Hamby, Sherry L; Sugarman, David B.
Male and female undergraduates completed the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales to assess whether specific acts of psychological aggression are more closely associated with physical assault than others. Results indicated that all psychological items were associated with physical assault. Only certain items reflected malicious intent and some…
Kajs, Lawrence T.; Schumacher, Gary; Vital, Cheryl A.
Physical assault against school personnel is a serious problem, although not highly publicized. This workplace violence can result in debilitating injury to school employees along with major monetary costs. This article looks at legal issues that address physical assault against school personnel as well as the roles professional associations have…
DeKeseredy, Walter S.; And Others
Studies sexual assault and stranger aggression experienced by 259 Canadian female undergraduates at an Ontario university. Results indicate that the rate of sexual assault is at least as high as in the United States and that stranger aggression has been experienced by the overwhelming majority (84.1%). (SLD)
Tiesman, Hope M.; Hendricks, Scott; Konda, Srinivas; Hartley, Dan
Objective Enumerate and describe physical assaults occurring to Pennsylvania education workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was mailed to a random sample of 6450 workers, stratified on gender, occupation, and region. Logistic regression was used to examine risk factors for physical assault. Results During the 2009–2010 school year, 309 of 2514 workers were assaulted 597 times. Special education teachers, urban workers, and those in their first 3 years of employment were at an increased risk. Most assaults did not lead to medical care or time away from work; however, those assaulted were significantly more likely to find work stressful, have low job satisfaction, and consider leaving the education field (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.5 [95% CI = 1.5 to 4.1]; AOR = 2.4 [95% CI = 1.5 to 3.9]; AOR = 10.7 [95% CI = 4.1 to 28.1]). Conclusions Although education workers experienced few serious physical assaults, the impact of this violence was considerable. PMID:24854254
Ullman, Sarah E.; Knight, Raymond A.
Analyzed relation of situational factors, offender aggression, and victim resistance to women's sexual abuse and physical injury during sexual assaults using police reports/court testimonies of 274 women who avoided rape or were raped. After situational variables were partialed out, women's screaming was related to less severe sexual abuse;…
Renwick, Laoise; Lavelle, Mary; Brennan, Geoffrey; Stewart, Duncan; James, Karen; Richardson, Michelle; Williams, Hilary; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len
Workplace violence is a significant problem for health service personnel, with National Health Service (NHS) workers subject to 68 683 physical assaults between 2013 and 2014. Almost 70% of assaults occur in the mental health sector, and although serious, non-fatal injury is rare, the individual and economic impact can be substantial. In the present study, we analysed mandatory incident reports from a national database to examine whether there were identifiable precursors to incidents leading to staff injury, and whether staff characteristics were associated with injury. In line with previous descriptions, we found injury occurred either as a direct result of patient assault or during physical interventions employed by staff to contain aggression. Importantly, we found little evidence from staff reports that patients' symptoms were driving aggression, and we found less evidence of patient perspectives among reports. We make several recommendations regarding the reporting of these events that could inform policy and interventions aimed at minimizing the likelihood of injury. PMID:27170345
Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.
Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…
Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.
Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p < .001) even controlling for adolescents’ sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents’ CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as
Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing
Physical and sexual assault are part of the prison experience. Approximately 21% of male inmates are physically assaulted during a 6-month period. Sexual assault is estimated at between 2% and 5%. Although prevalence evidence is growing, less is known about circumstances surrounding and resulting from these incidents. This article presents an analysis of approximately 2,200 physical and 200 sexual victimizations reported by a random sample of 6,964 male inmates. Physical injury occurred in 40% of physical assaults and 70% of sexual assaults between inmates and in 50% of assaults perpetrated by staff. Emotional reactions to assaults were experienced by virtually all victims. Context information is vital in the development and implementation of prevention and therapeutic interventions. PMID:19477812
Nicksa, Sarah C
This research examines bystander willingness to report three different crimes to the police or campus authorities among a college student sample (n = 295). Twelve original vignettes varied anonymity when reporting, bystander's relationship with the offender (friend or stranger), and crime type. A factorial analysis of variance showed that main effects were found for crime type, bystander's gender, and bystander's relationship with the offender; anonymity was not significant. The physical assault was the most likely to be reported (4.47), followed by theft (3.26), and sexual assault (2.36). Women were more likely than men to report each crime type, and bystanders who were good friends of the offender were less likely to report than strangers. No two- or three-way interactions were significant, but a significant four-way interaction indicated that anonymity, relationship with the offender, and bystander's gender predicted willingness to report for the sexual assault scenario. PMID:24142441
Yuan, Nicole P.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Goldman, David
Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years. For men, figures were 36% and 2%, respectively. Demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, adulthood alcohol dependence,…
Charak, Ruby; Koot, Hans M; Dvorak, Robert D; Elklit, Ask; Elhai, Jon D
The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more strongly related to membership of polysubstance use classes. From the National Survey of Adolescents-1995 (N= 4023) 918 adolescents (age range=12-17 years, M=14.92, 49.6% female) with reports of physical assault and/or sexual assault were selected. Using information on alcohol-use, cigarette-smoking, chewing tobacco, non-prescribed use of medicines, and drug-use, latent class analysis indicated a three class solution for substance-use, namely, Experimental use, Light polysubstance-use, and Polysubstance-use. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that as compared to adolescents exposed to a single type of assault those exposed to both physical and sexual assault were two-to-three times more likely to be in the heavier polysubstance-use class. Females were more likely to be members of the polysubstance-use class than of the experimental use class. Gender did not emerge as a significant moderator. It was concluded that assessing for single type or co-occurring assault can facilitate identification of adolescents at elevated risk for polysubstance-use. PMID:26596366
Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole
The authors' objective was to examine the ability of acute stress disorder (ASD) and other trauma-related factors in a group of physical assault victims in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months later. Subjects included 214 victims of violence who completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault, with 128 participating…
Chen, Yingyu; Ullman, Sarah E
Previous research has assumed that rape reporting is unique, but no study has systematically tested this assumption. The present study used a probability sample of female victims from the National Violence Against Women Survey to compare factors affecting rape and physical assault reporting using multinomial logit regression. Overall, results suggested that there was similarity in reporting decisions between rapes and physical assaults in terms of main effects. However, interactions suggested that age, marital status, and physical force each influenced reporting differently by assault type. Implications of these results are discussed and directions for future research are offered. PMID:20133920
Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.
Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study compared individuals who met IED criteria with either frequent verbal aggression without physical aggression (IED-V), physical aggression without frequent verbal aggression (IED-P), or both frequent verbal aggression and physical aggression (IED-B) as well as a non-aggressive personality-disordered (PD) comparison group using behavioral and self-report measures of aggression, anger, impulsivity, and affective lability, and psychosocial impairment. Results indicate all IED groups showed increased anger/aggression, psychosocial impairment, and affective lability relative to the PD group. The IED-B group showed greater trait anger, anger dyscontrol, and aggression compared to the IED-V and IED-P groups. Overall, the IED-V and IED-P groups reported comparable deficits and impairment. These results support the inclusion of verbal aggression within the IED criteria and suggest a more severe profile for individuals who engage in both frequent verbal arguments and repeated physical aggression. PMID:25534757
Oshikata, Carlos Tadayuki; Bedone, Aloísio José; Faúndes, Anibal
This study evaluated the process and results of treatment for women at a university hospital after sexual violence. A prospective study of 166 women (> or = 12 years of age) treated from October 1999 to February 2002 included six months follow-up after aggression. Half of the women were under 20 years of age, two were illiterate, 70.0% unmarried, 20.0% used contraceptives, and 80.0% received treatment within the first 24 hours post-aggression. Nearly 80.0% of aggressors were unknown to victims and 95.0% of the cases involved vaginal penetration. Emergency contraception was administered to 76.0%, antibiotics to 98.0%, hepatitis B immunoglobulin to 95.0%, and HIV anti-retroviral prophylaxis to 90.0%. The first follow-up consultation (at 14 days) was attended by 137 women, whereas 37.0% dropped out before the 45-day visit and only 29.0% complied with the six-month follow-up. During follow-up, hepatitis B and HPV were identified in 2.6%, pelvic inflammatory disease and Trichomonas vaginalis in 2.1%, and syphilis in 1.3%. Three pregnancies were observed among 127 women who received emergency contraception (2.6%). No cases of HIV seroconversion were observed. Emergency care for victims of sexual assault is effective in reducing unwanted pregnancies and infections. PMID:15692652
Arias, Ileana; Johnson, Patti
The occurrence of physical aggression in marriage is quite high. On the basis of frequency of occurrence among the general population, a distinction has been made between ordinary violence (frequent slapping, pushing) and severe violence (less frequent use of hitting with objects or use of lethal weapons). This study was conducted to examine how…
Bryan, Craig J.; McNaugton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine; Hernandez, Ann Marie
The associations of various forms of sexual and physical assault with a history of suicide attempts and recent suicide ideation were studied in two distinct samples: active duty military and undergraduate students. A total of 273 active duty Air Force personnel and 309 undergraduate students anonymously completed self-report surveys of assault…
Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam
Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965
Lansford, Jennifer E; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei
Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational and physical aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, associations between, and gender differences in relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7–10 years (N = 1,410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). Countries differed in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; no consistent gender differences emerged in relational aggression. Despite mean-level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression as well as links between gender and aggression. PMID:23935227
Straus, Murray A
In the light of evidence from about 200 studies showing gender symmetry in perpetration of partner assault, research can now focus on why gender symmetry is predominant and on the implications of symmetry for primary prevention and treatment of partner violence. Progress in such research is handicapped by a number of problems: (1) Insufficient empirical research and a surplus of discussion and theory, (2) Blinders imposed by commitment to a single causal factor theory-patriarchy and male dominance-in the face of overwhelming evidence that this is only one of a multitude of causes, (3) Research purporting to investigate gender differences but which obtains data on only one gender, (4) Denial of research grants to projects that do not assume most partner violence is by male perpetrators, (5) Failure to investigate primary prevention and treatment programs for female offenders, and (6) Suppression of evidence on female perpetration by both researchers and agencies. PMID:17043370
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei
Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, gender differences in, and associations between relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7 to 10 years (N = 1410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. Unsurprisingly, boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; surprisingly, there were no significant gender differences in relational aggression. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). The countries differed significantly in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Despite mean level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression, as well as links between gender and aggression. PMID:23935227
Chan, Ko Ling
The objective of this study was the risk factors of wife assault in Hong Kong Chinese families. The sample included 107 battered women from a refuge for battered women. Factor analysis revealed risk factors like dominance, stress, poor anger management, aggressive personality, conflict, lack of empathy, masculine gender role stress, sense of insecurity, relationship distress, and violent socialization. Correlation analysis indicated that dominance, spousal conflict, and sense of insecurity increase the likelihood of carrying out minor physical assault and using psychological aggression, while aggressive personality predicts severe physical assault and injury. The risk factors were explained in terms of traditional Chinese concepts of gender role expectations of men and women and face orientations. The present study provides some evidence relating to the risk factors of wife assault in Chinese families. PMID:15384454
Pan, Helen S.; And Others
Estimated odds of mild and severe husband-to-wife physical aggression in 11,870 white men. Being younger, having lower income, and having alcohol problem significantly increased odds of either mild or severe physical aggression. Drug problem uniquely increased risk of severe physical aggression. Marital discord and depression further increased…
Gómez-Gutiérrez, M Mar; Bernaldo-de-Quirós, Mónica; Piccini, Ana T; Cerdeira, Jose C
Exposure to violence from patients or relatives causes problems in emergency departments. To assess the development of posttraumatic symptoms in pre-hospital emergency care professionals assaulted by patients and/or relatives, it may be crucial to establish preventive measures at different levels. This study examined 358 pre-hospital emergency care professionals assaulted by patients and/or relatives. The aims of the present study were (a) to assess the presence of posttraumatic symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and (b) identify compliance diagnoses for PTSD depending on the experience of aggression (presence of fear, helplessness, or horror during the aggression), the perceived severity of aggression, and socio-demographic variables (gender, age, profession, employment status, and work experience). The results show that the experience of aggression with fear, helplessness, or horror is associated with the presence of posttraumatic symptoms related to re-experiencing but is not related to avoidance and emotional numbing and arousal. Furthermore, the perception of aggression as severe was associated with the presence of symptoms related to re-experiencing. These results are presented and discussed. PMID:25381283
Hettrich, Emma L.; O'Leary, K. Daniel
Approximately 32% of dating college females reported that they engaged in physical aggression against their partners and that they engaged in acts of physical aggression more often than their male partners engaged in aggression against them. However, the females also reported that their male partners attempted to force them to engage in oral sex…
Werner, Nicole E.; Senich, Samantha; Przepyszny, Kathryn A.
This study focused on mothers' affective and behavioral responses to hypothetical displays of preschoolers' relational and physical aggression. We hypothesized that lower levels of negative affect and a lower likelihood of intervening in conflicts would occur for relational aggression than for physical aggression. We also expected significant…
Carifio, James; Lanza, Marilyn
This study compared responses to three vignettes describing incidents between a male patient and a female nurse that involved the nurse being mildly assaulted, severely assaulted, or verbally abused (the control condition) by the patient. After reading each vignette, 32 of 42 female senior-year nursing students and 28 of 48 practicing nurses…
Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A
Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women. PMID:21046605
Loveland, James M.; Lounsbury, John W.; Welsh, Deborah; Buboltz, Walter C.
Background: Aggression has a long history in academic research as both a criterion and a predictor variable and it is well documented that aggression is related to a variety of poor academic outcomes such as: lowered academic performance, absenteeism and lower graduation rates. However, recent research has implicated physical aggression as being…
Burton, D L
Three groups of boys in Washington State care (37 sexually aggressive, 17 physically aggressive, and 15 nonaggressive) are compared on measures of behavior and cognition. Bandura's Social Cognition theory is offered as a possible explanation for sexual aggression by children. Two theory-based hypothesis are tested. First, are sexually aggressive children cognitively deficient when compared to the other groups? Second, do the sexually aggressive children have cognitive distortions about their behavior and about sex? Similarities were found in the aggressive and sexually aggressive groups on several measures. Physically aggressive boys were found to have some sexual behavior problems. Sexually aggressive boys were also found to be physically aggressive. Physically aggressive boys were found to have the least severe and least frequent victimization history. No support was found for the first hypothesis, while some evidence of cognitive distortions regarding both social behavior and sex was found in the sexually aggressive children. Discussion and some implications for research and practice are offered. PMID:10418769
Joussemet, Mireille; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Cote, Sylvana; Nagin, Daniel S.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tremblay, Richard E.
The goal of the present study was to examine whether controlling parenting contributes to the problem of physical aggression. Developmental trajectories of children's physical aggression were modeled from yearly teachers' ratings, from ages 6 to 12. Multinomial logistic regressions (N = 1,508) served to identify risk factors that distinguish…
Kachadourian, Lorig K; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E
Objective: Alcohol aggression expectancies have been found to be associated with increases in aggressive behavior. However, research has not consistently examined evaluations of such behavior. This is unfortunate as both expectancies and evaluations may play a role in whether such behavior will occur. Given this, the current study cross-sectionally examined the associations between alcohol aggression expectancies, evaluations of alcohol-related aggression, indicators of excessive drinking, and alcohol-related verbal and physical aggression. Method: The sample consisted of 280 married and cohabiting couples. These couples reported on excessive drinking indicators, alcohol expectancies and evaluations, and alcohol-related verbal and physical aggression during the past year. Results: Findings showed that verbal aggression was positively associated with indicators of excessive drinking among females and with alcohol aggression expectancies for females who evaluated such aggression positively. For males, aggression expectancies and indicators of excessive drinking were positively associated with verbal aggression. For physical aggression, results showed that indicators of excessive drinking and aggression expectancies were associated with physical aggression for females. For males, aggression expectancies were positively associated and evaluations were negatively associated with physical aggression. Conclusions: These findings add to previous research on alcohol aggression expectancies in close relationships and emphasize the importance of considering evaluations of alcohol-related behavior and how they may play a role in intimate-partner violence and aggression. PMID:25208191
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
Using peer nominations of physical aggression and perceived popularity in the spring semester of fifth grade, we identified 54 popular aggressive and 42 nonpopular aggressive preadolescents in a diverse sample of 318 participants recruited from an urban school district. Physical aggression in the spring semester of sixth grade was included to…
O'Leary, K. Daniel; And Others
Predicted spousal physical aggression at 30 months after marriage for 393 young couples. Prerelationship predictor variables were history of violence in family of origin, aggression against others during childhood and adolescence, and personality characteristics. Relationship predictor variables were marital discord and spouse-specific…
Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Wodka, Ericka L.
