagella, the structure of the undulating membrane, the axostyle and posterior flagellum. In addition, we described spherical forms that are probably pseudocysts. Our data will contribute to a better understanding of surface structures in T. didelphidis. PMID:17252276

  9. Study on the effect of surfactants on morphologies of trigonal selenium in microfluidic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Tian-bin; Yin, Xue-feng; Fan, Jie; Liu, Jin-hua

    2010-02-15

    The influence of the surfactants on the morphologies of trigonal selenium (t-Se) submicrostructures was studied in a two-step microfluidic system, which is composed of a glass microchip for preparing spherical amorphous selenium (a-Se) colloids coupled with a poly(methyl methacrylate) microchip for transferring a-Se into its t-Se seeds under sonication. The selenious acid containing surfactants and hydrazine solutions were delivered through the two-inlets of the glass microfluidic chip. Submicro-rods, -wires as well as -tubes of t-Se were obtained by simply varying the coexisted surfactants. The as-synthesized products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED).

  10. Third eyelid in the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus): a morphological and histological study.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Younes; Khaksar, Zabihollah; Gholami, Soghra

    2015-01-01

    The Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) is native to parts of Asia, Iran. The purpose of this study was to describe the gross anatomy of the cartilage and histology of the superficial gland of the third eyelid of two adult mongooses. The animals, in terminal stages of disease and near death due to aging or unknown reasons, were referred from Park Zoo (Shiraz, Iran) to our center. By using a modified maceration technique, the morphological characteristics of the cartilage were examined. For histological examinations of the superficial gland of the third eyelid, the samples were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Also, to detect the elastic fibers in the cartilage sections were stained with orcein and Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin. The cartilage consisted of an ovoid appendix and a mild reverse sigmoid crossbar. Elastic fibers were scattered throughout the cartilage but were more concentrated in the center. The superficial gland of the third eyelid was compound tubuloacinar with serous acini. PMID:27086413

  11. Diversity of Halimeda (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) in New Caledonia: a Combined Morphological and Molecular Study.

    PubMed

    Dijoux, Laury; Verbruggen, Heroen; Mattio, Lydiane; Duong, Nathalie; Payri, Claude

    2012-12-01

    Halimeda is a genus of calcified and segmented green macroalgae in the order Bryopsidales. In New Caledonia, the genus is abundant and represents an important part of the reef flora. Previous studies recorded 19 species that were identified using morphological criteria. The aim of this work was to reassess the diversity of the genus in New Caledonia using morpho-anatomical examinations and molecular analyses of the plastid tufA and rbcL genes. Our results suggest the occurrence of 22 species. Three of these are reported for the first time from New Caledonia: Halimeda kanaloana, H. xishaensis, and an entity resembling H. stuposa. DNA analyses revealed that the species H. fragilis exhibits cryptic or pseudocryptic diversity in New Caledonia. We also show less conclusive evidence for cryptic species within H. taenicola. PMID:27009997

  12. Clinical, morphologic, and chemical studies on copper toxicosis of Bedlington Terriers.

    PubMed

    Twedt, D C; Sternlieb, I; Gilbertson, S R

    1979-08-01

    In a study of 90 Bedlington Terriers, 68 had a defect that resulted in the accumulation of toxic excesses of copper in the liver. Concentrations of copper were 5 to 50 times that of clinically normal mongrel dogs. The bulk of this excess copper was sequestered in lysosomes. When copper concentrations exceeded 2,000 micrograms/g dry liver, progressive signs of functional and morphologic disturbance appeared as focal hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis, and ultimately cirrhosis. The disorder, which appears to be inherited, could only be diagnosed by liver biopsy. It was latent for many years in some dogs but led early in life to acute or chronic hepatic disease and death in others. PMID:500453

  13. Observations and morphological study of ring planetary nebulae in forbidden O III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louise, R.

    1982-03-01

    A photometric study is presented of the morphology of forbidden O III emission from 10 ring planetary nebulae. Observations were made in a narrowband interference filter centered at 5007 A for the objects NGC 40, 1514, 2392, 6543, 6781, 6826, 7354, 7048, 7009 and 7662, and used to obtain values for the major axis, the distance separating two successive maxima of the photometric profile, the ring/center intensity ratio and eccentricity. These parameters are found to be consistent with a shell model for most of the nebulae, although it is noted that the model only applies to the O III distribution. Fine structure is also found in certain nebulae, indicating the presence of more complex structures to which the shell model is only a first approximation.

  14. Morphological and spectral study of the galaxies Kaz 69 and Kaz 460

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Karapetian, E. L.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.

    2007-10-01

    Morphological and spectral studies of the galaxies Kaz 69 and Kaz 460 are reported. The observations were made on the 2.6-m telescope at the Byurakan Observatory using the VAGR multiaperture spectrograph. Isophotes of monochromatic images of the Hα, [NII] λ6584, and [SII] λ6717 lines are constructed. Densifications I and II are found to rotate with north-south oriented axes of rotation. The two densifications (“knots”) have all the kinematic and spectral properties of individual galaxies. It is assumed that Kaz 139 and the densifications I and II were ejected from the nucleus of Kaz 460 at different times, with Kaz 139 probably having been ejected first, although they may all have been ejected simultaneously with different velocities. Along with Kaz 460, these objects form a physical group of galaxies and, at the same time, are a consequence of the activity of the nucleus of Kaz 460.

  15. Cardiac consequences of the systemic lupus erythematosus therapy with corticosteroids morphological study.

    PubMed

    Arsenescu, Cătălina; Butcovan, Doina; Rotar, M; Georgescu, G I

    2002-01-01

    It is presented the case of a fifty years old women, diagnosed 3 years ago with systemic lupus erythematosus, under therapy with prednisone and cyclophosphamid therapy. She was admitted in our hospital for right decompensated heart disease and the presence of an apical right ventricular mass occluding part of the right ventricular cavity. The endomyocardial biopsy was made to clearify the nature of this mass. After processing the specimen, the histological study evidenciated an organizing apical thrombotic mass formed in a large right ventricular cavity in conditions of pulmonary hypertention. There are presented data concerning the adverse effects of the systemic lupus erythematosus drug therapy, as well. In these circumstances, we demonstrated histologically, that both conditions could alter the heart morphology. PMID:14974235

  16. Morphological and metabolic determinants of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese youth: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) related to obesity has been rising in the last decades, though the morphological and metabolic determinants are remain unclear in children. The aim of this study was to analyze the morphological determinants and metabolic abnormalities in obese children and adolescents, classified either as with (P-NAFLD) or without (N-NAFLD). The sample comprised 190 individuals, aged 6 to 16 years-old, assigned into one of 4 groups according to sex and presence or absence of NAFLD. Obesity was obtained according to body mass index (BMI) cut-points. Body composition variables was estimated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin, fasting glucose (FG) and blood pressure were also analyzed. The diagnosis of NAFLD, as well as the measurement of intra-abdominal fat tissue thickness (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue thickness (SCF), was carried-out by ultrasound. Results Males and females belonging to P-NAFLD group showed, respectively, higher TFM and IAF. When data were adjusted for sex, age and total fat mass, those in P-NAFLD showed statistically higher IAF, TFM and TG. Conclusion Our study showed that obese youngsters who were assigned to P-NAFLD group were twice as likely to present higher concentration of triglycerides, higher levels of trunk fat, as well as intra-abdominal fat compared to their N-NAFLD counterparts even after adjustments for sex, age, pubertal stage and total body fat mass. PMID:23497552

  17. Bortezomib-Induced Painful Peripheral Neuropathy: An Electrophysiological, Behavioral, Morphological and Mechanistic Study in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Bardini, Michela; Fazio, Grazia; Chiorazzi, Alessia; Meregalli, Cristina; Oggioni, Norberto; Shanks, Kathleen; Quartu, Marina; Serra, Maria Pina; Sala, Barbara; Cavaletti, Guido; Dorsey, Susan G.

    2013-01-01

    Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor with significant antineoplastic activity for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma as well as other hematological and solid neoplasms. Peripheral neurological complications manifesting with paresthesias, burning sensations, dysesthesias, numbness, sensory loss, reduced proprioception and vibratory sensitivity are among the major limiting side effects associated with bortezomib therapy. Although bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy is clinically easy to diagnose and reliable models are available, its pathophysiology remains partly unclear. In this study we used well-characterized immune-competent and immune-compromised mouse models of bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. To characterize the drug-induced pathological changes in the peripheral nervous system, we examined the involvement of spinal cord neuronal function in the development of neuropathic pain and investigated the relevance of the immune response in painful peripheral neuropathy induced by bortezomib. We found that bortezomib treatment induced morphological changes in the spinal cord, dorsal roots, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and peripheral nerves. Neurophysiological abnormalities and specific functional alterations in Aδ and C fibers were also observed in peripheral nerve fibers. Mice developed mechanical allodynia and functional abnormalities of wide dynamic range neurons in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. Bortezomib induced increased expression of the neuronal stress marker activating transcription factor-3 in most DRG. Moreover, the immunodeficient animals treated with bortezomib developed a painful peripheral neuropathy with the same features observed in the immunocompetent mice. In conclusion, this study extends the knowledge of the sites of damage induced in the nervous system by bortezomib administration. Moreover, a selective functional vulnerability of peripheral nerve fiber subpopulations was found as well as

  18. The bite force and craniofacial morphology in patients with acromegaly: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Aktas-Yılmaz, Banu; Dogan, Arife; Yetkin, Ilhan; Bek, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Acromegaly is a metabolic disorder caused by increased growth hormone secretion. As a consequence of acromegaly some typical craniofacial morphology changes appear. This pilot study was conducted to compare the bite force and the characteristic size and shape of the craniofacial components of acromegalic patients with the healthy Turkish individuals. In additon, the correlations between bite force and craniofacial morphology of patients with acromegaly and control individuals were evaluated. Study Design: The maximum bite force of the participants was recorded with strain-gage transducer. Lateral x-ray scans were made under standard conditions, in centric occlusion. On cephalograms, the linear and angular measurements was performed. Results: Patients with acromegaly showed increased anterior and posterior total face height, ramus length, width of frontal sinuse, gonial angle and a negative difference between maxillary and mandibular protrusions. In addition, females with acromegaly showed larger lower anterior face height and sella turcica, decreased facial angle, increased mandibular plane angle. The cephalometric measurements, except one did not showed correlation with the bite force in acromegalic patients. In control group, significant correlations were observed between anterior total face height and anterior lower face height, mandibular plane angle and gonial angle. Conclusions: The greater changes were observed in the mandible. The maximum bite force of patients with acromegaly showed no difference from healthy individuals. The non-significant difference of bite force between healthy participants and acromegalic patients provide important information for dental treatment and prosthetic rehabilitation of acromegalic patients. Key words:Acromegaly, bite force, cephalometric analysis, mandibular prognathism. PMID:23986010

  19. Evaluation of an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents

    PubMed Central

    Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Benetti, Francine; Ferreira, Luciana Lousada; Rahal, Vanessa; Ervolino, Edilson; Jacinto, Rogério de Castilho; Gomes, João Eduardo; Briso, André Luiz Fraga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dental materials, in general, are tested in different animal models prior to their clinical use in humans, except for bleaching agents. Objectives To evaluate an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents by investigating the influence of different concentrations and application times of H2O2 gel in the pulp tissue during in-office bleaching of rats’ vital teeth. Material and methods The right and left maxillary molars of 50 Wistar rats were bleached with 20% and 35% H2O2 gels, respectively, for 5, 10, 15, 30, or 45 min (n=10 rats/group). Ten animals (control) were untreated. The rats were killed after 2 or 30 days, and the maxillae were examined by light microscopy. Inflammation was evaluated by histomorphometric analysis with inflammatory cell counting in the coronal and radicular thirds of the pulp. The counting of fibroblasts was also performed. Scores were attributed to the odontoblastic layer and to vascular changes. The tertiary dentin area and the pulp chamber central area were histomorphometrically measured. Data were compared by the analysis of variance and the Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05). Results After 2 days, the amount of inflammatory cells increased in the occlusal third of the coronal pulp until the time of 15 min for both concentrations of bleaching gels. In 30 and 45 min groups of each concentration, the number of inflammatory cells decreased along with the appearance of necrotic areas. After 30 days, a reduction in the pulp chamber central area and an enlargement of tertiary dentin area were observed without the detection of inflammation areas. Conclusion The rat model of extra coronal bleaching showed to be adequate for bleaching protocols studies, as it was possible to observe alterations in the pulp tissues and in the tooth structure caused by different concentrations and periods of application of bleaching agents. PMID:27008262

  20. Evaluation of an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents

    PubMed Central

    CINTRA, Luciano Tavares Angelo; BENETTI, Francine; FERREIRA, Luciana Louzada; RAHAL, Vanessa; ERVOLINO, Edilson; JACINTO, Rogério de Castilho; GOMES, João Eduardo; BRISO, André Luiz Fraga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dental materials in general are tested in different animal models prior to the clinical use in humans, except for bleaching agents. Objectives To evaluate an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents, by investigating the influence of different concentrations and application times of H2O2 gel in the pulp tissue during in-office bleaching of rats’ vital teeth. Material and Methods The right and left maxillary molars of 50 Wistar rats were bleached with 20% and 35% H2O2 gels, respectively, for 5, 10, 15, 30, or 45 min (n=10 rats/group). Ten animals were untreated (control). The rats were killed after 2 or 30 days, and the maxillae were examined by light microscopy. Inflammation was evaluated through histomorphometric analysis with inflammatory cell count in the coronal and radicular thirds of the pulp. Fibroblasts were also counted. Scores were attributed to odontoblastic layer and vascular changes. Tertiary dentin area and pulp chamber central area were measured histomorphometrically. Data were compared by analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05). Results After 2 days, the amount of inflammatory cells increased in the coronal pulp occlusal third up to the 15-min application groups of each bleaching gel. In the groups exposed to each concentration for 30 and 45 min, the number of inflammatory cells decreased along with the appearance of necrotic areas. After 30 days, reduction on the pulp chamber central area and enlargement of the tertiary dentin area were observed, without the detection of inflammation areas. Conclusion The rat model of extracoronal bleaching showed to be adequate for studies of bleaching protocols, as it was possible to observe alterations in the pulp tissues and tooth structure caused by different concentrations and application periods of bleaching agents. PMID:27119766

  1. Comparative in vivo study of the efficacy and tolerance of exfoliating agents using reflectance spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Rizza, Luisa; Frasca, Giuseppina; Bonina, Claudia; Puglia, Carmelo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness and the safety of different topical agents (glycolic acid, mandelic acid, and grape juice acid mixture) in skin exfoliation by objective instrumental methods. To evaluate the exfoliating effects of these substances, a new experimental in vivo protocol based on DHA (dihydroxyacetone)-induced skin pigmentation was used. Skin acceptability towards acid application was investigated by the evaluation of skin erythema induced by topical application of these substances at increased concentrations. Furthermore, their photosensitizing effects were evaluated by determining the increase in sensitivity to UV-light exposure in cutaneous sites previously treated with acids. These in vivo evaluations were monitored by reflectance spectophotometry. From the results obtained, we observed the differing capacities of the tested acids to increase the rate of skin regeneration, with a significant reduction in the time required to obtain skin renewal. The study pointed out that glycolic acid (10% w/w) induced a faster skin exfoliation, a more intense erythema, and a higher photosensitizing effect in comparison with the mandelic acid and grape juice acid mixtures. Further evidence showed that the mandelic acid and grape juice acid mixtures were able to induce a slower and safer peeling action in comparison with glycolic acid. Finally, our results suggest that the methodologies and protocols used in this study may help in choosing the most appropriate topical agents for skin exfoliating treatments. PMID:20587353

  2. Morphological study of Insoluble Organic Matter from carbonaceous chondrites: Correlation with petrologic grade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changela, Hitesh G.

    2015-06-01

    The major form of organic material delivered to Earth from an extraterrestrial origin is Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM). A morphological study of IOM in the CR (Renazzo-type) and CM (Mighei-type) carbonaceous chondrites was performed in order to constrain its origins and processing history. IOM residues from the following CR chondrites: GRO 95577 (CR1), Al Rais (CR1/2), EET 92042 (CR2), QUE 99177 (CR3) and the CM chondrites: MET 01070 (CM2.2), Cold Bokkeveld (CM2.3), Murchison (CM2.4) and QUE 97990 (CM2.5) were studied using Annular Dark Field STEM imaging. Characteristic features of the IOM, organic nanoglobules, were manually identified and measured for their abundances and size distributions. The IOM residues were also compared holistically for their degree of average 'roughness' or 'coarsening' using fractal image analysis. Manually identified nanoglobules have abundances making up less than 10% of the total IOM, which is consistent with previous studies. Their measured abundances do not correlate with petrologic grade. Thus parent body processing did not systematically deplete their abundances. The IOM is however on average 'smoother' or 'coarser' in the more altered chondrites, demonstrated by a lower fractal dimension using fractal box counting (DB). The DB values for the IOM in the CR chondrites are distinctive: QUE 99177 has the largest DB value (average = 1.54 ± 0.004) and GRO 99577 has the lowest (average = 1.45 ± 0.011). Al Rais and EET 92042 have IOM with average DB values within this range (average, 1.46 ± 0.009 and 1.50 ± 0.006). The CMs record a similar but less distinctive trend in DB, with QUE 97990 having the largest value (1.52 ± 0.004), MET 01070 the lowest (1.45 ± 0.019), and Cold Bokkeveld (1.50 ± 0.011) and Murchison (1.49 ± 0.017) equivalent to one another within error. The identified nanoglobules in the IOM of the CM chondrites are on average larger than those in the CR chondrites. The 'coarsening' or 'smoother' texture of the IOM

  3. Epidermal changes in heat and electrically injured pig skin: a light microscopic study of the sequences in morphology.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, H K; Danielsen, L; Nielsen, O; Aalund, O; Nielsen, K G; Karlsmark, T; Genefke, I K

    1982-09-01

    Biopsies were obtained from heat and electrically exposed pig skin at different at different times after exposure, in order to describe the morphological sequences in heat and electrically injured skin. The work is part of a series of studies in which it is investigated whether morphological methods can be used in disclosing electrical torture. Epidermal changes in heat lesions differed from those of electrical lesions in all experiments. Heat lesions typically showed a detached epidermis with fibrillar or granular cytoplasm. In older lesions the epidermis appeared concrete. Electrical lesions showed an attached epidermis with small defects, a white, homogeneous cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei and curled, clumped keratin. The electrical lesions were rejected at day 4 or 5. The number of characteristic morphological changes in epidermis decreased with the age of the lesions. It is concluded that epidermal electrical lesions differ in morphology from heat lesions and that it is possible to evaluate the age of the lesions. PMID:7148451

  4. Embodied Agents in E-Learning Environments: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, A. Kamil; Ferneley, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest in embodied agents (or avatars) and the effects on human cognition and motivation. Specifically there is an increasing interest in the use of embodied agents in e-learning environments. However, empirical investigations into the use of embodied agents in online education are limited. Our aim is to provide a framework…

  5. Structural, morphological and gas sensing study of palladium doped tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Davender; Kundu, Virender Singh; Maan, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this article pure and Pd-doped SnO2 (Pd:SnO2) nanoparticles with various mol% Pd have been synthesized by hydrothermal technique. To characterize the morphology, crystallinity, and structure of the SnO2 and Pd:SnO2 X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies were used. XRD analysis reveal that all nanoparticles of different doping concentration are highly polycrystalline in nature. Pd-doped SnO2 crystals existed mainly as tetragonal rutile structure. The particle size of the nanoparticles was calculated by using the Scherrer formula and was found in the range of 8-27 nm. The SEM images of the studied nanoparticles confirms the existence of very small, homogeneously distributed, spherical and extremely crystalline nanoparticles. EDX analysis confirms the presence of palladium. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirmed the formation of Sn-O phase and hydrous nature of the pure and Pd-doped SnO2 nanoparticles. The gas sensing response of SnO2 and Pd:SnO2 nanoparticles was studied towards different reducing gases at different operating temperatures. Among all samples under study, 0.20% Pd-doped SnO2 exhibits best response towards different gases. 0.20% Pd-doped SnO2 shows maximum response 88% to ethanol, 80% to CO and 78% to H2 at concentration of 100 ppm respectively at different operating temperature within the measurement limit.

  6. Morphological variation and chromosome studies of Calligonum mongolicum and C. pumilum (polygonaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calligonum spp. are common plant species in desert areas of central Asia. Since they are drought-resistant, salt-tolerant and grow successfully in sand, they are useful for wind-breaks and dune stabilization. The fruit morphology is regarded as a key taxonomic character for the genus. Morphological ...

  7. Morphological Awareness Intervention: Study of a Child with a History of Speech and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Angela N.; Apel, Kenn

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a morphological awareness intervention on the morphological awareness and reading skills of a 6-year-old student who was struggling with early reading skills and had a history of speech and language impairment. We conducted a 7-week intervention designed to increase the student's awareness of affixes and the meaning…

  8. Morphological Awareness Intervention in School-Age Children with Language and Literacy Deficits: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Julie A.; Green, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the clinical application of morphological awareness intervention to facilitate phonological, vocabulary, reading, and spelling success in children with language and literacy deficits. First, the research-based benefits of morphological awareness instruction are reviewed and current theoretical and research-based…

  9. Neural Correlates of the Effects of Morphological Family Frequency and Family Size: An MEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pylkkanen, Liina; Feintuch, Sophie; Hopkins, Emily; Marantz, Alec

    2004-01-01

    Schreuder and Baayen (Schreuder. R., & Baayen, R. H. (1997). How complex simplex words can be. "Journal of Memory and Language" 37, 118-139) report that lexical decision times to nouns are not sensitive to the cumulative frequency of the noun's morphological derivatives in its ''morphological family'', even though such a cumulative frequency…

  10. Morphological Effects in Children Word Reading: A Priming Study in Fourth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, Severine; Dusautoir, Marion; Cole, Pascale; Ducrot, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    A growing corpus of evidence suggests that morphology could play a role in reading acquisition, and that young readers could be sensitive to the morphemic structure of written words. In the present experiment, we examined whether and when morphological information is activated in word recognition. French fourth graders made visual lexical…

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Influencing Normal Human Facial Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Raffensperger, Zachary D.; Heike, Carrie L.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.; Kau, Chung How; Moreno, Lina M.; Wehby, George L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Laurie, Cecelia A.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Santorico, Stephanie; Klein, Ophir; Feingold, Eleanor; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Spritz, Richard A.; Marazita, Mary L.; Weinberg, Seth M.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous lines of evidence point to a genetic basis for facial morphology in humans, yet little is known about how specific genetic variants relate to the phenotypic expression of many common facial features. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of 20 quantitative facial measurements derived from the 3D surface images of 3118 healthy individuals of European ancestry belonging to two US cohorts. Analyses were performed on just under one million genotyped SNPs (Illumina OmniExpress+Exome v1.2 array) imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel (Phase 3). We observed genome-wide significant associations (p < 5 x 10−8) for cranial base width at 14q21.1 and 20q12, intercanthal width at 1p13.3 and Xq13.2, nasal width at 20p11.22, nasal ala length at 14q11.2, and upper facial depth at 11q22.1. Several genes in the associated regions are known to play roles in craniofacial development or in syndromes affecting the face: MAFB, PAX9, MIPOL1, ALX3, HDAC8, and PAX1. We also tested genotype-phenotype associations reported in two previous genome-wide studies and found evidence of replication for nasal ala length and SNPs in CACNA2D3 and PRDM16. These results provide further evidence that common variants in regions harboring genes of known craniofacial function contribute to normal variation in human facial features. Improved understanding of the genes associated with facial morphology in healthy individuals can provide insights into the pathways and mechanisms controlling normal and abnormal facial morphogenesis. PMID:27560520

  12. Physiological, morphological and biochemical studies of glyphosate tolerance in Mexican Cologania (Cologania broussonetii (Balb.) DC.).

    PubMed

    Alcántara de la Cruz, Ricardo; Barro, Francisco; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José Alfredo; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, glyphosate-tolerant legumes have been used as cover crops for weed management in tropical areas of Mexico. Mexican cologania (Cologania broussonetii (Balb.) DC.) is an innate glyphosate-tolerant legume with a potential as a cover crop in temperate areas of the country. In this work, glyphosate tolerance was characterized in two Mexican cologania (a treated (T) and an untreated (UT)) populations as being representatives of the species, compared in turn to a glyphosate-susceptible hairy fleabane (S) (Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq.) population. Experiments revealed that T and UT Mexican cologania populations had a higher tolerance index (TI), and a lower shikimic acid accumulation and foliar retention than the hairy fleabane S population. Absorption and translocation, leaf morphology and metabolism studies were only carried out in the Mexican cologania T population and the hairy fleabane S population. The latter absorbed 37% more (14)C-glyphosate compared to the Mexican cologania T at 96 h after treatment (HAT). Mexican cologania T translocated less herbicide from the treated leaf to the remainder of the plant than hairy fleabane S. The Mexican cologania T presented a greater epicuticular wax coverage percentage than the hairy fleabane S. This morphological characteristic contributed to the low glyphosate absorption observed in the Mexican cologania. In addition, the Mexican cologania T metabolized glyphosate mainly into AMPA, formaldehyde and sarcosine. These results indicate that the high glyphosate tolerance observed in Mexican cologania is mainly due to the poor penetration and translocation of glyphosate into the active site, and the high glyphosate degradation into non-toxic substances. PMID:26646239

  13. Abnormal Subcortical Brain Morphology in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Cui Ping; Bai, Zhi Lan; Zhang, Xiao Na; Zhang, Qiu Juan; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Despite the involvement of subcortical brain structures in the pathogenesis of chronic pain and persistent pain as the defining symptom of knee osteoarthritis (KOA), little attention has been paid to the morphometric measurements of these subcortical nuclei in patients with KOA. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential morphological abnormalities of subcortical brain structures in patients with KOA as compared to the healthy control subjects by using high-resolution MRI. Structural MR data were acquired from 26 patients with KOA and 31 demographically similar healthy individuals. The MR data were analyzed by using FMRIB’s integrated registration and segmentation tool. Both volumetric analysis and surface-based shape analysis were performed to characterize the subcortical morphology. The normalized volumes of bilateral caudate nucleus were significantly smaller in the KOA group than in the control group (P = 0.004). There was also a trend toward smaller volume of the hippocampus in KOA as compared to the control group (P = 0.027). Detailed surface analyses further localized these differences with a greater involvement of the left hemisphere (P < 0.05, corrected) for the caudate nucleus. Hemispheric asymmetry (right larger than left) of the caudate nucleus was found in both KOA and control groups. Besides, no significant correlation was found between the structural data and pain intensities. Our results indicated that patients with KOA had statistically significant smaller normalized volumes of bilateral caudate nucleus and a trend toward smaller volume of the hippocampus as compared to the control subjects. Further investigations are necessary to characterize the role of caudate nucleus in the course of chronicity of pain associated with KOA. PMID:26834629

  14. Miscibility between differently shaped mesogens: structural and morphological study of a phthalocyanine-perylene binary system.