Aggression is a clinically significant problem for many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there have been few large-scale studies addressing this issue. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical aggression in a sample of 1584 children and adolescents with ASD enrolled in the Autism…
Tremblay, Richard E.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Séguin, Jean R.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Zelazo, Philip D.; Boivin, Michel; Pérusse, Daniel; Japel, Christa
Objectives Physical aggression in children is a major public health problem. Not only is childhood physical aggression a precursor of the physical and mental health problems that will be visited on victims, but also aggressive children themselves are at higher risk of alcohol and drug abuse, accidents, violent crimes, depression, suicide attempts, spouse abuse, and neglectful and abusive parenting. Furthermore, violence commonly results in serious injuries to the perpetrators themselves. Although it is unusual for young children to harm seriously the targets of their physical aggression, studies of physical aggression during infancy indicate that by 17 months of age, the large majority of children are physically aggressive toward siblings, peers, and adults. This study aimed, first, to identify the trajectories of physical aggression during early childhood and, second, to identify antecedents of high levels of physical aggression early in life. Such antecedents could help to understand better the developmental origins of violence later in life and to identify targets for preventive interventions. Methods A random population sample of 572 families with a 5-month-old newborn was recruited. Assessments of physical aggression frequency were obtained from mothers at 17, 30, and 42 months after birth. Using a semiparametric, mixture model, distinct clusters of physical aggression trajectories were identified. Multivariate logit regression analysis was then used to identify which family and child characteristics, before 5 months of age, predict individuals on a high-level physical aggression trajectory from 17 to 42 months after birth. Results Three trajectories of physical aggression were identified. The first was composed of children who displayed little or no physical aggression. These individuals were estimated to account for ~28% of the sample. The largest group, estimated at ~58% of the sample, followed a rising trajectory of modest aggression. Finally, a group
Griffin, Michael G
This study used a prospective design to investigate startle reactivity following trauma exposure. Startle response was evaluated using loud tones during which measures of eyeblink electromyogram (EMG) and heart rate (HR) were collected. Participants were 40 female sexual or physical assault survivors assessed at 1 month and 6 months postassault. There were no significant differences in startle reactivity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and non-PTSD groups at the initial assessment. However, at 6 months postassault there was a significantly greater EMG and HR response in the PTSD group as well as a significant increase in startle reactivity from 1 month to 6 months postassault. The findings lend support to a sensitization model of trauma reactivity in which startle response develops over time along with PTSD symptoms. PMID:18302176
Keene, Amanda C; Epps, James
This study examined narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness as potential mediators between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and adult anger and aggression. Participants were 400 undergraduate students, 134 of whom had a history of CPA. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing history of CPA, shame-proneness, narcissistic vulnerability, physical aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Results indicated abused participants were more angry and aggressive and experienced higher levels of shame-proneness and narcissistic vulnerability than nonabused participants. Multiple mediation analyses showed that narcissistic vulnerability, but not shame-proneness, partially mediated the relation between abuse and physical aggression. However, narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness both emerged as partial mediators between abuse and the anger and hostility variables. These findings suggest that narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness may function as mediators of adjustment following childhood maltreatment. Study limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26560235
Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…
McGregor, M J; Le, G; Marion, S A; Wiebe, E
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined whether there is an association between individual medical findings and legal outcome in cases of sexual assault. This study was undertaken to determine the relation between the extent of documented physical injury and a positive legal outcome in cases of sexual assault and to determine other factors associated with the laying of charges in such cases. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the authors reviewed the charts and medicolegal reports for all cases of sexual assault that were handled by the BC Women's Sexual Assault Service in 1992 for which a police report had been filed. Information on patients' characteristics, the nature of the assault and the extent of injury was extracted from these records. A system for scoring clinical injury was developed by 4 of the physicians at the Sexual Assault Service, and a clinical injury score was assigned for each case by one physician. The relation between the outcome (in terms of whether charges were laid) and the circumstances of the case was examined by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 95 cases with complete medical records and information about legal outcome were identified during the 1992 calendar year. After adjustment for income level and the patient's knowledge of the assailant (either as an acquaintance or as his or her partner), the odds ratio (OR) for charge-laying in a sexual assault case with documented moderate to severe injury was 3.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-10.42). Socioeconomic status above the group median (defined as annual income greater than $21,893) (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.09-9.71) and knowledge of the assailant (OR 4.58, 95% CI 1.52-13.79) were also associated with charge-laying. Presence of genital injury per se, age of the patient and detection of sperm by microscopy at the time of examination were not associated with the laying of charges. INTERPRETATION: The results of this study show that the extent of documented injury is
Tseng, Wan-Ling; Banny, Adrienne M; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations among relational aggression, physical aggression, and peer status (i.e., acceptance, rejection, and perceived popularity) across three time points, six months apart, in a Taiwanese sample. Participants were 198 fifth grade students (94 girls and 104 boys; Mean age = 10.35 years) from Taipei, Taiwan. Study variables were assessed using peer nomination procedure. Results from the cross-lagged structural equation models demonstrated that there were longitudinal associations between relational aggression and each of the peer status constructs while only one longitudinal association was found for physical aggression such that physical aggression positively predicted subsequent peer rejection. The longitudinal associations did not vary with gender. Results also showed high stabilities of relational aggression, physical aggression, and the three peer status constructs over 1 year as well as high concurrent association between relational and physical aggression. In addition, relational aggression and physical aggression were concurrently related to less acceptance, more rejection, and less perceived popularity, especially at the outset of the study. Findings of this study demonstrated both similarities and differences in relation to previous literature in primarily Western cultures. This study also highlights the bidirectional and complex nature of the association between aggression and peer status, which appears to depend on the form of aggression and on the particular indicator of peer status under study. PMID:23606625
Holmes, Megan R.; Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A.; Kobulsky, Julia M.; Steigerwald, Stacey
Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being) that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children’s internalizing well-being, children’s prosocial behavior, and caregivers’ well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children’s internalizing well-being and children’s prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment. PMID:25924113
Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...
Moylan, Lois Biggin; McManus, Marybeth; Cullinan, Meritta; Persico, Lori
Assault of nurses in the psychiatric setting is an ongoing global concern. In a prior study by these authors, many nurses reported concern about the lack of supportive interventions offered to nurses after the assault event. These nurses reported ongoing psychosocial and emotional disturbance consistent with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. A follow-up study was done to investigate the perceived need of assaulted nurses for specialized support groups to assist them in dealing with the experience. A quantitative, cross sectional survey descriptive research design was done to assess assaulted nurses' perceived need for specialized support groups. The survey also gathered data relating to the reporting of the assault. A qualitative narrative section was added to gather data that might have been missed in the quantitative segment. The sample consisted of 57 previously assaulted nurses currently working at multiple acute care sites. Study findings showed that if specialized support groups were available, 57% of the nurses might be interested in attending these, and 41% would be interested in attending these. These nurses also reported multiple signs and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Considering the serious negative impact of assault on nurses and their desire for follow-up support, there is a need for the availability of supportive services. PMID:27269817
Naerde, Ane; Ogden, Terje; Janson, Harald; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae
This study investigated the normative use and developmental course of physical aggression (PA), defined as use of physical force such as hitting, biting, and kicking, from 8 to 26 months and predictors thereof. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study, comprising 1,159 children (559 girls and 600 boys). Both mothers and…
Finzi, Ricky; Ram, Anca; Har-Even, Dov; Shnit, Dan; Weizman, Abraham
Compared physically abused (n=41) and neglected (n=38) children with nonabused, nonneglected children (n=35) aged 6 to 12 years in terms of their attachment styles and their levels of aggression. Findings show that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and suspicion toward others, and neglected children are at risk of…
James, Andrew I. W.; Böhnke, Jan R.; Young, Andrew W.; Lewis, Gary J.
Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury. PMID:26136449
Chermack, Stephen T.; Murray, Regan L; Walton, Maureen A; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C.
This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-to-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proximal risk factors, including demographics, history of childhood physical and sexual abuse, and family history of problems with alcohol, drugs and depression, as well as recent substance use and symptoms of depression. Overall rates of participant-to-partner psychological aggression (77%), physical aggression (54%) and injuring partners (33%) were high, as were rates of partner-to-participant psychological aggression (73%), physical aggression (51%), and injury (33%). Several distal (family history variables, physical abuse) and proximal factors (binge drinking, several different drugs, depressive symptoms) were bivariately related to most of the aggression measures. However, according to multivariate analyses predicting aggression and injury measures, binge drinking and cocaine use were the drugs significantly associated with most measures, depression symptoms also were related to most aggression and injury measures, and a history of reported childhood physical abuse was related to all frequency of aggression and injury measures among those reporting such behaviors. Overall, the high rates of aggression among both men and women observed in this study further illustrate the need for interventions targeting substance use and aggression, and for further research regarding the inter-relationships among substance, aggression and depressive symptoms. PMID:18554825
Isen, Joshua D.; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.
Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression. The traditional interpretation is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We demonstrate that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. We capitalize on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimate adolescent change in upper-body strength using the “slope” parameter from a latent growth model. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. PMID:25717041
Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...
Murray, Regan L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.; Winters, Jamie; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.
Objective: This study focused on the prevalence and predictors of psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury rates in nonintimate partner relationships in a substance-use disorder treatment sample. Method: The sample included 489 (76% men, 24% women) participants who completed screening measures for inclusion in a randomized control trial for an aggression-prevention treatment. Primary outcome measures included rates of past-year psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury (both from the participant to nonpartners and from nonpartners to the participant). Potential predictors included individual factors (e.g., age, gender), developmental factors (e.g., family history of drug use, childhood physical abuse), and recent factors (e.g., depression, cocaine use). Results: Rates of participant-tononpartner psychological aggression (83%), physical aggression (61%), and injury (47%) were high, as were rates of nonpartner-to-participant aggression. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relationships between the aggression outcomes and most of the individual, developmental, and recent factors. However, multivariate analyses (zero-inflated Poisson regression) revealed that age, treatment status, current symptoms of depression, heavy periods of drinking, and cocaine use were related most frequently to the occurrence of aggression to and from nonpartners. Conclusions: Nonpartner aggression may be as common within a substance-use disorder sample as partner aggression, and it is associated with heavy drinking episodes, cocaine use, and depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the need for the development of effective violence interventions addressing violence in nonpartner relationship types. PMID:18925348
Romano, Elisa; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boulerice, Bernard; Swisher, Raymond
The study identified independent individual, family, and neighborhood correlates of children's physical aggression and prosocial behavior. Participants were 2,745-11-year olds nested in 1,982 families, which were themselves nested in 96 Canadian neighborhoods. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that the total variation explained by the…
O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Myint-U, Athi; Duran, Richard; Agronick, Gail; Wilson-Simmons, Renee
This study examined the relationship between middle-school aggressive behaviors and young adults' experiences as victims and perpetrators of intimate partner physical violence. As part of the Reach for Health longitudinal study, surveys were conducted with 977 8th graders who were resurveyed as young adults, when lifetime partner violence was…
Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…
Gentile, Douglas A; Coyne, Sarah; Walsh, David A
Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical), (2) by measuring media violence exposure (MVE) across three types of media, and (3) by measuring MVE and aggressive/prosocial behaviors at two points in time during the school year. In this study, 430 3rd-5th grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed. Children's consumption of media violence early in the school year predicted higher verbally aggressive behavior, higher relationally aggressive behavior, higher physically aggressive behavior, and less prosocial behavior later in the school year. Additionally, these effects were mediated by hostile attribution bias. The findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model. PMID:21274855
Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Stolk, Mirjam N.; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van I Jzendoorn, Marinus H.
This study examines the prevalence, stability, and development of physical aggression, as reported by mothers and fathers, in a sample of children initially recruited at 12, 24, and 36 months (N=2,253) and in a subsample followed up 1 year later (n=271) in a cross-sequential design. Physical aggression occurred in 12-month-olds, but significantly…
Bernat, J A; Calhoun, K S; Adams, H E; Zeichner, A
This study examined the relationship between homophobia (defined as self-reported negative affect, avoidance, and aggression toward homosexuals) and homosexual aggression. Self-identified heterosexual college men were assigned to homophobic (n = 26) and nonhomophobic (n = 26) groups on the basis of their scores on the Homophobia Scale (HS; L. W. Wright, H. E. Adams, & J. A. Bernat, 1999). Physical aggression was examined by having participants administer shocks to a fictitious opponent during a competitive reaction time (RT) task under the impression that the study was examining the relationship between sexually explicit material and RT. Participants were exposed to a male homosexual erotic videotape, their affective reactions were assessed, and they then competed in the RT task against either a heterosexual or a homosexual opponent. The homophobic group reported significantly more negative affect, anxiety, and anger-hostility after watching the homosexual erotic videotape than did the nonhomophobic group. Additionally, the homophobic group was significantly more aggressive toward the homosexual opponent, but the groups did not differ in aggression toward the heterosexual opponent. PMID:11261393
Riggs, Samantha; Cook, Carrie L
The shadow hypothesis regarding the impact of fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime suggests that female fear of crime is characterized by concern about sexual assault as a contemporaneous victimization event during a violent crime event. Recent research has found that other types of crime, namely physical assault, may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. We know of no research that has examined the unique impact of fear of murder versus fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime. There is also a lack of research that explores how these two types of fear uniquely affect men and women. In addition to gender, we examine factors that have been suggested in previous research to correlate with fear of crime: race, victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. Through survey methodology, this research examines the unique relationship between both fear of murder and fear of sexual assault and fear of three types of violent crime for men and women. Results suggest differences in how fear of murder and fear of sexual assault are related to fear of other types of violence for men and women. Specifically, fear of murder is important in estimating male fear of robbery and aggravated assault. However, fear of sexual assault is almost as important as fear of murder for men in estimating fear of home invasion. Similarly, for women, fear of sexual assault and fear of murder both are significant factors associated with fear of violent crime, and differences between the levels of significance are marginal. This study is a first to examine whether murder may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. The results are informative in identifying what drives fear of crime, particularly violent crime, for both men and women. Avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:25381276
El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Buckhalt, Joseph
Relations between marital aggression (psychological and physical) and children's health were examined. Children's emotional insecurity was assessed as a mediator of these relations, with distinctions made between marital aggression against mothers and fathers and ethnicity (African American or European American), socioeconomic status, and child…
Coyne, Sarah M; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Nelson, David A; Gentile, Douglas A
Past research has shown activation of aggressive cognitions in memory after media violence exposure, but has not examined priming effects of viewing relational aggression in the media. In the current study, 250 women viewed a video clip depicting physical aggression, relational aggression, or no aggression. Subsequent activation of physical and relational aggression cognitions was measured using an emotional Stroop task. Results indicated priming of relational aggression cognitions after viewing the relationally aggressive video clip, and activation of both physical and relational aggression cognitions after viewing the physically aggressive video clip. Results are discussed within the framework of the General Aggression Model. PMID:22331575
Coyne, Sarah M; Ridge, Robert; Stevens, McKay; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura
The current research consisted of two studies examining the effects of reading physical and relational aggression in literature. In both studies, participants read one of two stories (containing physical or relational aggression), and then participated in one of two tasks to measure aggression. In Study 1, participants who read the physical aggression story were subsequently more physically aggressive than those who read the relational aggression story. Conversely, in Study 2, participants who read the relational aggression story were subsequently more relationally aggressive than those who read the physical aggression story. Combined, these results show evidence for specific effects of reading aggressive content in literature. PMID:21883301
Choi, Susanne Yuk-Ping; Cheung, Adam Ka-Lok; Cheung, Yuet-Wah; David, Roman
Resource theory constitutes important explanations of spousal violence in culturally diverse societies. This article extends the theory by adding several subjective indicators: husband's financial strain and the couple's appraisal of each other's financial and nonfinancial contributions to family. We examined the role of these subjective dimensions of resource in spousal violence against the backdrop of other predictors, including the husband's absolute socioeconomic resources, the wife's economic dependence, and relative resource differences between the husband and wife. The findings not only partly support absolute and relative resource theories but also suggest the salient role of subjective indicators of resources on husband-to-wife physical assault. PMID:25425622
Pickett, William; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Dostaler, Suzanne
Background: Physical aggression is an important issue in North American populations. The importance of students' social environments in the occurrence of physical aggression requires focused study. In this study, reports of physical aggression were examined in relation to social environment factors among national samples of students from Canada…
McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James
This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…
Micheni, Murugi; Rogers, Sam; Wahome, Elizabeth; Darwinkel, Marianne; van der Elst, Elise; Gichuru, Evans; Graham, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Smith, Adrian D.
Background Violence toward MSM and female sex workers (FSW) is associated with HIV risk, and its prevention is prioritized in international HIV/AIDS policy. Methods Sociodemographic and behavioural data derived from HIV risk and follow-up cohorts including MSM and FSW in coastal Kenya between 2005 and 2014 was used to estimate the risk of rape, physical assault and verbal abuse, and to assess associations between first occurrence of assault with individual and recent behavioural factors. Results Incidence of first reported rape was similar for MSM [3.9, confidence interval (CI) 3.1–5.0 per 100 person-years (pyrs)] and FSW (4.8 CI 3.5–6.4 per 100 pyrs), P =0.22. Incidence of first reported physical and verbal assault was higher for FSW than MSM (21.1 versus 12.9 per 100 pyrs, P =0.14 and 51.3 versus 30.9 per 100 pyrs, P =0.03 respectively). Recent alcohol use was associated with reporting of all forms of assault by MSM [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.8, CI 0.9–3.5] and FSW (AOR 4.4, CI 1.41–14.0), as was recent sale of sex for MSM (AOR 2.0, CI 1.1–3.8). Exclusive sex with men, active sex work, and group sex were also specifically associated with reporting rape for MSM. Perpetrators of sexual and verbal assault were usually unknown, whilst perpetrators of physical violence toward FSW were usually regular sexual partners. Conclusion MSM and FSW experienced a similarly high incidence of sexual assault in coastal Kenya, in addition to physical and verbal assault. Current national policies focus heavily on gender-based violence against women and young girls, but need to be inclusive of MSM and FSW. PMID:26562812
Crapanzano, Ann Marie; Frick, Paul J.; Terranova, Andrew M.
The current study investigated the patterns of aggressive behavior displayed in a sample of 282 students in the 4th through 7th grades (M age = 11.28; SD = 1.82). Using cluster analyses, two distinct patterns of physical aggression emerged for both boys and girls with one aggressive cluster showing mild levels of reactive aggression and one group…
Stermac, Lana; And Others
Examines the circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area. Most victims were young gay men, many of whom had physical or cognitive disabilities making them particularly vulnerable. Results suggest a need for increased awareness of acquaintance sexual assault in…
Marsh, Louise; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob
Previous research has found differences between adults' and students' perceptions of adolescents' aggressive behaviour. This study examines teachers' perceptions of physical aggression among New Zealand secondary school students. A survey assessed teachers' perceptions of problematic behaviour, and physical aggression by students towards teachers.…
Buades-Rotger, Macià; Brunnlieb, Claudia; Münte, Thomas F; Heldmann, Marcus; Krämer, Ulrike M
Social neuroscience studies have shown that the ventral striatum (VS), a highly reward-sensitive brain area, is activated when participants win competitive tasks. However, in these settings winning often entails both avoiding punishment and punishing the opponent. It is thus unclear whether the rewarding properties of winning are mainly associated to punishment avoidance, or if punishing the opponent can be additionally gratifying. In the present paper we explored the neurophysiological correlates of each outcome, aiming to better understand the development of aggression episodes. We previously introduced a competitive reaction time task that separates both effects: in half of the won trials, participants can physically punish their opponent (active trials), whereas in the other half they can only avoid a punishment (passive trials). We performed functional connectivity analysis seeded in the VS to test for differential network interactions in active compared to passive trials. The VS showed greater connectivity with areas involved in reward valuation (orbitofrontal cortex), arousal (dorsal thalamus and posterior insula), attention (inferior occipital gyrus), and motor control (supplementary motor area) in active compared to passive trials, whereas connectivity between the VS and the inferior frontal gyrus decreased. Interindividual variability in connectivity strength between VS and posterior insula was related to aggressive behavior, whereas connectivity between VS and supplementary motor area was related to faster reaction times in active trials. Our results suggest that punishing a provoking opponent when winning might adaptively favor a "competitive state" in the course of an aggressive interaction. PMID:25759287
Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N
The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships. PMID:26168263
Murray-Close, Dianna; Han, Georges; Cicchetti, Dante; Crick, Nicki R.; Rogosch, Fred A.
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between circadian rhythms of cortisol and physical and relational aggression. Morning arrival, pre-lunch, and afternoon pre-departure salivary cortisol were assessed among 418 maltreated and nonmaltreated children (52% maltreated; 49% female) attending a summer day camp. Counselors and peers rated participants' involvement in physically and relationally aggressive behaviors. Results indicated that physical aggression was associated with heightened cortisol following morning arrival and relatively steep declines in cortisol over the day whereas relational aggression was associated with low cortisol following morning arrival and blunted diurnal change in cortisol. Moreover, maltreatment was a significant moderator of this relationship such that aggression was related to greater cortisol dysregulation among nonmaltreated than maltreated children. The findings suggest that physiological correlates of aggression may differ for physical and relational forms of aggression and among maltreated versus nonmaltreated populations. PMID:18605842
Werner, Nicole E.; Crick, Nicki R.
This study examined the unique roles of peer rejection and affiliation with aggressive peers in the development of relational and physical aggression in a sample of 979 2nd through 4th grade children. Information about target children and their best friends' aggression and peer rejection was gathered via peer-nominations when the majority of…
Posada, German; Pratt, Dawn Marie
The quality of child-mother attachment relationships is context sensitive. Conflict and aggression in the marital relationship as well as aggressive discipline practices may diminish a child's confidence in her or his mother as a secure base. We investigated whether physical aggression against the mother, exposure of the child to it, and use of…
Posada, Germán; Pratt, Dawn Marie
The quality of child-mother attachment relationships is context sensitive. Conflict and aggression in the marital relationship as well as aggressive discipline practices may diminish a child's confidence in her or his mother as a secure base. We investigated whether physical aggression against the mother, exposure of the child to it, and use of aggressive physical discipline practices were related to attachment security. Forty-five preschoolers and their mothers from a nonclinical, middle-class population were studied. Security scores were obtained from observers' descriptions of children's behavior at home. Mothers reported on marital conflict, physical aggression from their spouse, exposure of the child to aggression, and use of physical discipline practices. Findings indicate that marital conflict, physical aggression, exposure of the child, and use of physical discipline are significantly and negatively associated with security. Regression analyses show that physical aggression contributed unique information to the prediction of security, and that physical discipline did not mediate the associations between physical aggression and child security. Clinical implications of the findings presented are discussed. PMID:18199178
Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Komro, Kelli A.
The current study evaluates neighborhood effects, individual-level effects, and demographic characteristics that influence physically aggressive behavior among urban youth. Using data derived from 5,812 adolescents from Project Northland Chicago (PNC) and Heirarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) techniques, the results suggested that neighborhood problems significantly predicted physical aggression, before and after adjustment for individual-level risk factors (alcohol use, peer alcohol use, lack of adult supervision, and depression) and demographics. After accounting for baseline physical aggression, however, neighborhood problems were no longer a significant predictor of physical aggression. Implications for intervention at both the neighborhood and individual-level and study limitations are also discussed. PMID:24049432
Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, Ana I; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R
This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis revealed that high testosterone levels were associated with a higher level of physical aggression in boys with authoritarian mothers. Testosterone was also found to moderate the relationship between father's authoritarian parenting and physical aggression in girls, with both moderate and high levels being significant. In relation to indirect aggression, moderate and high levels of testosterone were associated with higher levels of this type of aggression in girls with permissive mothers. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the interaction of biological and psychosocial variables when investigating aggressive behavior. PMID:24954610
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Burk, William J
Assortative mating is an important issue in explaining antisocial, aggressive behavior. It is yet unclear, whether the similarity paradigm fully explains frequent displays of aggression in adolescents' romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners' reports of aggression (psychological and physical) and different measures of relationship functioning (e.g., jealousy, conflicts, and the affiliative and romantic quality of the relationship) were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of psychological and physical aggression: nonaggressive couples, couples with higher perceived aggressiveness (both physical and psychological) by females, couples with higher aggressiveness perceived by males and mutually aggressive couples. A substantial number of non-aggressive dyads emerged. Of note was the high number of females showing one-sided aggression, which was, however, not countered by their partner. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with a lack of supportive, trusting relationship qualities, high conflict rates and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the different functions of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning and its potential antisocial outcomes. PMID:26067515
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Burk, William J.
Assortative mating is an important issue in explaining antisocial, aggressive behavior. It is yet unclear, whether the similarity paradigm fully explains frequent displays of aggression in adolescents’ romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners’ reports of aggression (psychological and physical) and different measures of relationship functioning (e.g., jealousy, conflicts, and the affiliative and romantic quality of the relationship) were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of psychological and physical aggression: nonaggressive couples, couples with higher perceived aggressiveness (both physical and psychological) by females, couples with higher aggressiveness perceived by males and mutually aggressive couples. A substantial number of non-aggressive dyads emerged. Of note was the high number of females showing one-sided aggression, which was, however, not countered by their partner. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with a lack of supportive, trusting relationship qualities, high conflict rates and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the different functions of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning and its potential antisocial outcomes. PMID:26067515
Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Mahoney, Annette
Physical aggression directed toward parents by their adolescents is a serious issue both practically and scientifically. In contrast to the extensive literature on other forms of aggression within families (e.g., marital violence, child physical abuse) as well as youth aggression construed broadly, a major gap exists in our knowledge of youth-to-parent physical aggression (YPA). In this study, we analyzed data on three forms of physical aggression (YPA, interparental, and parent-to-youth) from 232 mother-adolescent dyads drawn from a database of families referred for the clinical treatment of emotional and behavioral problems in their adolescent children. Analyses indicated that YPA is prevalent (57% by sons and 49% by daughters in 1 year) and significantly likely to co-occur with interparental and parent-to-youth aggression in the family. Follow-up analyses suggested important sex differences in these relations. PMID:19130361
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Crick, Nicki R
A three-wave longitudinal study among ethnically diverse preadolescents (N = 597 at Time 1, ages 9-11) was conducted to examine adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, victimization, and peer liking indexed by peer acceptance and friendships. A series of nested structural equation models tested the hypothesized links among these peer-domain factors. It was hypothesized that (1) relational aggression trails both adaptive and maladaptive processes, linking to more peer victimization and more peer liking, whereas physical aggression is maladaptive, resulting in more peer victimization and less peer liking; (2) physical and relational victimization is maladaptive, relating to more aggression and less peer liking; (3) peer liking may be the social context that promotes relational aggression (not physical aggression), whereas peer liking may protect against peer victimization, regardless of its type; and (4) peer liking mediates the link between forms of aggression and forms of peer victimization. Results showed that higher levels of peer liking predicted relative increases in relational aggression (not physical aggression), which in turn led to more peer liking. On the other hand, more peer liking was predictive of relative decreases in relational aggression and relational victimization in transition to the next grade (i.e., fifth grade). In addition, relational victimization predicted relative increases in relational aggression and relative decreases in peer liking. Similarly, physical aggression was consistently and concurrently associated more physical victimization and was marginally predictive of relative increases in physical victimization in transition to the next grade. More peer liking predicted relative decreases in physical victimization, which resulted in lower levels of peer liking. The directionality and magnitude of these paths did not differ between boys and girls. PMID:24318459
Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Brinkley, Dawn Y; Underwood, Marion K
This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3-12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group-based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340
Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Beron, Kurt J.; Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Underwood, Marion K.
This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9–18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children’s social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3–12. Participants’ parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children’s behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340
Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Fuertes, Antonio
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine three aspects of romantic relationships of Spanish adolescents: the prevalence of verbal-emotional and physical aggressive behaviors, correlates of dating violence perpetration (both verbal-emotional and physical aggression), and consequences of violence for victims' well-being. Method: A…
Langer, Amie; Lawrence, Erika; Barry, Robin A.
The authors used a vulnerability-stress-adaptation framework to examine personality traits and chronic stress as predictors of the developmental course of physical aggression in the early years of marriage. Additionally, personality traits and physical aggression were examined as predictors of the developmental course of chronic stress. Data from…
Dieng, P. A.; Diop, M. S.; Ciss, A. G.; Ba, P. S.; Diatta, S.; Gaye, M.; Fall, M. L.; Ndiaye, A.; Ndiaye, M.
Penetrating heart injuries cause wounds in the cardiac chambers. Most of them are due to gunshot or stabbing by knives. Screwdriver is an uncommon weapon. Authors report a case of stab wound by screwdriver, treated at cardiovascular center in Dakar. This is a 16-year-old boy who experienced physical aggression. He was assaulted with a screwdriver and had stab wound on the anterior wall of the chest. Physical examination showed a screwdriver penetrating the sternum bone over a right angle. He had a mild pericardial blood effusion and a right ventricle wound 5 mm in diameter with transection of the right coronary vein. The screwdriver was removed without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the ventricle wound repaired by direct suture of stitches reinforced with Teflon pledgets. The right coronary artery was ligated. Postoperative period was free of events. Screwdriver is uncommonly used as a weapon. It is a dangerous device because of its rigid structure and narrow tip. PMID:25945263
Nwafor, Chidozie E; Onyeizugbo, Euckay U; Anazonwu, Charles O
The study investigates the interaction effect of callous-unemotional (CU) traits and gender on physical aggression among Nigerian adolescents. Two hundred and ninety five (295) senior secondary school students who were between 14-16 years of age participated in the study. These participants included boys (152) and girls (143). They were selected from a public senior secondary school in Anambra a South Eastern State of Nigeria and all the participants were of Igbo ethnic group. The raw data for Callous-unemotional traits and Physical Aggression were collected using Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) by Frick (2004) and Aggression Scale by Orpinas and Frankowski (2001) respectively. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, and conditional process analysis (model number 1; Hayes, 2013). The results showed that gender correlated significantly with uncaring and physical aggression but did not correlate significantly with CU and callousness. The results further showed that gender, CU traits, uncaring and callousness subscales significantly predicted physical aggression. Gender also moderated the effect of CU traits and uncaring on physical aggression, but did not moderate the effect of callousness on physical aggression. The discussion focused on the ways of helping individuals with high level of CU traits to reduce aggression, also the limitations of the study, suggestions for further studies and the implications of the finding were highlighted. PMID:26503759
Farrell, Albert D; Mehari, Krista R; Kramer-Kuhn, Alison; Goncy, Elizabeth A
Relations among witnessing violence, victimization, and physical aggression were investigated within a high-risk sample of 1,156 sixth graders. Longitudinal, multilevel analyses were conducted on two waves of data from two cohorts of students in 37 schools from four communities. The sample was 65% male and 67% African American. Neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, witnessing violence, victimization, and physical aggression were strongly and positively correlated at the school level. Contrary to hypothesis, exposure to violence did not mediate the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage on changes in physical aggression. As expected, witnessing violence and physical aggression had bidirectional longitudinal effects on each other at the student level. In contrast, there were no cross-variable relations between changes in violent victimization and aggression over time. PMID:24410717
Taft, Casey T.; Vogt, Dawne S.; Mechanic, Mindy B.; Resick, Patricia A.
This study examined associations between intimate partner aggression and physical health symptoms among a sample of help-seeking women experiencing relationship aggression (N = 388). Using a structural equation modeling framework, the authors found posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to fully mediate the associations of both physical and psychological aggression with physical health symptoms. The influence of PTSD symptoms on physical health symptoms was partially mediated by anger/irritability. Results were consistent with studies from other trauma groups suggesting that PTSD is pivotal with respect to explaining the effects of trauma on health. PMID:17874920
Guillemin, Claire; Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew; Côté, Sylvana M.; Vitaro, Frank; Hallett, Michael; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe
Background High frequency of physical aggression is the central feature of severe conduct disorder and is associated with a wide range of social, mental and physical health problems. We have previously tested the hypothesis that differential DNA methylation signatures in peripheral T cells are associated with a chronic aggression trajectory in males. Despite the fact that sex differences appear to play a pivotal role in determining the development, magnitude and frequency of aggression, most of previous studies focused on males, so little is known about female chronic physical aggression. We therefore tested here whether or not there is a signature of physical aggression in female DNA methylation and, if there is, how it relates to the signature observed in males. Methodology/Principal Findings Methylation profiles were created using the method of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by microarray hybridization and statistical and bioinformatic analyses on T cell DNA obtained from adult women who were found to be on a chronic physical aggression trajectory (CPA) between 6 and 12 years of age compared to women who followed a normal physical aggression trajectory. We confirmed the existence of a well-defined, genome-wide signature of DNA methylation associated with chronic physical aggression in the peripheral T cells of adult females that includes many of the genes similarly associated with physical aggression in the same cell types of adult males. Conclusions This study in a small number of women presents preliminary evidence for a genome-wide variation in promoter DNA methylation that associates with CPA in women that warrant larger studies for further verification. A significant proportion of these associations were previously observed in men with CPA supporting the hypothesis that the epigenetic signature of early life aggression in females is composed of a component specific to females and another common to both males and females. PMID:24475181
Novaco, Raymond W; Taylor, John L
Anger is related to violence prior to hospitalization, during hospitalization, and after discharge. Meta-analyses have established treatment efficacy in reducing anger, but few studies have addressed whether reduced anger leads to lowered aggressive behavior. This study concerns individually-delivered anger treatment, specialized for offenders with intellectual disabilities, delivered twice weekly for 18 sessions to 50 forensic hospital patients. Assessments involved patient self-report of anger, staff ratings of anger and aggression, and case records of assaultive incidents. Physical assault data were obtained from records 12 months pre-treatment and 12 months post-treatment. Significant reductions in assaults following treatment were found by GEE analyses, controlling for age, gender, length of stay, IQ, and pre-hospital violence. Following treatment, physical attacks reduced by more than half, dropping from approximately 3.5 attacks per patient 6 months prior to treatment, versus approximately 1 attack per patient in the 6-12 month interval post-treatment. In hierarchical regressions, controlling for IQ, reduction in physical assaults was associated with pre-to post-treatment change in anger level. These findings buttress the efficacy of anger treatment for patients having histories of violence and have significance for patient mental health, hospital staff well-being, therapeutic milieu, hospital management, and service delivery costs. PMID:25569340
O'Donnell, Casey; Cook, Joan M; Thompson, Richard; Riley, Kevin; Neria, Yuval
This study examined the relationship among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and intimate partner relationship aggression in a community sample of World War II (WWII) male military former prisoners of war (POWs). Sixty percent of these POWs reported verbal aggression in their marriages, and 12% endorsed physical aggression. Both verbal and physical aggression were significantly correlated to the severity of captivity trauma and to PTSD symptoms. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms significantly mediated the relationship between severity of trauma and both verbal and physical aggression. Depression was a significant moderator of the relationship between PTSD and both physical and verbal aggression. Theoretical and clinical implications are suggested. PMID:17195970
LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan
The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse. PMID:24252744
Brotman, Laurie Miller; O'Neal, Colleen R.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Shrout, Patrick E.
Background: Parenting practices predict early childhood physical aggression. Preventive interventions that alter parenting practices and aggression during early childhood provide the opportunity to test causal models of early childhood psychopathology. Although there have been several informative preventive intervention studies that test mediation…
Roberto, Anthony J.; Meyer, Gary; Boster, Franklin J.; Roberto, Heather L.