    PubMed

    Zucchi, Gaël; Viville, Pascal; Donnio, Bertrand; Vlad, Alexandru; Melinte, Sorin; Mondeshki, Mihail; Graf, Robert; Spiess, Hans Wolfgang; Geerts, Yves H; Lazzaroni, Roberto

    2009-04-23

    The thermotropic, structural, and morphological properties of blends of a disk-like liquid crystalline phthalocyanine derivative and a lath-shaped perylenetetracarboxidiimide mesogen derivative have been studied by combining differential scanning calorimetry, thermal polarized optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and atomic force microscopy. The two compounds are fully miscible for blends containing at least 60 mol % of the disk-like molecule. In such composition range, the homogeneous blends form a columnar hexagonal (Col(h)) mesophase for which the thermal stability is enhanced compared to that of the corresponding mesophase of the pure phthalocyanine. The miscible blends self-align homeotropically between two glass slides. For blends containing between 55 and 40 mol % of the disk-shaped molecule, the two components are fully miscible at high temperature but the perylene derivative forms a separate crystalline phase when the temperature is decreased. Phase separation is systematically observed in blends containing less than 40 mol % of the discotic molecule. In this case, the resulting Col(h) mesophase is less stabilized compared to the blends containing a larger amount of the phthalocyanine derivative. These phase-separated blends do not show any homeotropic alignment. AFM investigations confirm the formation of a single columnar morphology in the phthalocyanine-rich blends, consistent with the full miscibility between the two compounds. Solid-state NMR measurements on the mixed phase show the influence of the presence of the perylene molecules on the molecular dynamics of the molecules; remarkably, the presence of the host molecules improves the local order parameter in the phthalocyanine columnar phase. PMID:19301888

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Influencing Normal Human Facial Morphology.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Orlova, Ekaterina; Lee, Myoung Keun; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Raffensperger, Zachary D; Heike, Carrie L; Cunningham, Michael L; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Kau, Chung How; Nidey, Nichole L; Moreno, Lina M; Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Laurie, Cecelia A; Laurie, Cathy C; Cole, Joanne; Ferrara, Tracey; Santorico, Stephanie; Klein, Ophir; Mio, Washington; Feingold, Eleanor; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Spritz, Richard A; Marazita, Mary L; Weinberg, Seth M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous lines of evidence point to a genetic basis for facial morphology in humans, yet little is known about how specific genetic variants relate to the phenotypic expression of many common facial features. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of 20 quantitative facial measurements derived from the 3D surface images of 3118 healthy individuals of European ancestry belonging to two US cohorts. Analyses were performed on just under one million genotyped SNPs (Illumina OmniExpress+Exome v1.2 array) imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel (Phase 3). We observed genome-wide significant associations (p < 5 x 10-8) for cranial base width at 14q21.1 and 20q12, intercanthal width at 1p13.3 and Xq13.2, nasal width at 20p11.22, nasal ala length at 14q11.2, and upper facial depth at 11q22.1. Several genes in the associated regions are known to play roles in craniofacial development or in syndromes affecting the face: MAFB, PAX9, MIPOL1, ALX3, HDAC8, and PAX1. We also tested genotype-phenotype associations reported in two previous genome-wide studies and found evidence of replication for nasal ala length and SNPs in CACNA2D3 and PRDM16. These results provide further evidence that common variants in regions harboring genes of known craniofacial function contribute to normal variation in human facial features. Improved understanding of the genes associated with facial morphology in healthy individuals can provide insights into the pathways and mechanisms controlling normal and abnormal facial morphogenesis. PMID:27560520

  16. [Study on thermal decompositon properties of hexafluoropropane clean gaseous fire-extinguishing agent].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ling-hua; Li, Qin-hua; Gao, Fei; Pan, Ren-ming; Li, Feng-sheng; Wang, Jun-de

    2010-07-01

    The thermal decomposition properties of hexafluoropropane clean gaseous fire-extinguishing agent were studied in tubular reactor from 500 to 750 degrees C and the decomposed gas was characterized by gas chromatography(GC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrogen fluoride was detected after the decomposed gas was analyzed by pH testing, while pentafluoropropylene was found by GC-MS. The results showed that hydrogen fluoride eliminated from hexafluoropropane was the main reaction, while pentafluoropropylene was the primary product during hexafluoropropane decomposition under high temperature. GC and FTIR results indicated that the reaction temperatures had significant effects on the thermal decomposition of hexafluoropropane. Haxafluropropane was steady at 500 degrees C, whereas started to decompose weakly at 600 degrees C. The degree of the thermal decomposition of hexafluoropropane was enhanced with the temperature increase. And hexafluoropropane underwent intense decompositon at 750 degrees C. FTIR can be used as a new method to study extinguishing mechanism of fluorine-containing fire extinguishing agent online. PMID:20828001

  17. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Papousková, Barbora; Bednár, Petr; Frysová, Iveta; Stýskala, Jakub; Hlavác, Jan; Barták, Petr; Ulrichová, Jitka; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, Karel

    2007-12-01

    Selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents namely N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-ols, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides and some of related N-quaternary salts were studied by means of electrospray ionization-multiple tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). Proposed structures were confirmed with accurate mass measurement. General fragmentation patterns of these compounds are discussed in detail and suggested processes are confirmed using deuterated standards. The typical processes are elimination of alkene, hydrogen chloride, or water, respectively. Besides, elimination of ethene from propyl chain under specific conditions was observed and unambiguously confirmed using exact mass measurement and labelled standard. The potential of mass spectrometry to distinguish the positional isomers occurring among the studied compounds is reviewed in detail using two different MS instruments (i.e. ion trap and hybrid quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) analyzer). A new microcolumn liquid chromatography (microLC)/MS(n) method was designed for the cases where the resolution based solely on differences in fragmentation is not sufficient. Low retention of the derivatives on reversed phase (RP) was overcome by using addition of less typical ion pairing agent (1 mM/l, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid) to the mobile phase (mixture water : acetonitrile). PMID:18085550

  18. Functionality study of santalin as tyrosinase inhibitor: A potential depigmentation agent.

    PubMed

    Hridya, Hemachandran; Amrita, Anantharaman; Mohan, Sankari; Gopalakrishnan, Mohan; Dakshinamurthy, Thirumal Kumar; Doss, George Priya; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-01

    Excessive melanin production leads to hyperpigmentation disorders which results in distressing aesthetic values. Though there are some synthetic depigmentation agents available it has been reported to possess cytotoxic and mutagenic effects. Hence there is a need for the development of safe and non toxic natural tyrosinase inhibitors. Here we report the role of santalin, the chief constituent of Pterocarpus santalinus in inhibition of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Santalin inhibited tyrosinase activity dose dependently. Inhibitory kinetic studies revealed mixed type of inhibition with reversible mechanism. Santalin was found to interact with the fluorophore amino acid residue of tyrosinase. Analysis of circular dichroism spectra showed the binding of santalin to tyrosinase which induced the loss of secondary helical structure. Molecular docking result suggested that santalin interact with the catalytic core of tyrosinase through strong hydrogen and hydrophobic bonding. The results of in vitro studies showed santalin inhibited melanogenesis through down regulation of MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 without any cytotoxic effects towards B16F0 melanoma cells. Therefore, our results suggested that santalin possesses anti-tyrosinase activity, which could be utilized as a safe depigmentation agent in the cosmetic field for the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorder. PMID:26828288

  19. The use of artificially intelligent agents with bounded rationality in the study of economic markets

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, V.; Slagle, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    The concepts of {open_quote}knowledge{close_quote} and {open_quote}rationality{close_quote} are of central importance to fields of science that are interested in human behavior and learning, such as artificial intelligence, economics, and psychology. The similarity between artificial intelligence and economics - both are concerned with intelligent thought, rational behavior, and the use and acquisition of knowledge - has led to the use of economic models as a paradigm for solving problems in distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) and multi agent systems (MAS). What we propose is the opposite; the use of artificial intelligence in the study of economic markets. Over the centuries various theories of market behavior have been advanced. The prevailing theory holds that an asset`s current price converges to the risk adjusted value of the rationally expected dividend stream. While this rational expectations model holds in equilibrium or near-equilibrium conditions, it does not sufficiently explain conditions of market disequilibrium. An example of market disequilibrium is the phenomenon of a speculative bubble. We present an example of using artificially intelligent agents with bounded rationality in the study of speculative bubbles.

  20. Transdermal Drug Delivery Aided by an Ultrasound Contrast Agent: An In Vitro Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Donghee; Yoon, Jinhee; Park, Jingam; Jung, Byungjo; Park, Hyunjin; Seo, Jongbum

    2010-01-01

    Sonophoresis temporarily increases skin permeability such that medicine can be delivered transdermally. Cavitation is believed to be the predominant mechanism in sonophoresis. In this study, an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) strategy was adopted instead of low frequency ultrasound to assure that cavitation occurred, and the efficacy of sonophoresis with UCA was quantitatively analyzed by optical measurements. The target drug used in this study was 0.1 % Definity® in 70% glycerol, which was delivered into porcine skin samples. Glycerol was used because it is an optical clearing agent, and the efficiency of glycerol delivery could be analyzed with optical measurements. The applied acoustic pressure was approximately 600 kPa at 1 MHz ultrasound with a 10% duty cycle for 60 minutes. Experimental results indicated that the measured relative contrast (RC) after sonophoresis with UCA was approximately 80% higher than RC after sonophoresis without UCA. In addition, the variance of RC was also reduced by more than 50% with the addition of a UCA. The use of a UCA appeared to increase cavitation, demonstrating that the use of a UCA can be effective in transdermal drug delivery (TDD). PMID:20448793

  1. Correction: Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Correction for `Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents' by Roxanne Hachani et al., Nanoscale, 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03867g.

  2. Natural history studies for the preliminary evaluation of a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle, Larinus filiformis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted studies on the life history, behavior and ecology of Larinus filiformis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to determine if it is worthy of further evaluation as a classical biological control agent of yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae: Cardueae). Larinus filiformis occurs ...

  3. Effects of sealant, viscosity, and bonding agents on microleakage of fissure sealants: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabkhani, Maryam; Mazhari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Samaneh; Ebrahimi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of enamel or dentin bonding agent (DBA) and sealant viscosity on sealant microleakage. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human premolars were randomly divided into two equal groups (based on sealant viscosity) and each group was divided into three subgroups of 10 teeth. Group 1 (low viscosity sealant, Seal-Rite, Pulpdent, USA with 7.7% filler): Prophylaxis, enameloplasty, etching of occlusal surfaces with 38% of phosphoric acid gel, rinsing and drying, followed by (1) enamel bonding agent (EBA) (Margin Bond, Coltène/Whaledent AG) or (2) DBA (Excite, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Liechtenstein) or (3) no bonding (NB) prior to sealant application. In Group 2, similar procedures were performed except for applying a high viscosity sealant (Seal-Rite, Pulpdent, The USA with 34.4% filler). Specimens were thermocycled and then immersed in a 0.5% basic fuchsine solution for 24 h next, buccolingual slices of samples were scored under a stereomicroscope. The Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used for data analysis. Results: There was no significant difference between DBA, EBA, and NB subgroups in the microleakage scores in both groups. Low viscosity sealant had a lower microleakage than the high viscosity sealant in both DBA (P = 0.002) and NB (P = 0.041) subgroups. Conclusion: The results indicated that the use of low viscosity sealant reduced the microleakage of pit and fissure sealants. However, the use of a bonding agent before sealant placement didn’t affect the microleakage. PMID:26929696

  4. Detrimental influences of intraluminally-administered sclerotic agents on surrounding tissues and peripheral nerves: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Masahide; Kurita, Masakazu; Ozaki, Mine; Kawakami, Hayato; Kaji, Nobuyuki; Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    The minimally-invasive nature of sclerotherapy makes it one of the first treatment options for venous malformations, although treatment-related complications, such as peripheral nerve paralysis, have been reported in some clinical cases. However, no studies of the aetiology of the detrimental effects of intraluminally-administered sclerotic agents on the surrounding tissues, including the peripheral nerves, have yet been published. This study therefore investigated the influences of intraluminally-administered sclerotic agents on the tissues surrounding the injection site using a newly-developed rat femoral vein model. Using this model, the effects of absolute ethanol, 5% ethanolamine oleate, and 1% polidocanol were compared histologically with those of normal saline controls. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated agents were administered and the leakage of sclerotic agents through the venous wall was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Damage to the adjacent femoral nerve was quantitatively evaluated by counting the numbers of axons in cross-sections. All the sclerotic agents caused vascular wall injuries and leakage into the surrounding tissues. The number of axons in the femoral nerve was significantly reduced following administration of absolute ethanol or 5% ethanolamine oleate, compared with normal saline. The results of this study suggest that sclerotic agents commonly leak out the vascular lumen, and some agents can cause adjacent nerve injury. It is important to be aware of this type of complication of sclerotherapy for venous malformations when selecting appropriate therapeutic interventions. PMID:22686430

  5. The study of morphological variation in the hominid fossil record: biology, landmarks and geometry

    PubMed Central

    O'HIGGINS, PAUL

    2000-01-01

    This review considers some recent advances in shape analysis based on landmark data, and focuses on the application of these methods to the study of skeletal evolution in primates. These advances have provoked some controversy. The major aims of this review are to put these debates in context and to provide an overview for the nonmathematician. The purpose of morphometric studies is considered, together with issues relating to the nature, significance and identification of landmarks before turning to a review of available technologies for the analysis of morphological variation. These are considered in terms of underlying models and assumptions in order to clarify when each is appropriate. To illustrate the application of these methods, 3 example studies are presented. The first examines differences amongst ancient and modern adult human crania using 2-dimensional data. The second illustrates the extension of these methods into 3 dimensions in a study of facial growth in monkeys. The third presents an application to the analysis of the form of the hominoid talus. The review ends with an account of available software resources for shape analysis. PMID:10999273

  6. [Recommendations for selecting antimicrobial agents for in vitro susceptibility studies using automatic and semiautomatic systems].

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rafael; Alós, Juan Ignacio; Baquero, Fernando; Calvo, Jorge; Campos, José; Castillo, Javier; Cercenado, Emilia; Domínguez, M Angeles; Liñares, Josefina; López-Cerezo, Lorena; Marco, Francesc; Mirelis, Beatriz; Morosini, María-Isabel; Navarro, Ferran; Oliver, Antonio; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Torres, Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The number of clinical microbiology laboratories that have incorporated automatic susceptibility testing devices has increased in recent years. The majority of these systems determine MIC values using microdilution panels or specific cards, with grouping into clinical categories (susceptible, intermediate or resistant) and incorporate expert systems to infer resistance mechanisms. This document presents the recommendations of a group of experts designated by Grupo de Estudio de los Mecanismos de Acción y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (GEMARA, Study group on mechanisms of action and resistance to antimicrobial agents) and Mesa Española de Normalización de la Sensibilidad y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (MENSURA, Spanish Group for Normalizing Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Antimicrobial Resistance), with the aim of including antimicrobial agents and selecting concentrations for the susceptibility testing panels of automatic systems. The following have been defined: various antimicrobial categories (A: must be included in the study panel; B: inclusion is recommended; and C: inclusion is secondary, but may facilitate interpretative reading of the antibiogram) and groups (0: not used in therapeutics but may facilitate the detection of resistance mechanisms; 1: must be studied and always reported; 2: must be studied and selectively reported; 3: must be studied and reported at a second level; and 4: should be studied in urinary tract pathogens isolated in urine and other specimens). Recommended antimicrobial concentrations are adapted from the breakpoints established by EUCAST, CLSI and MENSURA. This approach will lead to more accurate susceptibility testing results with better detection of resistance mechanisms, and allowing to reach the clinical goal of the antibiogram. PMID:17583653

  7. Antitumor Agents 295. E-ring Hydroxylated Antofine and Cryptopleurine Analogs as Antiproliferative Agents: Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoming; Shi, Qian; Lai, Chin Yu; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Ohkoshi, Emika; Yang, Shuenn-Chen; Wang, Chih-Ya; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Wu, Tian-Shung; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Teng, Che-Ming; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    Various E-ring hydroxylated antofine and cryptopleurine analogs were designed, synthesized, and tested against five human cancer cell lines. Interesting structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations were found among these new compounds. The most potent compound 13b was further tested against a series of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, in which it showed impressive antiproliferative activity. Mechanistic studies revealed that 13b is able to down-regulate HSP90 and β-catenin in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a potential use for treating Hedgehog pathway-driven tumorigenesis. PMID:22823514

  8. Novel dual-mode immunomagnetic method for studying reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Abney, Carter W; Knaack, Jennifer L S; Ali, Ahmed A I; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2013-05-20

    A novel immunomagnetic method has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of organophosphorus nerve agent (OPNA) adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and free OPNAs in serum. This new approach, deemed dual-mode immunomagnetic analysis (Dual-Mode IMA), combines immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and immunomagnetic scavenging (IMSc) and has been used to measure the effectiveness of cholinesterase reactivators on OPNA-inhibited BuChE in serum. BuChE inhibited by the nerve agent VX, uninhibited BuChE, and unbound VX were measured up to 1 h after the addition of oxime reactivators pralidoxime (2-PAM) and obidoxime. IMS experiments consisted of extracting BuChE and VX-BuChE serum adducts using antibutyrylcholinesterase monoclonal antibodies conjugated to protein-G ferromagnetic particles. In a parallel set of experiments using IMSc, BuChE-coated magnetic beads were used to extract free VX from protein-depleted serum. Adducts from both IMS and IMSc were analyzed using a published IMS liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (IMS-LC-MS/MS) protocol, which has also been demonstrated with other OPNAs. By applying this Dual-Mode IMA approach, 2-PAM was observed to be more potent than obidoxime in reactivating VX-adducted BuChE. VX-BuChE peptide concentrations initially measured at 19.7 ± 0.7 ng/mL decreased over 1 h to 10.6 ± 0.6 ng/mL when reactivated with 2-PAM and 14.4 ± 1.2 ng/mL when reactivated with obidoxime. These experiments also show that previously published IMS-LC-MS/MS analyses are compatible with serum treated with oximes. Dual-Mode IMA is the first immunoaffinity method developed for the simultaneous measurement of OPNA adducted BuChE, unadducted BuChE, and free nerve agent in serum and is a promising new tool for studying reactivator effectiveness on cholinesterases inhibited by nerve agents. PMID:23656164

  9. Subchronic exposure to low-doses of the nerve agent VX: Physiological, behavioral, histopathological and neurochemical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch-Shilderman, Eugenia Rabinovitz, Ishai; Egoz, Inbal; Raveh, Lily; Allon, Nahum; Grauer, Ettie; Gilat, Eran; Weissman, Ben Avi

    2008-08-15

    The highly toxic organophosphorous compound VX [O-ethyl-S-(isoporopylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate] undergoes an incomplete decontamination by conventional chemicals and thus evaporates from urban surfaces, e.g., pavement, long after the initial insult. As a consequence to these characteristics of VX, even the expected low levels should be examined for their potential to induce functional impairments including those associated with neuronal changes. In the present study, we developed an animal model for subchronic, low-dose VX exposure and evaluated its effects in rats. Animals were exposed to VX (2.25 {mu}g/kg/day, 0.05 LD{sub 50}) for three months via implanted mini osmotic pumps. The rapidly attained continuous and marked whole-blood cholinesterase inhibition ({approx} 60%), fully recovered 96 h post pump removal. Under these conditions, body weight, blood count and chemistry, water maze acquisition task, sensitivity to the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, peripheral benzodiazepine receptors density and brain morphology as demonstrated by routine histopathology, remained unchanged. However, animals treated with VX showed abnormal initial response in an Open Field test and a reduction ({approx} 30%) in the expression of the exocytotic synaptobrevin/vesicle associate membrane protein (VAMP) in hippocampal neurons. These changes could not be detected one month following termination of exposure. Our findings indicate that following a subchronic, low-level exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX some important processes might be considerably impaired. Further research should be addressed towards better understanding of its potential health ramifications and in search of optimal countermeasures.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Guided Receptor Independent 4D QSAR Studies of Substituted Coumarins as Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajesh; Sawant, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The search for newer cytotoxic agents has taken many paths in the recent years and in fact some of these efforts led to the discovery of some potent cytotoxic agents. Though the vast number of targets of tumor progression has been identified recently, kinases remained key targets in drug design. It is well established that inhibition of JNK1, a serine/threonine protein kinase delays tumor formation. Poly hydroxylated chromenone analog, quescetagetin, inhibits JNK1. As a part of design of coumarin based JNK1 inhibitors, docking studies and 4D QSAR studies were carried out. 3- pyrazolyl substituted coumarin derivatives were chosen for these studies. Docking studies revealed that 3-pyrazolyl substituted coumarins make key interactions with residues at active site of JNK1. In order to investigate the structural features required in these inhibitors, 4D QSAR studies using LQTAgrid module were carried out. The 4D QSAR model built with PLS regression on the matrix of variables specific for interaction energies at each grid point around the molecular dynamics generated conformations of individual compounds shows good predictive abilities. The squared correlation coefficient, R(2) for the model is 0.785, R(2) cross-validated (Q(2)) is 0.698, R(2) predicted is 0.701. Most of the descriptors contributing to 4D QSAR model are Coulombic potential energy based descriptors which highlight the importance of specific atoms in coumarin derivatives in generating these electrostatic potential at specific grid points with the -NH3 probe. We rationalize that solvent accessible van der Waals surface area around such compounds is good measure of this Coulombic potential energy and can be exploited in designing more active compounds. PMID:26081557

  11. The green anole (Anolis carolinensis): a reptilian model for laboratory studies of reproductive morphology and behavior.

    PubMed

    Lovern, Matthew B; Holmes, Melissa M; Wade, Juli

    2004-01-01

    The green anol (Anolis carolinensis) is an excellent reptilian model for studying reproductive behavior and the neural and muscular morphology that supports it. This lizard has been the subject of behavioral and ecological study for more than 100 yr, and a rich literature exists on its natural history. Both courtship and copulatory behaviors reveal sex and seasonal differences, which allow for the study of mechanisms regulation naturally occurring variation in performance at multiple levels within a single animal model. Green anoles are readily obtained due to their abundance in the wild; once in the laboratory, they are easily maintained, bred, and reared. Background on the natural history and husbandry of this lizard is provided, and the authors' research program on the regulation of reproductive anatomy and behavior is reviewed, Discussion includes the similarities and differences in the mechanisms mediating both structure and function compared with more traditional animal models. This type of comparative research will make it possible to identify the fundamental principles governing reproductive biology, thus advancing both basic and applied knowledge. PMID:14756155

  12. Study of the surface chemistry and morphology of single walled carbon nanotube-magnetite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez-Linares, F.; Uwakweh, O. N. C.; Lopez, N.; Chavez, E.; Polanco, R.; Morant, C.; Sanz, J. M.; Elizalde, E.; Neira, C.; Nieto, S.; Roque-Malherbe, R.

    2011-03-01

    The study of the morphologies of the single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), magnetite nanoparticles (MNP), and the composite based on them was carried with combined X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). These techniques together with thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and diffuse reflectance infrared transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) confirmed the production of pure single phases, and that the composite material consisted of MNP attached to the outer surface of the SWCNT. The Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) research showed the presence of a large quantity of Lewis acid sites in the highly dispersed magnetite particles supported on the SWCNT outer surface. The DRIFTS carbon dioxide adsorption study of the composites revealed significant adsorption of carbon dioxide, fundamentally in the Lewis acid sites. Then, the Lewis acid sites were observed to be catalytically active. Further, the electron exchange between the Lewis acid sites and the basic or amphoteric adsorbed molecules could influence the magnetic properties of the magnetite. Consequently, together with this first ever use of MS in the study of Lewis acid sites, this investigation revealed the potential of the composites for catalytic and sensors applications.

  13. Structural, morphological and gas sensing study of zinc doped tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Davender; Kundu, Virender Singh; Maan, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The pure and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were prepared successfully by hydrothermal route on large scale having different doping concentration of zinc from 0 to 0.20%. The calcined nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for structural and morphological studies. XRD analyses reveal that the nanoparticles of these doping concentrations are polycrystalline in nature and existed as tetragonal rutile structure, SEM study of images confirms the existence of very small, homogeneously distributed, and spherical nanoparticles. The particles size of the nanoparticles was calculated by Scherrer formula and was found in the range of 9-21 nm. The presence of dopant (i.e. zinc) and formation of Sn-O phase and hydrous nature of Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles are confirmed by EDX and FTIR study. The gas sensing properties of pure and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were investigated for various concentrations of methanol, ethanol and acetone at different operating temperatures and it has been found that with doping concentration of zinc (x = 0.20%) shows the maximum response 78% to methanol, 65% to ethanol and 62% to acetone respectively at different operating temperature within the measurement limit for a concentration of 100 ppm of each gases.

  14. Adrenal medulla imaging agents: a structure-distribution relationship study of radiolabeled aralkylguanidines

    SciTech Connect

    Wieland, D.M.; Mangner, T.J.; Inbasekaran, M.N.; Brown, L.E.; Wu, J.L.

    1984-02-01

    Fourteen /sup 125/I-labeled aralkylguanidines were synthesized and evaluated as potential imaging agents for the adrenal medullae and tumors of adrenomedullary origin. These guanidines are radiotracer analogues of guanethidine, an antihypertensive agent thought to mediate neuron blockade by uptake into adrenergic nerves. Dog adrenal medullae were used as a model to test radiotracer affinity for catecholamine storage tissue. Tissue distribution studies revealed that a number of radioiodinated guanidines showed pronounced localization in the adrenal medullae following intravenous injection, in certain cases exceeding that of either (-)-(/sup 3/H)norepinephrine or (/sup 14/C)guanethidine. (m-(/sup 125/I)Iodobenzyl)guanidine (m-IBG, 2b) gave the best combination of high concentration and selectivity. The low adrenomedullary affinity observed with (/sup 14/C)guanidine and m-(/sup 125/I)iodobenzylamine demonstrates the uniqueness of the aralkylguanidine structure. Preliminary evidence suggests that 2b is a storage analogue of norepinephrine. (/sup 125/I)2a is now being used clinically in imaging and radiotherapy of catecholamine tumors, such as pheochromocytoma.

  15. Copper-64 Dichloride as Theranostic Agent for Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Preclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Cristina; Niccoli Asabella, Artor; Villano, Carlo; Giacobbi, Beatrice; Coccetti, Daniela; Panichelli, Paola; Rubini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults with a median survival time less than one year. To date, there are only a limited number of effective agents available for GBM therapy and this does not seem to add much survival advantage over the conventional approach based on surgery and radiotherapy. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic approaches to GBM is essential and those based on radionuclide therapy could be of significant clinical impact. Experimental evidence has clearly demonstrated that cancer cells have a particularly high fractional content of copper inside the nucleus compared to normal cells. This behavior can be conveniently exploited both for diagnosis and for delivering therapeutic payloads (theranostic) of the radionuclide copper-64 into the nucleus of cancerous cells by intravenous administration of its simplest chemical form as dichloride salt [64Cu]CuCl2. To evaluate the potential theranostic role of [64Cu]CuCl2 in GBM, the present work reports results from a preclinical study carried out in a xenografted GBM tumor mouse model. Biodistribution data of this new agent were collected using a small-animal PET tomograph. Subsequently, groups of tumor implanted nude mice were treated with [64Cu]CuCl2 to simulate single- and multiple-dose therapy protocols, and results were analyzed to estimate therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26649294

  16. Pharmacokinetic Study of a Novel Antihyperlipidemic Agent LM-13765- A Prodrug

    PubMed Central

    Shah, T. M.; Savle, S. S.; Chhabria, M. T.; Rathod, I. S.; Shishoo, C. J.; Brahmkshatriya, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and specific high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for estimation of a novel antihyperlipidemic agent LM 13765 in rabbit plasma and its use for pharmacokinetic study has been evaluated. The proposed method was employed to study pharmacokinetics of LM 13765 in rabbits. It was observed that LM 13765 metabolized immediately after oral administration. The metabolite of LM 13765 was identified and characterized as LM 13765-C. A sensitive and specific HPTLC method was developed for estimation of LM 13765-C in plasma after oral administration of LM 13765 and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Biological screening of LM 13765-C on hyperlipidemic rats indicated that it is less potent than the parent compound which is indicative of biotransformation of LM 13765 to active form LM 13765-C. PMID:20376217

  17. Thermal Analysis, Structural Studies and Morphology of Spider Silk-like Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenwen

    Spider silk is a remarkable natural block copolymer, which offers a unique combination of low density, excellent mechanical properties, and thermal stability over a wide range of temperature, along with biocompatibility and biodegrability. The dragline silk of Nephila clavipes, is one of the most well understood and the best characterized spider silk, in which alanine-rich hydrophobic blocks and glycine-rich hydrophilic blocks are linked together generating a functional block copolymer with potential uses in biomedical applications such as guided tissue repair and drug delivery. To provide further insight into the relationships among peptide amino acid sequence, block length, and physical properties, in this thesis, we studied synthetic proteins inspired by the genetic sequences found in spider dragline silks, and used these bioengineered spider silk block copolymers to study thermal, structural and morphological features. To obtain a fuller understanding of the thermal dynamic properties of these novel materials, we use a model to calculate the heat capacity of spider silk block copolymer in the solid or liquid state, below or above the glass transition temperature, respectively. We characterize the thermal phase transitions by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). We also determined the crystallinity by TMDSC and compared the result with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). To understand the protein-water interactions with respect to the protein amino acid sequence, we also modeled the specific reversing heat capacity of the protein-water system, Cp(T), based on the vibrational, rotational and translational motions of protein amino acid residues and water molecules. Advanced thermal analysis methods using TMDSC and TGA show two glass transitions were observed in all samples during heating. The low temperature glass transition, Tg(1), is related to

  18. Study on the structure and morphology of supramolecular shape memory polyurethane containing pyridine moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. J.; Hu, J. L.; Chen, S. G.; Zhang, C. L.

    2011-06-01

    Fabricating smart materials has been an attractive research topic in recent years. In this study, a series of pyridine-containing shape memory polyurethanes (Py-SMPUs) with different pyridine contents were synthesized. Based on the theoretical analysis, the structure and morphology of Py-SMPUs were studied systematically with FT-IR, DSC, WAXD, DMA, AFM, etc. Results show that a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular structure is formed in the Py-SMPUs. Hydrogen bonds present in the urethane group and pyridine ring are the most favorable hydrogen bonds which play an important role in the movement of the polymer chain. Microphase separation consisting of a soft phase and hard phase occurs in the Py-SMPUs. The soft phase is influenced greatly by the N, N-bis(2-hydroxyl ethyl) isonicotinamide (BINA) unit and the hard phase is mainly a result of the hexamethylene diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol (HDI-BDO) units. As the BINA content decreases, the soft phase tends to change gradually from a continuous amorphous phase to a droplet-like dispersion phase, whereas the hard phase develops from a droplet-like dispersion amorphous phase to a continuous crystalline phase.

  19. Cluster Morphology-Polymer Dynamics Correlations in Sulfonated Polystyrene Melts: Computational Study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Agrawal, Anupriya; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2016-04-11

    Reaching exceptionally long times up to 500 ns in equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations studies, we have attained a fundamental molecular understanding of the correlation of ionomer clusters structure and multiscale dynamics, providing new insight into one critical, long-standing challenge in ionic polymer physics. The cluster structure in melts of sulfonated polystyrene with Na+ and Mg2+ counterions are resolved and correlated with the dynamics on multiple length and time scales extracted from measurements of the dynamic structure factor and shear rheology. We find that as the morphology of the ionic clusters changes from ladderlike for Na+ to disordered structuresmore » for Mg2+, the dynamic structure factor is affected on the length scale corresponding to the ionic clusters. Lastly, rheology studies show that the viscosity for Mg2+ melts is higher than for Na+ ones for all shear rates, which is well correlated with the larger ionic clusters’ size for the Mg2+ melts.« less

  20. STM study of morphology and electron transport features in cytochrome c and nanocluster molecule monolayers.

    PubMed

    Khomutov, G B; Belovolova, L V; Gubin, S P; Khanin, V V; Obydenov, A Yu; Sergeev-Cherenkov, A N; Soldatov, E S; Trifonov, A S

    2002-01-01

    The morphology and electron tunneling through single cytochrome c and nanocluster Pt(5)(CO)(7)[P(C(6)H(5))](4) molecules organized as monolayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films on graphite substrate have been studied experimentally using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy techniques with sub-nanometer spatial resolution in a double barrier tunnel junction configuration STM tip-monomolecular film-conducting substrate at ambient conditions. STM images of the films revealed globular structures with characteristic diameters (approximately 3.5 nm for the protein molecule and approximately 1.2 nm for the nanocluster). The spectroscopic study by recording the tunneling current-bias voltage (I-V) curves revealed tunneling I-V characteristics with features as steps of different width and heights that are dependent on the STM tip position over the molecule in the monolayer, giving evidence for sequential discrete electron-tunneling effects with the combination of the single electron Coulomb-charging energy and the electronic energy level separation (molecular spectrum) in such immobilized metalloprotein and nanocluster structures that can be of interest for the development of bioelectronic and hybrid functional nanosystems. PMID:11786369

  1. Quantitative characterization and comparative study of feather melanosome internal morphology using surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Straker, Lorian Cobra

    2016-03-01

    A successful feather development implies in a precise orchestration of cells in the follicle, which culminates in one of the most complex epidermal structures in nature. Melanocytes contribute to the final structure by delivering melanosomes to the barb and barbule cells. Disturbance to the tissue during the feather growth can damage the final structure. Here, melanosomes seen in an unusual outgrowth on the barb cortex of a flight feather are reported and compared to commonly observed melanosomes embedded in the cortex. Transmission Electron Microscopy in scanning-transmission mode (STEM) generated images coupled with secondary electron detection. The two classes of melanosomes were registered on images combining transmitted and secondary electron signals. Image processing allowed surface analyses of roughness and texture of the internal morphology of these organelles. Results showed that the two classes of melanosomes are significantly distinct internally, indicating that different physiological processes up to feather maturation could have occurred. Surface analysis methods are not regularly used in cell biology studies, but here it is shown that it has great potential for microscopic image analysis, which could add robust information to studies of cell biology events. PMID:26760226

  2. Palate morphology of bruxist children with mixed dentition. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, C C; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Peláez-Vargas, A; Ferrario, V F

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse quantitatively palatal morphology in bruxist and non-bruxist children with mixed dentition. Twenty-three children with mixed dentition were classified as bruxist according to their anxiety level, audible occlusal sounds related by the parents and signs of temporomandibular disorders; 23 children were control subjects matched for gender, age, and dental formula. The maxillary dental arches of all subjects were reproduced from alginate impressions cast in dental stone with a standardized technique. The casts were digitalized and mathematical equations were used to obtain the form of the palate in the sagittal, frontal and horizontal planes. Bruxist children had a statistically significant longer palate in the sagittal plane than control children; palatal shape differed especially in correspondence of the third, fourth and fifth teeth, bruxist children showing a relatively higher palate than control children. In this pilot study, sagittal plane differences in the palate between bruxist and non-bruxist children matched for age and gender were found. Further investigations are needed to understand better the clinical implications of the findings. Results should be taken into account in the diagnosis of the occlusal development in children with parafunctions to prevent future abnormalities: a bruxist child may have bigger dental arches than a normal child. PMID:18405271

  3. Plexiform vascular structures in the human digital dermal layer: a SEM--corrosion casting morphological study.

    PubMed

    Manelli, A; Sangiorgi, S; Ronga, M; Reguzzoni, M; Bini, A; Raspanti, M

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impressive diversity of vascular plexiform structures of the hypodermal layer of human skin. We chose the human body site with the highest concentration of dermal corpuscles, the human digit, and processed it with the corrosion casting technique and scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM). This approach proved to be the best tool to study these microvascular architectures, free from any interference by surrounding tissues. We took high-definition pictures of the vascular network of sweat glands, thermoreceptorial and tactile corpuscles, the vessels constituting the glomic bodies and those feeding the hair follicles. We observed that the three-dimensional disposition of these vessels strictly depends on the shape of the corpuscles supplied. We could see the tubular vascularization of the excretory duct of sweat glands and the ovoid one feeding their bodies, sometimes made up of two lobes. In some cases, knowledge of these morphological data regarding the normal disposition in space and intrinsic vascularization structure of the dermal corpuscles can help to explain many of the physiopathological changes occurring during chronic microangiopathic diseases. PMID:16982473

  4. Separating morphologically similar pollen types using basic shape features from digital images: A preliminary study1

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Katherine A.; Bebbington, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: One of the many advantages offered by automated palynology systems is the ability to vastly increase the number of observations made on a particular sample or samples. This is of particular benefit when attempting to fully quantify the degree of variation within or between closely related pollen types. • Methods: An automated palynology system (Classifynder) has been used to further investigate the variation in pollen morphology between two New Zealand species of Myrtaceae (Leptospermum scoparium and Kunzea ericoides) that are of significance in the New Zealand honey industry. Seven geometric features extracted from automatically gathered digital images were used to characterize the range of shape and size of the two taxa, and to examine the extent of previously reported overlap in these variables. • Results: Our results indicate a degree of overlap in all cases. The narrowest overlap was in measurements of maximum Feret diameter (MFD) in grains oriented in polar view. Multivariate statistical analysis using all seven factors provided the most robust discrimination between the two types. • Discussion: Further work is required before this approach could be routinely applied to separating the two pollen types used in this study, most notably the development of comprehensive reference distributions for the types in question. PMID:25202650

  5. Morphological abnormalities of rabbit spermatozoa studied by scanning electron microscope and quantified by light microscope.

    PubMed

    Kuzminsky, G; Fausto, A M; Morera, P

    1996-01-01

    Rabbit spermatozoa morphological abnormalities were examined to establish criteria for judging the quality of ejaculates. Ten New Zealand White bucks, aged 9 months and weighing 4.3 +/- 0.2 kg, were placed in a climatic chamber for 3 weeks at +20 degrees C and 70% RH. Sperm was collected three times a week using an artificial vagina. The use of a scanning electron microscope (from x 2000 to x 15,000) in this study produced an illustrated guide for the classification of abnormalities. Mean percentage quantitative values studied by light microscope (x 400) observation were: 18.2% total abnormalities, 2.9% head abnormalities, 13.6% tail abnormalities and 1.7% broken spermatozoa. Variability was very high (CV 35.7, 54.0, 45.3 and 32.5%, respectively); consequently, each ejaculate should be analysed before use for artificial insemination. Among the different tail abnormalities observed, the most frequent were coiled tails, 9.1%, cytoplasmic droplets, 2.4%, bent tails, 1.3% and swollen tails, 0.5%. PMID:8987108

  6. Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection and congenital birth defects: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hershko-Klement, A; Sukenik-Halevy, R; Biron Shental, T; Miller, N; Berkovitz, A

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to study the birth defect rates in intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) pregnancies. A cohort of couples presenting male factor infertility between January 2006 and January 2014 was retrospectively analyzed. Discharge letters and a telephone interview were performed for assessing pregnancy outcome. All clinical data were reviewed by a board certified medical geneticist. Main outcomes were fetal/birth defect and chromosomal abnormality rates. Two thousand two hundred and fifty-eight pregnancies were available for analysis, of them, 1669 (73.9%) resulting from ICSI and 2258 (26.1%) achieved by IMSI. Pregnancy outcome distribution did not show a significant difference. For the fresh embryo transfer cohort, fetal/birth defect rate was 4.5%, chromosomal aberration rate was 1.0%, and structural malformation rate was 3.5%. IMSI vs. ICSI pregnancies were less likely to involve a fetal/birth defect: 3.5% vs. 4.8%, respectively, but did not reach a statistical significance OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.39-1.22). Split by multiplicity, this trend existed only for singleton pregnancies; 1.4% structural malformations rate vs. 3.8%, respectively, OR 0.35 (95% CI 0.11-0.9). The frozen cohort demonstrated a significantly lower birth defect rate (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.58). We conclude that IMSI procedure does not involve an increased malformation rate and may offer a reduced anomaly incidence. Further studies are required. PMID:27317040

  7. Comparative study of the morphology of stridulatory organs of the Iberian lycaenid butterfly pupae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Margarita; Munguira, Miguel L; Martínez-Ibáñez, María Dolores

    2014-04-01

    We compared the pupal stridulatory organs of 35 species and one subspecies of Iberian Lycaenidae using scanning electron microscopy. The studied species belong to the tribes Theclini, Eumaeini, Lycaenini, and Polyommatini. Nine species do not show stridulatory organs on the pupae but all other species possess them. Stridulatory organs are formed by a stridulatory plate (pars stridens) placed on the fifth abdominal segment and a file (plectron) in the sixth abdominal segment. The plate has tubercles in the Theclini and Lycaenini, tubercles, ridges, or undulations in the Eumaenini, and tubercles, teeth, or unspecialized structures in the Polyommatini. Morphological differences can be found in the files of the different tribes, regarding the number of teeth, their form and size. Cuticular formations of the organs were studied on a surface of 2,500 µm(2) and the average of ridges, tubercles, and teeth was measured searching for relevant taxonomic information. Stridulatory organs were thought to be an adaptation to myrmecophily but we show that they are present both in myrmecophilous and nonmyrmecophilous species; therefore, we suggest that this trait probably did not evolve in relation with myrmecophily, but may be used to enhance relationships with ants. PMID:24301488

  8. Deciphering the bipolar planetary nebula Abell 14 with 3D ionization and morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akras, S.; Clyne, N.; Boumis, P.; Monteiro, H.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Redman, M. P.; Williams, S.

    2016-04-01

    Abell 14 is a poorly studied object despite being considered a born-again planetary nebula. We performed a detailed study of its 3D morphology and ionization structure using the SHAPE and MOCASSIN codes. We found that Abell 14 is a highly evolved, bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of ˜19 400 yr for a distance of 4 kpc. The high He abundance, and N/O ratio indicate a progenitor of 5 M⊙ that has experienced the third dredge-up and hot bottom burning phases. The stellar parameters of the central source reveal a star at a highly evolved stage near to the white dwarf cooling track, being inconsistent with the born-again scenario. The nebula shows unexpectedly strong [N I] λ5200 and [O I] λ6300 emission lines indicating possible shock interactions. Abell 14 appears to be a member of a small group of highly evolved, extreme type-I planetary nebulae (PNe). The members of this group lie at the lower-left corner of the PNe regime on the [N II]/Hα versus [S II]/Hα diagnostic diagram, where shock-excited regions/objects are also placed. The low luminosity of their central stars, in conjunction with the large physical size of the nebulae, result in a very low photoionization rate, which can make any contribution of shock interaction easily perceptible, even for small velocities.

  9. Chromaffin cell calcium signal and morphology study based on multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongxiu; Wei, Shunhui; Qu, Anlian; Zhou, Zhuan

    1998-09-01

    Increasing or decreasing the internal calcium concentration can promote or prevent programmed cell death (PCD). We therefore performed a Ca2+ imaging study using Ca2+ indicator dye fura-2 and a sensitive cooled-CCD camera with a 12 bit resolution. Monochromatic beams of light with a wavelength of 345,380 nm were isolated from light emitted by a xenon lamp using a monochromator. The concentration of free calcium can be directly calculated from the ratio of two fluorescence values taken at two appropriately selected wavelength. Fluorescent light emitted from the cells was capture using a camera system. The cell morphology study is based on multispectral scanning, with smear images provided as three monochromatic images by illumination with light of 610,535 and 470 nm wavelengths. The nuclear characteristic parameters extracted from individual nuclei by system are nuclear area, nuclear diameter, nuclear density vector. The results of the restoration of images and the performance of a primitive logic for the detection of nuclei with PCD proved the usefulness of the system and the advantages of using multispectral images in the restoration and detection procedures.

  10. Study of T-wave morphology parameters based on Principal Components Analysis during acute myocardial ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglivo, Fabricio Hugo; Arini, Pedro David

    2011-12-01

    Electrocardiographic repolarization abnormalities can be detected by Principal Components Analysis of the T-wave. In this work we studied the efect of signal averaging on the mean value and reproducibility of the ratio of the 2nd to the 1st eigenvalue of T-wave (T21W) and the absolute and relative T-wave residuum (TrelWR and TabsWR) in the ECG during ischemia induced by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Also, the intra-subject and inter-subject variability of T-wave parameters have been analyzed. Results showed that TrelWR and TabsWR evaluated from the average of 10 complexes had lower values and higher reproducibility than those obtained from 1 complex. On the other hand T21W calculated from 10 complexes did not show statistical diferences versus the T21W calculated on single beats. The results of this study corroborate that, with a signal averaging technique, the 2nd and the 1st eigenvalue are not afected by noise while the 4th to 8th eigenvalues are so much afected by this, suggesting the use of the signal averaged technique before calculation of absolute and relative T-wave residuum. Finally, we have shown that T-wave morphology parameters present high intra-subject stability.

  11. [Comparative study of the volume difference vs. healthy limb, morphological and population description in transfemoral amputees].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of the general characteristics and physical condition that keeps the transfemoral amputation stump to select and adapt appropriate type of prosthesis to restore a walking pattern amputee patient acceptable and useful design parameters set to propose new prosthetic systems. In this paper, the degree of difference between the volumes of the limb stump and healthy as well as morphological features occurred more frequently in the stumps of transfemoral amputees who were treated at the Laboratory of Orthotics and Prosthetics (LOP), Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (INR) in 2008. It captured all patients with unilateral transfemoral amputation left and right, over 18 years old, both sexes, use of hearing candidates were evaluated clinically and took three measurements of the circumferences at different wavelengths and the limb stump healthy, were calculated volumes of both sides using the mathematical model of the truncated cone and analyzed in three groups according to the level of amputation (proximal, middle and distal third). We obtained 49 patients, 39 men and 10 women, the difference stump volume compared to healthy limb volume per group were: 44.9% proximal third, middle third and distal 26.5%, 21.1%, the frequency of diagnostic data showed a stump right transfemoral amputees, due to metabolic, without use of prostheses, the most common morphological features indicate that the stump has a conical shape and size distal third, whose tissue is semi-flaccid consistency, the scar is not adhered to deep planes and shows a negative tinel, the mattress soft tissue is 2.15 ± 1.3 cm and physically presents a force level 4 in the clinical rating scale Daniels. The data are consistent with other studies comparing the percentage of the volume change with the percentages of reduced diameters transfemoral stump muscle, likewise agrees most amputees incidence of diabetes mellitus with other studies, cataloging it eat first cause amputation. The general description

  12. The Mallory body: morphological, clinical and experimental studies (Part 1 of a literature survey).

    PubMed

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-10-01

    To aid understanding of markers of disease and predictors of outcome in alcohol-exposed systems, we undertook a literature survey of more than 700 articles to view the morphological characteristics and the clinical and experimental epidemiology of the Mallory body. Mallory bodies are filaments of intermediate diameter that contain intermediate filament components (e.g., cytokeratins) observable by conventional light microscopy or immunohistochemical methods, identical in structure regardless of initiating factors or putative pathogenesis. Although three morphological types can be identified under electron microscopy (with fibrillar structure parallel, random or absent), they remain stereotypical manifestations of hepatocyte injury. A summary of the conditions associated with Mallory bodies in the literature and their validity and potential etiological relationships is presented and discussed, including estimates on the combined light microscopic and immunohistochemical prevalences and kinetics. Emphasis is placed on proper confounder control (in particular, alcohol history), which is highly essential but often inadequate. These conditions include (mean prevalence of Mallory bodies in parentheses): Indian childhood cirrhosis (73%), alcoholic hepatitis (65%), alcoholic cirrhosis (51%), Wilson's disease (25%), primary biliary cirrhosis (24%), nonalcoholic cirrhosis (24%), hepatocellular carcinoma (23%), morbid obesity (8%) and intestinal bypass surgery (6%). Studies in alcoholic hepatitis strongly suggest a hit-and-run effect of alcohol, whereas other chronic liver diseases show evidence of gradual increase in prevalence of Mallory bodies with severity of hepatic pathology. Mallory bodies in cirrhosis do not imply alcoholic pathogenesis. Obesity, however, is associated with alcoholism and diabetes, and Mallory bodies are only present in diabetic patients if alcoholism or obesity complicates the condition. In addition, case studies on diseases in which Mallory bodies

  13. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infected bovine tissue. Prior to United Kingdom controls in 1996 on the feeding of mammalian meat and bone meal to farmed animals, the domestic chicken was potentially exposed to feed contaminated with the causal agent of BSE. Although confirmed prion diseases are unrecorded in avian species a study was undertaken to transmit BSE to the domestic chicken by parenteral and oral inoculations. Transmissibility was assessed by clinical monitoring, histopathological examinations, detection of a putative disease form of an avian prion protein (PrP) in recipient tissues and by mouse bioassay of tissues. Occurrence of a progressive neurological syndrome in the primary transmission study was investigated by sub-passage experiments. Results No clinical, pathological or bioassay evidence of transmission of BSE to the chicken was obtained in the primary or sub-passage experiments. Survival data showed no significant differences between control and treatment groups. Neurological signs observed, not previously described in the domestic chicken, were not associated with significant pathology. The diagnostic techniques applied failed to detect a disease associated form of PrP. Conclusion Important from a risk assessment perspective, the present study has established that the domestic chicken does not develop a prion disease after large parenteral exposures to the BSE agent or after oral exposures equivalent to previous exposures via commercial diets. Future investigations into the potential susceptibility of avian species to mammalian prion diseases require species-specific immunochemical techniques and more refined experimental models. PMID:22093239

  14. Studies of metal/gallium nitride gas sensors: Sensing response, morphology and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Barrett Kai-Bong

    Reliable gas sensors with excellent sensitivity and robustness are important for the development of advanced technological applications while ensuring a safe environment in both industrial and household security. The chemically and mechanically robust gallium nitride (GaN) is a promising semiconductor for these important applications, especially for use at high temperatures and in extreme environments. When a metal is in contact with a semiconductor surface, a space charge region and Schottky barrier are formed on the semiconductor side. In this thesis, the sensing response of Pt and GaN to gaseous H2 and CO and the dependence of the response on Pt and GaN surface morphologies are explored. The sensing opportunities are expanded when GaN is decorated with Ag and the structure is used for small molecule analysis using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Combining the high surface area of nanoporous GaN with Pt nanoparticles deposited by electroless chemical deposition, the sensing performance of the well-known H-mediated Schottky barrier based on the Pt/GaN sensor is studied. The H2 sensing performance of, as defined by the limit of detection (LOD), Pt-decorated porous GaN measured by AC four-point probe resistance measurements is more than an order of magnitude better than planar GaN sensors based on the same Pt/GaN Schottky barrier height concept. The potential utility of high surface area porous GaN was realized by decorating the confined nanopores with metal (Pt), thus increasing the surface area available for sensing and lowering the LOD. Pt/GaN structures can also be used to detect CO at high temperature. The CO sensing response is also dependent on the Pt morphology. For continuous films, CO signal increases as the thickness of the metal film decreases. In discontinuous Pt films, increasing Pt surface area also increases the CO signal when the Pt/GaN interfacial area remains constant. A model is proposed, in which the influence of the adsorbed CO on Pt

  15. Parallel Comparative Studies on Mouse Toxicity of Oxide Nanoparticle- and Gadolinium-Based T1 MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Ling, Daishun; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Shuaifei; Liu, Ying; Bai, Ru; Baik, Seungmin; Zhao, Yuliang; Chen, Chunying; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2015-12-22

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents with high relaxivity are highly desirable because they can significantly increase the accuracy of diagnosis. However, they can be potentially toxic to the patients. In this study, using a mouse model, we investigate the toxic effects and subsequent tissue damage induced by three T1 MRI contrast agents: gadopentetate dimeglumine injection (GDI), a clinically used gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent (GBCAs), and oxide nanoparticle (NP)-based contrast agents, extremely small-sized iron oxide NPs (ESIONs) and manganese oxide (MnO) NPs. Biodistribution, hematological and histopathological changes, inflammation, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses are evaluated for 24 h after intravenous injection. These thorough assessments of the toxic and stress responses of these agents provide a panoramic description of safety concerns and underlying mechanisms of the toxicity of contrast agents in the body. We demonstrate that ESIONs exhibit fewer adverse effects than the MnO NPs and the clinically used GDI GBCAs, providing useful information on future applications of ESIONs as potentially safe MRI contrast agents. PMID:26567968

  16. Comprehensive T wave Morphology Assessment in a Randomized Clinical Study of Dofetilide, Quinidine, Ranolazine, and Verapamil

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, Jose; Johannesen, Lars; Mason, Jay W.; Crumb, William J.; Pueyo, Esther; Stockbridge, Norman; Strauss, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital long QT syndrome type 2 (abnormal hERG potassium channel) patients can develop flat, asymmetric, and notched T waves. Similar observations have been made with a limited number of hERG‐blocking drugs. However, it is not known how additional calcium or late sodium block, that can decrease torsade risk, affects T wave morphology. Methods and Results Twenty‐two healthy subjects received a single dose of a pure hERG blocker (dofetilide) and 3 drugs that also block calcium or sodium (quinidine, ranolazine, and verapamil) as part of a 5‐period, placebo‐controlled cross‐over trial. At pre‐dose and 15 time‐points post‐dose, ECGs and plasma drug concentration were assessed. Patch clamp experiments were performed to assess block of hERG, calcium (L‐type) and late sodium currents for each drug. Pure hERG block (dofetilide) and strong hERG block with lesser calcium and late sodium block (quinidine) caused substantial T wave morphology changes (P<0.001). Strong late sodium current and hERG block (ranolazine) still caused T wave morphology changes (P<0.01). Strong calcium and hERG block (verapamil) did not cause T wave morphology changes. At equivalent QTc prolongation, multichannel blockers (quinidine and ranolazine) caused equal or greater T wave morphology changes compared with pure hERG block (dofetilide). Conclusions T wave morphology changes are directly related to amount of hERG block; however, with quinidine and ranolazine, multichannel block did not prevent T wave morphology changes. A combined approach of assessing multiple ion channels, along with ECG intervals and T wave morphology may provide the greatest insight into drug‐ion channel interactions and torsade de pointes risk. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ Unique identifier: NCT01873950. PMID:25870186

  17. Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action

    SciTech Connect

    Bockman, R.; Adelman, R.; Donnelly, R.; Brody, L.; Warrell, R. ); Jones, K.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  18. An XPS study of gold deposition at low temperatures on sulfide minerals: Reducing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, M.M.; Bancroft, G.M. )

    1989-02-01

    The reduction of KAuCl{sub 4} to metallic gold by pyrite, high iron content sphalerite and galena was studied using surface analytical and solution techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (A.A.). High resolution XPS of the reacted mineral showed that the mineral surface is the Au reducing agent. On galena and high iron sphalerite, a corroded layer forms rapidly as S{sup 2 minus} is oxidized to polysulfides, S{sup 2{minus}}{sub x}, and the metals are leached from the surface. Although Au is also reduced on pyrite, the formation of surface polysulfide is not concurrent with Au reduction. Solution analysis for the pyrite and high iron sphalerite reactions shows, however, that considerable sulfate is produced due to the oxidation of S{sup 2{minus}}, S{sup 2{minus}}{sub 2} or the intermediate polysulphide.

  19. Agent-Based Simulation for Interconnection-Scale Renewable Integration and Demand Response Studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chassin, David P.; Behboodi, Sahand; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2015-12-23

    This paper collects and synthesizes the technical requirements, implementation, and validation methods for quasi-steady agent-based simulations of interconnectionscale models with particular attention to the integration of renewable generation and controllable loads. Approaches for modeling aggregated controllable loads are presented and placed in the same control and economic modeling framework as generation resources for interconnection planning studies. Model performance is examined with system parameters that are typical for an interconnection approximately the size of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) and a control area about 1/100 the size of the system. These results are used to demonstrate and validate the methodsmore » presented.« less

  20. Selection of an averaging technique by simulation study of a DIAL system for toxic agents monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudeja, Jai Paul; Jindal, Mukesh Kumar; Veerabuthiran, S.

    2007-10-01

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a very effective technique for standoff detection of various toxic agents in the atmosphere. The Lidar backscattered signal received usually has poor signal to noise (SNR) ratio. In order to improve the SNR, statistical averaging over a number of laser pulses is employed. The aim of the present work is to select a particular statistical averaging technique, which is most suitable in removing the noise in Lidar return signals. The DIAL system considered here uses laser transmitters based on OPO based (2-5 μm) and TEA CO2 (9-11μm) lasers. Eight commonly used chemical warfare agents including five nerve agents and three blister agents have been considered here as examples of toxic agents. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) software has been developed in LabVIEW to simulate return signals mixed with the expected noise levels. A toxic agent cloud with a given thickness and concentration has been assumed to be detected in the ambient atmospheric conditions at various ranges up to 5 Km. Data for 200 pulses per agent was stored in the computer memory. Various known statistical averaging techniques were used and number concentrations of particular agent have been computed and compared with ideal Lidar return signal values. This exercise was repeated for all the eight agents and based on the results obtained; the most suitable averaging technique has been selected.

  1. A Morphologic and Morphometric Study of Foramen Vesalius in Dry Adult Human Skulls of Gujarat Region

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Praveen R.; Rajguru, Jaba

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The foramen Vesalius is located within bony plate between the foramen ovale and the foramen rotundum in the floor of middle cranial fossa. This foramen allows passage of emissary veins which communicate cavernous sinus and pterygoid plexus of veins. AIM: To study the morphological and morphometric variations of foramen Vesalius in dry adult human skulls. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty dry adult human skulls were studied for variations in size, shape, presence/absence and any duplication/multiplication of the foramen Vesalius. After collecting data, appropriate statistical analysis was done. Results: The mean maximum dimension of foramen Vesalius was 0.98±0.67 mm on right side and 1.12±0.73 mm on left side. Foramen Vesalius was present in 90 (60%) skulls out of 150 observed. The incidence was 41(27.33%) on right side and 49 (32.67%) on left side. Foramen Vesalius was present unilaterally in 32 (35.56%) and bilaterally in 29 (32.23%) out of 90 skulls. Duplication of this foramen was observed in two skulls (one right side and one on left side). Foramen Vesalius was round in 72%, oval in 24% and irregular in 4% of total foramina present. Conclusion: Foramen Vesalius was present in 60% of total skulls studied. The foramen showed variations in incidence and shapes, while there was no statistically significant difference in the maximum dimension between foramen Vesalius on right and left side. There could be some developmental reasons to explain these variations. The findings of this study could be important to anatomists and also equally essential for clinicians who approach middle cranial cavity for various procedures. PMID:25859437

  2. Study of the surface chemistry and morphology of single walled carbon nanotube-magnetite composites

    SciTech Connect

    Marquez-Linares, F.; Uwakweh, O.N.C.; Lopez, N.; Chavez, E.; Polanco, R.; Morant, C.; Sanz, J.M.; Elizalde, E.; Neira, C.; Nieto, S.; Roque-Malherbe, R.