Examines the ability of the theory of reasoned action to explain and predict adolescents' verbal (i.e., insulting) and physical (i.e., fighting) aggression, as well as behaviors that encourage aggression such as watching a fight or telling others about a fight that is going to happen. Reveals that attitudes and subjective norms predicted…
Ambrose, Holly N.; Menna, Rosanne
This study examined the relationships between the quality of parent-child interactions, specifically interactional synchrony (IS), and physical and relational aggression in young children. Seventy-three children (3-6 years; 44 males, 29 females) and their mothers participated in this study. The children's level of aggression was assessed through…
Fritz, Patti A. Timmons; Slep, Amy M. Smith
This study examined the stability of adolescent physical and psychological dating aggression across both time and partners in a sample of 664 high school students using both nonparametric and growth curve (GC) modeling techniques. Nonparametric and GC modeling tests demonstrated moderate levels of stability of all forms of aggression.…
Brendgen, Mara; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel
Based on a sample of 406 seven-year-old twins, this study examined whether exposure to friends' social or physical aggression, respectively, moderates the effect of heritability on children's own social and physical aggression. Univariate analyses showed that children's own social and physical aggression were significantly explained by genetic…
Campbell, Susan B.; Spieker, Susan; Vandergrift, Nathan; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret
Teacher-rated trajectories of physical aggression in boys and girls from 1st through 6th grade were examined using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. In separate analyses, four trajectories were identified in boys and three in girls. Higher levels of aggression in both boys and girls were related to greater sociodemographic risk and higher maternal harshness in the preschool years; lower levels of observed maternal sensitivity during early childhood also predicted higher trajectories of aggression among girls. Trajectory groups also differed on a range of social and academic adjustment outcomes in 6th grade, with the most aggressive children and even moderately aggressive children evidencing some difficulties in adjustment. Patterns and levels of aggression in boys and girls are discussed as are their predictors and consequences. PMID:20102652
Ernst, E J; Speck, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J
The forensic medical legal evaluation following sexual assault establishes evidence for law enforcement's investigation and criminal prosecution by the legal system. The sexual assault nurse examiner performs the forensic evaluation and uses digital photography to document physical injuries after sexual assault. Photographs have varying degrees of usefulness, but for a photograph to be useful, it must exhibit technical elements for the viewer. There was no tool available to evaluate the usefulness of digital photographs taken during forensic evaluation of genital injuries after sexual assault. The Photo Documentation Image Quality Scoring System (PDIQSS) tool was developed to rate photographic technical elements for usefulness. Using this tool, three experts on two separate occasions evaluated a series of digital photographs taken following sexual assault. The PDIQSS tool predicted usefulness in digital photography of female genital injuries following sexual assault when measured in all dimensions. PMID:21317696
Janke, Katharina; Propper, Carol; Shields, Michael A
We investigate an underexplored externality of crime: the impact of violent crime on individuals' participation in walking. For many adults walking is the only regular physical activity. We use a sample of nearly 1 million people in 323 small areas in England between 2005 and 2011 matched to quarterly crime data at the small area level. Within area variation identifies the causal effect of local violent crime on walking and a difference-in-difference analysis of two high-profile crimes corroborates our results. We find a significant deterrent effect of violent crime on walking that translates into a drop in overall physical activity. PMID:26928438
Low, Sabina; Polanin, Joshua R; Espelage, Dorothy L
Despite the veritable influence of the peer context on the elaboration of adolescent aggression, few studies of relational aggression have directly identified and measured peer groups, limiting our ability to draw formal conclusions about the level and nature of peer influence. The current study used a developmental framework to examine peer group influence on individual levels of physical and relational aggression over a year with 6th and 7th grade students (n = 346, 51 % female). A multilevel network approach was used in which peer groups were identified via social network analysis, and peer group influence was evaluated with hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). HLM analyses indicated that peer group aggression (physical and relational) at time 1 was predictive of individual aggression levels at time 2 after controlling for other peer group characteristics as well as other individual risk and protective factors. Although both forms of aggression were embedded in peer networks, findings suggest that physical aggression is relatively less endemic to peer networks, and is more likely to occur in smaller, predominantly male networks. The current study highlights the importance of understanding the influence of peer group membership on adolescent aggression and points to important implications for prevention. PMID:23504600
Ghalehtaki, Reza; Ghazanfari, Arash; Daneshvar-fard, Maryam; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza
Objective Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression. Methods In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. Results According to parents’ rating, the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4%), 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6%) and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%), respectively; while based on teachers’ rating the prevalence of physical,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%), 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% -6.0%) and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%), respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study revealed that children's family environment alongside internal factors plays an important role as an external factor in determining the child's potential aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies. PMID:24454423
Narayan, Angela J.; Chen, Muzi; Martinez, Pedro P.; Gold, Philip W.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of parental mood disorders on offspring maladjustment, studies have not identified whether elevated interparental violence (IPV) may be an exacerbating influence in this pathway. This study examined levels of physical IPV perpetration and victimization in mothers with unipolar depression or Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the processes by which maternal physical IPV moderated adolescents’ physical aggression in families with maternal mood disorders. Mothers with lifetime mood disorders were predicted to have elevated IPV compared to well mothers, and maternal IPV was expected to moderate the association between lifetime mood disorders and adolescent aggression. Participants included 61 intact families with maternal depression (n = 24), BD (n = 13), or well mothers (n = 24) and two siblings (ages 10 to 18 years). Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, mothers reported on IPV perpetration and victimization, and adolescents reported on physical aggression. Mothers with BD reported significantly higher IPV perpetration, but not victimization, than depressed or well mothers. An interaction between maternal BD and IPV perpetration was a significant predictor of adolescent aggression. Main effects of maternal IPV victimization and interaction effects of maternal depression and either type of IPV on adolescent aggression were not significant. Adolescents of mothers who have BD and perpetrate IPV may be particularly vulnerable to being aggressive. Prevention and policy efforts to deter transmission of aggression in high-risk families should target families with maternal BD and intervene at the level of conflict resolution within the family. PMID:25418790
Mercado-Crespo, Melissa C; Mbah, Alfred K
Youth violence is a critical public health problem across races/ethnicities in the United States. Although the differential association between substance use and physical aggression has been empirically proven, no tests have assessed the moderating effects of sociocultural differences in such associations. The purpose of this study is to test the moderating impact of race/ethnicity-as an indicator of sociocultural differences--on the associations between substance use and adolescent aggression, by conducting a validity assessment of a physical aggression measure for high school students with emphasis on Hispanics and other minorities. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis of the 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, with a representative sample of all U.S. high school students, was conducted. Contingency table and chi-square test evaluated the statistical relationship between substance use (alcohol, marijuana, either, or both) and self-reports of physical aggression, race/ethnicity, age, and sex of the respondent. Three logistic regression analyses assessed the effect of race/ethnicity on the likelihood of reporting physical aggression by overall substance use and type of substance use. Statistical significant associations were found between physical aggression and alcohol and/or marijuana use. The self-report of substance use (marijuana or alcohol) and alcohol use significantly increased the likelihood of physical aggression across races/ethnicities, highest among racial/ethnic minorities (Blacks > Hispanic > Others > Whites). The differential impact of substance use on physical aggression was confirmed, and such impact was moderated by the sociocultural context (race/ethnicity) of the adolescent. In-depth validity assessments are needed to confirm this study's predictive validity findings. PMID:23262830
Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.; Gentsch, Joanna K.; Galperin, Mikal B.; Risser, Scott D.
This investigation examines whether negative interparental conflict strategies (stonewalling, triangulation, verbal aggression, and physical aggression) and parenting styles are related to social and physical aggression with peers for children followed longitudinally from age 9 to 10 (N = 256). Parents reported on negative conflict strategies and…
Cleverley, Kristin; Szatmari, Peter; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael; Lipman, Ellen
Objective: Two common subtypes of aggression (physical and indirect) have been shown to develop concurrently throughout childhood and to uniquely predict maladjustment. However, nothing is known about psychiatric outcomes of joint trajectories of physical aggression (PA) and indirect aggression (IA) in emerging adulthood. Method: Trajectories of…
Rogowicz, Samantha T.; Del Vecchio, Tamara; Dwyer-Masin, Tanya; Hughes, Elizabeth M.
In the present study, middle school teachers responded to written vignettes describing physical and relational aggressive incidents. The aggressors were male or female children committing an aggressive act against same-sex peers, who were also described as good or bad. Among the results, teachers rated female physical aggression as more serious…
Bernards, Sharon; Graham, Kathryn
Some research suggests that the risk of physical aggression by an intimate partner is related to marital status, but this relationship may vary across cultures and by gender. In the present study, we systematically examine the relationship between marital status and physical partner aggression by gender across 19 countries. Logistic and multilevel regression confirmed previous findings of lower rates of physical aggression for legally married versus cohabiting and separated/divorced women and men across most, but notably, not all countries. Single status was associated with higher risk in some countries and lower in others reflecting possible cultural differences in risk for different marital statuses. For example, single women had significantly lower rates of victimization than did married women in India where violence against wives is often accepted. The variation in the cross-cultural findings highlights the importance of examining both men and women and considering the cultural context when interpreting the relationship between partner aggression and marital status. PMID:24039342
Underwood, Marion K.; Beron, Kurt J.; Rosen, Lisa H.
For a sample followed from age 9–13 (N=281), this investigation examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression as measured by teacher ratings. Trajectories for both forms of aggression were estimated first separately, then jointly. Mean levels of both social and physical aggression decreased over time for the overall sample, but with high variability of individual trajectories. Subgroups followed high trajectories for both social and physical aggression. Joint estimation yielded six trajectories: low stable, low increasers, medium increasers, medium desisters, high desisters, and high increasers. Membership in the high increaser group was predicted by male gender, unmarried parents, African American ethnicity, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting. Permissive parenting also predicted membership in the medium increaser group. This is one of the first studies to examine social aggression longitudinally across this developmental period. Though the results challenge the claim that social aggression is at its peak in early adolescence, the findings emphasize the importance of considering different developmental trajectories in trying to understand origins and outcomes of aggression. PMID:19685551
Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel
Exposure to deviant friends has been found to be a powerful source of influence on children's and adolescents' aggressive behavior. However, the contribution of deviant friends may have been overestimated because of a possible non-accounted gene-environment correlation (rGE). In this study, we used a cross-lagged design to test whether friends'…
Gao, Yu; Shi, Lu; Smith, Kelly C.; Kingree, Jeffery B.; Thompson, Martie
Background: The link between trait mindfulness and several dimensions of aggression (verbal, anger and hostility) has been documented, while the link between physical aggression and trait mindfulness remains less clear. Method: We used two datasets: one United States sample from 300 freshmen males from Clemson University, South Carolina and a Chinese sample of 1516 freshmen students from Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. Multiple regressions were conducted to examine the association between mindfulness (measured by Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS)) and each of the four subscales of aggression. Results: Among the Clemson sample (N = 286), the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.29, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.44, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai male subsample, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.57, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.35, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.58, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai female subsample (N = 512), the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.41, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.52, p < 0.001; and Anger: β = −0.64, p < 0.001. Discussion: Our study documents the negative association between mindfulness and physical aggression in two non-clinical samples. Future studies could explore whether mindfulness training lowers physical aggression among younger adults. PMID:27171103
Kelly, Erin L; Fenwick, Karissa; Brekke, John S; Novaco, Raymond W
Psychiatric staff are faced with multiple forms of hostility, aggression, and assault at work, collectively referred to as workplace violence, which typically is activated by patients but can also come from coworkers and supervisors. Whether workplace violence adversely affects staff well-being may be related not only to its presence, but also to an individual's stress reactivity. At a large public psychiatric hospital, an online survey was completed by 323 clinical care staff, of whom 69.5 % had experienced physical assault in the previous 12 months. Staff well-being (depression, anger, and physical health) and staff safety concerns were adversely affected by conflicts with other staff members and by individual reactivity to social conflict and to assault. To improve staff well-being, in addition to safety protocols, interventions should target staff relationships, personal health maintenance practices, and individual coping skills for dealing with adverse workplace experiences. PMID:26377816
Rodwell, John; Demir, Defne; Gulyas, Andre
Employees in aged care are at high risk of workplace aggression. Research rarely examines the individual and contextual antecedents of aggression for specific types of workers within these settings, such as nurses and certified nursing assistants (CNAs). The study aimed to explore characteristics of the job demands-resources model (JD-R), negative affectivity (NA) and demographics related to workplace aggression for aged care workers. The survey study was based on 208 nurses and 83 CNAs working within aged care. Data from each group were analysed separately using ordinal regressions. Both aged care nurses and CNAs reported high rates of bullying, external emotional abuse, threat of assault and physical assault. Elements of the JD-R model and individual characteristics were related to aggression types for both groups. Characteristics of the JD-R model, NA and demographics are important in understanding the antecedents of aggression observed among aged care workers. PMID:26224217
Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew J.; Vitaro, Frank; Szyf, Moshe; Tremblay, Richard E.
Background An increasing number of animal and human studies are indicating that inflammation is associated with behavioral disorders including aggression. This study investigates the association between chronic physical aggression during childhood and plasma cytokine levels in early adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings Two longitudinal studies were used to select males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence (n = 7) and a control group from the same background (n = 25). Physical aggression was assessed yearly by teachers from childhood to adolescence and plasma levels of 10 inflammatory cytokines were assessed at age 26 and 28 years. Compared to the control group, males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence had consistently lower plasma levels of five cytokines: lower pro-inflammatory interleukins IL-1α (T(28.7) = 3.48, P = 0.002) and IL-6 (T(26.9) = 3.76, P = 0.001), lower anti-inflammatory interleukin IL-4 (T(27.1) = 4.91, P = 0.00004) and IL-10 (T(29.8) = 2.84, P = 0.008) and lower chemokine IL-8 (T(26) = 3.69, P = 0.001). The plasma levels of four cytokines accurately predicted aggressive and control group membership for all subjects. Conclusions/Significance Physical aggression of boys during childhood is a strong predictor of reduced plasma levels of cytokines in early adulthood. The causal and physiological relations underlying this association should be further investigated since animal data suggest that some cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1β play a causal role in aggression. PMID:23922720
Vivian, D; Malone, J
This study uses a gender-specific approach to investigate the association among relationship factors, depressive symptomatology and husbands' marital violence in 327 couples who attended a marital therapy clinic. Both spouses reports were used to group couples according to husbands' verbal (VA), mild physical (MA), and severe physical (SA) aggression as measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979). Frequency of aggression and spouses' perceptions about their partners' communication skills during conflict (i.e., use of hostile, verbally aggressive and avoidant conflict styles) were different for all groups. Reports on marital quality, conflict management style, cognitions about marriage, and individual affective state were more negative for both spouses when husbands were severely physically aggressive. Wives in the SA group were most likely to believe that partners cannot change. Discriminant function analysis provided substantial prediction of group membership when husbands were verbally or severely aggressive, but weaker prediction when husbands engaged in mild physical aggression. The limits of current measures of dyadic processes for marital violence research are discussed. PMID:9360285
Tuvblad, Catherine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Comasco, Erika; Andershed, Henrik; Andershed, Anna-Karin; Colins, Olivier F; Fanti, Kostas A; Nilsson, Kent W
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype has been implicated as a vulnerability factor for several psychiatric diseases as well as aggressive behavior, either directly, or in interaction with an adverse environment. The present study aimed at investigating the susceptibility properties of COMT genotype to adverse and favorable environment in relation to physical and verbal aggressive behavior. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism was genotyped in a Swedish population-based cohort including 1,783 individuals, ages 20-24 years (47% males). A significant three-way interaction was found, after correction for multiple testing, between COMT genotype, exposure to violence, and parent-child relationship in association with physical but not verbal aggressive behavior. Homozygous for the Val allele reported lower levels of physical aggressive behavior when they were exposed to violence and at the same time experienced a positive parent-child relationship compared to Met carriers. Thus, susceptibility properties of COMT genotype were observed in relation to physical aggressive behavior supporting the hypothesis that COMT genotypes are modifying the sensitivity to environment that confers either risk or protection for aggressive behavior. As these are novel findings, they warrant further investigation and replication in independent samples. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26888414
Wang, Fu Man; Chen, Jing Qi; Xiao, Wan Qing; Ma, Ya Ting; Zhang, Man
This study explored the prevalence of peer physical aggression (PPA) and its association with aggressive beliefs, empathy, self-control, and cooperation skills among 1,719 7th-to-9th-grade students in a rural town in the central China province of Henan. The data were collected by the self-administered questionnaire anonymously. Results showed that…
Guillemin, Claire; Vitaro, Frank; Côté, Sylvana M.; Hallett, Michael; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe
Background Chronic physical aggression (CPA) is characterized by frequent use of physical aggression from early childhood to adolescence. Observed in approximately 5% of males, CPA is associated with early childhood adverse environments and long-term negative consequences. Alterations in DNA methylation, a covalent modification of DNA that regulates genome function, have been associated with early childhood adversity. Aims To test the hypothesis that a trajectory of chronic physical aggression during childhood is associated with a distinct DNA methylation profile during adulthood. Methods We analyzed genome-wide promoter DNA methylation profiles of T cells from two groups of adult males assessed annually for frequency of physical aggression between 6 and 15 years of age: a group with CPA and a control group. Methylation profiles covering the promoter regions of 20 000 genes and 400 microRNAs were generated using MeDIP followed by hybridization to microarrays. Results In total, 448 distinct gene promoters were differentially methylated in CPA. Functionally, many of these genes have previously been shown to play a role in aggression and were enriched in biological pathways affected by behavior. Their locations in the genome tended to form clusters spanning millions of bases in the genome. Conclusions This study provides evidence of clustered and genome-wide variation in promoter DNA methylation in young adults that associates with a history of chronic physical aggression from 6 to 15 years of age. However, longitudinal studies of methylation during early childhood will be necessary to determine if and how this methylation variation in T cells DNA plays a role in early development of chronic physical aggression. PMID:24691403
Shackman, Jessica E; Pollak, Seth D
Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children's allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders. PMID:24914736
SHACKMAN, JESSICA E.; POLLAK, SETH D.
Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children’s allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders. PMID:24914736
The value of physical or corporal punishment is disputed among psychologists; most regard it as harmless, although a subgroup of researchers has controversially suggested that parental use of physical punishment may be causally related to the development of aggression. Thus, the psychological community appears to have separated into determined…
Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.; Yang, Chongming; Olsen, Joseph A.; Jin, Shenghua
This study assessed the combined and differential contributions of Chinese mothers and fathers (in terms of spouse-reported physically coercive and psychologically controlling parenting) to the development of peer-reported physical and relational aggression in their preschool-age children (mean age of 5 years). Results of the two-group (boys and…
Krebs, Christopher P.; Lindquist, Christine H.; Warner, Tara D.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Martin, Sandra L.
Objective: Research has shown associations between college women's alcohol and/or drug consumption and the risk of sexual assault, but few studies have measured the various means by which sexual assault is achieved. Participants: The authors' Campus Sexual Assault Study obtained self-report data from a random sample of undergraduate women (N =…
Missouri Governor's Commission on Crime, Jefferson.
This publication is designed to educate men and women about sexual assault. The goals are to encourage people to become involved in their own protection and to make them better informed and able to deal with sexual assaults when they do occur. Facts about sexual assault are presented, including descriptions of rapists, rape victims, and rape…
Kokko, Katja; Tremblay, Richard E.; Lacourse, Eric; Nagin, Daniel S.; Vitaro, Frank
Trajectories of prosocial behavior and physical aggression between 6 and 12 years of age were identified for a sample (N=1,025) of males. The trajectories were then used to predict school dropout and physical violence at age 17. Using a group-based semi-parametric method, two trajectories of prosociality (low and moderate declining) and three…
Hudson, Angela L; Wright, Kynna; Bhattacharya, Debika; Sinha, Karabi; Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary
The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of sexual and physical assault among homeless women. A multivariate, correlation design was utilized to identify independent correlates of adult physical and sexual assault. The sample consisted of 202 homeless women residing in shelters or living on the street in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Respondents reporting a history of child sexual abuse were almost four times more likely to report being sexually assaulted as adults and were almost two and one third times more likely to report being physically assaulted as adults. A range of factors increase homeless women's risk of adult physical and sexual victimization, including child sexual abuse, substance use, lifetime sex trade activity, and previous incarceration. It is important for homeless service providers to develop an individual risk profile for homeless women and to intervene in order to decrease their risk of re-victimization. PMID:21099076
El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Buckhalt, Joseph
Relations between marital aggression (psychological and physical) and children’s health were examined. Children’s emotional insecurity was assessed as a mediator of these relations, with distinctions made between marital aggression against mothers and fathers and ethnicity (African American or European American), socioeconomic status, and child gender examined as moderators of effects. Participants were 251 community-recruited families, with multiple reporters of each construct. Aggression against either parent yielded similar effects for children. Children’s emotional insecurity mediated the relation between marital aggression and children’s internalizing, externalizing, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. No differences were found in these pathways for African American and European American families or as a function of socioeconomic status or child gender. PMID:18229991
Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew J.; Caramaschi, Doretta; Wang, Dongsha; Hallett, Michael; Vitaro, Frank
Background Animal and human studies suggest that inflammation is associated with behavioral disorders including aggression. We have recently shown that physical aggression of boys during childhood is strongly associated with reduced plasma levels of cytokines IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, later in early adulthood. This study tests the hypothesis that there is an association between differential DNA methylation regions in cytokine genes in T cells and monocytes DNA in adult subjects and a trajectory of physical aggression from childhood to adolescence. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the methylation profiles of the entire genomic loci encompassing the IL-1α, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-8 and three of their regulatory transcription factors (TF) NFkB1, NFAT5 and STAT6 genes in adult males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory (CPA) and males with the same background who followed a normal physical aggression trajectory (control group) from childhood to adolescence. We used the method of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation with comprehensive cytokine gene loci and TF loci microarray hybridization, statistical analysis and false discovery rate correction. We found differentially methylated regions to associate with CPA in both the cytokine loci as well as in their transcription factors loci analyzed. Some of these differentially methylated regions were located in known regulatory regions whereas others, to our knowledge, were previously unknown as regulatory areas. However, using the ENCODE database, we were able to identify key regulatory elements in many of these regions that indicate that they might be involved in the regulation of cytokine expression. Conclusions We provide here the first evidence for an association between differential DNA methylation in cytokines and their regulators in T cells and monocytes and male physical aggression. PMID:23977113
Diener, E; Dineen, J; Endresen, K; Beaman, A L; Fraser, S C
This laboratory investigation using 64 college students as subjects assessed the role of three disinhibiting variables in producing both physical aggression and an internal state of deindividuation. Altered responsibility, congnitive set, and modeling were manipulated in a factorial design, and all three variables significantly increased physical aggression. No interaction produced significant results. The increase due to altered responsibility and varying cognitions supports Zimbardo's theory of deindividuation which relates certain input variables to wild, impulsive behavior. Questionnaire data indicated that the increase in aggression was not accompanied by internal mediational factors such as reduced self-awareness. It appears that disinhibiting forces may produce increases in antisocial behavior without necessarily producing a deindividuated internal state. PMID:1123716
Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.