    2011-03-15

    The study of the morphologies of the single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), magnetite nanoparticles (MNP), and the composite based on them was carried with combined X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). These techniques together with thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and diffuse reflectance infrared transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) confirmed the production of pure single phases, and that the composite material consisted of MNP attached to the outer surface of the SWCNT. The Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) research showed the presence of a large quantity of Lewis acid sites in the highly dispersed magnetite particles supported on the SWCNT outer surface. The DRIFTS carbon dioxide adsorption study of the composites revealed significant adsorption of carbon dioxide, fundamentally in the Lewis acid sites. Then, the Lewis acid sites were observed to be catalytically active. Further, the electron exchange between the Lewis acid sites and the basic or amphoteric adsorbed molecules could influence the magnetic properties of the magnetite. Consequently, together with this first ever use of MS in the study of Lewis acid sites, this investigation revealed the potential of the composites for catalytic and sensors applications. -- Graphical abstract: A large amount of Lewis acid sites were found in the highly dispersed magnetite which is supported on the SWCNT outer surface. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} The obtained materials were completely characterized with XRD, Raman and SEM-TEM. {yields} DRIFT, TGA and adsorption of the composites allowed understand the material formation. {yields} This is the first report of a study of Lewis sites by Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  3. Degree of conversion of two dentin bonding agents with and without a desensitizing agent using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Poornima; Sakhamuri, Srinivasulu; Sampath, Vidhya; Sanjeev, Kavitha; Sekar, Mahalaxmi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This in vitro study investigated the effect of a desensitizer on the degree of conversion of two bonding resins using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: An etch-and-rise bonding resin and a self-etching adhesive resin were selected for the study. Vivasens (Ivoclar Vivadent) was used as a desensitizing agent. Grouping was done as follows: Group I: Adper Single Bond (n=10), Group II: Adper Single Bond + Vivasens (n=10), Group III: AdheSE One (n=10), Group IV: AdheSE One + Vivasens (n=10). The bonding resin alone was light cured for 20 seconds in groups I and III. For groups II and IV, 1 ml each of the bonding resin and the desensitizer was mixed in a vial and light cured for 20 seconds. The specimens were analysed using FTIR spectroscopy. Results: Group II (Adper Single Bond + Vivasens) showed a significantly higher degree of conversion compared to Group I (Adper Single Bond). Comparing Groups III and IV, Group IV (AdheSE One + Vivasens) showed a significantly higher degree of conversion compared to Group III (AdheSE One). Conclusions: The degree of conversion is increased when a dentin bonding agent is used along with a desensitizer. Hence, this combination can be recommended to effectively control postoperative sensitivity. PMID:22025838

  4. Frequent FOS Gene Rearrangements in Epithelioid Hemangioma: A Molecular Study of 58 Cases With Morphologic Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chiang; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Chun-Liang; Krausz, Thomas; Dickson, Brendan C; Kao, Yu-Chien; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2015-10-01

    Epithelioid hemangioma (EH) is a unique benign vasoformative tumor composed of epithelioid endothelial cells. Although a small subset of EHs with atypical features harbor ZFP36-FOSB fusions, no additional genetic abnormalities have been found to date in the remaining cases. On the basis of a novel FOS-LMNA gene fusion identified by RNA sequencing in an index case of a skeletal EH with typical morphology, we sought to investigate the prevalence of FOS rearrangement in a large cohort of EHs. Thus 57 additional EH cases lacking FOSB rearrangements were studied for FOS gene abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and results were correlated with morphologic appearance and clinical presentation. The EHs were subclassified as typical (n=25), cellular (n=21), and angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) (n=12) variants. The ALHE was defined as an EH with a vascular "blow-out" pattern associated with a variable degree of inflammation. There were 17 (29%) cases bearing FOS gene rearrangements among 58 cases tested, including 12 male and 5 female patients, with a mean age of 42 years. Most FOS-rearranged EHs occurred in the bone (10) and soft tissue (6), whereas only 1 case was cutaneous. The predominant anatomic site was the extremity (12), followed by trunk (3), head and neck (1), and penis (1). The incidence of FOS rearrangement was significantly higher in bone (59%, P=0.006) and lower in head and neck (5%, P=0.009). Twelve of the FOS-rearranged cases were cellular EH (P=0.001) associated with moderate mitotic activity (2 to 5/10 HPF) and milder inflammatory background. All 12 ALHE cases lacked FOS gene abnormalities, suggesting different pathogenesis. In conclusion, FOS rearrangement was present in a third of EHs across different locations and histologic variants; however, it was more prevalent in cellular EH and intraosseous lesions, compared with those in skin, soft tissue, and head and neck. This genetic abnormality can be useful in challenging

  5. Kinetic and morphological studies of palladium oxidation in oxygen-methane mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jinyi

    The oxidation of Pd single crystals: Pd(111), Pd(100) and Pd(110) was studied using Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Low Electron Energy Diffraction (LEED) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) as they were subjected to O2 in the pressure range between 1 and 150 Torr at temperatures 600-900 K. The oxygen species formed during oxidation, the oxygen uptake dependence on the sample history, the Pd single crystal surface morphology transformations, and the catalytic methane combustion over Pd single crystals were investigated in detail. The Pd single crystal oxidation proceeded through a three-step mechanism. Namely, (1) oxygen dissociatively adsorbed on Pd surface, forming chemisorbed oxygen and surface oxide; (2) atomic oxygen diffused through a thin surface oxide layer into Pd metal, forming near surface and bulk oxygen; (3) bulk PdO formed when a critical oxygen concentration was reached in the near surface region. The diffusion of oxygen through thin surface oxide layer into Pd metal decreased in the order: Pd(110)>Pd(100)>Pd(111). The oxygen diffusion coefficient was estimated to be around 10-16 cm2 s -1 at 600 K, with an activation energy of 80 kJ mol-1. Once bulk PdO was formed, the diffusion of oxygen through the bulk oxide layer was the rate-determining step for the palladium oxidation. The diffusion coefficient was equal to 10-18 cm2 s-1 at 600 K and the activation energy was approximately 120 kJ mol-1. The oxygen diffusion through thin surface oxide layer and bulk PdO followed the Mott-Cabrera parabolic diffusion law. The oxygen uptake on Pd single crystals depended on the sample history. The uptake amount increased with the population of the bulk oxygen species, which was achieved by high oxygen exposure at elevated temperatures, for example in 1 Torr O2 at above 820 K. Ar+ sputtering or annealing in vacuum at 1300 K depleted the bulk oxygen. The Pd single crystal surface

  6. Contrast agent comparison for three-dimensional micro-CT angiography: A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Mitchell J; Perriman, Diana M; Neeman, Teresa; Smith, Paul N; Webb, Alexandra L

    2016-07-01

    Barium sulfate and lead oxide contrast media are frequently used for cadaver-based angiography studies. These contrast media have not previously been compared to determine which is optimal for the visualisation and measurement of blood vessels. In this study, the lower limb vessels of 16 embalmed Wistar rats, and four sets of cannulae of known diameter, were injected with one of three different contrast agents (barium sulfate and resin, barium sulfate and gelatin, and lead oxide combined with milk powder). All were then scanned using micro-computed tomography (CT) angiography and 3-D reconstructions generated. The number of branching generations of the rat lower limb vessels were counted and compared between the contrast agents using ANOVA. The diameter of the contrast-filled cannulae, were measured and used to calculate the accuracy of the measurements by comparing the bias and variance of the estimates. Intra- and inter-observer reliability were calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients. There was no significant difference (mean difference [MD] 0.05; MD 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.83 to 0.93) between the number of branching generations for barium sulfate-resin and lead oxide-milk powder. Barium sulfate-resin demonstrated less bias and less variance of the estimates (MD 0.03; standard deviation [SD] 1.96 mm) compared to lead oxide-milk powder (MD 0.11; SD 1.96 mm) for measurements of contrast-filled cannulae scanned at high resolution. Barium sulfate-resin proved to be more accurate than lead oxide-milk powder for high resolution micro-CT scans and is preferred due to its non-toxicity. This technique could be applied to any embalmed specimen model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27075920

  7. Mitochondrial morphology, topology, and membrane interactions in skeletal muscle: a quantitative three-dimensional electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Picard, Martin; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2013-01-15

    Dynamic remodeling of mitochondrial morphology through membrane dynamics are linked to changes in mitochondrial and cellular function. Although mitochondrial membrane fusion/fission events are frequent in cell culture models, whether mitochondrial membranes dynamically interact in postmitotic muscle fibers in vivo remains unclear. Furthermore, a quantitative assessment of mitochondrial morphology in intact muscle is lacking. Here, using electron microscopy (EM), we provide evidence of interacting membranes from adjacent mitochondria in intact mouse skeletal muscle. Electron-dense mitochondrial contact sites consistent with events of outer mitochondrial membrane tethering are also described. These data suggest that mitochondrial membranes interact in vivo among mitochondria, possibly to induce morphology transitions, for kiss-and-run behavior, or other processes involving contact between mitochondrial membranes. Furthermore, a combination of freeze-fracture scanning EM and transmission EM in orthogonal planes was used to characterize and quantify mitochondrial morphology. Two subpopulations of mitochondria were studied: subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF), which exhibited significant differences in morphological descriptors, including form factor (means ± SD for SS: 1.41 ± 0.45 vs. IMF: 2.89 ± 1.76, P < 0.01) and aspect ratio (1.97 ± 0.83 vs. 3.63 ± 2.13, P < 0.01) and circularity (0.75 ± 0.16 vs. 0.45 ± 0.22, P < 0.01) but not size (0.28 ± 0.31 vs. 0.27 ± 0.20 μm(2)). Frequency distributions for mitochondrial size and morphological parameters were highly skewed, suggesting the presence of mechanisms to influence mitochondrial size and shape. In addition, physical continuities between SS and IMF mitochondria indicated mixing of both subpopulations. These data provide evidence that mitochondrial membranes interact in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle and that factors may be involved in regulating skeletal muscle mitochondrial morphology. PMID

  8. Morphology of the magnetic field near Titan: Hybrid model study of the Cassini T9 flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallio, E.; Sillanpää, I.; Jarvinen, R.; Janhunen, P.; Dougherty, M.; Bertucci, C.; Neubauer, F.

    2007-10-01

    We study the deformation and morphology of the magnetic field near Titan by a three-dimensional numerical quasi-neutral hybrid model (HYB-Titan). We analyze two runs, one in which the sub-rotating plasma consists of oxygen (O+) ions and protons (H+) and another with only protons. We find that both cases result in the generation of Alfvén wing-like flux tubes. In comparison with the proton-only case, the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field in the oxygen-rich flow case are in better agreement with Cassini magnetic field observations during its Titan T9 flyby on Dec. 26, 2006, suggesting that the sub-rotating plasma contained heavy ions. The oxygen-rich run also supports the hypotheses that (1) the sub-rotating flow direction was offset by ~30°-40° from the ideal rotating flow direction and that (2) the spacecraft was magnetically connected to the sunlit side of near-Titan space in the tail when it approached Titan on the T9 flyby.

  9. Numerical and experimental studies of wind environment in an urban morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skote, Martin; Sandberg, Mats; Westerberg, Ulla; Claesson, Leif; Johansson, Arne V.

    The purpose of the paper is to examine the relation between urban morphology (three-dimensional structure) and windiness. We regard a city as a porous obstacle, which is open at the top. We consider the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and a city to be both a function of the overall shape (silhouette or skyline) and the internal resistance to the flow caused by the friction when the wind flows over the urban surfaces. We regard the street pattern as an interconnected flow network with the crossings as nodes. Flow along the streets is generated by pressure differences. We here use a highly idealized city model consisting of a circular block divided into two or four equally large sectors. Two types of cases are studied, the first with only one street through the city model with different angles between the street and the oncoming wind. The second case also contains a perpendicularly crossing street (through the center). Both wind tunnel experiments and numerical flow computations (computational fluid dynamics, CFD) are used and compared. The general agreement between the two is good and the CFD method offers new possibilities for quantifying the urban wind environment.

  10. Orbital Period Variation and Morphological Light Curve Studies for the W UMa Binary BB Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Magdy A.; Awadalla, Nabil S.

    2011-06-01

    The photometric light curves of the W-type W UMa eclipsing contact binary system BB Pegasi have been found to be extremely asymmetric over all the observed 63 years in all wavelengths UBVR. The light curves have been characterized by occultation primary minima. So, the morphology of these light curves has been studied in view of these different asymmetric degrees. The system shows a distinct O'Connell effect as well as depth variation. A 22.96 years cycle, of dark spots group, has been determined for the system combined with about the same cycling for the depth variations (22.78 yr). Also, an analysis of the measurements of mid-eclipse times of BB Peg has been presented. The analysis indicates a period decrease of 5.62× 10-8 d/yr, which can be interpreted in terms of mass transfer of rate -4.38 × 10-8 M_⊙/yr, from the more to the less massive component. The O-C diagram shows a damping sine wave covering two different cycles of 17.0 yr and 12.87 yr with amplitudes equal to 0.0071 and 0.0013 day, respectively. These unequal durations show a non periodicity which may be explained as a result of magnetic activity cycling variations due to star spots. The obtained characteristics are consistent when applying Applegate's (1992) mechanism.

  11. Manganese oxide phases and morphologies: A study on calcination temperature and atmospheric dependence

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Daniela; Bardenhagen, Ingo; Westphal, Anne; Knipper, Martin; Plaggenborg, Thorsten; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna; Parisi, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Summary Manganese oxides are one of the most important groups of materials in energy storage science. In order to fully leverage their application potential, precise control of their properties such as particle size, surface area and Mnx + oxidation state is required. Here, Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 nanoparticles as well as mesoporous α-Mn2O3 particles were synthesized by calcination of Mn(II) glycolate nanoparticles obtained through an economical route based on a polyol synthesis. The preparation of the different manganese oxides via one route facilitates assigning actual structure–property relationships. The oxidation process related to the different MnOx species was observed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showing time- and temperature-dependent phase transformations occurring during oxidation of the Mn(II) glycolate precursor to α-Mn2O3 via Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 in O2 atmosphere. Detailed structural and morphological investigations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder XRD revealed the dependence of the lattice constants and particle sizes of the MnOx species on the calcination temperature and the presence of an oxidizing or neutral atmosphere. Furthermore, to demonstrate the application potential of the synthesized MnOx species, we studied their catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction in aprotic media. Linear sweep voltammetry revealed the best performance for the mesoporous α-Mn2O3 species. PMID:25671151

  12. Population-based study of facial morphology and excessive daytime somnolence.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Pablo R; Mera, Robertino M; Zambrano, Mauricio; Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2014-11-01

    Studies in patients seeking attention for nasal obstruction or pharyngeal disorders suggest that craniofacial abnormalities correlate with obstructive sleep apnea, but there is little information on the relevance of this association in the population at large. We aimed to determine whether characteristics of facial morphology correlate with excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) in a population-based, door-to-door survey. Residents of a village in rural Ecuador were screened with the Epworth sleepiness scale to assess EDS and underwent physical examination with attention to nasal septum deflection, mandibular retrognathia and presence of Friedman's palate position type IV. From 665 participants aged ≥40 years, 155 had EDS, 98 had nasal septum deflection, 47 had mandibular retrognathia and 528 had a Friedman's palate position type IV. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and nightly sleep hours, persons with nasal septum deflection were twice as likely to have EDS (p=0.009). The other two variables were not associated with EDS. Identification of nasal septum deflection may be a cost-effective method of detecting persons at risk for obstructive sleep apnea in remote areas where sophisticated technology is not readily available. PMID:24986788

  13. Electronic and Morphological Studies of Conjugated Polymers Incorporating a Disk-Shaped Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Unit.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Zhang, Benjamin A; Liu, Feng; Navarro, Amparo; Fernández-Liencres, M Paz; Lu, Ryan; Lo, Kelvin; Chen, Teresa L; Russell, Thomas P; Liu, Yi

    2015-09-16

    As more research findings have shown the correlation between ordering in organic semiconductor thin films and device performance, it is becoming more essential to exercise control of the ordering through structural tuning. Many recent studies have focused on the influence of side chain engineering on polymer packing orientation in thin films. However, the impact of the size and conformation of aromatic surfaces on thin film ordering has not been investigated in great detail. Here we introduce a disk-shaped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon building block with a large π surface, namely, thienoazacoronenes (TACs), as a donor monomer for conjugated polymers. A series of medium bandgap conjugated polymers have been synthesized by copolymerizing TAC with electron donating monomers of varying size. The incorporation of the TAC unit in such semiconducting polymers allows a systematic investigation, both experimentally and theoretically, of the relationships between polymer conformation, electronic structure, thin film morphology, and charge transport properties. Field effect transistors based on these polymers have shown good hole mobilities and photoresponses, proving that TAC is a promising building block for high performance optoelectronic materials. PMID:26302772

  14. The nucleus of Comet Borrelly: A study of morphology and surface brightness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberst, J.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Kirk, R.; Soderblom, L.; Buratti, B.; Hicks, M.; Nelson, R.; Britt, D.

    2004-01-01

    Stereo images obtained during the DS1 flyby were analyzed to derive a topographic model for the nucleus of Comet 19P/Borrelly for morphologic and photometric studies. The elongated nucleus has an overall concave shape, resembling a peanut, with the lower end tilted towards the camera. The bimodal character of surface-slopes and curvatures support the idea that the nucleus is a gravitational aggregate, consisting of two fragments in contact. Our photometric modeling suggests that topographic shading effects on Borrelly's surface are very minor (<10%) at the given resolution of the terrain model. Instead, albedo effects are thought to dominate Borrelly's large variations in surface brightness. With 90% of the visible surface having single scattering albedos between 0.008 and 0.024, Borrelly is confirmed to be among the darkest of the known Solar System objects. Photometrically corrected images emphasize that the nucleus has distinct, contiguous terrains covered with either bright or dark, smooth or mottled materials. Also, mapping of the changes in surface brightness with phase angle suggests that terrain roughness at subpixel scale is not uniform over the nucleus. High surface roughness is noted in particular near the transition between the upper and lower end of the nucleus, as well as near the presumed source region of Borrelly's main jets. Borrelly's surface is complex and characterized by distinct types of materials that have different compositional and/or physical properties. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-Dimensional Imaging Using Microcomputed Tomography For Studying Gaharu Morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Yazid, Khair'iah; Bin Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Bin Hj Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Masschaele, Bert; Abdullah, Mohd. Zaid; Saleh, Junita Mohamad

    2010-01-05

    To demonstrates the potential application of the high resolution X-ray micro-CT technique in the analysis of internal structure in Gaharu wood. Gaharu or internationally, Agar wood, is known for its fragrant resinous wood. The hardware device used in this study was an X-ray micro-CT scanner at Center of Tomography (UGCT), CT facility in Ghent University, Belgium. This technique allows the 3D investigation of the internal structure of the wood in a non-destructive way. Most of the data analysis was done with the software VG Studio Max and MATLAB. Here we present some preliminary results from three-dimensional images from a piece of high grade Gaharu. Micro-CT images of the specimens were obtained at 7 mum resolution. Besides a clear distinction between pores and material, some bright white areas occur in the reconstruction images. Not only the volume visualization is helpful, morphological parameters of open-pores and dark resins are calculated from these 3D data set. The micro-CT technique is a valid support for evaluating the pores structure and resin distribution in Gaharu.

  16. Morphology of plantar interdigital neuroma: a comparative cadaveric study of elderly Finnish and Japanese individuals.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shinichi; Nakao, Tadashi; Yamane, Shigeki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Masahito; Santti, Risto; Murakami, Gen

    2013-01-01

    To examine morphological differences in Morton's interdigital neuroma between two elderly human populations, we conducted comparative study using 40 Japanese (27 males, 13 females; mean age, 81.2 years) and 21 Finnish (6 males, 15 females; mean age, 80.5 years) cadavers. We defined the neuroma as a thickening of the nerve of at least two-fold relative to the non-pathological proximal part. The incidence of this neuroma was 25% (10/40) in the Japanese and 33.3% (7/21) in the Finnish cadavers. Moderate or severe hallux valgus (with an angle of more than 20 degrees) was seen in half of the 40 Japanese cadavers (7 males, 13 females), but was absent in the Finnish cadavers. Such hallux valgus was present in 7 (5 males, 2 females) of the 10 Japanese cadavers with neuroma. Moreover, in 2 Japanese cadavers, a paper-like, specialized type of neuroma was associated with the deformity. Pathogenesis of Morton's neuroma might be different between human populations with or without hallux valgus. PMID:23883772

  17. Morphological characterization of DMPC/CHAPSO bicellar mixtures: a combined SANS and NMR study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Morales, Hannah H; Katsaras, John; Kučerka, Norbert; Yang, Yongkun; Macdonald, Peter M; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2013-12-23

    Spontaneously forming structures of a system composed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPSO) were studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), (31)P NMR, and stimulated echo (STE) pulsed field gradient (PFG) (1)H NMR diffusion measurements. Charged lipid dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) was used to induce different surface charge densities. The structures adopted were investigated as a function of temperature and lipid concentration for samples with a constant molar ratio of long-chain to short-chain lipids (= 3). In the absence of DMPG, zwitterionic bicellar mixtures exhibited a phase transition from discoidal bicelles, or ribbons, to multilamellar vesicles either upon dilution or with increased temperature. CHAPSO-containing mixtures showed a higher thermal stability in morphology than DHPC-containing mixtures at the corresponding lipid concentrations. In the presence of DMPG, discoidal bicelles (or ribbons) were also found at low temperature and lower lipid concentration mixtures. At high temperature, perforated lamellae were observed in high-concentration mixtures (≥7.5 wt %) whereas uniform unilamellar vesicles and bicelles formed in low-concentration mixtures (≤2.5 wt %), respectively, when the mixtures were moderately and highly charged. From the results, spontaneous structural diagrams of the zwitterionic and charged systems were constructed. PMID:24059815

  18. Structural, morphological, magnetic and hydrogen absorption properties of LaNi5 alloy: A comprehensive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhaddi, Reza; Arabi, Hadi; Pourarian, Faiz

    2014-04-01

    A comprehensive study of structural, morphological, magnetic and hydrogen absorption properties of LaNi5-H system was investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that as-synthesized LaNi5 alloy is single phase with CaCu5-type structure while some weak peaks of elemental nickel also appeared after several hydrogenation/dehydrogenation (H/D) cycling. The presence of pure Ni was also followed using the room temperature magnetic measurements. After H/D cycling, the particle size decreases and particle size distribution was found nearly uniform compared to noncycled alloy. The pressure-composition isotherms (PCIs) of the hydrogen absorption reaction were determined in the temperature range 20-80°C using a homemade Sievert's type experimental apparatus, and then the enthalpy and entropy of hydride formation were calculated. The hydriding kinetic mechanism of LaNi5 was evaluated using the different fitting models: Jander diffusion model (JDM), Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) and Chou models. All employed models confirm an increase in the hydriding reaction rate with temperature. However, the calculated results using JMA model show a better agreement with the experimental data and hence we believe that diffusion along with nucleation and growth is the rate-controlling step for the hydriding reaction. The values of activation energy for hydriding reaction were also obtained by JD and JMA models.

  19. Manganese oxide phases and morphologies: A study on calcination temperature and atmospheric dependence.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Matthias; Fenske, Daniela; Bardenhagen, Ingo; Westphal, Anne; Knipper, Martin; Plaggenborg, Thorsten; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna; Parisi, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Manganese oxides are one of the most important groups of materials in energy storage science. In order to fully leverage their application potential, precise control of their properties such as particle size, surface area and Mn (x) (+) oxidation state is required. Here, Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 nanoparticles as well as mesoporous α-Mn2O3 particles were synthesized by calcination of Mn(II) glycolate nanoparticles obtained through an economical route based on a polyol synthesis. The preparation of the different manganese oxides via one route facilitates assigning actual structure-property relationships. The oxidation process related to the different MnO x species was observed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showing time- and temperature-dependent phase transformations occurring during oxidation of the Mn(II) glycolate precursor to α-Mn2O3 via Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 in O2 atmosphere. Detailed structural and morphological investigations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder XRD revealed the dependence of the lattice constants and particle sizes of the MnO x species on the calcination temperature and the presence of an oxidizing or neutral atmosphere. Furthermore, to demonstrate the application potential of the synthesized MnO x species, we studied their catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction in aprotic media. Linear sweep voltammetry revealed the best performance for the mesoporous α-Mn2O3 species. PMID:25671151

  20. Real time SAXS studies of lamellar level morphological development in PEEK

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, R.K.; Marand, H.; Chu, B.

    1995-12-01

    The double endotherm melting behavior of poly(aryl ether ether ketone) PEEK has been the subject of considerable debate during the last few years. Most authors are of the opinion that this behavior is caused either by a melting-recrystallization phenomenon or by the presence of two populations of lamellar thicknesses. In this paper, the double endothermic behavior of PEEK is studied using real time small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The correlation and interface distribution functions were used to analyze SAXS data. Calculations presented in this paper suggest that the semi-crystalline morphology of PEEK consists of two type of lamellar stacks consistent with primary and secondary crystallization. The lamellar thickness within these 2 stacks are observed to be about 70 A and 120 A (secondary and primary lamellae respectively) for PEEK crystallized at 307{degrees}C. Based on these observations, we speculate the that double endotherm melting behavior might be related to the melting of these dual stacks of lamellae.

  1. Morphological study on the olfactory systems of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    PubMed

    Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Nakamuta, Shoko; Kato, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the olfactory system of a semi-aquatic turtle, the snapping turtle, has been morphologically investigated by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and lectin histochemistry. The nasal cavity of snapping turtle was divided into the upper and lower chambers, lined by the sensory epithelium containing ciliated and non-ciliated olfactory receptor neurons, respectively. Each neuron expressed both Gαolf, the α-subunit of G-proteins coupling to the odorant receptors, and Gαo, the α-subunit of G-proteins coupling to the type 2 vomeronasal receptors. The axons originating from the upper chamber epithelium projected to the ventral part of the olfactory bulb, while those from the lower chamber epithelium to the dorsal part of the olfactory bulb. Despite the identical expression of G-protein α-subunits in the olfactory receptor neurons, these two projections were clearly distinguished from each other by the differential expression of glycoconjugates. In conclusion, these data indicate the presence of two types of olfactory systems in the snapping turtle. Topographic arrangement of the upper and lower chambers and lack of the associated glands in the lower chamber epithelium suggest their possible involvement in the detection of odorants: upper chamber epithelium in the air and the lower chamber epithelium in the water. PMID:27059760

  2. Taurine Rescues Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Atrophy In Vitro: A Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Rovetta, Francesca; Ferroni, Matteo; Corsetti, Giovanni; Lavazza, Antonio; Sberveglieri, Giorgio; Aleo, Maria Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin (CisPt) is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug whose side effects include muscle weakness and cachexia. Here we analysed CisPt-induced atrophy in C2C12 myotubes by a multidisciplinary morphological approach, focusing on the onset and progression of autophagy, a protective cellular process that, when excessively activated, may trigger protein hypercatabolism and atrophy in skeletal muscle. To visualize autophagy we used confocal and transmission electron microscopy at different times of treatment and doses of CisPt. Moreover we evaluated the effects of taurine, a cytoprotective beta-amino acid able to counteract oxidative stress, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in different tissues and organs. Our microscopic results indicate that autophagy occurs very early in 50 μM CisPt challenged myotubes (4 h–8 h) before overt atrophy but it persists even at 24 h, when several autophagic vesicles, damaged mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic blebbings engulf the sarcoplasm. Differently, 25 mM taurine pretreatment rescues the majority of myotubes size upon 50 μM CisPt at 24 h. Taurine appears to counteract atrophy by restoring regular microtubular apparatus and mitochondria and reducing the overload and the localization of autophagolysosomes. Such a promising taurine action in preventing atrophy needs further molecular and biochemical studies to best define its impact on muscle homeostasis and the maintenance of an adequate skeletal mass in vivo. PMID:24955211

  3. Effect of ionizing radiation on the primate pancreas: an endocrine and morphologic study

    SciTech Connect

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Zuurmond, T.; Louw, G.; Laker, L.; Els, D.; Weideman, A.; Wolfe-Coote, S.; Du Toit, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the endocrine, biochemical, and haematological derangements as well as pancreatic and histological changes of the bonemarrow in the primate following external fractionated subtotal marrow irradiation without bonemarrow reconstitution. The irradiation was administered in preparation for pancreatic transplantation. Two groups of animals (ten in each group) received 800 rad (8 Gy) and 1000 rad (10 Gy) respectively over 4 to 5 weeks. A maximum of 200 rads (2 Gy) were administered weekly as photons from a 6 MV linear accelerator. During irradiation the animals remained normoglycaemic in the presence of transiently elevated liver enzymes and serum amylase values, which returned to normal on completion of the irradiation. Insulin release was significantly reduced in both groups during irradiation and was associated with minimally decreased K-values in the presence of mild glucose intolerance. Pancreatic light morphologic changes included structural changes of both exocrine and endocrine elements and included necrosis of the islet cells and acinar tissue. Islet histology demonstrated striking cytocavitary network changes of alpha and beta cells, including degranulation, vacuolization, mitochondrial destruction, and an increase in lysosomes. A hypoplastic bonemarrow ranging from moderate to severe was observed in all irradiated recipients. Near total fractionated body irradiation in the primate is therefore associated with elevated liver enzymes, pancytopenia, transient hyperamylasaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, a varying degree of pancreatitis, and bonemarrow hypoplasia.

  4. Reversible Morphology Control in Block Copolymer Films via Solvent Vapor Processing: An In Situ GISAXS study

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Marvin Y.; Bosworth, Joan K.; Smilges, Detlef-M.; Schwartz, Evan L.; Andre, Xavier; Ober, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    The real time changes occurring within films of cylinder-forming poly(α-methylstyrene-block-4-hydroxystyrene) (PαMS-b-PHOST) were monitored as they were swollen in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and acetone solvent vapors. In situ information was obtained by combining grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) with film thickness monitoring of the solvent vapor swollen films. We show that for self assembly to occur, the polymer thin film must surpass a swollen thickness ratio of 212% of its original thickness when swollen in THF vapors and a ratio of 268% for acetone vapor annealing. As the polymer becomes plasticized by solvent vapor uptake, the polymer chains must become sufficiently mobile to self assemble, or reorganize, at room temperature. Using vapors of a solvent selective to one of the blocks, in our case PHOST-selective acetone, an order-order transition occured driven by the shift in volume fraction. The BCC spherical phase assumed in the highly swollen state can be quenched by rapid drying. Upon treatment with vapor of a non-selective solvent, THF, the film maintained the cylindrical morphology suggested by its dry-state volume fraction. In situ studies indicate that self-assembly occurs spontaneously upon attaining the threshold swelling ratios. PMID:21116459

  5. Morphology and aggregation of RADA-16-I peptide Studied by AFM, NMR and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Bagrov, Dmitry; Gazizova, Yuliya; Podgorsky, Victor; Udovichenko, Igor; Danilkovich, Alexey; Prusakov, Kirill; Klinov, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    RADA-16-I is a self-assembling peptide which forms biocompatible fibrils and hydrogels. We used molecular dynamics simulations, atomic-force microscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and thioflavin T binding assay to examine size, structure, and morphology of RADA-16-I aggregates. We used the native form of RADA-16-I (H-(ArgAlaAspAla)4 -OH) rather than the acetylated one commonly used in the previous studies. At neutral pH, RADA-16-I is mainly in the fibrillar form, the fibrils consist of an even number of stacked β-sheets. At acidic pH, RADA-16-I fibrils disassemble into monomers, which form an amorphous monolayer on graphite and monolayer lamellae on mica. RADA-16-I fibrils were compared with the fibrils of a similar peptide RLDL-16-I. Thickness of β-sheets measured by AFM was in excellent agreement with the molecular dynamics simulations. A pair of RLDL-16-I β-sheets was thicker (2.3 ± 0.4 nm) than a pair of RADA-16-I β-sheets (1.9 ± 0.1 nm) due to the volume difference between alanine and leucine residues. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 72-81, 2016. PMID:26501800

  6. Three-Dimensional Imaging Using Microcomputed Tomography For Studying Gaharu Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazid, Khair'iah; Masschaele, Bert; Bin Awang, Mat Rasol; Abdullah, Mohd. Zaid; Saleh, Junita Mohamad; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Bin Hj Khalid, Mohd Ashhar

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrates the potential application of the high resolution X-ray micro-CT technique in the analysis of internal structure in Gaharu wood. Gaharu or internationally, Agar wood, is known for its fragrant resinous wood. The hardware device used in this study was an X-ray micro-CT scanner at Center of Tomography (UGCT), CT facility in Ghent University, Belgium. This technique allows the 3D investigation of the internal structure of the wood in a non-destructive way. Most of the data analysis was done with the software VG Studio Max and MATLAB. Here we present some preliminary results from three-dimensional images from a piece of high grade Gaharu. Micro-CT images of the specimens were obtained at 7 μm resolution. Besides a clear distinction between pores and material, some bright white areas occur in the reconstruction images. Not only the volume visualization is helpful, morphological parameters of open-pores and dark resins are calculated from these 3D data set. The micro-CT technique is a valid support for evaluating the pores structure and resin distribution in Gaharu.

  7. Spermatozoon of the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera, Monogononta): Advances in morphological and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuyu; Li, Lian; Liang, Luxiaoxue; Liu, Xuezhou; Ouyang, Kai; Li, Jing; Yang, Jiaxin

    2015-09-01

    The morphological and ultrastructural features of the spermatozoon in Brachionus calyciflorus are described using light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mature spermatozoon, which appears to be thread-like, is composed of a slightly expanded anterior of cell body region and a flagellum region without acrosome. The cell body region and flagellum region are respectively 16-27μm and 20-33μm in length (n=60). The spermatozoon is characterized by a mass of dense tubular materials, which occupy most of the cell. Some mitochondria are distributed around the nuclear region in the anterior of the cell body region, while in the posterior portion of cell body, the chromatin often contains a single lobated nucleus arranged at the center of cell. The flagellum contains the classic axoneme (9×2+2) and possesses lateral undulating membrane. Mature B. calyciflorus males have no germ cell stages earlier than the spermatids in the testis. TEM examination reveals rigid rods as well as predominant typical spermatozoon in the testis. Observations, based on successive photographs and videos, enabled a first-time recording of the unique inverted movement of the spermatozoon, which indicated that the movement of the spermatozoon is driven by the flagellum. Our study also provides further supplementary insights into the phylogenetic systematics of the Rotifera. PMID:26021257

  8. Morphological study of human sweat ducts for the investigation of THz-wave interaction (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Kodo; Tripathi, Saroj R.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, some studies reported that the sweat ducts act as a low-Q-factor helical antenna due to their helical structure, and resonate in the terahertz frequency range according to their structural parameters. According to the antenna theory, when the duct works as a helical antenna, the dimension of the helix plays a key role to determine the frequency of resonance. Therefore, the accurate determination of structural parameters of sweat duct is crucially important to obtain the reliable frequency of resonance and modes of operations. Therefore, here we performed the optical coherence tomography (OCT) of human subjects on their palm and foot to investigate the density, distribution and morphological features of sweat ducts. Moreover, we measured the dielectric properties of stratum corneum using terahertz time domain spectroscopy and based upon this information, we determined the frequency of resonance. We recruited 32 subjects for the measurement and the average duct diameter was 95±11μm. Based upon this information on diameter of duct and THz dielectric properties of stratum corneum (ɛ=5.1±1.3), we have calculated the frequency of resonance of sweat duct. Finally, we determined that the center frequency of resonance was 442±76 GHz. We believe that these findings will facilitate further investigation of the THz-skin interaction and provide guidelines for safety levels with respect to human exposure. We will also report on the EEG measurement while being shined by micro watt order THz waves.

  9. Photoluminescence, ellipsometric, optical and morphological studies of sprayed Co-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gençyılmaz, O.; Atay, F.; Akyüz, I.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, undoped and cobalt (Co)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) films were successfully produced by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique at low temperature (350°C). The optical and surface properties were investigated as a function of Co content. The optical parameters (thickness, refractive index and extinction coefficient) were determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and it was seen that the refractive index and extinction coefficient values of Co-doped ZnO films decreased slightly depending on the increasing of Co doping. For investigation, the transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the films, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and PL spectroscopy were used at room temperature. The transmittance spectra show that transmittance values decreased and Co+2 ions substitute Zn+2 ions of ZnO lattice. The optical band gap values decreased from 3.26 eV to 2.85 eV with the changing of Co content. The results of PL spectra exhibit the position of the different emission peaks unchanged but the intensity of peaks increased with increasing Co doping. Also, the surface properties of the films were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and these results indicated that the surface morphology and roughness values were prominently changed with Co doping.

  10. A genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci for variation in human ear morphology.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Reales, Guillermo; Smith, Andrew J P; Konka, Esra; Palmen, Jutta; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Calderón, Rosario; Rosique, Javier; Cheeseman, Michael; Bhutta, Mahmood F; Humphries, Steve E; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a genome-wide association study for non-pathological pinna morphology in over 5,000 Latin Americans. We find genome-wide significant association at seven genomic regions affecting: lobe size and attachment, folding of antihelix, helix rolling, ear protrusion and antitragus size (linear regression P values 2 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-14)). Four traits are associated with a functional variant in the Ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene, a key regulator of embryonic skin appendage development. We confirm expression of Edar in the developing mouse ear and that Edar-deficient mice have an abnormally shaped pinna. Two traits are associated with SNPs in a region overlapping the T-Box Protein 15 (TBX15) gene, a major determinant of mouse skeletal development. Strongest association in this region is observed for SNP rs17023457 located in an evolutionarily conserved binding site for the transcription factor Cartilage paired-class homeoprotein 1 (CART1), and we confirm that rs17023457 alters in vitro binding of CART1. PMID:26105758

  11. A genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci for variation in human ear morphology

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Reales, Guillermo; Smith, Andrew J. P.; Konka, Esra; Palmen, Jutta; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria- Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Calderón, Rosario; Rosique, Javier; Cheeseman, Michael; Bhutta, Mahmood F.; Humphries, Steve E.; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a genome-wide association study for non-pathological pinna morphology in over 5,000 Latin Americans. We find genome-wide significant association at seven genomic regions affecting: lobe size and attachment, folding of antihelix, helix rolling, ear protrusion and antitragus size (linear regression P values 2 × 10−8 to 3 × 10−14). Four traits are associated with a functional variant in the Ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene, a key regulator of embryonic skin appendage development. We confirm expression of Edar in the developing mouse ear and that Edar-deficient mice have an abnormally shaped pinna. Two traits are associated with SNPs in a region overlapping the T-Box Protein 15 (TBX15) gene, a major determinant of mouse skeletal development. Strongest association in this region is observed for SNP rs17023457 located in an evolutionarily conserved binding site for the transcription factor Cartilage paired-class homeoprotein 1 (CART1), and we confirm that rs17023457 alters in vitro binding of CART1. PMID:26105758

  12. Nasal seromucinous hamartoma (microglandular adenosis of the nose): a morphological and molecular study of five cases.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini-Spaltro, Andrea; Morandi, Luca; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Cavazza, Alberto; Brisigotti, Massimo; Damiani, Stefania; Jain, Sanjiv; Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2010-12-01

    Five cases of nasal seromucinous hamartoma were studied and their clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular data are reported. The patients, three females and two males, ranged in age from 49 to 66 years (mean 56 year, SD ± 7.91). All lesions were located in the nasal cavity. In four cases where follow-up was obtained, no recurrence was evident. In all cases, numerous small seromucinous tubules, embedded in a cellular stroma, were present in the lamina propria. Tubules were lined by one layer of cuboidal cells which displayed luminal phenotype positive for lysozyme and EMA in four, and S100 protein in all cases. Collagen IV and laminin positive basal lamina outlined the tubules which lacked basal cells. Stromal spindle cells present among tubules were immunoreactive for calponin in all cases and for alpha-smooth muscle actin in four cases. DNA mutation analysis of mitochondrial D-loop region was performed by direct sequencing in order to verify the mutation rate of these lesions. The tubules of the five seromucinous hamartomas showed a higher mutation rate especially in heteroplasmy (0.52% homoplasmy, 2.02% heteroplasmy) in comparison to normal seromucinous glands which exhibited a lower mutation frequency (0.83%). This is considered a sign of a low cellular proliferation rate consistent with a benign process. It is concluded that nasal seromucinous hamartomas are benign glandular proliferations that may resemble microglandular adenosis of the breast. Their distinction from benign and malignant mimics is discussed. PMID:20922408

  13. Morphology of distal radius curvatures: a CT-based study on the Malaysian Malay population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Taran Singh Pall; Sadagatullah, Abdul Nawfar; Yusof, Abdul Halim

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study was to examine the differing curves of the volar distal radius of healthy Malaysian Malays, so as to obtain detailed morphological information that will further the understanding of volar plate osteosynthesis in Malaysian Malays. METHODS Computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction was performed on the wrists of 16 healthy Malaysian Malay volunteers. Profile measurements were made using a software program. A novel parameter, the pronator quadratus curve angle, was explored and introduced in this study. Interclass correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the level of agreement between the data collected by the principal investigator and that collected by an independent radiologist. RESULTS The mean ± standard deviation of the arc radii on the radial aspect was 17.50° ± 5.40°, while the median (interquartile range [IQR]) of the arc radii on the ulnar aspect was 25.27° (IQR 5.80°). The mean ± standard deviation of the curvature of the pronator quadratus line was 40.52° ± 2.48°. The arc radii on the radial aspect was significantly lower than the arc radii on the ulnar aspect (p = 0.001). Different radial and ulnar arcs were observed in 56.25% of the radii; the arc was deeper on the ulnar aspect in 93.75% of the radii. CONCLUSION Based on the findings of this study, the likelihood of achieving anatomical reduction with uniformly curved, fixed-angle volar plates is questionable. Changes in the design of these implants may be needed to optimise their usage in the Malaysian Malay population. PMID:25814075

  14. Comparative Analysis of Clinical, Hormonal and Morphological Studies in Patients with Neuroendocrine ACTH-Producing Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Kolesnikova, G. S.; Lapshina, A. M.; Voronkova, I. A.; Marova, E. I.; Arapova, S. D.; Goncharov, N. P.; Dedov, I. I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the problem of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) with clinical symptoms of hypercorticism caused by hypersecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by tumour cells. In most cases (85%), the tumours were localized in the pituitary gland (Cushing's disease); 15% of the patients had an extrapituitary tumour that manifest as an ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS). Comparative analysis of clinical, hormonal, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics of pituitary and extrapituitary ACTH-secreting NET was performed. It included 46 patients with CD and 38 ones exhibiting ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS). Results of the study suggest differences between CD and EAS in terms of the severity of clinical manifestations and duration of the disease. Hormonal studies showed that EAS unlike CD was associated with high plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, late-evening salivary cortisol and daily urinary free cortisol, the absence of a 60% or greater reduction of cortisol in the HDDST test, and the presence of a low (less than 2) ACTH gradient in response to desmopressin administration with catheterization of cavernous sinuses. The study of morphofunctional characteristics of the removed NET demonstrated the ability of both pituitary and extrapituitary NETs to express ACTH as well as GH, PRL, LH, and FSH. The angiogenic markers (CD31 and VEGF) were detected with equal frequency regardless of the NET localization. The histological structure of all corticotropinomas suggested their benign origin, but extrapituitary NETs were represented by different morphological types with varying malignancy, invasiveness, and metastatic properties. A higher cell proliferation potential (Ki-67) was documented for NET in patients presenting with an ectopic ACTH secretion compared to those having corticotropinomas. PMID:23509456

  15. Modelling long term morphological changes with XBeach: case study of Kizilirmak River mouth, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykal, Cüneyt; Ergin, Aysen; Güler, Işıkhan; Özyurt Tarakcıoğlu, Gülizar; Söğüt, Erdinç; Gökhan Güler, Hasan; Güney Doğan, Gözde

    2015-04-01

    The Bafra alluvial plain, where the Kızılırmak River discharges into the Black Sea, is one of the most critical examples of severe coastal erosion problems in Turkey. The amount of sediment carried by the Kızılırmak River has decreased from approximately 23 million ton per year to 0.46 million tons/year starting from 1960s as a result of construction of flow regulatory structures in the following years. This drastic decrease in the amount of sediment carried by the river resulted in a severe shoreline retreat up to 1 km in the cross-shore direction since 1988 according to the Regional Directorate of State Hydraulic Works and local residents (Kökpınar et al., 2007). The first remedial measure against this severe coastal erosion problem at the river mouth was constructed in 2000 by State Hydraulic Works (DSİ). It was composed of two Y-type and one I-type groins constructed at the eastern shoreline of the river mouth. After construction of the first remedial system, the shoreline retreat slowed down between the groins and trapping of sediment initiated. Today, the gaps between the groins are almost completely filled with sediment. In this study, the shoreline changes between the groins of the first remedial system for the years 1999, 2003 and 2007 are studied using the open source numerical model called XBeach (Roelvink et al.2010) focusing on the hydrodynamics and tombolo formation around the groins. The numerical model has been developed mainly to model short term morphological changes such as nearshore responses under storm and hurricane conditions. Herein, the preparation of the wave data input to minimize the computational demand of the model and the effect of the sequence of the input wave directions are discussed in detail in this study. Finally, the shoreline changes obtained from numerical model simulations are compared with the field data. Keywords: Numerical modeling of shoreline changes, tombolo formation

  16. Morphology and thermal studies of zinc sulfide and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuntokun, Jejenija; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal complexes of 1-cyano-1-carboethoxyethylene-2,2-dithiolato-κS,S'-bis(N,N-dimethylthiourea-κS) have been synthesized and characterized with analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were thermolysed in hexadecylamine at 200 °C to prepare ZnS and CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD). TEM images showed spherically shaped nanoparticles, whose sizes are in the range 4.33-7.21 nm for ZnS and 4.95-7.7 nm CdS respectively and XRD confirmed cubic crystalline phases for the nanoparticles. The optical band gap energy evaluated from the absorption spectra are 2.88 eV (430 nm) and 2.81 eV (440 nm) for the ZnS and CdS nanoparticles respectively. The as-prepared metal sulfide nanoparticles were further incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to give ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA composites. The polymer nanocomposites were studied to investigate their morphology and thermal properties relative to the pure PVA. XRD diffractions indicated that the crystalline phases of the nanoparticles and the sizes in PVA matrices remained unaltered. Infra-red spectra studies revealed interactions between the PVA and the metal sulfide nanoparticles and TGA studies show that the ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA nanocomposites exhibit better thermal stability than the pure PVA.

  17. Studies on Structural, Morphological and Optical Properties of Chemically Deposited CdS1-xSex Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Deo, Soumya R; Singh, Ajaya K; Deshmukh, Lata; Singh, Narendra Pratap; Aleksandrova, Mariya P

    2016-03-01

    The thin films of CdS1-xSex were successfully deposited over glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique. Cadmium acetate, thiourea and sodium selenosulfate were used as source materials for Cd(2+), S(2-) and Se(2-) ions, while 2-mercaptoethanol was used as capping agent. The various deposition conditions such as precursor concentration, deposition temperature, pH and deposition time were optimized for the deposition of CdS1-xSex thin films of good quality and the films were annealed at 200° and 300 °C. The structural, morphological, chemical and optical properties were examined by various characterization techniques and discussed in detail. The optical band gap of CdS1-xSex thin film samples were estimated and found in the range from 2.11 to 1.79 eV for as-deposited and annealed thin films. PMID:26634707

  18. Morphological study of boar sperm during their passage through the female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    GARCÍA-VÁZQUEZ, Francisco Alberto; HERNÁNDEZ-CARAVACA, Iván; MATÁS, Carmen; SORIANO-ÚBEDA, Cristina; ABRIL-SÁNCHEZ, Silvia; IZQUIERDO-RICO, María José

    2015-01-01

    Once deposited in the female tract, sperm face a series of challenges that must be overcome to ensure the presence of an adequate normal sperm population close to the site of fertilization. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the uterine milieu on boar sperm morphology. In experiment 1, sperm morphology was evaluated in the backflow (60 min after insemination) and within the uterotubal junction (UTJ) (collected ~24 h after insemination) following intrauterine sperm deposition (n = 6) and compared with the morphology of the sperm in the insemination dose. In experiment 2, the influence of the uterine fluid (UF) on sperm morphological modifications was evaluated. For this purpose, ejaculated (n = 4) and epididymal (n = 4) sperm were in vitro incubated with or without UF for 2 and 24 h. In both experiments, sperm were classified as normal, having a cytoplasmic droplet (proximal or distal) or having tail defects. The results of experiment 1 pointed to an increase in morphologically abnormal sperm collected in the backflow (27.70%) and a reduction of the same in the UTJ (2.12%) compared with the insemination dose (17.75%) (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, incubation of ejaculated sperm with UF did not provoke any morphological modifications; however, when epididymal sperm were incubated with UF, a pronounced increase in the percentage of normal sperm was evident after 24 h compared with the initial dose (from 25.77% to 53.58%, P < 0.05), mainly due to distal cytoplasmatic droplet shedding (53.22 vs. 20.20%). In conclusion, almost all the sperm that colonize the UTJ had a normal morphology, with part of the abnormal sperm having been discarded in the backflow and part selected/modified on their way to the oviduct. UF seems to influence cytoplasmic distal droplet removal, as demonstrated previously in seminal plasma. PMID:26119829

  19. Spectral, morphological and antibacterial studies of β-cyclodextrin stabilized silver - Chitosan nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punitha, N.; Ramesh, P. S.; Geetha, D.

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial properties and characterization of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) stabilized silver - chitosan nanocomposite (Ag-Cts NCs). An effective and eco-friendly technique for the synthesis of Ag-Cts NCs in the presence of a strong stabilizing agent β-CD is described. The well formed nanocomposites were characterized by the Ultraviolet Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Scanning electron microscope (SEM/EDS), Atomic force microscope (AFM), High resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and Zeta potential measurement (ZP). The results confirmed that the poly dispersed Ag-Cts NCs are less than 15 nm in size with spherical shape and show good stability. The antibacterial activity was also investigated and β-CD coated Ag-Cts NCs showed a promising bacterial activity against gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) micro-organism.

  20. The Association between Lower Incisal Inclination and Morphology of the Supporting Alveolar Bone — A Cone-Beam CT Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Quan; Pan, Xiao-gang; Ji, Guo-ping; Shen, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Aim To investigate the relationship between the positioning of the lower central incisor and physical morphology of the surrounding alveolar bone. Methodology Thirty-eight patients (18 males, 20 females), with mean age of 13.4 years, were included in this study. As part of orthodontic treatment planning the patients were required to take dental Cone-beam CT (CBCT) covering the region of lower incisors, the surrounding alveolar bone and the mandibular symphysis. The cephalometric parameters were designed and measured to indicate the inclination of lower central incisor and physical morphology of the adjacent alveolar bone. Computer-aided descriptive statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 15.0 software package for Windows. A correlation analysis and a linear regression analysis between the incisor inclination and the alveolar bone morphology were performed. Results Significant positive correlations were found between the lower central incisor inclination and the morphological contour of the alveolar bone (P <0.05). The lower central incisor root apex was closer to the lingual alveolar crest when it was buccally inclined. Conclusion The morphology of the alveolar bone may be affected by incisal inclination. PMID:20690425

  1. An Exploratory Study on How Children Interact with Pedagogic Conversational Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Marín, Diana; Pascual-Nieto, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    A pedagogic conversational agent (PCA) can be defined as a computer system that interacts with the student in natural language assuming the role of the instructor, a student or a companion. It can have a personality and can generate different sentences according to the agent or the student mood. Empathy with the students' feelings seems to…

  2. An Introduction to the Indiana University Social Studies Field Agent Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marker, Gerald W.

    In this conference speech the author offers a rationale for the training of field agents and, moreover, analyzes how field agents can carry out planned educational change. Offering three brief descriptions on theoretical models illustrating how change occurs, the author portrays: 1) The Social Interaction Model; 2) The Problem-Solver Model; and 3)…

  3. The Use of Animated Agents in E-Learning Environments: An Exploratory, Interpretive Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, A. Kamil; Ferneley, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of animated agents in e-learning environments. However, empirical investigations of their use in online education are limited. Our aim is to provide an empirically based framework for the development and evaluation of animated agents in e-learning environments. Findings suggest a number of challenges,…

  4. Novel Penicillin Analogues as Potential Antimicrobial Agents; Design, Synthesis and Docking Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Zaman; Bais, Abdul; Manir, Md. Maniruzzaman; Niazi, Umar

    2015-01-01

    A number of penicillin derivatives (4a-h) were synthesized by the condensation of 6-amino penicillinic acid (6-APA) with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as antimicrobial agents. In silico docking study of these analogues was performed against Penicillin Binding Protein (PDBID 1CEF) using AutoDock Tools 1.5.6 in order to investigate the antimicrobial data on structural basis. Penicillin binding proteins function as either transpeptidases or carboxypeptidases and in few cases demonstrate transglycosylase activity in bacteria. The excellent antibacterial potential was depicted by compounds 4c and 4e against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidus and Staphylococcus aureus compared to the standard amoxicillin. The most potent penicillin derivative 4e exhibited same activity as standard amoxicillin against S. aureus. In the enzyme inhibitory assay the compound 4e inhibited E. coli MurC with an IC50 value of 12.5 μM. The docking scores of these compounds 4c and 4e also verified their greater antibacterial potential. The results verified the importance of side chain functionalities along with the presence of central penam nucleus. The binding affinities calculated from docking results expressed in the form of binding energies ranges from -7.8 to -9.2kcal/mol. The carboxylic group of penam nucleus in all these compounds is responsible for strong binding with receptor protein with the bond length ranges from 3.4 to 4.4 Ǻ. The results of present work ratify that derivatives 4c and 4e may serve as a structural template for the design and development of potent antimicrobial agents. PMID:26267242

  5. Antibody-profiling technologies for studying humoral responses to infectious agents

    PubMed Central

    Burbelo, Peter D; Ching, Kathryn H; Bush, Emily R; Han, Brian L; Iadarola, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of humoral responses against different infectious agents are critical for infectious disease diagnostics, understanding pathogenic mechanisms, and the development and monitoring of vaccines. While ELISAs are often used to measure antibody responses to one or several targets, new antibody-profiling technologies, such as protein microarrays, can now evaluate antibody responses to hundreds, or even thousands, of recombinant antigens at one time. These large-scale studies have uncovered new antigenic targets, provided new insights into vaccine research and yielded an overview of immunoreactivity against almost the entire proteome of certain pathogens. However, solid-phase antigen arrays also have drawbacks that limit the type of information obtained, including suboptimal detection of conformational epitopes, high backgrounds due to impure antigens and a narrow dynamic range of detection. We have developed a solution-phase antibody-profiling technology, luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS), which harnesses light-emitting recombinant antigen fusion proteins to quantitatively measure patient antibody titers. Owing to the highly linear light output of the luciferase reporter, some antibodies can be detected without serum dilution in a dynamic range of detection often spanning seven orders of magnitude. When LIPS is applied iteratively with multiple target antigens, a high-definition antibody profile is obtained. Here, we discuss the application of these different antibody-profiling technologies and their associated limitations with particular emphasis on protein microarrays. We also describe LIPS in detail and discuss several clinically relevant uses of the technology. Together, these new technologies offer new tools for understanding humoral responses to known and emerging infectious agents. PMID:20518713

  6. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  7. Postmortem and insitu TEM methods to study the mechanism of failure in controlled-morphology high-impact polystrene resin

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslinski, R.C.; Dineen, M.T.; Hahnfeld, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Advanced Styrenic resins are being developed throughout the industry to bridge the properties gap between traditional HIPS (High Impact Polystyrene) and ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene copolymers) resins. These new resins have an unprecedented balance of high gloss and high impact energies. Dow Chemical`s contribution to this area is based on a unique combination of rubber morphologies including labyrinth, onion skin, and core-shelf rubber particles. This new resin, referred as a controlled morphology resin (CMR), was investigated to determine the toughening mechanism of this unique rubber morphology. This poster will summarize the initial studies of these resins using the double-notch four-point bend test of Su and Yee, tensile stage electron microscopy, and Poisson Ratio analysis of the fracture mechanism.

  8. Do Adult Phenotypes Reflect Selection on Juvenile Performance? A Comparative Study on Performance and Morphology in Lizards.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Lopez-Darias, Marta; Vanhooydonck, Bieke; Cornette, Raphaël; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Brandt, Renata

    2016-09-01

    When competing for food or other resources, or when confronted with predators, young animals may be at a disadvantage relative to adults because of their smaller size. Additionally, the ongoing differentiation and growth of tissues may constrain performance during early ontogenetic stages. However, juveniles must feed before they can become reproductively active adults and as such the adult phenotype may be the result of an ontogenetic filter imposing selection on juvenile phenotype and performance. Here we present ontogenetic data on head morphology and bite force for different lizard species. We test whether adults reflect selection on juveniles by comparing slopes of growth trajectories before and after sexual maturity in males and females and by examining the variance in head morphology and bite force in juveniles versus adults. Finally, we also present the first results of a selection study where animals were measured, marked and released, and recaptured the subsequent year to test whether head morphology and bite force impact survival. PMID:27400973

  9. Study of Morphological Defects on Dual-Band HgCdTe on CdZnTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M.; Radford, W. A.; Lofgreen, D. D.; Olsson, K. R.; Peterson, J. M.; Johnson, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    HgCdTe dual-band epitaxial layers on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates often have morphological defects. These defects, unlike normal void and microvoid defects, do not contain a polycrystalline core and, therefore, do not offer a good contrast for observation using optical and electron microscopes. This paper reports a way of identifying these defects by using a Nomarski optical microscopy image overlay on focused ion beam microscopy images for preparation of thin cross-sectional foils of these defects. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the defect cross-sections to identify the origin and evolution of the morphological defects and their effect on the epitaxial layer. This paper reports cross-sectional analysis of four morphological defects of different shape and size.

  10. Physicochemical and microbiological stability of azathioprine in InOrpha suspending agent studied under various conditions.