Research Findings The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This paper examined how engagement in preschool physical and relational aggression predicted psychosocial adjustment during the kindergarten school year. Observations and teacher reports of aggression were collected in preschool, and kindergarten teachers reported on student-teacher relationship quality, child internalizing problems, and peer acceptance in kindergarten. Results suggested that preschool physical aggression predicted reduced peer acceptance and increased conflict with the kindergarten teacher. High levels of relational aggression, when not combined with physical aggression, were related to more positive transitions to kindergarten in the domains assessed. Practice or Policy These data lend support to the need for interventions among physically aggressive preschoolers to target not only concurrent behavior but also future aggression and adjustment in kindergarten. Thus, educators should work to encourage social influence in more prosocial ways amongst aggressive preschoolers. PMID:26146468
Jennings, Wesley G.; Komro, Kelli A.
Several studies have investigated factors associated with physical aggression during adolescence. Yet, little is known about the longitudinal relationship between drug use, particularly alcohol use, and physical aggression among minority youth. The present study examined the effects of alcohol and substance use at age 11 on trajectories of physical aggression over time (ages 12–14) among urban adolescents from Chicago, IL. Data from the Project Northland Chicago (n = 3038, 49.4% female) was used. The current study sample included 1,160 Black, 1,015 Hispanic and 863 White/other adolescents for a total of 3,038 adolescents. Four trajectories of physical aggression were identified: Non-aggressive (16%), Desistors (9%), Escalators (20%) and Chronic Aggressive (55%). After adjusting for physical aggression behaviors, delinquent friends, lack of supervised time, demographic variables, smoking and marijuana use, past year alcohol users at age 11 were 2.1 times more likely to be “Escalators” and 1.9 times more likely to be in the “Chronic Aggressive” group. Gender and ethnic differences were also observed in the trajectories of physical aggression. Black youth were 2.5 times more likely to be in the “Chronic Aggressive” group. Findings highlight the importance of targeting alcohol prevention to reduce physical aggression among urban young adolescents. PMID:20012555
Brieden, T; Ujeyl, M; Naber, D
Aggressive behavior is frequently observed in schizophrenic patients. More than 50 % of all psychiatric patients and 10 % of schizophrenic patients show aggressive symptoms varying from threatening behavior and agitation to assault. The pharmacological treatment of acute, persisting and repetitive aggression is a serious problem for other patients and staff members. Not only is violent behavior from mentally ill patients the most detrimental factor in their stigmatization, aggression is also a considerable direct source of danger for the patients themselves. Based on rather limited evidence, a wide variety of medications for the pharmacological treatment of aggression has been recommended: typical and atypical antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, beta-blockers and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Most clinical information on treating aggression has been collected for atypical neuroleptics, particularly for clozapine. Several retrospective and open studies indicate its efficacy. Treatment duration of 6 months is recommended to induce a stable reduction of physical and verbal aggression. Severe side effects have very rarely been seen. At the moment, clozapine seems to be the first choice in aggression treatment. Within the last few years, about 10 articles were published showing that this is the most effective antiaggressive agent in the treatment of aggression and agitation in psychiatric patients, independent of psychiatric diagnosis. However, clozapine, like all the other substances used, does not have an established indication for the treatment of aggressive symptoms. Noncompliance with medication makes it difficult to choose the right preparation for the medication: tablets, liquids, intramuscular injections and readily soluble "FDDFs" are available. Ethical, juridical and methodological problems prevent controlled studies from establishing a reference in the treatment of aggression in mentally ill patients. This review summarizes
Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert
In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence. PMID:25360124
Pappas, Jason Christopher
This study examined internal (personal) and external (situational) factors that previous research found affected perceptions of physical aggression and associated reporting behaviors among student-athletes. Results of this study suggested certain factors significantly impacted a student-athlete's decision to report and who received that report.…
Fairchild, Louis; Erwin, William M.
This project investigated the effect of a filmed, physically punitive parent model on the behavior of 60 elementary age boys. The total percentage of aggressive responses emitted in doll play was significantly higher for those who viewed the film compared to those who had not. (MS)
Murray-Close, Dianna; Han, Georges; Cicchetti, Dante; Crick, Nicki R.; Rogosch, Fred A.
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association between circadian rhythms of cortisol and physical and relational aggression. Morning arrival, prelunch, and afternoon predeparture salivary cortisol were assessed among 418 maltreated and nonmaltreated children (52% maltreated; 49% female) attending a summer day camp.…
Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina
This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…
Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Thijs, Jochem T.; Stoel, Reinoud D.; van der Leij, Aryan
A confirmatory factor analytic study was conducted to obtain evidence for physical aggression as a distinct construct of nonaggressive antisocial behavior in young children. Second, the authors investigated factorial invariance across gender. Teachers completed the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ) for two independent samples of…
This study extends research on the consequences of mass imprisonment and the causes of children's behavioral problems by considering the effects of paternal incarceration on children's physical aggression at age 5 using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Results suggest that paternal incarceration is associated with…
Casas, Juan F.; Weigel, Stephanie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Woods, Kathleen E.; Yeh, Elizabeth A. Jansen; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.
This study investigated early parent-child relationships and how children's use of relational and physical aggression varies with aspects of those relationships during the preschool years. Specifically, parenting styles, parents' use of psychological control, and parents' report of their children's reunion behaviors were assessed. Analyses…
Hawley, Patricia H.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Mize, Jennifer A.; McNamara, Kelly A.
Several lines of theory and research suggest that power (e.g., social dominance) and status (e.g., social prominence and positive peer regard) are enjoyed by those blessed with good looks. The present work addresses the relations among physical attractiveness, power, status, and aggression from a resource control theoretic perspective that…
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.
The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Geiger, Tasha C.; Crick, Nicki R.
In this 3-year prospective study (N = 458) spanning a transition to middle school, bidirectional associations between children's relations with schoolmates (social preference and impact) and behaviors (physical and relational aggression, prosocial behavior) were examined using structural equation modeling. Gender moderation of all estimated paths…
Macy, Rebecca J.; Nurius, Paula S.; Norris, Jeanette
Little guidance exists about how to tailor empowerment and resistance sexual assault programming to be responsive to varying groups of women. Using an investigation of 415 college women who completed a self-administered survey about a range of sexually aggressive experiences by a known male assailant, this investigation tested for distinct…
Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Thijs, Jochem T.; van der Leij, Aryan
The distinctiveness of physical aggression from other antisocial behavior is widely accepted but little research has explicitly focused on young children to empirically test this assumption. A Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix (MTMM) approach was employed to confirm the distinctiveness of physical aggression from nonaggressive antisocial behavior in…
Girard, Lisa-Christine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.
Background Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children’s sex. Methods Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) (N = 2, 057) were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments. Results The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter. Conclusions Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months. PMID:25375971
Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal…
Anderson, Shelley; Bucholz, Jessica L.; Hazelkorn, Michael; Cooper, Margaret A.
This study was designed to examine the effects of literacy-based behavioural interventions (Bucholz et al., 2008) to decrease acts of physical aggression with kindergarten and first grade students. The study used a multiple baseline design across three participants. The results showed a decrease in acts of physical aggression by students with…
Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Komro, Kelli A.
Several studies have investigated factors associated with physical aggression during adolescence. Yet, little is known about the longitudinal relationship between drug use, particularly alcohol use, and physical aggression among minority youth. The present study examined the effects of alcohol and substance use at age 11 on trajectories of…
Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Romera, Eva María; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario
Studies concerning parenting styles and disciplinary practices have shown a relationship between both factors and bullying involvement in adolescence. The scarce available evidence suggests that abusive disciplinary practices increase teenagers' vulnerability to abuse in school or the likelihood of them becoming abusers of their peers in the same context. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the indirect effect of parenting styles in adolescents' bullying involvement through disciplinary practices, although a relationship between parenting styles and disciplinary practices has been shown. The aim of this research was to determine the mediating role of punitive parental discipline (physical punishment and psychological aggression) between the dimensions of parents' parenting styles and their children's involvement in bullying victimization and aggression. We used a sample comprising 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age=14.34). Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. The results confirmed the mediating role of parental discipline between the parenting practices analyzed and students' aggression and victimization. Significant gender-related differences were found for aggression involvement, where boys were for the most part linked to psychological aggression disciplinary practices and girls to physical punishment. Victimization directly correlated with parental psychological aggression discipline behavior across both sexes. In conclusion, the results seem to suggest that non-democratic parenting styles favor the use of punitive discipline, which increases the risk of adolescents' bullying involvement. Therefore, intervention programs must involve parents to make them aware about the important role they play in this process and to improve their parenting styles. PMID:26598076
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Johnson, Sara B.; Haynie, Denise L.; Chung, Shang-en; Cheng, Tina L.
Objectives To examine the impact of retaliatory attitudes on subsequent violent behavior and fight-related injuries among youth who presented to the emergency department with assault-injuries. Design Assault-injured youth were interviewed at baseline, 6 months and 18 months to assess fighting behavior, retaliatory attitudes, weapon carrying and injury history as part of a larger randomized control trial. Setting Two emergency departments in urban areas. Participants One hundred twenty-nine adolescents aged 10 to 15. Outcome measures Fighting behavior, assault-injury, weapon carrying, and aggressive behavior. Results Higher retaliatory attitudes at baseline were associated with more aggression and a higher frequency of fighting over time. Conclusions Retaliatory attitudes may fuel cycles of violence among youth. Medical professionals in acute care settings have an opportunity to identify youths at risk of future assault injury by assessing retaliation, providing anticipatory guidance and referring to intervention programs. PMID:22325125
Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David
The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators. PMID:25012954
Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W
This study examined the associations between children's co-occurring relational and physical aggression trajectories and their peer relations (i.e., peer rejection, peer acceptance, and reciprocated friendships) from late childhood (Grade 4; Mage = 10.0) to early adolescence (Grade 8; Mage = 13.9). Using a sample of 477 children (240 girls), the findings indicated there were multiple heterogeneous subgroups of children who followed distinct co-occurring aggression trajectories. For each of these subgroups, multiple indices of their relational development were assessed and findings revealed notable group differences. These results have implications about the potential costs and benefits of aggression, and how its associations with children's peer relationships may vary as a function of aggression subtype, developmental timing, and gender. PMID:26414097
Willoughby, Vickie; Heger, Astrid; Rogers, Christopher; Sathyavagiswaran, Lakshmanan
Since 2001, the Los Angeles County Department of Coroner has collaborated with Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center Violence Intervention Program and their Sexual Assault Center. The partnership was established at the suggestion of the district attorney's office to enhance the clinical recognition of sexual assault in the medical examiner's office using the extensive experience of experts in the field of sexual assault. As of December 2008, over 5 dozen victims of sexual assault have been evaluated with this collaboration. The partnership relied on the expertise of 2 pediatricians who are established clinical experts in the field of sexual abuse and assault, in collaboration with the staff of the medical examiner's office. In cases of suspected sexual assault, a joint evaluation by the clinical experts and the medical examiner was made. The goal of the project was for the medical examiners to become more confident in their observations and documentation of crimes of sexual abuse. Even though they are still available upon request, consultations with the sexual assault experts have decreased as the skills of the medical examiner to evaluate sexual assault cases have increased. PMID:22442832
Huijbregts, Stephan C J; Séguin, Jean R; Zoccolillo, Mark; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E
This study investigated joint effects of maternal prenatal smoking and parental history of antisocial behavior on physical aggression between ages 17 and 42 months in a population sample of children born in Québec (N = 1,745). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant main effects of maternal prenatal smoking and a significant interaction between maternal prenatal smoking and mother's history of antisocial behavior in the prediction of children's probability to display high and rising physical aggression. The interaction indicated that the effects of heavy smoking during pregnancy (> or =10 cigarettes/day) were greater when the mother also had a serious history of antisocial behavior. The effects remained significant after the introduction of control variables (e.g., hostile-reactive parenting, family functioning, parental separation/divorce, family income, and maternal education). Another significant interaction not accounted for by control variables was observed for maternal prenatal smoking and family income, indicating more serious effects of maternal prenatal smoking under relatively low-income, conditions. Both interactions indicate critical adversities that, in combination with maternal prenatal smoking, have supra-additive effects on (the development of) physical aggression during early childhood. These findings may have implications for the selection of intervention targets and strategies. PMID:18423088
Wang, Meifang; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Li
The goal of this research was to examine the unique relationships between paternal and maternal psychological aggression (PA) and physical aggression (corporal punishment [CP] and severe physical abuse [SPA]) and children's anxiety in China. A total of 1,971 father-mother dyads completed the Chinese version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) and the Chinese version of Spence Children's Anxiety Scale for Parents (SCAS-P). Results indicated that when paternal and maternal PA, CP, and SPA were considered simultaneously, parental PA and maternal CP were both significantly predictive of children's anxiety, whereas SPA had no significant effects on children's anxiety. Specifically, both paternal and maternal PA were the most unique predictors of children's anxiety among parental psychological and physical aggression, whereas the effects of maternal CP and paternal CP were different, with maternal CP having a stronger effect on children's anxiety compared with paternal CP. The findings indicated that appropriate prevention and intervention efforts are needed to target parental PA and maternal CP. PMID:26704300
Altschul, Inna; Lee, Shawna J
This study used data from 845 foreign-born (n = 328) and native-U.S. born (n = 517) Hispanic mothers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) to examine four indicators of acculturation--nativity, years lived in the United States, religious attendance, and endorsement of traditional gender norms--as predictors of maternal physical aggression directed toward young children. The authors also examined whether psychosocial risk factors associated with child maltreatment and acculturation--maternal alcohol use, depression, parenting stress, and intimate partner aggression and violence--mediate relationships between acculturation and maternal aggression. Foreign-born Hispanic mothers had significantly lower rates of physical aggression than native-born Hispanic mothers. In path modeling results, U.S. nativity, along with maternal alcohol use, parenting stress, and child aggressive behavior, emerged as the strongest risk factors for maternal physical aggression. Among the four acculturation indicators, only foreign birth was directly associated with lower maternal aggression. Study findings suggest immigrant status is a unique protective factor that contributes to lower levels of physical aggression among Hispanic mothers. PMID:21926114
Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.
Research Findings: The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This article examines how…
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…
Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Beron, Kurt J.; Underwood, Marion K.
This research examined whether following social and physical aggression trajectories across Grades 3-12 predicted psychological maladjustment. Teachers rated participants' (n = 287, 138 boys) aggressive behavior at the end of each school year. Following the 12th grade, psychosocial outcomes were measured: rule-breaking behaviors, internalizing…
Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Barnett, Melissa A.; Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha J.
Using data from a diverse sample of 581 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities, the current study sought to investigate the longitudinal associations among father-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and child-directed physical aggression perpetrated by the mother. The unique contributions of each of these types of family violence on children’s behavioral problems at school entry were also examined. Results confirm bidirectional associations between father-perpetrated IPV and maternal physical aggression directed toward the child, and indicate that both types of physical aggression contribute to child behavior problems at school entry. PMID:25431522
Wang, Fu Man; Chen, Jing Qi; Xiao, Wan Qing; Ma, Ya Ting; Zhang, Man
This study explored the prevalence of peer physical aggression (PPA) and its association with aggressive beliefs, empathy, self-control, and cooperation skills among 1,719 7th-to-9th-grade students in a rural town in the central China province of Henan. The data were collected by the self-administered questionnaire anonymously. Results showed that 17.9% of the students reported that they had one or more times of physical aggressive behaviors toward their peers in the past 12 months. The reported rate of PPA was significantly higher in boys (24.7%) than in girls (10.7%). After adjusting the factors of gender and grade, result of logistic regression analysis showed that having a higher level of aggressive beliefs was PPA risk factor; a higher level of self-control was protective factor, but there were no significant association between PPA and the factors of empathy and cooperation skills. These results indicated that helping students to decrease their aggressive beliefs and to improve their self-control skill would aid in the prevention of youth violence. PMID:22585113
Chang, Ling-Yin; Wang, Mei-Yeh; Tsai, Pei-Shan
Child and adolescent physical aggression are influenced by multiple contexts, such as peers, family, school, and neighborhood. However, the effect of neighborhoods on youth physical aggression remains unclear. The objective of this study was to quantitatively synthesize studies that have examined the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on physical aggression in children and adolescents and to identify potential moderators. We searched seven databases for articles published before April 25, 2015. Studies were considered eligible if they were published in peer-reviewed journals, used multilevel data, controlled for neighborhood clustering, used physical aggression as the study outcome, and considered children or adolescents as the study population. Of the 152 eligible studies, we included 43 in the meta-analysis. The results from the random-effects model revealed that neighborhood disadvantage was positively and significantly associated with physical aggression (P < .001). Metaregression and moderator analyses further indicated a stronger association between neighborhood disadvantage and physical aggression among studies with younger participants, a higher percentage of female participants, and a longer follow-up period (P < .05). Current findings, however, may not be generalized to other types of aggression. The observed neighborhood effects may also be limited because of the omission of studies that did not provide sufficient information for calculating the pooled effect. In summary, the results provide supporting evidence for the adverse effect of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods on physical aggression after adjusting for the individual-level characteristics of children and adolescents. Interventions targeting structural contexts in neighborhoods are required to assist in reducing physical aggression in young people. Aggr. Behav. 42:441-454, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26749211
Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W.