    PubMed

    Amin, Alexandre; Bourget, Philippe; Vidal, Fabrice; Cartier, François; Beauvais, Raphaëlle; Afonso, Veronica Do Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Azathioprine is an antineoplastic antimetabolite drug currently used as an immunosuppressive agent after organ transplantation and for several dysimmunitary diseases. The usual daily dose ranges from 1 to 5 mg/kg orally. Azathioprine is marketed in France under the trade name Imurel in tablet form for oral administration that contains either 25 mg or 50 mg of the active ingredient. This Galenic formulation is not suitable for pediatric use and often requires a grinding operation or a dose fractionation to facilitate administration. In addition to a potential risk of imprecision in the administered dose, tablet grinding might unnecessarily expose nurses and families to a toxic compound. To overcome this problem, the objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological stabilities of azathioprine in a sugar-free, alcohol-free, and paraben-free InOrpha suspending agent. The studied samples were formulated into a 10-mg/mL suspension and stored in 24 plastic bottles of 60 mL at two different temperature conditions (between 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C and room temperature). Two series of 12 samples were tested for physicochemical stability using high-performance liquid chromatography as well as for a microbiological status for 35 days (daily opening of the bottles from day 0 of compounding) and for 56 days, upon daily flask opening (first opening at day 28 from compounding and daily opening for 28 consecutive days). The high-performance liquid chromatography method developed is linear, accurate, precise, and robust. In addition, a forced degradation study validated the selectivity and the specificity requirements of the method validated as stability indicating. At room temperature storage, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that tested samples had concentrations ranging from 90% to 110% of the initial concentration throughout the course of the study. Microbiological status remained stable during the 56 days of

  11. Study on the E-commerce platform based on the agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ruixue; Qin, Lishuan; Gao, Yinmin

    2011-10-01

    To solve problem of dynamic integration in e-commerce, the Multi-Agent architecture of electronic commerce platform system based on Agent and Ontology has been introduced, which includes three major types of agent, Ontology and rule collection. In this architecture, service agent and rule are used to realize the business process reengineering, the reuse of software component, and agility of the electronic commerce platform. To illustrate the architecture, a simulation work has been done and the results imply that the architecture provides a very efficient method to design and implement the flexible, distributed, open and intelligent electronic commerce platform system to solve problem of dynamic integration in ecommerce. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the architecture of electronic commerce platform system, and the approach how Agent and Ontology support the electronic commerce platform system.

  12. Lectin-mediated effects on bone resorption in vitro: a morphological and functional study

    SciTech Connect

    Popoff, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    Lectins have been used to study the structure and function of a variety of cells and tissues. The authors used 4 different lectins, concanavalin A (con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), soybean agglutinin (SBA) and peanut agglutinin (PNA) as in vitro biological probes to study the osteoclast, a multinucleated bone cell that is widely accepted as the primary effector cell responsible for normal bone resorption. They evaluated the effects of each of these lectins on osteoclastic bone resorbing activity and then examined mechanisms that may be responsible for the activation and/or inhibition of osteoclastic activity. Using con A and hemocyanin, a marker molecule used to visualize cell-bound con A via scanning electron microscopy, they demonstrated that osteoclasts have specific con A binding sites on their cell surface. They conducted a series of /sup 45/Ca bone release assays demonstrating that con A has a dose-dependent biphasic effect on bone resorption; stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at higher concentrations. The findings suggest that the specificity of lectin binding to cell surface receptors may play an important role in the induction of altered cell function. Recently, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system have been proposed as surrogates of less readily available osteoclasts. They used a macrophage-devitalized bone culture system to evaluate the effects of con A and SBA on the attachment of macrophages to bone and their subsequent functional activity. The results showed that con A, but not SBA, alters the morphology and function of macrophages on a devitalized bone surface. The results support the hypothesis that certain, specific saccharides regulate the interaction between macrophages and bone.

  13. Different amorphous solid-state forms of roxithromycin: A thermodynamic and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Milne, Marnus; Liebenberg, Wilna; Aucamp, Marique Elizabeth

    2016-02-10

    The striking impact that different preparation methods have on the characteristics of amorphous solid-state forms has attracted considerable attention during the last two decades. The pursuit of more extensive knowledge regarding polyamorphism therefore continues. The aim of this study was firstly, to investigate the influence of different preparation techniques to obtain amorphous solid-state forms for the same active pharmaceutical ingredient, namely roxithromycin. The preparation techniques also report on a method utilizing hot air, which although it is based on a melt intermediary step, is considered a novel preparation method. Secondly, to conduct an in-depth investigation into any physico-chemical differences between the resulting amorphous forms and thirdly, to bring our findings into context with that of previous work done, whilst simultaneously discussing a well-defined interpretation for the term polyamorphism and propose a discernment between true polyamorphism and pseudo-polyamorphism/atypical-polyamorphism. The preparation techniques included melt, solution, and a combination of solution-mechanical disruption as intermediary steps. The resulting amorphous forms were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, hot-stage microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and vapor sorption. Clear and significant thermodynamic differences were determined between the four amorphous forms. It was also deduced from this study that different preparation techniques have a mentionable impact on the morphological properties of the resulting amorphous roxithromycin powders. Thermodynamic properties as well as the physical characteristics of the amorphous forms greatly governed other physico-chemical properties i.e. solubility and dissolution. PMID:26705157

  14. Why does Gila elegans have a bony tail? A study of swimming morphology convergence.

    PubMed

    Moran, Clinton J; Ferry, Lara A; Gibb, Alice C

    2016-06-01

    Caudal-fin-based swimming is the primary form of locomotion in most fishes. As a result, many species have developed specializations to enhance performance during steady swimming. Specializations that enable high swimming speeds to be maintained for long periods of time include: a streamlined body, high-aspect-ratio (winglike) caudal fin, a shallow caudal peduncle, and high proportions of slow-twitch ("red") axial muscle. We described the locomotor specializations of a fish species native to the Colorado River and compared those specializations to other fish species from this habitat, as well as to a high-performance marine swimmer. The focal species for this study was the bonytail (Gila elegans), which has a distinct morphology when compared with closely related species from the Southwestern United States. Comparative species used in this study were the roundtail chub (Gila robusta), a closely related species from low-flow habitats; the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), an invasive cyprinid also found in low-flow habitats; and the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), a model high-performance swimmer from the marine environment. The bonytail had a shallow caudal peduncle and a high-aspect-ratio tail that were similar to those of the chub mackerel. The bonytail also had a more streamlined body than the roundtail chub and the common carp, although not as streamlined as the chub mackerel. The chub mackerel had a significantly higher proportion of red muscle than the other three species, which did not differ from one another. Taken together, the streamlined body, narrow caudal peduncle, and high-aspect-ratio tail of the bonytail suggest that this species has responded to the selection pressures of the historically fast-flowing Colorado River, where flooding events and base flows may have required native species to produce and sustain very high swimming speeds to prevent being washed downstream. PMID:27157474

  15. Topography, syntopy and morphology of the human otic ganglion: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Senger, Miriam; Stoffels, Hans-Jürgen; Angelov, Doychin N

    2014-09-01

    The human otic ganglion (OG) is not readily accessible during ordinary anatomical teaching courses because of insufficient time and severe difficulties encountered in dissection. Accordingly, most anatomical descriptions of its location, relation to neighbouring structures, size and shape are supported only by drawings, but not by photographs. The aim of this study has been to present the OG with associated roots and branches in dissected anatomic specimens. Following cumbersome dissection and precise photo-documentation, a detailed analysis of location, syntopy and morphology was performed. We carried out this study in 21 infratemporal fossae of 18 cadavers and were able to identify the OG, the mandibular-, the inferior alveolar- and the lingual nerve in all of them. We found no significant variation regarding the location of the GO in the infratemporal fossa and its syntopy to the adjacent structures. An OG resembling the classic description was found only in 90.50% of the cases. All 3 roots (parasympathetic, sympathetic and sensory) could be identified only in 82.3% of the specimens. The established presence of ganglionic branches varied from 0% (communicating rami to the meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve, to the greater petrosal nerve and to the lingual nerve) to 90% (r. communicans to n. canalis pterygoideus). We conclude that precise knowledge of this enormous variety might be very helpful not only to students of medicine and dentistry during anatomical dissection courses, but also to head and neck surgeons, ear-nose-throat specialists and neurosurgeons when treating pathology of pre- and postganglionic fibres. PMID:24973995

  16. A morphological and molecular study in the Deschampsia cespitosa complex (Poaceae; Poeae; Airinae) in northern North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphology of 201 accessions of Deschampsia cespitosa and related taxa of northern North America (Alaska, arctic Canada, Greenland and eastern Russia) were studied with statistics (an ordination multivariate technique and a non parametric test), and the cpDNA marker trnK-rps16. Results show that...

  17. Hybridization and Introgression in a Sympatric Pair of Oak Species (Fagaceae) Studied with Morphology and Chloroplast and Nuclear SSR Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chloroplast and nuclear SSR markers and morphology were used to study hybridization and introgression between Quercus douglasii and Q. lobata, two sympatric oak species native to California. Chloroplast SSR markers provided strong evidence of gene exchange via ongoing introgression between these sp...

  18. Geosimulation of urban growth and demographic decline in the Ruhr: a case study for 2025 using the artificial intelligence of cells and agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienow, Andreas; Stenger, Dirk

    2014-07-01

    The Ruhr is an "old acquaintance" in the discourse of urban decline in old industrialized cities. The agglomeration has to struggle with archetypical problems of former monofunctional manufacturing cities. Surprisingly, the image of a shrinking city has to be refuted if you shift the focus from socioeconomic wealth to its morphological extension. Thus, it is the objective of this study to meet the challenge of modeling urban sprawl and demographic decline by combining two artificial intelligent solutions: The popular urban cellular automaton SLEUTH simulates urban growth using four simple but effective growth rules. In order to improve its performance, SLEUTH has been modified among others by combining it with a robust probability map based on support vector machines. Additionally, a complex multi-agent system is developed to simulate residential mobility in a shrinking city agglomeration: residential mobility and the housing market of shrinking city systems focuses on the dynamic of interregional housing markets implying the development of potential dwelling areas. The multi-agent system comprises the simulation of population patterns, housing prices, and housing demand in shrinking city agglomerations. Both models are calibrated and validated regarding their localization and quantification performance. Subsequently, the urban landscape configuration and composition of the Ruhr 2025 are simulated. A simple spatial join is used to combine the results serving as valuable inputs for future regional planning in the context of multifarious demographic change and preceding urban growth.

  19. Dental remains from Dmanisi (Republic of Georgia): morphological analysis and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Gómez-Robles, Aida; Margvelashvili, Ann; Prado, Leyre; Lordkipanidze, David; Vekua, Abessalom

    2008-08-01

    The systematic excavation of the Dmanisi site (Republic of Georgia) has provided the earliest evidence of hominins outside Africa, dating back to ca. 1.8Ma. The analysis of the hominin remains has mainly focused on the morphology of the crania and mandibles. We present the first detailed morphological analysis and comparison of the Dmanisi teeth. The dental evidence from Dmanisi shows a unique combination of primitive and derived traits. In general, although the Dmanisi dental fossils show primitive morphology that resembles that seen in Australopithecus and H. habilis, they also display some derived characteristics, particularly in relation to dental reduction, resembling that seen in the dentition of H. erectus from the Far East. PMID:18486183

  20. Effects of some pharmacological agents on the survival of unipedicled venous flaps: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Askar, I; Saray, A; Gurlek, A; Sevin, K; Sabuncuoglu, B T

    2001-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have been conducted to improve the survival of venous flaps. As a result of these studies, although various survival mechanisms were raised, none obtained satisfactory information. Venous stasis, and the resultant venous thrombosis, is a factor that decreases the survival of venous flaps. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two antiinflammatory agents, etodolac and etofenamate, on the survival of unipedicled venous flaps. In this study, 35 male New Zealand white rabbits (3,500-4,000 g) (70 ears) were used. Perichondrocutaneous flaps, 3 x 4.5 cm in size, were designed and raised, keeping the central veins intact in the middle of venous flap. Central arteries and nerves were ligated and transected both proximally and distally, to prepare unipedicled venous flaps. A silicone sheet was placed between the cartilage tissue and flap, to prevent blood flow and revascularization beneath. The subjects were divided into seven groups, consisting of five rabbits (10 ears). In the negative control group (group I), the single vascular pedicle of venous flaps, central veins were ligated and flaps sutured into their own place as the composite graft. In the positive control group (group II), after venous flaps were prepared, normal saline, 0.2 mL, was given subcutaneously. In the first of five experimental groups (group III), unfractionated heparin (100 U/day) was given subcutaneously. In the second experimental group (group IV), etodolac (5 mg/kg/day) was given subcutaneously. In the third experimental group (group V), etophenamate (5 mg/kg/day) was given orally through a feeding tube. In the fourth experimental group (group VI), parnaparin (5 anti-Xa U/kg/day) was given subcutaneously. In the fifth experimental group (group VII), nadroparin (5 anti-Xa U/kg/day) was given subcutaneously, about 7 days postoperatively. At the eighth postoperative day, surviving areas of venous flaps were measured, and the results were evaluated by Kruskal

  1. A comparative study of incisor procumbency and mandibular morphology in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jillian S; Nicolay, Christopher W; Williams, Susan H

    2010-07-01

    The three species of vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae), Desmodus rotundus, Diaemus youngi, and Diphylla ecaudata, are the only mammals that obtain all nutrition from vertebrate blood (sanguinivory). Because of the unique challenges of this dietary niche, vampire bats possess a suite of behavioral, physiological, and morphological specializations. Morphological specializations include a dentition characterized by small, bladelike, non-occlusive cheek teeth, large canines, and extremely large, procumbent, sickle-shaped upper central incisors. The tips of these incisors rest in cuplike pits in the mandible behind the lower incisors (mandibular pits). Here, we use microCT scanning and high-resolution radiography to describe the morphology of the mandible and anterior dentition in vampire bats, focusing on the relationship between symphyseal fusion, mandibular pit size, incisor size, and procumbency. In Desmodus and Diaemus, highly procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively small mandibular pits, an unfused mandibular symphysis with substantial bony interdigitations linking the dentaries, and a diastema between the lower central incisors that helps to facilitate the lapping of blood from a wound. In Diphylla, less procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively large mandibular pits, a completely fused mandibular symphysis, and a continuous lower toothrow lacking a central diastema. We hypothesize that symphyseal morphology and the presence or absence of the diastema are associated with the angle of upper incisor procumbency and mandibular pit development, and that spatial constraints influence the morphology of the symphysis. Finally, this morphological variation suggests that Diphylla utilizes a different feeding strategy as compared to Desmodus and Diaemus, possibly resulting from the functional demands of specialization on avian, rather than mammalian, blood. PMID:20544874

  2. [Leather dust and sensitizing agents. A study on occupational indoor allergenic pollution in shoes].

    PubMed

    Cirla, Angelo Mario; Del Frate, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed to ascertain a possible pollution by allergenic Mites in 15 samples of leather dust belonging to occupational environments of 4 Italian shoes factories. All dosages were both performed by a quantitative immunologic and ELISA method (Indoor Biotechnology Lmd) and a semi-quantitative colorimetric method (Aclotest Lofarma) and the results were compared according to a five steps risk-evaluation. In all factories allergenic components of Mites were documented. The highest concentration of Der p1 and Der f 1 in dust was 15,4 mcg/g, while allergens prevailed around the working-places, where discards of leather usually were collected. Moulds were studied in 29 samples of 9 shoes factories, adopting specific cultures. In all but one occupational environment moulds were present and taxa of Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium were prevalent, spores of them have known allergenic propert. Besides the identification, quantitative levels were not planned in this study. Dermatophytes were absent, while four taxa of Keratinophylic non allergenic moulds were observe. When leather dust are disperded in occupational environments a risk due to allergenic agents as secondary contamination must be carefully considered. Such a risk, according to our results, may be classified as "intermediate for allergenic Mites" and temptatively "light for allergenic moulds". Such a risk might be carefully considered for legal and preventive purposes and also monitored by occupational healthcare professionals. PMID:22697032

  3. Feasibility Study of Passive Aerosol Sampler for Bio-Agent Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, G

    2003-03-05

    We propose to establish the feasibility of a passive aerosol sampler for bio-agent collection through laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis. The passive sampler, unlike the typical active sampler, does not require pumps and complex fixtures, and thereby allows for large-scale field monitoring not possible with current active samplers. We plan to conduct experiments using model (both biological and non-biological) aerosols generated in an instrumented test chamber and compare the particles collected on various passive samplers to conventional filter samplers, commercial aerosol measuring instruments and to conventional surface swipes. Theoretical analysis will be used to design prototype passive samplers and to compare experimental results with theory. A successful feasibility study will be used to seek outside funding for applications that will greatly enhance current LLNL programs such as NARAC's atmospheric dispersal modeling, NAI's programs in bioagent monitoring in public locations and fixed sampling stations, and EPD's environmental monitoring and decontamination research. In addition, the feasibility study will position us favorably for responding to new calls for proposals by NIH and EPA for large scale environmental studies.

  4. Effect of Antithrombotic Agents on the Patency of PTFE-Covered Stents in the Inferior Vena Cava: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Makutani, Shiro; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Uchida, Hideo; Maeda, Munehiro; Konishi, Noboru; Hiasa, Yoshio; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Kimura, Yukio

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of antithrombotic agents in the prevention of stenosis of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents in the venous system. Methods: Spiral Z stents covered with PTFE (PTFE-covered stents) were placed in the inferior vena cava (IVC) of 34 dogs. Nineteen dogs, used as a control group, were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 12 weeks. Fifteen dogs, previously given antithrombotic agents [cilostazol (n= 5), warfarin potassium (n= 5), cilostazol plus warfarin potassium (n= 5)] were sacrificed at 4 weeks, and then examined angiographically and histopathologically. The effect of the antithrombotic agents was compared between groups. Results: The patency rate of the antithrombotic agent group was 93% (14/15), which was higher than the control group rate of 63% (12/19). The mean stenosis rate of the patent stent at both ends and at the midportion was lower at 4 weeks in the antithrombotic agent group than in the control group. In particular, the mean stenosis rate in the cilostazol plus warfarin potassium group was significantly lower than the control group (Tukey's test, p < 0.05). The mean neointimal thickness of the patent stent at both ends and at the midportion was thinner at 4 weeks in the antithrombotic agent group than in the control group. In particular, the thickness of the neointima in the cilostazol plus warfarin potassium group was significantly decreased when compared with the control group (Tukey's test p < 0.05). At 4 weeks, endothelialization in the antithrombotic agent group tended to be almost identical to that in the control group. Conclusion: The present study suggests that administration of an antithrombotic agent is an effective way of preventing the stenosis induced by a neointimal thickening of PTFE-covered stents in the venous system.

  5. Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposite materials: Morphological studies and potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, Mary

    Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites, materials where layered silicates are molecularly dispersed in suitable polymer matrices, are of both scientific and commercial significance. The dramatic enhancements in tensile strength, heat and solvent resistance, as well as the decrease in gas permeability of the neat polymer matrix that can be achieved through the incorporation of small amounts of a suitable layered silicate are intricately linked to the nanocomposite morphology. In the current work, the morphological behavior of nanocomposite materials has been investigated by the fabrication and extensive characterization of a series of model experimental systems. The results from the experimental systems that were developed based on one of the theoretical models for morphology prediction in nanocomposites, provide useful insight into controlling nanocomposite morphology by tailoring various system parameters. The unique properties of nanocomposites also make them promising materials for use as electrolytes in lithium polymer batteries. Though an all-solid-state lithium polymer battery is attractive due to characteristics such as low safety risks in comparison with the conventional systems that contain liquid electrolytes, several challenges related to materials design have to be overcome in order to create materials that have good mechanical properties. Our work focuses on the development of a new class of nanocomposite electrolytes where the incorporation of lithium cation-exchanged nanoscale clay sheets into a suitable polymer matrix is expected to impart the inherent favorable characteristics of nanocomposites to the electrolyte. Additionally, this modification is expected to substantially eliminate the need for lithium salt dopants that are currently used to achieve significant conductivities and form what are essentially single-ion conductors. Extensive characterization of these electrolytes showed that properties were strongly dependent on nanocomposite

  6. Growth and morphological studies of sodium potassium niobate single crystal grown by flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, R.; Rajesh, D.; Rajasekaran, S. V.; Perumal, R.; Chitra, M.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of sodium potassium niobate (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) have been successfully grown by flux method. The flux used during crystal growth is K2CO3- Na2CO3 solid solution with addition of small amounts of B2O3 for lowering the growth temperature. From SEM and AFM analysis, surface morphology and the roughness value were investigated. The surface roughness was estimated to be about 6.96nm and surface morphology of grown crystals shows step and kink growth pattern due to change in supersaturation.

  7. Physical Activity and Prostate Tumor Vessel Morphology: Data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Van Blarigan, Erin L; Gerstenberger, John P; Kenfield, Stacey A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Jones, Lee W; Clinton, Steven K; Chan, June M; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2015-10-01

    Vigorous activity is associated with lower risk of prostate cancer progression, but the biologic mechanisms are unknown. Exercise affects vascularization of tumors in animal models, and small, irregularly shaped vessels in prostate tumors are associated with fatal prostate cancer. We hypothesized that men who engaged in vigorous activity or brisk walking would have larger, more regularly shaped vessels in their prostate tumors. We prospectively examined whether physical activity was associated with prostate tumor microvessel morphology among 571 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study using ordinal logistic regression. Vessel size (μm(2)), vessel lumen regularity (perimeter(2)/4 · Π · area), and microvessel density (number/high-powered field) were ascertained in tumor sections stained for endothelial cell marker CD34. Vigorous activity [metabolic equivalent task (MET) ≥ 6], nonvigorous activity (MET < 6), and walking pace were assessed a median of 14 months before diagnosis. Prostate tumors from men who reported a brisk walking pace (3+ mph) had larger, more regularly shaped blood vessels compared with those of men who walked at a less than brisk pace [vessel regularity OR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.27; P value, 0.01; vessel size OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.04-2.12; P value, 0.03]. Brisk walking was not associated with microvessel density; total vigorous and nonvigorous activities were not associated with vessel size, shape, or number. Brisk walking may be associated with larger, more regularly shaped vessels in prostate tumors. Additional research elucidating the effect of physical activity on prostate tumor biology is needed. PMID:26276753

  8. Morphology of muscular function in chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Biyouki, Fariba; Laimi, Katri; Rahati, Saeed; Boostani, Reza; Shoeibi, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Chronic pain has been thought to induce muscular changes in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) patients. As the knowledge of muscular responses in CTTH is inconsistent, we decided to introduce new electromyogram signal shape descriptors. We also wanted to compare the discriminatory power of proposed indices with classical measures to establish their potential to act as markers for CTTH. Thirty-eight headache patients with twenty healthy volunteers were recruited. Twenty patients had CTTH, while 18 had migraine without aura. Surface electromyogram data were recorded from right sternocleidomastoid and left temporalis muscles during rest and in a headache-free situation. Besides conventional root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF), two morphological-based indices, skewness and kurtosis, were proposed to quantify the shape variations of signal distribution. Results demonstrated that the skewness outperformed RMS and MDF in terms of discriminatory power (p < 0.00). Kurtosis values for both muscles differed considerably among study groups (p < 0.04). RMS for both muscles was noticeably higher in CTTH group (p < 0.00). Regarding MDF, migraineurs revealed highest (p < 0.05), while CTTH patients represented the lowest values. Skewness was the most relevant predictor for headache diagnosis, especially in temporalis muscle (migraine, odds ratio = 21.1, p = 0.01; Ctension-type headache, odds ratio = 78.8, p = 0.00). There are detectable distinct muscular responses in chronic headache sufferers. This finding could be due to adaptation to muscle underuse or sustained contraction, leading to impaired recruitment and muscle fiber-type conversion with dominant type I fibers in CTTH. PMID:26442688

  9. Clinical, neurophysiological and morphological study of dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth type C neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Florian P; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Gondim, Francisco A A; Tournev, Ivailo; Rao, Chitharanjan V; Ishpekova, Boryana; Kinsella, Laurence J; Pan, Yi; Geller, Thomas J; Litvinenko, Ivan; De Jonghe, Peter; Scherer, Steven S; Jordanova, Albena

    2016-03-01

    Dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy subtype C (DI-CMTC) was associated with mutations in the YARS gene, encoding tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, in two large unrelated Bulgarian and US pedigrees and one sporadic case. Here for the first time we describe the clinical, neurophysiological and histopathological features, and phenotypic differences between these two DI-CMTC families. Twenty-one affected individuals from the US family and 27 from the Bulgarian family were evaluated. The mean age of onset in US subjects was 10.7 years in men and 7.3 years in women, while in the Bulgarian participants it was 18.2 years in men and 33.7 years in women. The course was slowly progressive. Extensor digitorum brevis atrophy was uniform. Atrophy and/or weakness of upper and lower limb muscles were found in over 50 % of the subjects. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) were abnormal in all US adults and five of six children and all Bulgarian patients except one asymptomatic 25-year-old man. Median motor NCS were in the range of 29.5-45.6 m/s in the US family and 24.7-57.8 m/s in the Bulgarian family. Sural sensory nerve action potentials were absent in 14/21 and 4/12 NCS from adult US and Bulgarian participants, respectively. Analysis of sural nerve biopsies from US patients revealed age-dependent morphological changes of axonal degeneration, absence of onion bulbs, and <10 % fibers with segmental remyelination. Our findings provide further insights into the diagnosis and pathology of intermediate CMT. They also extend the phenotypic spectrum of peripheral neuropathies associated with aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase mutations. PMID:26725087

  10. A study of morphological aspects of cystic echinococcosis in sheep in Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Conchedda, Margherita; Seu, Valter; Capra, Salvatore; Caredda, Alessia; Pani, Sergio Pino; Lochi, Pier Giorgio; Bortoletti, Gianfranco

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the morphological and structural aspects of hydatid cysts recovered from sheep raised in southern Sardinia during two surveys conducted over the 20 years since the last control attempt at the end of the 1980s. In the first study carried out during 1995-1997, a few years after the last control attempt, a total of 10,334 cysts were examined, recovered from 1029 infected sheep out of a total of 1375 inspected (prevalence 74.84%). In the second survey, conducted ten years later during the period 2005-2010 in the absence of specific control measures, a total of 6249 cysts were recovered from 916 parasitized sheep out of the 1414 examined (prevalence 64.78%). Cysts were grouped into 5 different types: "Unilocular", "Multisepted", "Calcified", "Caseous", "Hyperlaminated". Unilocular: fertile, consist of a single fluid-filled cavity; multisepted: generally sterile, fluid filled, with cavity divided into spheroidal chambers (3-dozen); calcified: sterile, small, with internal chambers almost virtual due to the thickening of internal septa; caseous: sterile, the cavity filled with a thick yellowish matrix; hyperlaminated: sterile, with a virtual cavity filled with extensively folded and overlapping sheets of hyperproduced laminated tissue. A thorough knowledge and the precise characterization of each type of lesion, making it possible to establish detailed parameters for cyst classification, appears very useful for the harmonization of data collection. From a surveillance and control perspective it is proposed that, in addition to other relevant epidemiological information, data from meat inspection be further improved, including morpho-functional indications about cyst type. PMID:27060775

  11. Changes in lung morphology and cell number in radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis: a quantitative ultrastructural study

    SciTech Connect

    Vergara, J.A.; Raymond, U.; Thet, L.A.

    1987-05-01

    We used stereologic-morphometric techniques to obtain a detailed quantitative picture of the changes in lung ultrastructure of rats at 12 and 26 weeks after unilateral thoracic irradiation with 3000 cGy. At 12 weeks post-radiation, the total number type 1 epithelial cells, type 2 epithelial cells and capillary endothelial cells were decreased 50-70%, total type 1 epithelial and capillary surface areas were decreased 55-60%, and the total volume of intracapillary blood was decreased 75%. The interstitial cells and matrix together accounted for more than 9% of the peripheral lung tissue volume including air, compared to 3% in controls. The numerical density of interstitial cells was increased to 3-fold the control value. The numerical density of interstitial cells was increased to 3-fold the control value. Although fibroblasts still comprised the largest interstitial cell subgroup, the numerical density of mast cells was increased over 150-fold and other inflammatory and immune cells were increased to a lesser extent. At 26 weeks post-radiation, the number, volume, and surface area of the type 1 epithelium and capillary endothelium had further decreased to only 5-10% of control values. The total number of type 2 epithelial cells was reduced by 75% but the volume density was actually increased because of a 4-fold increase in the mean cell volume. The interstitial cells and matrix now comprised over 77% of total peripheral lung tissue volume including air as compared to 6% in controls. Mast cells and plasma cells comprised 11% and 19% of all interstitial cells respectively and the densities of these cells were 540 and 180-fold the control value respectively. The relation of these morphometric findings to the results of previous morphologic studies is discussed.

  12. Morphological study of dynamic culture of thermosensitive collagen hydrogel in constructing tissue engineering complex.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lanfeng; Xu, Feixiang; Guo, Bin; Ma, Jianchao; Zhao, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    ABSTACT The purpose of this study is to research the morphologies and functional characteristics of the cell-scaffold complex in vitro constructed under dynamic culture conditions. BMSCs were isolated from the long bones of Fischer344 rats, and performed in vitro amplification to the third generation as seed cells, together with thermosensitive collagen hydrogel (TCH) as cell adhesion matrix, and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) as scaffold, to construct cell-scaffold complex. The cell-scaffold complexes in the experiment group and the control group were then performed dynamic culture and static culture. After 7 d of in vitro culture, the complexes in the 2 groups were performed gross observation and SEM; meanwhile, the total DNA content in the complex was detected on D0,1,3, and 7 of culture. After cultured using these 2 ways, collagen could both wrap the PLLA scaffold, forming dense film-like structures on the PLLA surface. The total DNA contents in the cell-scaffold complex of the experiment group on D1,3, and 7 were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with D0, the total DNA contents on D1,3, and 7 in both groups were gradually increased, but only the total DNA contents on D7 showed statistically significant difference than D0 (P < 0.05). TCH -PLLA fiber joint-constructed complex extracellular matrix had good biocompatibility, and dynamic culture could promote the distribution of BMSCs on the surface and inside the structure, thus promoting cell proliferation, so it could be used for the in vitro construction of tissue engineering complex. PMID:27459597

  13. The role of attention in processing morphologically complex spoken words: an EEG/MEG study

    PubMed Central

    Leminen, Alina; Lehtonen, Minna; Leminen, Miika; Nevalainen, Päivi; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Kujala, Teija

    2013-01-01

    This study determined to what extent morphological processing of spoken inflected and derived words is attention-independent. To answer these questions EEG and MEG responses were recorded from healthy participants while they were presented with spoken Finnish inflected, derived, and monomorphemic words. In the non-attended task, the participants were instructed to ignore the incoming auditory stimuli and concentrate on the silent cartoon. In the attended task, previously reported by Leminen et al. (2011), the participants were to judge the acceptability of each stimulus. Importantly, EEG and MEG responses were time-locked to the onset of critical information [suffix onset for the complex words and uniqueness point (UP) for the monomorphemic words]. Early after the critical point, word type did not interact with task: in both attended and non-attended tasks, the event-related potentials (ERPs) showed larger negativity to derived than inflected or monomorphemic words ~100 ms after the critical point. MEG source waveforms showed a similar pattern. Later than 100 ms after the critical point, there were no differences between word types in the non-attended task either in the ERP or source modeling data. However, in the attended task inflected words elicited larger responses than other words ~200 ms after the critical point. The results suggest different brain representations for derived and inflected words. The early activation after the critical point was elicited both in the non-attended and attended tasks. As this stage of word recognition was not modulated by attention, it can be concluded to reflect an automatic mapping of incoming acoustic information onto stored representations. In contrast, the later differences between word types in the attended task were not observed in the non-attended task. This indicates that later compositional processes at the (morpho)syntactic-semantic level require focused attention. PMID:23316156

  14. Study of fracture and stress-induced morphological instabilities in polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabouri-Ghomi, Mohsen

    We study the phenomena of fracture in polymers at the molecular and continuum level. At a molecular level, we study the failure of polymer/polymer interfaces. Our main focus is on a specific mode of failure known as chain pull-out fracture, which is common to weak adhesive junctions, and polymer blends and mixtures. In the case of the interface between incompatible polymers, reinforcement is achieved by adding a block copolymer to the interface. We introduce a microscopic model based on Brownian dynamics to investigate the effect of the polymerization index N, of the block connector chain, on fracture toughness of such reinforced polymeric junctions. We consider the mushroom regime, where connector chains are grafted with low surface density, for the case of large pulling velocity. We find that for short chains the interface fracture toughness depends linearly on the polymerization index N of the connector chains, while for longer chains the dependence becomes N 3/2. We propose a scaling argument, based on the geometry of the initial configuration, that accounts for both short and long chains and the crossover between them. At the continuum level, we study the pattern selection mechanism of finger-like crack growth phenomena in gradient driven growth problems in general, and the structure of stress-induced morphological instabilities in crazing of polymer glasses in particular. We simulate solidification in a narrow channel through the use of a phase-field model with an adaptive grid. By tuning a dimensionless parameter, the Peclet number, we show a continuous crossover from a free dendrite at high Peclet numbers to anisotropic viscous fingering at low Peclet numbers. At low Peclet numbers we find good agreement between our results, theoretical predictions, and experiment, providing the first quantitative test of solvability theory for anisotropic viscous fingers. For high undercoolings, we find new phenomena, a solid forger which satisfies stability and

  15. The association between functional and morphological assessments of endothelial function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). One of the earliest manifestations of CVD is endothelial dysfunction (ED), which can lead to functional and morphological vascular abnormalities. Several non-invasive assessments of vascular function and morphology can be utilised to assess vascular health, but little is known about the association between each of these assessments in patients with RA, and they tend to be used interchangeably in the literature. The objective of the present study was to examine associations between measures of vascular function and morphology in patients with RA. Methods A total of 201 RA patients (155 females, median (25th to 75th percentile) age: 67 (59 to 73)) underwent assessments of microvascular endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function (laser Doppler imaging with iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium-nitroprusside respectively), macrovascular endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function (flow-mediated dilatation and glyceryl-trinitrate-mediated dilation respectively), and vascular morphology (pulse wave analysis, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), and carotid plaque). Results Spearman's correlations revealed that from the functional parameters, only macrovascular endothelium-independent function was inversely associated with cIMT (-0.294 (P < 0.001)) after applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. For carotid plaque, t tests showed that macrovascular endothelium-independent function was lower in patients with plaque than without (15.5 ± 8.3 vs. 23.1 ± 9.1%, P = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions With the exception of macrovascular endothelium-independent function, all other measures of vascular function were not associated with vascular morphology. This suggests that different assessments of vascular function and morphology in patients with RA reflect quite distinct mechanisms and phases of the

  16. Reinforcement of Unsupported Enamel by Restorative Materials and Dentin Bonding Agents: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, M.; Ghavam, M.; Rostamzadeh, T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Preservation of unsupported occlusal enamel after removal of underlying carious dentin may result in maintenance of aesthetics as well as wear resistance against the opposing enamel. This study investigates the influence of different restorative materials and bonding agents on reinforcement of unsupported enamel in molars and compares it with sound dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, forty- five extracted human molars were selected and randomly divided into five groups of nine. All lingual cusps were cut off. The dentin underlying the buccal cusps was removed in all groups except the positive control. The negative control group received no restorations. After application of varnish and Panavia F, spherical amalgam (Sina) and after application of Single-Bond (3M), composite resin (Tetric Ceram) was used to replace missing dentin. All specimens were thermocycled, then mounted in acrylic resin using a surveyor. Lingual inclination of facial cusps was positioned horizontally. Load was applied by an Instron machine at a crosshead speed of 10 mm/min until fracture. Data were subjected to ANOVA (one way) and Post hoc Test (Duncan). Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the five groups (P<0.001); however, no significant difference was revealed between bonded amalgam and the positive control groups (P=0.762). Composite and amalgam had the same effect (P=0.642), while the composite and negative group had no significant difference (P=0.056). Conclusion: Bonded amalgam systems (Panavia F) could reinforce the undermined occlusal enamel effectively. PMID:21998780

  17. An in vitro scanning electron microscope study to evaluate the efficacy of various root conditioning agents

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Jaishree; Maurya, Rajkumar; Gupta, Ankur; Tandon, Pradeep; Gupta, Krishna Kumar; Srivastava, Amitabh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of present study was to investigate the scanning electron microscopic alterations produced on scaled and root planed dentin surfaces after application of different etching modalities namely citric acid, tetracycline hydrochloride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Materials and Methods: Eighty specimens of teeth were collected and categorized into four groups. In group 1, control group specimens were treated with normal saline for 3 min, group 2 specimens were treated with citric acid, group 3 specimens were treated with tetracycline hydrochloride for 3 min and group 4 specimens were treated with 15% EDTA. Results: Opening of dentinal tubules was seen in all specimens except for control group that was treated with normal saline. The total number of tubules seen was highest in citric acid group as compared to tetracycline hydrochloride and EDTA Group. The total number of patent tubule opening was highest in citric acid as compared to EDTA and tetracycline. The diameter of patent dentinal tubules in citric acid group was more than EDTA and tetracycline. Conclusion: The study showed that all the three agents were effective in removing the smear layer however number of patent and wider diameter dentinal tubules was seen in vitro best in citric acid than EDTA and then in tetracycline hydrochloride. Hence, citric acid group is more efficient than EDTA and tetracycline HCl group in removing the smear layer and in opening of number of patent dentinal tubules. PMID:26644718

  18. Reflective and Agentive Functions of Narrative Writing: a Qualitative Study on the Narratives of University Students.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Giovanna; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-06-01

    There is a lively debate in the literature on reflective processes and on the necessity to view them as consisting with differing levels of complexity. Within a semiotic and psychodynamic perspective, we present a conceptualization on reflective processes which distinguishes between reflection and reflectivity and articulates their relationship with narrative devices.The study analyzes 224 narratives of critical events written by 77 underachieving university students that took part in group training courses during the INSTALL European project.The corpus was subjected to a qualitative analysis of narrative function, with the aim of detecting narrative functions of reflection, reflectivity and agency, the latter being considered as an interconnected construct to the reflective process.The functions were discussed both on the basis of how the narrators reacted to the discontinuity in their self-image caused by the critical event, and based upon different types of narrative coherence (chronological, causal, thematic, autobiographical).The results highlighted that narratives with a reflection function, attribute the discontinuity generated by the event to the self, and show a causal coherence; those whose function is reflectivity interpret the discontinuity attributing it to the self in relation to others and present a thematic coherence; those of agency ascribe the discontinuity to a potential selves in action, and are characterized by an autobiographical coherence.The implications of the study will be discussed with reference to the value of narrative writing in promoting reflective-agentive processes. PMID:26264763

  19. Sonophoresis using ultrasound contrast agents for transdermal drug delivery: an in vivo experimental study.

    PubMed

    Park, Donghee; Ryu, Heungil; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Young-Sun; Choi, Kyu-Sil; Park, Hyunjin; Seo, Jongbum

    2012-04-01

    Sonophoresis temporally increases skin permeability such that various medications can be delivered noninvasively. Previous sonophoresis studies have suggested that cavitation plays an important role in enhancing transdermal drug delivery (TDD). In this study, the feasibility of controlled cavitation using ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) at high frequency was explored through in vivo experiments in a rat model. Two commercially available UCAs, SonoVue® and Definity®, were used at 2.47 MHz and 1.12 MHz, respectively. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran with 0.1% UCA was used as the drug to be delivered through the skin. Ultrasound with a 10 ms pulse and a 1% duty cycle at 1 MPa acoustic pressure for 30 min was applied in all sonication sessions. The efficacy of sonophoresis with UCAs was quantitatively analyzed using an optical imaging system that was used to count photons emitted from fluorescein. The results showed that the proposed sonophoresis method significantly improved drug penetration compared with the traditional sonophoresis method with 4 kD, 20 kD and 150 kD FITC-dextrans at 1.12 MHz, and with 4 kD and 20 kD FITC-dextrans at 2.47 MHz. Sonophoresis for TDD was performed more effectively with the aid of UCAs. Sonophoresis with UCAs has excellent potential for broad applications in drug delivery for diseases requiring the chronic administration of medications such as diabetes. PMID:22341597

  20. Costs of managing anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents during hemodialysis: a time and motion study.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Brigitte; Doss, Sheila; DE Cock, Erwin; Del Aguila, Michael A; Nissenson, Allen R

    2008-10-01

    Use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) presents a significant time and cost burden in the management of anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a prospective, observational, activity-based costing study to estimate the health care personnel time and resulting direct medical costs associated with administering epoetin 3 times weekly to patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis. The study was conducted at 5 US hemodialysis centers. The personnel time and costs were derived from time and motion observations. Predicted time and cost savings were modeled for switching patients to once-monthly ESA therapy. Patients also completed a survey questionnaire to assess their level of CKD knowledge and information needs. Total per-patient-per-year (PPPY) time expended on anemia management with epoetin averaged 608 minutes (range 512-915 minutes), with an average PPPY cost of $548 (range $342-$651). Use of a once-monthly ESA, compared with epoetin, could decrease average PPPY time expenditure by 79% (127 minutes [range 96-173 minutes]) and reduce PPPY costs by 81% ($104 [range $79-$136]). The patient questionnaire reported insufficient education on CKD. Use of a once-monthly ESA to correct anemia in dialysis patients may provide substantial time, resource, and cost savings compared with current treatment practices. PMID:19090867

  1. Studies on the role of goat heart galectin-1 as an erythrocyte membrane perturbing agent

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Perveen, Asma; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; Tabrez, Shams; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Banu, Naheed

    2014-01-01

    Galectins are β-galactoside binding lectins with a potential hemolytic role on erythrocyte membrane integrity and permeability. In the present study, goat heart galectin-1 (GHG-1) was purified and investigated for its hemolytic actions on erythrocyte membrane. When exposed to various saccharides, lactose and sucrose provided maximum protection against hemolysis, while glucose and galactose provided lesser protection against hemolysis. GHG-1 agglutinated erythrocytes were found to be significantly hemolyzed in comparison with unagglutinated erythrocytes. A concentration dependent rise in the hemolysis of trypsinized rabbit erythrocytes was observed in the presence of GHG-1. Similarly, a temperature dependent gradual increase in percent hemolysis was observed in GHG-1 agglutinated erythrocytes as compared to negligible hemolysis in unagglutinated cells. The hemolysis of GHG-1 treated erythrocytes showed a sharp rise with the increasing pH up to 7.5 which became constant till pH 9.5. The extent of erythrocyte hemolysis increased with the increase in the incubation period, with maximum hemolysis after 5 h of incubation. The results of this study establish the ability of galectins as a potential hemolytic agent of erythrocyte membrane, which in turn opens an interesting avenue in the field of proteomics and glycobiology. PMID:25561893

  2. Chemical properties and morphology of Marine Aerosol in the Mediterranean atmosphere: a mesocosm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anna, Barbara; Sellegri, Karine; Charrière, Bruno; Sempéré, Richard; Mas, Sébastien; Marchand, Nicolas; George, Christian; Même, Aurèlie; R'mili, Badr; Delmont, Anne; Schwier, Allison; Rose, Clémence; Colomb, Aurèlie; Pey, Jorge; Langley Dewitt, Helen

    2014-05-01

    -line chemical analysis of the sub-micrometer fraction was performed by a TOF-AMS (Aerodyne). Off-line analysis included TEM-EDX for morphology and size distribution studies and a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer (Thermo Fischer) for molecular identification of the organic fraction.

  3. Sublimation of ice-tholins mixtures: A morphological and spectro-photometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poch, Olivier; Pommerol, Antoine; Jost, Bernhard; Carrasco, Nathalie; Szopa, Cyril; Thomas, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Sublimation, the direct transition from solid to gas phase, is a process responsible for shaping and changing the reflectance properties of many Solar System surfaces. In this study, we have characterized the evolution of the structure/texture and of the visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR) spectral reflectance of surfaces made of water ice mixed with analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter, named tholins, under low temperature (<-70 °C) and pressure (10-5 mbar) conditions. The experiments were carried out in the SCITEAS simulation setup recently built as part of the Laboratory for Outflow Studies of Sublimating Materials (LOSSy) at the University of Bern (Pommerol, A. et al. [2015a]. Planet. Space Sci. 109-110, 106-122). As the water ice sublimated, we observed in situ the formation of a sublimation lag deposit made of a water-free porous (>90% porosity) network of organic filaments on top of the ice. The temporal evolution of the tholins and water ice spectral features (reflectance at the absorption bands wavelengths, red slope, from 0.40 to 1.90 μm) are analyzed throughout the sublimation of the samples. We studied how different mixtures of tholins with water (0.1 wt.% tholins as coating or inclusions within the water particles), and different ice particle sizes (4.5 ± 2.5 or 67 ± 31 μm) influence the morphological and spectral evolutions of the samples. The sublimation of the ice below the mantle produces a gas flow responsible for the ejection of mm to cm-sized fragments of the deposit in outbursts-like events. The results show remarkable differences between these samples in term of mantle structure, speed of mantle building, rates and surface area of mantle ejections. These data provide useful references for interpreting remote-sensing observations of icy Solar System surfaces, in particular the activity of comet nuclei where sublimation of organic-rich ices and deposition of organic-dust particles likely play a major role. Consequently, the

  4. The history of essentialism vs. Ernst Mayr's "Essentialism Story": a case study of German idealistic morphology.

    PubMed

    Levit, Georgy S; Meister, Kay

    2006-03-01

    Idealistic morphology as perhaps the most important historical manifestation of typology is very suitable for a historical analysis of Ernst Mayr's "Essentialism Story", which postulates an antagonism between "typological thinking" and "population thinking". We show that German-language idealistic-morphological theories consisted of two clearly distinguishable parts. The cornerstone of these theories was the concept of the type as an abstract pattern representing a certain class of phenomena and embodying the norm of this class. The primary objective of pure typology was to create a non-phylogenetic classification system for living organisms based on structurally explicable characters. Thus, typology, as a non-phylogenetic foundation of idealistic morphology, was conceptually neutral with respect to hypotheses of evolutionary mechanisms. Typology was often accompanied by concepts such as Lamarckism, orthogenesis, creationism, essentialism, etc. These peripheral (with respect to pure typology) concepts were autonomous constructions and did not represent a direct logical consequence of typology. In our view "population thinking", as part of the Darwinian theory of evolutionary mechanism, could not be directly opposed to "typological thinking". Rather, it was peripheral concepts such as essentialism or creationism that led to conflicts between the Modern Synthesis and idealistic morphology. PMID:17046361

  5. Neural Responses to Morphological, Syntactic, and Semantic Properties of Single Words: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Matthew H.; Meunier, Fanny; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2004-01-01

    Dissociations in the recognition of specific classes of words have been documented in brain-injured populations. These include deficits in the recognition and production of morphologically complex words as well as impairments specific to particular syntactic classes such as verbs. However, functional imaging evidence for distinctions among the…

  6. Competing influences on morphological modularity in biomechanical systems: a case study in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Philip S L; Smith, Danielle C; Patek, S N

    2016-05-01

    Related species that share similar biomechanical systems and segmentation patterns may exhibit different patterns of morphological covariation. We examined morphological covariation of the potent prey capture appendage of two mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) species-a spearer (Squilla empusa) and smasher (Gonodactylaceus falcatus). We assessed three frameworks for modularity, two based on the biomechanics of the appendage and one based on its segmentation as a proxy for shared developmental pathways. We collected morphometric data from S. empusa, and compared morphological covariation patterns across the raptorial appendage with patterns from a new analysis of previously published morphometric data from G. falcatus. The relative importance of the different hypothetical influences differed between the two species, and was dependent on whether specimens were analyzed all together or subdivided based on sex or sub-populations, including one particularly distinct population in the Gulf of Mexico. We also found an intriguing handedness pattern in which right-hand appendages had a variable number of spines, whereas the left had a constant number of spines. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of testing multiple, alternative frameworks for morphological covariation and suggest that mantis shrimp experience contrasting influences on covariation depending on their feeding mechanisms. PMID:27161948

  7. Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Literacy Development in Korean and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-one Korean children were tested once a year across Grades 4, 5, and 6 on Korean phonological and morphological awareness, speeded-naming, Hangul word recognition, Hangul spelling, and English word reading. With age, gender, and Korean vocabulary knowledge statistically controlled, both phonological awareness and speeded-naming were uniquely…

  8. The effect of antimicrobial agents on bond strength of orthodontic adhesives: a meta-analysis of in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Altmann, A S P; Collares, F M; Leitune, V C B; Samuel, S M W

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial orthodontic adhesives aim to reduce white spot lesions' incidence in orthodontic patients, but they should not jeopardizing its properties. Systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to answer the question whether the association of antimicrobial agents with orthodontic adhesives compromises its mechanical properties and whether there is a superior antimicrobial agent. PubMed and Scopus databases. In vitro studies comparing shear bond strength of conventional photo-activated orthodontic adhesives to antimicrobial photo-activated orthodontic adhesives were considered eligible. Search terms included the following: orthodontics, orthodontic, antimicrobial, antibacterial, bactericidal, adhesive, resin, resin composite, bonding agent, bonding system, and bond strength. The searches yielded 494 citations, which turned into 467 after duplicates were discarded. Titles and abstracts were read and 13 publications were selected for full-text reading. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. The global analysis showed no statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups. In the subgroup analysis, only the chlorhexidine subgroup showed a statistically significant difference, where the control groups had higher bond strength than the experimental groups. Many studies on in vitro orthodontic bond strength fail to report test conditions that could affect their outcomes. The pooled in vitro data suggest that adding an antimicrobial agent to an orthodontic adhesive system does not influence bond strength to enamel. It is not possible to state which antimicrobial agent is better to be associated. PMID:26257400

  9. Morphological study on small molecule acceptor-based organic solar cells with efficiencies beyond 7% (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wei; Yan, He

    2015-10-01

    Despite the essential role of fullerenes in achieving best-performance organic solar cells (OSCs), fullerene acceptors have several drawbacks including poor light absorption, high-cost production and purification. For this reason, small molecule acceptor (SMA)-based OSCs have attracted much attention due to the easy tunability of electronic and optical properties of SMA materials. In this study, polymers with temperature dependent aggregation behaviors are combined with various small molecule acceptor materials, which lead to impressive power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.3%. The morphological and aggregation properties of the polymer:small molecule blends are studied in details. It is found that the temperature-dependent aggregation behavior of polymers allows for the processing of the polymer solutions at moderately elevated temperature, and more importantly, controlled aggregation and strong crystallization of the polymer during the film cooling and drying process. This results in a well-controlled and near-ideal polymer:small molecule morphology that is controlled by polymer aggregation during warm casting and thus insensitive to the choice of small molecules. As a result, several cases of highly efficient (PCE between 6-7.3%) SMA OSCs are achieved. The second part of this presentation will describe the morphology of a new small molecule acceptor with a unique 3D structure. The relationship between molecular structure and morphology is revealed.

  10. Comparison of Impact Strength and Fracture Morphology of Different Heat Cure Denture Acrylic Resins: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, B; Babaji, Harsha V; Prasanna, B G; Rajalbandi, Santosh Kumar; Shreeharsha, T V; Prashant, G M

    2014-01-01

    Background: The fracture of acrylic resin denture is rather common occurrence and causes inconvenience to the patients. This study was carried out to evaluate and compare the impact strength and fracture morphology of four different heat cure acrylic materials. Materials and Methods: Acrylic resin specimens were prepared using preformed metal die of dimension 65 × 10 × 3 mm. The specimens were finished, polished and subjected to impact strength evaluation using impact testing machine. The loads at which the specimens fracture are recorded and subjected to statistical analysis. Fracture surface analysis was done. Macroscopic analysis was performed by visual inspection of the fractured surfaces using a stereoscopic microscope. About 5 mm sections of all the fragments were subjected to scanning electron microscopy for microscopic analysis to verify fracture morphology. Results: Mean values of the impact strength were compared by statistical methods. The impact strength data were subjected to variance homogeneity tests. Fracture surface analysis data was analyzed by statistical methods. The mean impact strength of Lucitone 199 was higher than Acrylyn-H, DPI Heat cure & Trevalon. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the impact strength of the acrylic resins is affected by the reinforcement of fibers. Increased intermediate fractures increased impact strength. Brittle fractures morphology showed fewer undercuts and clearer surface. Intermediate fractures morphology showed more undercuts than clear surfaces. PMID:25395786

  11. Permission-Seeking as an Agentive Tool for Transgressive Teaching: An Ethnographic Study of Teachers Organizing for Curricular Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.; Gustavson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    This study describes how a group of teachers in a US public school developed and used permission-seeking moves as strategic and agentic tools to change their school curriculum and challenge norms of teaching. Although the notion of asking permission is typically considered disempowering in educational contexts, this study demonstrates that certain…

  12. Use of medium without reducing agent for in vitro fermentation studies by bacteria isolated from pig intestine.

    PubMed

    Poelaert, C; Boudry, C; Portetelle, D; Théwis, A; Bindelle, J

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade, several in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on health. In these methods, samples are fermented by a bacterial inoculum diluted in a mineral buffer solution. Generally, a reducing agent such as Na(2)S or cysteine HCl generates the required anaerobic environment by release of H(2)S inducing an imbalance among bacterial species by the production of toxic metabolites. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to study the impact of reducing agent on fermentation patterns. Protein (soybean protein and/or casein) and carbohydrate (potato starch and/or cellulose) ingredients were fermented in vitro by pig intestinal bacteria from fresh feces obtained from 3 sows fed an antibiotic-free commercial diet in 3 incubation media differing in reducing agent: (i) Na(2)S, (ii) cysteine HCl, or (iii) without reducing agent. Gas fermentation kinetics were monitored over 72 h (pressure was measured every 2 min). Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production after 24 and 72 h were compared among ingredient and reducing agents (n = 2). Gas production was higher (P < 0.05) when fermenting carbohydrate than protein ingredients. Except for soybean protein, total SCFA production after 24 and 72 h was similar (P > 0.05) for each ingredient regardless the incubation medium. The SCFA molar ratios did not differ (P > 0.05) between Na(2)S and without reducing agent. In conclusion, saturation of incubation media with CO(2) seems sufficient to generate an anaerobic environment. So incubation media could be simplified by omitting the reducing agent without influencing the fermentation kinetics and SCFA production. PMID:23365388

  13. Decontamination studies with the agents of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D M; Fraser, H; McConnell, I; Brown, D A; Brown, K L; Lamza, K A; Smith, G R

    1994-01-01

    Macerates of bovine brain infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, and rodent brain infected with the 263K or ME7 strains of scrapie agent, were subjected to porous-load autoclaving at temperatures between 134 and 138 degrees C for < or = 60 min. Bioassay in rodents showed that none of the regimens produced complete inactivation. Homogenates of BSE-infected bovine brain were exposed for < or = 120 min to solutions of sodium hypochlorite or sodium dichloroisocyanurate containing < or = 16,500 ppm available chlorine. There was no detectable survival of infectivity after the hypochlorite treatments but none of the dichloroisocyanurate solutions produced complete inactivation. Homogenates of BSE-infected bovine brain, and rodent brain infected with the 263K and ME7 strains of scrapie agent, were exposed for < or = 120 min to 1M or 2M sodium hydroxide but no procedure produced complete inactivation of all agents tested. PMID:7832638

  14. Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research I. Morphological and Anatomical Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Brandt, A.; Balzer, E.-M.; de la Torre, R.; Sancho, L. G.; de Vera, J.-P.; Ott, S.

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbioses of two organisms, a fungal mycobiont and a photoautotrophic photobiont. In nature, many lichens tolerate extreme environmental conditions and thus became valuable models in astrobiological research to fathom biological resistance towards non-terrestrial conditions; including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. All studies demonstrated the high resistance towards non-terrestrial abiotic factors of selected extremotolerant lichens. Besides other adaptations, this study focuses on the morphological and anatomical traits by comparing five lichen species— Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, Buellia frigida, Pleopsidium chlorophanum—used in present-day astrobiological research. Detailed investigation of thallus organization by microscopy methods allows to study the effect of morphology on lichen resistance and forms a basis for interpreting data of recent and future experiments. All investigated lichens reveal a common heteromerous thallus structure but diverging sets of morphological-anatomical traits, as intra-/extra-thalline mucilage matrices, cortices, algal arrangements, and hyphal strands. In B. frigida, R. geographicum, and X. elegans the combination of pigmented cortex, algal arrangement, and mucilage seems to enhance resistance, while subcortex and algal clustering seem to be crucial in C. gyrosa, as well as pigmented cortices and basal thallus protrusions in P. chlorophanum. Thus, generalizations on morphologically conferred resistance have to be avoided. Such differences might reflect the diverging evolutionary histories and are advantageous by adapting lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors. The peculiar lichen morphology demonstrates its remarkable stake in resisting extreme terrestrial conditions and may explain the high resistance of lichens found in astrobiological research.

  15. STUDIES ON THE NATURE OF THE AGENT TRANSMITTING LEUCOSIS OF FOWLS

    PubMed Central

    Furth, J.

    1932-01-01

    The filterable agent transmitting leucosis resists drying, retaining its activity for at least 54 days. The conditions of successful desiccation have not been precisely ascertained. By the addition of glycerin the agent can be preserved for at least 104 days. It is not inactivated by freezing in liquid air. At 37.5°C. it loses its activity within 14 days, but retains some of its activity for at least 14 days when kept at 4°C. PMID:19870007

  16. The use of 3D shape models of Rosetta targets for morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capanna, C.; Jorda, L.; Auger, A.-T.; Groussin, O.; Gaskell, R.; Hviid, S.; Lamy, P.