This study examined the associations between children's co-occurring relational and physical aggression trajectories and their peer relations (i.e., peer rejection, peer acceptance, and reciprocated friendships) from late childhood (Grade 4; M[subscript age] = 10.0) to early adolescence (Grade 8; M[subscript age] = 13.9). Using a sample of 477…
Beebe, D K
Rape is a crime which occurs to over 12 million women. It has a substantial impact on the physical, psychological and social health of the victim. It is defined as the carnal knowledge of a person forcibly and against their will and includes successful and unsuccessful assaults. In this sense, the terms rape and sexual assault are used interchangeably. Physicians should responsibly counsel patients when appropriate concerning prevention of sexual assault and should be knowledgeable about the acute medical and psychological management of a sexual assault victim, including the collection of evidence. This article provides basic information regarding examination, evidence collection and treatment. PMID:9796180
Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian; Lindenberg, Siegwart
The role of physical and relational aggression in adolescents' friendship selection was examined in a longitudinal sample of 274 Chilean students from 5th and 6th grade followed over 1 year. Longitudinal social network modeling (SIENA) was used to study selection processes for aggression while influence processes were controlled for. Furthermore, the effects of network characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and transitivity), gender, and social status on friendship selection were examined. The starting assumption of this study was that selection effects based on aggression might have been overestimated in previous research as a result of failing to consider influence processes and alternative characteristics that steer friendship formation. The results show that selection effects of both physical and relational aggression disappeared when network effects, gender, and social status were taken into account. Particularly gender and perceived popularity appeared to be far more important determinants of friendship selection over time than aggression. Moreover, a peer influence effect was only found for relational aggression, and not for physical aggression. These findings suggest that similarity in aggression among befriended adolescents can be considered to be mainly a by-product rather than a leading dimension in friendship selection. PMID:21688275
Mental health workers may be assaulted by their violent patients. A study was conducted to examine one predictor variable of aggressive behavior in patients. It was hypothesized that authoritarian traits in the mental health worker could result in more assaults against the mental health worker by patients. Participants (N=32) were mental health…
Yang, Cheng-I; Hsieh, Wen-Po; Lee, Li-Hung; Chen, Shu-Ling
Mental health nurse are frequently subjected to patients' violent and aggressive behaviour. These assault experiences have given rise to mental health nurses' physical and psychological trauma, and negatively impact the quality of patient care. The purpose of the present qualitative study was to understand mental health nurses' experiences of being assaulted, the influences on their patient care, and their perspectives of the effectiveness of in-service, violence-prevention education. Ten mental health nurses from two different inpatient mental health facilities were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Thematic analysis of interview data found six themes: (i) violence is unpredictable; (ii) violence is normal; (iii) lasting psychological trauma; (iv) limited support from peers and the administrator; (v) violence prevention requires team cooperation; and (vi) doubting the effectiveness of in-service education on violence prevention. Psychiatric ward administrators should assess nurses' learning and skill needs to determine whether these needs are met by existing in-service training programmes. A culture of safety should also be promoted by building a warm and supportive ward climate for both staff and patients, which would include team cooperation and support for colleagues who suffer a violent incident. PMID:27170463
Pinhey, Thomas K
This study uses the evolutionary model to guide an exploration of the effects of body mass on aggressive and competitive behaviors among Asian-Pacific adolescents in Guam. Using a probability sample of Guam's high-school students, the results of logistic regressions suggest that adolescent females with greater body mass are more likely to engage in physical fights (aggression) and to participate in team sports (competitiveness). Ethnic differences indicate the possibility that individuals with lower body mass may be less likely to participate in physically aggressive acts and team sports. Alternate theoretical explanations for the results are also considered. PMID:14652912
Rothman, Emily F.; Johnson, Renee M.; Azrael, Deborah; Hall, Diane M.; Weinberg, Janice
Objectives To assess the co-occurrence of past-month physical assault of a dating partner and violence against peers and siblings among a locally representative sample of high school students and to explore correlates of dating violence (DV) perpetration. Design Cross-sectional survey design. Setting Twenty-two public high schools in Boston, Massachusetts. Participants A sample of urban high school students (n = 1398) who participated in the Boston Youth Survey, implemented January through April of 2008. Main Outcomes Measures Self-reported physical DV in the month before the survey, defined as pushing, shoving, slapping, hitting, punching, kicking, or choking a dating partner 1 or more times. Results Among the respondents, 18.7%, 41.2%, and 31.2% of students reported past-month perpetration of physical DV, peer violence, and sibling violence, respectively. Among violence perpetrators, the perpetration of DV only was rare (7.9%). Controlling for age and school, the association between sibling violence and DV was strong for boys (adjusted prevalence ratio, 3.81;95% confidence interval, 2.07-6.99) and for girls (1.83; 1.44-2.31), and the association between peer violence and DV perpetration was strong for boys (5.13; 3.15-8.35) and for girls (2.57; 1.87-3.52). Dating violence perpetration was also associated with substance use, knife carrying, delinquency, and exposure to community violence. Conclusions Adolescents who perpetrated physical DV were also likely to have perpetrated peer and/or sibling violence. Dating violence is likely one of many co-occurring adolescent problem behaviors, including sibling and peer violence perpetration, substance use, weapon carrying, and academic problems. PMID:21135340
Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie
Youth peer groups hold many different types of norms, including norms supporting aggressive behavior. Challenging or standing up to such aggressive norms can be difficult for children and adolescents, given the pressures to conform to groups. In the current study, the relationship between individual judgments and expectations of the judgments of a peer group about the acceptability of challenging aggressive group norms was investigated. The sample included 9-10 and 13-14 year-olds (N = 292, 52.4 % female). Participants evaluated groups with norms condoning physical and relational aggression. Participants were more supportive of challenges to relational aggression than challenges to physical aggression. Additionally, age-related differences were found, with younger children perceiving challenges to group norms as more feasible than did adolescents. Participants individually rated challenging aggressive norms as okay, but thought that groups would be much less supportive of such challenges. The results also documented the influence of gender stereotypes about aggressive behavior on children's and adolescents' evaluations. PMID:27002969
Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang; Zhang, Qing; He, Xiaorui; Zhang, Wenxin
The study examines gender differences in the reciprocal relations between parental physical aggression and child externalizing problem behavior in China. Four hundred fifty-four Chinese elementary school-age children reported on three forms of their parents' physical aggression toward them (i.e., mild corporal punishment, severe corporal punishment, and physical abuse) and their externalizing problem behavior at two time points, 6 months apart. Structural equation modeling revealed that the three types of parental physical aggression predicted child externalizing problem behavior for girls but not boys, whereas child externalizing problem behavior predicted severe corporal punishment and physical abuse for boys but not girls; child externalizing problem behavior did not predict mild corporal punishment for either gender. The findings suggest that the intervention for and prevention of child externalizing problem behavior may be somewhat different for boys and girls in China. PMID:21823794
Hatcher, Angela P.
Sexually aggressive behavior, especially on college campuses, is an issue of major concern. Previous research has found that 54% of college women report being sexually victimized (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987). Given the scope of this problem, effective prevention strategies are necessary. Sexual assault prevention programs have included those…
Castro, Carl Andrew; Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Lucas, Carrie L; Warner, Christopher H
Military sexual assault is a pervasive problem throughout the military services, despite numerous initiatives to end it. No doubt the military's lack of progress stems from the complexity of sexual assaults, yet in order to develop effective strategies and programs to end sexual assault, deep understanding and appreciation of these complexities are needed. In this paper, we describe the root causes and numerous myths surrounding sexual assault, the military cultural factors that may unintentionally contribute to sexual assault, and the uncomfortable issues surrounding sexual assault that are often ignored (such as the prevalence of male sexual assault within the military). We conclude by offering a broad, yet comprehensive set of recommendations that considers all of these factors for developing effective strategies and programs for ending sexual assault within in the military. PMID:25980511
Gorodetsky, Elena; Bevilacqua, Laura; Carli, Vladimir; Sarchiapone, Marco; Roy, Alec; Goldman, David; Enoch, Mary-Anne
Aggressive disorders are moderately heritable; therefore, identification of genetic influences is important. The X-linked MAOA gene, encoding the MAOA enzyme, has a functional 30bp repeat polymorphism in the promoter region (MAOA-LPR) that has been shown to influence aggression. Childhood trauma is a known risk factor for numerous psychopathologies in adulthood including aggressive behaviors. We investigated the interactive effect of MAOA-LPR genotype and a history of childhood trauma in predicting aggressive behaviors in a prisoner population. A total of 692 male prisoners were genotyped for MAOA-LPR with genotypes grouped into high and low transcriptional activity. Participant evaluations included measures of aggression (BGHA), hostility (Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), violence directed towards self and others, and childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)). MAOA-LPR interacted with CTQ physical neglect (PN), the most common (47%) form of childhood trauma in this sample, to predict BGHA aggression (P=0.002). Within the group not exposed to PN, carriers of the MAOA-LPR high activity variant were more aggressive: (t(R) =2.47, p<0.014). We observed a crossover effect in that the increase in aggression scores with PN was greater in low activity individuals (t(R) =5.55, p <0.0001) than in high activity individuals (t(R) =4.18, p <0.0001). These findings suggest that childhood trauma and the functional MAOA-LPR polymorphism may interact to specifically increase risk for over aggressive behavior but not impulsivity or hostility. The MAOA-LPR low activity variant may be protective against the development of aggressive behavior under low stress conditions, at least in this prisoner population. PMID:24805005
Acierno, Ron; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rheingold, Alyssa; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.
Older adult women age 55+ years (N = 549) were interviewed as part of a population-based epidemiological research study of lifetime experiences with physical and sexual assault and current mental health problems. Although overall rates of psychopathology were low, producing very small cells for comparison, women who reported experiencing physical…
Duong, Mylien T.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Kelly, Brynn M.; Tom, Shelley R.
This study examines the relation between maternal physical discipline and victimization by peers, as moderated by child aggression. The sample consisted of 211 Hong Kong Chinese children (98 boys, 113 girls; average age of 11.9). Physical discipline was assessed with a questionnaire completed by mothers, and victimization by peers and aggression…
Murdach, Allison D.
Examines potentially assaultive or preassaultive client and suggests some ways to minimize the risk of assault by such clients. Data for the article are from author's 10-year experience in providing social work services on acute psychiatric ward in large public medical center. Reviews potentially assaultive client conditions of panic, rage,…
Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Gentile, Douglas A.
This study had two goals: first, to examine the validity of the television rating system for assessing aggression in programs popular among girls; second, to evaluate the importance of inclusion of non-physical forms of aggression in the ratings system by examining associations between television aggression exposure and behavior. Ninety-nine fifth…
Fries, Lauren; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Han, Yoonsun; Delva, Jorge
Research findings remain unclear on whether different factors predict aggression for adolescent men and women. Given that aggression research is rarely conducted with Latin American populations, the current study used multiple imputation and linear regression to assess gender differences in levels and predictors of self-reported physical aggression among a community sample of young (ages 11 through 17) men (n=504) and women (n = 471) from Santiago, Chile. Results revealed that adolescent women reported engaging in higher levels of physical aggression than men. The variables found to be significantly associated with higher levels of reported aggression—younger age, less family involvement, less parental control, less positive relationships with caregivers, having more friends who act out and use substances, having fewer friends committed to learning, presence of dating violence, and more exposure to neighborhood crime—were not moderated by gender, implying that similar factors are related to aggression in adolescent men and women from Chile. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to address high-risk adolescents and reduce aggression among Chilean youth are discussed. PMID:24392266
Fung, Annis L. C.; Tsang, Sandra K. M.
Aggression hinders development in the child and creates numerous problems in the family, school and community. An indigenous Anger Coping Training program for Chinese children with aggressive behavior and their parents aimed to help reactively aggressive children in increasing anger coping methods and enhancing problem-solving abilities. This…
Swit, Cara S.; McMaugh, Anne; Warburton, Wayne A.
This research examined differences in beliefs about the acceptability of aggression and behavioral responses to aggression of preschool-aged children. Two groups, identified from teacher ratings, participated in the research. One group of children exhibited relationally aggressive behaviors, and a comparison group was identified with…
Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela
This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…
When President Obama points out, correctly, that young women stand a better chance of being sexually assaulted on a college campus than in the world outside, we have a problem that needs to be addressed not simply on campus, but at the highest levels of government. Author Warren Tolman strongly believes that the Massachusetts Office of Attorney…
Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gerbino, Maria; Castellani, Valeria; Bombi, Anna Silvia
Physical aggression declines for the majority of children from preschool to elementary school. Although this desistance generally continues during adolescence and early adulthood, a small group of children maintain a high level of physical aggression over time and develop other serious overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Typically, researchers have examined relations of developmental changes in physical aggression to later violence with teachers' or mothers' reports on surveys. Little is known about the degree to which children's self-reported physical aggression predicts later antisocial behavior. The longitudinal study in this article had a staggered, multiple cohort design. Measures of physical aggression were collected through self- and mother reports from age 11–14 years, which were used to construct trajectory groups (attrition was 6 and 14% from age 11–14, respectively, for self- and mother reports). Overt and covert antisocial behaviors were self-reported at age 18–19 years (attrition was 36% from age 11 to 18–19). Four trajectory groups (low stable, 11%; moderate-low declining, 34%; moderate declining, 39%; high stable, 16%) were identified from self-reports, whereas three trajectories (low declining, 33%; moderate declining, 49%; high stable, 18%) were identified from mothers' ratings. We examined the prediction of overt and covert antisocial behaviors in early adulthood from the high stable and the moderate declining trajectories. According to both informants, higher probability of belonging to the high stable group was associated with higher overt and covert antisocial behavior, whereas higher probability of belonging to the moderate declining group was associated with higher covert antisocial behavior. Our results support the value of children's as well as mothers' reports of children's aggression for predicting different types of serious antisocial behavior in adulthood. PMID:20878197
McNulty, James K
Despite a burgeoning literature that documents numerous positive implications of forgiveness, scholars know very little about the potential negative implications of forgiveness. In particular, the tendency to express forgiveness may lead offenders to feel free to offend again by removing unwanted consequences for their behavior (e.g., anger, criticism, rejection, loneliness) that would otherwise discourage reoffending. Consistent with this possibility, the current longitudinal study of newlywed couples revealed a positive association between spouses' reports of their tendencies to express forgiveness to their partners and those partners' reports of psychological and physical aggression. Specifically, although spouses who reported being relatively more forgiving experienced psychological and physical aggression that remained stable over the first 4 years of marriage, spouses who reported being relatively less forgiving experienced declines in both forms of aggression over time. These findings join just a few others in demonstrating that forgiveness is not a panacea. PMID:21558557
Garrett, Linda H
Women are sexually assaulted at an alarming rate, and the workplace is a frequent arena for assault. However, in recent decades, attention has been given to improving responses to sexual assault. Sexual assault is a frequent cause of injury and death for women in the United States. One in five American women admit they have experienced a completed rape during their lifetime. These estimates are conservative because sexual assault and sexual violence are both underreported and underprosecuted. Fear of job loss and discrimination are frequent reasons women do not report sexual assault in the workplace. Women are entering the workplace in greater numbers due in part to more single parent families and the depressed economy. Also, women are entering work environments that have traditionally been the domain of male workers: corporate headquarters, semi trucks, health care providers' offices, rural farms, and rural factories. Employers must have a plan to protect female employees and effectively address any incidents of sexual assault or violence. Occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners can assist both employees and employers to prevent sexual assault and resolve the aftermath of sexual assault. However, to accomplish this goal, occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners must be trained in sexual assault and violence response as well as preventive interventions. PMID:21175106
Sullivan, Terri N.; Helms, Sarah W.; Kliewer, Wendy; Goodman, Kimberly L.
This study examined associations between self-reports of sadness and anger regulation coping, reluctance to express emotion, and physical and relational aggression between two cohorts of predominantly African-American fifth (N = 191; 93 boys and 98 girls) and eighth (N = 167; 73 boys and 94 girls) graders. Multiple regression analyses indicated…
Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Seguin, Jean R.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.
This study investigated associations between maternal prenatal smoking and physical aggression (PA), hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) and co-occurring PA and HI between ages 17 and 42 months in a population sample of children born in Quebec (Canada) in 1997/1998 (N=1745). Trajectory model estimation showed three distinct developmental patterns for…
Runions, Kevin C.; Vitaro, Fank; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Thérèse; Hall, Margaret
This investigation used two-part growth modeling and cross-lagged panel analysis to examine the predictive function of parenting and teacher-child relationship on the likelihood of children showing problems with parent-rated physical aggression, and on the severity of problems, for 374 children followed from prekindergarten and first grade.…
Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Zelazo, Philip David; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel; Seguin, Jean R.
The present study examined the association between theory of mind and indirect versus physical aggression, as well as the potential moderating role of prosocial behavior in this context. Participants were 399 twins and singletons drawn from two longitudinal studies in Canada. At five years of age, children completed a theory of mind task and a…
Clement, Marie-Eve; Chamberland, Claire
Objective: To present prevalence rates of child psychological aggression and physical violence from a population survey conducted in 2004 and to compare the rates with the rates obtained in the 1999 edition of the survey. Methods: The survey used a randomly generated telephone number methodology. Interviews were conducted using a computer-assisted…
Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali
Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…
Cote, Sylvana; Vaillancourt, Tracy; LeBlanc, John C.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Tremblay, Richard E.