    2015-10-01

    New 3D reconstruction techniques have been developed during the last decade to retrieve the global and/or local topography of small solar system bodies from visible images. These techniques can be separated into two categories: the so-called "photoclinometric" and the so-called "photogrammetric" techniques. Two implementations of the photoclinometric technique are available: the SPC technique (StereoPhotoClinometry) which combines sparse stereo with a classical clinometry algorithm[1] and a more recent method called MSPCD (Multi- Resolution Stereo-PhotoClinometry by Deformation) which proceeds by iterative deformation of a triangular mesh in a multi-resolution scheme[2], using stereo points as a guide during the deformation[3]. Our study is based on the 3D shape models of the asteroid Lutetia and of the comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko retrieved by the SPC and MSPCD methods. More specifically, we describe how the models produced by these two techniques can contribute to detailed and quantitative studies of the morphological properties of small bodies through three test cases shortly described below.• Measurement of crater depth and depth-to-diameter distribution. We show that the reconstruction techniques can lead to systematic differences in the measurement of crater depth. This will be illustrated by a set of craters[4] identified in the Achaia region at the surface of the asteroid 21 Lutetia. • Calculation of the volume of large boulders at the surface of comet 67P/C-G. We show how the reconstruction technique affects significantly the volume determination of a large boulder named Cheops in the Imhotep region. • Measurement of gravitational slopes. We discuss the differences between the gravitational slope distributions in Seth obtained with the SPC and MSPCD models[5]. Since no ground control points are available on small bodies, we use the comparison of high-resolution images with the corresponding synthetic images generated with the models[6] to assess

  17. Surfactants as Microbicides and Contraceptive Agents: A Systematic In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Otilia V.; Oberdoerfer, Daniel; Baptista, Marta; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Almeida, Luis; Ramalho-Santos, João; Vaz, Winchil L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Background The urgent need for cheap and easy-to-use protection against both unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases has stimulated considerable interest in the use of surfactants as microbicides, anti-viral, and contraceptive agents in recent years. In the present study we report a systematic in vitro evaluation of the microbicidal, anti-viral and contraceptive potential of cationic, anionic, zwitterionic, and non-ionic surfactants. Methodology/Principal Findings Toxicity was evaluated in mammalian columnar epithelial (MDCK) cells, human sperm cells, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis. The inhibition of adenovirus and lentivirus infection of MDCK cells was also tested. A homologous series of cationic surfactants, alkyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromides (CnTAB), with varying alkyl chains were shown to be bactericidal and fungicidal at doses that were related to the surfactant critical micelle concentrations (CMC), all of them at concentrations significantly below the CMC. In general, bacteria were more susceptible to this surfactant group than C. albicans and this organism, in turn, was more susceptible than MDCK cells. This suggests that the CnTAB may be useful as vaginal disinfectants only in so far as bacterial and fungal infections are concerned. None of the surfactants examined, including those that have been used in pre-clinical studies, showed inhibition of adenovirus or lentivirus infection of MDCK cells or spermicidal activity at doses that were sub-toxic to MDCK cells. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study lead us to propose that systematic analysis of surfactant toxicity, such as we report in the present work, be made a mandatory pre-condition for the use of these substances in pre-clinical animal and/or human studies. PMID:18682796

  18. Inhibition of pyrite oxidation by surface coating agents: Batch and field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Do Gee, Eun; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Ram Lee, Woo; Park, Young-Tae

    2013-04-01

    The potential of several surface coating agents to inhibit the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from Young-Dong coal mine and the Il-Gwang gold mine was examined by conducting laboratory scale batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). For the observed time period (8 days), Young-Dong coal mine samples exhibited the least sulfate (SO42-) production in the presence of KMnO4 (16%) or cement (4%) while, for Il-Gwang mine samples, the least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) compared to control. Field-scale pilot tests at the Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased SO42- production from 200 to 13 mg L-1 and it also reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L-1, respectively to <0.05 mg L-1 (below ICP-OES detection limits). The experimental results suggested that the use of surface coating agents is a promising alternative for sulfide oxidation inhibition at acid mine drainage sites.

  19. Inhibition of sulfide mineral oxidation by surface coating agents: batch and field studies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Gee, Eun-Do; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Young-Tae; Khan, Moonis Ali; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2012-08-30

    The potential of several surface coating agents to inhibit the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from Young-Dong coal mine and the Il-Gwang gold mine was examined by conducting laboratory scale batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH(2)PO(4), MgO and KMnO(4) as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H(2)O(2) or NaClO). For the observed time period (8 days), Young-Dong coal mine samples exhibited the least sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) production in the presence of KMnO(4) (16%) or cement (4%) while, for Il-Gwang mine samples, the least SO(4)(2-) production was observed in presence of KH(2)PO(4) (8%) or cement (2%) compared to control. Field-scale pilot tests at the Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH(2)PO(4) decreased SO(4)(2-) production from 200 to 13 mg L(-1) and it also reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L(-1), respectively to <0.05 mg L(-1) (below ICP-OES detection limits). The experimental results suggested that the use of surface coating agents is a promising alternative for sulfide oxidation inhibition at acid mine drainage sites. PMID:22727481

  20. A study to define a set of requirements for cleansing agents for use in the Space Station whole body shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research is to define a set of requirements for a whole body cleansing agent to be used in the Space Station Whole Body Shower System. In addition, cleansing agent candidates are to be identified that are likely to satisfy requirements defined in the first part of the study. It is understood that the main reason for having a Whole Body Shower is to satisfy the physiological, psychological and social needs of the crew throughout the duration of duty in the Space Station. The cleansing agent must also be compatible with the vortex water/gas separator and the water reclamation system. To accomplish these goals the study was divided into six tasks.

  1. Synthesis and SAR Study of the Novel Thiadiazole-Imidazole Derivatives as a New Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Gomha, Sobhi Mohamed; Abdel-Aziz, Hassan Mohamed; Khalil, Khaled Dessouky

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a novel series of 2-(2-(3-aryl-5-substituted-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)hydrazinyl)-4,4-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-5(4H)-one derivatives were designed and prepared via the reaction of the most versatile, hitherto unreported 2-(5-oxo-4,4-diphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide with the appropriate hydrazonoyl halides. In addition, some thiazole derivatives were prepared. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established based on spectroscopic evidences and their alternative syntheses. Some of the newly synthesized compounds have been evaluated for their anticancer activity against a liver carcinoma cell line HEPG2-1. Moreover, their structure-activity relationship (SAR) was explored for further development in this area. The results indicated that many of the tested compounds showed moderate to high anticancer activity with respective to doxorubicin as a reference drug. Consequently, the new synthesized series of thiadiazole-imidazole derivatives are considered as powerful anticancer agents. PMID:27581640

  2. Cerebral nuclei distribution study of dehydrodiisoeugenol as an anxiogenic agent determined by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, You-Bo; Zhu, Li-Qiao; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive RP-HPLC-DAD method was established to quantify dehydrodiisoeugenol (DDIE) in rat cerebral nuclei. The assay procedure involved one-step extraction of DDIE and daidzein, as an internal standard, from rat plasma and various cerebral nuclei with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Diamonsil™ ODS C(18) column with methanol-water (81:19, v/v) as a mobile phase. The UV absorbance of the samples was measured at the wavelength of 270nm. The analysis method was proved to be precise and accurate at linearity ranges in plasma and each cerebral nucleus with correlation coefficients of ≥0.9971. The results indicated that the method established was successfully applied to cerebral nuclei distribution study of DDIE after intravenous administration at a single dose of 40mg/kg to rat. DDIE showed high concentration in all of cerebral nuclei at 8min, which indicated that DDIE could cross the blood-brain barrier rapidly and might be one of the main bioactive substances of nutmeg. The results provide fundamental data for evaluating the effects of DDIE on the central nervous system and to be developed into an effective anxiogenic agent. PMID:23059843

  3. Mineral trioxide aggregate as a pulpotomy agent in primary molars: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Naik, S; Hegde, A H

    2005-03-01

    The retention of pulpally involved deciduous tooth in a healthy state until the time of normal exfoliation remains to be one of the challenges for Pedodontists. A scientific noise has been generated about several materials some of which have been popular pulpotomy medicaments. Concerns have been raised about the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of these materials, and alternatives have been proposed to maintain the partial pulp vitality, however to date no material has been accepted as an ideal pulpotomy agent. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a biocompatible material which provides a biological seal. MTA has been proposed as a potential medicament for various pulpal procedures like pulp capping with reversible pulpitis, apexification, repair of root perforations, etc. Hence the present study was done to evaluate the efficacy of MTA as a pulpotomy medicament. A clinical and radiographic evaluation was done on children where MTA was used as pulpotomy medicament in primary molars for a period of 6 months and it was found to be a successful material. PMID:15858300

  4. Ability of three desensitizing agents in dentinal tubule obliteration and durability: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pathan, Azher Banu; Bolla, Nagesh; Kavuri, Sarath Raj; Sunil, Chukka Ram; Damaraju, Bhargavi; Pattan, Sadhiq Khan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three desensitizing agents on dentinal tubule obliteration and their durability in use on the dentinal tubules. Materials and Methods: Sixty specimens were obtained from 30 extracted sound human maxillary first premolars. Each tooth was mesiodistally sectioned to obtain 30 buccal and 30 lingual surfaces, and enamel was removed in order to simulate hypersensitive dentin. Specimens were divided into four groups with 15 specimens each. Group 1 samples were immersed in artificial saliva, Group 2 samples were coated with Vivasens, Group 3 samples were coated with VOCO Admira Protect, and Group 4 samples were coated with Neo Active Apatite suspension. These specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM) to find out the occluding ability of the respective products. The specimens were brushed to find out their durability for 1 week and 1 month and were examined under SEM. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. Results: Group 1 differed significantly from the Vivasens, Admira, and Neo Active Apatite groups at 5% level of significance (P < 0.05). The Vivasens group differed significantly from the Admira and Neo Active Apatite groups at 5% level of significance (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The Ormocer-based Admira Protect showed the best results. PMID:26957790

  5. Use of electrogastrography in preclinical studies of cholinergic and anticholinergic agents in experimental pigs.

    PubMed

    Květina, J; Tachecí, I; Pavlík, M; Kopáčová, M; Rejchrt, S; Douda, T; Kuneš, M; Bureš, J

    2016-01-01

    Electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive method for the assessment of gastric myoelectrical activity. Porcine EGG is comparable with human one. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of atropine and neostigmine on the EGG in experimental pigs. Adult female pigs were administrated atropine (1.5 mg i.m., n=6) and neostigmine (0.5 mg i.m., n=6) after the baseline EGG, followed by a 90-min trial recording (MMS, Enschede, the Netherlands). Running spectral analysis was used for the evaluation. The results were expressed as dominant frequency of slow waves and EGG power (areas of amplitudes). Neostigmine increased continuously the dominant frequency and decreased significantly the EGG power. Atropine did not change the dominant frequency significantly. However, atropine increased significantly the EGG power (areas of amplitudes) from basal values to the maximum at the 10-20-min interval. After that period, the areas of amplitudes decreased significantly to the lowest values at the 60-90-min interval. In conclusion, cholinergic and anticholinergic agents affect differently EGG in experimental pigs. PMID:26674291

  6. A qualitative study of a food intervention in a primary school: Pupils as agents of change.

    PubMed

    Ensaff, H; Canavon, C; Crawford, R; Barker, M E

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the impact of a school-based kitchen project at a large inner London school. Timetabled kitchen classroom sessions (90 min every fortnight) were held with all 7-9 year old pupils. Semi-structured focus group discussions (with 76 pupils, 16 parents) and interviews (with headteachers, catering managers and specialist staff) were conducted at the intervention school and a matched control school. Categories and concepts were derived using a grounded theory approach. Data analysis provided three main categories each with their related concepts: Pupil factors (enthusiasm and enjoyment of cooking, trying new foods, food knowledge and awareness, producing something tangible); School factors (learning and curriculum links, resource implications and external pressures) and Home factors (take home effects, confidence in cooking and self-esteem, parents' difficulties cooking at home with children). Children's engagement and the opportunity to cook supported increased food awareness, skills and food confidence. In the grounded theory that emerged, take home effects beyond the school gate dominate, as children act as agents of change and influence cooking and food choice at home. These short term outcomes have the potential to lead to longer term outcomes including changing eating behaviour and diet. PMID:26254277

  7. The Model Repository (MREP) of the Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS)

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Phillip C.; Roberts, D.; Bakalov, V. D.; Bikmal, S.; Cantor, S.; Costandine, T.; Ganapathi, L.; Golla, B. J.; Grubbs, G.; Hollingsworth, C.; Li, S.; Qin, Y.; Savage, B.; Simoni, D.; Solano, E.; Wagener, D.

    2009-01-01

    The model repository (MREP) is a relational database management system (RDBMS) developed under the auspices of the Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS. The purpose of the MREP is to organize and catalog the models, results, and suggestions for using MIDAS and to store them in a way to allow users to run models from an access-controlled disease model repository. The model repository contains source and object code of disease models developed by infectious disease modelers and tested in a production environment. Different versions of models used to describe various aspects of the same disease are housed in the repository. Models are linked to their developers and different versions of the codes are tied to Subversion, a version control tool. An additional element of the MREP will be to house, manage, and control access to a disease model results warehouse, which consists of output generated by the models contained in the MREP. The results tables and files are linked to the version of the model and the input parameters that collectively generated the results. The results tables are warehoused in a relational database that permits them to be easily identified, categorized, and downloaded. PMID:18632331

  8. ECO-EPIZOOTIOLOGIC STUDY OF FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS, THE AGENT OF TULAREMIA, IN QUÉBEC WILDLIFE.

    PubMed

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Ogden, Nicholas; Massé, Ariane; Antonation, Kym; Corbett, Cindi; Dibernardo, Antonia; Lindsay, L Robbin; Leighton, Patrick A; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-04-28

    In Canada, Francisella tularensis , the zoonotic bacterial agent of tularemia, affects mostly snowshoe hares ( Lepus americanus ), muskrats ( Ondatra zibethicus ), and beavers ( Castor canadensis ). Despite numerous studies, the ecologic cycle and natural reservoirs of F. tularensis are not clearly defined. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of F. tularensis in snowshoe hares, muskrats, and coyotes ( Canis latrans ) in four regions of Québec, Canada, and to describe the risk of infection in relation to host and environmental characteristics at three spatial scales. Between October 2012 and April 2013, trappers captured 345 snowshoe hares, 411 muskrats, and 385 coyotes. Blood samples were tested by microagglutination tests, and DNA extracts of liver, kidney, lung, and spleen of snowshoe hares and muskrats were tested by real-time PCR to detect past and active infection to F. tularensis , respectively. Individual host characteristics, including body condition, age, and sex, were evaluated as risk factors of infection, along with ecologic characteristics of the location of capture extracted from geographic databases. Prevalences of antibody to F. tularensis and 95% confidence intervals were 2.9% (1.4-5.1%) in coyotes, 0.6% (0.1-2.1%) in hares, and 0% (0.0-0.9%) in muskrats. Francisella tularensis DNA was not detected by real-time PCR in the pools of four organs from muskrats and hares, but F. tularensis type AI was detected during testing of the individual organs of two antibody-positive hares. Exact logistic regression analyses showed that age was a significant predictor of antibody detection in coyotes, as were the proportion of forest and the proportion of area considered as suitable habitat for hares in the environment around the location of capture of the coyotes. Our results suggest a terrestrial cycle of F. tularensis in the regions studied. PMID:26967133

  9. Multiplexing studies of holographically-formed polymer-dispersed liquid crystals: Morphology, structure, and device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontecchio, Adam Kent

    Holographically-formed Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (H-PDLC) are phase-segregated liquid crystal/polymer composites which enable electrically switchable holographic recordings. They are formed using a holographic exposure apparatus to create an interference pattern, which is recorded through polymerization to produce Bragg-mode gratings. Application of an electric field eliminates the Bragg grating, and the material appears optically transparent. Optical applications are being evaluated for H-PDLC implementation. Therefore, there is an increasing need to understand the fundamental physics of their formation and operation, and to optimize the electro-optical performance. This work describes H-PDLC formation, characterization, and fundamental investigations into the physics of liquid crystals confined in polymer droplet cavities. Systematic materials studies were performed, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) are used to examine morphological details of the polymer. The results indicate a difference in phase-separation between materials sets. Examination of droplet cavities reveals a novel rough texture that is used to explain electro-optic performance differences between materials sets. Solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) results are presented for H-PDLC samples formed with deuterated liquid crystal. The findings indicate a change in the nematic temperature range in the confined liquid crystal as compared to bulk. The onset of the nematic phase is found to occur gradually, and the phase transition is non-continuous with regard to the order parameter. Using the electro-optic properties of transmission-mode grating, the size, shape, and distribution of droplets is characterized. These attributes are found to vary with temperature when confined to the small droplets of H-PDLC films, and a coupled-wave theory is used to model these findings. New techniques for H-PDLC formation are reported, including multiplexing

  10. Post-eruptive morphological evolution of island volcanoes: Surtsey as a modern case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagnoli, C.; Jakobsson, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Surtsey is a small volcanic island in the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago, off the south coast of Iceland. The eruption leading to the island's emersion lasted for 3.5 yr (1963-1967) while destructive forces have been active for over 50 yr (1963-present-day) during which Surtsey has suffered rapid subaerial and submarine erosion and undergone major morphological changes. Surtsey is a well-documented modern example of the post-eruptive degradational stage of island volcanoes, and has provided the unique opportunity to continuously observe and quantify the effects of intense geomorphic processes. In this paper we focus on coastal and marine processes re-shaping the shoreline and shallow-water portions of the Surtsey complex since its formation and on the related geomorphological record. Analogies with the post-eruptive morphological evolution of recently active island volcanoes at the emerging stage, encompassing different climatic conditions, wave regimes and geological contexts, are discussed.

  11. Polybutylene succinate adipate/starch blends: a morphological study for the design of controlled release films.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Fadi; Galland, Sophie; Cottaz, Amandine; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    Films made of plasticized starch (PLS)/poly(butylene succinate co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) blends were prepared by thermomechanical processing varying the PBSA proportions in blends to obtain biphasic materials with distinct morphologies. These morphologies were characterized by selective extraction of each phase, microscopic observations, and selective water/oxygen permeation properties. These experiments allowed identifying the blend compositions corresponding to the beginning of partial continuity (cluster partial percolation) until total continuity of each phases. This property was related to the controlled release of model molecule (fluorescein) previously dispersed in the PLS and revealed that its release depended on the tortuosity of the PLS phase tailored by the polymer blends composition and by the limited swelling of the PLS when entrapped in the PBSA phase. Future applications will focus on food preservatives dispersed in PBSA-PLS blends to obtain active antimicrobial packaging put in direct contact with intermediate to high moisture foods. PMID:24751274

  12. Structural, compositional and morphological studies of thermally evaporated MoO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, R. E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com; Ravi, G. E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    Molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) nanostructures were grown on different substrates such as glass, indium tin oxide coated glass and fluorine doped glass by thermal evaporation of MoO{sub 3} powder at elevated temperature (750°C) using tube furnace without any catalyst and then by subsequent O{sub 2}/Ar flow rate. The morphology, composition and crystal structure were examined by using SEM, EDAX, Laser Raman and XRD. The films are polycrystalline with well-defined diffraction peaks and it consist of MoO{sub 3} with α-orthorhombic structure. The synthesized MoO{sub 3} belongs to different morphologies, generally nanobelt and nanohunk structures. The EDAX spectra confirm the films are composed only of Mo and O atoms. The O/Mo ratio is nearly equal to 3 that shows the stoichiometry of MoO{sub 3}.

  13. Relation between Molecular Shape and the Morphology of Self-Assembling Aggregates: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Vácha, Robert; Frenkel, Daan

    2011-01-01

    Proteins can aggregate in a wide variety of structures, both compact and extended. We present simulations of a coarse-grained anisotropic model that reproduce many of the experimentally observed aggregate structures. Conversely, all structures predicted by our model have experimental counterparts (ribbons, multistranded fibrils, and vesicles). The model we use is that of a rodlike particle with an attractive (hydrophobic) stripe on its side. Our Monte Carlo simulations show that aggregate morphologies crucially depend on two parameters. The first one is the width of the attractive stripe and the second one is a presence or absence of attractive interactions at the particle ends. These results provide us with a generic insight into the relation between the shape of protein-protein interaction potential and the morphology of protein aggregates. PMID:21943424

  14. Morphological studies on the infraciliature of a planktonic ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis (Ciliophora: Tintinina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shengfang; Song, Weibo; Xu, Dapeng; Chiang, Kuoping

    2006-01-01

    A poorly-described marine planktonic ciliate, Tintinnopsis brasiliensis Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, collected from the Taiping Cape of Qingdao, China, was morphologically investigated based on permanent preparation after protargol impregnation and was compared with other related congeners. According to the infraciliature, three ciliary groups can be recognized, which reveals a very stable structure among specimens and denotes that the pattern of infraciliature is, apart from the features of the lorica, a highly reliable criterion for species identification.

  15. Cystic Renal Oncocytoma and Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Morphologic and Immunohistochemical Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Skenderi, Faruk; Ulamec, Monika; Vranic, Semir; Bilalovic, Nurija; Peckova, Kvetoslava; Rotterova, Pavla; Kokoskova, Bohuslava; Trpkov, Kiril; Vesela, Pavla; Hora, Milan; Kalusova, Kristyna; Sperga, Maris; Perez Montiel, Delia; Alvarado Cabrero, Isabel; Bulimbasic, Stela; Branzovsky, Jindrich; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2016-02-01

    Renal oncocytoma (RO) may present with a tubulocystic growth in 3% to 7% of cases, and in such cases its morphology may significantly overlap with tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRCC). We compared the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of these tumors, aiming to clarify the differential diagnostic criteria, which facilitate the discrimination of RO from TCRCC. Twenty-four cystic ROs and 15 TCRCCs were selected and analyzed for: architectural growth patterns, stromal features, cytomorphology, ISUP nucleolar grade, necrosis, and mitotic activity. Immunohistochemical panel included various cytokeratins (AE1-AE3, OSCAR, CAM5.2, CK7), vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CA-IX, antimitochondrial antigen (MIA), EMA, and Ki-67. The presence of at least focal solid growth and islands of tumor cells interspersed with loose stroma, lower ISUP nucleolar grade, absence of necrosis, and absence of mitotic figures were strongly suggestive of a cystic RO. In contrast, the absence of solid and island growth patterns and presence of more compact, fibrous stroma, accompanied by higher ISUP nucleolar grade, focal necrosis, and mitotic figures were all associated with TCRCC. TCRCC marked more frequently for vimentin, CD10, AMACR, and CK7 and had a higher proliferative index by Ki-67 (>15%). CD117 was negative in 14/15 cases. One case was weakly CD117 reactive with cytoplasmic positivity. All cystic RO cases were strongly positive for CD117. The remaining markers (AE1-AE3, CAM5.2, OSCAR, CA-IX, MIA, EMA) were of limited utility. Presence of tumor cell islands and solid growth areas and the type of stroma may be major morphologic criteria in differentiating cystic RO from TCRCC. In difficult cases, or when a limited tissue precludes full morphologic assessment, immunohistochemical pattern of vimentin, CD10, CD117, AMACR, CK7, and Ki-67 could help in establishing the correct diagnosis. PMID:26180933

  16. The Prevalence of Antifungal Agents Administration in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kargar, Mona; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahmadvand, Milad; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Gholami, Kheirollah; Khoee, Seyed Hamid; Javadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are chief infectious complications in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, the diagnosis of fungal infections is difficult, and often empiric treatment initiates. Since there is no data available on the prevalence of antifungal drugs administration in allogeneic HSCT recipients in Iran, we decided to conduct this study. Methods This study was a retrospective review of records of patients who received allogeneic HSCT in the Hematology-Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplantation center at Shariati Hospital in Tehran, between August 2009 and August 2010. Results Sixty (73.1%) patients consist of 41 men (68.3%) with mean age of 26.3 (± 1.2) years received allogeneic HSCT. Patients received prophylaxis with fulconazole however; in 28 patients (46.7%) it was switched to low dose amphotericin B. Fifteen patients (25%) received treatment with antifungal agents. Amphotericin B was the empiric agent administered. In 3 patients treatment was switched to voriconazole. Neither positive culture nor direct microscopic evidence was available from the obtained specimen. Only in one patient the result of serum galactomannan assay was positive. There were no significant differences in neutropenia duration (P value: 0.54), length of hospital stay (P value: 0.27) and number of patients developed graft versus host disease (P value: 0.07) between patients received antifungal agents with those who did not receive treatment. Conclusion In this study HSCT recipients received antifungal agents for prophylaxis. Twenty five percent of patients received treatment with antifungal agents empirically. Improvement in diagnosis of these infections can be helpful and lead to targeted therapy. We suggest larger prospective trials for better assessment of antifungal agent administration. PMID:24505528

  17. Morphological study of cationic polymer-anionic surfactant complex precipitated in solution during the dilution process.

    PubMed

    Miyake, M; Kakizawa, Y

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the phase diagrams and the morphology of the complexes that were formed by cationic polymers, cationic cellulose (CC) and cationic dextran (CD), and by anionic surfactant-based sodium poly(oxyethylene) lauryl ether sulfate (LES). The anionic charge of the LES-based surfactants was changed by adding an amphoteric surfactant, lauryl amidopropyl betaine acetate (LPB), or a nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene stearyl ether (C18EO25). We discuss the relationship between the complex aggregation process and the morphology of the precipitated complexes. The morphologies of CC complex aggregates, which precipitated during the dilution process in a model shampoo solution, changed from membranous forms to mesh-like forms by decreasing the charges of both the CC and the surfactant. Their touch on hair in the rinsing process changed from sticky to smooth and velvety, corresponding to their rheological properties. In contrast, CD complex aggregates had a membranous form and a smooth touch independently of the charges on the polymer and surfactant. These results suggested that the control of the charges of both the polymer and surfactant and the choice of polymer structure are important for excellent conditioning effects upon rinsing with shampoo. PMID:20716437

  18. Study of Cd-chalcogenide/ferri-ferrocyanide photoelectrochemical cells: effect of surface morphology and added salt

    SciTech Connect

    Tenne, R.

    1983-11-01

    The authors carried out an investigation of the Cd-chalcogenide/ferri-ferrocyanide photoelectrochemical cells. In particular, the effect of surface morphology and the effect of added salts upon the characteristics of these cells were investigated. Successive etching with Br/sub 2/ (3%)/methanol, aqua regia, and finally photoetching increases the surface roughness of CdSe (CdS, CdTe) which has a marked effect on the cell characteristics in the ferri-ferrocyanide electrolyte (and polysulfide electrolyte as well). In contrast with polysulfide electrolyte, added salts decrease the output stability of the cell and the onset potential for the photocurrent, which can be explained by the removal of the physiosorbed ferrocyanide ions from the electrode surface by the ions of the salt. On increasing the surface roughness of the electrode, while keeping the salt concentration unchanged, the output stability and the onset potential were increased. A kinetic model is used to explain these phenomena. Thus, added salts can be used to probe the strength of the adsorption of the active electrolyte on the surface of the photoelectrode. Finally, we report on the surface morphology of CdSe and CdTe after irradiation in ferri-ferrocyanide solution and compare our findings to surface morphologies which were observed previously with the help of photoelectrochemical etching (photoetching). It is found that small rectangular crystallites, probably of cadmium ferrocyanide, deposit on the crystal surface during the photocorrosion process in addition to elemental Se(Te).

  19. Redesigning the DNA-Targeted Chromophore in Platinum–Acridine Anticancer Agents: A Structure–Activity Relationship Study

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Amanda J.; Liu, Fang; Bartenstein, Thomas F.; Haines, Laura G.; Levine, Keith E.; Kucera, Gregory L.; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Platinum–acridine hybrid agents show low-nanomolar potency in chemoresistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but high systemic toxicity in vivo. To reduce the promiscuous genotoxicity of these agents and improve their pharmacological properties, a modular build–click–screen approach was used to evaluate a small library of twenty hybrid agents containing truncated and extended chromophores of varying basicities. Selected derivatives were resynthesized and tested in five NSCLC cell lines representing large cell, squamous cell, and adenocarcinomas. 7-Aminobenz[c]acridine was identified as a promising scaffold in a hybrid agent (P1–B1) that maintained submicromolar activity in several of the DNA-repair proficient and p53-mutant cancer models, while showing improved tolerability in mice by 32-fold compared to the parent platinum–acridine (P1–A1). The distribution and DNA/RNA adduct levels produced by the acridine- and benz[c]acridine-based analogues in NCI-H460 cells (confocal microscopy, ICP-MS), and their ability to bind G-quadruplex forming DNA sequences (CD spectroscopy, HR-ESMS) were studied. P1–B1 emerges as a less genotoxic, more tolerable, and potentially more target-selective hybrid agent than P1–A1. PMID:25302716

  20. Effects of iodinated contrast agent, xylocaine and gadolinium concentration on the signal emitted in magnetic resonance arthrography: a samples study*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Yvana Lopes Pinheiro; Costa, Rita Zanlorensi Visneck; Pinho, Kátia Elisa Prus; Ferreira, Ricardo Rabello; Schuindt, Sueliton Miyamoto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of dilution of paramagnetic contrast agent with iodinated contrast and xylocaine on the signal intensity during magnetic resonance arthrography, and to improve the paramagnetic contrast agent concentration utilized in this imaging modality. Materials and Methods Samples specially prepared for the study with three different concentrations of paramagnetic contrast agent diluted in saline, iodinated contrast agent and xylocaine were imaged with fast spin echo T1-weighted sequences with fat saturation. The samples were placed into flasks and graphical analysis of the signal intensity was performed as a function of the paramagnetic contrast concentration. Results As compared with samples of equal concentrations diluted only with saline, the authors have observed an average signal intensity decrease of 20.67% for iodinated contrast agent, and of 28.34% for xylocaine. However, the increased gadolinium concentration in the samples caused decrease in signal intensity with all the dilutions. Conclusion Minimizing the use of iodinated contrast media and xylocaine and/or the use of a gadolinium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L diluted in saline will improve the sensitivity of magnetic resonance arthrography. PMID:25987746