The objectives of the study were to model the developmental trajectories of physical aggression (PA) from toddlerhood to pre-adolescence and to identify risk factors that distinguish typical (normative) from atypical developmental patterns. Ten cohorts of approximately 1,000 children (n = 10,658) drawn form a nationally representative (Canadian)…
Knight, Kelly E; Menard, Scott; Simmons, Sara B; Bouffard, Leana A; Orsi, Rebecca
The objective of this study is to examine continuity of intimate partner aggression (IPA), which is defined as repeated annual involvement in IPA, across respondents' life course and into the next generation, where it may emerge among adult children. A national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,401 individuals and their adult children is analyzed. Annual data on IPA severity and physical injury were collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study across a 20-year period from 1984 to 2004. Three hypotheses and biological sex differences are tested and effect sizes are estimated. First, findings reveal evidence for life course continuity (IPA is a strong predictor of subsequent IPA), but the overall trend decreases over time. Second, intergenerational continuity is documented (parents' IPA predicts adult children's IPA), but the effect is stronger for female than for male adult children. Third, results from combined and separate, more restrictive, measures of victimization and perpetration are nearly identical except in the intergenerational analyses. Fourth, evidence for continuity is not found when assessing physical injury alone. Together, these findings imply that some but not all forms of IPA are common, continuous, and intergenerational. Life course continuity appears stronger than intergenerational continuity. PMID:27076093
Das, Kishore Kumar; Khondokar, M Sazzad; Quamruzzaman, M; Ahmed, Syed Shamsuddin; Peck, Michael
Assault by burning in Dhaka, Bangladesh, occurs in a variety of forms, resulting from various causes and motives. A total of 311 cases of intentional burns from the Burn Unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital from April 2004 to May 2011 (6 years) were studied by retrospective and prospective observational review. The majority of victims (68%) were female. Concentrated sulphuric acid was the most commonly used chemical for attack. Disfigurement was the principal complication (mortality, 4%). Dowry-related issues, divorce and other marital quarrels were frequent backgrounds for assault by burning. Kerosene oil was used to ignite 78 girls or young women, most often related to conflicts over dowry (mortality 97%). A total of 102 victims (32%) in all burn groups were attacked because of dowry-related issues. Intentional contact burns were often inflicted on domestic servants. Although physical morbidity and mortality were not reported in contact and other types of burns, psychological disturbances were reported in all victims. A few victims had been assaulted prior to receiving burns, and fractures and deformities were also present on examination at the time of presentation for burn treatment. Ophthalmic injury, with frequent visual impairment, was very common in cases of chemical attack. Legal and social support for victims and their families are frequently inadequate to compensate for losses. Clearly, more attention in our community should be focussed on the prevention of burn assaults, adequate compensation and medical care for victims, as well as speedy retribution for perpetrators. PMID:22551741
Fite, Paula J.; Gabrielli, Joy; Cooley, John L.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Pederson, Casey A.; Vernberg, Eric M.
This study examined associations between physical and relational forms of aggression and victimization and risk for willingness to engage in substance use and actual use in a sample of 231 (50% male) second- through fourth-grade students (mean age = 8.3 years). Physical aggression was more strongly associated with risk for substance use outcomes…
White, Jacquelyn W; Smith, Paige Hall
A longitudinal examination of male perpetration of physical aggression toward a romantic partner and its covariation with sexual aggression reveals a decline from adolescence through 4 years of college. Witnessing domestic violence and experiencing parental physical punishment increased the likelihood of physical aggression in adolescence, but not thereafter. Prior perpetration best predicted subsequent perpetration. Although adolescence was the time of greatest risk, the 2nd year in college was an additional time of increased risk. Furthermore, physical and sexual aggression covaried with each other in the sample at rates significantly greater than chance, indicating that covariation may be a unique form of perpetration. Witnessing domestic violence and experiencing parental physical punishment were associated with an increased likelihood of men committing both forms of intimate partner aggression in adolescence. PMID:19015389
Smith, Stacy L.; Boyson, Aaron R.
Examines violence in music video programming. Reveals that 15% of music videos feature violence, and most of that aggression is sanitized, not chastised, and presented in realistic contexts. Discusses the findings in terms of the risk that exposure to violence in each channel and genre may be posing to viewers' learning of aggression, fear, and…
Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexual men who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time…
Low, Sabina; Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Despite the veritable influence of the peer context on the elaboration of adolescent aggression, few studies of relational aggression have directly identified and measured peer groups, limiting our ability to draw formal conclusions about the level and nature of peer influence. The current study used a developmental framework to examine peer group…
Viswanathan, S; Datta, SS; Sheridan, PB; Lax-Pericall, T
Background: Interpersonal violence amongst youth is on the rise world-wide and London is no exception. The resulting injuries can be very serious and even result in death. This is a difficult to engage subgroup of patients and there is likely to be significant unmet social and mental health needs. Aim: The current paper discusses the results of immediate psychiatric and social assessment of young people following a serious physical assault as assessed by a pediatric liaison Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS). CAMHS in Kings College Hospital, London in one calendar year and also the help seeking behavior of the young people following the assault. Subjects and Methods: The Department of Pediatric Liaison Psychiatry is based within the Kings College Hospital and has a multidisciplinary team comprising of nurses, consultant child and adolescent psychiatrists and social workers who reviewed all patients who were referred to them following an episode of assault. All young people who were referred to the department of pediatric liaison psychiatry based within Kings College Hospital over one calendar year were included in the analysis. Results: 83% (29/35) of the victims were male and 83% (29/35) were from minority ethnic backgrounds. Although 70% (25/35) of the young people included in this study had significant safe guarding concerns, only 17% (6/35) turned up for their follow-up appointments with child mental health teams. Conclusions: Innovative models of service delivery are required to cater to the unique needs of this group of extremely vulnerable young people. PMID:24669337
Gee, Gilbert C.; de Castro, A. B.
Objectives. We examined whether workplace aggression was associated with self-rated health and work-related injury and illness among nurses in the Philippines. Methods. Our data came from a cross-sectional survey of nurses (n = 687) in the Philippines. We assessed the associations of self-reported physical assault and verbal abuse with self-rated health, work-related injury and illness, and missed workdays with Poisson regression. Control variables included demographic and work characteristics (e.g., hours worked, work setting, shift). Results. Verbal abuse was associated with poor general health (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 3.45). Both physical assault and verbal abuse were associated with work-related injury (PR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.00, 2.20; PR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.23, respectively) and work-related illness (PR = 1.46; 95% CI = 0.99, 2.15; PR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.32, 2.14, respectively) after demographic and work characteristics were accounted for in the model. In addition, physical assault was associated with missed workdays (PR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.33). Conclusions. Workplace aggression was associated with increased risks of poor general health and adverse work-related health outcomes among nurses in the Philippines. PMID:21088262
Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline
Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162
Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E.; Woerner, Jacqueline
Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims’ alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators’ post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162
Slashinski, Melody J; Coker, Ann L; Davis, Keith E
This study used the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) of women and men to estimate noncohabitating dating violence prevalence by type (physical, forced sex, and stalking), associations between dating violence and other types of interpersonal violence across the lifespan, and association of dating violence with longer-term mental health including substance abuse. Among respondents aged 18 to 65, 8.3% of 6,790 women and 2.4% of 7,122 men experienced physical aggression, forced sex, or stalking victimization by a dating partner. Few (20.6% of women and 9.7% of men) reported more than one type of dating violence. Childhood physical aggression by a parent or guardian was strongly associated with subsequent dating violence risk for men and women. Dating violence (physical aggression specifically) was associated with current depressive symptoms, current therapeutic drug use (antidepressants, tranquilizers, or pain medications), and current recreation drug use for women. Implications for parents, survivors, health care, and service providers are discussed. PMID:15109116
Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexual men who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time task. Aggression was operationalized as shock intensities administered to the opponent. Prior to the task, all participants completed measures of psychopathy, sexual prejudice, and state anger; viewed a male-male erotic video; and reported state anger a second time. After controlling for sexual prejudice, analyses revealed that psychopathy significantly predicted aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male confederate. Psychopathy was not associated with increases in anger in response to the erotic video. These findings indicate that psychopathy is a significant marker for antigay violence, though anger experienced in response to homosexuality does not seem to underlie this association. PMID:16443598
Graham, Kathryn; Wells, Samantha; Bernards, Sharon; Dennison, Susan
Assaultive and aggressive behaviors related to sexual overtures are common in commercial drinking establishments (bars, pubs and clubs). In this paper, we examined the thematic content of 251 incidents of verbal and physical aggression related to sexual/romantic overtures documented by researcher-observers in a study of Toronto bar and clubs. Aggression was examined as it emerged in the following stages of the social interaction process: (a) sexual/romantic overtures that began aggressively; (b) initiators of sexual/romantic overtures who became aggressive later in the social interaction process; (c) aggression by targets of overtures; and (d) aggression by third parties. From these thematic analyses, we identify the distinctions between predatory and genuine overtures and explore the potential role of the effects of alcohol. In these social overtures, aggression occurred as part of the initial overture, during the interaction following the overture (i.e., aggression by the person who made the initial overture, by the target or third parties) and in response to rejection by the target. Targets of overtures responded aggressively to perceived inappropriate overtures; third parties played important aggressive and nonaggressive roles; and alcohol intoxication was identified as contributing to aggression in a number of ways. The theoretical significance and practical implications for prevention of the findings are discussed. PMID:21625360
Lenow, Jennifer K; Scott Steele, J; Smitherman, Sonet; Kilts, Clinton D; Cisler, Josh M
Physical and sexual assault during adolescence is a potent risk factor for mental health and psychosocial problems, as well as revictimization, especially among female victims. To better understand this conferred risk, we conducted an exploratory study comparing assaulted and non-assaulted girls׳ behavioral and brain responses during a trust learning task. Adolescent girls (14 assaulted, 16 non-assaulted) performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that manipulated the percentages of which three different faces delivered positive and negative outcomes. Analyses focused on comparing unexpected to expected outcomes. We found that assaulted adolescent girls demonstrated less behavioral slowing in response to unexpected negative social outcomes, or trust violations (i.e., when a presumably trustworthy face delivered a negative outcome), relative to control girls. Trust violations were also associated with less activation in anterior insular and anterior cingulate regions among the assaulted group compared to the control group. Furthermore, we found that the severity of participants׳ exposure to assaultive events scaled negatively with recruitment of these regions. These preliminary results suggest that assault victims may engage differential learning processes upon unexpected negative social outcomes. These findings have implications for understanding impaired trust learning and social functioning among assault victims. PMID:24811608
Lenow, Jennifer K.; Steele, J. Scott; Smitherman, Sonet; Kilts, Clinton D.; Cisler, Josh M.
Physical and sexual assault during adolescence is a potent risk factor for mental health and psychosocial problems, as well as revictimization, especially among female victims. To better understand this conferred risk, we conducted an exploratory study comparing assaulted and non-assaulted girls’ behavioral and brain responses during a trust learning task. Adolescent girls (14 assaulted, 16 non-assaulted) performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that manipulated the percentages of which three different faces delivered positive and negative outcomes. Analyses focused on comparing unexpected to expected outcomes. We found that assaulted adolescent girls demonstrated less behavioral slowing in response to unexpected negative social outcomes, or trust violations (i.e., when a presumably trustworthy face delivered a negative outcome), relative to control girls. Trust violations were also associated with less activation in anterior insular and anterior cingulate regions - regions implicated in reinforcement learning - among the assaulted group compared to the control group. Furthermore, we found that the severity of participants’ exposure to assaultive events scaled negatively with recruitment of these regions. These preliminary results suggest that assault victims may engage aberrant learning processes (e.g., diminishment of prediction error signals) upon unexpected negative social outcomes. These findings have implications for understanding impaired trust learning and social functioning among assault victims. PMID:24811608
Park, Jung Min; Ostler, Teresa; Fertig, Angela
This study examines the extent of adverse parenting behaviors among low-income families with children and determines whether housing instability, measured by homelessness and doubling up with relatives or friends due to economic hardship, increases the likelihood of physical and psychological aggression towards a child, after considering the contribution of other relevant characteristics. Using data from 3 waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study followed 2,332 low-income children in 20 large U.S. cities. Multivariate analyses involved logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Adverse parenting behaviors were common among all low-income families regardless of their having experienced housing instability. Nonetheless, mothers with a homeless or doubled-up episode reported higher rates of physically and psychologically aggressive behaviors towards a child compared to the housed group. Having a homeless episode was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of reporting a high level of physical aggression towards a child. Child’s behavioral issues, maternal depression, and parental stress also contributed to adverse parenting behaviors. Findings suggest that housing instability can be a marker of adverse parenting behaviors and service professionals need to respond to parenting needs as well as housing needs for families in unstable housing. Areas of future research were discussed. PMID:27134322
Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel
Several authors consider high and frequent conflicts between friends during childhood as a serious risk for subsequent conduct problems such as generalized physical aggression toward others (e.g., Kupersmidt, Burchinal, & Patterson, 1995; Sebanc, 2003). Although it seems logical to assume that friendship conflict could have some negative consequences on children's behaviors, some scholars have suggested that a certain amount of conflict between friends may actually promote social adjustment (e.g., Laursen & Pursell, 2009). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of friendship conflict in regard to the development of generalized physical aggression toward others in the early school years (i.e., from kindergarten to Grade 1), as well as the moderating role of relational (i.e., shared positive affect and dyadic conflict resolution skills) and personal (i.e., children's sex and genetic liability for aggression) characteristics in this context. The sample included 745 twins assessed through teacher, peer, child, and friend ratings in kindergarten and Grade 1. Friendship conflict in kindergarten was linearly related to an increase in boys' but not girls' generalized physical aggression. However, shared positive affect and conflict resolution skills mitigated the prospective associations between friendship conflict and generalized physical aggression. These results were independent of children's sex, genetic risk for physical aggression, and initial levels of generalized physical aggression in kindergarten. Fostering a positive relationship between friends at school entry may buffer against the risk associated with experiencing friendship conflict. PMID:24684716
Hanson, Kimberly A.; Gidycz, Christine A.
Evaluated sexual assault prevention program in which 181 female college students participated and 165 female students served as controls. Program was effective in decreasing incidence of sexual assault among women without sexual assault history but was not effective among women with sexual assault history. Program led to decrease in dating…
Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R
Studies have often linked parenting to children's subsequent antisocial behavior; however, the circumstances under which this might occur are less clear. The current study explores patterns in mothers' parenting practices, and associated correlates including maternal delinquency and offending, mental health, and children's physical aggression. This study is based on the first wave of the ongoing Vancouver Longitudinal Study; the objective of this prospective study is to identify the early risk and protective factors for aggression and violence from the earliest developmental periods. Parenting practices of 287 mothers with preschoolers are examined using a series of latent class analyses. Three different patterns of parenting emerged: Positive, Negative, and Intermittent. Patterns identified are associated with several key criminogenic, socio-demographic, historical, and developmental factors including current maternal adult offending, mothers' mental health, ethnicity, and frequency of children's physical aggression. Importantly, mothers who show parenting in line with the more negative classes also rely on a number of positive practices. Implications of the study suggest that parenting is influenced by mothers' immediate situations and contexts (e.g., current offending rather that past delinquency), which can be targeted for intervention. PMID:24788255
Forty-five undergraduate students were assigned to either an Alcohol, a Placebo, or a Control group. The alcohol dose was 0.80 g of 100% alcohol/kg body weight. Subjects were informed that they could win a sum of money depending on the performance of a partner. They then supervised the partner over a series of trials on a visual scan test and could influence the partner by either giving an uncomfortable electric shock (aggressive alternative) or a comfortable vibration (nonaggressive alternative) at each incorrect response from the partner. Both alternatives were said to be equally instrumental in reaching the goal of winning the money and both could be varied in intensity on a 10-point scale and without limits in terms of duration. Aggression was measured as number of aggressive responses chosen, and in terms of intensity and duration. Nonaggression was measured in terms of intensity and duration. Intoxicated subjects did not increase their aggression but all groups chose significantly more nonaggressive responses and did so with higher intensity and duration. Frustration did not significantly affect these types of responding. Results are discussed in terms of methodological considerations and the importance of using realistic experimental paradigms is stressed. Also, theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:2058788
Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Megias, Jesus L.; Krahe, Barbara
Two studies investigated the effects of information related to rape myths on Spanish college students' perceptions of sexual assault. In Study 1, 92 participants read a vignette about a nonconsensual sexual encounter and rated whether it was a sexual assault and how much the woman was to blame. In the scenario, the man either used physical force…
Munro, Michelle L.
Research indicates that only a small fraction of sexual assault survivors seek comprehensive care afterward, including physical and mental health care, forensic evidence collection, victim services, and legal support. This integrative review was conducted to identify barriers that may be keeping sexual assault survivors of childbearing age from receiving such comprehensive care. PMID:25664329
Felson, Richard B.; Par, Paul-Philippe
We examine the effects of the gender of the victim and offender and their relationship to each other on whether sexual and physical assaults are reported to the police. We also examine the reasons victims give for not reporting assaults and whether reporting patterns have changed over time. The analyses are based on a sample of 6,291 physical…
Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M
Although research has documented the prevalence and health correlates of sexual aggression among women who have experienced severe partner violence (PV), no research has documented the parallel issues among male victims of severe PV. Research also suggests that children of female victims of both physical and sexual PV have worse mental health than children of female victims of physical PV only, but no research has assessed the mental health of children whose fathers experienced both physical and sexual PV. We surveyed 611 men who experienced physical PV from their female partners and sought help. We assessed the types and extent of various forms of PV, the men's mental and physical health, and the mental health of their oldest child. Results showed that almost half of the men experienced sexual aggression in their relationship, and 28 % severe sexual aggression. Increasing levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization was associated with greater prevalence and types of other forms of PV. In addition, greater levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization among the men was significantly associated with depression symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, physical health symptoms, and poor health, and attention deficit and affective symptoms among their children. These associations held after controlling for demographics and other violence and trauma exposure. Discussion focused on the importance of broadening our conceptualization of PV against men by women to include sexual aggression as well. PMID:25501862
Linet, T; Nizard, J
Caring for victims of sexual assault is a difficult situation where the physician has to simultaneously evaluate the psychological impact and conduct a complete and precise physical examination. To make sure every step of the examination is completed and all samplings are done in the correct order by all physicians, it is useful to have a written routine protocol. We describe step-by-step management procedures for victims of sexual assault, taking into consideration the psychological aspect, the physical examination, the different samplings, and the different emergency treatments. Free download of the entire protocol, with the booklet containing examples of prescriptions, is available at http://www.agof.net/constatviol/. PMID:15052175
Masho, Saba W; Alvanzo, Anika
Men sexual assault is a serious public health issue that is mostly underreported and unrecognized. Despite serious deleterious effects of sexual assault, most men victims do not seek professional help. This study was conducted to examine predictors of help-seeking practices among 91 men sexual assault survivors from a population-based survey. The study showed only 17.6% of the victims sought professional help. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that physical injury (OR = 6.58, 95% CI = 1.08-40.19), perpetration by family or friend (OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 1.47-28.04), history of rape before the age of 18 (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.11-1.69), and threat at the time of incident (OR = 7.08, 95% CI = 1.52-33.03) were significant predictors of help-seeking practices. This study confirms that the majority of men sexual assault victims do not seek professional help. Victims with physical injury or threat were more likely to seek help. Further study should investigate barriers for help-seeking practices. Efforts should be made to reach men with a history of sexual assault. PMID:19706673
Andrews, Naomi C Z; Martin, Carol Lynn; Gallagher, Annabella M
The goal was to assess the association between felt similarity to each gender (an aspect of gender identity) and girls' and boys' differential use of relational versus physical aggression. We extend past research on gender differences in the use of aggression by expanding the gender dichotomy and allowing for more variations in an individual's gender identity. Students (N = 414, 47 % female, 6th grade) reported how similar they felt to both their own- and other-gender peers, from which cluster analyses derived four typologies of perceived gender similarity (those who feel similar to their own-gender group; those who feel similar to the other-gender group; those who feel similar to both gender groups; those who feel similar to neither gender group). Peers reported which classmates were relationally and physically aggressive. Analyses compared how girls and boys in each typology of gender similarity differed in their use of relational and physical aggression. Results indicated that most children were engaged in gender normative aggression more than gender non-normative aggression (with the notable exception of low-gender similar girls). Findings were discussed in terms of their importance both for examining a broad spectrum of gender similarity and for understanding the use of aggressive behavior among children. PMID:26883026
A Resource Guide for Signs of Sexual Assault. A Supplement to: Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.
Part of a curriculum unit on preventing sexual abuse of persons with disabilities, the manual is intended to help instructors present the material to hearing impaired students. Illustrations of sign language are presented for such terms as sexual contact, sexual assault, incest, same sex assault (man/woman), rape (acquaintance/marital), exposer,…
PARKHILL, MICHELE R.; ABBEY, ANTONIA
The confluence model of sexual assault provides a useful theoretical integration of factors that influence men’s likelihood of committing sexual assault (Malamuth, Sockloskie, Koss, & Tanaka, 1991). This study replicates and extends the confluence model by including alcohol at multiple levels. Participants’ usual alcohol consumption and alcohol consumption in sexual situations were included as predictor variables. The number of sexually aggressive acts that participants committed after consuming alcohol and the number of sexually aggressive acts participants committed when sober were separately calculated so that the predictors of each could be distinguished. Participants were 356 men who completed a survey that included measures that assessed the key components of the confluence model. Results of path analyses indicated that the expanded model fit the data well, with both general and situational measures of alcohol use predicting frequency of sexual assault when drinking alcohol. These findings highlight the importance of developing universal and targeted prevention programs for young men. PMID:26405374
Raskauskas, Juliana; Stoltz, Ann D.
Chronic victimization by bullies has been associated with academic failure in adolescence, as well as adjustment difficulties, depression, and suicidal ideation. Relational aggression is a form of bullying that is a problem for adolescent girls. It often takes the form of damaging peer relationships and includes verbal assaults such as teasing or…
Miller, Katherine E; Cranston, Christopher C; Davis, Joanne L; Newman, Elana; Resnick, Heidi
Sexual assault survivors are at risk for a number of mental and physical health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. Unfortunately, few seek physical or mental health services after a sexual assault (Price, Davidson, Ruggiero, Acierno, & Resnick, 2014). Mitigating the impact of sexual assault via early interventions is a growing and important area of research. This study adds to this literature by replicating and expanding previous studies (e.g., Resnick, Acierno, Amstadter, Self-Brown, & Kilpatrick, 2007) examining the efficacy of a brief video-based intervention that provides psychoeducation and modeling of coping strategies to survivors at the time of a sexual assault nurse examination. Female sexual assault survivors receiving forensic examinations were randomized to standard care or to the video intervention condition (N = 164). The participants completed mental health assessments 2 weeks (n = 69) and 2 months (n = 74) after the examination. Analyses of covariance revealed that women in the video condition had significantly fewer anxiety symptoms at the follow-up assessments. In addition, of those participants in the video condition, survivors reporting no previous sexual assault history reported significantly fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 weeks after the examination than those with a prior assault history. Forensic nurses have the unique opportunity to intervene immediately after a sexual assault. This brief video intervention is a cost-effective tool to aid with that process. PMID:26291847
Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante
Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…
Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos
The present study examined the effects of hypermasculinity and exposure to male gender role violations on antigay anger and aggression. Participants were 148 heterosexual men who were randomly assigned to view either a male-male or a male-female erotic video. Participants completed a measure of hypermasculinity and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic video. A laboratory paradigm was then used to measure physical aggression toward a gay or heterosexual man. Hypermasculinity predicted greater increases in anger among men who viewed male-male erotica relative to men who viewed male-female erotica. Hypermasculinity also predicted higher levels of physical aggression toward a gay, relative to a heterosexual, man, but only after viewing male-male erotica. Findings were discussed within the context of the General Aggression Model. PMID:17680354
Terrell, Nathanial Eugene
Examines aggravated and sexual assaults among 240 runaway and homeless adolescents (RHAs) in Des Moines (Iowa). Results suggest RHAs are at risk of life-threatening situations on the streets due to aggressive and abusive parents. Additionally, street life situations have significant impacts on the probability that RHAs will be victims of…
Morgan, Louise; Brittain, Bernadette; Welch, Jan
Research that attempts to identify characteristic features of multiple perpetrator sexual assault (MPSA) is limited. This study compared demographic and assault related characteristics of 135 cases of MPSA with 139 cases of single perpetrator sexual assault (SPSA) reported to the Haven sexual assault referral centre, Camberwell, London, over a…
Discusses definitions and reporting of sexual assault. Concludes that the epidemic of sexual assault suggested by the media reflects a radical feminist attitude which prevents objective analysis and trivializes cases of real abuse. (DM)
Light, David; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth
Much work in the area of male sexual assault and rape relies on small clinical samples. From these samples, researchers reported that most male victims were physically injured during the attack and that penetration occurred. This work rests on a subsample of 219 men from the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the United States Survey. Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAW) show that the vast majority of male sexual assault victims reported that they were not physically injured during the assault, that a weapon was not used, that there was no substance use at the time of the assault, and that penetration did not occur. Only 29% of male respondents in the NVAW sought medical or psychological help after the assault. Prior work may have overrepresented men who reported being physically injured and/or penetrated. An analysis is presented of how those who presented for help in the NVAW differ from the whole sample. Results show that men who presented for help were more likely to have reported being physically injured during the assault and that penetration occurred. Thus, findings from prior work make sense; however, they may not be representative of male assault victims as a whole. PMID:18981191
The purpose of this handbook, created as a component of a sexual assault awareness program at Millikin University, is to provide information needed to assist victims of sexual assault. Information is included on several aspects of sexual assault, as well as references and websites available for additional information. Topics covered include:…
Smith, Sandy; Mullis, Fran; Kern, Roy M.; Brack, Greg
Investigates perceived parental rejection, family cohesion and adaptability, and levels of trait anger and anxiety in adolescents and their relationship to the etiology of aggression in adolescents who have been adjudicated for assaultive crimes. Study supports Adler's aggression theory, which established that aggression might begin with feelings…
Townsend, Lisa D.; Schneider, Jayne; Farmer, Cristan A.; Molina, Brooke B.S.G.; Findling, Robert L.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Kolko, David J.; Buchan-Page, Kristin A.; McNamara, Nora K.; Michel, Chenel; Austin, Adrienne; Kipp, Heidi; Rice, Robert R.; Aman, Michael G.
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the satisfaction of families who participated in the Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study. Methods: TOSCA was a randomized clinical trial of psychostimulant plus parent training plus placebo (basic treatment) versus psychostimulant plus parent training plus risperidone (augmented treatment) for children with severe physical aggression, disruptive behavior disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Parents completed a standardized Parent Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ). Results: Of the 168 families randomized, 150 (89.3%) provided consumer satisfaction data. When they were asked if they would join the study again if they had the option to repeat, 136 (91%) said “yes,” 11 (7%) said “maybe,” and one (<1%) said “no.” When asked if they would recommend the study to other parents with children having similar problems, 147 (98%) said “yes” and 3 (2%) said “maybe.” Between 71% (rating one aspect of the Parent Training) and 96% (regarding the diagnostic interview) endorsed study procedures using the most positive response option. Asked if there were certain aspects of the study that they especially liked, 64 (43%) spontaneously reported parent training. Treatment assignment (basic vs. augmented) and responder status were not associated with reported satisfaction. However, responder status was strongly associated with parent confidence in managing present (p<0.001) and future (p<0.005) problem behaviors. Conclusions: These findings indicate high levels of satisfaction with TOSCA study involvement and, taken together with previous pediatric psychopharmacology social validity studies, suggest high levels of support for the research experience. These findings may inform research bioethics and may have implications for deliberations of institutional review boards. Trial Registry: Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study), NCT00796302, clinicaltrials
Boutwell, Brian B; Franklin, Cortney A; Barnes, J C; Beaver, Kevin M
A large body of research has linked spanking with a range of adverse outcomes in children, including aggression, psychopathology, and criminal involvement. Despite evidence concerning the association of spanking with antisocial behavior, not all children who are spanked develop antisocial traits. Given the heterogeneous effects of spanking on behavior, it is possible that a third variable may condition the influence of corporal punishment on child development. We test this possibility using data drawn from a nationally representative dataset of twin siblings. Our findings suggest that genetic risk factors condition the effects of spanking on antisocial behavior. Moreover, our results provide evidence that the interaction between genetic risk factors and corporal punishment may be particularly salient for males. PMID:21898451
Jordan, Carol E; Campbell, Rebecca; Follingstad, Diane
The reach of violence against women (VAW) has been profoundly felt by women across the United States and around the globe. VAW has been documented for decades as a legal and social justice problem, but as illuminated in this review, it is also a substantial mental health concern. A full understanding of the phenomenon must include discussion of how often it occurs, in what forms, and to whom. This review defines violence against women in its variant forms and examines the literature on the mental health effects associated with these abuse experiences. The effectiveness of the mental health system's response to the complex needs of women suffering battering, rape, stalking, and psychological aggression is also examined. The future of research and the important role of the discipline of psychology in the future of this field of study are discussed. PMID:20192793
Kilpatrick, D G; Acierno, R; Resnick, H S; Saunders, B E; Best, C L
Women experience alarming levels of physical and sexual assault, which may lead to escalation of substance use. Reciprocally, evidence from cross-sectional studies indicates that substance use may increase risk of assault. To date, directionality of this relationship remains unclear. This issue is addressed by the present 3-wave longitudinal study in which a national probability sample of 3,006 women were followed for 2 years. Dependent measures were obtained at each wave of the study and included questions about lifetime and new assault status, alcohol abuse, and drug use. Wave 1 use of drugs, but not abuse of alcohol, increased odds of new assault in the subsequent 2 years. Reciprocally, after a new assault, odds of both alcohol abuse and drug use were significantly increased, even among women with no previous use or assault history. For illicit drug use, findings support a vicious cycle relationship in which substance use increases risk of future assault and assault increases risk of subsequent substance use. PMID:9337502
Sharaf El-Din, Abeer A I; Elkholy, Shereen M S; Metwally, Eslam S; Farag, Hesham A
Sexual assault is a serious social problem that affects women's life. In Egypt, there is no accurate epidemiological study on sexual assault, although it has undergone a dramatic surge in 2013. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the characteristics of sexual assault against female in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. It is a retrospective study evaluating sexual assault against females from 2009 to 2013. Total numbers of cases of female sexual assault was 130 over the studied years. The mean (SD) age of victims was 15.2 (6) years ranging from 4 to 40 years. Fifty-eight percent fall in the age group of 12 to 18 years. Most victims (61.5%) came from urban areas. Summer was relatively a vulnerable season for sexual assault (53.1%); 81.5% of victims was unmarried and 94.6% with normal mentality. The highest percentage of sexual assault crime was found in females with primary education (44.6%). Twenty-two (16.9%) of the assaulted cases were considered intrafamilial assault, whereas 83.1% were extrafamilial. The most common location for assaults was at the assailant's home (50.8%), and 80% of the victims were exposed to assault by 1 assailant. The shortest time between alleged assault and the examination was 1 day in 12 cases (9.2%). The most frequent type of assault was complete vaginal penetration (48.55%). The most common type of physical injury was abrasions (48.1%), whereas the least was burn or broken teeth (1.3% for each). The highest percentage of genital injury was lacerations (36.4%), and the most common location was the hymen (36.4%). PMID:26196269
Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Crick, Nicki R.
Peer aggression in children is a serious issue that school psychologists often encounter on a daily basis. To develop a better understanding of aggression, it is important to look at specific subtypes of aggression and how they are related to adjustment difficulties. Past research has examined the links between reactive and proactive physical…
Mason, Fiona; Lodrick, Zoe
Sexual violence is an important issue worldwide and can have long-lasting and devastating consequences. In this chapter, we outline the psychological reactions to serious sexual assault and rape, including development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Myths and stereotypes surrounding this subject, and their potential effect on the emotional response and legal situation, are discussed. PMID:23182852
Nguyen, David; Parkhill, Michele R
This study sought to extend the confluence model of sexual assault perpetration by examining attachment insecurity and depression as additional predictors of sexual aggression. Male college students (N = 193) completed an online questionnaire assessing confluence model constructs in addition to attachment and history of depression. Overall, the model fit the data well, χ(2)(11, 193) = 19.43, p = ns; root mean square error of approximation = .063; comparative fit index = .94. Attachment and depression demonstrated both direct and indirect relationships with perpetration severity. The results contribute to elucidating the process by which certain men become susceptible to perpetrating sexual assault. Implications are discussed. PMID:25125490
García-Calvo, Teresa; Guijarro, Rosario; Osuna, Eduardo
The doctor-patient relationship has undergone important changes in recent years. Increasing levels of distrust on the part of patients toward professionals and institutions have led to an increase in the number of conflicts that end in violent actions against health service personnel. The aim of this study is to analyse this phenomenon in the public welfare services of the Region of Murcia (Spain), based on an analysis of accusations presented by doctors in the courts between 2006 and April 2008. The conclusion reached in this study can presumably be extrapolated to the rest of Spain. The violent reactions in question resulted from patients demanding drug prescriptions, the prolongation of sick leave and the demand for diagnostic tests. The Public Health Services provide directives for the anticipation of and abstention from such situations, emphasize the training of professionals in communication skills, the promotion of skills of negotiation and emotional self-control. Other measures include the installation of alarms, intercoms and video cameras, contracting security companies, collaboration with the police and posters in health facilities warning that legal action will be taken. Nevertheless, given the obvious inadequacy of the above mentioned measures Plans of Prevention have been put in place. In addition legal defence has been granted to all such professionals. From a judicial point of view, these aggressions are judged as minor crimes of injury or insult. The most recent view taken on such conduct is to consider it as a crime of attempt or an offence against the authority, which has been confirmed in law by the recent judgment passed down by the Spanish High Court on 4th December, 2007. PMID:22145553
García-Calvo, T; Guijarro, R; Osun, E
The doctor-patient relationship has undergone important changes in recent years. Increasing levels of distrust, on the part of patients towards professionals and institutions, have led to an increase of conflicts resulting in violent actions against health service personnel. The aim of this study is to analyse this phenomenon in the public welfare services of the Region of Murcia (Spain), based on an analysis of accusations, as were presented by doctors in courts in the period between 2006 and April 2008. The conclusion reached can presumably be extrapolated to the rest of Spain. The violent reactions in question resulted from patients demanding drug prescriptions; the prolongation of sick leave and the demand for diagnostic tests. The Public Health Services provide directives to anticipate and avoid such situations, emphasize the training of professionals in communication skills, the promotion of skills of negotiation and emotional self-control. Other measures include the installation of alarms, intercoms and video cameras, contracting security companies, collaboration with the police and posters in health facilities warning that legal action will be taken. Nevertheless, given the obvious inadequacy of the above-mentioned measures, Plans of Prevention have been put in place. In addition legal defence has been granted to all such professionals. From the judicial point of view, these aggressions are judged as minor crimes of injury, insult and threat. The most recent view taken on such conduct is to consider it as a crime of attempt or offence against the authority, which has been confirmed in law by the recent judgment passed down by the Spanish High Court on 4th December, 2007. PMID:20157961
Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Barker, Edward D.
Aggressive behaviors in children and adolescents have undergone important conceptual and definitional modifications in the past two decades. In particular, subtypes of aggression have been proposed that separate the form and the function of the aggressive behaviors (i.e., social vs. physical aggression; reactive vs. proactive aggression).…
Students who engage in physical aggression in school present a serious challenge to maintaining a safe and supportive learning environment. Unlike other forms of student aggression, fighting is explicit, is violent, and demands attention. A fight between students in a classroom, hallway, or the lunchroom brings every other activity to a halt and…
Gerber, Gwendolyn L; Cherneski, Lindsay
Date rape or acquaintance rape is far more common than rape by strangers and can lead to serious health and adjustment problems for girls and women. Research has found women and men to be similar in many of their views about sexual assault. However, studies on attribution of blame have highlighted differences in the ways in which men and women attribute blame in sexual assault. Men attribute less blame to perpetrators of sexual assault than do women, regardless of whether the perpetrator is female or male. This suggests that men identify with the power associated with the role of perpetrator. Ways of reducing the prevalence of men's sexual aggressiveness toward women are addressed. PMID:17189496
Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel
Several authors consider high and frequent conflicts between friends during childhood as a serious risk for subsequent conduct problems such as generalized physical aggression toward others (e.g., Kupersmidt, Burchinal, & Patterson, 1995; Sebanc, 2003). Although it seems logical to assume that friendship conflict could have some negative…
Chen, Chin-Chih; McComas, Jennifer J.; Hartman, Ellie; Symons, Frank J.
Research Findings: In early childhood education, the social ecology of the child is considered critical for healthy behavioral development. There is, however, relatively little information based on directly observing what children do that describes the moment-by-moment (i.e., sequential) relation between physical aggression and peer rejection acts…